WorldWideScience

Sample records for weapons of mass destruction

  1. Defining Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    WMD made lists of the most used or overused phrases.6 After that, the frequency declined precipitously , and now appears to have returned to about the...Cyprus, Liberia, Malta , Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Panama, and St. Vin- cent and the Grenadines, according to a State Department summary available

  2. Detection of weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkholm, Paul J.

    2003-07-01

    High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

  3. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  4. 76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a... weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the...

  5. Adversarial Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    had weaponized 10,000 liters of concentrated botu- linum toxin, 6,500 liters of concentrated anthrax, and 1,580 liters of concentrated aflatoxin .2 The...might cost only $30–50 million, according to the Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism. That could be cut in half if safety ...10 Most nations pursuing NBC capabilities today are also consider- ing long-range delivery means. On the strategic level adversaries are likely to use

  6. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Notice of November 4, 2010--Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

  8. Technologies to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-12

    programs, basic research. One area that I have heard is not sufficiently supported with programs is radiochemistry . I am just wondering if, in...scientists, this is a much more difficult problem. Dr. TEGNELIA. First of all, the subject of radiochemistry is the key technology associated with this...extremely important to us. We put a lot of basic research into that particular activity aimed at finding new radiochemistry techniques to reduce

  9. Technologies Underlying Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    potential of Iraqi fermenters and other bioprocess equipment. pathogens and toxins is dual-use and widely available on the international market. One...take place naturally. Thanks to advances in biotech- nology, including improved fermentation equip- ment as well as genetic engineering techniques...signatures could be concealed or masked by legitimate activities such as biopesticide R&D or use. Production and storage of components for BW munitions

  10. 77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons... economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the President...

  11. Seaborne Delivery Interdiction of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauser, H

    2011-03-03

    Over the next 10-20 years, the probability of a terrorist attack using a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) on the United States is projected to increase. At some point over the next few decades, it may be inevitable that a terrorist group will have access to a WMD. The economic and social impact of an attack using a WMD anywhere in the world would be catastrophic. For weapons developed overseas, the routes of entry are air and sea with the maritime vector as the most porous. Providing a system to track, perform a risk assessment and inspect all inbound marine traffic before it reaches US coastal cities thereby mitigating the threat has long been a goal for our government. The challenge is to do so effectively without crippling the US economy. The Portunus Project addresses only the maritime threat and builds on a robust maritime domain awareness capability. It is a process to develop the technologies, policies and practices that will enable the US to establish a waypoint for the inspection of international marine traffic, screen 100% of containerized and bulk cargo prior to entry into the US if deemed necessary, provide a palatable economic model for transshipping, grow the US economy, and improve US environmental quality. The implementation strategy is based on security risk, and the political and economic constraints of implementation. This article is meant to provide a basic understanding of how and why this may be accomplished.

  12. Preparing for Response to a Nuclear Weapon of Mass Destruction, Are We Ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    57 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX ), Weapons of Mass Destruction: Incident Management / Unified...58 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX ), Weapons of Mass Destruction: Incident Management / Unified...Command, (College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University, 2005), PM 2- 5. 59 Ibid, PM 2-9. 60 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX

  13. Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Larry Young

    2009-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

  14. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-02-18

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It

  15. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  16. Joint Doctrine for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    successful operations to combat WMD are: command, control, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; IO; interoperability; readiness; mobility ...Detection and Early Warning Support United States Government CP Efforts Interdict transfer of WMD and Related Technolgies Eliminate WMD Capability...proliferation, exfiltrations of sensitive plans and personnel or mobile labs that are not in the vicinity of the actual sensitive site exploitation. (b

  17. Toxic Industrial Chemicals: A Future Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    dependent on factors, such as temperature , pressure, and wind speed (US Army 1990; 1994; and 1998a). In addition to CW agents’ toxicities, their chemical...expected to be at especially high risk of shigellosis, malaria, sandfly fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis (Quin 1992). Studies conducted since the war

  18. Criminal Networks, Smuggling, and Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Guerra Pereferica y el Islam Revolucionario: Origenes ., Reglas y Etica de la Guerra Asimetrica (Peripheral Warfare and Revolutionary Islam: Origins...the Internet freely for recruitment, propaganda communication, financing, money laundering, and as a method of attack. Cyber crime is generally

  19. Armies of pestilence: CNS infections as potential weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B L; Ketai, L

    2015-06-01

    Infectious agents have been investigated, developed, and used by both governments and terrorist groups as weapons of mass destruction. CNS infections, though traditionally considered less often than respiratory diseases in this scenario, may be very important. Viruses responsible for encephalitides can be highly infectious in aerosol form. CNS involvement in anthrax is ominous but should change treatment. Brucellosis, plague, Q fever, and other bacteria can uncommonly manifest with meningoencephalitis and other findings. Emerging diseases may also pose threats. We review infectious agents of particular concern for purposes of biowarfare with respect to CNS manifestations and imaging features. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. Terror and Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Light of Risale-i Nur

    OpenAIRE

    Çengel, Yunus

    2012-01-01

    While technological innovations that are progressing at a head-spinning pace have made life easier and raised the quality of life to levels unimaginable half a century ago, the same technological innovations, when fall into the wrong hands, can turn into dangerous devices that can destroy peace and order, and even threaten the very existence of humanity. The ease of destruction, and the potential of technological wonders being used as weapons of terror have caused people to be concerned and t...

  1. Security in the Mediterranean basin: terrorism and weapons of mass destruction; La securite dans le bassin mediterraneen: terrorisme et armes de destruction massive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, L. [Tours Univ., 37 (France); Groupe d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Cooperation Internationale et Europeenne (GERCIE), 37 - Tours (France)

    2006-08-15

    The european union has appreciated the gravity of the threat from terrorism and weapons of mass destruction, and has adopted a strategy for keeping up its guard, particularly in the Mediterranean basin. The author reviews what is being done to meet these scourges. (author)

  2. National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams: How Practical is Cost Saving Reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    attempts to use a CBRNE weapon to for a mass casualty producing attack or to achieve disruption. Cyanides, blister , and 13 nerve agents are...of Management and Budget 2012). Review of existing programs will be conducted to identify wasteful programs for elimination or restructure (White

  3. The fight against weapons of mass destruction at the crossroads; La lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive a la croisee des chemins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biad, A. [Rouen Univ., Faculte de Droit, de Sciences Economiques et de Gestion, 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)

    2004-07-01

    Under the joint pressure of the US unilateralism and of some proliferating countries, the non-proliferation regimes are today at the crossroads. Despite the enormous efforts mobilized so far, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction appears as inescapable. This article analyzes the reasons of the continuous erosion of non-proliferation regimes and the possible means to delay this phenomenon: counter-proliferation measures, control of exported nuclear technologies and equipments, use of diplomatic and politico-economical means, controlled multilateral disarmament. (J.S.)

  4. Bill related to the struggle against proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their vectors; Projet de Loi relatif a la lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et de leurs vecteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This bill indicates the modifications brought to different French laws and codes (penal code, defence code, custom code) and defines provisions and penalties within the frame of struggle against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear weapons, biological weapons and toxin-based weapons, chemical weapons), and against the proliferation of their vectors. These modifications, provisions and penalties also concern double-use products. The bill also defines the modifications brought to the French penal procedure code. It finally addresses offenses related to these proliferations which can be considered as an act of terrorism

  5. Turkey’s Response to Threats of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    categories of unconventional weapons and was prepared to invest enormous financial and human resources to achieve this goal. 5 Iraqi attempts to seek...butolinum toxin, afla-toxin, ricin, and trichothecene mycotoxins), an anti-crop agent, and three incapacitating viruses (hemorrhagic conjunctivitis

  6. Assessing the Net Effects of Sanctions on the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    intelligence services to penetrate the IAEA in order to learn how to subvert the inspection process.218 Iraq continued to seek training and outside...2012, http://www.un.org/depts/unmovic/new/documents/resolutions/s-res-1762.pdf. 309Shashank Bengali , “Saddam-era U.N. Sanctions Lifted on Iraq After 20...Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in the Middle East. Gainesville: Unviversity of Florida Press, 2007. Bengali Shashank, “Saddam-era U.N. Sanctions

  7. An Engineer’s Mathematical Approach to Designing an Emergency Room Decontamination Area for Weapons of Mass Destruction Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldo E. Frezza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study will focus on the potential requirements for an emergency response facility in case of weapons of mass destruction casualties proposing mathematical models. A complete emergency room layout will be designed taking the following analyses and requirements into consideration: quality function development (QFD and product layout; average number of patients in the system, average time in the system, average number of patients in the waiting queue and average time waiting in the queue. Our analysis showed that, assuming 150 patients per day for 2 days with average service time of 14 minutes with two lines running. λ = 75 arrivals/day = 0.0521 arrivals/min. µ = 2 patients/14min = 0.1429 patients/min. Average number of patients in system (waiting and being served. Ls = λ / (µ - λ = 0.574 patients. Average time in system (waiting and service time Ws = 1 / (µ - λ = 11.02 min. Average number of patients waiting in queue. Lq = λ2 / µ (µ - λ = 0.209 patients Average time waiting in queue, Wq = λ / µ (µ - λ = 4.016 min. From our model, we conclude to set up an engineer’s perfect ER response we need: Having a stable patient and unstable patient track will make it easy to respond to the emergency. Patients requiring the emergency track feature would be dropped off before the vehicle shower at contaminated stabilizing rooms. Time of service: waiting 14 minutes with an average of 2 patients waiting in line to be served. This is an initial study having a flow of 150 patients arriving over a long time period and it is an attempt to apply a mathematical model to a multidisciplinary approach to a clinical potential discussion.

  8. Search for "Weapons of Mass Destruction" for Cancer - Immuno/Gene Therapy Comes of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Q. Wei; Pat Metharom; Kay A.O. Ellem; Stefan Barth

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of a cancer, such as cell heterogeneity, and the existence of hypoxia, stromal cells and stem cells has present, the use of conventional therapies, such as chemo/radio therapy is limited, and only therapies that are so far prevented successful development and treatment of patients suffering from the later stages of cancers. At focused on utilizing the patient's immune response to combat against the disease appear to be the most reliable and promising. Two decades ago, cytokines were discovered to be able to activate the imnune systems and mount an anti-tumour response. Then, dendritic cells were hailed as the most significant regulators of immunity and are employed in a variety of cancer management schemes. This review introduces current development in the field,focusing on combination of the components of the rapidly growing fields of immunotherapy and gene transfer/therapy, providing useful and significant detailed information for readers of cellular and molecular immunology. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  9. Detection Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of Nuclear Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-26

    Stirling -cycle cooler . This instrument is designed for long shelf life in the field and contains peak analysis software and nuclide identification...of gamma rays and neutrons with simpler devices. In recent years, large systems for imaging of gamma rays from nuclear materials and devices have been...radiography systems , using either high energy x-rays or gamma rays, can image the contents of an entire truck or sea container.26 The best detection equipment

  10. The Use of Armed Force, Weapons of Mass Destruction and the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Blix

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available At the present time we do not see any risk of major powers using armed force against each other. The relations between the great powers are not exactly relaxed, but they are also not tense. All pursue the market economy of various shapes and shades as their economic model. All are bent on pragmatism. After the end of the Cold War European countries do not see Russia as a military threat and many states in Europe are reorienting their armed forces from defense of their own territory to use in international peacekeeping or peace-enforcing operations.

  11. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    hundreds of tons of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF), or hydrofluoric acid, under falsified documents about end-users. (The AHF chemical could be used to...glass-lined vessels for mixing the caustic precursors and special air filtration equipment to prevent poison gas leaks. Iran was also reportedly...China Northern Chemical and Minerals Company shipped a chemical, sodium sulfide , to Iran, but the PRC claimed that the shipment went to Armenia

  12. Military Role in Countering Terrorist Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    military capabilities and needs. According to Senator Pete Domenici of New 25 Mexico , future capabilities include military intelligence; command...vaccine research and development. 45 Table 1. Biological Agent Vaccines Disease Vaccine Comments Anthrax Yes Licensed. Brucellosis No Cholera Yes Vaccine

  13. An Influence Analysis of Dissuading Nation States from Producing and Proliferating Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    a Nuclear Nation India’s nuclear program lends its origins to the ambitions of Indian physicist Dr. Homi Bhabha . In 1932 he won the Rouse Ball...Setting Up Nuclear Power Plant. (1961). Statesman , 1. Sreekantan, B. V., Singh, V., & Udgaoankar, B. M. (1985). Homi Jehangir Bhabha . Bombay: Tata...Atomic Vapor Layer Isotope Separation BARC Bhabha Atomic Research Center BJP Bharatiya Janata Party CISR

  14. The U.S. Army and Doctrine for Weapons of Mass Destruction: Consequence Management Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-04

    a couple of hundred casualties. The Army needs to conduct rehearsals that involve the equivalent of a football stadium full of victims. Thousands of...bought cocaine from defendant at Naval air 75 station, did not violate this section, in light of fact that Wave was on leave at time of her

  15. Categorizing Weapons of Mass Destruction Biological Agents into Postmortem Risk Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    classification and transportation guidelines. This working group examined available evidence and found that current policies, including those within DoD...substantial risks to others. Such risk classifications often demand the institution of extensive safety measures when handling, packaging, and transporting...C., Persistence of Yersinia pestis in Soil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Pages 1-6. June 2008. 64. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  16. Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: Models, Complexity, and Algorithms in Complex Dynamic and Evolving Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    the health of u. The weaker u is, the more damage it receives under the same amount of attack ∆L. Thus, the preference of attacking u can be defined...as: γ(u,∆L) = { α∆L C(u)−L(u) if ∆L+ L(u) ≤ C(u) 1 otherwise where 0 < α < 1 is a tunable parameter. The benefit of this attack preference function is...Application ( COCOA ), 2014 4. S. Mishra, T. N. Dinh, M. T. Thai, and I. Shin, Optimal Inspection Points for Malicious At- tack Detection in Smart Grids, in

  17. An Unwelcome Future: Updating United States Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Strategy Regarding Emerging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-23

    cell’s instructional material, called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which contains the blueprint of both prokaryotic (no nucleus) and eukaryotic...22, 2015). CNN. Transcript of Powll’s U.N. presentation. February 5, 2003. http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/02/05/sprj.irq.powell.transcript.06/index.html

  18. The Libyan Conversion in Three Acts: Why Qadhafi Gave Up His Weapons of Mass Destruction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Force Libya’s territorial claim over the Gulf of Sidra was the impetus for numerous and escalating U.S. naval provocations beginning in 1980. In...fighters. In 1983, two F-14s once again intercepted a Libyan fighter over the Gulf of Sidra , but no shots were exchanged.70 The naval skirmishes peaked in...March 1986 when U.S. forces inside the Gulf of Sidra responded to Libyan fire by sinking two Libyan patrol boats and damaging Libyan ground-based

  19. Project on Advanced Systems and Concepts for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction (PASCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Sociocultural Modeling and Analysis Performer: Utah State University (USU) Principal Investigator: Jeannie Johnson Cost: $83,000 To anticipate the...likelihood of successful nuclear acquisition, one must identify key constituencies within a polity of concern and assess the internal sociocultural ...drivers that shape thinking and decision-making on WMD/WME issues. This project seeks to strengthen and refine sociocultural analytic frameworks designed

  20. Intelligence reform and implications for North Korea's Weapons of Mass Destruction Program

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the current intelligence reform initiatives in light of multiple recommendations from post-9/11 commissions tasked with studying intelligence shortcomings. Using North Korea as a case study, it examines how reform efforts will increase capabilities to better understand Pyongyang's WMD programs and affect U.S. strategy on North Korea. Three reform sets should significantly improve U.S. understanding of North Korea's WMD programs. Collection reforms should allow intelligenc...

  1. 2007 Joint Chemical Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Conference and Exhibition - Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    Being Invisible to the User Bio-engineered Countermeasures Meta-data information interface Nano-scale protective coatings and fabrics Nano-catalytic...Integrated System Using Revolutionary Technologies While Maintaining the Highest Levels of Performance and Being Invisible to the User 18 U.S. Army...10070625_JCBRN_Conference_Reeves UNCLASSIFIED Medical Treatments – Improved Nerve Agent Treatment System (INATS) / Advanced Anti- Convulsant System (AAS

  2. North Korea’s Military Threat: Pyongyang’s Conventional Forces, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and Ballistic Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    eternalize their rule. They have a large stockpile and we are to be forbidden even to think about the manufacture of nuclear weapons.321 Any modest...Chinhae.” Additionally, in light with South Korea’s Sunshine Policy (overtures that past ROK President Kim Dae Jung made to North Korea), officially

  3. Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT/Weapon of Mass Destruction Incident. Volumes 1 and 2 (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    consistent with wind patterns or ventilation. Blisters / rashes Numerous individuals experiencing unex- plained blisters, bee sting like weals, and/ or...Radiological Incident 5 Volume II of II V1.1 2013 Indicators Description Unusual number of sick or dying people ani- mals Delayed symptoms dependent on

  4. Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT/Weapon of Mass Destruction Incident. Volumes 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    of maintaining and producing heat: resting (quiescent body state) metabolism, exercise , and shivering (the involuntary contraction of muscles ...agencies during response exercises include Tyvek® suits, blankets, sheets and large plastic garbage bags. Tag Victims to Identify Decontamination Status...agents are immediate and observable and range from spasms and vomiting to dizziness, disorientation and death. Because effects are determined by dosage

  5. Annual Report to The President and The Congress of the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction (2nd). II. Toward a National Strategy for Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1960s, when Egypt used chemical weapons during its involvement in the Yemeni civil war. At that time, Israel’s parliament, the Knesset, passed a law...gives a review of open source intelligence ( OSINT ). This includes local, national and international media reports and trends and milestones that have a...Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism Early Warning Group (TEW) OSINT Indications & Warning

  6. Pyro-Terrorism -- The Threat of Arson Induced Forest Fires as a Future Terrorist Weapon of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    During World War II, There was concern that further [Japanese] attacks could bring disastrous loss of life and destruction of property. There was...Goebel, Greg, The Fire Balloons. V 1.0.2. 01 Jun 04 available at http://www.vectorsite.net/avfusen.html . 29 Goleta Montessori School website on Goleta

  7. 78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by... proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the President issued Executive Order 13094 amending Executive...

  8. External Second Gate, Fourier Transform Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Parametric Optimization for Detection of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E. Tarver

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS is recognized as one of the most sensitive and robust techniques for the detection of narcotics, explosives and chemical warfare agents. IMS is widely used in forensic, military and security applications. Increasing threat of terrorist attacks, the proliferation of narcotics, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC treaty verification as well as humanitarian de-mining efforts have mandated that equal importance be placed on the time required to obtain results as well as the quality of the analytical data. [1] In this regard IMS is virtually unrivaled when both speed of response and sensitivity have to be considered. [2] The problem with conventional (signal averaging IMS systems is the fixed duty cycle of the entrance gate that restricts to less than 1%, the number of available ions contributing to the measured signal. Furthermore, the signal averaging process incorporates scan-to-scan variations that degrade the spectral resolution contributing to misidentifications and false positives. With external second gate, Fourier Transform ion mobility spectrometry (FT-IMS the entrance gate frequency is variable and can be altered in conjunction with other data acquisition parameters (scan time and sampling rate to increase the spectral resolution to reduce false alarms and improve the sensitivity for early warning and contamination avoidance. In addition, with FT-IMS the entrance gate operates with a 50% duty cycle and so affords a seven-fold increase in sensitivity. Recent data on high explosives are presented to demonstrate the parametric optimization in sensitivity and resolution of our system.

  9. Strategy-Policy Mismatch: How the U.S. Army Can Help Close Gaps in Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Baldor , “U.S. Troops Could Help Secure Syrian Weapons,” Associated Press, January 10, 2013. 9 Judith Miller, “After the War: Unconventional Arms; A...Sanger, and Anne Barnard, “Off-the-Cuff Obama Line Put U.S. in Bind on Syria,” New York Times, May 4, 2013. Baldor , Lolita C., “U.S. Troops Could

  10. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11 and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection

  11. Shifting Focus: Assessing the Role of U.S. Army Special Forces in the Counterproliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    and nuclear CIA Central Intelligence Agency CNT counter narco -terrorism COCOM combatant commander CP counterproliferation CTR cooperative threat...integration of Army SF has not been applied in a coherent, long-term plan. Rather, a comparable program such as the cooperative counter narco -terrorism...partners to conduct its international efforts known as counter- narco terrorism (CNT) missions. In accordance with Section 1004 of the 1991 National

  12. Applications of Quantum Cascade Laser Scanners for Remote Detection of Chemical and Biological Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-09

    tested were detected in the field with a minimum of 500 ng∕cm2 [20]. OPUS 6.0™ software package for data acquisition and analysis (Bruker Optics...residuals versus Hotelling’s T2 plot on PLS Toolbox™ software for MATLAB®. According to the plot, the data with both high-residual variance and high...will recruit students at Universidad Metropolitana, a Hispanic Serving Institution in San Juan, Puerto Rico and offer a program during the academic

  13. Training Future Physicians about Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of the Expert Panel on Bioterrorism Education for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to share their insights about the learning objectives and educational experiences that they would recommend for the training of future physicians about bioterrorism. The expert panel broadened the scope of their discussion beyond bioterrorism to…

  14. Protecting the Homeland: The Importance of Counter-Illicit Trafficking to Prevent an Attack with Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Surveying the Security Risks,” Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Disarmament Forum, no. 2 (2003): 23- 24. http://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/ ebooks ...www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/ ebooks /files/UNIDIR_pdf-art1909.pdf (accessed November 24, 2012) Fox News. “5 Men Found guilty of Plotting to Kill Fort Dix Soldiers

  15. Chemical Weapons Improved Response Program (CWIRP) Playbook. Guidelines for Responding to and Managing a Chemical Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorist Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    deadly to responders. This danger is magnified in the presence of an invisible , super-toxic, chemical warfare agent. This section outlines key issues...Celsius/Centigrade CAD Computer-Aided Dispatch CAM Chemical Agent Monitor CANA Convulsant Antidote for Nerve Agent (diazepam) C/B Chemical and/or

  16. United States Army Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Corps Capability Combating the Contemporary Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    of nerve agent exposure; one involving the death of sheep , and one involving Soldiers on the island of Okinawa, continued to raise questions about the...the CBRN enterprise, train CBRN warriors, develop CBRN leaders, synchronize CBRN school operations, and take care of people/ensure quality of life...these mission specific areas. “Planning for WMD elimination operations requires close synchronization with select CBRN-trained personnel and

  17. Strategic Culture and Violent Non-State Actors: Weapons of Mass Destruction and Asymmetrical Operations Concepts and Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    REFASHIONING THE NARRATIVE  Al­Qaida’s formulation draws from this classical doctrine, as well as  from a number of  medieval  and modern thinkers and...Knopf, 1980), 7.  36 See David Edwards, Heroes of the Age.  37 Mark Turner The  Literary  Mind (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998)  1.  38 See

  18. Proliferation of massive destruction weapons: fantasy or reality?; La proliferation des armes de destruction massive: fantasme ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M

    2001-09-01

    This article evaluates the threat of massive destruction weapons (nuclear, chemical, biological) for Europe and recalls the existing safeguards against the different forms of nuclear proliferation: legal (non-proliferation treaty (NPT), comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), fissile material cut off treaty (FMCT) etc..), technical (fabrication of fissile materials, delays). However, all these safeguards can be overcome as proven by the activities of some countries. The situation of proliferation for the other type of massive destruction weapons is presented too. (J.S.)

  19. The proliferation of massive destruction weapons and ballistic missiles; La proliferation des armes de destruction massive et des missiles balistiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, M.

    1996-12-31

    The author studies the actual situation of nuclear deterrence policies, the possibilities of use chemical weapons as massive destructions weapons for non nuclear governments. The situation of non proliferation of nuclear weapons took a new interest with the disintegration of the communism block, but it seems that only few nuclear matter disappeared towards proliferating countries. The denuclearization of Bielorussia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan makes progress with the START I treaty; China has signed the Non proliferation treaty in 1992, it conducts an export policy in matter of equipment and know-how, towards Iran, Pakistan, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Syria. In a future of ten years, countries such, Iran, North Korea could catch up with Israel, India and Pakistan among non declared nuclear countries. For chemical weapon, Libya, Iran and Syria could catch up with Iraq. (N.C.).

  20. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues. Russian Federation: Foreign Intelligence Service Report. A New Challenge After the Cold War: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    properties of fuel, neutron beam and also the skilled personnel and material resources experiments, the improvement of nuclear reactor needed for the...positive development. 600,000 tonnes. There are plants for the manufacture of reactor fuel. In the Area of Chemical and Biological Weapons Nuclear activity...spokesman delivered the following statement in early 1993: "The 3. The 5 megawatt research nuclear reactor in Yongbyon. DPRK has never had any chemical

  1. Bytes: Weapons of Mass Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Air University Press, Maxwell AFB, AL, 1996, pg. 6. 53 Kaspar , Beth M., Air University, The End Of Secrecy? Military Competitiveness In The Age Of...a computer system. Nano machines are tiny robots that could be spread at an information center of an adversary. They crawl through the halls and

  2. Report on the bill project related to the struggle against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems; Rapport fait au Nom de la Commission de la Defense Nationale et des Forces Armees sur le Projet de Loi (n. 1652) relatif a la lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et de leurs vecteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In a first part presenting the various forms of proliferations, the author first gives a quantitative overview of illegal activities concerning nuclear materials, and then discusses the existence and activities of proliferation networks, explaining how international trade liberalization creates a favourable context for proliferations of any kind, and describing how a typical network is organised. He also discusses the example of Iraq and the case of the network created by the Pakistani scientist Abdul Q. Khan. The risk created by the hypothetical relationship between terrorism and nuclear weapon of mass destruction is also questioned. Then, after having recalled the existing international texts and the present national legislation, the author comments the contribution on the bill project and outlines aspects which are not dealt with by this bill project: radiological devices and cybernetic attacks. Then he reports the comments made by the commission on the bill project articles which define interdictions, sanctions and sentences, or procedures against people or organisations involved in the financing or the use of weapons of mass destruction (biological and chemical). A table gives a comparison between the bill project text and the commission's propositions

  3. The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report to the President of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-31

    Iraq was capable of producing an array of agents and probably retained strains of the smallpox virus. It further argued that technological advances...intelligence service responded with words to the effect of “You don’t want to see him [Curveball] because he’s crazy .” Speaking to him would be, in the...in variola ( smallpox ) that contribute to its virulence and demonstrated how to synthesize the virulence gene via genetic modification of smallpox’s

  4. Terrifying Landscapes: A Study of Scientific Research Into Understanding Motivations of Non-State Actors to Acquire and/or Use Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-22

    Frederick Winslow Taylor worked to improve productivity in labor situations so important in those days of the developing Industrial Revolution. Taylor...The development of human potential and the desire for personal growth and increased competence (Daft, 1997) Motivation-Hygiene Theory Frederick ... Herzberg , a professor of psychology at Case Western Reserve University, studied the attitudes of workers toward their jobs. Herzberg proposed that an

  5. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing 21st Explosive Ordinance Disposal Weapons of Mass Destruction Facilities Demolition and Expansion at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    bottoms and aspen groves in lower and upper montane coniferous forest. The Todilto stickleaf is found in outcrops of gypsum in the Todilto Formation. The...recreation opportunities; and increased knowledge of the history and pre- history of the region through numerous cultural resources surveys and studies...Project July 2011 c. A written history of the buildings shall be prepared and will include a use history of the property. This use history will

  6. Law bill relative to the fight against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their vectors; Projet de loi relatif a la lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et de leurs vecteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    The existing French legislation about the prevention and repression of proliferation actions is complex and includes some loopholes in some particular proliferation-related situations. Therefore, this bill aims at improving this situation by reinforcing the efficiency, the consistency and the dissuasive nature of the French legislation in this domain. (J.S.)

  7. Military and diplomatic roles and options for managing and responding to the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Final report: Program on Stability and the Offense/Defense Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.; Murray, B.L.

    1993-05-26

    The March seminar, ``Military and Diplomatic Roles and Options`` for managing and responding to proliferation, featured three presentations: the military and diplomatic implications of preemptive force as a counterproliferation option; an in-depth assessment of the threat posed by biological weapons; and, a new proposed US counterproliferation policy.

  8. Bibliometrics as weapons of mass citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinié, Antoinette; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of resources for research is increasingly based on so-called 'bibliometrics'. Scientists are now deemed to be successful on the sole condition that their work be abundantly cited. This world-wide trend appears to enjoy support not only by granting agencies (whose task is obviously simplified by extensive recourse to bibliometrics), but also by the scientists themselves (who seem to enjoy their status of celebrities). This trend appears to be fraught with dangers, particularly in the area of social sciences, where bibliometrics are less developed, and where monographs (which are not taken into account in citation indexes) are often more important than articles published in journals. We argue in favour of a return to the values of 'real science', in analogy to the much-promised return to a 'real economy'. While economists may strive towards a more objective evaluation of the prospects of a company, a market, or an industrial sector, we scientists can only base our appraisal on a responsible practice of peer review. Since we fear that decision-takers of granting agencies such as the FNRS, CTI, EPFL, ETHZ, ANR, CNRS, NIH, NSF, DOE, etc. will be too busy to read our humble paper in Chimia, we appeal to scientists of all countries and disciplines to unite against the tyranny of bibliometrics.

  9. Counterproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    an occurrence. In his book, Atomic Tragedy, Sean Malloy writes that Henry Stimson, the United States Secretary of War, warned in April, 1945 that...Ibid., 380. 41 Ibid. 42 Sean L. Malloy , Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson and the Decision to use the Bomb Against Japan (Ithaca, New York...Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East, 96-97. 45 Robert M. Gates, National Defense Strategy (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office

  10. ERICH FROMM’S INTERPRETATION OF MASS MAN DESTRUCTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews interpretative position of prominent German philosopher and psychologist Erich Fromm on mass men destructiveness analysis. As a rule, to reach a goal of well-balanced embedding into consumer society structure, mass man passes through stages of deindividualization and common averaging by accepting prescribed general postulates of society’s authorities. Nevertheless, own personality refusal and ‘rules of the game’ following adduct to moral degradation, which causes destructiveness phenomenon. Out of socio-political regimen, destructiveness appears in attempts of ‘freedom escape’ by any possible means. Totalitarian regimen ideologically steers mass men through total subjection to defined life track by agreement of individuality sacrifice. Democratically-minded consumer societies require deindividualization and partly rights pinching in exchange of status consumption system integration. Any patterns of counteraction to these system processes are commenced by personal activity manifestation and motivation in reaching own goals. However, conformist majority is meant to live according to ideologically defined society rules

  11. "Stop importing weapons of family destruction!": cyberdiscourses, patriarchal anxieties, and the men's backlash movement in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhia, Sharmila

    2014-08-01

    A critical, albeit understudied, dimension of the backlash against women's anti-violence advocacy is the rise of Indian men's rights organizations formed to lobby for changes to, and in some cases, the complete abolition of vital legal protections for women. Utilizing cyber forums, public protests, and print media, these groups disseminate narratives of women wreaking destruction on the Indian family through their alleged misuse of "gender-biased" laws. These activities are significant because they operate as transnational sites of meaning making about the realities of violence against women in India and because they conspire in a distortion of reality that jeopardizes ongoing advocacy efforts.

  12. Classification of hot particles from the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapons detonations by non-destructive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltonozhsky, V; Mück, K; Bondarkov, M

    2001-01-01

    Both after the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapon detonations, agglomerates of radioactive material, so-called hot particles, were released or formed which show a behaviour in the environment quite different from the activity released in gaseous or aerosol form. The differences in their characteristic properties, in the radionuclide composition and the uranium and actinide contents are described in detail for these particles. While nuclear bomb hot particles (both from fission and fusion bombs) incorporate well detectable trace amounts of 60Co and 152Eu, these radionuclides are absent in Chernobyl hot particles. In contrast, Chernobyl hot particles contain 125Sb and 144Ce which are absent in atomic bomb HPs. Obvious differences are also observable between fusion and fission bombs' hot particles (significant differences in 152Eu/l55Eu, 154Eu/155Eu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios) which facilitate the identification of HPs of unknown provensence. The ratio of 239Pu/240Pu in Chernobyl hot particles could be determined by a non-destructive method at 1:1.5. A non-destructive method to determine the content of non-radioactive elements by Kalpha-emission measurements was developed by which inactive Zr, Nb, Fe and Ni could be verified in the particles.

