WorldWideScience

Sample records for weapons development board

  1. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates and assesses current developments...

  2. Discouraging ROK Development of Nuclear Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2013-01-01

    FY 2013-2014. Project Lead: Bruce Bennett Ironically, the greatest likelihood for nuclear proliferation in the coming years may come from U.S. allies. The development of nuclear weapons by South Korea (ROK) could result in a regional nuclear arms race and global failure of the Nonproliferation Treaty. As North Korean development of nuclear weapons continues irrespective of the U.S. security umbrella, fewer external options remain to ensure ROK security. To assist both the Office of the ...

  3. Distributed Weapons: Sea Strike Human Systems Integration in Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Chris

    2004-01-01

    ... Damage Indication and Imagery to Tomahawk Command and Control stations. These capabilities have been successfully brought forward through the development of the Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS...

  4. AGU Establishes Development Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, James A., Jr.; Killeen, Timothy L.; Spilhaus, Fred

    2005-03-01

    The 21st century has already brought rapid change. Your scientific society, AGU, and society-at-large face new challenges. These challenges range from opening up access to scientific publications to the potential impact of international terrorism on attendance at scientific meetings around the world. Such challenges and their implications for AGU's mission require strengthening the Union's financial resources. The establishment of a Development Board is the first step on this path.

  5. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Weapon Effects Test, Evaluation, and Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... These assessments have considered the emergence of terrorism as a major threat to the U.S. homeland and deployed forces abroad, the asymmetric attractiveness of the use of nuclear weapons to offset U.S...

  6. Aum Shinrikyo’s Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Development Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Nehorayoff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article details the terrorist activities of the Japanese cult, Aum Shinrikyo, from the perspective of its complex engineering efforts aimed at producing nuclear and chemical weapons. The experience of this millenarian organization illustrates that even violent non-state actors with considerable wealth and resources at their disposal face numerous obstacles to realizing their destructive aspirations. Specifically, Aum’s attempts at complex engineering were stymied by a combination of unchecked fantastical thinking, self-imposed ideological constraints, and a capricious leadership. The chapter highlights each of these mechanisms, as well as the specific ways in which they constrained the decision-making process and the implementation of the complex engineering tasks associated with their unconventional weapons development.

  7. Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongrui

    1993-07-01

    This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

  8. Tactical weapons algorithm development for unitary and fused systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talele, Sunjay E.; Watson, John S.; Williams, Bradford D.; Amphay, Sengvieng A.

    1996-06-01

    A much needed capability in today's tactical Air Force is weapons systems capable of precision guidance in all weather conditions against targets in high clutter backgrounds. To achieve this capability, the Armament Directorate of Wright Laboratory, WL/MN, has been exploring various seeker technologies, including multi-sensor fusion, that may yield cost effective systems capable of operating under these conditions. A critical component of these seeker systems is their autonomous acquisition and tracking algorithms. It is these algorithms which will enable the autonomous operation of the weapons systems in the battlefield. In the past, a majority of the tactical weapon algorithms were developed in a manner which resulted in codes that were not releasable to the community, either because they were considered company proprietary or competition sensitive. As a result, the knowledge gained from these efforts was not transitioning through the technical community, thereby inhibiting the evolution of their development. In order to overcome this limitation, WL/MN has embarked upon a program to develop non-proprietary multi-sensor acquisition and tracking algorithms. To facilitate this development, a testbed has been constructed consisting of the Irma signature prediction model, data analysis workstations, and the modular algorithm concept evaluation tool (MACET) algorithm. All three of these components have been enhanced to accommodate both multi-spectral sensor fusion systems and the there dimensional signal processing techniques characteristic of ladar. MACET is a graphical interface driven system for rapid prototyping and evaluation of both unitary and fused sensor algorithms. This paper describes the MACET system and specifically elaborates on the three-dimensional capabilities recently incorporated into it.

  9. Rethinking the Development of Weapons and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

    2011-01-01

    As one reads about the history of humans, he/she sees very early on that humans are naturally "tool users." More specifically, humans used tools as a means of subsistence and survival. Even today humans use tools to extend their capabilities beyond imagination. These tools are even used as weapons. However primitive, these early weapons would soon…

  10. High-Speed-/-Hypersonic-Weapon-Development-Tool Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duchow, Erin M; Munson, Michael J; Alonge, Jr, Frank A

    2006-01-01

    Multiple tools exist to aid in the design and evaluation of high-speed weapons. This paper documents efforts to integrate several existing tools, including the Integrated Hypersonic Aeromechanics Tool (IHAT)1-7...

  11. Development of the Weapon Borne Sensor parachute system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, V.L.

    1998-06-01

    A parachute system was designed and prototypes built to deploy a telemetry package behind an earth-penetrating weapon just before impact. The parachute was designed to slow the 10 lb. telemetry package and wire connecting it to the penetrator to 50 fps before impact occurred. The parachute system was designed to utilize a 1.3-ft-dia cross pilot parachute and a 10.8-ft-dia main parachute. A computer code normally used to model the deployment of suspension lines from a packed parachute system was modified to model the deployment of wire from the weapon forebody. Results of the design calculations are presented. Two flight tests of the WBS were conducted, but initiation of parachute deployment did not occur in either of the tests due to difficulties with other components. Thus, the trajectory calculations could not be verified with data. Draft drawings of the major components of the parachute system are presented.

  12. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science program report, Weapons Resarch and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, L.

    1997-03-01

    This report is the annual progress report for the Chemistry Materials Science Program: Weapons Research and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development. Twenty-one projects are described separately by their principal investigators.

  13. Developing 300°C Ceramic Circuit Boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A

    2015-02-15

    This paper covers the development of a geothermal ceramic circuit board technology using 3D traces in a machinable ceramic. Test results showing the circuit board to be operational to at least 550°C. Discussion on producing this type of board is outlined along with areas needing improvement.

  14. The dBoard: a Digital Scrum Board for Distributed Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Morten; Tell, Paolo; Cholewa, Jacob Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the dBoard - a digital Scrum Board for distributed Agile software development teams. The dBoard is designed as a 'virtual window' between two Scrum team spaces. It connects two locations with live video and audio, which is overlaid with a synchronized and interactive...... of remote co-workers, and (iii) as an active meeting support tool. The paper presents a case study of distributed Scrum in a large software company that motivates the design of the dBoard, and details the design and technical implementation of the dBoard. The paper also reports on an initial user study......, which shows that users found the dBoard both useful and easy to use. Based on this work, we suggest that superimposing collaborative applications onto live video is a useful way of designing collaborative meeting and awareness systems....

  15. Board on Task: developing a comprehensive understanding of the performance of boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, J.; van de Loo, E.; Belcredi, M.; Ferrarini, G.

    2013-01-01

    The corporate governance crisis at the start of this third Millennium and the financial crisis only a few years later, have cast doubts on the way boards of directors of companies function. Lawyers and (financial) economists have developed narrow perceptions of boards and their roles that are unable

  16. North Korea's nuclear weapons development. Implications for future policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, J.D.

    2010-07-01

    This essay assesses North Korea's long-standing quest for nuclear weapons; alternative strategies for inhibiting Pyongyang's weapons development; and the potential implications for regional security and nonproliferation should the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) retain and enhance its weapons programs. North Korea's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability has long provoked heated debate among policy makers and research analysts about the purposes of engagement with the North, reflecting the repeated frustrations in efforts to negotiate Korean denuclearization. These debates reflect widely divergent views of the North Korean regime; its sustainability as an autonomous political, economic, and military system; and the potential consequences of continued nuclear development in this isolated, highly idiosyncratic state. These questions assume additional salience as North Korea approaches a leadership succession for only the second time in its six-decade history. The effort to inhibit North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons is among the longest running and least successful sagas in international security and non-proliferation policy of the past quarter century. In early 2010, Pyongyang claims a rudimentary nuclear capability by possession of weaponized plutonium, the conduct of two nuclear tests, and advances in the production of enriched uranium as an alternative means of fissile material production, though the latter step is nominally justified as a source for reactor fuel. North Korea defends its pursuit of a nuclear deterrent to counter what Pyongyang deems existential threats posed by the United States.Despite the resumption of high-level diplomatic contact between Washington and Pyongyang in late 2009, realization of a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula remains a very remote prospect. The DPRK insists that a peace agreement between the U.S. and North Korea and hence the cessation of 'hostile DPRK-U.S. relations' are

  17. School Board Member Professional Development and Effects on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kerry L.; Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the issue of professional development education for school board members. The research question that guides this mixed study is: does school board member professional development have an effect on student achievement? Design/methodology/approach: The standardized protocol for this study was to send…

  18. Application of image simulation in weapon system development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available . A. Thermal Imager Development Fig. 10. Solving a narcissism problem in simulation. The simulation is used in sensor optimisation and embedded software algorithm development. In one case, a thermal imager was troubled by narcissism: the cold.... It is evident that not all narcissism is removed, but its effect is much reduced, especially under adverse environmental conditions. B. Reticle Seeker Development For a reticle-based missile seeker, the design of the reticle pattern, its associated signal...

  19. Developing an Effective Board-Administrative Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David B.

    It is beneficial to identify three administrative teams through linking pins: the principal is the linking pin between the instructional team and the administrative team; the superintendent is the linking pin between the administrative team and the policy team, which includes the board of education; the administrative team consisting of all…

  20. Development of High-Strength Nanostructured Magnesium Alloys for Light-Weight Weapon Systems and Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-13

    University of California - Los Angeles Office of Contract and Grant Administration 11000 Kinross Avenue, Suite 102 Los Angeles, CA 90095 -1406...Wollersheim, and R. Wurschum. Acta Mater. 49, 737 (2001). 2. Y. Champion, C. Langlois, S. Guerin -Mailly, P. Langlois, J.-L. Bonnentien, and M.J. Hytch...Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 Development of High-Strength Nanostructured Magnesium Alloys for Light-Weight Weapon Systems and Vehicles

  1. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    suffering from several major ailments since 2000, including heart, liver, and kidney problems , and possibly diabetes .38 South Korean and Japanese media...Development and Diplomacy Congressional Research Service 5 North Korea. They emphasized to Chinese, Malaysian , and Russian officials the need to restrict...2008. 24 “North Korea tells China 30.8 kg of plutonium extracted,” Agence France Presse, October 24, 2008. 25 Glenn Kessler, “U.S. increases

  2. Human Centered Design and Development for NASA's MerBoard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the design and development process for NASA's MerBoard. These devices are large interactive display screens which can be shown on the user's computer, which will allow scientists in many locations to interpret and evaluate mission data in real-time. These tools are scheduled to be used during the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) expeditions. Topics covered include: mission overview, Mer Human Centered Computers, FIDO 2001 observations and MerBoard prototypes.

  3. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  4. Development and verification of printed circuit board toroidal transformer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jens; Mønster, Jakob Døllner; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    An analytical model of an air core printed circuit board embedded toroidal transformer configuration is presented. The transformer has been developed for galvanic isolation of very high frequency switch-mode dc-dc power converter applications. The theoretical model is developed and verified...... by comparing calculated parameters with 3D finite element simulations and experimental measurement results. The developed transformer model shows good agreement with the simulated and measured results. The model can be used to predict the parameters of printed circuit board toroidal transformer configurations...

  5. Development of low-cost wheat-straw insulation board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norford, L.K.; Glicksman, L.R.; Harvey, H.S. Jr.; Charlson, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg/m{sup 3}, and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m{center_dot}K/W [R3 to R4 per inch (h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu{center_dot}in)]. The initial effort focused on straw insulation boards suitable for use in buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation. The possible methods of fabrication initially evaluated were (1) containing the straw in panels with wire and battens, (2) pulping the straw, and (3) binding with adhesive. Starch, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and sodium silicate were evaluated as adhesives for both uncut and shredded straw. Methods of application included spraying, foaming, and dipping, at various adhesive-loading rates. Small samples were formed at a range of densities and tested for structural and thermal properties. All three approaches can succeed structurally and thermally, but are unable to compete economically with existing insulation board. A final batch of boards was made by spraying methane di-isocyanate (MDI), a synthetic resin, into a rotating tumbler that contained shredded straw. The boards, made over a range of densities and resin contents, and using straw with and without the fine particles, were tested thermally and structurally. Good mechanical properties were obtained at resin contents as low as 2% by mass. At densities of 128 and 160 kg/m{sup 3}, the boards had thermal resistivities of 24 to 26 m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W. The pressure required to compress the 160 kg/m{sup 3} boards to 10% of their original thickness was approximately 100 kPa, and the modulus of rupture in bending was about 340 kPa. Removing the fine particles from the straw improved board strength markedly. The

  6. 78 FR 27214 - Notice of Call for Nominations for Appointment to the Environmental Management Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... analyses, program performance, human capital development, and contracts and acquisition strategies. The... Board). Applicants with expertise in project management, acquisition management, human capital... environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government- sponsored...