  13. CBRN Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Relevance of the United States Armys Chemical Corps in the Support of Homeland Security and Defense against State and Non-State Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    market. He was not the first to profit from the illegal trade in 59 Stephan M. Francis, “The Diversion ...Pakistan to Dubai, and reported the “use of production facilities in Malaysia ”. Moreover, the British concluded, “A. Q. Khan’s network was central...be minor variations and in infinite diversity of combinations-these things are susceptible of rational study.”69 Military history is susceptible to

  14. Designing the Army’s Future Active Duty Weapons of Mass Destruction Response: Is the Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High-Yield Explosives Response Force (DCRF) the Right Force at the Right Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    three-day period in several livestock concentration areas. Five days later, ranchers start suspecting sickness in their cattle , and a veterinarian...Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease), which had smaller outbreaks, severely damaged the commerce of domestic beef commodities worldwide (Coffey et al. 2005, 4). In... reproductive rate, or ability of the single infection to induce infection in other like organisms, was 9.8. In other words, one source infection

  15. Building Partner Capacity to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    coordination could uncover new opportunities to col- laborate with other agencies, particularly the State Department (i.e., the EXBS program) and DOE (i.e., the...Threats to Regional Security,” Military Review, May–June 2001. “ Mercado Blanco de Armas,” Cambio, March 1, 1999. Bibliography 113 Metz, Helen Chapin

  16. The Information Aspect of Extremism and Terrorism and the Destructive Trends in the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Nekrasova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of destructive trends in modern Russian mass media as well as to the information component in the activities of extremist and terrorist organizations. The destructive trends in the mass media manifest themselves in the escalation of animosity, aggression, creation of the cult of violence and xenophobia moods. Terrorist organizations use the mass media for their own purposes: they create the atmosphere of fear and tension in society, recruit new followers, mainly among the youth, which is a serious problem. It is important to use the positive potential of the mass media to counteract extremism and terrorism.

  17. The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: weapons of mass dispersion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drakeley, C.; Sutherland, C.; Bousema, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Targett, G.A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa focuses on the prevalence patterns of asexual parasites in people of different ages, whereas the gametocytes that propagate the disease are often neglected. One expected benefit of the widespread introduction of artemisinin-base

  18. Pakistan’s Madrassas -- Weapons of Mass Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Muslim world was further incensed by the colonial Europeans encroaching on Muslim lands, and their imposition of a European style of teaching. Uzma...killed is a cancer that is spreading worldwide. The United States must demand that Saudi Arabia cease and desist from all future funding of these

  19. US Oil Dependency -- The New Weapon of Mass Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-22

    rose throughout 2004 and 2005, as global oil demand increased dramatically, stretching capacity along the entire oil market system, from crude oil production to...devastating impact on U.S. gasoline markets, initially taking out more than 25 percent of U.S. crude oil production and 10-15 percent of U.S. refinery

  20. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  1. Prediction of the wounded and rescue algorithm for emergent events during destruction of Japanese-abandoned chemical weapons(JACW in transportable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-cheng YU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the potential injuries and amount of the wounded during destruction of JACW in transportable system(TSD,thereby to formulate the rational allocation of medical staff at the scene and the scientific algorithm of medical rescue in emergent events.Methods Prediction of the different injuries and amount of the wounded,allocation of the force for emergency medical rescue(EMR,and EMR algorithm were formulated based on the detailed investigation on the types of chemical weapons,working processes and risks during the elimination of JACW in the TSD background.Results The JACW in Nanjing Depository were diphenylcyanarsine,diphenylchloroarsine,chloroacetophenone,mustard gas and lewisite,among them the foremost two were in the majority.Red tanks containing the chemical toxicants are the main types of chemical weapons in warfare,and there were also a few chemical bombs.It was estimated that four to seven workers might be injured in one accident,of them two or three might be seriously injured.The types of injury might be due to intoxication of chemical agent,chemical burn,explosion injury,or combined injuries.The rational allocation of EMR force combined with the scientific rescue algorithm was made according to the information.Conclusions It is of great significance to scientifically allocate the EMR force and formulate algorithm based on the rational prediction of the types and amount of the wounded during elimination process of JACW with TSD in Nanjing.Theory and experience from this research will provide important reference for the same kind of work in other cities later.

  2. AIDS: 'A Disease of Mass Destruction' An Assault to our Shared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS: 'A Disease of Mass Destruction' An Assault to our Shared Humanity: Review. ... AIDS will take a heavy economic toll of robbing the country of many key ... Some of these include high prevalence of untreated sexually transmitted ... AIDs prevention and treatment as well as safer sex and prevention education programs.

  3. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  4. Mass Loss, Destruction and Detection of Sun-grazing and -impacting Cometary Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J C; Porter, L J; Chat, G le

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] Incoming sun-grazing comets almost never re-emerge, but no final destruction event has ever been observed, nor sun-impactor destruction theory developed. We seek analytic models of comet nucleus destruction at the sun, to estimate impact signature dependence on incident mass Mo and perihelion q. We approximate evaporative mass loss rates by heating rate/latent heat of sublimation and obtain analytic estimates for M(r) versus q and distance r for evaporation processes alone, insolation sublimation and, for the first time, impact ablation. Insolation dominates > 1.01Rsun. Below 1.01Rsun, ablation overwhelms insolation, since n(r) rises exponentially. Nuclei with Mo(1-q/1.01Rsun)^1.51E11g either survive insolation to r=1.01Rsun and re-emerge or, for q below 1.01Rsun, enter the atmospheric collisional regime where behavior depends on Mo and entry angle phi. For shallow angle impacts, all but the heaviest nuclei ablate totally before exploding, though the wake explodes. For steep entry, all masses explo...

  5. Planning for Bioterrorism. Behavioral & Mental Health Responses to Weapons of Mass Destruction & Mass Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-16

    that had to be stationary that did air sampling, concentration, and then literally using smart tickets, or ELISA-based antibody antigen assays , were...exposed to a nerve agent. Then the entire group felt they were exposed and all came in to the emergency room. It was a phenomenal event. I remember Cam ...TODAY PREVENTS DEAD DUCK TOMORROW 40 9 Appendix 3 Disaster Responses: Nuclear, Natural, & Human-Made Evelyn J. Bromet 40 .ccu~u -CUC c(D c co~0.0 1- 0

  6. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  7. Ricin as a weapon of mass terror--separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Temple, Wayne A; Butt, Grant A; Beasley, Michael D

    2009-11-01

    In recent years there has been an increased concern regarding the potential use of chemical and biological weapons for mass urban terror. In particular, there are concerns that ricin could be employed as such an agent. This has been reinforced by recent high profile cases involving ricin, and its use during the cold war to assassinate a high profile communist dissident. Nevertheless, despite these events, does it deserve such a reputation? Ricin is clearly toxic, though its level of risk depends on the route of entry. By ingestion, the pathology of ricin is largely restricted to the gastrointestinal tract where it may cause mucosal injuries; with appropriate treatment, most patients will make a full recovery. As an agent of terror, it could be used to contaminate an urban water supply, with the intent of causing lethality in a large urban population. However, a substantial mass of pure ricin powder would be required. Such an exercise would be impossible to achieve covertly and would not guarantee success due to variables such as reticulation management, chlorination, mixing, bacterial degradation and ultra-violet light. By injection, ricin is lethal; however, while parenteral delivery is an ideal route for assassination, it is not realistic for an urban population. Dermal absorption of ricin has not been demonstrated. Ricin is also lethal by inhalation. Low doses can lead to progressive and diffuse pulmonary oedema with associated inflammation and necrosis of the alveolar pneumocytes. However, the risk of toxicity is dependent on the aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) of the ricin particles. The AED, which is an indicator of the aerodynamic behaviour of a particle, must be of sufficiently low micron size as to target the human alveoli and thereby cause major toxic effects. To target a large population would also necessitate a quantity of powder in excess of several metric tons. The technical and logistical skills required to formulate such a mass of powder to

  8. Terrorist Innovations in Weapons of Mass Effect: Preconditions, Causes, and Predictive Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    monetary ransom, paid eventually by the American Missionary Board, and which was used to buy arms. Another illustration involves European terrorism...its unique desire to indiscriminately kill anyone not belonging to the group. Armed by a cosmic doomsday ideology consisting of a millennial mix of...organization attempted to buy a nuclear warhead, procured chemical and biological weapons and dreamt about fantastic super-powerful lasers and

  9. Laser-Ionization TOF Mass Spectrometer Characterization of Benzene Destruction in Atmospheric Pressure Pulsed Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiahong; XIAO Qingmei; WANG Liping; YAO Zhi; DING Hongbin

    2009-01-01

    Benzene is.a major industrial air pollutant and can cause serious human health disorders. In this paper an investigation on benzene destruction, in an atmospheric-pressure fast-flow pulsed DC-discharge by means of laser ionization combined with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, is reported. Most by-products including transient reactive species from the benzene discharge were characterized by molecular beam sampling combined with TOF mass spectrometry.It is showed that, with a gas mixture of 0.5% C6H6 in Ar, benzene can be effectively destroyed by discharge plasma. The intermediate species consisted of small fragments of CNHm (n=3~5,m =1~11), cycle-chain species of CNHm (n=6~9, m = 7~10) and polycyclic species CNHm (n ≥9,m = 8~12). The alternation of mass peaks (intensity) with even/odd electrons was observed in the measured mass spectra. The results indicated that the alternation is mainly due to the different ionization potentials of the open shell and close shell species. Based on the examination of the features of the species' composition, the primary reaction pathways are proposed and discussed.

  10. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  11. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-03

    Machinery and Electric Equipment Import and Export Co. - Wha Cheong Tai Co. - China Shipbuilding Trading Co. - CPMIEC - China Aero-Technology Import...Equipment Import Export Co. - CMEC Machinery and Electrical Import Export Co. - China Machinery and Electric Equipment Import Export Co. - Wha Cheong...ballistic missiles) September 23, 2004 for two years - Liaoning Jiayi Metals and Minerals Co. - Q.C. Chen - Wha Cheong Tai Co. Ltd. - Shanghai

  12. The Future of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Their Nature and Role in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    sustaining its will and ability to meet its extended deterrence commitments and the benefitting allies’ perception thereof; 2) universalizing and...12 A decade earlier, another cult, the Rajneeshees, disseminated salmonella 14 CSWMD Occasional Paper 10 in fast food restaurant salad bars in...nuclear-armed or protected states came to conventional blows, including China’s intervention in the Korean War (where China was per- ceived as enjoying the

  13. Weapon of the Weak?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amber, Van der Graaf; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand on the sp......Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand...

  14. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  15. First Responder Weapons of Mass Destruction Training Using Massively Multiplayer On-Line Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Washington, DC. 1997. p. 16. 150 Kimery, Anthony. p. 24. 151 _____, “$7.7 Million Expansion for TEEX Training Complex.” Texas Engineering... TEEX Training Complex.” Texas Engineering Extension Service. 26 October 1999. Texas. Database available on line at http://teexweb.tamu.edu

  16. Countering Weapons Of Mass Destruction: A Preliminary Field Study In Improving Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    62 1. Online U.S. Interagency Counterproliferation Collaboration Environment...Control Association, October 2015, http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Nuclearweaponswhohaswhat. 19 Gordon Corera, Shopping for Bombs: Nuclear...phenomenon by which an innovation transforms an existing market or sector by introducing simplicity, convenience , accessibility, and

  17. NATO’s Weapons of Mass Destruction Initiative: Achievement and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Ashton Carter and David Omand , ‘Countering the Proliferation Risks: Adapting the Alliance to the New Security Environment,” NATO Review 44, no. 5...territories, as well as for NATO’s ability to conduct 14 Ashton Carter and David Omand , “Countering the...Ashton Carter and David Omand , ‘Countering the Proliferation Risks: Adapting the Alliance to the New Security Environment,” NATO Review, 44, no. 5

  18. Variable-mass Thermodynamics Calculation Model for Gas-operated Automatic Weapon%Variable-mass Thermodynamics Calculation Model for Gas-operated Automatic Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建彬; 吕小强

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the fact that the energy and mass exchange phenomena exist between barrel and gas-operated device of the automatic weapon, for describing its interior ballistics and dynamic characteristics of the gas-operated device accurately, a new variable-mass thermodynamics model is built. It is used to calculate the automatic mechanism velocity of a certain automatic weapon, the calculation results coincide with the experimental results better, and thus the model is validated. The influences of structure parameters on gas-operated device' s dynamic characteristics are discussed. It shows that the model is valuable for design and accurate performance prediction of gas-operated automatic weapon.

  19. The morality of weapons research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, John

    2004-07-01

    I ask whether weapons research is ever justified. Weapons research is identified as the business of the engineer. It is argued that the engineer has responsibility for the uses to which the tools that he designs can be put, and that responsibility extends to the use of weapons. It is maintained that there are no inherently defensive weapons, and hence there is no such thing as 'defensive' weapons research. The issue then is what responsibilities as a professional the engineer has in regard to such research. An account is given to ground the injunction not to provide the means to harm as a duty for the engineers. This account is not, however, absolutist, and as such it allows justifiable exceptions. The answer to my question is thus not that weapons research is never justified but there must be a strong assurance that the results will only be used as a just means in a just cause.

  20. 78 FR 77663 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... technology security, Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (C-WMD), counter terrorism and counter... Committee will review their progress in reviewing DoD's enduring counter- proliferation and weapons of mass...

  1. Electromagnetic Pulse Weapons as an Emergent Technology and Their Place on Battlefields of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    relationship of target’s hardening with respect to the generated electromagnetic pulse strength, electromagnetic atmospherics, and the electronic...Here targeting analysis becomes marked more complex and needs to encompass neighboring population centers which may be codependent on power or water...How is there relationship here at all? At first glance, it may seem absurd to consider an EMP a weapon of mass destruction. If improperly employed

  2. Ending the scourge of chemical weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brin, J.

    1993-04-01

    After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

  3. Weapons of Mass Secretion : The Type III Secretion System of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa

    2007-01-01

    In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. The injected proteins subvert the functioning of the aggressed cell or destroy its communications, fa

  4. Weapons of Mass Secretion : The Type III Secretion System of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa

    2007-01-01

    In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. The injected proteins subvert the functioning of the aggressed cell or destroy its communications,

  5. [An objective of the education of mankind: delegated destructiveness. Mass murder of psychiatric patients in Hitler Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfetter, C

    1984-01-01

    The extermination of 100,000 inpatients of mental hospitals and 5,000 mentally retarded children in NAZI-Germany under the Hitler régime between 1939 and 1941 is reported. The ideological precursors of these actions are traced. The ethological and anthropological aspects of inner-species destruction in the phylogenesis of mankind are traced. Psychological and social conditions of social destructiveness under "normal" and exceptional conditions are discussed and the consequences for education drawn.

  6. The Weaponization of Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    media efforts will be compared to similar Western business and civic social media centric marketing efforts from both a technical and theoretical...THE WEAPONIZATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in...The Weaponization of Social Media 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jack B. Irby III, MAJ 5d

  7. An Adaptive H infinity Control Algorithm for Jitter Control and Target Tracking in a Directed Energy Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    system, (2) free electron laser for weapons of mass destruction detection, (3) high power microwave weapon, (4) electric fiber weapon system, and (5...1980’s and 1990’s1. Free-space laser communication provides many advantages to traditional microwave communication: broader bandwidth, lower power...eliminate torsional and bending modes below approximately 200 Hz. The mass of the bread board is 71.3 kg. Figure 10 Newport Breadboard7 2.1.6

  8. Destructive Interference of Dualities

    CERN Document Server

    Wotzasek, C

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fusion of two (diffeomorphism) invariant self-dual scalars described by right and left chiral-WZW actions, produces a Hull non-mover field. After fusion, right and left moving modes disappear from the spectrum, displaying in this way the phenomenon of (destructive) quantum interference of dualities.

  9. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  10. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of methyl esters of N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-sulfonic acids for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardasani, Deepak; Gupta, Arvinda K; Palit, Meehir; Shakya, Purushottam; Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Sekhar, K; Dubey, Devendra K

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometric (GC/EI-MS) analysis of methyl esters of N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-sulfonic acids (DAESAs). These sulfonic acids are important environmental signatures of nerve agent VX and its toxic analogues, hence GC/EI-MS analysis of their methyl esters is of paramount importance for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention. DAESAs were prepared by condensation of 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid with dialkylamines, and by condensation of dialkylaminoethyl chloride with sodium bisulfite. GC/EI-MS analysis of methyl esters of DAESAs yielded mass spectra; based on these spectra, generalized fragmentation routes are proposed that rationalize most of the characteristic ions.

  11. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1964-02-01

    This book is a revision of "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" which was issued in 1957. It was prepared by the Defense Atomic Support Agency of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant governmental agencies and was published by the U.S. Atomc Energy Commission. Although the complex nature of nuclear weapons effects does not always allow exact evaluation, the conclusions reached herein represent the combined judgment of a number of the most competent scientists working the problem. There is a need for widespread public understanding of the best information available on the effects of nuclear weapons. The purpose of this book is to present as accurately as possible, within the limits of national security, a comprehensive summary of this information.

  12. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1957-06-01

    This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling laws for hypothetically extending the calculations beyond this limit are given. The figure of 20 megatons however is not be taken as an indication of capabilities or developments.

  13. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  14. Mutually Assured Deletion: The Uncertain Future of Mass Destruction In Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    many in the United States. Thomas Kuhn, a prominent physicist and historian, suggested that, “[l]ike a gestalt switch,” a revolution in paradigm “must...context of cyber effects, distraction refers to the use of cyberspace primarily in pursuit of psychological effects.69 Damage to banking systems, for

  15. The bane of "inhumane" weapons and overkill: an overview of increasingly lethal arms and the inadequacy of regulatory controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jacques G

    2004-10-01

    Weapons of both defense and offense have grown steadily in their effectiveness--especially since the industrial revolution. The mass destruction of humanity, by parts or in whole, became reality with the advent of toxic agents founded on chemistry and biology or nuclear weapons derived from physics. The military's new non-combat roles, combined with a quest for non-lethal weapons, may change the picture in regard to conventional defense establishments but are unlikely to deter bellicose tyrants or the new terrorists from using the unlimited potential of today's and tomorrow's arsenals. The author addresses the issues that are raised by this developing situation with the intent of seeking those ethics that will enable us to survive in a future and uncertain world.

  16. Manned Gaming and Simulation Relating to Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-17

    Bank Station London 10/082003 Unspecified Field Chemical China Northern Region, Inner Mongolia Unspecified Shanghai Cooperation Organization...MI) BCW: dm at soccer stadium (table-top) Kanagawa PP; JAWOC BCNR TRO Incident Hokkaido PG, PP, Sapporo CG, CFD, MC; SDF; MI BCW: dm at soccer...stadium (table-top) Fukuoka PP, CFD; SDF CW: dm at hotels JAWOC; Niigata PG, PP, CDF BCW: dm at soccer stadium JAWOC; Hokkaido PP; Sapporo CFD; MI CW

  17. USAF Weapons Of Mass Destruction (WMD) Threat Planning And Response Handbook - Air Force Handbook 10-2502

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Yes V IR U S Lassa fever Aerosol Low to moder- ate 10-14 days Unknown No No Yes Omsk hemor- rhagic fever Sabotage (water) aerosol Negligi...S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document...Develop- ment Yes Yes Tularemia Aerosol No 2-10 days Moderate if untreated Yes (IND*) Yes Yes B A C T E R IA Typhoid fever Sabotage food/water

  18. Personal Protective Equipment Guide for Military Medical Treatment Facility Personnel Handling Casualties From Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Brucellosis ( Brucellae species) (10-100 organisms, Ref. 48) • Glanders (Burkholderia mallei) (100 – 1,000 organisms, Ref. 142) • Pneumonic...48). Brucellosis, Brucellae species, bacteria Standard Precautions (Ref 43, 48.) Cholera, Vibrio cholerae, bacteria Standard Precautions (Ref...et. al., Bacillus Anthracis Aerosols in Goat Hair Processing Mills, Am. J. Hyg., Vol. 72, pp. 24-31, 1960. 100. Borio, L. et. al., Hemorrhagic

  19. Non-destructive measurement of human griping force in a human-weapon system%人枪系统中人体握持主动力非破坏测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 周克栋; 赫雷; 黄雪鹰; 张俊斌

    2015-01-01

    Here,a measurement method of active griping force was proposed to obtain the human griping force under continuous firing.Based on bionics and ergonomics,a bionic equivalent grip was designed to replace human hand. The bionic grip could be used to measure the equivalent forces system of a human-weapon system without destroying the weapon.The explicit active griping force components emerged after the equivalent forces system was decomposed with EMD.The obtained active griping force data were significant to study affecting factors of firing accuracy.Test results showed that the proposed measurement method can accurately reflect the action of human griping force in a human-weapon system under continuous firing.%为获得连续射击时人体握持主动力参数,提出一种人体握持主动力的测量方法。该方法设计了基于仿生学及人机工程学的仿生握爪,以等效代替人手握持射击。仿生握爪能够在不破坏枪支的情况下获得连续射击时人枪作用力的等效力系,该力系经 EMD 分解可得显现的握持主动力分量。所得的握持主动力参数对研究射击精度影响因素等课题具有重要意义。实验结果表明,该方法能准确反映连续射击时人枪系统力的作用。

  20. The roots of human destructiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabby Sagall

    2014-01-01

    .... I emphasise the contributions of the Frankfurt School, particularly Erich Fromm, and Wilhelm Reich, to our understanding of individual and class consciousness, and of the roots of destructiveness...

  1. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  2. Optimization of Aimpoints for Coordinate Seeking Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    process. The program works by first taking in the number of weapons used and arranging them in a fixed uniform spacing on a circle centered on the...MATLAB program is used as the coding tool for the development of this algorithm and the optimization process. The program works by first taking in the...number of weapons used and arranging them in a fixed uniform spacing on a circle centered on the assumed target location. Then, the weapon

  3. Smart Weapons - Can We Fold the Nuclear Umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-17

    However, as a weapon of mass destruction, they present unique doctrina ! problems. Doctrine must address not only their military utility, but their...p. 3. 3. Ibid., p. 4. 4. United States Army TRADOC Regulation 525-58 (Final Draft), Airland Operations, Fort Monroe , VA, 1991, p. 3. 5. Buckley

  4. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for... ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders applying to the NRC to obtain enhanced weapons under the NRC's proposed rule titled ``Enhanced Weapons...

  5. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  6. Fragmentation energy index for universalization of fragmentation energy in ion trap mass spectrometers for the analysis of chemical weapon convention related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Meehir; Mallard, Gary

    2009-04-01

    The use of mass spectra generated at 70 eV in electron ionization (EI) as a universal standard for EI has helped in the generation of searchable library databases and had a profound influence on the analytical applications of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), similarly for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), suggesting a novel method to normalize the collisional energy for the universalization of fragmentation energy for the analysis of Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC)-related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS(n)) using three-dimensional (3D) ion trap instruments. For normalizing fragmentation energy a "fragmentation energy index" (FEI) is proposed which is an arbitrary scale based on the fact of specific MS/MS fragmentation obtained at different collisional energies for the reference chemicals which are not CWC scheduled compounds. FEI 6 for the generation of an MS(n) library-searchable mass spectral database is recommended.

  7. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  8. Weapon Involvement in the Victimization of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Hamby, Sherry L; Turner, Heather A; Shattuck, Anne; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    To report the prevalence of weapons involved in the victimization of youth with particular emphasis on weapons with a "high lethality risk" and how such exposure fits into the broader victimization and life experiences of children and adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Second National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence, a nationally representative telephone survey of youth ages 2 to 17 years and caregivers (N = 4114) conducted in 2011. Estimates from the Second National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence indicate that almost 14 million youth, ages 2–17, in the United States have been exposed to violence involving a weapon in their lifetimes as witnesses or victims,or .1 in 5 children in this age group [corrected]. More than 2 million youth in the United States (1 in 33) have been directly assaulted in incidents where the high lethality risk weapons of guns and knives were used. Differences were noted between victimizations involving higher and lower lethality risk weapons as well as between any weapon involvement versus none. Poly-victims, youth with 7 or more victimization types, were particularly likely to experience victimization with any weapon, as well as victimization with a highly lethal weapon compared with nonpoly-victims. Findings add to the field's broadening conceptualization of youth victimization highlighting the potentially highly consequential risk factor of weapon exposure as a component of victimization experiences on the mental health of youth. Further work on improving gun safety practices and taking steps to reduce children's exposure to weapon-involved violence is warranted to reduce this problem. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Simulating radiative feedback and star cluster formation in GMCs - II. Mass dependence of cloud destruction and cluster properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Corey S.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Harris, William E.

    2017-09-01

    The process of radiative feedback in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) is an important mechanism for limiting star cluster formation through the heating and ionization of the surrounding gas. We explore the degree to which radiative feedback affects early (≲5 Myr) cluster formation in GMCs having masses that range from 104 to 106 M⊙ using the flash code. The inclusion of radiative feedback lowers the efficiency of cluster formation by 20-50 per cent relative to hydrodynamic simulations. Two models in particular - 5 × 104 and 105 M⊙ - show the largest suppression of the cluster formation efficiency, corresponding to a factor of ∼2. For these clouds only, the internal energy, a measure of the energy injected by radiative feedback, exceeds the gravitational potential for a significant amount of time. We find a clear relation between the maximum cluster mass, Mc,max, formed in a GMC and the mass of the GMC itself, MGMC: Mc,max ∝ M_{GMC}^{0.81}. This scaling result suggests that young globular clusters at the necessary scale of 106 M⊙ form within host GMCs of masses near ∼5 × 107 M⊙. We compare simulated cluster mass distributions to the observed embedded cluster mass function [d log (N)/dlog (M) ∝ Mβ where β = -1] and find good agreement (β = -0.99 ± 0.14) only for simulations including radiative feedback, indicating this process is important in controlling the growth of young clusters. However, the high star formation efficiencies, which range from 16 to 21 per cent, and high star formation rates compared to locally observed regions suggest other feedback mechanisms are also important during the formation and growth of stellar clusters.

  10. The destruction of organic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, T T

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 39: The Destruction of Organic Matter focuses on the identification of trace elements in organic compounds. The monograph first offers information on the processes involved in the determination of trace elements in organic matters, as well as the methods not involving complete destruction of these elements. The text surveys the sources of errors in the processes responsible in pinpointing elements in organic compounds. These processes include sampling, disruption of the samples, manipulation, and measurements. The book

  11. Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment Lloyd Hammond Weapons and...Combat Systems Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST Group-TR-3221 ABSTRACT Threat evaluation and weapon assignment...dynamic programming algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment which, after more rigorous testing, could be used as a concept demonstrator and as an auxiliary

  12. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

  13. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  14. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  15. Computation of Weapons Systems Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Aircraft Dive Angle : Initial Weapon Release Velocity at x-axis VOx VOz x: x-axis z: z-axis : Initial Weapon Release Velocity at z...altitude Impact Velocity (x− axis), Vix = VOx (3.4) Impact Velocity (z− axis), Viz = VOz + (g ∗ TOF) (3.5) Impact Velocity, Vi = �Vix2 + Viz2 (3.6...compute the ballistic partials to examine the effects that varying h, VOx and VOz have on RB using the following equations: ∂RB ∂h = New RB−Old RB

  16. A different kind of weapon focus: simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Eric T; Witt, Jessica K; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Attentional allocation is flexibly altered by action-related priorities. Given that tools - and specifically weapons - can affect attentional allocation, we asked whether training with a weapon or holding a weapon during search would affect change detection. In three experiments, participants searched for changes to agents, shootable objects, or environments in the popular flicker paradigm. Participants trained with a simulated weapon or watched a video from the same training perspective and then searched for changes while holding a weapon or a control object. Results show an effect of training, highlighting the importance of sensorimotor experience for the action-relevant allocation of attention, and a possible interaction between training and the object held during search. Simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness. This result has implications for the interaction between tool use and attentional allocation.

  17. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals.

  18. Collective behaviors: mass panic and outbreaks of multiple unexplained symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, R H

    2001-12-01

    The general public, the mass media, and many government officials believe that the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) will inevitably lead to mass panic and/or mass hysteria. However, studies of disasters and wars show that disorganized flight in the presence of a real or perceived danger (i.e., mass panic) is rare. On the other hand, in a real or perceived WMD scenario, outbreaks of multiple unexplained symptoms (i.e., mass psychogenic illness, mass sociogenic illness, mass hysteria, or epidemic hysteria) may be prevalent. Many of the symptoms (fatigue, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness/lightheadedness, and anorexia) are common in combat and after toxic chemical exposure, chemical weapon exposure, prodromal infectious illness, and acute radiation sickness.

  19. History of Laser Weapon Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    surgery/medicine, hair re- moval, presentation pointers, law enforcement, ranging and sighting devices, welding applications, and much more. Using...other laser technology develop- ments. The first chemical laser, hydrogen fluoride ( HF ), was built in 1965, producing 1 kW. It was then that DoD became...energy laser (HEL) weapons. In industry, the more powerful CO2 lasers are used for weld - ing, drilling, and cutting. There are many different types

  20. Eruption and mass-wasting-induced processes during the late holocene destructive phase of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Salinas, Rosalba; Murcia, Armando

    1990-07-01

    The November 13, 1985, eruption was characteristic of the Arenas eruptive stage of Nevado del Ruiz, the most recent of a series of twelve eruptive stages that have occurred in the past 11,000 years. Eruptive sequences, deposits and processes similar to that of 1985 have characterized the behavior of Nevado del Ruiz during three major prehistorical and historical eruptive stages: the approximately 3300-3100 yr. B.P. Hedionda, the 16th century Azufrado, and the mid-1800's Lagunillas eruptive stages, that partly destroyed the present Ruiz summit. According to the interpretation of the stratigraphic record of prehistorical eruptions and historical accounts, almost every recent magmatic event was small or short-lived. Nevertheless, rockslide-debris avalanches and catastrophic debris flows were triggered in all the eruptions owing to slope failures related to specific tectonic features of Ruiz volcano and/or to significant interactions between pyroclastic debris and the ice cap. Evidence for headward retreat of avalanche scarps during multiple eruptions reinforce the case that large slope failures can occur repeatedly at a large-volume volcano like Ruiz without reconstruction of the edifice. The latest Ruiz eruptions that involved rockslide-debris avalanches resemble in part the Shiveluch 1964 event for which evidence of lateral blast deposits are lacking, but differ in part from this type because non-eruptive and mass-wasting processes also triggered rockslide-debris avalanches. Many factors render the cluster of domes of the Ruiz summit unstable, including: (1) deeply dissected troughs opened toward the north-northeast (Azufrado), east (Lagunillas), and south (Recio) flanks; (2) strongly hydrothermally altered north and east flanks of the summit; (3) currently glaciated or recently deglaciated, high cliffs; (4) steep unstable margins of the ice cap on the north and east. Thus, in light of its past behavior, a small eruption or an earthquake might trigger catastrophic

  1. Definition, classification and treatment of destructive fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Guo-jun; QU Zhi-guo; LIU Zhuo; CHEN Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Destructive injury is defined as a very serious damage both to the bone and the soft tissues. But in clinical practice we found that in some fracture cases, the damage to soft tissues is not as severe as "destructive injury" indicates, whereas comminuted fractures still cannot show the severity of bone damage. Therefore we proposed a new term "destructive fractures" after combining the definition of destructive injury with typical clinic cases. Destructive fractures refer to the fractures whose osseous tissues are damaged too seriously to be repaired, but soft tissues, nerves and veins are less severely injured and can be repaired. From the year 2001 to 2010, 75 cases of destructive fractures were admitted in our department. According to whether the fractures interlinked with the external environment, together with the fracture sites, they were divided into 6 types: al type, closed diaphysis destructive fracture; a2 type, open diaphysis destructive fracture; b1 type, closed joint-involved destructive fracture; b2 type,open joint-involved destructive fracture; cl type, closed mixed destructive fracture; c2 type, open mixed destructive fracture. Corresponding clinical treatments were conducted for each type.The new classification criterion of destructivefracture is simple and practical and thus can be used as an important guide to make reasonable treatment plans for destructive fractures.

  2. Task Analyses of Three Selected Weapons Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    using weapons is a joint function of the specific weapon system, the goals (missions) of the system, and the environment in which it is used. The first...Identification of fire mission profiles which state general job functions for each type of typical mission. Documentary sources such as Field Manuals...nd Arin,,, Ui, Guni i A,!i" tant uuPnrr No. I Can; n , r Grup - ( nile. .rs and Prir Diff,-ront S, tm: -inch L,,t.’r _, Fort Hood l::t Cavall, I

  3. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    In today’s conflict environment, transformed by information technology and of who can communicate and how, states, non-state actors, ad hoc activist networks and individuals create effect(s) in and through social network media in support of their objectives. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia develops...... a framework for understanding how social network media shapes global politics and contemporary conflicts by examining their role as a platform for conduction intelligence collection, targeting, cyber-operations, psychological warfare and command and control activities. Through these, the weaponization...

  4. Definition, classification and treatment of destructive fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Guo-jun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Destructive injury is defined as a very serious damage both to the bone and the soft tissues. But in clinical practice we found that in some fracture cases, the damage to soft tissues is not as severe as 揹estructive injury?indicates, whereas comminuted fractures still cannot show the severity of bone damage. Therefore we proposed a new term 揹estructive fractures?after combining the definition of destructive injury with typical clinic cases. Destructive fractures refer to the fractures whose osseous tissues are damaged too seriously to be repaired, but soft tissues, nerves and veins are less severely injured and can be repaired. From the year 2001 to 2010, 75 cases of destructive fractures were admitted in our department. According to whether the fractures interlinked with the external environment, together with the fracture sites, they were divided into 6 types: a1 type, closed diaphysis destructive fracture; a2 type, open diaphysis destructive fracture; b1 type, closed joint-involved destructive fracture; b2 type, open joint-involved destructive fracture; c1 type, closed mixed destructive fracture; c2 type, open mixed destructive fracture. Corresponding clinical treatments were conducted for each type.The new classification criterion of destructive fracture is simple and practical and thus can be used as an important guide to make reasonable treatment plans for destructive fractures. Key words: Fracture, bone; Classification; Therapeutics

  5. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons...

  6. Demand Analysis of Informational Shipboard Gun Weapon System Interface Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hui-chuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to development demand of informational shipboard gun weapon system, design concept of shipboard gun weapon system interface is proposed. System composition is put forward and function demand of interface is analyzed from combat, training and detection aspects. General principle need to be followed in design process. A new concept is provided for development of shipboard gun weapon system interface.

  7. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  8. The Politics of Weapons Standardization in NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    does raise new and useful perspectives on the problem. And, as he notes, it raises the spectre that instead of attacking the causes of NATO’s malaise...construct- ing his Utopia . 1 58 Two articles, which focus on the weapons procurement process within the United States alone, note the unnecessary

  9. 49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a... weapons, do not apply to a law enforcement officer (LEO) aboard a flight for which screening is required...

  10. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final disposition. They will provide...

  11. 14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against carriage of weapons... Flight Operations § 135.119 Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on board an aircraft being operated by a certificate holder, carry on or about that person a deadly or dangerous weapon...

  12. A mobile killing- and mincing unit represents a possible alternative in mass destruction of AIV infected poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, Anne Ahlmann; Handberg, Kurt

    In Denmark the veterinary authorities have approved a mobile mechanical unit for humane culling and processing of end-of lay hens. The elimination of transportation of live table egg layers is from a welfare point of view valuable, and in this respect, this multifunctional unit performs the initial...

  13. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, William C; Dallas, Cham E

    2007-01-01

    Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this outcome would be the probable loss

  14. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallas Cham E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this

  15. Development of a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer for non-destructive analysis of isotope ratios in irradiated B4C pellets--Test measurements on an unirradiated control rod pellet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoravi, P.; Joseph, M.; Sivakumar, N.

    2008-09-01

    A laser mass spectrometric facility is developed using a home-built reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS) to analyze the boron isotopic ratio 10B/11B in the irradiated B4C pellets of the FBTR control rod. Compared to other mass spectrometry-based methods, the present method is practically non-destructive and makes it relatively easier to handle irradiated (radioactive) B4C pellets through remote operation. The results with inactive samples indicate that the method yields 10B percentage values, accurate to within ±1%.

  16. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    What happens when a magnetized star is torn apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole, in a violent process known as a tidal disruption event? Two scientists have broken new ground by simulating the disruption of stars with magnetic fields for the first time.The magnetic field configuration during a simulation of the partial disruption of a star. Top left: pre-disruption star. Bottom left: matter begins to re-accrete onto the surviving core after the partial disruption. Right: vortices form in the core as high-angular-momentum debris continues to accrete, winding up and amplifying the field. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]What About Magnetic Fields?Magnetic fields are expected to exist in the majority of stars. Though these fields dont dominate the energy budget of a star the magnetic pressure is a million times weaker than the gas pressure in the Suns interior, for example they are the drivers of interesting activity, like the prominences and flares of our Sun.Given this, we can wonder what role stars magnetic fields might play when the stars are torn apart in tidal disruption events. Do the fields change what we observe? Are they dispersed during the disruption, or can they be amplified? Might they even be responsible for launching jets of matter from the black hole after the disruption?Star vs. Black HoleIn a recent study, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Michael McCourt (Hubble Fellow at UC Santa Barbara) have tackled these questions by performing the first simulations of tidal disruptions of stars that include magnetic fields.In their simulations, Guillochon and McCourt evolve a solar-mass star that passes close to a million-solar-mass black hole. Their simulations explore different magnetic field configurations for the star, and they consider both what happens when the star barely grazes the black hole and is only partially disrupted, as well as what happens when the black hole tears the star apart

  17. RESTRICTIONS BY THE USE OF WEAPONS OF RUSSIAN CITIZENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyatsa A. Kodzokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article considers the restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons. The author analyzes the restrictions on the circulation of weapons, the procedure for their implementation in practice. Federal Law "On weapons" only in paragraph 6 p. 1, art. 6 "Restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons" refers to the prohibition of 'turnover as a civilian and service weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of radiation and biological factors; weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of electromagnetic, light, thermal, subsonic or ultrasonic radiation and which have output parameters that exceed the value set by state standards of the Russian Federation and the relevant regulations of the federal executive authority in the field of public health, as well as these weapons and items produced outside the Russian territory " How to regard this provision of the law? As the transfer of new weapons, not specific item. 25 of the Federal Law "On weapons", or items prohibited for circulation in the territory of our state? This inconsistency decreases the effectiveness of the legal regulation of arms trafficking. Unification of definitions in this area will allow applying the law correctly and reasonably, including criminal. But for this it is necessary taking into account the experience and the modern needs of the various branches of law provide a clearer definition of "weapon" and its species. The author's conclusions may be used in law enforcement. 

  18. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Finaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  19. The Aerodynamics of High Speed Aerial Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Simon A.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this work is the investigation of the complex compressible flow phenomena associated with high speed aerial weapons. A three dimen- sional multiblock finite volume flow solver was developed with the aim of studying the aerodynamics of missile configurations and their component structures. The first component of the study involved the aerodynamic investigation of the isolated components used in the design of conventional missile config- urations. The computati...

  20. Effects of nuclear weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S.; Dolan, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  1. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S; Dolan, P J

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  2. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Assessment 56 Figure 13: Examples of Knowledge Scorecards 58 Contents Page v GAO-15-342SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs Abbreviations...efficiencies realized through contract negotiations (13 programs), • design trades to balance affordability and capability (10 programs), • changed...at the time of our review with a scorecard and narrative summary at the bottom of the first page of each assessment. As illustrated in figure 12

  3. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    In today’s conflict environment, transformed by information technology and of who can communicate and how, states, non-state actors, ad hoc activist networks and individuals create effect(s) in and through social network media in support of their objectives. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia develops...... a framework for understanding how social network media shapes global politics and contemporary conflicts by examining their role as a platform for conduction intelligence collection, targeting, cyber-operations, psychological warfare and command and control activities. Through these, the weaponization...... of social media shows both the possibilities and the limitations of social network media in contemporary conflicts and makes a contribution to theorizing and studying contemporary conflicts....

  4. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of contractors delivering the 10 costliest programs have performed well relative to broad-based market indices, indicating that investors expect...16-329SP Assessments of Major Weapon Programs Two programs—the B-2 Extremely High Frequency Satellite Communications and Computer...expected. The B-2 Extremely High Frequency Satellite Communications and Computer Increment 1 date was revised to reflect the actual delivery of

  5. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

  6. Explosive destruction of 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimizu, H.; Abe, K.; Beliuskina, O.; Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Ge, Z.; Hayakawa, S.; Kwag, M. S.; Kim, D. H.; Moon, J. Y.; Park, S. Y.; Yang, L.

    2017-09-01

    The γ -ray emission associated with the radioactive decay of 26Al is one of the key pieces of observational evidence indicating stellar nucleosynthesis is an ongoing process in our Galaxy, and it was the first such radioactivity to be detected. Despite numerous efforts in stellar modeling, observation, nuclear theory, and nuclear experiment over the past four decades, the precise sites and origin of Galactic ^{26} Al remain elusive. We explore the present experimental knowledge concerning the destruction of ^{26} Al in massive stars. The precise stellar rates of neutron-induced reactions on ^{26} Al, such as (n,p) and (n, α , have among the largest impacts on the total ^{26} Al yield. Meanwhile, reactions involving the short-lived isomeric state of ^{26} Al such as radiative proton capture are highly-uncertain at present. Although we presented on-going experimental work from n_TOF at CERN with an ^{26} Al target, the present proceeding focuses only on the ^{26} Al isomeric radioactive beam production aspect and the first experimental results at CRIB.

  7. The international law of nuclear weapons. Le droit international des armes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, S. (Universite Pantheon-Assas, 75 - Paris (France). Centre de Recherches Internationales)

    1998-01-01

    The first chapter concerns the questions of non proliferation and non dissemination. Then, the problems bound to nuclear testing are examined in the second chapter. The process of destruction and restriction of weapons are treated in the third chapter. Then, the fourth chapter analyzes the conditions and the perspectives of a negotiation on the cessation of fissile matter production for military uses and more broadly, an obligation to negotiate a nuclear disarmament. (N.C.)

  8. The international law of nuclear weapons; Le droit international des armes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, S. [Universite Pantheon-Assas, 75 - Paris (France). Centre de Recherches Internationales

    1998-12-31

    The first chapter concerns the questions of non proliferation and non dissemination. Then, the problems bound to nuclear testing are examined in the second chapter. The process of destruction and restriction of weapons are treated in the third chapter. Then, the fourth chapter analyzes the conditions and the perspectives of a negotiation on the cessation of fissile matter production for military uses and more broadly, an obligation to negotiate a nuclear disarmament. (N.C.)

  9. Demonstration of Real-Time Physiological Status Monitoring of Encapsulated 1st Civil Support Team - Weapons of Mass Destruction (CST-WMD) Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    exercise. Entrance to the structure was through a access hole located on the roof the containers. Figure 3. Day 2 enclosed ted, i.e., no one was...www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show document?p table= STANDAR DS&p id=9767 2. Muza, S. R., L. E. Banderet, B. Cadarette. Protective uniforms for

  10. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction...

  11. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  12. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  13. 77 FR 27208 - Renewal of Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... security affairs, weapons of mass destruction, nuclear physics, chemistry, and biology. The Committee... (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) and the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Nuclear, Chemical and... States, its military forces, and its allies and partners posed by nuclear, biological,...

  14. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  15. Granular analyzing of weapon SoS demand description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qingsong; Yang Kewei; Chen Yingwu; Li Mengjun

    2009-01-01

    The systematism of weapon combat is the typical characteristic of a modern battlefield. The process of combat is complex and the demand description of weapon system of systems (SOS) is difficult. Granular analyzing is an important method for solving the complex problem in the world. Granular thinking is introduced into the demand description of weapon SoS. Granular computing and granular combination based on a relation of compatibility is proposed. Based on the level of degree and degree of detail, the granular resolution of weapon SoS is defined and an example is illustrated at the end.

  16. Small sample Bayesian analyses in assessment of weapon performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Abundant test data are required in assessment of weapon performance.When weapon test data are insufficient,Bayesian analyses in small sample circumstance should be considered and the test data should be provided by simulations.The several Bayesian approaches are discussed and some limitations are founded.An improvement is put forward after limitations of Bayesian approaches available are analyzed and t he improved approach is applied to assessment of some new weapon performance.

  17. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  18. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  19. Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons.

  20. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  1. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  2. Entropic destruction of a moving heavy quarkonium

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that the peak of the quarkonium entropy at the deconfinement transition is related to the emergent entropic force which destructs the quarkonium. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we consider dissociation of a moving heavy quarkonium by entropic force. We find that the entropic force destructs the moving quarkonium easier than the static case which is expected from perturbative weakly coupled plasma. By considering the Maxwell charge, we study the effect of medium on the destruction of heavy quarkonium. It is shown that the quarkonium dissociates easier in the medium.

  3. Non-destructive identification of twisted light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyun; Wang, Bo; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    The non-destructive identification of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to various applications in the optical information processing. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method to identify non-destructively the OAM by using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our schemes are applicable not only to the case with integer charges, but also to optical vortices with noninteger charges. Our Letter presents the first experimental demonstration of the non-destructive identification of twisted light with integer or noninteger topological charges, which has potential applications in the OAM-based data transmission for optical communications.

  4. Lorazepam: a weapon of offence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Kaur, Sumeet; Singh, Dalbir; Aggarwal, Akashdeep

    2015-03-01

    The use of knock out drugs for perpetuation of crime has significantly increased in recent years. These drug facilitated crimes mainly involve robbery and sexual offences. Most of the drugs employed for these purposes affect the nervous system and bring a state of incapacitation and amnesia. The miscreants exploit these properties of drugs to commit such crimes. The unsuspecting travellers on public transport vehicles and women in disco parties are most vulnerable to such crimes. The unrestricted and unregulated sale of prescription drugs and general ignorance of such incidents is a challenge that needs to be addressed promptly.

  5. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    deposited con the ground. The extensive 9.141 The activity of strontium-90, atmospheric nuclear tesi programs con- as of radioactive materials in...main a reiult of radiation exposure and hem- disadvantage is that an appreciable de- ,rrhage, so that symptoms of anemia , crease in tne platelet count...such radiation. In Hiroshima ceiving combined injuries. The avail- 4 COMBINED INJURIES 589 able data do indicate, however, that some anemia and the body

  6. Benefiting from a trail of destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Julie

    2013-09-01

    Data destruction and IT asset disposal are heavily regulated and complex areas, especially within the NHS, which is responsible for the safekeeping of extremely personal data on millions of UK citizens. In the light of escalating efforts by the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) to ensure compliance with the Data Protection Act 1998, data destruction specialist, Julie Pickersgill, of Advanced Digital Dynamics, outlines the requirements on estates departments for the secure disposal of IT equipment - and how to avoid falling foul of the law.

  7. Rethinking the Development of Weapons and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

    2011-01-01

    As one reads about the history of humans, he/she sees very early on that humans are naturally "tool users." More specifically, humans used tools as a means of subsistence and survival. Even today humans use tools to extend their capabilities beyond imagination. These tools are even used as weapons. However primitive, these early weapons would soon…

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marta Feldmesser, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Albert Einstein College of...Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0085 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  9. Adapting the Law of Armed Conflict to Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    remains in the realm of theory . Still, several modern highly- automated—and some would call them autonomous—weapon systems already exist. These are...CROSS, 483, 507 (2012). 58. Backstrom & Henderson, supra note 57, at 401. 59. Justin McClelland , The Review of Weapons in Accordance with Article 36

  10. Rethinking the Development of Weapons and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

    2011-01-01

    As one reads about the history of humans, he/she sees very early on that humans are naturally "tool users." More specifically, humans used tools as a means of subsistence and survival. Even today humans use tools to extend their capabilities beyond imagination. These tools are even used as weapons. However primitive, these early weapons would soon…

  11. Weapons Acquisition. Processes of Selected Foreign Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    period from 1977 to 1985: (1) 5.56mm calibre assault rifle. (2) Milan and Hot antitank weapon systems. (3) Roland ground-to-air weapon system. (4) AMX 30...and standardization edicts . Awards and penalties are laid on accordingly. (7/17, 13/20) The ministries stand apart from one another in the same way

  12. Enforcement agreement between the French atomic energy commission and the federal atomic energy agency for the implementation of the framework-agreement dispositions related to the environmental multilateral program in the nuclear domain in Russian Federations during the nuclear cooperation in the framework of the G8 world partnership against the proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their related materials; Accord d'application entre le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et l'Agence Federale de l'Energie Atomique pour la mise en oeuvre des dispositions de l'accord-cadre relatif au programme multilateral environnemental dans le domaine nucleaire en Federation de Russie lors de la cooperation nucleaire dans le cadre du partenariat mondial du G8 contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et des matieres connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In order to give assistance to the Russian Federations, the G8 partners have agreed to carry on joint actions in the following domains: dismantling of out-of-service nuclear submarines of the Russian navy, management of the spent fuels and wastes generated by this dismantlement, rehabilitation of fuel storage and waste management facilities, management of nuclear materials and safety of facilities or sites with a potential radiological risk. This document defines the domain of cooperation between France (CEA) and the Russian federal atomic energy agency: creation of a coordination parity technical committee, financing conditions and conclusion of contracts for joint actions, access to sites, exchange of informations, intellectual property, nuclear safety and radioprotection, changes and amendments to the agreement, enforcement and duration. A protocol relative to the access of French representatives to Russian work sites is attached. (J.S.)

  13. Weapons Retrieved After the Implementation of Emergency Department Metal Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, S Terez; Chisholm, Robin; Doehring, Marla; Chisholm, Carey

    2015-09-01

    Several high-profile violent incidents have occurred within emergency departments (EDs). There are no recent studies reporting the effectiveness of ED metal detection. Our aim was to assess the effect of metal detection on ED weapons retrieval. In September 2011, a metal detector was installed at the entrance of an urban, high-volume teaching hospital ED. The security company recorded retrieved firearms, knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons. We performed qualitative analysis of weapons retrieval data for a 26-month period. A total of 5877 weapons were retrieved, an average of 218 per month: 268 firearms, 4842 knives, 512 chemical sprays, and 275 other weapons, such as brass knuckles, stun guns, and box cutters. The number of retrieved guns decreased from 2012 to 2013 (from 182 to 47), despite an increase in metal detection hours from 8 h per day to 16 h per day. The number of retrieved knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons increased. Recovered knives increased from 2062 in 2012 to 2222 in 2013, chemical sprays increased from 170 to 305, and other weapons increased from 51 to 201. A large number of weapons were retrieved after the initiation of metal detection in the ED entrance. Increasing hours of metal detection increased the number of retrieved knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons. Retrieved firearms decreased after increasing metal detection hours. Metal detection in the ED entrance is effective in reducing entrance of weapons into the ED. Metal detectors may offer additional benefit in reducing attempts to enter with firearms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  15. Gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the sex (gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness intensity and its manifestations, as well as relationships between indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations (categories and the psychological dimensions of masculinity and femininity, also from the point of view of assessing occupational health and safety. Materials and Methods: A population of 558 individuals (399 females and 159 males aged 19–25 (mean age: 22.6 was studied. The Polish version of the “Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale” (CS-DS by Kelley adapted by Suchańska was used in order to examine indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations. Gender testing applied the Polish version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI by Bem in its adaptation by Kuczyńska. Results: Males’ scores are signifi cantly higher than those of females for the majority of CS-DS scales/indices: Indirect Self-Destructiveness (general index, Poor Health Maintenance (A2, Lack of Planfulness (A4, and Helplessness, Passiveness (A5. Moreover, there are statistically signifi cant correlations between CS-DS scales and the masculinity dimension (positive as well as the femininity dimension (negative. Conclusions: Masculinity is a factor that may predispose towards indirectly self-destructive behaviors, while femininity is a factor protecting against those. The study results may prove useful in preventing indirectly and directly self-destructive behaviors as well as in therapy work with the individuals who display such tendencies or have made attempts on their own lives, in particular taking into account their being of a specifi c sex/gender and in the context of work (especially in diffi cult or dangerous conditions or both.

  16. The Energetics of Cusp Destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Aaron J; Couchman, H M P

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analytic estimate for the energy required to create a constant density core within a dark matter halo. Our new estimate, based on more realistic assumptions, leads to a required energy that is orders of magnitude lower than is claimed in earlier work. We define a core size based on the logarithmic slope of the dark matter density profile so that it is insensitive to the functional form used to fit observed data. The energy required to form a core depends sensitively on the radial scale over which dark matter within the cusp is redistributed within the halo. Simulations indicate that within a region of comparable size to the active star forming regions of the central galaxy that inhabits the halo, dark matter particles have their orbits radially increased by a factor of 2--3 during core formation. Thus the inner properties of the dark matter halo, such as halo concentration, and final core size, set the energy requirements. As a result, the energy cost increases slowly with halo mass as M$_{\\r...

  17. The Importance of Designating Cyberspace Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    PerspectiveSpace Focus Cyberspace Vulnerability Assessment / Hunter Weapon System The Air Force Cyberspace Vulnerability Assessment ( CVA ) / Hunter  weapon...system can perform defensive sorties worldwide via remote or on-site access. The  CVA /Hunter weapon sys- tem is operated by one active duty unit, the...support all of the mission crews. Developed by the for- mer Air Force Information Operations Center, the  CVA /Hunter  weapon system was fielded to the 688th

  18. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carly

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding. The sexual violence inflicted upon women has been nothing less than brutal and destructive, physically, socially, and psychologically. This paper analyzes the use of rape as a weapon of war in the Congo, taking into context the ongoing war, cultural and social situations that facilitate its existence, and the many consequences the victims are forced to endure. Drawing information from various academic journals, articles, and field research from international organizations, this paper paints a concise picture of the sexual atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  19. Insects as weapons of war, terror, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    For thousands of years insects have been incorporated into human conflict, with the goals of inflicting pain, destroying food, and transmitting pathogens. Early methods used insects as "found" weapons, functioning as tactical arms (e.g., hurled nests) or in strategic habitats (e.g., mosquito-infested swamps). In the twentieth century the relationship between insects and disease was exploited; vectors were mass-produced to efficiently deliver pathogens to an enemy. The two most sophisticated programs were those of the Japanese in World War II with plague-infected fleas and cholera-coated flies and of the Americans during the Cold War with yellow fever-infected mosquitoes. With continued advances, defenses in the form of insecticides and vaccines meant that insects were no longer considered as battlefield weapons. However, in recent times sociopolitical changes have put insects back into the realm of human conflict through asymmetrical conflicts pitting combatants from nonindustrialized regions against forces from militarily and economically superior nations. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  20. A different kind of weapon focus: simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. Eric T.; Witt, Jessica K.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Attentional allocation is flexibly altered by action-related priorities. Given that tools – and specifically weapons – can affect attentional allocation, we asked whether training with a weapon or holding a weapon during search would affect change detection. In three experiments, participants searched for changes to agents, shootable objects, or environments in the popular flicker paradigm. Participants trained with a simulated weapon or watched a video from the same training perspective and ...

  1. 32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552..., Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives, or other devices defined in this subpart, that are confiscated...

  2. 32 CFR 552.104 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Firearms and Weapons § 552.104 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives or other devices defined in...

  3. From the nuclear stalemate to a nuclear-weapon free world. In memory of Klaus Fuchs; Vom atomaren Patt zu einer von Atomwaffen freien Welt. Zum Gedenken an Klaus Fuchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Guenter; Fuchs-Kittowski, Klaus (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: The first soviet atomic bomb and Klaus Fuchs, in illusory worlds of Andrei Sakharov, Edward Teller, and Klaus Fuchs, Klaus Fuchs as grandfather of the hydrogen bomb, memories of and thinking about Klaus Fuchs, the Scottish years of Klaus Fuchs 1937-1941, Klaus Fuchs in the mirror of the Venona documents, Gernot Zippe and the ultracentrifuge or east-west technology transfer in the cold war, secret impulses for the soviet nuclear project, responsibility of knowledge with anti-facism, philosophy, and science as well as peace as the first human right in the work of Klaus Fuchs, the request of Klaus Fuchs for a lasting peace, Klaus Fuchs in Daniel Granin's roman ''Escape to Russia'', ways to a nuclear-weapon free world, Otto Hahn and the declarations of Mainau and Goettingen, nuclear winter, initiatives of the GDR for the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons in negative entropy, militarism and antimilitarism of the nuclear age, contributions of the young Klaus Fuchs to statistical physics, nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the responsibility of the scientists for a socially effective and efficient energy change, Berlin-Bucher contributions to a world free of biological weapons. (HSI)

  4. Application of inertial confinement fusion to weapon technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, A.J.; Posey, L.D.

    1978-12-01

    This report reviews aspects of the military applications of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia Laboratories. These applications exist in the areas of: (1) weapon physics research, and (2) weapon effects simulation. In the area of weapon physics research, ICF source technology can be used to study: (1) equations-of-state at high energy densities, (2) implosion dynamics, and (3) laboratory simulation of exoatmospheric burst phenomena. In the area of weapon effects simulation, ICF technology and facilities have direct near, intermediate, and far term applications. In the near term, short pulse x-ray simulation capabilities exist for electronic component effects testing. In the intermediate term, capabilities can be developed for high energy neutron exposures and bremsstrahlung x-ray exposures of components. In the far term, system level exposures of full reentry vehicles will be possible if sufficiently high pellet gains are achieved.

  5. 32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation of privately owned weapons and... owned weapons and ammunition. (a) Privately owned firearms and ammunition will be transported in the following manner: (1) Weapons, other than weapons being transported into Fort Lewis for the first time, may...

  6. Climatology of destructive hailstorms in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jorge A.; Brand, Veronika S.; Capucim, Mauricio N.; Felix, Rafael R.; Martins, Leila D.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; Hallak, Ricardo; Dias, Maria A. F. Silva; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Hail is considered to be among the most complex extreme weather phenomena of the atmosphere. Every year, notably in the southern Brazilian States, destructive hailstorms result in serious economic losses and cause a great social impact destroying crops, homes, medical facilities and schools. The aim of this study is to document the spatial, annual, and diurnal variation in destructive hailstorm frequency during a 22 year period from 1991 to 2012 in Brazil. The analysis is based on a collection of reports released by the Brazilian National Civil Protection Secretariat - SEDEC. Based on reports of emergency assistance given to the population affected by a disaster, the information discussed in this work is assumed as representative only of destructive hailstorms. The analysis reveals a large spatial variability, with the majority of hailstorm occurrences distributed in the three southernmost Brazilian States. Within those states, the number of hail reports was observed to increase with increasing population density in rural areas. Hailstorms were reported most often in the late afternoon and evening of the winter/spring transition, in agreement with a few other areas in the subtropics with available studies, but different from the majority of studies for temperate zones, which suggest spring/summer as the hail season. Although the results show some discrepancies compared to satellite hail signatures, the findings of this work confirm that southern Brazil is a region prone to the development of strong convective storms, with high annual numbers of destructive hail events.

  7. Impurity Profiling of a Chemical Weapon Precursor for Possible Forensic Signatures by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoggard, Jamin C.; Wahl, Jon H.; Synovec, Robert E.; Mong, Gary M.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2010-01-15

    In this work we present the feasibility of using analytical chemical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the organic impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound for a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-TOFMS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC-TOFMS data were analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlap GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization proved that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into 5 distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported that the other five DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. In addition, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were found in

  8. the international politics of nuclear weapons: a constructivist analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JK

    interest including India, Pakistan, China, North Korea and the US; and .... and conventions against the development, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons. ...... process, the Agency discovered illicit nuclear procurement networks (UN News.

  9. The use of neutron scattering in nuclear weapons research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzaitis, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We had a weapons science breakout session last week. Although it would have been better to hold it closer in time to this workshop, I think that it was very valuable. it may have been less of a {open_quotes}short-sleeve{close_quotes} workshop environment than we would have liked, but as the first time two communities-the weapons community and the neutron scattering community- got together, it was a wonderful opportunity to transfer information during the 24 presentations that were made. This report contains discussions on the fundamental analysis of documentation of the enduring stockpile; LANSCE`s contribution to weapons; spallation is critical to understanding; weapons safety assessments; applied nuclear physics requires cross section information; fission models need refinement; and establishing teams on collaborative projects.

  10. Entropic destruction of a rotating heavy quarkonium

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Ma, Chong; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Using the AdS/CFT duality, we study the destruction of a rotating heavy quarkonium due to the entropice force in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory and a confining YM theory. It is shown that in both theories increasing the angular velocity leads to decreasing the entropic force. This result implies that the rotating quarkonium dissociates harder than the static case.

  11. Biological destruction of polymer solutions used to improve oil bed output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareyshina, A.Z.; Gazizov, A.Sh.; Nazmutdinov, R.Ya.; Ozhiganova, G.U.; Yaus, L.I.

    1984-01-01

    A plan is presented and the results of studying biological destruction of polyacrylamide by fresh water microflora in dynamics. It is shown that polymer destruction as a result of the vital activity of microorganisms occurs most intensively in the first 1-1.5 months. During this period, the degree of destruction of polyacrylamide reaches 70-80%, which corresponds to a decrease in the average molecular mass 4-5-fold.

  12. Biological weapons and bioterrorism in the first years of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberg, Milton

    2002-09-01

    This paper evaluates four recent developments in biological-weapons politics and bioterrorism. First is American opposition to finalization of a verification protocol for the Biological Weapons Convention; second, a successful attempt at mass-casualty terrorism; third, an ongoing investigation into the bioterrorist capabilities of the al Qaeda network; and, fourth, a series of fatal anthrax attacks in the United States. The first of these evaluations is informed by interviews conducted between 2000 and 2002 with policy principals in the United States and elsewhere.

  13. Catastrophic models of materials destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kupchishin, A. I.; Taipova, B. G.; A. A. Kupchishin; Voronova, N. A.; Kirdyashkin, V. I.; Fursa, Tatyana Viktorovna

    2016-01-01

    The effect of concentration and type of fillers on mechanical properties of composite material based on polyimide were studied. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, polyester), polycarbonate (PCAR) and montmorillonite (MM) were used as the fillers. The samples were prepared by mechanically blending the polyimide-based lacquer solutions with different concentrations of the second component. The concentration of filler and its class, especially their internal structure and technology of synthesis d...

  14. Effects of Weapons on Aggressive Thoughts, Angry Feelings, Hostile Appraisals, and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Weapons Effect Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Arlin J; Kepes, Sven; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-09-01

    Guns are associated with aggression. A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression-called the "weapons effect." This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017. It includes 162 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. The theoretical framework used to explain the weapons effect was the General Aggression Model (GAM), which proposes three routes to aggression-cognitive, affective, and arousal. The GAM also proposes that hostile appraisals can facilitate aggression. As predicted by the GAM, the mere presence of weapons increased aggressive thoughts, hostile appraisals, and aggression, suggesting a cognitive route from weapons to aggression. Weapons did not significantly increase angry feelings. Only one study tested the effects of weapons on arousal. These findings also contribute to the debate about social priming by showing that incidental exposure to a stimulus (weapon) can affect subsequent related behavior (aggression).

  15. Fires of Destruction and Creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lowfee; Pontte; 一览

    1998-01-01

    讲到“火山爆发”,人们自然联想到意大利的古城庞贝(Pompeii),这座建于公元前8世纪的依山傍海的美丽城市竟毁于公元79年的维苏威火山的一次爆发。从此,庞贝城被掩埋在火山灰之下,一直沉睡到1748年,当人们移走成千上万吨的火山灰之后,这座古城才重见天日!“火山爆发”=人类的灾星!这几成人们的思维定势。 所以,当本文大谈火山爆发给我们这个星球造成种种灾难的时候,我们并不感到意外。如: 1991年6月菲律宾的Pinatubo火山爆发: ·“It looks like the end of the world,”said one of the more than 100,000 people who fled for their lives. ·Within weeks,millions of Americans began noticing spectacular sunsets of eerie colors. ·Pinatubo’s haze s thick enough to cool average worldwide temperature by about one degree Fahrenheit for several years…A change of one degree may seem small,but it is enough to influence global winds and ocean currents. 1885年印度尼西亚Java附近的Tambora火山爆发: ·Summer crops in France failed,causing food shortages. ·In New England it snowed in June… 文章有一句话提纲挈领:Volcanoes may trigger other strange weaher.据统计,?