  7. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  8. Western Nigeria development board: modified Colonial agency for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over fourteen partnerships were formed through a network of efforts involving Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Economic Planning, Economic ... to the literature on the relatively least discussed corporation yet the most critical development agency that utilized the reserves of the Western Region Marketing Board.

  9. 76 FR 45542 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... projects related to the Environmental Restoration and Weapons System and Platforms program areas. These projects are requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess of $1M... of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific...

  10. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease Among Workers at aNuclearWeaponsResearchandDevelopmentFacility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B.; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P.; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E.; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. Methods We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. Results The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. Conclusions These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD. PMID:20523233

  11. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  12. Low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease among workers at a nuclear weapons research and development facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R

    2010-06-01

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  13. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  14. [The development of neurotoxic agents as chemical weapons during the National Socialist period in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, F; Alamo, C; Guerra, J A; García-García, P

    The discovery and development of the so-called 'nerve agents' (neurotoxic substances to be used as weapons) took place in the Third Reich, largely thanks to the vast amount of progress being made in pharmacology in Germany at that time, both in academic and industrial terms. Furthermore, successive National Socialist governments set up a collaborative network made up of the academia, the chemical industry and military chiefs that also favoured this line of research. The first neurotoxic substance to be incorporated into the category of 'chemical warfare agent' did so almost wholly by chance. As part of the work being carried out on organophosphate-type pesticides and insecticides, Gerald Schrader, a chemist at the I.G. Farben company, synthesised tabun (ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) and an incident involving accidental contamination of laboratory staff with this substance highlighted its potential toxicity. The same group of researchers later synthesised another substance with the same properties, sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate). Both agents were studied for use as chemical weapons by Wolfgang Wirth. At the same time, a group led by Richard Kuhn, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938, synthesised pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate, otherwise known as soman. Pharmacological studies confirmed that the neurotoxic mechanism of action of these substances was the irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for metabolising acetylcholine. Results also showed that an excess of this neurotransmitter led to a continuous over-stimulation of the cholinergic (nicotinic and muscarinic) receptors, which is what triggers the appearance of the wide range of symptoms of poisoning and their swift fatal effect.

  15. 75 FR 63813 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board membership. SUMMARY: In...

  16. 78 FR 68025 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY: In...

  17. 77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY: In...

  18. 76 FR 64072 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board membership. SUMMARY: In...

  19. SCADA SYSTEM SIMULATION USING THE TINY TIGER 2 DEVELOPMENT BOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGAPE C.P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new design for a surveillance and control system of a medium voltage cell. The accent is on the acquisition of information of the consumer’s state, the instantaneous current consumption, power and voltage apparent to the consumer. The proposed design is based on Wilke Technology development board at its basis being a Tiny-tiger 2 Multitasking Microcontroller. This computer has 2 MByte or 4 MByte Flash for programming, and 1 MByte SRAM with backup input for data. On the software’s behalf we managed to create a Delphi Interface which communicates with the serial port on the development board. The interface takes information about the consumer and its capacity to load with voltage.

  20. Development of on-board fuel metering and sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth, Y.; Manikanta, B. S. S.; Thangaraja, J.; Bharanidaran, R.

    2017-11-01

    Usage of biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel fuel has a potential to reduce the tailpipe emissions and reduce the dependence on crude oil imports. Further, biodiesel fuels exhibit favourable greenhouse gas emission and energy balance characteristics. While fossil fuel technology is well established, the technological implications of biofuels particularly biodiesel is not clearly laid out. Hence, the objective is to provide an on-board metering control in selecting the different proportions of diesel and bio-diesel blends. An on-board fuel metering system is being developed using PID controller, stepper motors and a capacitance sensor. The accuracy was tested with the blends of propanol-1, diesel and are found to be within 1.3% error. The developed unit was tested in a twin cylinder diesel engine with biodiesel blended diesel fuel. There was a marginal increase (5%) in nitric oxide and 14% increase in smoke emission with 10% biodiesel blended diesel at part load conditions.

  1. Global strike hypersonic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark J.

    2017-11-01

    Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.

  2. The Chemical Weapons Convention and the Role of Engineers and Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek, J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical weapons, like all military technology, are associated with activities of scientists and engineers. However, chemical weapons differ from any other military technology because they were invented, and their first mass use directly developed by famous chemists. The active contribution of engineers and scientists and their organisations in the negotiations on chemical disarmament, including drafting the Chemical Weapons Convention, is described. Their present and future role in implementing the Convention is analysed, taking into consideration the threats and benefits of advances in science and technology, and stressing the independent expertise of the OPCW Scientific Advisory Board.

  3. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    intensity conflict or proxy war in Kashmir , while effectively deterring India at the strategic level. 96 In any case, Pakistani statements suggest that the ...Furthermore, continued Indian and Pakistani nuclear weapons development could jeopardize strategic stability between the two countries. For a...context where these broader tensions and conflicts are present. 1 Pakistani efforts to improve the security of its nuclear weapons have been ongoing

  4. 75 FR 3542 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet.... The sessions will be closed as follows for the Board's review of research and development applications...

  5. 75 FR 40036 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet...'s review of research and development applications. The purpose of the Board is to review...

  6. 78 FR 18680 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting The..., that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board... Program applications. The purpose of the Board is to review rehabilitation research and development...

  7. Board leadership development: the key to effective nursing leadership in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Elizabeth A; Klakovich, Marilyn; Broscious, Sharon K; Delack, Sandi; Roche-Dean, Maria; Hittle, Kristin; Jumaa, Mansour Olawale; Stewart, Mary W; Alston, Prissana

    2011-03-01

    This article discusses the need for board leadership development of nurses. The authors provide an overview of the Sigma Theta Tau International Board Leadership Development program based on the experiences of nine Fellows who completed the program. Elements necessary for a self-developed board leadership development program are presented. Rationale is discussed as to why the Sigma Theta Tau Board Leadership Development program and future similar programs need to include the critical success factors in the development of nurses as board members. The authors discuss the variety of professional and personal benefits of a program of this importance. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. 75 FR 65404 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held... review of the research proposals and critiques. The purpose of the Board is to review rehabilitation...

  9. 75 FR 39734 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting The...) that a meeting of the Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board will be held..., reference to, and oral review of the research proposals and critiques. The purpose of the Board is to review...

  10. 75 FR 4453 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting The...) that a meeting of the Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board will be held... review of the research proposals and critiques. The purpose of the Board is to review research and...

  11. 76 FR 42168 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting The...) that a meeting of the Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board will be held... review of the research proposals and critiques. The purpose of the Board is to review research and...

  12. 77 FR 17001 - Notice of Meeting: Board for International Food and Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...; ] Agency for International Development Notice of Meeting: Board for International Food and Agricultural... the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD). The meeting will be held from 8... Tanzania. Two other board members will then offer comments on their travel to and participation in events...

  13. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  14. The Impact of Chinese Development of Nuclear Weapons on the Pakistan-Indian Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    spread of nuclear weapons. in addition, India would have re inforced its position as a leader of the noia ;lIig"ed countries interested, in...14. "India Possesses tihe Larger Army." New York Times, 7 Sep. 1965, p. 20. (A comparison of Indian and Pakistani armed forces.) 34. Inglis, David R

  15. Significance and Development of Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnaka, Itsuo

    The achievement of objectives of Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education (JABEE) is evaluated and facing problems, including further development of the accreditation system are discussed. The objectives of JABEE, such as evaluating and accrediting engineering programs through fair examination based on the criteria and public announcement of the accredited programs, development of evaluation methods and fostering of evaluators, and contribution to the improvement of educational quality seem to have been being rather well achieved, while objective third-party evaluation is necessary. On the other hand, there are concerns such as standardization of education, uncertain effects of the accreditation, unclear evaluation methods, frequent change in the criteria or the guideline, and request for accreditation of Master Course program. The author states his personal views on these issues including responses of JABEE.

  16. 78 FR 6854 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... review of the intramural research proposals and critiques. The purpose of the Board is to review research..., Program Manager, Scientific Merit Review Board, Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research...

  17. Development Test II (Service Phase) of Night Vision Sight, Individual Served Weapons, AN/PVS-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-20

    Reference H reports as a shortcoming that the shipping case liners are not pliable and prevent repacking of the sight in the case at all...the frozen condition, the eyeguard loses weapon-recoil protection. In 8. The insulation of the low-temperature adapter cable cracks and loses its...25 Is the sight an aid to night vision under all conditions, e.g., brush, open terrain, thickly wooded , moonlight, and starlight con- ditions? 3_

  18. Prototype Development of Low-Cost, Augmented Reality Trainer for Crew Service Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Table 6. Initial Prototype Milestones....................25 Table 7. ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONALITY ........................26 Table 8. Agent Initialization...Ship design, tactics, and offensive power are outside the scope of this thesis; however, the training in two of these function areas are of infinite...weapon malfunctions shall be fired as an alibi . The machine gun will be fired from a mounted (free- gun) position with no T&E mechanism used. Each

  19. Material Development to Raise Awareness of Using Smart Boards: An Example Design and Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydin, Serpil; Karamete, Aysen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop training material that will help raise awareness in prospective teachers regarding the benefits of using smart boards in the classroom. In this study, a Type 2 design and development research method (DDR) was used. The material was developed by applying phases of ADDIE--an instructional systems design model. The…

  20. Development and implementation of a residency project advisory board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagam, Julie K; Iglar, Arlene; Kindsfater, Julie; Loeb, Al; Smith, Chad; Spexarth, Frank; Brierton, Dennis; Woller, Thomas

    2017-06-15

    The development and implementation of a residency project advisory board (RPAB) to manage multiple pharmacy residents' yearlong projects across several residency programs are described. Preceptor and resident feedback during our annual residency program review and strategic planning sessions suggested the implementation of a more-coordinated approach to the identification, selection, and oversight of all components of the residency project process. A panel of 7 department leaders actively engaged in residency training and performance improvement was formed to evaluate the residency project process and provide recommendations for change. These 7 individuals would eventually constitute the RPAB. The primary objective of the RPAB at Aurora Health Care is to provide oversight and a structured framework for the selection and execution of multiple residents' yearlong projects across all residency programs within our organization. Key roles of the RPAB include developing expectations, coordinating residency project ideas, and providing oversight and feedback. The development and implementation of the RPAB resulted in a significant overhaul of our entire yearlong resident project process. Trends toward success were realized after the first year of implementation, including consistent expectations, increased clarity and engagement in resident project ideas, and more projects meeting anticipated endpoints. The development and implementation of an RPAB have provided a framework to optimize the organization, progression, and outcomes of multiple pharmacy resident yearlong projects in all residency programs across our pharmacy enterprise. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Weapons of mass destruction: radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Chris J; Moores, Leon E

    2002-03-15

    The purpose of this review is to present a concise overview of the types of radiation, methods of dispersal, injury patterns, and treatment considerations in a scenario involving radiation-based weapons of mass destruction. Radiation-related casualties, although uncommon, are a potential threat because more nations and organizations are developing the technology for producing radioactive substances capable of being used as weapons.

  2. Laser weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipis, K.

    1981-12-01

    The potential for deploying lasers as an effective antimissile system is assessed. High intensity and precise collimation are noted as essential for lasers as weapons, although size and material properties determine the actual performance. Gas-dynamic, electron, and chemical lasers are reviewed as prime weapons candidates. Space-, ground-, and ship-based uses are considered; each demands precision pointing, involving movable mirrors, target tracking and condition sensors, and central processing for target choice, along with large capacity power generation and storage. Laser propagation in the atmosphere is degraded by absorption, scattering, thermal blooming, turbulence (causes diffraction), and plasma formation ahead of the beam. Different modes of damaging missiles are reviewed, and it is found that mirrored surfaces, ablative coatings, and fluid layers have significant abilities to protect a missile in-flight. Destroying an ICBM in the boost phase is calculated to require a one million MW generator, far beyond current power engineering capabilities. Conventional weapons are viewed as more effective than lasers, although high energy laser research may have definite applications in areas such as chemical engineering

  3. 77 FR 21622 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review... Board is to review rehabilitation research and development applications and advise the Director...