  16. Weapon Simulator Test Methodology Investigation: Comparison of Live Fire and Weapon Simulator Test Methodologies and the Effects of Clothing and Individual Equipment on Marksmanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    marksmanship performance) mirror those which would be captured in a live fire evaluation . 1 WEAPON SIMULATOR TEST METHODOLOGY INVESTIGATION ...METHODOLOGY INVESTIGATION : COMPARISON OF LIVE FIRE AND WEAPON SIMULATOR TEST METHODOLOGIES AND THE EFFECTS OF CLOTHING AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT ON...2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2014 – August 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE WEAPON SIMULATOR TEST METHODOLOGY INVESTIGATION

  17. Destruction of the galactic globular cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, O Y; Gnedin, Oleg Y; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of the Galactic Globular Cluster System in considerably greater detail than has been done hitherto, finding that destruction rates are significantly larger than given by previous estimates. More than half of the present clusters (52%-58% for the OC galactic model, and 75%-86% for the BSS model) will be destroyed in the next Hubble time. For the evolution of individual clusters we use a Fokker-Planck code including two-body relaxation, tidal truncation of clusters, compressive gravitational shocks while clusters pass through the Galactic disk, and tidal shocks due to passage close to the bulge. Gravitational shocks are treated comprehensively, using a recent result by Kundic & Ostriker (1995) that the shock-induced relaxation term, driving an additional dispersion of energies, is generally more important than the usual energy shift term. We discuss some implications for a past history of the Globular Cluster System, and the initial distribution of the destruction time...

  18. The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    ‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...... in to crafting this study.' - From the foreword by Elinor Ostrom Is social capital the ‘missing link' in economics? In this vital new book, the authors argue that the ‘forgotten' production factor of social capital is as crucial in economic decision-making as the other more traditional factors of production...... such as physical, financial and human capital. They attempt to bridge the gap between theory and reality by examining the main factors that determine entrepreneurship, co-operative movements and the creation and destruction of social capital....

  19. Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.A.

    1998-11-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of Cm-244 prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of Cm-244. To discriminate between the plutonium and curium materials present, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A Cf shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  20. The use of thermal desorption in monitoring for the chemical weapons demilitarization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin

    2002-10-01

    Under international treaty, the United States and Russia are disposing of their aging stockpile of chemical weapons. Incineration and chemical neutralization are options for sites in the United States, although Russia prefers the latter. The storage and disposal of bulk and chemical agents and weapons involve unique hazards of handling extremely toxic materials. There are three major areas of concern--the storage stockpile, the disposal area, and the discovery and destruction of "found" material not considered part of the stockpile. Methods have been developed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the air, and these are used to help assure worker protection and the safety of the local population. Exposure limits for all chemical agents are low, sometimes nanograms per cubic meter for worker control limits and picograms per cubic meter for general population limits. There are three types of monitoring used in the USA: alarm, confirmation, and historical. Alarm monitors are required to give relatively immediate real-time responses to agent leaks. They are simple to operate and rugged, and provide an alarm in near real-time (generally a few minutes). Alarm monitors for the demilitarization program are based on sorbent pre-concentration followed by thermal desorption and simple gas chromatography. Alarms may need to be confirmed by another method, such as sample tubes collocated with the alarm monitor and analyzed in a laboratory by more sophisticated chromatography. Sample tubes are also used for historical perimeter monitoring, with sample periods typically of 12 h. The most common detector is the flame photometric detector, in sulfur or phosphorous mode, although others, such as mass-selective detectors, also have been used. All agents have specific problems with collection, chromatography and detection. Monitoring is not made easier by interferences from pesticide spraying, busy roadways or military firing ranges. Exposure limits drive the requirements for

  1. Biophysics and medical effects of enhanced radiation weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Glen I

    2012-08-01

    Enhanced radiation weapons (ERW) are fission-fusion devices where the massive numbers of neutrons generated during the fusion process are intentionally allowed to escape rather than be confined to increase yield (and fallout products). As a result, the energy partition of the weapon output shifts from blast and thermal energies toward prompt radiation. The neutron/gamma output ratio is also increased. Neutrons emitted from ERW are of higher energy than the Eave of neutrons from fission weapons. These factors affect the patterns of injury distribution; delay wound healing in combined injuries; reduce the therapeutic efficacy of medical countermeasures; and increase the dose to radiation-only casualties, thus potentiating the likelihood of encountering radiation-induced incapacitation. The risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is also increased. Radiation exposure to first responders from activation products is increased over that expected from a fission weapon of similar yield. However, the zone of dangerous fallout is significantly reduced in area. At least four nations have developed the potential to produce such weapons. Although the probability of detonation of an ERW in the near future is very small, it is nonzero, and clinicians and medical planners should be aware of the medical effects of ERW.

  2. Direct and non-destructive proof of authenticity for the 2nd generation of Brazilian real banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Regino, Karen Gomes; Lehmann, Eraldo Luiz; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Using a desorption/ionization technique, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), documents related to the 2nd generation of Brazilian Real currency (R$) were screened in the positive ion mode for authenticity based on chemical profiles obtained directly from the banknote surface. Characteristic profiles were observed for authentic, seized suspect counterfeit and counterfeited homemade banknotes from inkjet and laserjet printers. The chemicals in the authentic banknotes' surface were detected via a few minor sets of ions, namely from the plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), most likely related to the official offset printing process, and other common quaternary ammonium cations, presenting a similar chemical profile to 1st-generation R$. The seized suspect counterfeit banknotes, however, displayed abundant diagnostic ions in the m/z 400-800 range due to the presence of oligomers. High-accuracy FT-ICR MS analysis enabled molecular formula assignment for each ion. The ions were separated by 44 m/z, which enabled their characterization as Surfynol® 4XX (S4XX, XX=40, 65, and 85), wherein increasing XX values indicate increasing amounts of ethoxylation on a backbone of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (Surfynol® 104). Sodiated triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TBG) of m/z 229 (C10H22O4Na) was also identified in the seized counterfeit banknotes via EASI(+) FT-ICR MS. Surfynol® and TBG are constituents of inks used for inkjet printing.

  3. Real life identification of partially occluded weapons in video frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2016-05-01

    We empirically test the capacity of an improved system to identify not just images of individual guns, but partially occluded guns and their parts appearing in a videoframe. This approach combines low-level geometrical information gleaned from the visual images and high-level semantic information stored in an ontology enriched with meronymic part-whole relations. The main improvements of the system are handling occlusion, new algorithms, and an emerging meronomy. Well-known and commonly deployed in ontologies, actual meronomies need to be engineered and populated with unique solutions. Here, this includes adjacency of weapon parts and essentiality of parts to the threat of and the diagnosticity for a weapon. In this study video sequences are processed frame by frame. The extraction method separates colors and removes the background. Then image subtraction of the next frame determines moving targets, before morphological closing is applied to the current frame in order to clean up noise and fill gaps. Next, the method calculates for each object the boundary coordinates and uses them to create a finite numerical sequence as a descriptor. Parts identification is done by cyclic sequence alignment and matching against the nodes of the weapons ontology. From the identified parts, the most-likely weapon will be determined by using the weapon ontology.

  4. America’s Army: The Strength of the Nation. 2010 Army Posture Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    migrations, and raising the potential for epidemic diseases. The two trends of greatest concern are the prolif- eration of weapons of mass destruction (WMD... Destruction (WMD) Common Logistics Operating Environment (CLOE) Concept Development and Experimentation Condition-Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) Construction...Forums (WfF) Warrior Transition Command ( WTC ) Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC) Wiki Doctrine Youth Programs ADDENDUM

  5. Challenges in the application of modular open system architecture to weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Jonathan; Rose, Leo; Young, Quinn; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    The overarching objective for Flexible Weapons is to replace current inventory weapons that will not fully utilize the increased capabilities of 6th generation platforms, with a single weapons kit made up of flexible, open architecture components. Flexible Weapon will develop a common architecture to enable modular subsystems to achieve flexible weapons capability while allowing technology refresh at the pace of technology discovery in an affordable and sustainable design. The various combinations of weapons to address multiple missions must be 100% compatible with 6th generation delivery platforms (fighters, bombers, RPAs) and backwards compatible with 4th and 5th generation platforms.

  6. Edward's sword? - A non-destructive study of a medieval king's sword

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segebade, Chr. [Idaho Accelerator Centre, Idaho State University, 1500 Alvin Ricken Drive, Pocatello, ID 83201 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Non-destructive and instrumental methods including photon activation analysis were applied in an examination of an ancient sword. It was tried to find indication of forgery or, if authentic, any later processing and alteration. Metal components of the hilt and the blade were analysed by instrumental photon activation. Non-destructive metallurgical studies (hardness measurements, microscopic microstructure analysis) are briefly described, too. The results of these investigations did not yield indication of non-authenticity. This stood in agreement with the results of stylistic and scientific studies by weapon experts.

  7. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  8. Destruction of secondary water-oil emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.; Isayev, M.G.; Nikolayeva, T.M.; Zheryakova, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    The article advances a number of requirements for the object, methods and means of destroying secondary water-oil emulsions (WOE) which currently cannot be recovered. By using the latest advances in science: chemistry of oil and surfactants, physicochemical surface phenomena, physical mechanics of dispersed systems, hydrodynamics and engineering chemistry jointly with the fundamentals of economics, efficient solutions are indicated for stabilization of the composition and property of WOE, and their destruction in a stationary technological process. A flowsheet is established for the recommended technology.

  9. Historical Cost Growth of Completed Weapon System Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Management Program of RAND Project AIR FORCE. The project’s technical monitor is Jay Jordan, Technical Director of the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency. Other...CGFs for development costs range from a low of 1.16 for the nine ship weapon systems reviewed in Asher and Mag- gelet (1984) to a high of 2.26 for six...to procurement) for each weapon system 2.26 (n = 6) 1.43 (n = 6) Not reported Asher and Maggelet (1984) Last SAR for program or December 1983 As of

  10. Blade Weapons of the Perm Cis-Urals Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danich Andrei V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the understudied problem of bladed weapons of the Perm Cis-Urals region. For the first time the work generalizes significant archaeological and museum material dated back to the 8th-15th centuries, including the recent finds not yet interpreted by scholars. Their comprehensive analysis has made it possible to provide a detailed typological and chronological characteristic of certain types and categories of blade weapons and trace their evolution. The data on the role and place of the saber (cavalry sword in the mortuary cult are analyzed.

  11. Destructive and non-destructive evaluation methods of interface on F82H HIPed joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Hirotatsu, E-mail: hkishi@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Muramatsu, Yusuke [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Asakura, Yuki [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Endo, Tetsuo [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kohyama, Akira [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The first wall of F82H steel will be fabricated by the HIP method. • Inspection techniques need to be developed for the HIPed interface. • Both destructive and non-destructive inspection techniques are introduced. - Abstract: The first walls of F82H steel with built-in cooling channels will be assembled thin plates and rectangular pipes by a HIP method. Silicon oxides form on an interface of HIPed joints during HIPing and result in the lowering of toughness of the HIPed joints. A large issue is investigation method of HIPed interface. The flexibility of specimen size for the investigation will be necessary because of the thin wall of cooling channels. A small specimen destructive test technique which is able to distinguish a base metal and an excellent HIPed joint has been desired, and recent researches find out a torsion test method to solve the issue. Non-destructive test technique is another issue for the inspection of the first wall. An ultrasonic inspection method is a candidate but silicon oxides are too small to produce good flaw echo from oxides, some solutions will be necessary. Present research introduces the current status of development of small specimen destructive test technique and the ultrasonic method for the first wall inspection.

  12. Identification of the murder weapon by intricate patterned injury measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugibe, F T; Costello, J T

    1986-04-01

    Critical studies of an intricate blunt force injury pattern in a brutal homicide led to the identification of the murder weapon. A 50-year-old male was bludgeoned to death in his apartment during a robbery allegedly engineered by his daughter. Careful measurements and overlay construction of the wounds relative to the magazine catch, lanyard ring, magazine chamber, and butt of a 32-caliber Eistegui Hermanos fibar (España) automatic pistol led to the conclusion that either the alleged weapon or one identical to it caused the fatal injuries.

  13. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Common Name: C-130 AMPC -130 Avionics Modernization Program (C-130 AMP)The Air Force’s C-130 AMP standardizes the cockpit configurations and avionics for...GAO-06-391 Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs Common Name: C-130 AMPC -130 AMP Program Technology Maturity All of the C-130 AMP’s six...Selected Major Weapon Programs Common Name: C-5 AMPC -5 Avionics Modernization Program (C-5 AMP)The Air Force’s C-5 AMP is the first of two major upgrades

  14. An overview of the future of non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J B

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, vast changes have occurred in the geopolitical landscape and the nature of the types of conflicts in which technologically developed countries have been involved. While the threat of conventional war remains, forces have been more frequently deployed in situations that require great restraint. Adversaries are often likely to be elusive and commingled with noncombatants. There has been some shift in public opinion away from tolerance of collateral casualties. Therefore there is a need to be able to apply force while limiting casualties. Non-lethal weapons provide part of the solution. Among the changes that will influence the future have been studies by the US and NATO concerning the use of non-lethal weapons, coincidental with increased funding for their development and testing. New concepts and policies have recently been formalized. Surprisingly, the most strident objections to the implementation of non-lethal weapons have come from organizations that are ostensibly designed to protect non-combatants. These arguments are specious and, while technically and academically challenging, actually serve to foster an environment that will result in the deaths of many more innocent civilians. They misconstrue technology with human intent. The reasons for use of force will not abate. Alternatives to bombs, missiles, tanks and artillery must therefore be found. Non-lethal weapons are not a panacea but do offer the best hope of minimizing casualties while allowing nations or alliances the means to use force in protection of national or regional interests.

  15. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  16. Determination of the Contribution of Live Firing to Weapons Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    area requirements. These ranges are generally similar to the combat environments in which the weapons would be used. However, numerous factors place...9-foot radius position for miss direction. (5) Transmitter/Receiver— mdio frequency communication of hit-miss information between target and firing

  17. Brittle Destruction of Carbon Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Y.; Amouroux, S.; Bazylev, B. N.; Berthe, E.; Kuehnlein, W.; Linke, J.; Penkalla, H. J.; Singheiser, L.

    Erosion mechanisms for different carbon based materials (graphite, carbon fiber composites (CFCs), Si-doped CFC) have been studied under brittle destruction under intense transient thermal loads (ELMs, plasma disruptions, VDEs) with respect to material erosion in different particle emission regimes, characterization of emitted particles, and behavior of preheated samples. Furthermore, the experimental data were compared with 3-D numerical simulation on the onset of brittle destruction. From a morphological point of view, the resulting erosion patterns on the test samples and ejected particles differ significantly for the three materials. The isotropic graphite shows a homogeneous erosion profile with flat craters, while the CFC forms no crater and only preferential erosion in localized spots in the PAN fiber area while the pitch fiber strands remain almost undamaged. The particles originating from graphite samples which have been collected on TEM grids are composed of nano sized amorphous carbon. CFCs have been the source for sub Î 1/4 m sized agglomerated fragments of crystalline carbon or silicon particles with âe 1/4 50 nm diameter. Preheating of the test samples to 500 or 800°C results in a remarkable increase of the erosion depth and weight loss compared to the samples loaded at room temperature and identical heat fluxes. In particular, melting phenomena in the Si-doped CFC materials became essential at elevated temperatures.

  18. Use of an oxidative destruction and quadrupole mass spectrometric (QMS) detection for the determination of the organic elemental composition of suspended matter in surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, H.F.R.; Onderdelinden, D.; Visser, M.G.; Griepink, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the applicability of a system consisting of a combustion followed by QMS-detection for the determination of the elemental composition of organic matter suspended in surface water. The solid material obtained from several types of water was collected by centrifugation. The results

  19. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and..., 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of... Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs: (1) Determined that the Government of Syria has...

  20. Mitigation and propagation of sound generated by heavy weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Much environmental research is performed on predicting the noise impact of heavy weapons or explosives, as the shock waves can propagate over large distances. In the densely populated area of the Netherlands this is of particular interest for the Ministry of Defense. In one research program the miti

  1. The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.

  2. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  3. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons...

  4. 76 FR 43937 - Criminal Penalties for Unauthorized Introduction of Weapons and Sabotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 Criminal Penalties for Unauthorized Introduction of Weapons and Sabotage AGENCY... the AEA provides Federal criminal sanctions for the wrongful introduction of weapons or explosives... Introduction of Dangerous Weapons'' (119 Stat. 812), amended Section 229 of the AEA, ``Trespass on Commission...

  5. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a) of...

  6. Seventy Years of Computing in the Nuclear Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Billy Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Los Alamos has continuously been on the forefront of scientific computing since it helped found the field. This talk will explore the rich history of computing in the Los Alamos weapons program. The current status of computing will be discussed, as will the expectations for the near future.

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described in...

  8. 10 CFR 1048.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... facility or real property subject to this part, of a dangerous weapon, explosive or other dangerous...

  9. The tale of the shrinking weapon: seasonal changes in nutrition affect weapon size and sexual dimorphism, but not contemporary evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C W; McDonald, G C; Moore, A J

    2016-11-01

    Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of knowledge of how natural variation in nutrition affects the expression of sexually selected weapons and sexual dimorphism. Further, few studies explicitly test for differences in the heritability and mean-scaled evolvability of sexually selected traits across conditions. We studied Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae), an insect where males use their hind legs as weapons and the femurs are enlarged, to understand the extent to which weapon expression, sexual dimorphism and evolvability change across the actual range of nutrition available in the wild. We found that insects raised on a poor diet (cactus without fruit) are nearly monomorphic, whereas those raised on a high-quality diet (cactus with ripe fruit) are distinctly sexually dimorphic via the expression of large hind leg weapons in males. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence of a potential for evolutionary change for any trait measured. Thus, although we show weapons are highly condition dependent, and changes in weapon expression and dimorphism could alter evolutionary dynamics, our populations are unlikely to experience further evolutionary changes under current conditions. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    between Z=57 (lanthanum) and Z=72 ( hafnium ), inclusive, are very rare in commerce, making 72 a reasonable boundary between high Z and lower Z elements...materials used in nuclear weapons of other nations (e.g., for alloys ) for purposes of nuclear forensics. (2) Another task is to develop the algorithms

  11. Are Weapons Searches in the Job Descriptions of Instructional Leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author poses the question "Are weapons searches in the job descriptions of instructional leaders?" which brings to attention changing duties of school principals that were not faced by previous generations. The article reports observations made during time spent with a current high school principal.

  12. A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Lajos

    2014-12-01

    Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans).

  13. Changing Our Ways of Thinking: Health Professionals and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the issues raised by health professionals concerned about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, including epidemics, civil defense, arms costs, psychosocial aspects, and ethical responsibility. Appendixes include lists of antinuclear organizations, medical professional associations, and 160 references. (SK)

  14. Metal Detector Searches: An Effective Means To Help Keep Weapons Out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    Disagrees with Ferraraccio's views and argues that: (1) students do bring illegal weapons to school; (2) metal detectors do detect weapons and help schools to disarm students; (3) disarming students reduces the threat of violence; and (4) courts have repeatedly approved the constitutionality of weapon-related suspicionless student searches…

  15. 49 CFR 1540.111 - Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries... § 1540.111 Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals. (a) On an individual's... individual may not have a weapon, explosive, or incendiary, on or about the individual's person or accessible...

  16. 10 CFR 860.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... § 860.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or other...

  17. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in the...

  18. 10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PROPERTY § 160.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or other...

  19. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  20. Is (-)-Catechin a "Novel Weapon" of Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “novel weapons” hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this new allelochemical (i.e. the novel weapon...

  1. Carrying a Weapon to School and Perceptions of Social Support in an Urban Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2003-01-01

    This study of perceived social support and weapon possession surveyed 461 students in an urban middle school. Students who reported carrying weapons to school reported less overall or total perceived social support (from peers, parents, teachers, classmates, and school) than did their peers who did not carry weapons. Perceived social support was a…

  2. 77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons...) 482-4895, Lawrence.Hall@bis.doc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons... weapons (CW). The CWC prohibits the use, development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, and...

  3. Experimentally Evaluated Explosion Resistance and Performance of Destruction Unit in Multiple Detonation of Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Baskakov

    2016-01-01

    , ensuring complete destruction of ammunition, high working life, and reliable protection of the explosion chamber walls from the hitting splinters. The destruction unit can be used to destroy a wide variety of weapons, including those containing toxic or explosive substances, as part of automated flow lines.

  4. The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    ‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...... in public policies. . . This is the type of book that should be assigned to graduate students across the social sciences as an illustration of the kind of work that they should aspire to do. I know I have learned a great deal from reading this book and appreciate the effort that the Svendsens have put...... in to crafting this study.' - From the foreword by Elinor Ostrom Is social capital the ‘missing link' in economics? In this vital new book, the authors argue that the ‘forgotten' production factor of social capital is as crucial in economic decision-making as the other more traditional factors of production...

  5. The Destruction of Books by Traditionists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchert, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the destruction of books particularly by traditionists (collectors, transmitters, and critics of hadith and particularly in the ninth century CE and before, offered as an addendum to Omar Ali de Unzaga’s forthcoming study of book burning in Islam. The destruction of books from distrust of written transmission has been adequately brought out by Michael Cook. What I chiefly add to previous scholarly accounts are some additional examples, a brief consideration of destroying books for the sake of orthodoxy, and a better account of pious reasons for destroying books, which had much to do with distrust not of writing hadith but of teaching it as a temptation to pride and a distraction from weightier things.Este artículo ofrece una panorámica de la destrucción de libros especialmente por parte de los tradicionistas (compiladores, transmisores, críticos del hadiz, especialmente en el siglo IX de la era cristiana y antes, que sirve como una adenda al estudio (en curso de publicación de Omar Ali de Unzaga sobre la quema de libros en el islam. La destrucción de libros a causa de la desconfianza hacia la transmisión escrita ha sido analizada en profundidad por Michael Cook. Lo que me interesa añadir a la investigación previa son algunos ejemplos adicionales, unas breves consideraciones sobre la destrucción de libros en pro de la ortodoxia, y una mejor presentación de las razones piadosas para destruir libros, razones que tenían mucho que ver con la desconfianza no tanto de poner escrito el hadiz, sino de enseñarlo, en tanto que tentación para caer en la vanidad y distracción de asuntos más importantes.

  6. Identification of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention using the novel sample-preparation methods and strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; Gregg, H.; de Voogt, P.

    2015-01-01

    The standard approach to on-site sample preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention provides relatively good coverage of the target analytes, but it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as low sample throughput, use of bu

  7. Identification of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention using the novel sample-preparation methods and strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; Gregg, H.; de Voogt, P.

    2015-01-01

    The standard approach to on-site sample preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention provides relatively good coverage of the target analytes, but it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as low sample throughput, use of bu

  8. Identification of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention using the novel sample-preparation methods and strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; Gregg, H.; de Voogt, P.

    2015-01-01

    The standard approach to on-site sample preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention provides relatively good coverage of the target analytes, but it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as low sample throughput, use of

  9. Identification of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention using the novel sample-preparation methods and strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Terzic; H. Gregg; P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    The standard approach to on-site sample preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention provides relatively good coverage of the target analytes, but it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as low sample throughput, use of bu

  10. Radiologic signs of weapons and munitions: How will noncombatants recognize them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlin, Zeev V; Kuruvilla, Mathew; Clement, Jason J; Vos, Patrick M; Brown, Jacqueline A

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to show the radiologic signs named after weapons and munitions along with their military counterparts to help radiologists recognize these signs, which will allow confident interpretation and diagnosis. Numerous pathologic conditions have classic radiologic manifestations that resemble weapons and ammunition. Most of these signs are highly memorable and easy to recognize. However, the names of the weapons (some of them antique and some not commonly known) may confuse radiologists who are not familiar with the appearance of such weapons as the scimitar, bayonet, or dagger. The value of the signs is reduced if the radiologist is unfamiliar with the appearance of the corresponding weapon.

  11. 75 FR 27854 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in Support of... Major Weapons in Support of Section 25(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act. OMB Control Number: 1405... annual report to Congress on projected sales of major weapons and weapons-related defense equipment (if...

  12. Characterization and Source Term Assessments of Radioactive Particles from Marshall Islands Using Non-Destructive Analytical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernstrom, J; Eriksson, M; Simon, R; Tamborini, G; Bildstein, O; Carlos-Marquez, R; Kehl, S R; Betti, M; Hamilton, T

    2005-06-11

    A considerable fraction of radioactivity entering the environment from different nuclear events is associated with particles. The impact of these events can only be fully assessed where there is some knowledge about the mobility of particle bound radionuclides entering the environment. The behavior of particulate radionuclides is dependent on several factors, including the physical, chemical and redox state of the environment, the characteristics of the particles (e.g., the chemical composition, crystallinity and particle size) and on the oxidative state of radionuclides contained in the particles. Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized using non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. By determining the activity of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am isotopes from their gamma peaks structural information related to Pu matrix was obtained, and the source term was revealed. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-{mu}-XRF) spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEMEDX) and secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups; particles with plain Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogeneously distributed. All of the particles were identified as fragments of initial weapons material. As containing plutonium with low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio, {approx}2-6%, which corresponds to weapons grade plutonium, the source term was identified to be among the safety tests conducted in the history of Runit Island.

  13. Weapon use increases the severity of domestic violence but neither weapon use nor firearm access increases the risk or severity of recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkes, Stephanie E F; Hilton, N Zoe; Harris, Grant T

    2013-04-01

    Use of weapons is a risk factor for domestic violence severity, especially lethality. It is not clear, however, whether access to firearms itself increases assault severity, or whether it is characteristic of a subgroup of offenders who are more likely to commit severe and repeated domestic assault. This reanalysis of 1,421 police reports of domestic violence by men found that 6% used a weapon during the assault and 8% had access to firearms. We expected that firearm use would be rare compared to other weapons and that actual weapon use rather than firearm access would increase the severity of domestic assaults. Firearm access was associated with assault severity, but this was mostly attributable to use of nonfirearm weapons. Weapon use was associated with older age, lower education, and relationship history as well as to assault severity. Victims were most concerned about future assaults following threats and actual injuries. Although firearm access and weapon use were related to actuarial risk of domestic violence recidivism, neither predicted the occurrence or severity of recidivism. We conclude that, consistent with previous research in the United States and Canada, firearm use in domestic violence is uncommon even among offenders with known firearm access. Weapon use is characteristic of a subgroup of offenders who commit more severe domestic violence, and seizure of weapons may be an effective intervention.

  14. STUDY ON WEAR AND DESTRUCTION OF HOB IN GEAR HOBBING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The wear and destruction appearances of hobs are researched. The reasons of the wear and destruction of hobare analyzed. And the influence of the change of the hobbing force and the hobbing temperature on the wear and destruc-tion of hob in gear hobbing is also analyzed. In gear hobbing, the main wear mechanisms are adhesion and ploughingwhen cutting the 20CrMnTi gear using W 18Cr4V high-speed steel hob.

  15. Non-destructive methods to estimate physical aging of plywood

    OpenAIRE

    Bobadilla Maldonado, Ignacio; Santirso, María Cristina; Herrero Giner, Daniel; Esteban Herrero, Miguel; Iñiguez Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between aging, physical changes and the results of non-destructive testing of plywood. 176 pieces of plywood were tested to analyze their actual and estimated density using non-destructive methods (screw withdrawal force and ultrasound wave velocity) during a laboratory aging test. From the results of statistical analysis it can be concluded that there is a strong relationship between the non-destructive measurements carried out, and the decline in the phys...

  16. Analysis of the design concept of 'Nora' family artillery weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas L. Paligorić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the NORA family started as far as back to 1976 at the Military Technical Institute of the Yugoslav's People's Army. The programme covered development of several types of the main artillery weapon: the 152 mm NORA-A towed gun-howitzer, the 152 mm NORA-B self-propelled gun-howitzer and the 152 mm gun-howitzer with APU. Under the same programme, the conversion of the Russian 130 mm towed gun M46 into the 155 mm M46/84 gun (for export needs and the 152 mm M46/86 gun respectively (for the needs of the YPA was completed. Only the 152 mm M84 (NORA-A towed howitzer was introduced in service, while the development of the NORA-B and NORA-C weapons was carried on until 1992. After it had been suspended for many years, the development of the NORAB weapon was continued in 2003, followed by serial production of the 155 mm NORA-B52 self-propelled system for the export needs.

  17. The Morality of Employing Remotely Piloted Weapon Systems in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ethics of remotely piloted weapon systems involve utilitarianism and Just War Theory. Although the other two perspectives, pacifism and realism, do...perspectives of utilitarianism , Just War Theory, pacifism, and realism are evaluated to justify the claim. With the exception of pacifism, each of these...of utilitarianism , Just War Theory, pacifism, and realism are evaluated to justify the claim. With the exception of pacifism, each of these

  18. [Medical aspects of common non-lethal weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Grove, Christina; Monticelli, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    The development and provision of non-lethal weapons (NLW) allow military and law enforcement personnel to exploit gradual engagement in countering potentially hazardous threats. Chemical, kinetic and electrical weapons systems are used to curb violence in civilian crowds. With inappropriate usage, these technologies can cause potentially fatal injuries that are not only of clinical, but also of legal relevance. In this context, the practicing physician is faced with treatment as well as assessment issues of new forms of injuries. In order to assure medical care and to be able to draw competent expert's conclusions, a detailed knowledge of the medical effects of these NLW is necessary. The review at hand presents today's most popular NLW and gives an overview of their possible injury potential and required treatments.

  19. Destruction of Hydrazine and Corrosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. J.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, S. B.; Jung, J. Y.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    KAERI The agent uses Cu ion and hydrazine in an inorganic acid solution. This agent is used for the dissolution of Fe and Ni ions in a spinel type nickel chromium ferrite. After decontamination, the generation of the secondary waste can be reduced by the destruction of hydrazine. Wellman et al. reported that hydrazine is decomposed to water and nitrogen by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} ion. N{sub 2}H{sub 4}+2H{sub 2}0{sub 2} (Cu{sup 2+} →) N{sub 2} +4H{sub 2}0 As the decrease of the hydrazine concentration, the solution pH also becomes to decrease. The decrease of solution pH can affect the integrity of structural metal. The objective of the study is to investigate the decomposition characteristics of hydrazine by hydrogen peroxide. The corrosion compatibility of metal after the decomposition of hydrazine is also investigated. The application of a decontamination solution to the primary coolant system before decommissioning is necessary to minimize the personnel dose rates. In foreign countries, system decontaminations have been performed several times by applying the dilute organic chemical decontamination process. To prepare against the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, it is necessary to develop the unique domestic chemical decontamination process.

  20. Girls and weapons: an international study of the perpetration of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Patricia G; Butters, Jennifer E; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Harrison, Lana; Korf, Dirk

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe delinquent girls' weapons preferences where and how often they carried weapons and to identify the most important factors that explained four different weapon-related violent outcomes. A large, high-risk sample of female adolescents consisting of 510 girls aged 14-17 in four cities were interviewed using the same questionnaire and methods. Tabular and logistic regression analyses were applied. Knives emerged as the most frequently reported weapon in all cities. Rates of both lifetime victimization and perpetration of violence with weapons were high in all sites. Starting to carry a weapon as a result of violence was reported by 40% of the girls in Toronto, 28% in Philadelphia, 25% in Amsterdam, and 16% in Montreal. The major predictors of weapon perpetrated violent behaviours included ethnic origin, early onset of delinquent activities, participation in delinquent acts in the past 12 months, gang fighting and carrying a weapon as a result of violence. Site, age and heavy alcohol consumption had a minor impact, and drug use, drug selling, and neighborhood features, none. Despite numerous differences in weapons' prevalence across cities, the logistic regression found that site was only significant in use of an object (Toronto) and not significant in threatening or hurting someone with either a knife or a gun or actually hurting others with a weapon. These findings suggest commonality in serious female violence that extends beyond borders and cultures.

  1. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  2. The Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.

  3. Non-destructive measurement of cultural property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu [Tokyo National Research Inst. of Cultural Properties, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Conservation Science

    1997-02-01

    Non-destructive analytical method is favored for the measurement of samples from the field of cultural properties. Among many scientific methods, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction method are frequently applied in this field. X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is the main method for the measurement of chemical composition of cultural properties when sample is not taken out. It is the most important concept during the measurement, that samples should be kept in the safety condition without any difficulty or defect. Because a sample from the field of cultural properties could not be cut or could not be laid down in some cases, instruments should be improved to admit these samples and conditions. It is one of the solutions for this point to equip a large sample chamber in the instrument. Several new instruments with large sample chamber which was specially designed for the cultural properties were explained. Applications of these instruments were also explained for the real archaeological and historical samples. Even the measurements is not quantitative and qualitative analysis only, the results is evaluated to be valuable for the understanding of the samples. The micro focus X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was also applied in this field. The method gave not only the ordinary chemical composition but also the structure of the samples by mapping. (author)

  4. Non-destructive measurement of cultural property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu [Tokyo National Research Inst. of Cultural Properties, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Conservation Science

    1997-02-01

    Non-destructive analytical method is favored for the measurement of samples from the field of cultural properties. Among many scientific methods, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction method are frequently applied in this field. X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is the main method for the measurement of chemical composition of cultural properties when sample is not taken out. It is the most important concept during the measurement, that samples should be kept in the safety condition without any difficulty or defect. Because a sample from the field of cultural properties could not be cut or could not be laid down in some cases, instruments should be improved to admit these samples and conditions. It is one of the solutions for this point to equip a large sample chamber in the instrument. Several new instruments with large sample chamber which was specially designed for the cultural properties were explained. Applications of these instruments were also explained for the real archaeological and historical samples. Even the measurements is not quantitative and qualitative analysis only, the results is evaluated to be valuable for the understanding of the samples. The micro focus X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was also applied in this field. The method gave not only the ordinary chemical composition but also the structure of the samples by mapping. (author)

  5. Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    64 OPTIMIZING SUSTAINMENT OF ARMY SYSTEMS 6 Chapter 1 - Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems In a paradigm shift from...past 13 years. The result has been the erosion of perishable maintenance skills. The Army must develop the most effective plan to sustain these...communities to study and effectively manage Army sustainment . One effort is the development of Maintenance Steering Groups (MSG) to perform extensive

  6. The preventive destruction of a hazardous asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Galushina, T. Yu.; Prishchepenko, A. B.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2016-06-01

    One means of countering a hazardous asteroid is discussed: destruction of the object using a nuclear charge. Explosion of such an asteroid shortly before its predicted collision would have catastrophic consequences, with numerous highly radioactive fragments falling onto the Earth. The possibility of exploding the asteroid several years before its impact is also considered. Such an approach is made feasible because the vast majority of hazardous objects pass by the Earth several times before colliding with it. Computations show that, in the 10 years following the explosion, only a negligible number of fragments fall onto the Earth, whose radioactivity has substantially reduced during this time. In most cases, none of these fragments collides with the Earth. Thus, this proposed method for eliminating a threat from space is reasonable in at least two cases: when it is not possible to undergo a soft removal of the object from the collisional path, and to destroy objects that are continually returning to near-Earth space and require multiple removals from hazardous orbits.

  7. Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sniper rifles and their accessories and advanced ammunition. For those weapons, only awareness and the precautions taken by security forces can...Qa’idat AI-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) al-Fatah Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Liberation Tigers of...a small terrorist cell that had to raise operational funds on its own. 14 For additional discussion of counterstrategies, see Jackson, Chalk, et al

  8. Hypothyroidism among former workers of a nuclear weapons facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Frank, Arthur L; Pinson, Barbara; Shepherd, Sara; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Ionizing radiation alters thyroid function, and workers at a nuclear weapons facility may be exposed to above environmental levels of radiation. Hypothyroid status was determined for 622 former workers of a nuclear weapons facility located in Texas, using a combination of measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid medication history, as part of an on-going health surveillance program. We classified 916 unique job titles into 35 job categories. According to the most stringent TSH definition used in this study (0.3-3.0 IU/ml), 174 (28.0%) former workers were considered to be hypothyroid; of these 66 (41.8%) were females and 108 (23.3%) were males. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and smoking status, only having worked as a material handler (n = 18) exhibited an elevated risk of developing hypothyroidism compared to other jobs (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.43-11.07). This is one of the jobs with suspected exposure to radiation. No excess risk of hypothyroidism was observed for any of the other job categories. There is suggestive evidence that only material handlers at this nuclear weapons facility may have elevated risk of hypothyroidism; further evaluation of thyroid health in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of....5 Disinfection or destruction of materials. (a) In order to prevent the spread of disease, materials... cost of disinfection would exceed the value of the materials or disinfection would be impracticable for...

  10. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  11. Concepts on the fields and weapons of the competition model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Celso Contador

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, the Fields and Weapons of the Competition Model has been publicized as a theoretical framework for many studies and, as such, it has appeared in a fragmented manner. Due to the level of consolidation the model has achieved, now is the time to present it integrally, so as to expose it to the appreciation of the scientific community dedicated to Corporate Strategy. Belonging to the Competitiveness theory and having scientific validity, the model is both qualitative and quantitative, and therefore presents some advantages over Porter’s model, as well as over the RBV and the Balanced Scorecard models. A simple idea has originated it: according to the customer’s interest, separating the so-called competitive advantages, so as to sort out those that interest him/her from those that do not. The first group consists of the fields of the competition; the latter corresponds to the weapons of the competition. The fields of the competition relate to the business´ competitive strategy, and the weapons of the competition related to the operational competitive strategies. This is the first of a series of three articles.

  12. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  13. CURRENT ISSUES IN THE RESEARCH OF COLD STEEL ARMS AND THROWING WEAPONS AND THEIR TRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meretukov G. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article point out that the research of cold steel arms and their traces has been considered in detail in the studies of different criminologists. Unfortunately, many scientists, examining cold steel arms as the item of expertise, mainly paid attention to the knives, swords, daggers, etc., but few researchers considered crossbows as cold steel weapon. In accordance with part. 4 Art. 223 of the Criminal Code of Russia for illegal manufacture, alteration or repair of throwing weapons, as well as the illegal sale of throwing weapons (Art. 4, Art. 222 of the Criminal Code, criminal liability is stipulated. Thus, the authors agree with the opinions expressed in the literature according to which attention should be paid to the fuzzy wording of p. 4 Art. 222 of the Criminal Code and p. 4 Art. 223 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation: "Cold steel weapons, including throwing weapons". Throwing weapons are not included in the number of cold steel arms; it is an independent type of weapon that is different from the cold steel by its technical characteristics. The common feature of cold steel arms and throwing weapons is striking of a target due to the muscle power of a man. The main difference is that there is no projectile with directional movement in cold steel arms and striking occurs due to the direct contact with the object. The definitions of these types of weapons are contained in the Federal Act "About Weapons"

  14. The Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    shown in Figure 2. Electrical energy can be stored in many ways, such as a battery (actually a chemical storage ). A car battery has about a...becomes less attractive. Energy storage for electric weapons can also be done with chem- ical explosive energy , where an explosive force is converted...into electrical energy using techniques such as flux compression. Energy can be stored in the inertia of rotating machines and flywheels , but the

  15. 49 CFR 15.19 - Destruction of SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of SSI. 15.19 Section 15.19... Destruction of SSI. (a) DOT. Subject to the requirements of the Federal Records Act (5 U.S.C. 105), including... essential transactions, DOT destroys SSI when no longer needed to carry out the agency's function. (b) Other...

  16. 49 CFR 1520.19 - Destruction of SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of SSI. 1520.19 Section 1520.19... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.19 Destruction of SSI. (a) DHS. Subject to the requirements of the Federal... agency's policies, decisions, and essential transactions, DHS destroys SSI when no longer needed to carry...

  17. Re-examining the 1996 ICJ Advisory Opinion: Concerning the Legality of Nuclear Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasjit Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objections raised against total elimination of nuclear weapons are built around a few arguments mostly of non-technical nature.Nuclear weapons and the strategies for their use have resulted in the establishment of a vicious circle within which the international community is trapped.The argument that the world will be unsafe without nuclear weapons is only meant to further the narrow self-interest of the nuclear weapon states and their allies.The World Court’s far-reaching 1996 advisory opinion concluded that almost any use or threat of use of nuclear weapons would violate international humanitarian law and law applicable in armed conflict, undermining most claims of nuclear weapon states regarding the legitimacy of possession, use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. The next logical step would be an initiative for a nuclear convention banning the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons in Asia and the adjoining oceans. But as long as the dominant elites in society and the nation-state believe in the utility of nuclear weapons for national security or as the currency of power, abolition of nuclear weapons will remain a mirage.

  18. On the U.S.-Russian Tactical Nuclear Weapons Cut as a Path toward a Nuclear-free World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi; Jianbin

    2015-01-01

    Complete destruction of nuclear weapons and realization of a world free from nuclear weapons are the common aspiration of mankind in the atomic era.To achieve the goal,the international community has proposed a series of steps and measures,which include calling for a deep reduction of the U.S.and Russian nuclear arsenals,promoting ratification of the CTBT,initiating negotiation of the FMCT,reducing the role of nuclear weapons

  19. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  20. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  1. Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

    2006-09-25

    Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on

  2. Accretion and destruction of planetesimals in turbulent disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Shigeru; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    We study the conditions for collisions between planetesimals to be accretional or disruptive in turbulent disks, through analytical arguments based on fluid dynamical simulations and orbital integrations. In turbulent disks, the velocity dispersion of planetesimals is pumped up by random gravitational perturbations from density fluctuations of the disk gas. When the velocity dispersion is larger than the planetesimals' surface escape velocity, collisions between planetesimals do not result in accretion, and may even lead to their destruction. In disks with a surface density equal to that of the ``minimum mass solar nebula'' and with nominal MRI turbulence, we find that accretion proceeds only for planetesimals with sizes above $\\sim 300$ km at 1AU and $\\sim 1000$ km at 5AU. We find that accretion is facilitated in disks with smaller masses. However, at 5AU and for nominal turbulence strength, km-sized planetesimals are in a highly erosive regime even for a disk mass as small as a fraction of the mass of Jupit...

  3. PROCESSING ALTERNATIVES FOR DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-02-27

    Two processes were chosen in the 1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to decontaminate the soluble High Level Waste (HLW). The In Tank Precipitation (ITP) process (1,2) was developed at SRS for the removal of radioactive cesium and actinides from the soluble HLW. Sodium tetraphenylborate was added to the waste to precipitate cesium and monosodium titanate (MST) was added to adsorb actinides, primarily uranium and plutonium. Two products of this process were a low activity waste stream and a concentrated organic stream containing cesium tetraphenylborate and actinides adsorbed on monosodium titanate (MST). A copper catalyzed acid hydrolysis process was built to process (3, 4) the Tank 48H cesium tetraphenylborate waste in the SRS's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Operation of the DWPF would have resulted in the production of benzene for incineration in SRS's Consolidated Incineration Facility. This process was abandoned together with the ITP process in 1998 due to high benzene in ITP caused by decomposition of excess sodium tetraphenylborate. Processing in ITP resulted in the production of approximately 1.0 million liters of HLW. SRS has chosen a solvent extraction process combined with adsorption of the actinides to decontaminate the soluble HLW stream (5). However, the waste in Tank 48H is incompatible with existing waste processing facilities. As a result, a processing facility is needed to disposition the HLW in Tank 48H. This paper will describe the process for searching for processing options by SRS task teams for the disposition of the waste in Tank 48H. In addition, attempts to develop a caustic hydrolysis process for in tank destruction of tetraphenylborate will be presented. Lastly, the development of both a caustic and acidic copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation process will be discussed.

  4. Examination of Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Weapons in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Young A; Yim, Man Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This observation implies that the popular view on nuclear weapons amongst Korean public is in part due to lack of knowledge about overall implications of possessing nuclear weapons. In this regard, pros and cons of nuclear weapons development need to be better characterized and understood by the public to support nuclear nonproliferation culture development. Noting lack of literature on characterizing the economics of nuclear weapons development, this study aims at performing economic feasibility analysis of nuclear weapons development in the ROK. For this purpose, an approach called Index technique based on the US experiences was applied to Korean historical data along with cost-benefit analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Making Analysis. In this study, the scenario of nuclear weapons development against North Korean nuclear threat was compared with conventional weapons-based defense strategy. The comparison was based on cost benefit analysis and qualitative multi-criteria decision analysis. Results indicate that nuclear weapons development is not a desirable option. However, as this work was a rather simplistic academic exercise, further work is needed to support the outcome of the study. Outcome of these investigations would be useful for communication with the public regarding the need for nuclear weapons for national defense and to develop nuclear nonproliferation culture in the ROK.

  5. Weapon-related traumas of human skeletons from Yuigahama Chusei Shudan Bochi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Tomohito; Uzawa, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Kazuaki

    2009-09-01

    The Yuigahama Chusei Shudan Bochi site (AD: twelfth to thirteenth centuries), located along the seashore of the southern end of Kamakura City in Japan, and has yielded a mass grave containing hundreds of human crania. The purpose of this study is to document cut marks on crania made by an edged weapon, paying specific attention to individuals who may exhibit scratch marks, and to understand the variability of weapon-related traumas in the medieval period in Japan. The observation leads to tentative findings regarding the identification and interpretation of weapon-related traumas of human skeletal remains. From macroscopic observation, the marks display the sharpness of cut surfaces which are characteristic of unhealed cut marks. Scanning electron microscopic observation of the marks also shows that they are V-shaped in cross-section, a morphological feature that is characteristic of cut marks. This study first demonstrates that the scratches on the crania have morphological features consistent with human-induced cut marks, and that the macroscopic and microscopic approaches provide important information for identifying anthropogenic cut marks on the human skeletal remains from an archaeological site in Japan.

  6. Non-lethal weapons and their characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    DAMJANOVIC DRAGAN Z.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  7. NON-LETHAL WEAPONS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  8. Photocatalysis for the destruction of aqueous TNT, RDX, and HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, S.K.; Prairie, M.R.; Stange, B.M.; Rodacy, P.J.; Leslie, P.K.

    1994-12-31

    The photo-destruction of the high explosives HMX, RDX and TNT was investigated using two systems (ozone versus titanium dioxide), two reactors (pot vs annular reactor), and two types of lamps (1000 Watt Hg-Xe vs 25 Watt LP Hg). A mass balance was performed on reactions executed under pseudo-solar conditions, and relative reaction rates and products were compared for ozone and titanium dioxide based processes. The ratios of relative product formation is also discussed. Results show that there was little difference in the reactions performed in the annular reactor when either ozone or titanium oxide were used. The chemistry of RDX and HMX are very similar, as expected. Future work involving the mechanism is also discussed.

  9. Destruction of meat and bone meals in cement plants; Destruction des farines animales dans les cimenteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-10-01

    Following the crisis of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease ('mad cow' disease), the French cement industrialists have been requested by the government since 1996 to eliminate the forbidden meat and bone meals in cement kilns where they are used as fuel substitutes. This article presents the advantages of the cement industry file in the destruction of such wastes, the validation and the safety aspects of this process. Meat and bone meal represents a high-grade fuel that lowers the environmental impact of cement production and does not affect the quality of cement. (J.S.)

  10. Targeted destruction of HIV-positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti R Sharma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV/AIDS is now a global epidemic that has become the leading infectious killer of adults worldwide. Although antiretroviral (ARV therapy has dramatically improved the quality of life and increased the life expectancy of those infected with HIV but frequency of dosing and drug toxicity as well as the development of viral resistance pose additional limitations. The rapidly expanding field of nanotechnology has vast potential to radically advance the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Nanoparticles can provide improved drug delivery, by virtue of their small size, robustness, safety, multimodality or multifunctionality. Aims and objectives: Since HIV primarily infects CD4+ cells; we aim to use CD4 as a selectable target to deliver a pro-apoptotic protein to HIV-infected cells using nanoparticles as carriers. The aim of study was to develop a nanotechnology-based death inducing delivery system for the destruction of CD4+HIV infected cells through the activation of caspase-3. Methodology: A modified caspase-3 protein (Mut-3 was engineered, which is cleavable only by HIV-1 protease. Mut-3 can activate apoptosis in the presence of HIV-1 protease, consequently killing HIV-positive cells. Mut-3 protein was conjugated to gold nanoparticles together with a CD4-targeting peptide. The efficacy of the gold nanoparticles was tested on CHO cells that were genetically engineered to express GFP labelled CD4 and HIV-1 protease. Results: Mut-3 was expressed in bacterial cells and purified. CHO cells that stably over express CD4-GFP and HIV-1 protease were selected using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting. Dose response cell culture experiments showed that gold nanoparticles without Mut-3 and CD4-targeting peptide did not induce cell death in CHO cells, while gold nanoparticles that was conjugated with Mut-3 and the CD4-targeting peptide rapidly induced cell death in CHO cells. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gold nanoparticles conjugated

  11. Security after the revolutions of 1989 and 1991: The future with nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Political scientists typically view weapons within the realm of effects, not within the realm of cause. That is, weapons are a consequence of the great causal factors in international relations. Insecurity is the most important of these factors; it follows from the uneven distribution of power among states, the security dilemma, and the ever-present possibility that violence will be used to settle disagreements because there is no higher authority above states capable of enforcing rules. According to this logic weapons cause neither war nor peace. They are simply tools that states use to gain a share of the scarcest commodity - security - by fighting other states or by threatening to do so if necessary. Nuclear weapons are a product of great industrial capabilities, knowledge, and other resources. The United States and the Soviet Union had the largest arsenals of nuclear weapons because they were superpowers, not the other way around. On this logic, nuclear weapons reflect and reinforce a distribution of power that would exist in their absence. As the distribution of power among states changes, the status of nuclear weapons in the world will also change in a way that reflects the more fundamental causes that continue to drive state-state relationships in an anarchic world. In this chapter the author treat nuclears weapons within the realm of great causes. Arguing that nuclear weapons were a fundamental cause in bringing the Cold War, and with it the last vestiges of bipolarity, to an end. International life in the 1990s will not be the same as it was between 1945 and 1989. Will it be more like the multipolar world of the 1800s, with nuclear weapons simply grafted on the way other new weapons innovations have been in the past? That is not expected because nuclear weapons have altered the fundamental causal forces that drove previous international systems from peace to war and back again. 21 refs.

  12. Non-destructive estimation of lichen biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Moen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground lichens constitute a vital part of reindeer winter diet, and non-destructive estimation of lichen biomass is therefore crucial for providing objective data for the management of lichen resources. The aim of this study is to compare precisions of different methods of estimating lichen biomass from ground cover and thallus heights of the four most important lichen species: Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, C. stellaris, and Cetraria islandica. The methods were validated against actual lichen biomass within 50 cm x 50 cm plots. Different methods gave remarkably similar results, except when cover estimation was based on presence/absence data with a strict criterion of 100% lichen cover. Average thallus heights within the plot explained the variation in lichen biomass as well as lichen volume (estimated from cover and average heights. Relationships between biomass and volume or height were also very similar for all four lichen species, and separation into species thus do not seem necessary for practical purposes.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Icke-destruktiv skattning av lavbiomassa Marklavar utgör en kritisk del av renars vinterföda, och det blir därmed väsentligt att kunna skatta lavbiomassa på ett icke-destruktivt sätt för att kunna förvalta lavresursen. Syftet med denna studie är att jämföra precisionen hos olika metoder för att skatta lavbiomassa baserat på volym- och bålhöjdsmätningar för de fyra viktigaste arterna: Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, C. stellaris, and Cetraria islandica. Metoderna validerades mot lavbiomassa mätt i 50 cm x 50 cm provytor. Olika metoder gav anmärkningsvärt lika resultat, förutom när täckning skattades med förekomstdata med ett strikt kriterium av 100% lavförekomst. Medelhöjd på lavbålarna i provytan förklarade lika mycket av variationen i lavbiomassa som lavvolym (baserat på täckning och medelhöjd. Förhållandet mellan biomassa och volym eller bålhöjd var ocks

  13. Analysis method on shoot precision of weapon in small-sample case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jun; Song Baowei; Liang Qingwei

    2007-01-01

    Because of limits of cost, in general, the test data of weapons are shortness. It is always an important topic that to gain scientific results of weapon performance analyses in small-sample case. Based on the analysis of distribution function characteristics and grey mathematics, a weighting grey method in small-sample case is presented. According to the analysis of test data of a weapon, it is proved that the method is a good method to deal with data in the small-sample case and has a high value in the analysis of weapon performance.

  14. Destruction and Observational Signatures of Sun-Impacting Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, John C; Toner, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent data on comets in the low corona, we discuss destruction of sun impacting comets in the dense lower solar atmosphere. Perihelion distances q less than the solar radius and incident masses Mo much greater than 1E12 g are required to reach such depths. Extending earlier work on planetary atmosphere impacts to solar conditions, we evaluate the mechanisms and spatial distribution of nucleus mass and energy loss as functions of Mo and q, and of parameter X = 2Q/CHvovo. Q is the total specific energy for ablative mass loss, CH the bow shock heat transfer efficiency, and vo the solar escape speed (619 km/s). We discuss factors affecting Q and CH and conclude that, for solar vo, X is most likely less than 1 so that solar impactors are mostly ablated before decelerating. Sun impacting comets have kinetic energies 2E30 erg x(Mo/1E15 g), comparable with the energies of magnetic flares. This is released as a localised explosive airburst within a few scale heights H around 200 km of the photosphere, de...

  15. Derivation of models for nuclear weapon terrorist arming and detonation risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A A

    1998-03-01

    This report investigates "use control" for the on-site arming and detonation, by terrorists, of stored weapon systems. We investigate both components of weapon "use control", which we define as: (1) weapon "use denial" * that we model as a probability, Pj (denial), that represents the chances that terrorists attempting to arm a type j weapon will commit a non-recoverable error, and (2) weapon "use delay" that we model as a random variable, Tj , that represents the arming delay imposed by the use control features of a type j weapon, before detonation can occur. Using information pertaining to the physical security system at a storage site, the postulated terrorist attack force size, and simulated combat engagement outcomes, we formulate the frequency, fj , and probability, P(dj ), of on-site detonation, for generic weapon types j. We derive a model that disjoins the performance of site physical security, from that for weapon use control, if the use control random variable Tj has a Uniform or histogram distribution. This is an especially significant result where most complex distributions can be adequately approximated with a histogram. Hence, we can conduct combat simulations to obtain the physical security performance of a specific storage site independent of the use control features associated with specific weapon types that are stored, or might be stored, at the site. In turn, we can obtain the use control performance for various weapon types, independent of where they are stored and the physical security systems surrounding them. Our models can then mathematically combine physical security performance and weapon use control performance for any combination of storage facility and weapon type.

  16. Thermal destruction of vessels with liquid upon heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, V. G.; Goldin, V. D.; Svetashkov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    A new engineering technique of calculating the heating and thermal destruction of vessels containing liquid under extreme thermal loading conditions is offered. The heating of the shell and the internal vessel volume is described on the basis of the thermodynamic approach. The pressure growth in a vessel is a result of gas heating and liquid evaporation. Stresses within the shell and its destruction conditions are determined, which allows predicting the critical time of destruction upon heating. The calculation and experimental data for pressure growth inside the vessel are in good agreement.

  17. "Cold combustion" as a new method of toxic waste destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Юрьевна Ткаченко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a promising new method for the destruction of toxic industrial waste, obsolete pesticides and military poisons and explosives. The proposed method can be used to create mobile modular units that will produce the destruction of the "field", to clean the soil and water containing low concentrations of a pollutant, to solve the problem of disposal of explosives, which is often accompanied by the destruction of uncontrolled detonation. The proposed method is environmentally friendly, using ice as the working body

  18. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  19. Research on Computer Aided Innovation Model of Weapon Equipment Requirement Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Guo, Qisheng; Wang, Rui; Li, Liang

    Firstly, in order to overcome the shortcoming of using only AD or TRIZ solely, and solve the problems currently existed in weapon equipment requirement demonstration, the paper construct the method system of weapon equipment requirement demonstration combining QFD, AD, TRIZ, FA. Then, we construct a CAI model frame of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, which include requirement decomposed model, requirement mapping model and requirement plan optimization model. Finally, we construct the computer aided innovation model of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, and developed CAI software of equipment requirement demonstration.

  20. The Training Implications of Directed Energy Weapons for the U.S. Army: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Study B-l C: Washington Post Article, Saturday, December 17, 1983, Laser Weapon Sparks Debate Over Ethics by Michael Schrange C-l LIST OF...7 power bOmm binoculars used by the platoon leader and platoon sergeant. Each squad is also issued one set. The M17 binoculars are used to acquire...Washington Post Article Saturday, December 17, 1983 Laser Weapon Sparks Debate Over Ethics By Michael Schrange The Army has developed a portable weapons

  1. The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, seeks to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) that will extend from the US-Mexican border to Antarctica`s territorial boundaries, including large areas of open ocean. Under the treaty, signatory states pledge not to test, use, produce, manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons; to use nuclear materials and facilities {open_quotes}exclusively for peaceful purposes;{close_quotes} and not to permit the stationing or development of nuclear weapons on their territories.

  2. Emergency department evaluation after conducted energy weapon use: review of the literature for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilke, Gary M; Bozeman, William P; Chan, Theodore C

    2011-05-01

    Conductive energy weapons (CEWs) are used daily by law enforcement, and patients are often brought to an emergency department (ED) for medical clearance. To review the medical literature on the topic of CEWs and to offer evidence-based recommendations to Emergency Physicians for evaluation and treatment of patients who have received a CEW exposure. A MEDLINE literature search from 1988 to 2010 was performed and limited to human studies published from January 1988 to January 20, 2010 for English language articles with the following keywords: TASER, conductive energy device(s), electronic weapon(s), conductive energy weapon(s), non-lethal weapon(s), conducted energy device(s), conducted energy weapon(s), conductive electronic device(s), and electronic control device(s). Studies identified then underwent a structured review from which results could be evaluated. There were 140 articles on CEWs screened, and 20 appropriate articles were rigorously reviewed and recommendations given. These studies did not report any evidence of dangerous laboratory abnormalities, physiologic changes, or immediate or delayed cardiac ischemia or dysrhythmias after exposure to CEW electrical discharges of up to 15 s. The current medical literature does not support routine performance of laboratory studies, electrocardiograms, or prolonged ED observation or hospitalization for ongoing cardiac monitoring after CEW exposure in an otherwise asymptomatic awake and alert patient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of directed and kinetic energy weapons on spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, A P

    1986-12-01

    The characteristics of the various directed energy beams are reviewed, and their damaging effects on typical materials are examined for a wide range of energy pulse intensities and durations. Representative cases are surveyed, and charts are presented to indicate regions in which damage to spacecraft structures, particularly radiators for power plants, would be likely. The effects of kinetic energy weapons, such as bird-shot, are similarly examined. The charts are then applied to evaluate the effectiveness of various measures designed to reduce the vulnerability of spacecraft components, particularly nuclear electric power plants.

  4. Coral reef destruction of Small island in 44 years and destructive fishing in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Rani, Chair; Supriadi; Fakhriyyah, Sitti; Agus

    2016-11-01

    Coral reefs are among the most diverse and threatened ecosystems on the planet. The most commonly stated for developing coral reef remote sensing techniques is to asses and or to monitor the status of these ecosystems. The study site was selected one of small island in inner zone Spermonde archipelago, Indonesia. We used Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM, and Landsat OLI data to examine changes in the coral reefs of inner zone island in the Spermonde Archipelago from 1972 to 2016. The image processing are gap fills, atmospheric correction, geometric corrections, image composites, water column corrections, unsupervised classifications, and reclassification. Some of component change detection procedure was applied to define change. The results showed significant changes in 44 years. Disturbed coral reefs are typically characterized by loss of coral cover by increase in the abundance of dead corals and rubble. Local factors such as destructive fishing is direct destruction of inner zone island. While the impact of local threats may be reduced through management action, global threats to coral reefs are likely to increase in severity in the coming years.

  5. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.25 Proof of destruction. The Veterinarian in Charge will...

  6. Transfer alignment of shipborne inertial-guided weapon systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Changyue; Deng Zhenglong

    2009-01-01

    The transfer alignment problem of the shipborne weapon inertial navigation system (INS) is addressed. Specifically, two transfer alignment algorithms subjected to the ship motions induced by the waves are discussed. To consider the limited maneuver level performed by the ship, a new filter algorithm for transfer alignment methods using velocity and angular rate matching is first derived. And then an improved method using integrated velocity and integrated angular rate matching is introduced to reduce the effect of the ship body flexure. The simulation results show the feasibility and validity of the proposed transfer alignment algorithms.

  7. Sperm competition and the coevolution of pre- and postcopulatory traits: Weapons evolve faster than testes among onthophagine dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Leigh W; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive competition generates episodes of both pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. Theoretical models of sperm competition predict that as the fitness gains from expenditure on the weapons of male combat increase, males should increase their expenditure on weapons and decrease their expenditure on traits that contribute to competitive fertilization success. Although traits subject to sexual selection are known to have accelerated evolutionary rates of phenotypic divergence, it is not known whether the competing demands of investment into pre- and postcopulatory traits affect their relative rates of evolutionary divergence. We use a comparative approach to estimate the rates of divergence in pre- and postcopulatory traits among onthophagine dung beetles. Weapons evolved faster than body size while testes mass and sperm length evolved more slowly than body size, suggesting that precopulatory competition is the stronger episode of sexual selection acting on these beetles. Although horns evolved faster than testes, evolutionary increases in horn length were not associated with evolutionary reductions in testes mass. Our data for onthophagines support the notion that in taxa where males are unable to monopolize paternity, expenditure on both weapons and testes should both be favored.

  8. Long-Term Effects of Targeted Killings by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-03

    regardless of the weapons technology employed, states may disregard the norms of international law to initiate a preemptive attack. If the United States...self-defense and regardless of the weapons technology employed, states may disregard the norms of international law to initiate a preemptive attack...of Mass Destruction 1 Introduction Very frankly, [air strikes by unmanned aerial vehicles are] the only game in town in terms of confronting

  9. The results of cutting disks testing for rock destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoreshok Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the rational order of disk tools placement on the working body is necessary to know the maximum amount of rock, destroyed by the disk tool in benching cutting mode depending on the tool geometry parameters, physical and mechanical parameters of rocks. The article contains the definition of rational parameters of cutting disk tools as well as power and energy parameters of the destruction process by cutting disks and by executive body of the coal cutter. The rational geometric parameters of cutting discs are specified. It was found that each step of cutting with a minimum depth of penetration has its own maximum height of bench outcrop. The dependence of the volumes of large items destroyed by the disk tool on the cutting step height was determined. The existence of the cyclic alternation of destruction phases, regardless the fracture parameters, the height of the ledge outcrop, and tools like free cutting geometry were found. In contrast to the free cutting in benching mode of destruction two large fragments of rocks in one cycle were observed. Consequently, the cyclical nature of the destruction process in the benching mode will be characterized by two chips and crushing, and this cycling repeats throughout the destruction process with the same parameters of destruction.

  10. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 70 years, various actors have dramatically reconfigured the Las Vegas Strip in many forms. I claim that behind the Strip's "reinventions" lies a process of symbolic destruction. Since resorts distinguish themselves symbolically, each new round of capital accumulation relies on the destruction of symbolic capital of existing resorts. A new resort either ups the language within a paradigm, or causes a paradigm shift, which devalues the previous resorts even further. This is why, i...

  11. The Illogic of the Biological Weapons Taboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    scale quantities of microbes for the production of vaccines and antibiotics , it also became possible for medical scientists to harness the...tularemia bacteria, 334 pounds of dried Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus, 4,991 gallons of liquid VEE viral suspension, 5,098 gallons of Q fever

  12. Cooling of weapons with graphite foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, James W.; Trammell, Michael P.

    2016-12-27

    Disclosed are examples of an apparatus for cooling a barrel 12 of a firearm 10 and examples of a cooled barrel assembly 32 for installation into an existing firearm 10. When assembled with the barrel 12, a contact surface 16 of a shell 14 is proximate to, and in thermal communication with, the outer surface of the barrel 18. The shell 14 is formed of commercially available or modified graphite foam.

  13. Cooling of weapons with graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Trammell, Michael P.

    2016-12-27

    Disclosed are examples of an apparatus for cooling a barrel 12 of a firearm 10 and examples of a cooled barrel assembly 32 for installation into an existing firearm 10. When assembled with the barrel 12, a contact surface 16 of a shell 14 is proximate to, and in thermal communication with, the outer surface of the barrel 18. The shell 14 is formed of commercially available or modified graphite foam.