  4. The Development of Ethical Issues Facing Boards of Directors: A Model with Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Jones; Michael Pollitt

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of how ethical issues develop over time using an ethical issue life cycle with three phases. Illustrates the model with reference to ethical issues currently facing UK boards of directors, and uses the Bible to further develop the model to suggest how company boards might respond to ethical issues as they progress.

  5. The Development of Embedded Local Monitor Board (ELMB)

    CERN Document Server

    Boterenbrood, H; 9th Workshop On Electronics For Lhc Experiments

    2003-01-01

    The Embedded Local Monitor Board (ELMB) is a credit-card sized plug-on board, designed as a general-purpose CAN-bus based building block for various control and monitoring tasks in the LHC experiments. The latest and final version of the hardware in combination with the firmware shows to have even better radiation tolerance than before. This and the ELMB's low cost, low power consumption, software support - both low-level and high-level - have made the ELMB the solution of choice in a wide variety of control and monitoring applications. For the LHC experiments a total of ca. 10000 pieces will be produced.

  6. Using the interactive board in developing reading strategies for unhanced vocabulary acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Retelj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on some possibilities of using the available materials on the inte- ractive board, which can contribute to the development of the learning strategies and to the quality as well as to the efficiency in the process of vocabulary learning. The current findings on learning strategies and vocabulary learning (Oxford 1990, Nunan 1999, Nation 2001 are combined and compared to the usage of various materials of i-board in the classroom. A meaningful usage of i-board being our priority, we found more advantages in the use of i-board in comparison to the classical exercises on the paper. Our material is based on Piepho's and Häussermann'stypology of exercises for improving vocabulary learning. The students' perception of the interactive board in classroom is included and is based on analysis of the results of an online survey of 58 students, who had been using interactive board in German language classes for two years.

  7. Developing a Comprehensive Metric for Assessing Discussion Board Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of online discussion boards has grown extensively in the past 5 years, yet some researchers argue that our understanding of how to use this tool in an effective and meaningful way is minimal at best. Part of the problem in acquiring more cohesive and useful information rests in the absence of a comprehensive, theory-driven metric to assess…

  8. Advisory Board Engagement: Assisting Undergraduates with Resume Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Irma; Taylor, Ronald; Oberman, William

    2017-01-01

    Resumes of students with limited work experience are by nature underdeveloped and frequently poorly designed. Although many tools and resources are available, students often underutilize them. Faculty at a northeastern university sought to address this problem by engaging members of its college of business advisory board to provide students with…

  9. The role of the marketing board in Nigeria, 1947-1986: development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the Second World War, the colonial government initiated many economic policies in order to resuscitate the economy of Britain and to develop the British African territories of which Nigeria was one. Among such economic policies was the establishment of the Marketing Board System. Cocoa marketing board was set ...

  10. Board Member Development in the Public, Voluntary and Social Housing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carolyn; Preece, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Given a number of recent and ongoing changes to the role and responsibilities of executive and non-executive board members of UK social housing organisations, the paper aims to offer a literature review which explores the development provision for board members within such organisations. The paper's key question is: "How are…

  11. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research.

  12. Enhancing board effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Connie R; Totten, Mary K

    2010-01-01

    Like any other job, board work is associated with specific competencies. Competencies are the combination of knowledge, skills, personal characteristics, and behaviors needed to perform a job or task effectively. Boards are only as strong as their weakest member. Board education should focus on improving the knowledge and skills of the board and individual members and on overall board performance. Assessment of individual board member performance is designed to evaluate the trustee's knowledge of board roles and responsibilities and the expectations of board members. Board effectiveness is built through competency-based board member recruitment and selection; board member education and development; and evaluation of board, board member, and meeting performance.

  13. The Principle of Integration in International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL with Reference to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abdul Majid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC does not explicitly refer to sustainable development despite the fact that other United Nations (UN disarmament documents prescribe that international environmental law principles and sustainable development be considered among arms control agreements. This study’s objective is to utilize the principle of integration’s three components of environmental, economic, and social development, as found in the International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL from the New Delhi Declaration (Delhi Declaration of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, in order to evaluate whether the BWC contains such components; thereby, making it possible for the BWC to contribute to sustainable development. The methodology of this study is necessarily qualitative, given that it is a socio-legal research that relies on international agreements such as the BWC, declarations, resolutions, plans of implementation, other non-binding documents of the UN, and secondary resources—all of which are analyzed through a document analysis. The results show that the BWC addresses the environment (Article II, prohibits transfers relating to export controls, international trade, and economic development (Article III, while at the same time, covering social development concerns, health, and diseases that make up the international social law (Article X. Since the BWC is found to be capable of contributing to sustainable development, it is concluded that ISDL cannot be restricted to international environmental, economic, and social law, but should be expanded to include international arms control law.

  14. Proliferation of nuclear weapons: opportunities for control and abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, Victor W; Levy, Barry S

    2007-09-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. "Horizontal" proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. "Vertical" proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation--and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons--involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large.

  15. Islamic State and Chemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rafay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topic of Islamic State and chemical weapons. The issue is analysed in three dimensions: origin of used chemical weapons and possibility of independent production; known chemical attacks and tactical regularities in their execution; and traits of future chemical terrorist attacks. By providing a thorough examination of the problem, the article aims at predicting the future development of the group’s chemical program as well as describing any prospective chemical terrorist attacks in Europe

  16. National Board Certification as Professional Development: What Are Teachers Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lustick

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards’ (NBPTS assessment process in order to identify, quantify, and substantiate learning outcomes from the participants. One hundred and twenty candidates for the Adolescent and Young Adult Science (AYA Science Certificate were studied over a two-year period using the recurrent institutional cycle research design. This quasi-experimental methodology allowed for the collection of both cross-sectional and longitudinal data insuring a good measure of internal validity regarding observed changes between individual and across group means. Transcripts of structured interviews with each teacher were scored by multiple assessors according to the 13 standards of NBPTS’ framework for accomplished science teaching. These scores provided the quantitative evidence of teacher learning in this study. Significant pre-intervention to post-intervention changes to these individual and group means are reported as learning outcomes from the assessment process. Findings suggest that the intervention had significant impact upon candidates’ understanding of knowledge associated with science teaching with an overall effect size of 0.47. Standards associated with greatest gains include Scientific Inquiry and Assessment. The results support the claim that the certification process is an effective standards based professional learning opportunity comparable to other human improvement interventions from related domains. Drawing on qualitative data, we also explore three possible implications of teacher learning outcomes from certification upon classroom practice identified as Dynamic, Technical, and Deferred. These patterns suggest that more than one kind of learning may be taking place in relation to board certification. The discussion then considers the importance of this study for policy making and science teaching communities.

  17. Recent developments and perspective of the spent waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuquan; Liu, Junsheng

    2015-05-01

    The amount of spent electronic and electrical solid wastes (i.e. e-wastes) has increased to a new level with the rapid development of electronic and electrical industries. Management of e-wastes challenges the administrators and researchers. As a major component of the e-waste stream, pollution caused by the spent printed circuit boards has captured increasing attention. Various innovative methods have recently been developed to dispose and reuse these municipal spent printed circuit boards. In this mini-review article, the disposal approaches for spent printed circuit boards are highlighted. The present state and future perspective are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can promote the extensive understanding and effective disposal of the spent printed circuit boards in the field of solid waste treatment and resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  19. Defining "Weapons of Mass Destruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    law have involved individuals who threatened to use chemical or biological agents, usually anthrax hoaxes .46 Nine states and the District of...of the development of other weapons [besides atomic weapons], or of new methods of warfare, which may constitute as great a threat to civilization as...weapons): the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, the 1972 Seabed Treaty, and the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. One additional treaty, the 1979 Moon

  20. Recapitalizing Nuclear Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughan, Edgar M

    2007-01-01

    The US nuclear weapons stockpile is aging and undergoing an extensive and expensive life-extension program to ensure the continuing safety, security, and reliability of the legacy weapons well into the future...

  1. Biologic and chemical weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William P; Dilbero, Deanna; Schauben, Jay L

    2002-11-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) are capable of producing massive casualties and are typically grouped into nuclear, biologic, and chemical weapons. In the wake of the September 11th disasters, attention to terrorist groups and the potential for use of WMDs has increased. Biologic and chemical weapons are relatively accessible and inexpensive to develop, and are thought to be the most available to foreign states and subnational terrorist groups. This article reviews various biologic and chemical weapons, including emergency diagnosis and management of selected agents.

  2. From Cognitive Task Analysis to Simulation: Developing a Synthetic Team Task for AWACS Weapons Directors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hess, Stephen M; MacMillan, Jean; Serfaty, Daniel; Elliott, Linda

    2005-01-01

    To effectively study team variables as they impact performance in a particular domain, it is possible to develop medium fidelity simulations that abstract some details of the performance environment...

  3. 77 FR 9731 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Prosthetics/Orthotics. March 7--Career Development Award Program. March 13--Spinal Cord Injury. March 13-14... Injury: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Stroke; Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Rehabilitation; Psychological... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting...

  4. 76 FR 42167 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Systems/Communication; Spinal Cord Injury; and Career Development Award Program. August 18--Rehabilitation... Reintegration. August 9-11--Brain Injury; Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Rehabilitation. August 16--Rehabilitation... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting...

  5. The Governance Structure of the Lansing (Michigan) Staff Development Policy Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, William; Urso, Jacqueline

    The component parts of a successful cooperative governance structure designed to facilitate staff development in elementary and secondary urban schools are described. Headed by a Staff Development Policy Board, the governance organization combines teaching and administrative staffs as a decision making body. A maximum amount of staff input and…

  6. 76 FR 49753 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Scientific Advisory Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funds in excess of $1M. This meeting is open to the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Scientific Advisory Board...

  7. 77 FR 49439 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess of $1 million. This meeting is open... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...

  8. 77 FR 51785 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess of $1 million. This meeting is open... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...

  9. 75 FR 55778 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess of $1M. This meeting is open to the public. Any... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...

  10. 75 FR 5288 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board... will meet on March 2-4, 2010, to review new start research requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess of $1M. This meeting is open to the public. Any interested...

  11. 77 FR 26521 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funds in excess of $1M. This meeting is open to the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...

  12. Development of Drop/Shock Test in Microelectronics and Impact Dynamic Analysis for Uniform Board Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallolimath, Sharan Chandrashekar

    For the past several years, many researchers are constantly developing and improving board level drop test procedures and specifications to quantify the solder joint reliability performance of consumer electronics products. Predictive finite element analysis (FEA) by utilizing simulation software has become widely acceptable verification method which can reduce time and cost of the real-time test process. However, due to testing and metrological limitations it is difficult not only to simulate exact drop condition and capture critical measurement data but also tedious to calibrate the system to improve test methods. Moreover, some of the important ever changing factors such as board flexural rigidity, damping, drop height, and drop orientation results in non-uniform stress/strain distribution throughout the test board. In addition, one of the most challenging tasks is to quantify uniform stress and strain distribution throughout the test board and identify critical failure factors. The major contributions of this work are in the four aspects of the drop test in electronics as following. First of all, an analytical FEA model was developed to study the board natural frequencies and responses of the system with the consideration of dynamic stiffness, damping behavior of the material and effect of impact loading condition. An approach to find the key parameters that affect stress and strain distributions under predominate mode responses was proposed and verified with theoretical solutions. Input-G method was adopted to study board response behavior and cut boundary interpolation methods was used to analyze local model solder joint stresses with the development of global/local FEA model in ANSYS software. Second, no ring phenomenon during the drop test was identified theoretically when the test board was modeled as both discrete system and continuous system. Numerical analysis was then conducted by FEA method for detailed geometry of attached chips with solder

  13. IDRC Board visits East Africa | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... The Kenya Research Chair will focus on the use of nanotechnology to develop materials to provide solutions for current environmental issues. In Uganda, once officially approved by government, the Chair will lead research on human-wildlife interactions and their impact on the rural poor in tropical ...

  14. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1957-06-01

    This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling laws for hypothetically extending the calculations beyond this limit are given. The figure of 20 megatons however is not be taken as an indication of capabilities or developments.

  15. The DVB Channel Coding Application Using the DSP Development Board MDS TM-13 IREF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Slanina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the implementation of the channel codingaccording to DVB standard on DSP development board MDS TM-13 IREF andPC. The board is based on Philips Nexperia media processor andintegrates hardware video ADC and DAC. The program libraries featuresused for MPEG based video compression are outlined and then thealgorithms of channel decoding (FEC protection against errors arepresented including the flowchart diagrams. The paper presents thepartial hardware implementation of the simulation system that coversselected phenomena of DVB baseband processing and it is used for realtime interactive demonstration of error protection influence ontransmitted digital video in laboratory and education.

  16. 76 FR 6197 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... meeting will involve discussion, examination, reference to, and oral review of the research proposals and critiques. The purpose of the Board is to review research and development applications involving the... Merit Review Program Manager, at Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research and...

  17. 77 FR 40412 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Disease; Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics; and Spinal Cord Injury. August 7-8 Brain Injury: Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke; Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Rehabilitation; and Psychological... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting...

  18. 75 FR 9388 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Fifty-Ninth Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... cooperation with USAID's Economic Growth, Agricultural, and Trade Bureau (EGAT). These are very important... DEVELOPMENT Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Fifty-Ninth Meeting... hundred and fifty-ninth meeting of the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD...

  19. Development of wide band digital receiver for atmospheric radars using COTS board based SDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.

    2016-07-01

    Digital receiver extracts the received echo signal information, and is a potential subsystem for atmospheric radar, also referred to as wind profiling radar (WPR), which provides the vertical profiles of 3-dimensional wind vector in the atmosphere. This paper presents the development of digital receiver using COTS board based Software Defined Radio technique, which can be used for atmospheric radars. The developmental work is being carried out at National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki. The digital receiver consists of a commercially available software defined radio (SDR) board called as universal software radio peripheral B210 (USRP B210) and a personal computer. USRP B210 operates over a wider frequency range from 70 MHz to 6 GHz and hence can be used for variety of radars like Doppler weather radars operating in S/C bands, in addition to wind profiling radars operating in VHF, UHF and L bands. Due to the flexibility and re-configurability of SDR, where the component functionalities are implemented in software, it is easy to modify the software to receive the echoes and process them as per the requirement suitable for the type of the radar intended. Hence, USRP B210 board along with the computer forms a versatile digital receiver from 70 MHz to 6 GHz. It has an inbuilt direct conversion transceiver with two transmit and two receive channels, which can be operated in fully coherent 2x2 MIMO fashion and thus it can be used as a two channel receiver. Multiple USRP B210 boards can be synchronized using the pulse per second (PPS) input provided on the board, to configure multi-channel digital receiver system. RF gain of the transceiver can be varied from 0 to 70 dB. The board can be controlled from the computer via USB 3.0 interface through USRP hardware driver (UHD), which is an open source cross platform driver. The USRP B210 board is connected to the personal computer through USB 3.0. Reference (10 MHz) clock signal from the radar master oscillator

  20. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  1. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  2. Risk Mitigation for the Development of the New Ariane 5 On-Board Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stransky, Arnaud; Chevalier, Laurent; Dubuc, Francois; Conde-Reis, Alain; Ledoux, Alain; Miramont, Philippe; Johansson, Leif

    2010-08-01

    In the frame of the Ariane 5 production, some equipment will become obsolete and need to be redesigned and redeveloped. This is the case for the On-Board Computer, which has to be completely redesigned and re-qualified by RUAG Space, as well as all its on-board software and associated development tools by ASTRIUM ST. This paper presents this obsolescence treatment, which has started in 2007 under an ESA contract, in the frame of ACEP and ARTA accompaniment programmes, and is very critical in technical term but also from schedule point of view: it gives the context and overall development plan, and details the risk mitigation actions agreed with ESA, especially those related to the development of the input/output ASIC, and also the on-board software porting and revalidation strategy. The efficiency of these risk mitigation actions has been proven by the outcome schedule; this development constitutes an up-to-date case for good practices, including some experience report and feedback for future other developments.

  3. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/16: The Potential of Technology for the Control of Small Weapons: Applications in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTMANN, JURGEN

    2000-07-01

    For improving the control of small arms, technology provides many possibilities. Present and future technical means are described in several areas. With the help of sensors deployed on the ground or on board aircraft, larger areas can be monitored. Using tags, seals, and locks, important objects and installations can be safeguarded better. With modern data processing and communication systems, more information can be available, and it can be more speedily processed. Together with navigation and transport equipment, action can be taken faster and at greater range. Particular considerations are presented for cargo control at roads, seaports, and airports, for monitoring designated lines, and for the control of legal arms. By starting at a modest level, costs can be kept low, which would aid developing countries. From the menu of technologies available, systems need to be designed for the intended application and with an understanding of the local conditions. It is recommended that states start with short-term steps, such as acquiring more and better radio transceivers, vehicles, small aircraft, and personal computers. For the medium term, states should begin with experiments and field testing of technologies such as tags, sensors, and digital communication equipment.

  4. Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

  5. Is the Weaponization of Space Inevitable?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donatelli, Delia

    1997-01-01

    Development of technologies for directed energy and kinetic energy space weapons systems has progressed to the point where the United States could demonstrate concepts within 5-10 years if adequate funding is provided...

  6. Interdicting a Nuclear-Weapons Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald; Carlyle, Matthew; Harney, Robert; Skroch, Eric; Wood, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    .... We develop and solve a max-min model that identifies resource-limited interdiction actions that maximally delay completion time of the proliferator's weapons project, given that the proliferator will...

  7. No weapons in the weapons lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebino, Rick

    2010-03-01

    I spent 12 years working at a top-secret nuclear-weapons lab that had its own dedicated force of heavily armed security guards. Of course, security-related incidents were rare, so the guards' main challenge was simply staying awake.

  8. Survey of Army Weapons Training and Weapons Training Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    oriented AIT. The scations are as follows: Time /Minutes 1. Mechinical Station 12 2. FDC Station 12 3. FO Station 12 The proficicacy test does not officially...responsibility and returned the questionnaire. Other types of information requested required a great deal of time to develop. It was not expected...management considerations portion of the ouestionnaire, a summary of the training for all Infantry weapons indicated that the time allocated for

  9. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  10. Factors associated with weapon use in maternal filicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C F; Baranoski, M V; Buchanan, J A; Benedek, E P

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with weapon use in a group of filicidal women. Clinical data were gathered from the charts of sixty filicidal women evaluated at Michigan's Center for Forensic Psychiatry or through Connecticut's Psychiatric Security Review Board from 1970 to 1996. Factors associated with weapon use were determined using chi squares, ANCOVAS, and a logistic regression. Results were compared to national statistics for child homicide from the Department of Justice Uniform Crime Reports (UCR). Weapon was defined as knife or gun for the study. Weapons were used by one of four women in our study. Guns were used by 13% of filicidal women and knives by 12%. Odds ratio showed that psychotic women were eleven times more likely to kill their child with a weapon than their non-psychotic counterparts (11.2; p = .008). Psychosis was present in every mother who killed her child with a knife and in seven of eight women who killed their children with a gun. Younger children were less likely to be killed with weapons (ANCOVA; F = 8.28; p = .006). This finding was independent of presence or absence of maternal psychosis. These results show that psychotic women are more likely than non-psychotic women to kill their children with weapons. They also show that mothers are more likely to use weapons to kill older children than younger children.

  11. Opportunities for Russian Nuclear Weapons Institute developing computer-aided design programs for pharmaceutical drug discovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-23

    The goal of this study is to determine whether physicists at the Russian Nuclear Weapons Institute can profitably service the need for computer aided drug design (CADD) programs. The Russian physicists` primary competitive advantage is their ability to write particularly efficient code able to work with limited computing power; a history of working with very large, complex modeling systems; an extensive knowledge of physics and mathematics, and price competitiveness. Their primary competitive disadvantage is their lack of biology, and cultural and geographic issues. The first phase of the study focused on defining the competitive landscape, primarily through interviews with and literature searches on the key providers of CADD software. The second phase focused on users of CADD technology to determine deficiencies in the current product offerings, to understand what product they most desired, and to define the potential demand for such a product.

  12. Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillain, C F; Adams, T F; McCoy, M G; Christensen, R B; Pudliner, B S; Zika, M R; Brantley, P S; Vetter, J S; May, J M

    2003-08-29

    After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources necessary for the complex, highly coupled, multi-physics calculations required to simulate nuclear weapons. This paper describes the hardware and software environment we have applied to fulfill our nuclear weapons responsibilities. It also presents the characteristics of our algorithms and codes, especially as they relate to supercomputing resource capabilities and requirements. It then addresses impediments to the development and application of nuclear weapon simulation software and hardware and concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations on an approach for working with industry and government agencies to address these impediments.

  13. Development of Quartz Friction Gauge on Board Balloon and Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Takumi; Murata, Isao; Sato, Kaoru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    The on-board small vacuum gauge developed in this study is the quartz friction gauge, which is based on the principle that the resonance impedance of a quartz oscillator varies with the pressure of ambient gas. The gauge has a wide measuring range (105-10-2 Pa), which corresponds to the atmospheric pressure from the ground to an altitude of about 100 km. The sensor part and data processing part weigh 136 g and 210 g, respectively. In addition, the gauge can operate at a power consumption level of less than 1W. The gauge is suited for high altitude balloon experiments where the weight of on-board instruments must be kept to a minimum. The tuning-fork-shaped quartz oscillator in the gauge is widely used for wrist watches and has high resistance to vibration and shock, and thus the gauge is applicable to sounding rocket experiments that require on-board instruments with high resistance to the environment.

  14. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  15. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  16. Proceedings of the second workshop on the Energy Development Board of Mercer Country, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    With energy demand increasing, production of electricity from coal-fired power plants has become an important industry in Mercer County. The second workshop focused on the activities of the Energy Development Board. Specifically, participants at the workshop discussed the growth management plan and several of its major components - the economic diversification program, the energy conservation program, and the socio-economic monitoring program. In addition, participants discussed a variety of mechanisms for providing impact assistance to areas undergoing energy development. This report summarizes the recommendations of the five panel sessions. Additional information on the workshop and the EDB is provided in 3 appendices. (MCW)

  17. Development of an ATCA IPMI controller mezzanine board to be used in the ATCA developments for the ATLAS Liquid Argon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Letendre, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LHC upgrade, we develop a new Read Out Driver (ROD) for the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) community. ATCA and μTCA (Advanced/Micro Telecom Computing Architecture) is becoming a standard in high energy physics and a strong candidate to be used for boards and crates. We work to master ATCA and to integrate a large number of high speed links (96 links at 8.5 Gbps) on a ROD evaluation ATCA board. A versatile ATCA IPMI controller for ATCA boards which is FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) compliant has been developed to control the ROD evaluation board.

  18. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  19. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  20. The development of a computational platform to design and simulate on-board hydrogen storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the Dymola™ environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate t...... to a storage capacity four times larger than a tube-in-tube solution of the same size. The volumetric and gravimetric densities of the shell and tube are 2.46% and 1.25% respectively. The dehydriding ability of this solution is proven to withstand intense discharging conditions....

  1. National survey and community advisory board development for a bipolar disorder biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark A; Doederlein, Allen; Koenig, Barbara; McElroy, Susan L; Nassan, Malik; Seymour, Lisa R; Biernacka, Joanna M; Daniels, Allen S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to engage a national advocacy group and local stakeholders for guidance in developing a bipolar disorder biobank through a web-based survey and a community advisory board. The Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance and the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank conducted a national web-based survey inquiring about interest in participating in a biobank (i.e., giving DNA and clinical information). A community advisory board was convened to guide establishment of the biobank and identify key deliverables from the research project and for the community. Among 385 survey respondents, funding source (87%), professional opinion (76%), mental health consumer opinion (79%), and return of research results (91%) were believed to be important for considering study participation. Significantly more patients were willing to participate in a biobank managed by a university or clinic (78.2%) than one managed by government (63.4%) or industry (58.2%; both p bipolar disorder developing in a child of an affected parent and which medications to avoid. The advisory board endorsed the use of a comprehension questionnaire to evaluate participants' understanding of the study (e.g., longevity of DNA specimens, right to remove samples, accessing medical records) as a means to strengthen the informed consent process. These national survey and community advisory data support the merit of establishing a biobank to enable studies of disease risk, provided that health records and research results are adequately protected. The goals of earlier diagnosis and individualized treatment of bipolar disorder were endorsed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Proceedings of the third workshop on the energy development board of Mercer County, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    Two earlier workshops concerned with managing growth in Mercer County, North Dakota focused on the activities of the Energy Development Board (EDB) and were held in 1977 and 1978, respectively. This third workshop, Energy Development in Rural Areas - Local Implementation of National Priorities addresses the transferability of the EDB as an organization approach for managing energy-related rapid growth; the potential for developing integrated energy resource conservation/economic plans in rural energy development areas; and Federal policy and initiatives regarding energy-impact assistance. Panel discussions on these subjects were conducted and the comments are presented. The introductory address by Wayne Sanstead, Lt. Gov. of North Dakota and the keynote address by Edward Helminski, White House Management Task Force on Energy Shortages, are included.