  14. The Process of Soviet Weapons Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    system on the BMP from an early 1940s German design. But the validity and usefulness of a theory, especially one that makes predictions about the future...when the 1940 publication of a highly significant Soviet discovery of spontaneous fission resulted in a complete lack of an American response, the...taken from I. N. Golovin , I. V. Khurchatov, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1973, and from Herbert York, The Advisors. Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb, W. H

  15. Squeeze Casting of Steel Weapon Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    equipment. The squeeze casting process also differs from rheo- casting.(10-12) Unlike the former, the rheocasting process (8) "Ferrous Die Casting...various phases of rheocasting . At least so far, the process has not been applied to fabrication of complex steel components of the type that are under

  16. Corrosion and conservation of weapons and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore V. Jegdić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the conditions for the occurrence of corrosion processes on historically important weapons and military equipment made of steel during the period in outdoor environment. A considerable attention has been given to the characteristics of the most important corrosion products formed on the steel surface. The formation of akaganite, β-FeOOH is a sign of active corrosion under a layer of corrosion products. The conditions that cause the formation and regeneration of hydrochloric and sulphuric acid during the exposure to the elements were analyzed. The most often applied methods of diagnostics and procedures of removing active corrosion anions (desalination were described as well. The NaOH solution of certain pH values still has the most important application for the desalination process. The procedures for cleaning the surface before the application of protective coatings and the application of chemicals that transform rust into stable compounds were discussed. As protective coatings, different types of organic coatings plated on well-prepared steel surfaces were used and sometimes special types of waxes as well. This paper presents the results of the tests of corrosion products taken from the exhibits of weapons and military equipment from the Military Museum in Belgrade.

  17. Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Device (RED)  The simplest radiological threat would be the placement of unshielded radio- active material in a heavily trafficked area as an RED...10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Radiological Dispersal Device Playbook: Introduc- tion,” last updated July 2, 2015, http...contaminated and will not require decontamination. 12 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  18. The Uncertain Consequences of Nuclear Weapons Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    survivors in a small town in Kansas as they succumb to radiation poisoning , disease, and the collapse of civil infrastructures and norms of...routes are more likely to be free of fallout? How long can first responders operate while exposed to radiation at various levels? How many deaths and...occurring phenomena. Radiation Belt Pumping and High-Altitude EMP Perhaps the most glaring surprises came during the 1962 high-altitude test series

  19. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    a new initiative to reduce complexity within the cryptography required to encrypt and decrypt communications. In last year’s assessment, the program...TRL) 6. Demonstration in a realistic environment is TRL 7. See app . V for detailed description of TRLs. Page 27 GAO-14-340SP Assessments of

  20. Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-13-52 Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria Distribution Statement A...Z39.18 00-07-2015 Technical N/A Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria HDTRA1-10-1-0108 Emily M. Hunt, Ph.D. West...understand the interaction between spore forming bacteria and thermite reactions and products and to exploit energetic material reactions with

  1. Biomechanical and performance implications of weapon design: comparison of bullpup and conventional configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard T; Moeller, Brandon F; Mayer, Robert R; Rosenquist, Bryce; Van Ryswyk, Darin; Eichorn, Drew

    2014-06-01

    Shooter accuracy and stability were monitored while firing two bullpup and two conventional configuration rifles of the same caliber in order to determine if one style of weapon results in superior performance. Considerable debate exists among police and military professionals regarding the differences between conventional configuration weapons, where the magazine and action are located ahead of the trigger, and bullpup configuration, where they are located behind the trigger (closer to the user). To date, no published research has attempted to evaluate this question from a physical ergonomics standpoint, and the knowledge that one style might improve stability or result in superior performance is of interest to countless military, law enforcement, and industry experts. A live-fire evaluation of both weapon styles was performed using a total of 48 participants. Shooting accuracy and fluctuations in biomechanical stability (center of pressure) were monitored while subjects used the weapons to perform standard drills. The bullpup weapon designs were found to provide a significant advantage in accuracy and shooter stability, while subjects showed considerable preference toward the conventional weapons. Although many mechanical and maintenance issues must be considered before committing to a bullpup or conventional weapon system, it is clear in terms of basic human stability that the bullpup is the more advantageous configuration. Results can be used by competitive shooter, military, law enforcement, and industry experts while outfitting personnel with a weapon system that leads to superior performance.

  2. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Radios, Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netter Sensor System, C-130 Avionics Modernization Program, or National Polar-orbiting...investigation of hypoxia-like physiological symptoms experienced by some F- 22A pilots, an issue identified as being significant starting in 2008 and

  3. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    108Program Performance (fiscal year 2008 dollars in millions) Figures shown are based on the December 2006 Selected Acqusition Report and do not reflect... language to permit it to contract for quantities of WIN-T Increment 1 nodes in fiscal year 2008 to support operational needs, even if prior to the

  4. Defense Acquisitions. Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    countermeasure dispenser capable of loading and employing expendables, such as flares, chaff, and smoke . S Page 39ource: BAE Systems.System development...not collecting statistical data for them. As reported in our last assesment , we expect that the prime contract could overrun its target cost by

  5. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    cover the JPALS ship system-radio, antenna, receiver, racks , and console. The program also tracks requirement changes to monitor design stability...with stowage cradle) and berthing modules around the LCS 2 mission bay. Navy officials also report that testing of LCS 2’s twin- boom extensible

  6. The Weaponization of Space: A Strategic Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Bodies . Office for Outer Space Affairs. Vienna, Austria: October 1967. Article on-line. Available from:http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/treat/ost...Ballistic Missile Defense, Space, and the Danger of Nuclear War,” Speech to the American Philosophical Society Millenial Symposium, (29 April 2000...Other Celestial Bodies . Office for Outer Space Affairs (Vienna, Austria: October 1967), 1. Article on-line. Available from: http

  7. The Drivers of Indias Nuclear Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    is also building a prototype fast-breeder reactor near Kalpakkam.46 Fast-breeder reactors use nuclear fission to turn regular uranium into plutonium... nuclear reactor finally went critical in 2013,57 which marked a major milestone for this vessel in reaching operational status. Once underway, the...collections/peace_agreements/ ip_lahore19990221. pdf . 165 Ganguly and Biringer, “ Nuclear Crisis Stability,” 914. 166 Ministry of External Affairs, New

  8. Kinematics of Laying an Automated Weapon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-19

    NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORS Joshua Stapp 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Coordinate Systems 6 Transformation of Earth Referenced Lay to Platform Reference Frame 6 Results and Discussions 7 Conclusions 8 Bibliography 9...Distribution List 11 FIGURES 1 Earth reference frame 1 2 Platform reference frame 2 3 Cartesian coordinate system 3 4 Spherical

  9. Weapons at the battlefield of Kalkriese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rost, Achim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations have been taking place at the Kalkriese Hill in Northern Germany since 1987. Roman coins and military equipment are the result of a battle between Romans and Germans, probably the Varus Battle (A.D. 9. It is the aim of our research project to reconstruct the course of the battle. It has become apparent that one cannot deduct the intensity of fighting by the number of finds. Instead, we have to take into account the impact of post-battle processes on the archaeological record, such as rescuing of wounded soldiers, looting by the victors and body-stripping. This paper illustrates the finds and features from Kalkriese, especially from the main site «Oberesch», where most of the Roman artefacts as well as a rampart built by Germans as an ambush against Roman troops, and a series of pits containing the bones of the dead Roman soldiers were found. In addition, new methodological approaches for the interpretation of ancient battlefields are presented.

    Desde 1987 se vienen realizando investigaciones arqueológicas en la colina de Kalkriese, en Alemania septentrional. El hallazgo de monedas y equipo militar romanos refleja una batalla entre romanos y germanos, probablemente la de Varo en el año 9 d.C. El propósito de nuestro proyecto de investigación es reconstruir el curso de la batalla. Se hace evidente que no se puede deducir la intensidad de la lucha por el número de hallazgos. Por el contrario, hemos de tener muy en cuenta los procesos posteriores a la batalla sobre el registro arqueológico, como el rescate de soldados heridos, la captura de botín por parte de los vencedores y el saqueo de los cadáveres. Este trabajo ilustra los hallazgos y las caractertísticas del yacimiento de Kalkriese, especialmente en el núcleo del ‘Oberesch’, donde se ha hallado la mayor parte de los artefactos romanos, además de una empalizada construida por los germanos para emboscar a los romanos, y una serie de hoyos que

  10. Psychological casualties resulting from chemical and biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J A; King, J M

    2001-12-01

    This symposium addresses the complications encountered by medical planners when confronted by the use or threat of the use of weapons of mass destruction. The types of chemical warfare agents (CWA), their principal target organs, and physiological effects are discussed. We have reviewed the use of CWA in 20th century warfare and otherwise with emphasis on five cases: (1) use of sulfur mustard during World War I; (2) use by Italy against Ethiopia; (3) use in the Sino-Japanese War; (4) relatively well-studied use in the Iran-Iraq conflict; and (5) the use of sarin in the Tokyo subway terrorist incident. We reviewed the additional physiological and psychological consequences of their use and threat of use. Results from training and simulation are discussed. Finally, we present our conclusions derived from the analysis of these historical situations.

  11. Use of kangri (a traditional firepot) as a weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Arsalaan F; Fazili, Rifat; Aggarwal, Akash D

    2014-08-01

    Kangri an earthenware firepot has been traditionally used by people of Kashmir for protecting themselves for harsh winter weather. This study done on patients admitted in the burns ward and general emergency ward of a tertiary care hospital, is perhaps the first of its kind. It analyses the use of this very traditional and useful art form as a weapon that can cause significant damage during interpersonal conflicts. As is clear from the study its use as weapon can inflict considerable damage and can lead to lifelong disabilities. Out of the 20 cases studied over a period of one year 2 cases received grievous injuries over head and face region in form of permanent disfigurement. Almost half of the injuries i.e. 7 cases were mechanical in nature whereas rest 13 cases belong to thermal category. Most of the injuries were simple and healed with preliminary medical attention but in 2 cases there was permanent disfigurement and both were because of deep burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. The simulation of laser-based guided weapon engagements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaberi, Mubarak; Richardson, Mark; Coath, John; Jenkin, Robin

    2006-05-01

    The laser is an integrated part of many weapon systems, such as laser guided bombs, laser guided missiles and laser beam-riding missiles. These systems pose a significant threat to military assets on the modern battlefield. The lasers used in beam-riding missiles are particularly hard to detect as they typically use relatively low power lasers. Beamriders are also particularly difficult to defeat as current countermeasure systems have not been optimized against this threat. Some recent field trails conducted in the United Arab Emirates desert have demonstrated poor performance of both laser beam-riding systems and the LWRs designed to detect them. The aim of this research is to build a complete evaluation tool capable of assessing all the phases of an engagement of a main battle tank or armoured fighting vehicle with a laser based guided weapon. To this end a software model has been produced using Matlab & Simulink. This complete model has been verified using lab based experimentation and by comparison to the result of the mentioned field trials. This project will enable both the evaluation and design of any generic laser warning receiver or missile seeker and specific systems if various parameters are known. Moreover, this model will be used as a guide to the development of reliable countermeasures for laser beam-riding missiles.

  13. The Combine Use of Semi-destructive and Non-destructive Methods for Tiled Floor Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štainbruch, Jakub; Bayer, Karol; Jiroušek, Tomáš; Červinka, Josef

    2017-04-01

    The combination of semi-destructive and non-destructive methods was used to asset the conditions of a tiled floor in the historical monument Minaret, situated in the park complex of the Chateau Lednice (South Moravia Region, Czech Republic), before its renovation. Another set of measurements is going to be performed after the conservation works are finished. (The comparison of the results collected during pre- and post-remediation measurements will be known and presented during the General Assembly meeting in Wien.) The diagnostic complex of methods consisted of photogrammetry, resistivity drilling and georadar. The survey was aimed to contour extends of air gaps beneath the tiles and the efficiency of filling gaps by means of injection, consolidation and gluing individual layers. The state chateau Lednice creates a part of the Lednice-Valtice precinct, a UNESCO landmark, and belongs among the greatest historic monuments in Southern Moravia. In the chateau park there is a romantic observation tower in the shape of a minaret built according to the plans of Josef Hardtmuth between 1798-1804. The Minaret has been extensively renovated for many decades including the restoration of mosaic floors from Venetian terazzo. During the static works of the Minaret building between 1999-2000, the mosaic floors in the rooms on the second floor were transferred and put back onto concrete slabs. Specifically, the floor was cut up to tiles and these were glued to square slabs which were then attached to the base plate. The transfer was not successful and the floor restoration was finalized between 2016-2017. The damage consisted in separating the original floor from the concrete plate which led to creating gaps. Furthermore, the layers of the floor were not compact. It was necessary to fill the gaps and consolidate and glue the layers. The existence of air gap between individual layers of the tiles and their degradation was detected using two different diagnostic methods: semi-destructive

  14. Optomechanical design of a field-deployable thermal weapon sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc-André; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bernier, Sophie; Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Lagacé, François; Laou, Philips

    2007-09-01

    The use of uncooled infrared (IR) imaging technology in Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) systems produces a unique tool that perfectly fulfills the all-weather, day-and-night vision demands in modern battlefields by significantly increasing the effectiveness and survivability of a dismounted soldier. The main advantage of IR imaging is that no illumination is required; therefore, observation can be accomplished in a passive mode. It is particularly well adapted for target detection even through smoke, dust, fog, haze, and other battlefield obscurants. In collaboration with the Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC Valcartier), INO engineering team developed, produced, and tested a rugged thermal weapon sight. An infrared channel provides for human detection at 800m and recognition at 200m. Technical system requirements included very low overall weight as well as the need to be field-deployable and user-friendly in harsh conditions. This paper describes the optomechanical design and focuses on the catadioptric-based system integration. The system requirements forced the optomechanical engineers to minimize weight while maintaining a sufficient level of rigidity in order to keep the tight optical tolerances. The optical system's main features are: a precision manual focus, a watertight vibration insulated front lens, a bolometer and two gold coated aluminum mirrors. Finite element analyses using ANSYS were performed to validate the subsystems performance. Some of the finite element computations were validated using different laboratory setups.

  15. How to Make Historical Surveys of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, Thomas [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    2003-05-01

    In 1998 SKI initiated a project in order to make a historical survey of the Swedish nuclear weapons research during the period 1945-2000. The survey is now fulfilled and contains of three reports. IAEA became interested in the project and accepted it in 2000 as a support program to increase transparency and to support the implementation of the Additional Protocol in Sweden. In the eyes of IAEA, the most important aim is to create knowledge and refine tools to enhance the means to strengthen the Safeguard System within the Additional Protocol. Other countries have now showed interest to follow the Swedish example and to make their own reviews of the nuclear energy and nuclear weapons research of their pasts. A co-operation between Sweden, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and Latvia has now been initiated in order to make such historical reviews. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate is the initiator and financial supporter of the project. The cooperation project has three comprehensive goals: a. to create transparency in the nuclear energy field of the past. The intention is that the results of the conducted studies could be attached to the State Declaration according to the Additional Protocol in order to enhance transparency b. to account for the nuclear material traffic of the past and; c. to develop the competence in nuclear energy matters in general, and in particular, to extend the knowledge regarding each participating State's nuclear experience in the past. The first purpose of this paper is to describe the project and its aims. The second purpose is to present a general model of how a historical review of a State's nuclear related activities and nuclear weapons research can be designed. The model has been created in order to serve as a guide for other countries strengthening of their safeguards systems in the framework of the Additional Protocol. The third purpose is to present the pedagogy that has been used as a teaching method in order to train

  16. Operational research in weapon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Varma

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The paper is divided into three parts: (a The first part deals with what operational research is. (bThe second part gives what we mean by Weapon Systems and discusses considerations that determine the choice of a particular weapon system from a class weapon systems. (cThe third part deals with some aspects of weapon replacement policy.The effectiveness of a weapon system is defined as E=D/C where E is weapon effectiveness (a comparative figure of merit; D is total damage inflicted or prevented and C is total cost, D and C being reduced to common dimensions. During the course of investigations, criteria regarding to choice of weapon or weapons from a set of weapon systems are established through production function and military effect curves. A procedure is described which maximizes the expectation of military utility in order to select a weapon system from the class of weapon systems. This is done under the following simplifying assumptions: (a Non- decreasing utility function; (b Constant average cost for each kind of weapons; and (c Independence of the performance of each unit of weapon. Some of the difficulties which arises when any of these restrictions is relaxed are briefly mentioned. Finally, the policy of weapon replacement and the factors governing the same are described."

  17. An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Doc

    2001-03-01

    Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

  18. Influence and selection processes in weapon carrying during adolescence : The roles of status, aggression, and vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene; Steglich, Christian; Isaacs, Jenny; Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    The role of peers in weapon carrying (guns, knives, and other weapons) inside and outside the school was examined in this study. Data stem from a longitudinal study of a high-risk sample of male students (7th to 10th grade; N = 167) from predominantly Hispanic low-socio-economic-status schools in

  19. Nuclear weapons and conflict transformation: the case of India-Pakistan. - Pbk ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Part 1: Theory 1. Studies on Conflict Transformation 2. Scholarship on Ramifications of Nuclear Weapons Acquisition 3. Elucidating Conflict Transformation with Nuclear Weapons Part 2: The India-Pakistan Protracted Conflict 4. Life of the Protracted Conflict 5. Introduction of Nuclear

  20. NATO's targeting process: ensuring human control over (and lawful use of) 'autonomous' weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, M.; Williams, A.P.; Scharre, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of the use of so-called autonomous weapon systems has raised significant legal and moral concerns. This chapter contributes to the debate by providing an alternative perspective to the current dominant focus on the technological capabilities of future weapons. The author argues that

  1. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the

  2. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the Organisa

  3. Influence and selection processes in weapon carrying during adolescence : The roles of status, aggression, and vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene; Steglich, Christian; Isaacs, Jenny; Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of peers in weapon carrying (guns, knives, and other weapons) inside and outside the school was examined in this study. Data stem from a longitudinal study of a high-risk sample of male students (7th to 10th grade; N = 167) from predominantly Hispanic low-socio-economic-status schools in th

  4. Nuclear weapons and conflict transformation: the case of India-Pakistan. - Pbk ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Khan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Part 1: Theory 1. Studies on Conflict Transformation 2. Scholarship on Ramifications of Nuclear Weapons Acquisition 3. Elucidating Conflict Transformation with Nuclear Weapons Part 2: The India-Pakistan Protracted Conflict 4. Life of the Protracted Conflict 5. Introduction of Nuclear We

  5. Predictors of Weapon Carrying in Youth Attending Drop-in Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Elaine J.; Liles, Sandy; Kelley, Norma J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Bousman, Chad A.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Ji, Ming; Clapp, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test and compare 2 predictive models of weapon carrying in youth (n=308) recruited from 4 drop-in centers in San Diego and Imperial counties. Methods: Both models were based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM). Results: The first and second models significantly explained 39% and 53% of the variance in weapon carrying,…

  6. Geometry-Of-Fire Tracking Algorithm for Direct-Fire Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE ...TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS by Caleb K. Khan September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Zachary Staples Co-Advisor: Xiaoping...2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS

  7. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  8. Leveling the Playing Field: China’s Development of Advanced Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    precision is not required, an inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) could be used to deliver a HEMP weapon over 7,000 miles away.72 Finally, if the...STATEMENT. Use agency-mandated availability statements to indicate the public availability or distribution limitations of the report. If additional...9 HEMP Weapons ...................................................................................................................... 10 NNEMP

  9. Multiple exaggerated weapon morphs: a novel form of male polymorphism in harvestmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painting, Christina J; Probert, Anna F; Townsend, Daniel J; Holwell, Gregory I

    2015-11-06

    Alternative reproductive tactics in animals are commonly associated with distinct male phenotypes resulting in polymorphism of sexually selected weapons such as horns and spines. Typically, morphs are divided between small (unarmed) and large (armed) males according to one or more developmental thresholds in association with body size. Here, we describe remarkable weapon trimorphism within a single species, where two exaggerated weapon morphs and a third morph with reduced weaponry are present. Male Pantopsalis cheliferoides harvestmen display exaggerated chelicerae (jaws) which are highly variable in length among individuals. Across the same body size spectrum, however, some males belong to a distinct second exaggerated morph which possesses short, broad chelicerae. Multiple weapon morphs in a single species is a previously unknown phenomenon and our findings have significant implications for understanding weapon diversity and maintenance of polymorphism. Specifically, this species will be a valuable model for testing how weapons diverge by being able to test directly for the circumstances under which a certain weapon type is favoured and how weapon shape relates to performance.

  10. 77 FR 55195 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Naval Weapons Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Weapons Systems Training Facility Boardman, OR AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice... and proposed DoN and Oregon National Guard training and testing activities at Naval Weapons Systems...

  11. Incidence of weapon injuries not related to interfactional combat in Afghanistan in 1996: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Markus; Meddings, David R; Ramez, Salah; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the descriptive epidemiology of weapon injuries not directly attributable to combat during armed conflict. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nangarhar region of Afghanistan, which experienced effective peace, intense fighting, and then peace over six months in 1996. Subjects 608 people admitted to Jalalabad hospital because of weapon injuries. Main outcome measures Estimated incidence of injuries from combat or otherwise (non-combat injury) before, during, and after the fall of Kabul. Results Incidence of non-combat injury was initially 65 per 100 000. During the intense military campaign for Kabul the incidence declined dramatically, and then differentially increased dependent on injury subcategory—that is, whether injuries were accidental or intentional and whether they were inflicted by firearms or fragmenting munitions. Non-combat injuries accounted for 51% of weapon injuries observed over the study period. Civilians were more likely to have non-combat injuries than combat injuries. Conclusions Weapon injuries that are not attributable to combat are common. Social changes accompanying conflict and widespread availability of weapons may be predictive of use of weapons that persists independently of conflict. Key messagesA region in Afghanistan experienced peace, intense combat, and then peace in 1996During peace the incidence of injury from weapons was high, the incidence of injury from firearms being similar to that in the United StatesOver half of all weapon injuries were not attributable to interfactional combatWeapon availability and social breakdown accompanying conflict may be important factors in the occurrence of weapon injuries that persist independently of conflict PMID:10445923

  12. Why do states build nuclear weapons? Three models in search of a bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, S.D.

    1996-12-31

    The central purpose of this article is to challenge conventional wisdom about nuclear proliferation. The author argues that the consensus view, focusing on national security considerations as the cause of proliferation, is dangerously inadequate because nuclear weapons programs also serve other, more parochial and less obvious objectives. Nuclear weapons, like other weapons, are more than tools of national security; they are political objects of considerable importance in domestic debates and internal bureaucratic struggles and can also serve as international normative symbols of modernity and identity. The body of this article examines three alternate theoretical frameworks - called {open_quotes}models{close_quotes} in the very informal sense of the term - about why states decide to build or refrain from developing nuclear weapons: {open_quotes}the security model,{close_quotes} according to which states build nuclear weapons to increase national security against foreign threats, especially nuclear threats; {open_quotes}the domestic politics model,{close_quotes} which envisions nuclear weapons as political tools used to advance parochial domestic and bureaucratic interests; and {open_quotes}the norms model,{close_quotes} under which nuclear weapons decisions are made because weapons acquisition, or restraint in weapons development, provides an important normative symbol of a state`s modernity and identity. Although many of the ideas underlying these models exist in the vast case-study and proliferation-policy literatures, they have not been adequately analyzed, nor placed in a comparative theoretical framework, nor properly evaluated against empirical evidence. Models are compared to their theoretical conceptions of the causes of weapons development, present alternative interpretations of the history of some major proliferation decisions, and contrast the models` implications for nonproliferation policy. 71 refs.

  13. Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.

  14. Hamster and Murine Models of Severe Destructive Lyme Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Munson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ- deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology.

  15. Weaponization and Prisonization of Toronto’s Black Male Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Crichlow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Informed by Galtung (1969, Anderson (2012 and Wacquant (2001, this paper argues that a lifetime of spiralling and everyday state structural violence and overtly racist criminal profiling principally targeted at young Black men living in the Toronto Community Housing Corporation prepares them for prison. Moreover, it contends that interpersonal violence, transmitted from generation to generation and producing a vicious cycle, is a manifestation of institutionalized and systemic inequity. In the context of a hypermasculine culture, young Black men are both victims and participants in a dialectic of interpersonal-structural violence. Routinely precipitated by powerful state actors and agencies of criminal justice, public policy and assorted ‘moral entrepreneurs’, young Black men have their masculinity weaponized and prisonized by the state’s low-intensity declaration of war against them, and, among others, the poor, LGBTQ, immigrants, and First Nations and other people of colour.

  16. South America and the proliferation of biological weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Coutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of regional institutions and political practices in strengthening multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation regimes. Particular attention is devoted to coordination between Brazil and Argentina with a view to forging a "South American position" vis-à-vis the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC. Empirical evidence suggests that informal arrangements between the two countries were capable of involving other South American leaders and promoting the exchange of information among different groups of states, most notably during the 2006 BTWC review conference. This paper also sheds light on the identification of specific features that allow for increasing visibility and actorness of regional powers in promoting universality of multilateral security regimes (MSR, as well as the limitations faced by these players.

  17. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify...

  18. Brain injury after gunshot wounding: morphometric analysis of cell destruction caused by temporary cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Meissner, C; König, H G

    2000-02-01

    In addition to the primary destruction of brain tissue readily visible at autopsy (permanent track), gunshot wounding to the brain creates a pulsating temporary cavity due to radial expansion along the bullet's track. To determine the maximum extent of this temporary cavitation in brains of victims of gunshots from weapons with low muzzle velocity, we carried out morphometric studies on 20 cases of death from gunshot wounding to the head from bullets with a muzzle energy <500 J and a survival time of <90 min. The brains were fixed in formalin, examine macroscopically and microscopically, and subjected to morphometric analyses. Surrounding the permanent track, a narrow mantle-like zone of astrocyte destruction was found within an area of hemorrhagic extravasation. Axons near the permanent track had been broken into tiny fragments. The axonal damage lessened with increasing distance from the permanent track, although axons continued to be fragmented and to exhibit varicose changes and clumping until assuming their normal structure beyond 18 mm. Nerve cells were extremely shrunken close to the permanent track but gradually took on their normal shape with increasing distance. We also assessed the loss of glial fibrillary acid protein expression by astrocytes in the white matter, the extent of traumatic bleeding, and damage to axons and neurons as measured radially from the permanent track. Axonal and neuronal damage were found to extend about 18 mm radially from the permanent track, tapering gradually along the track from entry point to exit point. The destruction was probably produced by the temporary cavitation and accords with theoretical considerations and experimental observations.

  19. Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-07-01

    The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

  20. Effects of exposure to violence with a weapon during adolescence on adult hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jodi L; Browning, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations between exposure to violence with a weapon during the past year among adolescents and hypertension during adulthood, including the extent to which adult cardiovascular risk factors mediated the association. Secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 1994-2008. The sample included 3555 male and 4416 female participants who were aged 11-17 years at wave 1 (1994-1995). Participants were categorized as hypertensive if they had a mean systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or a mean diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher at wave 4 (2008). Witnessed violence with a weapon was defined as having seen a shooting or stabbing during the year before wave 1, whereas victim of violence with a weapon was defined as having been shot, cut, or stabbed or had a gun or knife drawn on them during the year before wave 1. Potential mediators of adult cardiovascular risk (wave 4) included body mass index, daily smoking, alcohol abuse, and depression. Males who witnessed violence and females who were victims of violence in the year before wave 1 had an increased odds of hypertension at wave 4 compared with their unexposed peers (adjusted odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.003-2.10 and adjusted odds ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.84, respectively). The hypothesized adult cardiovascular risk mediators did not significantly attenuate the associations for either the male or female samples. Interventions addressing prior violence exposure are needed to promote adult cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microorganisms in processes of the destruction of oil in reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kurapov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution by oil has negative influence on all ecosystem of the sea. The main role in decomposing of hydrocarbons belongs to microorganisms. Influence emulsion and water repellencies of cellular walls of microorganisms on an oil destruction is noted.

  2. Imitation model of destruction of aviation fibrous polymeric composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Синеглазов

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered are models imitating influence of lighting on dielectric construction materials with elements of lighting protection. Described are models of current spreading in multilayer materials and thermal destruction of fibrous polymeric composite materials caused by lighting current flowing on such materials

  3. The Social and Economic Dimensions of Destructive Fishing Activities in the South coast of Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Munyi, F.

    2009-01-01

    The social and economic dimensions of destructive fishing activities were studied in the multi-gear fishery of the southern Kenya coast. The objectives were to determine causes and effects of destructive fishing activities, the extent of occurrence of these activities, the social and economic factors that explain the continued existence of destructive fishing techniques, and the measures to deter the destructive fishing practices in the area. Fishing gears identified to be destructive in orde...

  4. China's ASAT Weapon: Capabilities and the Potential Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Geoffrey

    2008-04-01

    Much has been said about China's 11 January 2007 test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon but few analysts have based their comments on a scientific determination of the weapons capabilities. This paper presents such an analysis derived from the observed pattern of debris, as observed by NORAD and posted on-line by NASA. It is clear that this was a direct hit-to-kill weapon (as opposed to a fragmentation-type explosive warhead), it massed about 600 kg, and was capable of accelerations of at least 6 Gs. It can be inferred with a reasonable degree of confidence that it used an on-board optical tracker, most likely operating in visible light. Furthermore, since the closing speed between the target satellite and the interceptor was 8 km/s during the test, this weapon could be used to attack satellites at higher altitude orbits, such as NAVSTAR/GPS and geostationary satellites that include communications and early warning satellites. This test produced ten times as many pieces of debris as an earlier US hit-to-kill ASAT test which, because of their higher altitudes, will last thousands of years---hundreds of times longer than the debris in the US test. China's test increased the chances of some low earth orbit satellite being hit by a piece of debris by 50%, from about 12% to 18% each year. Given this weapon's capabilities, it is possible to ``war game'' what an all-out Chinese ASAT attack would look like and what responses the US could take. (It is important to emphasize that this is a capabilities-based exercise and not based on Chinese intentions.) If China did launch such an attack, it could eliminate a large fraction of US military satellites in low earth orbit including photo-reconnaissance and electronic intelligence satellites, but not all of them, in the first 24 hours; the requirement that the target satellites be illuminated by the sun limits the attack. Furthermore, the US could maneuver its LEO satellites in the first hours of the attack and greatly

  5. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Mørch, Troels

    2013-01-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit...... is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times...

  6. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  7. Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

  8. Assessment of disinfectants in explosive destruction system for biological agent destruction : LDRD final report FY04.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Didlake, John E. Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Crooker, Paul J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment systems that can neutralize biological agents are needed to mitigate risks from novel and legacy biohazards. Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus steurothemophilus spores were performed in a 190-liter, 1-112 lb TNT equivalent rated Explosive Destruction System (EDS) system to evaluate its capability to treat and destroy biological agents. Five tests were conducted using three different agents to kill the spores. The EDS was operated in steam autoclave, gas fumigation and liquid decontamination modes. The first three tests used EDS as an autoclave, which uses pressurized steam to kill the spores. Autoclaving was performed at 130-140 deg C for up to 2-hours. Tests with chlorine dioxide at 750 ppm concentration for 1 hour and 10% (vol) aqueous chlorine bleach solution for 1 hour were also performed. All tests resulted in complete neutralization of the bacterial spores based on no bacterial growth in post-treatment incubations. Explosively opening a glass container to expose the bacterial spores for treatment with steam was demonstrated and could easily be done for chlorine dioxide gas or liquid bleach.

  9. Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

    1993-07-20

    A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

  10. Threat is in the sex of the beholder: men find weapons faster than do women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulikowski, Danielle; Burke, Darren

    2014-10-29

    In visual displays, people locate potentially threatening stimuli, such as snakes, spiders, and weapons, more quickly than similar benign stimuli, such as beetles and gadgets. Such biases are likely adaptive, facilitating fast responses to potential threats. Currently, and historically, men have engaged in more weapons-related activities (fighting and hunting) than women. If biases of visual attention for weapons result from selection pressures related to these activities, then we would predict such biases to be stronger in men than in women. The current study reports the results of two visual search experiments, in which men showed a stronger bias of attention toward guns and knives than did women, whether the weapons were depicted wielded or not. When the weapons were depicted wielded, both sexes searched for them with more caution than when they were not. Neither of these effects extended reliably to syringes, a non-weapon-yet potentially threatening-object. The findings are discussed with respect to the "weapons effect" and social coercion theory.