  3. Development of the new Trigger Processor Board for the ATLAS Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger for Run-3

    CERN Document Server

    Mizukami, Atsushi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS first-level Endcap Muon trigger in LHC Run-3 will identify muons by combining data from the Thin-Gap chamber detector (TGC) and a new detector, called the New-Small-Wheel (NSW). In order to handle data from both TGC and NSW, a new trigger processor board has been developed. The board has a modern FPGA to make use of Multi-Gigabit transceiver technology. The readout system for trigger data has also been implemented with TCP/IP instead of a dedicated ASIC. This letter presents the electronics and its firmware of the ATLAS first-level Endcap Muon trigger processor board for LHC Run-3.

  4. Learning to Lead with Purpose: National Board Certification and Teacher Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mistilina; Hyler, Maria E.; Monte-Sano, Chauncey B.

    2014-01-01

    How do teachers decide what leadership work to engage? This exploratory study examined the leadership activities and responsibilities that National Board Certified Teachers identified prior to and after achieving National Board Certification. We conducted structured interviews with a diverse group of 15 National Board Certified Teachers from a…

  5. New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    2003-04-01

    Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons "mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while "limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  6. Professional Development and Teacher Self-Efficacy: Learning from Indonesian Modern Islamic Boarding Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Othman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights teachers’ involvement in professional development (PD activities teachers in the Darussalam Modern Islamic Boarding School (DMIBS, East Java, Indonesia. It evaluates the implementation of PD programs by identifying teachers` perception toward PD they participated in. The study used a survey research approach to investigate professional development and the level of teacher`s self-efficacy at the boarding school. The majority of teachers have a high level of satisfaction toward the implementation of PD activities in DMIBS in terms of course content, instructor, relevancy to teaching practice and course management. Also, teachers reported that the school had given them an adequate opportunity to participate in different types of PD activities. However, the study did not find significant differences between the length of teaching experience and teachers’ academic qualifications in teachers` perceptions towards PD activities. Some studies found that teachers with higher levels of academic qualification, showed higher and increased levels of efficacy. However, the current study did not show similar results as teachers with degrees and DMIBS qualifications respectively showed no significant differences in their levels of efficacy. This indicates that having different academic qualifications did not affect the increase in teachers` efficacy.

  7. Vulnerability of digitized platforms to modern rf electromagnetic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frater, Michael R.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2001-08-01

    Radio Frequency Directed Energy Weapons (RF DEW) have the potential to disrupt the operation of, or cause the failure of, a broad range of military electronic equipment. Over the past 30 years, there has been considerable effort in the development of these weapons. Recent reports suggest that a number of countries, including the USA and Russia, have fielded such weapons. This paper examines the potential performance of non-nuclear RF DEW.

  8. Living with nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnesale, A.; Doty, P.; Hoffmann, S.; Huntington, S.P.; Nye, J.S. Jr.; Sagan, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    At Harvard President Derek Bok's request, six Harvard professors explain nuclear arms issues to help citizens understand all sides of the national security debates. The goal is to encourage public participation in policy formulation. The book emphasizes that escapism will not improve security; that idealistic plans to eliminate nuclear weapons are a form of escapism. Learning to live with nuclear weapons, they suggest, requires an understanding of the current nuclear predicament and the implications of alternative weapons and policy choices. After reviewing these matters, they emphasize that informed persons will continue to disagree, but that knowledge will improve understanding and appreciation of their differences and improve the quality of policy debates. 54 references, 5 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  9. Development of models for on-board detection of driver impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, T A; Hardee, H L; Wierwille, W W

    1987-08-01

    Two of the leading causes of automobile accidents are driver impairment due to alcohol and drowsiness. Apparently, a relatively large percentage of these accidents occur because drivers are unaware of the degree to which they are impaired. The purpose of this research was to develop models, utilizing changes in driver behavior, which could detect driver impairment due to alcohol, drowsiness, or the combination of alcohol and drowsiness, and which could be practically implemented in an automobile. A computer-controlled automobile simulator was used to simulate a nighttime highway driving scenario for six drivers who participated in each of four conditions: a control condition, an alcohol condition, a sleep-deprived condition, and a combined alcohol and sleep-deprived condition. The results indicated that a useful on-board drowsiness detection device is possible and practical for highway driving. The results also showed that on-board alcohol impairment detection may be possible at levels below the legal driving limit in most states (BAC 0.1%).

  10. Peer group as a model for the development learning reproductive health in the traditional boarding school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    awatiful azza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teen problems are conditions that need to be considered in national development in Indonesia. Teenagers problems occur, because they are not prepared regarding knowledge of aspects related to the problem of transition from childhood to adulthood. One of the problems faced by teenagers today is about the health of adolescents, especially related to reproductive health. Methods: This study uses a quantitative approach pre experiment with pre - post test design, the purpose of research, construction of models of healthy reproductive learning through peer groups in traditional schools and analyze the application of learning through peer group against knowledge female students  about reproductive health. The sample was female students in Boarding school Miftahul Hasan Gunung Sepikul amounted to 50 female students, with purposive sampling technique. Results of analysis using Spearman's rho test ,P value of 0.00 obtained value where the value is < less than 0.05 so it can be concluded that there is a learning effect of reproductive health through peer groups for knowledge  female students . Discuss: Boarding schools need to provide curriculum on reproductive health in order to improve the understanding of female students in healthy living behavior associated with reproductive organs.

  11. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  12. Development of an ATCA IPMI Controller Mezzanine Board to be used in the ATCA developments for the ATLAS Liquid Argon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "LETENDRE, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the LHC upgrades, a new Read-Out Driver (ROD) board for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter is being developed. xTCA (Advanced/Micro Telecom Computing Architecture) is becoming a standard in high energy physics and is a serious candidate for future readout systems. We will present our current developments to master ATCA and to integrate a large number of very high speed links (96 links/8.5 Gbps) on a ROD Evaluator ATCA board. To manage our ROD Evaluator, we have developed a versatile ATCA IPMI controller for ATCA boards which is FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) compliant.

  13. Development of an ATCA IPMI controller mezzanine board to be used in the ATCA developments for the ATLAS Liquid Argon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont Dayot, N

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LHC upgrades, a new Read-Out Driver (ROD) board for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter is being developed. xTCA (Advanced/Micro Telecom Computing Architecture) is becoming a standard in high energy physics and is a serious candidate for future readout systems. We will present our current developments to master ATCA and to integrate a large number of very high speed links (96 links/8.5 Gbps) on a ROD Evaluator ATCA board. To manage our ROD Evaluator, we have developed a versatile ATCA IPMI controller for ATCA boards which is FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) compliant.

  14. Computation of Weapons Systems Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Probability of Damage, Weapon Trajectory, Weapon Accuracy 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 175 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified...to the single weapon unitary target module as the damage function for area targets is in the form of a rectangle cookie cutter instead of a Carleton...specific target types such as bridges, underground bunkers and tunnels, some of which require the usage of advanced penetrator weapons. Another area

  15. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  16. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  17. Names and Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

  18. School Board Member Practices in Governance, Teamwork and Board Development, and Their Sense of Effectiveness in High and Low Math Academic Achievement Districts of New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Kyrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among New York State school board member attitudes toward components of school board governance and their sense of effectiveness in high and low math academic achievement districts in New York State. The study examined board members' perceptions of their actual practices in policy…

  19. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Based Versions of the Decision Board for Early Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whelan, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    .... Randomized trials have demonstrated that the Decision Board not only increases patient knowledge, but improves patient satisfaction, decreases decisional conflict, and facilitates shared decision...

  20. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Based Versions of the Decision Board for Early Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whelan, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    .... Randomized trials have demonstrated that the Decision Board not only increases patient knowledge, but improves patient satisfaction, decreases decisional conflict, and facilitates a shared decision...

  1. A Development of Flat Board Type of Fluorescent Lamp as a New Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Il; Back, Hong Goo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    This study developed a new electrode structure that allowed it to work with parallel operating capability, so made the manufacture of a large flat board lamp with using the microspore structure fulfilled. This study also developed the manufacturing technology of microspore through testing various methods, including a chemical etching method and a mechanical drilling related to a manufacturing technology of microspore and achieved the optimization of the electrode structure through various experimentations with variables such as a pressure and a diameter of microspore. In this study, the electrode structure, which can lower the electricity consumption for a practical use, is under development, and the manufacturing technology for the convenient array of a surface is on a test. To evaluate the characteristics of ultraviolet rays, this study is measuring the change of intensity according to a wavelength, with a spectrum of a vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet area. To develop the packaging technology of the large-surface lamp, this study will early develop the packaging technology through various tests related to the packaging and manufacture the trial production based on the technology. 8 figs.

  2. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  3. California School Boards: Professional Development and the Masters in Governance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Sergio Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The California School Board Association's (CSBA) Professional Governance Standards, Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's framework for leadership and management, and the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School Boards provided the framework to understand the impact of the Masters in Governance (MIG) training provided by the CSBA on school…

  4. Nuclear Weapons--A Suitable Topic for the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkelhof, Harrie; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of curriculum materials that discuss nuclear weapons and the evaluation of those materials by administrators, teachers, and students. Also discusses the place of the study of nuclear weapons in the curriculum and aims of the materials. Suggested student activities are included. (JM)

  5. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  6. Scrum Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Stefan; van de Goor, Wim

    The Scrum Board Game is a workshop for beginners. It is for people with any role (customer, developer, tester, etc.), who don’t exactly know what a Scrum Board is, or how to create one themselves. The workshop teaches the benefits of a Scrum Board, how to use it, and how to introduce it in projects.

  7. Strong managers, weak boards?

    OpenAIRE

    Renee B. Adams; Daniel Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Many governance reform proposals are based on the view that boards have been too friendly to executives, for example, by awarding them excessive pay. Although boards are often on friendly terms with executives, it is less clear that they have systematically failed to function in the interests of shareholders. Understanding board monitoring requires a theory of boards that takes into account how firms provide incentives for their Chief Executive Officer's (CEOs) through other means. We develop...

  8. US nuclear weapons policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  9. From board games to teambuilding

    OpenAIRE

    Mikoláš, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The Outline of the development and history of a board game. The Mapping of the contemporary situation in the field of board games. Cultural, social and psychological aspects of playing board games. Defence of the stand that board games are not marginal subject beside modern sorts of amusement e.g. computer games. The Classification of modern board games with regard to their dominant cultural background and origin. The sociological survey on board games and motivation to their playing in the s...

  10. Criticality: the experience of developing an interactive educational tool based on board games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Vanessa; Douglas, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    Critical care services have seen many changes over recent years prompted by the seminal paper by the Department of Health (2000) Comprehensive critical care: A review of adult critical care services. This led to the expansion of critical care services with the resultant recruitment of large numbers of nurses new to critical care. Northumbria and other Universities within the UK were commissioned to provide formal education to critical care nurses and developed Foundations in Acute and Critical Care Module to provide nurses new to critical care, or from other acute clinical settings, with the knowledge and skills to manage this complex group of patients. The aim of this paper is to share the authors' experience of developing "Criticality" a board game designed to formatively assess learning amongst critical care nurses following a formal taught module in a Higher Education Institution (HEI) and prior to the summative assessment. Author experience suggests that Criticality is a useful revision tool and also fun and interactive which helped the students to identify strengths and weaknesses in their knowledge base and thus direct their revision prior to summative assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an On-board Failure Diagnostics and Prognostics System for Solid Rocket Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Osipov, Vyatcheslav V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Uckun, Serdar

    2009-01-01

    We develop a case breach model for the on-board fault diagnostics and prognostics system for subscale solid-rocket boosters (SRBs). The model development was motivated by recent ground firing tests, in which a deviation of measured time-traces from the predicted time-series was observed. A modified model takes into account the nozzle ablation, including the effect of roughness of the nozzle surface, the geometry of the fault, and erosion and burning of the walls of the hole in the metal case. The derived low-dimensional performance model (LDPM) of the fault can reproduce the observed time-series data very well. To verify the performance of the LDPM we build a FLUENT model of the case breach fault and demonstrate a good agreement between theoretical predictions based on the analytical solution of the model equations and the results of the FLUENT simulations. We then incorporate the derived LDPM into an inferential Bayesian framework and verify performance of the Bayesian algorithm for the diagnostics and prognostics of the case breach fault. It is shown that the obtained LDPM allows one to track parameters of the SRB during the flight in real time, to diagnose case breach fault, and to predict its values in the future. The application of the method to fault diagnostics and prognostics (FD&P) of other SRB faults modes is discussed.

  12. Ten-year cleanup of U.S. Department of Energy weapon sites: The changing roles for technology development in an era of privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.H. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In its beginning, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) viewed private industry as lacking adequate technology know-how to meet demands of hazardous and radioactive waste problems at the DOE`s laboratories and nuclear weapons production facilities. In November 1989, EM`s Office of Technology Development (recently renamed the Office of Science and Technology) embarked on a bold program of developing and demonstrating {open_quotes}innovative{close_quotes} waste cleanup technologies that would be safer, faster, more effective, and less expensive than the {open_quotes}baseline{close_quotes} commercial methods. This program has engaged DOE sites, national laboratories, and universities to produce preferred solutions to the problems of handling and treating DOE wastes. More recently, much of this work has shifted to joint efforts with private industry partners to accelerate the use of newly developed technologies and to enhance existing commercial methods. To date, the total funding allocation to the Office of Science and Technology program has been about $2.8 billion. If the technology applications` projects of the EM Offices of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management are included, the total funding is closer to $4 billion. Yet, the environmental industry generally has not been very receptive to EM`s innovative technology offerings. And, essentially the same can be said for DOE sites. According to the U.S. General Accounting Office in an August 1994 report, {open_quotes}Although DOE has spent a substantial amount to develop waste cleanup technologies, little new technology finds its way into the agency`s cleanup actions{close_quotes}. The DOE Baseline Environmental Management Report estimated cleanups of DOE`s Cold War legacy of wastes to require the considerable cost of $226 billion over a period of 75 years. 1 tab.

  13. Applying 4-H Judging Strategies to Board, Dice, and Card Games: Developing Skills in Urban and Suburban Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Brian; Stowe, James

    2017-01-01

    Most 4-H judging events involve livestock or other traditional 4-H projects. Consequently, many urban and suburban youths miss out on building life skills developed through judging. In a nontraditional approach to 4-H judging, such youths play board, dice, and card games and then judge the games using the practice of giving oral reasons. The…

  14. XMOS XC-2 Development Board for Mechanical Control and Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Bowden, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The scanning microwave limb sounder (SMLS) will use technological improvements in low-noise mixers to provide precise data on the Earth s atmospheric composition with high spatial resolution. This project focuses on the design and implementation of a realtime control system needed for airborne engineering tests of the SMLS. The system must coordinate the actuation of optical components using four motors with encoder readback, while collecting synchronized telemetric data from a GPS receiver and 3-axis gyrometric system. A graphical user interface for testing the control system was also designed using Python. Although the system could have been implemented with an FPGA(fieldprogrammable gate array)-based setup, a processor development kit manufactured by XMOS was chosen. The XMOS architecture allows parallel execution of multiple tasks on separate threads, making it ideal for this application. It is easily programmed using XC (a subset of C). The necessary communication interfaces were implemented in software, including Ethernet, with significant cost and time reduction compared to an FPGA-based approach. A simple approach to control the chopper, calibration mirror, and gimbal for the airborne SMLS was needed. The XMOS board allows for multiple threads and real-time data acquisition. The XC-2 development kit is an attractive choice for synchronized, real-time, event-driven applications. The XMOS is based on the transputer microprocessor architecture developed for parallel computing, which is being revamped in this new platform. The XMOS device has multiple cores capable of running parallel applications on separate threads. The threads communicate with each other via user-defined channels capable of transmitting data within the device. XMOS provides a C-based development environment using XC, which eliminates the need for custom tool kits associated with FPGA programming. The XC-2 has four cores and necessary hardware for Ethernet I/O.

  15. The morality of weapons research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, John

    2004-07-01

    I ask whether weapons research is ever justified. Weapons research is identified as the business of the engineer. It is argued that the engineer has responsibility for the uses to which the tools that he designs can be put, and that responsibility extends to the use of weapons. It is maintained that there are no inherently defensive weapons, and hence there is no such thing as 'defensive' weapons research. The issue then is what responsibilities as a professional the engineer has in regard to such research. An account is given to ground the injunction not to provide the means to harm as a duty for the engineers. This account is not, however, absolutist, and as such it allows justifiable exceptions. The answer to my question is thus not that weapons research is never justified but there must be a strong assurance that the results will only be used as a just means in a just cause.

  16. Analysis of words to development of augmentative and alternative communication boards for disabled student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carla Paura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of the words used in language assessment instruments and/or the vocabulary used in Brazil for the development of alternative communication boards. Methods: word lists from the selected assessment instruments were analyzed through a protocol designed for this purpose. The frequency of occurrence of each word was verified considering four word lists from the instruments and the frequency of occurrence of these words according to the classification proposed by Comunication Pictu Symbols system - PCS. Results: Results showed that the frequency words occurred only once was of 67.88% and the frequency of occurrence of concrete and abstract nouns in the instruments was 60.04%. The instrument that presented words with more than one occurrence was the Vocabulary Test-PPVT Peabody Picture. Conclusions: The use of tool that are already used and standardized may contribute to the process of evaluation, selection and deployment of augmentative and alternative communication resources for children and youth with disabilities.

  17. Integrated decision-making in response to weapons of mass destruction incidents: development and initial evaluation of a course for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Erica; Heck, Emily; Norman, Linda; Weiner, Betsy; Mathews, Rick; Black, James; Terndrup, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Standardized, validated training programs for teaching administrative decision-making to healthcare professionals responding to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) incidents have not been available. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team designed, developed, and offered a four-day, functional exercise, competency-based course at a national training center. This report provides a description of the development and initial evaluation of the course in changing participants' perceptions of their capabilities to respond to WMD events. Course participants were healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, emergency medical services administrators, hospital administrators, and public health officials. Each course included three modified tabletop and/or real-time functional exercises. A total of 441 participants attended one of the eight course offerings between March and August 2003. An intervention group only, pre-post design was used to evaluate change in perceived capabilities related to administrative decision-making for WMD incidents. Paired evaluation data were available on 339 participants (81.9%). Self-ratings for each of 21 capability statements were compared before and after the course. A 19-item total scale score for each participant was calculated from the pre-course and post-course evaluations. Paired t-tests on pre- and post-course total scores were conducted separately for each course. There was consistent improvement in self-rated capabilities after course completion for all 21 capability statements. Paired t-tests of pre- and post-course total scale scores indicated a significant increase in mean ratings for each course (all p < 0.001). The tabletop/real-time-exercise format was effective in increasing healthcare administrators' self-rated capabilities related to WMD disaster management and response. Integrating the competencies into training interventions designed for a specific target audience and deploying them into an interactive learning

  18. Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR) provides neutron and proton beams for basic, applied, and defense-related research. Neutron beams with energies ranging...

  19. Board Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Chris; Larson, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Board evaluation has emerged as a corporate governance priority and brought to the forefront many associated challenges. This is not a revolutionary change. Board assessment procedures are evolving as nations and companies formulate and test diverse requirements. Until recently effective Board evaluation was not regarded a Board priority. In 2002, Yale University Professor Jeffrey Sonnenfe...

  20. INITIAL WEAPON SYSTEM SUPPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program which can improve early support of the combined F4B (Navy)/F4C (AF) Program, and other weapon system programs. The findings, in general, in the...F4 aircraft program support those found in the TITAN II Missile Program which are being implemented by the Air Force, i.e., the value of the use of the...provisioning team concept and of a reduction in the lay-in time of spare parts. There appears to be a requirement for stronger intra-Service support of the aircraft leading to possible economic inter-Service support . (Author)

  1. Weapons Container Stacking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    MONITORING Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach (Code 052), California AGENCY REPORT NUMBER Naval Sea Systems Command ( SEA -07) Same as above 1 1...it srt Uuerd for thr 101j) "lid boluoiil (twoc liguiva 4 mud 5,) li Isolnmi oyaslaeamm ~ vAi l i aUv luiti vubshluims or a cramdle auppurtr’d by...26.50 2649 7 2 CNU-131/E Maverick (Air Force) 25.60 27.30 911 (1) 4 3 CNU-154A/E Walleye 28.00 32.00 2950 6 4 CNU-154B/E Walleye 32.60 28.70 2855 6 5

  2. Development of fly ash boards with thermal, acoustic and fire insulation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, C; Arenas, C; Vilches, L F; Alonso-Fariñas, B; Rodriguez-Galán, M

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental analysis on a new board composed of gypsum and fly ashes from coal combustion, which are mutually compatible. Physical and mechanical properties, sound absorption coefficient, thermal properties and leaching test have been obtained. The mechanical properties showed similar values to other commercial products. As far as the acoustic insulation characteristics are concerned, sound absorption coefficients of 0.3 and 0.8 were found. The board presents a low thermal conductivity and a fire resistance higher than 50 min (for 4 cm of thickness). The leaching of trace elements was below the leaching limit values. These boards can be considered as suitable to be used in building applications as partitions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Directed-Energy Weapons: Invisible and Invincible?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deveci, Bayram M

    2007-01-01

    .... What will this century's most powerful weapon be? Directed-energy weapons, which offer advantages over conventional weapons by providing attack at the speed of light, precise targeting, rapid engagement of multiple targets, adjustable damage...

  4. 2007-2008 Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    an operation in Ayn Mana, Iraq, June 26, 2006. WEAPON SYSTEMS 2007–2008 Dear Reader: The weapon systems and equipment described in this reference...Ingersoll- Rand (Campbellsville, KY) Forward Repair System (FRS) 103 UNITED STATES ARMY ACQUISITION PHASE INVESTMENT COMPONENT Global Combat...Lightweight Laser Designator Rangefinder (LLDR) Information Systems Support, Inc. Army Key Management System (AKMS) Ingersoll- Rand Forward Repair

  5. The Spear: An Effective Weapon Since Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Dohrenwend

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spear is perhaps man’s oldest weapon, and may even be his oldest tool. Over the hundreds of thousands of years of the weapon’s existence, it evolved from a pointed stick into an efficient hunting missile, and then became the most effective hand-held bladed weapon humans ever devised. The spear and its use is the only martial art originally devised for use against species other than our own, and more than any other weapon, the spear emphasizes the relationship between hunting and warfare. Virtually without exception, the spear is present wherever there are humans. The spear may claim to be the senior martial art, and the weapon is still in use today. Early techniques are preserved by the small number of Japanese sojutsu schools, and modern Chinese martial artists have developed elegant and impressive gymnastic routines for the spear. The javelin throw is a modern Olympic track and field event, and there are people who have resurrected the Aztec atlatl for sporting competition. Today, the spear is still used in Europe for hunting wild boar, and the continued issue of the obsolete bayonet to modern soldiers testifies to a deep, almost instinctive respect still possessed by the military for the spear.

  6. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  7. An interface board for developing control loops in power electronics based on microcontrollers and DSPs Cores -Arduino /ChipKit /dsPIC /DSP /TI Piccolo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    and development environment. Moreover, the interface board can operate with open hardware Arduino-like boards such as the ChipKit Uno32. The paper also describes how to enhance the performance of a ChipKit Uno32 with a dsPIC obtaining a more suitable solution for power electronics. The basic blocks and interfaces...... of the boards are presented in detail as well as the board main specifications. The board operation has been tested with three core platforms: TI Piccolo controlSTICK, a Microchip dsPIC and a ChipKit Uno32 (Arduino-like platform). The board was used for generating test signals for characterizing 1200 V Si...

  8. Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul; Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear arsenal consists of approximately 60 nuclear warheads. Pakistan continues fissile material production for weapons, and is adding to its weapons production facilities and delivery vehicles...

  9. The Board of Trustees' Professional Development and Effects on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korelich, Kathryn; Maxwell, Gerri

    2015-01-01

    With the pressure for school districts to perform well on state assessments (Brown, Jones & Scheunermann, 2012) and the school boards blamed for the problems within a school district (Fridley, 2006), the inquiry of how to increase student achievement continues to be a forerunner in the circles of educators, parents, business and community…

  10. Investigation, development and verification of printed circuit board embedded air-core solenoid transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jakob Døllner; Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf

    2015-01-01

    A new printed circuit board embedded air-core transformer/coupled inductor is proposed and presented. The transformer is intended for use in power converter applications operating at very high frequency between 30 MHz to 300 MHz. The transformer is based on two or more solenoid structures in diff...

  11. Developing National Board Certified Teachers in North Carolina: A Journey from the Classroom to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Audrey Worrell

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined a culture of teacher leadership that has evolved in North Carolina over the past 20 years, conveying the professional journey of teachers who had moved out of the classroom into other educational leadership roles after attainment of National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification. The study…

  12. Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes Low-Income Children's Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Ramani, Geetha B.