  11. Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

  12. Study on effectiveness evaluation of weapon systems based on grey relational analysis and TOPSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Hui; Song Bifeng

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of weapon systems, the advantages and disadvantages of grey relational analysis and TOPSIS for multiattribute decision-making is pointed out, and an effectiveness evaluation model of weapon systems by combining grey relational analysis and TOPSIS is proposed. The model aggregates the grey relational grade and the distance to a new integrated closeness and reflects not only the trend but also the situation of the alternative. The example illuminates that the model is effective for the effectiveness evaluation of weapon systems.

  13. Uncoupling of inflammatory and destructive mechanisms in arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update clinicians on recent advances in the differentiation of the mechanisms of inflammation and cartilage destruction in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We present analysis of recent published literature and abstracts that elucidates the independent actions of

  14. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Woman Writer and the Element of Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoh, Ellen Peck

    1972-01-01

    Using Anais Nin as an example, the author describes the problem of the female writer as an agent of destruction. She is angered over the fact that women writers misdirected so much of their creative energy through fear of adopting any but the submissive, passive, feminine role. (Author/NL)

  16. Assessment of the destructive potential of hail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cica, Roxana Diana; Burcea, Sorin; Bojariu, Roxana; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    Hail produced by severe convective storms represents a natural hazard, and is of particular interest to the insurance industry. Severe hail can cause substantial damages to automobiles, buildings, and crops. The amount of hail damage is mostly a function of the frequency and intensity of the hailfalls. Since the spatial distribution and temporal variations of the hailfalls are strongly localized, ground reports from weather stations should be complemented with other types of information. This study focuses therefore on the combined analysis of data recorded at ground and weather radar measurements. Radar data has the advantage of high spatial and temporal resolutions, resulting in a very feasible option to detect hail in comparison to operational weather stations. As the first study of its kind in Romania, the analysis was undertaken on a limited area which is defined by the total coverage area of the Doppler weather radar system operatioanal at Bucharest. Hail kinetic energy derived from radar reflectivity is used to identify hail on the ground. The hail reports from the weather stations and automobiles, building and crop damage locations are used for validation. While many studies used only the 55 dBZ threshold for hail identification, in our research we have investigated and used several reflectivity threshold levels to improve the hail detection. In this regard, several convective weather case studies were analyzed. Hail kinetic energy was the main parameter used to reflect the distructive potential of hailfalls. To identify areas at risk of hail damage, maps of hail kinetic spatial distribution were developed. It is observed that hail kinetic energy corresponds well with hail recorded at the ground. An additional parameter developed to help at the identification of areas prone to hail damage is the frequency of detection (FOD) of radar echoes above a certain threshold (e.g., 53 dBZ). FOD maps were constructed for the convective days when hail was detected

  17. Relevance of Nuclear Weapons Clean-Up Experience to Dirty Bomb Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C; Crites, T R

    2002-08-19

    During the past 50 years, the United States has experienced 32 major nuclear weapons accidents, nine of which released special nuclear material to the environment. Response to these accidents, coupled with recovery experience following the Russian satellite reentry and weapons test site cleanup, form the basis for determining actions that might be required following a nuclear terrorist event involving the release of radioactive material. Though valuable information has been gained following the recovery from various commercial accidents, most notably the Chernobyl nuclear power plant failure and the dismantled radiography source in the Brazilian city of Goi nia, this paper will focus on the lessons learned from the U.S. nuclear weapons program.

  18. [The activities of the Russian Society of Red Cross during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelova, L Ye; Rudoiy, N A

    2013-01-01

    During the First World War, the Russian Society of Red Cross used experience of previous wars expanded its activities. The medical service functioned in the conditions of cruel war. For the first time in history, the weapon of mass destruction was applied The merit of the Russian society of Red Cross was development of specialized medical care.

  19. Destructive Adsorption of Carbon Tetrachloride on Alkaline Earth Metal Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Mestl, Gerhard; Rosynek, Michael P.; Krawietz, Thomas R.; Haw, James F.; Lunsford, Jack H.

    2001-01-01

    The destructive adsorption of CCl4 on MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO has been studied as a function of the reaction temperature and the amount of CCl4 injected. The reaction was followed using in situ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 13 C mag

  20. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  1. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed...

  2. A rubber-covered ceramic weapon reduces the incidence of dental trauma in recruits during combat basic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Talia; Ashkenazi, Malka

    2011-10-01

    The effect of a rubber-covered ceramic weapon was assessed on the incidence of dental trauma during basic training, since soldiers are more at risk of impact from a personal weapon. Dental files of soldiers (n = 4,542), who completed 8 months of training during 2008, were analyzed for incidence and type of dental trauma from a personal weapon. A rubber-covered ceramic weapon (n = 2,972) or a conventional one (n = 1,570, control) was used. Dental trauma was 0.4% per 8 months (0.6% per year) from the ceramic weapon and 1.5% per 8 months (2.3% per year) from the conventional one (pcontrol group). The ceramic weapon significantly reduced dental trauma by diminishing the impact while in direct contact with the teeth or by absorbing and/or distributing the impact force. In conclusion, when possible a rubber-covered ceramic weapon should be preferred for basic combat training.

  3. Destruction of Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Using an Arcjet Plasma Torch*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleddermann, C. B.; Snyder, H. R.; Gahl, J. M.

    1996-10-01

    A small-scale thermal plasma torch has been used for the disposal of hazardous industrial chemicals including alcohols, ketones, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The plasma jet is operated at currents up to 200 Amperes and waste flow rates up to 600 ml/hr. Argon is used as the plasma gas with oxygen added to the reactor to alter the reaction chemistry. Destruction of the waste and by-product formation are monitored using a residual gas analyzer, and the temperature of the plasma plume is measured using an enthalpy probe. The by-products of the destruction of acetone are primarily carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of hydrocarbons. Adding oxygen to the reactor increases the production of carbon dioxide and significantly decreases the amount of acetone in the exhaust gases. This reactor has achieved greater than 99 percent destruction efficiency for acetone when oxygen is added to the reaction mixture at an arcjet current of 75 Amperes, with similar destruction efficiencies observed for ethanol and trichloroethylene. *Supported by the U.S. DOE through the WERC program administered by New Mexico State University.

  4. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-06100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-07

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-06100. This package was selected for examination based on several characteristics: - This was the first destructively examined package in which the fiberboard assembly was fabricated from softwood fiberboard. - The package contained a relatively high heat load to contribute to internal temperature, which is a key environmental factor for fiberboard degradation. - The package has been stored in the middle or top of a storage array since its receipt in K- Area, positions that would contribute to increased service temperatures. No significant changes were observed for attributes that were measured during both field surveillance and destructive examination. Except for the axial gap, all observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The axial gap met the 1 inch maximum criterion during field surveillance, but was just over the criterion during SRNL measurements. When re-measured at a later date, it again met the criterion. The bottom of the lower fiberboard assembly and the drum interior had two small stains at matching locations, suggestive of water intrusion. However, the fiberboard assembly did not contain any current evidence of excess moisture. No evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. Despite exposure to the elevated temperatures of this higher-then-average wattage package, properties of the fiberboard and O-rings are consistent with those of new packages.

  5. 75 FR 57458 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... of Chinese Military Affairs, Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Center for..., National War College, Center for Applied Strategic Learning, Center for the Study of Chinese Military... covered by the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Active Military, Reserve, National Guard, DoD and...

  6. Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1985-07-01

    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  8. Treatment of multiply controlled destructive behavior with food reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Adelinis, J D; Piazza, C C; Goh, H L

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which the positive reinforcement of communication would reduce multiply controlled destructive behavior in the absence of relevant extinction components. When edible reinforcement for appropriate communication and nonfood reinforcers for problem behavior were available simultaneously, responding was allocated almost exclusively toward the behavior that produced edible reinforcement.

  9. ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  10. Destruction and Reallocation of Skills Following Large Company Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    for other firms that hire them. This process can be very disruptive. For instance, when a large, old and well-renowned company closes down displacing thousands of workers over a short period of time, then it may be a shock to the regional economy and lead to unemployment and skill destruction. The question...

  11. The Destructive/Non-Destructive Identification of Enameled Pottery, Glass Artifacts and Associated Pigments—A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Colomban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The birth of Chemistry can be found in two main practices: (i the Arts du feu (ceramic and glass, metallurgy, i.e., inorganic and solid state chemistry and (ii the preparation of remedies, alcohols and perfumes, dyes, i.e., organic and liquid state chemistry. After a brief survey of the history of (glazed pottery and (enameled glass artifacts, the development of destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques during the last few centuries is reviewed. Emphasis is put on mobile non-destructive Raman microspectroscopy of pigments and their glass/glaze host matrices for chronological/technological expertise. The techniques of white opacification, blue, yellow, green, red, and black coloring, are used as examples to point out the interest of pigments as chronological/technological markers.

  12. Proceedings: 17th Asilomar conference on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, R.G.; Meier, C.A. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the 1983 conference was to provide for the technical exchange of ideas relating to the science and technology of the immediate effects of nuclear weapon explosions. Separate abstracts were prepared for 39 of the papers.

  13. Pathogenic role of basic calcium phosphate crystals in destructive arthropathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ea, H.K.; Chobaz, V.; Nguyen, C.; Nasi, S.; Lent, P.L. van; Daudon, M.; Dessombz, A.; Bazin, D.; McCarthy, G.; Jolles-Haeberli, B.; Ives, A.; Linthoudt, D. Van; So, A.; Liote, F.; Busso, N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritis (OA) and are associated with cartilage destruction. BCP crystals induce in vitro catabolic responses with the production of metalloproteases and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). In vivo, IL-1

  14. Evaluation of nitrate and nitrite destruction/separation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-08-29

    This report describes and evaluates four types of nitrate and nitrite destruction and separation technologies that could be used to treat the aqueous, alkaline, nitrate-bearing mixed waste that is generated by the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The technologies considered in this report include thermal, hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical technologies.

  15. 78 FR 13142 - Additional Designation of Faratech, Neda Industrial Group, Towlid Abzar Boreshi Iran, Tarh O...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ....) 13382. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the authority in section 1(ii) of Executive Order 13382, ``Blocking Property... contributed to, or pose a risk of materially contributing to, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction... foreign country of proliferation concern. DATES: The designation by the Acting Under Secretary of State...

  16. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  17. The Future of Killing: Ethical and Legal Implications of Fully Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lark

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Warfare is moving towards full weapon autonomy. Already, there are weapons in service that replace a human at the point of engagement. The remote pilot must adhere to the law and consider the moral and ethical implications of using lethal force. Future fully autonomous weapons will be able to search for, identify and engage targets without human intervention, raising the question of who is responsible for the moral and ethical considerations of using such weapons. In the chaos of war, people are fallible, but they can apply judgement and discretion and identify subtle signals. For example, humans can identify when an enemy wants to surrender, are burying their dead, or are assisting non-combatants. An autonomous weapon may not be so discerning and may not be capable of being programmed to apply discretion, compassion, or mercy, nor can it adapt commanders’ intent or apply initiative. Before fully autonomous weapons use lethal force, it is argued that there needs to be assurances that the ethical implications are understood and that control mechanisms are in place to ensure that oversight of the system is able to prevent incidents that could amount to breaches of the laws of armed conflict.

  18. 31 CFR 539.402 - Effect of amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of amendment. 539.402 Section 539.402 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  19. 31 CFR 539.502 - Effect of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of license. 539.502 Section 539.502 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  20. Environmental aspects of the demilitarization and destruction of ordnance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radun B. Jeremić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, the Serbian Army has been facing the problem of surplus of various ordnance, which resulted from the changes in the organizational structure and rationalization. In addition, at several locations in Serbia there is still a large amount of unexploded ordnance remaining after the NATO bombing. The paper examined the environmental aspects of the destruction of surplus ammunition and unexploded ordnance. A brief survey of the methods of destruction and the technological conditions for their implementation are presented. The impact of toxic constituents of ordnance on human health and the environment is analyzed in particular. In order to minimize environmental risks during the demilitarization process of ordnance, appropriate proposals are given.

  1. On-matrix derivatization extraction of chemical weapons convention relevant alcohols from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2013-10-11

    Present study deals with the on-matrix derivatization-extraction of aminoalcohols and thiodiglycols, which are important precursors and/or degradation products of VX analogues and vesicants class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The method involved hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) mediated in situ silylation of analytes on the soil. Subsequent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized analytes offered better recoveries in comparison to the procedure recommended by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Various experimental conditions such as extraction solvent, reagent and catalyst amount, reaction time and temperature were optimized. Best recoveries of analytes ranging from 45% to 103% were obtained with DCM solvent containing 5%, v/v HMDS and 0.01%, w/v iodine as catalyst. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes ranged from 8 to 277 and 21 to 665ngmL(-1), respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode.

  2. Pragmatism of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s and European Union’s Strategic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    unilateral missions in the region, to include China, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Kenya , Malaysia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and...preparedness Proliferation of Ballistic Missiles Spread of missile technology Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction to include Nuclear...sustain concurrent Joint operations along with several smaller operations Robust, mobile , and deployable conventional force capability

  3. Siblings and Adolescent Weapon Carrying: Contributions of Genetics, Shared Environment, and Nonshared Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lacey N

    2017-07-01

    Many past studies have observed evidence of sibling similarity and influence for delinquency and substance use. However, studies of sibling similarity for adolescent weapon carrying, particularly for weapons beyond firearms, are largely absent from the literature. The present study assesses sibling similarity in weapon carrying as well as the relative contributions of genetics, shared environment, and nonshared environment. Data are obtained from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and analyzed using biometrical genetic models for twins and actor-partner interdependence models for nontwins. Results indicate little, if any, contribution stemming from genetics. There is also no evidence of a significant shared environment effect. Instead, all or nearly all of the variation and similarity in weapon carrying among siblings are related to the nonshared environment, particularly gang affiliation. Implications and possible extensions of these findings are discussed.

  4. From the Magic of Light to the Destruction of Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Life on the Earth depends on the light from the Sun. Humans generally have a very positive attitude towards light. This paper discusses the 'magic of light' - i.e. our dependence on and even addiction to light - and how it gradually led to the destruction of natural darkness by means of excessive artificial illumination. Furthermore, we develop a theory of the aesthetic value of natural nightscapes, which we illustrate by masterpieces from the history of painting.

  5. Damage assessment of long-range rocket system by electromagnetic pulse weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lingyu; Liu, Guoqing; Li, Jinming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyzes the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, establishes the index system of survivability of long-range rocket launcher system, and uses AHP method to establish the combat effectiveness model of long-range rocket missile system. According to the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, the damage effect of the remote rocket system is established by using the exponential method to realize the damage efficiency of the remote rocket system.

  6. 31 CFR 539.802 - Delegation by the Secretary of the Treasury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation by the Secretary of the Treasury. 539.802 Section 539.802 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION...

  7. 77 FR 71097 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... List AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends.... The Entity List notifies the public that certain exports, reexports, and transfers (in-country) of... present significant risks of diversion to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs, terrorism, or other...

  8. Modeling of organic pollutant destruction in a stirred-tank reactor by ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Destruction of organic contaminants in water by ozonation is a gas-liquid process which involves ozone mass transfer and fast irreversible chemical reactions. Ozonation reactor design and process optimizing require the modeling of the gas-liquid interactions within the reactor. In this paper a theoretical model combining the fluid dynamic and reaction kineticparameters is proposed for predicting the destruction rates of organic pollutants in a semi-batch stirred-tank reactor by ozonation. A simple expression for the enhancement factor as ourprevious work (Cheng, 2000) has been applied to evaluate the chemical mass transfer coefficient in ozone absorption.2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-DCP or their mixture are chosen as the model compounds for simulating, and the predicted DCP oundation item: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 20006006) ncentrations are compared with some measured data.

  9. [Mobbing as the syndrome of destructive professiogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, P I

    2013-01-01

    Mobbing has entered reference books as the syndrome including harassment and insult of employees in the workplaces for the purpose of constraint for dismissal. In the framework of the synergetic methodology, fractal dynamics of mobbing sociogenesis, psychogenesis and somatogenesis have been separated. Approaches to early diagnostics and prevention in the framework of the strategies of adaptive professiogenesis formation have been explained. A system approach to development of preventive-correctional and treatment-rehabilitation medicopsychosocial programs has been proposed.

  10. Furthering the Enzymatic Destruction of Nerve Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    0.1 mg of CoCl2⋅6H2O, 0.1 mg of ZnSO4⋅7H2O, 0.02 mg of H3BO3, 0.01 mg of Na2MoO4⋅ 2H2O , 0.01 mg of CuSO4 , and 1 g of O O...mg of thiamine, 6 mg of MgSO4⋅7H2O, 3 mg of nitrilotriacetic acid, 48 mg of K2SO4, 1 mg of MnSO4⋅H2O, 2.8 mg of FeSO4⋅7H2O, 0.1 mg of CaCl2⋅ 2H2O

  11. Destruction of public and governmental experiments of GMO in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compile the destruction of GMO trials from academic or governmental research institutes in Europe, in a factual manner and to highlight their main characteristics. About 80 acts of vandalism against academic or governmental research on GMOs are identified, mainly in 4 countries; namely France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Examples are also provided for Italy and Belgium. The general conclusions that can be drawn from these acts are also discussed.

  12. The association between periodontal disease and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis extends the link between the HLA‐DR shared epitope and severity of bone destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotte, H; Farge, P; Gaudin, P; Alexandre, C; Mougin, B; Miossec, P

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a possible association between wrist and periodontal destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, and between periodontal destruction, dry mouth, and labial salivary gland biopsy and the contribution of genetic factors (the shared epitope (SE) and IL1B (+3954) or TNFA (−238 or −308) gene polymorphisms). Methods 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled. Periodontal damage was defined according to the Hugoson and Jordan criteria on panoramic dental x rays. Typing for the SE and cytokine polymorphisms was undertaken by enzyme linked oligosorbent assay. Odds ratios (OR), relative risk (RR), and χ2 values were calculated to quantify associations. Results An association was observed between wrist and periodontal bone destruction (χ2 = 11.82; pperiodontal destruction, 31 had wrist destruction alone, 20 had periodontal destruction alone, and 33 had no destruction at either site. An association was seen between a positive labial salivary gland biopsy and periodontal bone destruction (RR = 2.73 (95% CI, 1.35 to 5.51), pperiodontal bone destruction (OR = 2.2 (1.04 to 4.84), pperiodontal bone destruction. The destruction risk was further increased in patients with sicca syndrome. The SE appears to be a severity genetic marker for both wrist and periodontal bone destruction. PMID:16284099

  13. The association between periodontal disease and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis extends the link between the HLA-DR shared epitope and severity of bone destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotte, H; Farge, P; Gaudin, P; Alexandre, C; Mougin, B; Miossec, P

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate a possible association between wrist and periodontal destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, and between periodontal destruction, dry mouth, and labial salivary gland biopsy and the contribution of genetic factors (the shared epitope (SE) and IL1B (+3954) or TNFA (-238 or -308) gene polymorphisms). 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled. Periodontal damage was defined according to the Hugoson and Jordan criteria on panoramic dental x rays. Typing for the SE and cytokine polymorphisms was undertaken by enzyme linked oligosorbent assay. Odds ratios (OR), relative risk (RR), and chi2 values were calculated to quantify associations. An association was observed between wrist and periodontal bone destruction (chi2=11.82; pperiodontal destruction, 31 had wrist destruction alone, 20 had periodontal destruction alone, and 33 had no destruction at either site. An association was seen between a positive labial salivary gland biopsy and periodontal bone destruction (RR=2.73 (95% CI, 1.35 to 5.51), pperiodontal bone destruction (OR=2.2 (1.04 to 4.84), pperiodontal bone destruction. The destruction risk was further increased in patients with sicca syndrome. The SE appears to be a severity genetic marker for both wrist and periodontal bone destruction.

  14. A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

  15. The destruction of talents and social security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Balewski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Assuming O. Spengler’s remark, criticizing the enlightenment theory of linear, cumulative progress encompassing the whole of humanity and all manifestations of human activity, to be justified, an attempt should be made to search for ways to ensure the optimization of the path of development. Investigating the authors of the future progress of Europe’s regions unification appears especially relevant. It requires incessant research in order to identify the determinants of progress, which are considered to include processes, structure, as well as human beings themselves, especially the one considered to be a talent

  16. System of Non-Destructive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Čače

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the initial analysis of NDT laboratory is presented by means of agent-based modelling. For the purpose of analysis, laboratory is taken into account as a complex system consisting of three agents; equipment, personnel and specimens. Interaction between the agents is circular. In that sense, the agents are mutually interconnected in a way that one agent simultaneously interacts with others.According to the interactions specific for NDT laboratories, the response of total testing time is presented considering various number of laboratory personnel while each operator has different skills and ability. Agent personnel has to perform testing of specimens. Since the complexity of specimens is quite diverse the specimens are represented as an agent. Additionally, during the whole time sequence of testing a certain specimen, operator is using NDT equipment relevant for the testing method, while the particular time of usage of the equipment can be shorter than the whole testing time. Availability of the equipment is therefore another agent. The evaluated outcome is the total testing time.Presented results are obtained carrying out a simulation by means of multi-agent modelling and simulation tool named “ENTORAMA”. Finally, the overall laboratory's performance is given in the respect of the number and structure of the laboratory personnel.

  17. Department of Defense Small Business (SB) Program: A Knowledge-Level Analysis of How Customer Education Relates to Meeting SB Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    7 B. SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAM OVERVIEW ...........................................7 1. Women -Owned Small ...of Defense DSB Director of Small Business DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency EDWOSB economically disadvantaged women -owned small businesses EO...USTRANSCOM U.S. Transportation Command VOSB veteran-owned small business WMD weapons of mass destruction WOSB women -owned small business xiv

  18. Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2016-08-01

    Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a long-standing theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58

  19. Destruction of Energetic Materials in Supercritical Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-25

    THERMOCHEMISTRY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER...fringe spacing is 13.5 µm and the acoustic signal period is 28.3 ns. 138 SECTION VI THERMOCHEMISTRY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS IN...validation calculation studied the solvation free energies of alkali–chloride ion pairs in liquid water. Such information can teach us about the

  20. The Destruction of American Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Steven, Ed.

    Responding to the need for a comprehensive source of information regarding the separation of American Indian children from their families, this book presents essays which: examine the Indian child-welfare crisis in contemporary, legal, and historical perspectives; document the human cost of the crisis to Indian parents, children, and communities;…

  1. The production and destruction of negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Single photon absorption-single electron detachment from few-electron atomic negative ions was studied. A crossed beam apparatus is being used to perform energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements following photodetachment. Forward-directed electrons were collected and energy analyzed. The kinetic energies and yields of the photoelectrons were obtained by fitting the spectral peaks to Gaussian functions. Electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are determined from these measurements. A ratio method in which the cross section for the ion of interest is measured relative to that of a reference ion was used. The study of the photodetachment of Li[sup [minus

  2. Destruction of solid tumors by immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Álvaro G.; Seoane, Jesús M.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2017-03-01

    The fractional cell kill is a mathematical expression describing the rate at which a certain population of cells is reduced to a fraction of itself. In order to investigate the fractional cell kill that governs the rate at which a solid tumor is lysed by a cell population of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs), we present several in silico simulations and mathematical analyses. When the CTLs eradicate efficiently the tumor cells, the models predict a correlation between the morphology of the tumors and the rate at which they are lysed. However, when the effectiveness of the immune cells is decreased, the mathematical function fails to reproduce the process of lysis. This limit is thoroughly discussed and a new fractional cell kill is proposed.

  3. Observational Signatures of Self-Destructive Civilisations

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Adam; O'Malley-James, Jack

    2015-01-01

    We address the possibility that intelligent civilisations that destroy themselves could present signatures observable by humanity. Placing limits on the number of self-destroyed civilisations in the Milky Way has strong implications for the final three terms in Drake's Equation, and would allow us to identify which classes of solution to Fermi's Paradox fit with the evidence (or lack thereof). Using the Earth as an example, we consider a variety of scenarios in which humans could extinguish their own technological civilisation. Each scenario presents some form of observable signature that could be probed by astronomical campaigns to detect and characterise extrasolar planetary systems. Some observables are unlikely to be detected at interstellar distances, but some scenarios are likely to produce significant changes in atmospheric composition that could be detected serendipitously with next-generation telescopes. In some cases, the timing of the observation would prove crucial to detection, as the decay of si...

  4. Catalytic destruction of toxic organic chamicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for the conversion of toxic hydrocarbons and halocarbons materials to non-toxic by-products. It comprises contacting the toxic materials with an effective amount of catalyst in the presence of oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas, wherein the catalyst consists essentially of a metal selected from the group consisting of manganese, copper, silver, iron, and aluminum, or a metal oxide selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt oxide, aluminum oxide, vanadium oxide, tungsten oxide, molybdenum oxide, and mixtures thereof, and wherein the metal or metal oxide is impregnated on or dispersed in an alkali metal carbonate, alkali metal bicarbonate, alkali-earth metal carbonate or alkali-earth metal bicarbonate, or mixtures thereof.

  5. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    such as carbon and aramid fiber reinforced polymer composites . The results of such an effort would be improved by an enhanced THz imaging system...bending damage, and (e) sub-surface voids and delamination. ..................................39 14. Ultrasonic scans of fiberglass composite samples at...products [4], and polymer matrix composites (PMCs) [5, 6, 7]. This thesis provides a comparison study of pulsed terahertz imaging versus conventional

  6. Death investigation after the destruction of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, B L; Streed, T

    1994-05-01

    Unavailable in the literature is any reference to an investigation of death after evidence has been destroyed. In this presentation two firearms and the bullet were melted after the death was certified as a suicide. A team of investigators conducted a psychological autopsy as well as shot patterns to determine the distance from the gun muzzle to the head to determine whether or not the wound was a contact type. The resolution of the case is discussed and the factor of local politics and case prominence in the media is reviewed.

  7. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. 2008 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    century. “Words cannot describe the pride and joy I felt to be the physician who symbolically inducted my son into the profession of medicine by...died in an attack outside Baghdad while looking for weapons of mass destruction. A widow at 20, the once light-hearted bride was grief-stricken by

  8. Correlates of weapon carrying among high school students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2008-01-01

    Background Deaths and injuries arising from interpersonal violence among adolescents are major public health concerns in the United States. The bearing of weapons among adolescents is a critical factor in many of these deaths and injuries. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2005 United States Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Survey data was carried out to examine the variables associated with self-reported history of weapon carrying on school property among high school students. We used logistic regression analysis to assess the associations. Results Of the 13,707 respondents who participated in the survey, 10.2% of males and 2.6% of females reported carrying a weapon on school property. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, males were more likely to report having carried a weapon than females (odds ratio (OR) = 5.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) [4.23, 7.62]). Self-reported race/ethnicity was also associated with weapon carrying. Other variables positively associated with weapon carrying at school were substance use (OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.16, 2.68]), depression (OR = 1.44; 95% CI [1.10, 1.89]), suicidal ideation (OR = 1.64; 95% CI [1.23, 2.19]), having had property stolen or deliberately damaged at school (OR = 1.55; 95% CI [1.21, 1.98]), having been raped (OR = 1.70; 95% CI [1.22, 2.37]), having been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property (OR = 2.19; 95% CI [1.63, 2.95]), and having engaged in physical fighting (OR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.56, 2.63]). Conclusion This research identifies factors that are associated with weapon bearing among adolescents in the United States. These factors may be important in the design of interventions aimed at improving school safety and adolescent health. PMID:18605995

  9. Experimental Design of a UCAV-Based High-Energy Laser Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    DESIGN OF A UCAV-BASED HIGH- ENERGY LASER WEAPON by Antonios Lionis December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Keith R. Cohn Co-Advisor: Eugene Paulo...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF A UCAV-BASED HIGH- ENERGY LASER WEAPON 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  10. Effectiveness Testing and Evaluation of Non-Lethal Weapons for Crowd Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Weapons”) • Participants were recruited from the general population to participate in an investigation on “ Crowd Movement ” • Fifty-two healthy men...U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center EFFECTIVENESS TESTING AND EVALUATION OF NON-LETHAL WEAPONS FOR CROWD MANAGEMENT...SUBTITLE EFFECTIVENESS TESTING AND EVALUATION OF NON-LETHAL WEAPONS FOR CROWD MANAGEMENT Presented at the Virtual 82nd Military Operations Research

  11. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

    1999-05-07

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

  12. Observational signatures of self-destructive civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam; Forgan, Duncan; James, Jack O'malley

    2016-10-01

    We address the possibility that intelligent civilizations that destroy themselves could present signatures observable by humanity. Placing limits on the number of self-destroyed civilizations in the Milky Way has strong implications for the final three terms in Drake's Equation, and would allow us to identify which classes of solution to Fermi's Paradox fit with the evidence (or lack thereof). Using the Earth as an example, we consider a variety of scenarios in which humans could extinguish their own technological civilization. Each scenario presents some form of observable signature that could be probed by astronomical campaigns to detect and characterize extrasolar planetary systems. Some observables are unlikely to be detected at interstellar distances, but some scenarios are likely to produce significant changes in atmospheric composition that could be detected serendipitously with next-generation telescopes. In some cases, the timing of the observation would prove crucial to detection, as the decay of signatures is rapid compared with humanity's communication lifetime. In others, the signatures persist on far longer timescales.

  13. Non-destructive splitter of twisted light

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    Efficiently discriminating beams carrying different orbital angular momentum (OAM) is of fundamental importance for various applications including high capacity optical communication and quantum information processing. We design and experimentally verify a distinguished method for effectively splitting different OAM-carried beams by introducing Dove prisms in a ring cavity. Because of rotational symmetry broken of two OAM-carried beams with opposite topological charges, their transmission spectra will split. When mode and impedance matches between the cavity and one OAM-carried beam are achieved, this beam will transmit through the cavity, and other beam will be reflected without being destroyed their spatial shapes. In this case, the cavity acts like a polarized beam splitter. The transmitting beam can be selected at your will. The splitting efficiency can reach unity if the cavity is lossless and it completely matches with the beam. Beams carry multi-OAMs can also be effectively split by cascading ring cavi...

  14. Killing Fields: The Deadly Legacy of Landmines. Study Guide. Episode #738. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Defense Information, Washington, DC.

    This program explores the dangers of landmines as "weapons of mass destruction in slow motion." These hidden killers have been called the "perfect soldier"--never sleeping and never missing--yet kill thousands of people each year, many innocent civilians. The study guide offers questions to use before viewing the video,…

  15. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  16. The health hazard assessment process in support of joint weapon system acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluchinsky, Timothy A; Jokel, Charles R; Cambre, John V; Goddard, Donald E; Batts, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Since 1981, the Army's HHA Program has provided an invaluable service to combat developers and materiel program managers by providing recommendations designed to eliminate or control health hazards associated with materiel and weapon systems. The program has consistently strived to improve its services by providing more meaningful and efficient assistance to the acquisition community. In the uncertain fiscal times ahead, the Army's HHA Program will continue to provide valuable and cost-effective solutions to mitigate the health risks of weapons systems.

  17. Simulation of Fighter Aircraft Weapon Systems for Design and Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Subramanyam

    1997-01-01

    Simulation forms an essential tool in the system design and performance evaluation of fighter aircraft weapon systems. The various guidance strategies used for weapons like guns, missiles, bombs in the air-to-air or air-to-ground missions, for aiding the pilot for an effective delivery have been studied through extensive off-line and pilot-in-loop simulation. The pilot workload analysis carried out in the high fidelity cockpit simulator at the Aeronautical Development Agency , Bangalor...