    2008-01-01

    The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of…

  13. 78 FR 12422 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Board will conduct telephone conference call and web-conference based meetings of its six Health Services Research (HSR) subcommittees and its Nursing Research Initiative (NRI) subcommittee. The HSR... testing of new methods of health care delivery and management, and nursing research. Applications are...

  14. Development of a Domain Analysis Model for Electronic Institutional Review Board Systems: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research plays a vital role in producing knowledge valuable for understanding human disease and improving healthcare quality. Human subject protection is an obligation essential to the clinical research endeavor, much of which is governed by federal regulations and rules. Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are responsible for overseeing…

  15. 76 FR 36512 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... will include the participation of five new BIFAD presidential appointments. Including Dr. Deaton, those... University. After opening remarks by Dr. Deaton, USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah will formally swear in the new Board members and make a short presentation. At the conclusion of Dr. Shah's remarks, Dr. Deaton...

  16. The singular weapon. What remains from the atomic age?; Die Singulaere Waffe. Was bleibt vom Atomzeitalter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbart, Constanze (ed.) [Forschungsstaette der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft (FEST), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Why do we talk about the atomic age? The language of the atomic myth - comments to a protestant debate. Nuclear singularity between fiction and reality. Only one can get through: military singularity of nuclear weapons. Physical singularity of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons test and fall-out. Quantitative disarmament and qualitative rearmament. Do mini nukes neutralize the singularity? The vulnerability of the industrial society by the nuclear electromagnetic momentum. Nuclear weapons as national status symbol - the example of India. The general regulations of international laws and the singularity of nuclear weapons. The construction of normative singularity - development and change of the nuclear taboo.

  17. Rays as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H

    2007-08-01

    Ionizing radiation is being regarded as life threatening. Therefore, accidents in nuclear power plants are considered equal threatening as nuclear bomb explosions, and attacks with dirty bombs are thought as dangerous as nuclear weapon explosions. However, there are differences between a nuclear bomb explosion, the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and an attack with a dirty bomb. It is intended to point them out. The processes are described, which damage in a nuclear bomb explosion, in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and in an attack with a dirty bomb. Their effects are compared with each other, i.e. explosion, heat, shock wave (blast), ionizing radiation, and fallout. In the center of the explosion of a nuclear bomb, the temperature rises to 100Mio degrees C, this induces damaging heat radiation and shock wave. In the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant and in the conventional explosion of a dirty bomb, the temperature may rise up to 3000 degrees C, heat radiation and blast are limited to a short distance. In nuclear power plants, explosions due to oxyhydrogen gas or steam may occur. In nuclear explosions the dispersed radioactive material (fall out) consists mainly of isotopes with short half-life, in nuclear power plants and in dirty bomb attacks with longer half-life. The amount of fall out is comparable in nuclear bomb explosions with that in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, it is smaller in attacks with dirty bombs. An explosion in a nuclear power plant even in the largest imaginable accident is not a nuclear explosion. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there were 200,000 victims nearly all by heat and blast, some 300 died by ionizing radiation. In Chernobyl, there have been less than 100 victims due to ionizing radiation up till now. A dirty bomb kills possibly with the explosion of conventional explosive, the dispersed radioactive material may damage individuals. The

  18. Rays as weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation is being regarded as life threatening. Therefore, accidents in nuclear power plants are considered equal threatening as nuclear bomb explosions, and attacks with dirty bombs are thought as dangerous as nuclear weapon explosions. However, there are differences between a nuclear bomb explosion, the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and an attack with a dirty bomb. It is intended to point them out. Method: The processes are described, which damage in a nuclear bomb explosion, in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and in an attack with a dirty bomb. Their effects are compared with each other, i.e. explosion, heat, shock wave (blast), ionizing radiation, and fallout. Results: In the center of the explosion of a nuclear bomb, the temperature rises to 100 Mio deg.C, this induces damaging heat radiation and shock wave. In the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant and in the conventional explosion of a dirty bomb, the temperature may rise up to 3000 deg. C, heat radiation and blast are limited to a short distance. In nuclear power plants, explosions due to oxyhydrogen gas or steam may occur. In nuclear explosions the dispersed radioactive material (fall out) consists mainly of isotopes with short half-life, in nuclear power plants and in dirty bomb attacks with longer half-life. The amount of fall out is comparable in nuclear bomb explosions with that in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, it is smaller in attacks with dirty bombs. An explosion in a nuclear power plant even in the largest imaginable accident is not a nuclear explosion. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there were 200,000 victims nearly all by heat and blast, some 300 died by ionizing radiation. In Chernobyl, there have been less than 100 victims due to ionizing radiation up till now. A dirty bomb kills possibly with the explosion of conventional explosive, the dispersed radioactive material may damage

  19. Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    decade of the 1990s, with the demise of the Soviet block, major mergers and buy-outs resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of defense-oriented...PENTAGON WASHINGTON, DC 20301-3010 ACQUISITIO ,,,. OCT 3 0 2006 TECHNOLOGY AND LOGISTICSMEMORANDUM FOR CHAIRMAN, DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD SUBJECT: Terms of

  20. Wartime nuclear weapons research in Germany and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunden, Walter E; Walker, Mark; Yamnazaki, Masakatsu

    2005-01-01

    This article compares military research projects during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons in Germany and Japan, two countries who lost the war and failed to create nuclear weapons. The performance and motivations of the scientists, as well as the institutional support given the work, is examined, explaining why, in each case, the project went as far as it did-but no further. The story is carried over into the postwar period, when the two cultures and their scientists had to deal with the buildup of nuclear weapons during the cold war and the new nuclear power industry.

  1. Board news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1997-01-01

    Composition of the Board of the Foundation Flora Malesiana. — The Board met during the Flora of Thailand Symposium in Phuket. The members Dr. P. Baas and Dr. K. Iwatsuki, whose terms had expired, were happy to continue on the Board. Dr. S.H. Sohmer withdrew and Dr. A. Hay agreed to take the vacant

  2. Representation of academics from developing countries as authors and editorial board members in scientific journals: Does this matter to the field of development studies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cummings, S.J.R.; Hoebink, P.R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Patterns of publication in the field of development studies are examined, based on analysis of the affiliations of authors and editorial board members for a sample of 10 'well-known' (Sumner and Tribe, 2009, p. 32) academic journals. Data were collected from the Web of Science (WoS) database for the

  3. Feedback control system based on a remote operated PID controller implemented using mbed NXP LPC1768 development board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricop, Emil; Zamfir, Florin; Paraschiv, Nicolae

    2015-11-01

    Process control is a challenging research topic for both academia and industry for a long time. Controllers evolved from the classical SISO approach to modern fuzzy or neuro-fuzzy embedded devices with networking capabilities, however PID algorithms are still used in the most industrial control loops. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of a PID controller using mbed NXP LPC1768 development board. This board integrates a powerful ARM Cortex- M3 core and has networking capabilities. The implemented controller can be remotely operated by using an Internet connection and a standard Web browser. The main advantages of the proposed embedded system are customizability, easy operation and very low power consumption. The experimental results obtained by using a simulated process are analysed and shows that the implementation can be done with success in industrial applications.

  4. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  5. Medical implications of enhanced radiation weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Glen I

    2010-12-01

    During the 1960s through 1980s the United States and several other nations developed, and even considered deploying, enhanced-radiation warheads (ERWs). The main effect of ERWs (sometimes called "neutron bombs"), as compared to other types of nuclear weapons, is to enhance radiation casualties while reducing blast and thermal damage to the infrastructure. Five nations were reported to have developed and tested ERWs during this period, but since the termination of the "Cold War" there have been no threats of development, deployment, or use of such weapons. However, if the technology of a quarter of a century ago has been developed, maintained, or even advanced since then, it is conceivable that the grim possibility of future ERW use exists. The type of destruction, initial triage of casualties, distribution of patterns of injury, and medical management of ERWs will be shown to significantly differ from that of fission weapons. Emergency response planners and medical personnel, civilian or military, must be aware of these differences to reduce the horrible consequences of ERW usage and appropriately treat casualties.

  6. Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weilacher, Lester A

    2003-01-01

    Little more than a month after terrorists took control of four passenger aircraft in the United States and unleashed the horror of 9/11, 50 Chechen terrorists armed with automatic weapons and carrying...

  7. Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

  8. How electroshock weapons kill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  9. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  10. Chemistry and Materials Science Weapons-Supporting Research and Laboratory-Directed Research and Development. Second half progress report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research are surface research, uranium research, physics and processing of metals, energetic materials. Group study areas included strength of Al and Al-Mg/alumina bonds, advanced synchrotron radiation study of materials, and theory, modeling, and computation. Individual projects were life prediction for composites and thermoelectric materials with exceptional figures of merit. The laboratory-directed R and D include director`s initiatives (aerogel-based electronic devices, molecular levels of energetic materials), individual projects, and transactinium institute studies. An author index is provided.

  11. Hardware and software development of a multichannel readout board named CARLOSrx for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    ALICE, that is an experiment held at CERN using the LHC, is specialized in analyzing lead-ion collisions. ALICE will study the properties of quarkgluon plasma, a state of matter where quarks and gluons, under conditions of very high temperatures and densities, are no longer confined inside hadrons. Such a state of matter probably existed just after the Big Bang, before particles such as protons and neutrons were formed. The SDD detector, one of the ALICE subdetectors, is part of the ITS that is composed by 6 cylindrical layers with the innermost one attached to the beam pipe. The ITS tracks and identifies particles near the interaction point, it also aligns the tracks of the articles detected by more external detectors. The two ITS middle layers contain the whole 260 SDD detectors. A multichannel readout board, called CARLOSrx, receives at the same time the data coming from 12 SDD detectors. In total there are 24 CARLOSrx boards needed to read data coming from all the SDD modules (detector plus front end elec...

  12. Making Weapons for the Terracotta Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Terracotta Army of the First Emperor of China is one of the most emblematic archaeological sites in the world. Many questions remain about the logistics of technology, standardisation and labour organisation behind the creation of such a colossal construction in just a few decades over 2,000 years ago. An ongoing research project co-ordinated between the UCL Institute of Archaeology and the Emperor Qin Shihang's Terracotta Army Museum is beginning to address some of these questions. This paper outlines some results of the typological, metric, microscopic, chemical and spatial analyses of the 40,000 bronze weapons recovered with the Terracotta Warriors. Thanks to a holistic approach developed specifically for this project, it is possible to reveal remarkable aspects of the organisation of the Qin workforce in production cells, of the standardisation, efficiency and quality-control procedures employed, and of the sophisticated technical knowledge of the weapon-makers.

  13. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    In today’s conflict environment, transformed by information technology and of who can communicate and how, states, non-state actors, ad hoc activist networks and individuals create effect(s) in and through social network media in support of their objectives. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia develops...... a framework for understanding how social network media shapes global politics and contemporary conflicts by examining their role as a platform for conduction intelligence collection, targeting, cyber-operations, psychological warfare and command and control activities. Through these, the weaponization...... of social media shows both the possibilities and the limitations of social network media in contemporary conflicts and makes a contribution to theorizing and studying contemporary conflicts....

  14. Defense Science Board Task Force on Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    of their high peak fields at a distance by the time-domain equivalent of high directivity. That method has the disadvantage of not covering a large...decade of the 1990s, with the demise of the Soviet block, major mergers and buy-outs resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of defense...that brings margin to the operating profit of the contractors. Production is essential to profit and, thus, to shareholder support. Subcontractors

  15. Examination of Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Weapons in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Young A; Yim, Man Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This observation implies that the popular view on nuclear weapons amongst Korean public is in part due to lack of knowledge about overall implications of possessing nuclear weapons. In this regard, pros and cons of nuclear weapons development need to be better characterized and understood by the public to support nuclear nonproliferation culture development. Noting lack of literature on characterizing the economics of nuclear weapons development, this study aims at performing economic feasibility analysis of nuclear weapons development in the ROK. For this purpose, an approach called Index technique based on the US experiences was applied to Korean historical data along with cost-benefit analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Making Analysis. In this study, the scenario of nuclear weapons development against North Korean nuclear threat was compared with conventional weapons-based defense strategy. The comparison was based on cost benefit analysis and qualitative multi-criteria decision analysis. Results indicate that nuclear weapons development is not a desirable option. However, as this work was a rather simplistic academic exercise, further work is needed to support the outcome of the study. Outcome of these investigations would be useful for communication with the public regarding the need for nuclear weapons for national defense and to develop nuclear nonproliferation culture in the ROK.