  18. Predictors of Weapon-Related Behaviors Among African-American, Latino, and White Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Boots, Denise Paquette; Lin, Hua; Cheng, Tina L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify risk and protective factors for weapon involvement among African-American, Latino, and white adolescents. Study design The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is a nationally-representative survey of 7th–12th grade students. Predictors at Wave 1 and outcome at Wave 2 were analyzed. Data were collected in the mid-1990s, when rates of violent crime had been declining. The outcome was a dichotomous measure of weapon-involvement in the past year, created using 3 items (weapon-carrying, pulled gun/knife, shot/stabbed someone). Bivariate and multilevel logistic regression analyses examined associations of individual, peer, family, and community characteristics with weapon involvement; stratified analyses were conducted with African-American, Latino, and white subsamples. Results Emotional distress and substance use were risk factors for all groups. Violence exposure and peer delinquency were risk factors for whites and African Americans. Gun availability in the home was associated with weapon involvement for African Americans only. High educational aspirations were protective for African Americans and Latinos, but higher family connectedness was protective for Latinos only. Conclusions Interventions to prevent weapon-related behaviors among African American, Latino, and white adolescents may benefit from addressing emotional distress and substance use. Risk and protective factors vary by race/ethnicity after adjusting for individual, peer, family, and community characteristics. Addressing violence exposure, minimizing the influence of delinquent peers, promoting educational aspirations, and enhancing family connectedness could guide tailoring of violence prevention interventions. PMID:26778260

  19. Predictors of Weapon-Related Behaviors among African American, Latino, and White Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Boots, Denise Paquette; Lin, Hua; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-04-01

    To identify risk and protective factors for weapon involvement among African American, Latino, and white adolescents. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is a nationally representative survey of 7th-12th grade students. Predictors at wave 1 and outcome at wave 2 were analyzed. Data were collected in the mid-1990s, when rates of violent crime had been declining. The outcome was a dichotomous measure of weapon-involvement in the past year, created using 3 items (weapon-carrying, pulled gun/knife, shot/stabbed someone). Bivariate and multilevel logistic regression analyses examined associations of individual, peer, family, and community characteristics with weapon involvement; stratified analyses were conducted with African American, Latino, and white subsamples. Emotional distress and substance use were risk factors for all groups. Violence exposure and peer delinquency were risk factors for whites and African Americans. Gun availability in the home was associated with weapon involvement for African Americans only. High educational aspirations were protective for African Americans and Latinos, but higher family connectedness was protective for Latinos only. Interventions to prevent weapon-related behaviors among African American, Latino, and white adolescents may benefit from addressing emotional distress and substance use. Risk and protective factors vary by race/ethnicity after adjusting for individual, peer, family, and community characteristics. Addressing violence exposure, minimizing the influence of delinquent peers, promoting educational aspirations, and enhancing family connectedness could guide tailoring of violence prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental research on plasma destruction of bone tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovin O.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main condition in achieving a favorable outcome is surgical treatment of patients with tumor-like diseases and benign bone tumors erosion of neoplasm within the healthy tissues. To reduce the number of recurrences the various chemical and physical methods on resection areas have been performed. The authors have proposed a new method of low temperature plasma treatment of bone tissue with the temperature of 20000°C. Exposing the plasma flow on bone tissue leads to loss of all cellular elements including neoplastic elements with preservation of the mineral bone structure. The direct correlation between the capacity of the plasma flow and intensity of bone destruction has been defined. This allows a differentiated use of plasma destruction in skeletal bones according to anatomy, size and type of bone tissue (spongy or cortical as well as patient's individual condition of the tissue

  1. Threat is in the Sex of the Beholder: Men Find Weapons Faster than do Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Sulikowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In visual displays, people locate potentially threatening stimuli, such as snakes, spiders, and weapons, more quickly than similar benign stimuli, such as beetles and gadgets. Such biases are likely adaptive, facilitating fast responses to potential threats. Currently, and historically, men have engaged in more weapons-related activities (fighting and hunting than women. If biases of visual attention for weapons result from selection pressures related to these activities, then we would predict such biases to be stronger in men than in women. The current study reports the results of two visual search experiments, in which men showed a stronger bias of attention toward guns and knives than did women, whether the weapons were depicted wielded or not. When the weapons were depicted wielded, both sexes searched for them with more caution than when they were not. Neither of these effects extended reliably to syringes, a non-weapon—yet potentially threatening—object. The findings are discussed with respect to the “weapons effect” and social coercion theory.

  2. Laser-induced propagation and destruction of amyloid beta fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hisashi; Ozawa, Daisaku; Sakurai, Kazumasa; Kawakami, Toru; Kuyama, Hiroki; Nishimura, Osamu; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Kuboi, Ryoichi; Naiki, Hironobu; Goto, Yuji

    2010-06-18

    The amyloid deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides is a critical pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Preventing the formation of amyloid deposits and removing preformed fibrils in tissues are important therapeutic strategies against AD. Previously, we reported the destruction of amyloid fibrils of beta(2)-microglobulin K3 fragments by laser irradiation coupled with the binding of amyloid-specific thioflavin T. Here, we studied the effects of a laser beam on Abeta fibrils. As was the case for K3 fibrils, extensive irradiation destroyed the preformed Abeta fibrils. However, irradiation during spontaneous fibril formation resulted in only the partial destruction of growing fibrils and a subsequent explosive propagation of fibrils. The explosive propagation was caused by an increase in the number of active ends due to breakage. The results not only reveal a case of fragmentation-induced propagation of fibrils but also provide insights into therapeutic strategies for AD.

  3. Seismic damage and destructive potential of seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Petrazzuoli

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been written within a research framework investigating the destructive potential of seismic events. The elastic response spectra seem insufficient to explain the behaviour of structures subject to large earthquakes in which they experience extensive plastic deformations. Recent works emphasise that there were many difficulties in the definition of a single pararneter linked to the destl-uctive potential of an earthquake. In this work a study on the effect of frequency content on structural damage has been carried out. The behaviour of two different elastoplastic oscillators has been analysed, considering several artificial earthquakes. The results obtained suggest a method for evaluating the destructive seismic potential of an earthquake through the response spectra ad the frequency content of the signal. and through the mechai~ical characteristics of the structures within the analysed area.

  4. The empty mother: women's fear of their destructive envy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, C S

    2000-10-01

    This paper explains the importance of understanding the little girl's envy of her mother and how the resolution of this envy (and her fear of other women's envy) is crucial to a woman's development. I postulate that envy is a universal part of female development (with more or less destructive effects on a woman's personality, depending on the libidinal/sexual components of her attachment to both parents). I hope to show that by interpreting a woman's fear of her destructive envy, one can free her not only to enjoy her own sexuality and to find appropriate ways to express her aggression, but also to be more creative. I believe that guilt about these envious feelings often leads to profound inhibitions and masochistic behavior. Two clinical examples illustrate how envy manifests itself in treatment with a woman analyst, and how the working through of intense envious feelings leads to a greater ability to enjoy one's own capacities without constant fear of retribution.

  5. Destruction of Pacific Corals by the Sea Star Acanthaster planci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesher, R H

    1969-07-18

    Acanthaster planci, a coral predator, is undergoing a population explosion in many areas of the Pacific Ocean. Data on feeding rates, population movements, and stages of infestation were collected along coral reefs of Guam and Palau. Direct observations on destruction of Guam's coral reefs indicate that narrow, fringing reefs may be killed as rapidly as 1 kilometer per month. In a 2(1/2)-year period, 90 percent of the coral was killed along 38 kilometers of Guam's shoreline.

  6. Non-destructive elecrochemical monitoring of reinforcement corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    been widely accepted as a non-destructive ”state of the art” technique for detection of corrosion in concrete structures. And, over the last decade, the trend in corrosion monitoring has moved towards quantitative non-destructive monitoring of the corrosion rate of the steel reinforcement. A few...... corrosion rate measurement instruments have been developed and are commercially available. The main features of these instruments are the combined use of an electrochemical technique for determining the corrosion rate and a so-called ”confinement technique”, which in principle controls the polarised surface...... area of the reinforcement, i.e. the measurement area. Both on-site investigations and laboratory studies have shown that varying corrosion rates are obtained when the various commercially available instruments are used. And in the published studies, conflicting explanations are given illustrating...

  7. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological...... of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost...... damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil) dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from...

  8. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological...... damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil) dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from...... of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost...

  9. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  10. Destructive adsorption of carbon tetrachloride on lanthanum and cerium oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Rosynek, M.P.; Lunsford, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The destructive adsorption of CCl4 on La2O3 and CeO2 in the absence of any oxidant, such as oxygen, has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and insitu Raman spectroscopy as a function of the reaction temperature and the amount of CCl4 injected. La2O3 was much more reactive than CeO2, an

  11. Pisanello’s hat. The costume and weapons depicted in Pisanello’s medal for John VIII Palaeologus. A discussion of the saber and related weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander, David

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of six drawings by the Veronese artist Antonio Pisano depicted the Bizantine Emperor John VIII Paleologus wearing costumes and weapons according to islamic types. This paper studies these objects in relation to other contemporary islamic weapons.

    Un grupo de seis dibujos del artista veronés Antonio Pisano representa al emperador bizantino Juan VIII Paleólogo vestido y armado según modelos islámicos. Este trabajo estudia dichos objetos en relación a otras armas islámicas contemporáneas.

  12. Rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip joint: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMurtrie A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip is a rare and incompletely understood disorder with scarce literature about variations in natural history within a population. Methods A series of cases from North Wales with rapid progressive joint destruction and extensive subchondral bone loss in the femoral head and acetabulum are presented. Radiographic findings mimicked those of other disorders such as septic arthritis, rheumatoid and seronegative arthritis, primary osteonecrosis with secondary osteoarthritis, or neuropathic osteoarthropathy, but none of the patients had clinical, pathologic, or laboratory evidence of these entities. Results Rapid progression of hip pain and disability was a consistent clinical feature. The average duration of symptoms was 1.4 years. Radiographs obtained at various intervals before surgery (average 14 months in 18 patients documented rapid hip destruction, involvement being unilateral in 13 cases. All patients underwent total hip arthroplasty, and osteoarthritis was confirmed at pathologic examination. Conclusion The authors postulate that these cases represent an uncommon subset of osteoarthritis and regular review, both clinically and radiologically, are required to assess speed of progression and prevent rapid loss of bone stock without the surgeon being aware. These cases are unsuitable for being placed on long waiting list due to technical difficulties in delayed surgery and compromised outcome following surgery.

  13. [Medical magic of Paracelsus and Paracelsus followers: weapon salve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Jahncke, W D

    1993-01-01

    The doctrine of 'transplantatio morborum' may be considered a branch of the 'magia naturalis'-philosophy which was widespread in the sixteenth century. According to this doctrine, ailments and remedies can be transferred from one body to another. A further example of this field of medicine is gun salve, which we find mentioned particularly in the works of the Paracelsists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Even though salve of various types had already been used for some time in the treatment of stab wounds, gun salve was imputed to have magnetic properties which gave rise to 'actio in distans', whereby the smearing of gun salve onto the weapon caused the wound to be healed. An early example of a description of its formula can be found in the first book of the 'Archidoxis magica': one of the works which have been wrongly attributed to Paracelsus. Early in the seventeenth century, this formula for gun salve--frequently with modifications--found its way into the writings of the followers of Paracelsian doctrine: of Oswald Croll, for example, or Rudolph Goclenius. When the concept of 'actio in distans' was propounded, an argument soon developed as to whether gun salve should be classified under 'magia naturalis' or 'magia daemoniaca'. Determined opposition to Goclenius was proferred in the person of Jean Roberti, a Belgian Jesuit who accused the Protestant Goclenius of consorting with demons. A number of treatises appeared in close succession, with Johann Baptist van Helmont emerging as the mediator in the argument. Yet he too came under attack at the hand of the Jesuit Roberti, with the result that, at least by the time Athanasius Kircher had also become embroiled in the debate, the dispute was pursued principally between orthodox Trentino Catholicism and heterodox Protestantism. An analysis of the writings on the subject of gun salve demonstrates how easily a discussion which was originally of a purely medical, scientific nature could lead to a religious

  14. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G. P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-02-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave "La grotte du Renne" in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000-34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe-K or Mn-K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  15. Long Wave Infrared Detection of Chemical Weapons Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2007-04-27

    The purpose of Task 3.b under PL02-OP211I-PD07 (CBW simulant detection) was to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor work developed under this project for chemical and biological weapons detection. To this end, the specific goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of detection of chemical agents via that of simulants (Freons) with similar spectroscopic features. This has been achieved using Freon-125 as a simulant, a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), and a Herriott cell-based sensor developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) specifically for this task. The experimentally obtained spectrum of this simulant matches that found in the Northwest Infrared (NWIR) spectral library extremely well, demonstrating the ability of this technique to detect the exact shape of this feature, which in turn indicates the ability to recognize the simulant even in the presence of significant interference. It has also been demonstrated that the detected features of a typical interferent, namely water, are so different in shape and width to the simulant, that they are easily recognized and separated from such a measurement. Judging from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the experimental data obtained, the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity is estimated to be 0.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-6 cm-1. For the particular feature of the simulant examined in this work, this corresponds to a relative concentration of 50 to 25 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). The corresponding relative concentrations of other chemical targets would differ depending on the particular transition strengths, and would thus have to be scaled accordingly.

  16. Thermal and destructive interrogation of ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojard, Greg; Doza, Douglas; Ouyang, Zhong; Angel, Paul; Smyth, Imelda; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are intended for elevated temperature use and their performance at temperature must be clearly understood as insertion efforts are to be realized. Most efforts to understand ceramic matrix composites at temperature are based on their lifetime at temperature under stress based on fatigue or creep testing or residual testing after some combination of temperature, stress and time. While these efforts can be insightful especially based on their mechanical performance, there is no insight into how other properties are changing with thermal exposure. To gain additional insight into oxidation behavior of CMC samples, a series of fatigue and creep samples tested at two different temperatures were non-destructively interrogated after achieving run-out conditions by multiple thermal methods and limited X-ray CT. After non-destructive analysis, residual tensile tests were undertaken at room temperature. The resulting residual properties will be compared against the non-destructive data. Analysis will be done to see if data trends can be determined and correlated to the level and duration of exposure.

  17. Air guns: toys or weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

    2006-09-01

    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  18. Application of Non-destructive Techniques in Evaluation of Wood Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGLijuan; JIANGXiaomei; YINYafang; ZHANGShuangbao

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of wood and wood products demands in the world, non-destructive evaluation techniques of wood are more and more important. This article clarifies the importance and present situation of non-destructive evaluation and introduces some instruments about non-destructive evaluation, and some advice and ideas are put forward.

  19. Guns in Intimate Partner Violence: Comparing Incidents by Type of Weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the frequency, nature, and outcome of weapon use in intimate partner violence (IPV) and to assess compliance with related gun policies. Data were drawn from forms police are mandated to complete at the scene of IPV in the fifth largest U.S. city during 2013. Proportions were calculated and odds ratios were adjusted for demographic and contextual characteristics and a Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical tests was applied. Of the 35,413 incidents, 6,573 involved hands, fists, or feet, and 1,866 involved external weapons of which 576 were guns. Most incidents were male-on-female: 63.4% (no weapon), 77.4% (bodily weapon), 50.2% (nongun external weapon), and 79.5% (gun). Guns were used most often to threaten the partner (69.1%). When a gun (vs. bodily or nongun external weapon) was used, IPV victims were less likely to have visible injuries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.64 and 0.23, respectively)-offenders were less likely to have pushed or shoved, grabbed, punched, or kicked the victim-but (victims) were more likely to be frightened (AOR = 3.13 and 1.49, respectively). Weapon use of any type by an intimate partner is associated with a wide range of violent offender behavior and multiple negative outcomes for victims. The use of a gun has implications that include, but go beyond, physical injury of the victim. Documentation of the enforcement of state law regarding gun removal merits improvement, which has important implications for the evaluation of policies designed to keep guns out of the hands of abusers.

  20. Pole-weapons in the Sagas of Icelanders: a comparison of literary and archaeological sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkisz Jan H.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic sagas are a major source of information on the Vikings and their fighting prowess. In these stories, several mysterious pole-weapons appear, which are often called “halberds”, for lack of a better word. In order to better identify what these weapons could have been, and to provide a better understanding of how the sagas relate to the Viking-age events they describe, we confront textual and archaeological evidence for several of these weapons (the höggspjót, the atgeirr, the kesja, the krókspjót, the bryntroll and the fleinn, keeping in mind the contextualisation of their appearances in sagas. The description of the use of each weapon allows to pick several candidates likely to correspond to the studied word. Without a perfect knowledge of what context the authors of the sagas wanted to describe, it appears to be impossible to give a final answer. However, we show that some specific types of spears are good candidates for some of the studied weapons.

  1. Role of PTPα in the destruction of periodontal connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshankar, Dhaarmini; Sima, Corneliu; Wang, Qin; Goldberg, Stephanie R; Kazembe, Mwayi; Wang, Yongqiang; Glogauer, Michael; Downey, Gregory P; McCulloch, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    IL-1β contributes to connective tissue destruction in part by up-regulating stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), which in fibroblasts is a focal adhesion-dependent process. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-α (PTPα) is enriched in and regulates the formation of focal adhesions, but the role of PTPα in connective tissue destruction is not defined. We first examined destruction of periodontal connective tissues in adult PTPα(+/+) and PTPα(-/-) mice subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis, which increases the levels of multiple cytokines, including IL-1β. Three weeks after ligation, maxillae were processed for morphometry, micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Compared with unligated controls, there was ∼1.5-3 times greater bone loss as well as 3-fold reduction of the thickness of the gingival lamina propria and 20-fold reduction of the amount of collagen fibers in WT than PTPα(-/-) mice. Immunohistochemical staining of periodontal tissue showed elevated expression of MMP-3 at ligated sites. Second, to examine mechanisms by which PTPα may regulate matrix degradation, human MMP arrays were used to screen conditioned media from human gingival fibroblasts treated with vehicle, IL-1β or TNFα. Although MMP-3 was upregulated by both cytokines, only IL-1β stimulated ERK activation in human gingival fibroblasts plated on fibronectin. TIRF microscopy and immunoblotting analyses of cells depleted of PTPα activity with the use of various mutated constructs or with siRNA or PTPα(KO) and matched wild type fibroblasts were plated on fibronectin to enable focal adhesion formation and stimulated with IL-1β. These data showed that the catalytic and adaptor functions of PTPα were required for IL-1β-induced focal adhesion formation, ERK activation and MMP-3 release. We conclude that inflammation-induced connective tissue degradation involving fibroblasts requires functionally active PTPα and in part is mediated by IL-1β signaling through focal adhesions.

  2. Role of PTPα in the destruction of periodontal connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaarmini Rajshankar

    Full Text Available IL-1β contributes to connective tissue destruction in part by up-regulating stromelysin-1 (MMP-3, which in fibroblasts is a focal adhesion-dependent process. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-α (PTPα is enriched in and regulates the formation of focal adhesions, but the role of PTPα in connective tissue destruction is not defined. We first examined destruction of periodontal connective tissues in adult PTPα(+/+ and PTPα(-/- mice subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis, which increases the levels of multiple cytokines, including IL-1β. Three weeks after ligation, maxillae were processed for morphometry, micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Compared with unligated controls, there was ∼1.5-3 times greater bone loss as well as 3-fold reduction of the thickness of the gingival lamina propria and 20-fold reduction of the amount of collagen fibers in WT than PTPα(-/- mice. Immunohistochemical staining of periodontal tissue showed elevated expression of MMP-3 at ligated sites. Second, to examine mechanisms by which PTPα may regulate matrix degradation, human MMP arrays were used to screen conditioned media from human gingival fibroblasts treated with vehicle, IL-1β or TNFα. Although MMP-3 was upregulated by both cytokines, only IL-1β stimulated ERK activation in human gingival fibroblasts plated on fibronectin. TIRF microscopy and immunoblotting analyses of cells depleted of PTPα activity with the use of various mutated constructs or with siRNA or PTPα(KO and matched wild type fibroblasts were plated on fibronectin to enable focal adhesion formation and stimulated with IL-1β. These data showed that the catalytic and adaptor functions of PTPα were required for IL-1β-induced focal adhesion formation, ERK activation and MMP-3 release. We conclude that inflammation-induced connective tissue degradation involving fibroblasts requires functionally active PTPα and in part is mediated by IL-1β signaling through focal adhesions.

  3. USE OF CARBON CATALYSTS FOR OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION OF WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana S. Stavitskaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility of using the catalytic action of the carbonaceous adsorbents modified by different ways for the purification of various solutions, natural and wastewaters. It has been found that the oxidative destruction of organic (phenols, dyes, pesticides, etc. and inorganic (H2S contaminants in water solutions is considerably intensified in the presence of both ordinary activated carbons and especially, carbons with specially introduced catalytic additives. It is shown that the sewage treatment level is strongly affected by the amount and nature of a modifying agent introduced on the carbon surface.

  4. [Penetration depth of missiles fired from a pneumatic weapon with kinetic energy below 17 J, in 20% gelatine blocks as correlated with injuries found during autopsy of a 9-year-old boy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedra-Kaźmirska, Anna; Barzdo, Maciej; Kedzierski, Maciej; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    In Poland, according to the Act About Weapons and Ammunition, an air weapon which has kinetic energy of the fired projectiles below 17 J does not require registration and can be bought even on the Internet. Sport and recreation shooting with this weapon basically have to be performed in shooting ranges, but can be also carried on outside of shooting ranges, providing "particular caution" is exercised. In this study, we presented a case of fatal shooting of a 9-year-old boy; the weapon was a Chinese pneumatic device weapon with kinetic energy of the fired projectiles below 17 J. The aim of this study was to compare autopsy findings with penetration depth of missiles fired from this pneumatic weapon in 20% gelatine blocks. During the experiment, we used a Chinese pneumatic weapon with kinetic energy below 17 J, five kinds of lead projectiles with different shape and mass and 20% gelatine blocks at the temperature of 10 degrees C, which were the model of human soft tissues.

  5. Survey of state-of-the-art technology in remote concealed weapon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Demma, Fred J.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Vannicola, Vincent C.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1995-09-01

    Recent advances in millimeter-wave (MMV), microwave, and infrared (IR) technologies provide the means to detect concealed weapons remotely through clothing and is some cases through walls. Since the developemnt of forward-looking infrared instruments, work has been ongoing in attempting to use these devices for concealed weapon detection based on temperatrue differences between metallic weapons and in the infrared has led to the development of techniques based on lower frequencies. Focal plane arrays operating MMW frequencies are becoming available which eliminate the need for a costly and slow mechanical scanner for generating images. These radiometric sensors also detect temperature differences between weapons and the human body background. Holographic imaging systems operating at both microwave and MMW frequencies have been developed which generate images of near photographic quality through clothing and through thin, nonmetallic walls. Finally, a real- aperture radar is useful for observing people and detecting weapons through walls and in the field under reduced visibility conditions. This paper will review all of these technologies and give examples of images generated by each type of sensor. An assessment of the future of this technology with regard to law enforcement applications will also be given.

  6. Risks of non-lethal weapon use: case studies of three French victims of stinger grenades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolan, V; Herry, C; Carreta, M; Stahl, C; Barret, L; Romanet, J P; Paysant, F

    2012-11-30

    The development of non-lethal weapons started in the 1960s. In France, they have been used by the police for about 10 years. We relate the cases of three French women, victims of stinger grenades, non-lethal weapons recently adopted by the French law enforcement to distract and disperse crowds. The three victims presented serious injuries requiring emergency surgical care. One lost her eye. Based on these cases, we discuss the lethal character of these weapons and propose measures to be taken to prevent their dramatic consequences. Although the danger is obviously less than for firearms, stinger grenades are nonetheless potentially lethal and cause serious physical injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  8. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone. 334.1380 Section... Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii—Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone. (a) The danger zone...″ W Point C: Latitude 21°25′01.79″ N, Longitude 157°40′33.70″ W (b) The regulations. (1) Weapons...

  9. An overview of weapons technologies used to improve US healthcare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Kovarik, T.L.

    1995-05-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories the Biomedical Engineering Program uses existing weapons-related technology in medical applications in order to reduce health care costs, improve diagnoses, and promote efficient health care delivery. This paper describes several projects which use Sandia technologies to solve biomedical problems. Specific technical capabilities that are important to this program include sensor data interpretation, robotics, lasers and optics, microelectronics, image processing and materials.

  10. Non-Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Stratetgic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Fluorescent Invisible – UV light visible Paint ball guns NON-LETHAL CASINGS ENCAPSULANTS TAGGERS – ACTIVE Italicized text signifies existing...preliminary legal review include gastrointestinal convulsives , calmative agents, sticky foam, aqueous foam, adhesives, malodorous agents, Oleoresin... convulsives , if classified as riot control agents (and not used on combatants), can be acceptable within the context of the Biological Weapons

  11. Masse en eau des feuilles : détermination non destructive en milieu naturel

    OpenAIRE

    Parcevaux, S. de; Bertolini, J.M.; Katerji, N.

    1995-01-01

    La masse en eau des feuilles peut être déterminée à partir de la cinétique de la température après une modification brutale du bilan d’énergie par un éclairement additionnel. Une étude critique de certains aspects techniques d’une méthode employée précédemment a conduit à des améliorations instrumentales (utilisation des fibres optiques et de capteurs thermiques différentiels sans contact). Il en résulte un appareillage portable permettant de travailler tant en conditions contrôlées que natur...

  12. Neurotoxic Weapons and Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The modern era of chemical and biological warfare began in World War I with the large-scale production and use of blistering and choking agents (chlorine, phosgene and mustard gases) in the battlefield. International treaties (the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention) banned biological and chemical weapons. However, several countries are probably still engaged in their development. Hence, there is risk of these weapons being used in the future. This chapter will focus on neurotoxic weapons (e.g. nerve agents, chemical and biological neurotoxins, psychostimulants), which act specifically or preeminently on the central nervous system and/or the neuromuscular junction. Deeply affecting the function of the nervous system, these agents either have incapacitating effects or cause clusters of casualties who manifest primary symptoms of encephalopathy, seizures, muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. The neurologist should be prepared both to notice patterns of symptoms and signs that are sufficiently consistent to raise the alarm of neurotoxic attacks and to define specific therapeutic interventions. Additionally, extensive knowledge on neurotoxic syndromes should stimulate scientific research to produce more effective antidotes and antibodies (which are still lacking for most neurotoxic weapons) for rapid administration in aerosolized forms in the case of terrorist or warfare scenarios. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Non destructive testing of works of art by terahertz analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Metayer, Jean-Jacques; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Improvements in technologies and the growing security needs in airport terminals lead to the development of non destructive testing devices using terahertz waves. Indeed, these waves have the advantage of being, on one hand, relatively penetrating. They also have the asset of not being ionizing. It is thus potentially an interesting contribution in the non destructive testing field. With the help of the VISIOM Company, the possibilities of this new industrial analysis method in assisting the restoration of works of art were then approached. The results obtained within this framework are presented here and compared with those obtained by infrared thermography. The results obtained show first that the THZ method, like the stimulated infrared thermography allows the detection of delamination located in murals paintings or in marquetries. They show then that the THZ method seems to allow detecting defects located relatively deeply (10 mm) and defects potentially concealed by other defects. It is an advantage compared to the stimulated infra-red thermography which does not make it possible to obtain these results. Furthermore, they show that the method does not seem sensitive to the various pigments constituting the pictorial layer, to the presence of a layer of "Japan paper" and to the presence of a layer of whitewash. It is not the case of the stimulated infrared thermography. It is another advantage of the THZ method. Finally, they show that the THZ method is limited in the detection of low-size defects. It is a disadvantage compared to the stimulated infrared thermography.

  14. Testing three explanations of the emergence of weapon carrying in peer context: the roles of aggression, victimization, and the social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Gest, Scott D; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relative contribution of weapon carrying of peers, aggression, and victimization to weapon carrying of male and female adolescents over time. Data were derived from a population-based sample of male (N = 224) and female (N = 244) adolescents followed from grade 10 (M age = 15.5) to grade 11 (M age = 16.5). Peer networks were derived from best friend nominations. Self-reports were used to assess weapon carrying. Aggression and victimization were assessed using both self- and peer-reports. Use of dynamic social network modeling (SIENA) allowed prediction of weapon carrying in grade 11 as a function of weapon carrying of befriended peers, aggression, and victimization in grade 10, while selection processes and structural network effects (reciprocity and transitivity) were controlled for. Peer influence processes accounted for changes in weapon carrying over time. Self-reported victimization decreased weapon carrying 1 year later. Peer-reported victimization increased the likelihood of weapon carrying, particularly for highly aggressive adolescents. Boys were more likely to carry weapons than girls, but the processes associated with weapon carrying did not differ for boys and girls. These findings revealed that, in this population-based sample, weapon carrying of best friends, as well as aggression, contributed to the proliferation of weapons in friendship networks, suggesting processes of peer contagion as well as individual vulnerability to weapon carrying. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of Secondary Phases in UNS S32760 Superduplex Stainless Steel by Destructive and Non-destructive Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandona, G.; Biezma, M. V.; Berrueta, J. M.; Berlanga, C.; Ruiz, A.

    2016-12-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS), with a microstructure of an approximately equal mixture of ferrite ( α) and austenite ( γ) phases, are susceptible to the formation of undesirable phases if manufacturing processes are not carefully controlled. In particular, sigma phase (σ) is a Cr- and Mo-rich intermetallic phase, formed generally when DSS are by the temperature range from 600 to 900 °C, even for very short time periods. The precipitation of this phase induces detrimental effects in mechanical and corrosion resistance properties in the material, and even a low volume percentage of σ phase can significantly affect these properties. The current paper presents the effect of thermal treatments on UNS S32760 superduplex stainless steel seamless tubes, applied in order to promote the precipitation of different σ phase percentages in a ferrite/austenite microstructure. The detection and quantification of the σ phase using non-destructive ultrasounds testing has been one of the most relevant events of this study that contributes to improving the correlation of the results obtained using destructive and non-destructive techniques for the quantification of undesirable phases in superduplex seamless tubes during the manufacturing process.

  16. Weapons and armament on the miniatures of Tabriz miniature school of the XV - XVI centuries

    OpenAIRE

    AHMADOV SABUHI AHMAD OGLU

    2015-01-01

    Tabriz miniature school is an important part of the art of the Middle East. The article discusses battle miniatures in which medieval artists reliably and historical accuracy depicted various weapons and armament. These miniatures can serve as an important historical source for the study of weapons of the XV XVI centuries. The main purpose of this article is to give the proof of these miniatures of art school which can be considered as a source for the study of arms and armament of the XV XVI...

  17. Full-Scale Dynamic Testing of Dolosse to Destruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that the relative dynamic strength of unreinforced slender concrete units decreases as the size increases. Big units can resist relatively smaller movements than small units. When model tests of cover layer stability are performed the determination of the damage criterion...... that should be adopted must therefore be based on knowledge of the dynamic strength of the corresponding prototype units. With the purpose of establishing a relationship between the size and the dynamic strength of unreinforced units, some full-scale tests to destruction of 1.5 and 5.4 t units were performed...

  18. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  19. Forms of destructive relationships among the employees: how many and what the extent of the spread?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Vveinhardt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Destructive behavior at work is one of the most important research topics affecting organizational performance standards and well-being. The article presented a scientific literature analysis and synthesis as well as the authors insight into destructive relationships in the work environment. There a various forms of destructive relationship in a workplace: mobbing, rare bullying, discrimination, nepotism, favoritism, cronyism, social ostracism, social loafing, organizational cynicism, depersonalization and cyber loafing. Destructive relationships shape the work environment has a negative impact on productivity, motivation, job satisfaction, health and promotes resignation. Destructive relationships among employees are explored in various sectors like transport and logistics, restaurants and catering, telecommunications, education and science and others.

  20. Destructive Examination of Shipping Package 9975-02019

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-13

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on the components of shipping package 9975-02019 as part of a comprehensive SRS surveillance program for plutonium material stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). During the field surveillance inspection of this package in KAC, two non-conforming conditions were noted: the axial gap of 1.577 inch exceeded the 1 inch maximum criterion, and two areas of dried glue residue were noted on the upper fiberboard subassembly. This package was subsequently transferred to SRNL for more detailed inspection and destructive examination. In addition to the conditions noted in KAC, the following conditions were noted: - Numerous small spots of corrosion were observed along the bottom edge of the drum. - In addition to the smeared glue residue on the upper fiberboard subassembly, there was also a small dark stain. - Mold was present on the side and bottom of the lower fiberboard subassembly. Dark stains from elevated moisture content were also present in these areas. - A dark spot with possible light corrosion was observed on the primary containment vessel flange, and corresponding rub marks were observed on the secondary containment vessel ID. - The fiberboard thermal conductivity in the radial orientation was above the specified range. When the test was repeated with slightly lower moisture content, the result was acceptable. The moisture content for both tests was within a range typical of other packages in storage. The observed conditions must be fully evaluated by KAC to ensure the safety function of the package is being maintained. Several factors can contribute to the concentration of moisture in the fiberboard, including higher than average initial moisture content, higher internal temperature (due to internal heat load and placement within the array of packages), and the creation of additional moisture as the fiberboard begins to degrade.