  16. Supporting information technology across health boards in New Zealand: themes emerging from the development of a shared services organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, K J; Norris, A C

    2006-03-01

    Shared services organizations are ascribed with adding value to business in several ways but especially by sharing resources and leading to economies of scale. However, these gains are not automatic and in some instances, particularly healthcare, they are difficult to achieve. This article describes a project to develop a shared services information technology infrastructure across two district health boards in New Zealand. The study reveals valuable insight into the crisis issues that accompany change management and identifies emergent themes that can be used to reduce negative impact.

  17. INTEGRATED ON-BOARD COMPUTING SYSTEMS: PRESENT SITUATION REVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS ANALYSIS IN THE AVIATION INSTRUMENT-MAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Paramonov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with present situation review and analysis of development prospects for integrated on-board computing systems, used in the aviation instrument-making industry. The main attention is paid to the projects carried out in the framework of an integrated modular avionics. Hierarchical levels of module design, crates (onboard systems and aviation complexes are considered in detail. Examples of the existing products of our country and from abroad and their brief technical characteristics are given and voluminous bibliography on the subject matter as well.

  18. Imaging of Nuclear Weapon Trainers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwellenbach, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The Configurable Muon Tracker (CMT) is an adaptation of the existing drift tube detector commercially available from Decision Sciences International Corporation (DSIC). NSTec engineered the CMT around commercially available drift tube assemblies to make a detector that is more versatile than previous drift tube assemblies. The CMT became operational in February 2013. Traditionally, cosmic-ray muon trackers rely on near-vertical trajectory muons for imaging. Since there are scenarios where imaging using vertical trajectory muons is not practical, NSTec designed the CMT specifically for quick configurability to track muons from any trajectory. The CMT was originally designed to be changed from vertical imaging mode to horizontal imaging mode in a few hours with access to a crane or other lifting equipment. In FY14, locations for imaging weapon trainers and SNM were identified and it was determined that lifting equipment would not typically be available in experimental areas. The CMT was further modified and a portable lifting system was developed to allow reconfiguration of the CMT without access to lifting equipment at the facility. This system was first deployed at Los Alamos National Laboratory’s W-division, where several trainers were imaged in both horizontal and vertical modes. Real-time images have been compared in both modes showing that imaging can be done in both modes with the expected longer integration time for horizontal mode. Further imaging and post processing of the data is expected to continue into early FY15.

  19. Board Charter

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TEST

    relationship between the Board and management, the relationship between the Centre and. Parliament through .... members in such a manner that public confidence and trust in the integrity of IDRC and its. Board is maintained. .... electronic, or other communication facilities as permit all persons participating in the meeting.

  20. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  1. Carrot, stick, or sledgehammer: U.S. policy options for North Korean nuclear weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Orcutt, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons has shaken the foundations of U.S. policy in Northeast Asia. Because of North Korea's record of state-sponsored terrorism, illicit activities, human rights violations, arms sales, and fiery rhetoric, its development of operational nuclear weapons is deeply disturbing. Although most agree North Korea should not possess nuclear weapons, nobody has a solution. This thesis evaluates three U.S. polic...

  2. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1964-02-01

    This book is a revision of "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" which was issued in 1957. It was prepared by the Defense Atomic Support Agency of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant governmental agencies and was published by the U.S. Atomc Energy Commission. Although the complex nature of nuclear weapons effects does not always allow exact evaluation, the conclusions reached herein represent the combined judgment of a number of the most competent scientists working the problem. There is a need for widespread public understanding of the best information available on the effects of nuclear weapons. The purpose of this book is to present as accurately as possible, within the limits of national security, a comprehensive summary of this information.

  3. Space weapon technology and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Theresa

    2017-11-01

    The military use of space, including in support of nuclear weapons infrastructure, has greatly increased over the past 30 years. In the current era, rising geopolitical tensions between the United States and Russia and China have led to assumptions in all three major space powers that warfighting in space now is inevitable, and possible because of rapid technological advancements. New capabilities for disrupting and destroying satellites include radio-frequency jamming, the use of lasers, maneuverable space objects and more capable direct-ascent anti-satellite weapons. This situation, however, threatens international security and stability among nuclear powers. There is a continuing and necessary role for diplomacy, especially the establishment of normative rules of behavior, to reduce risks of misperceptions and crisis escalation, including up to the use of nuclear weapons. U.S. policy and strategy should seek a balance between traditional military approaches to protecting its space assets and diplomatic tools to create a more secure space environment.

  4. System Architecture for a Military Weapon System Development Process to Integrate Design and the Manufacturing Process for Use by a Government Technical Development Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Engineering and Knowledge Management: A Case Study of a Semiconductor Manufacturing Firm . Saarbrűcken, Deutchland / Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic... Malaysian semiconductor manufacturing firm , …it is apparent that the firm’s product development team consist of cross- functional engineering teams...looking beyond the realm of government agencies, many private-sector firms have experienced success with adopting concurrent engineering. In many cases

  5. GPS and Galileo Developments on Board the International Space Station With the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, Oscar; Fantinato, Samuele; Dalla Chiara, Andrea; Gamba, Giovanni; Crisci, Massimo; Giordana, Pietro; Enderle, Werner; Chelmins, David; Sands, Obed S.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) is a facility developed by NASA and hosted on board the International Space Station (ISS) on an external truss since 2013.It has the objective of testing navigation and communication experimentations with a Software Defined Radio (SDR) approach, which permits software updates for testing new experimentations.NASA has developed the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard for SDRs used in space and ground-based platforms to provide commonality among radio developments to provide enhanced capability. The hardware is equipped with both L band front-end radios and the NASA space network communicates with it using S-band, Ku-band and Ka-band links.In May 2016 Qascom started GARISS (GPS and Galileo Receiver for the ISS), an activity of experimentation in collaboration with ESA and NASA that has the objective to develop and validate the acquisition and processing of combined GPS and Galileo signals on board the ISS SCaN testbed. This paper has the objective to present the mission, and provide preliminary details about the challenges in the design, development and verification of the waveform that will be installed on equipment with limited resources. GARISS is also the first attempt to develop a waveform for the ISS as part of an international collaboration between US and Europe. Although the final mission objective is to target dual frequency processing, initial operations will foresee a single frequency processing. Initial results and trade-off between the two options, as well as the final decision will be presented and discussed. The limited resources on board the SCaN with respect to the challenging requirements to acquire and track contemporaneously two satellite navigation systems, with different modulations and data structure, led to the need to assess the possibility of aiding from ground through the S-band. This option would allow assistance to the space receiver in order to provide

  6. A Conceptual Model to Identify Intent to Use Chemical-Biological Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Zalesny

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a conceptual model to identify and interrelate indicators of intent of non-state actors to use chemical or biological weapons. The model expands on earlier efforts to understand intent to use weapons of mass destruction by building upon well-researched theories of intent and behavior and focusing on a sub-set of weapons of mass destruction (WMD to account for the distinct challenges of employing different types of WMD in violent acts. The conceptual model is presented as a first, critical step in developing a computational model for assessing the potential for groups to use chemical or biological weapons.

  7. Direct-energy weapons : invisible and invincible?

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, Bayram Mert

    2007-01-01

    A military weapon is any tool used to increase the reach or power of a nation. Simply, it can be said that each era witnesses the deployment of new and powerful mass destruction weaponry. What will this century's most powerful weapon be? Directed-energy weapons, which offer advantages over conventional weapons by providing attack at the speed of light, precise targeting, rapid engagement of multiple targets, adjustable damage capacity, low operational cost, reduced logistic support, a nea...

  8. Using a community advisory board to develop a serious game for older adults undergoing treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerzel, Victoria; Clochesy, John; Geddie, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    Older adults undergoing treatment for cancer are at risk for serious complications such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Older adults are often overwhelmed by information and under-manage cancer treatment-related side effects. New educational strategies such as serious gaming may help teach or reinforce key symptom self-management strategies. This paper describes how a community advisory board of older adults, their caregivers, and oncology nurses were consulted to develop a serious game for CINV. A formative evaluation process using a community advisory board (CAB) and a series of three focus groups were used to develop this serious game about managing CINV at home. The formative evaluation process and involvement of the CAB allowed researchers to learn about the experience of having CINV from an older adult perspective. Common themes related to CINV onset, severity and self-management formed the basis for the serious games' script and scenarios. Themes were validated and CAB members provided feedback on a game prototype. Feedback from CAB members indicated that the serious game was realistic and reflective of their CINV experience. Including older adults in the development of a serious game was instrumental in creating a relevant educational opportunity. Serious gaming should be considered as a way to add to the educational experiences of older adults as generic teaching methods may not address the needs of all age groups. Exploring for new ways to emphasize key points related to symptom management and prioritize learning may impact outcomes for older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Weapons in Schools. NSSC Resource Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, George E., Ed.; Turner, Brenda, Ed.

    More than ever, our public school system must confront weapons in schools and become aware of steadily rising statistics on youth homicide and suicide. This report delineates the problem, discusses why children carry weapons to school, and outlines strategies for keeping weapons out of schools and for improving school safety. Although some…

  10. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  11. 76 FR 46756 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    .... These projects are requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific...

  12. 76 FR 81918 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funds in excess of $1M. This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific...

  13. ANALYSIS OF INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN ARRIVALS OF TOURISTS IN BOARDING HOUSES, ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY AND RELATIVE POVERTY RATE TO REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHIZDEANU ION

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the activity area, the link between the firm, sustainability and the necessary means to achieve that desideratum, is real and accepted in the context in which scientists, investors, entrepreneurs, state and citizens are becoming more and more aware of the devastating impact of the chaotic activities aimed at making a profit at any cost. Being aware of the importance of the correlation between ecotourism and sustainability, after a preliminary conceptualization of the means to promote green tourism business, and some elements of ecological marketing an analysis has been attempted via the linear regression model of interdependence between arrivals of tourists in the rural boarding houses, accommodation capacity and the relative poverty rate at the level of development region in Romania. In this sense, the data provided by the National Institute of Statistics have been used.

  14. Developing a Why–How Question Answering system on community web boards with a causality graph including procedural knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pechsiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to develop an automatic Question Answering system, in particular Why and How questions, on community web-boards to support ordinary people in preliminary diagnosis and problem solving, such as plant disease problems. The research includes two main problems: Why and How question identification and Why and How answer determination, where Why and How questions are based on explanations. Therefore, the research applies machine learning techniques for question type identification. We also propose an integrated causality graph with extracted procedural knowledge from text to determine the visualized answers based on the information retrieval technique. The experiment shows the Question Answering system can achieve answers at Rank 1 with 91.1% and 88.9% correctness for Why questions and How questions, respectively.

  15. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has completed its fixed base activities on-board the ISS and is scheduled to receive its climbing legs in early 2014. In its continuing line of firsts, the R2 torso finished up its on-orbit activities on its stanchion with the manipulation of space blanket materials and performed multiple tasks under teleoperation control by IVA astronauts. The successful completion of these two IVA experiments is a key step in Robonaut's progression towards an EVA capability. Integration with the legs and climbing inside the ISS will provide another important part of the experience that R2 will need prior to performing tasks on the outside of ISS. In support of these on-orbit activities, R2 has been traversing across handrails in simulated zero-g environments and working with EVA tools and equipment on the ground to determine manipulation strategies for an EVA Robonaut. R2 made significant advances in robotic manipulation of deformable materials in space while working with its softgoods task panel. This panel features quarter turn latches that secure a space blanket to the task panel structure. The space blanket covers two cloth cubes that are attached with Velcro to the structure. R2 was able to open and close the latches, pull back the blanket, and remove the cube underneath. R2 simulated cleaning up an EVA worksite as well, by replacing the cube and reattaching the blanket. In order to interact with the softgoods panel, R2 has both autonomously and with a human in the loop identified and localized these deformable objects. Using stereo color cameras, R2 identified characteristic elements on the softgoods panel then extracted the location and orientation of the object in its field of view using stereo disparity and kinematic transforms. R2 used both vision processing and supervisory control to successfully accomplish this important task. Teleoperation is a key capability for Robonaut's effectiveness as an EVA system. To build proficiency, crewmembers have

  16. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  17. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-09-27

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, S

    1999-01-01

    The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has. PMID:10585902

  19. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Group on Independent Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-02-01

    has been expended to date in developing the process of pyrolytic deposition of boron on a tungsten wire substrate. Other efforts, under Contract...Flame- spray application techniques have been developed to provide the coating with the essential bonding strength and resistance to thermal shock. A

  20. 76 FR 20335 - Meeting of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess of $1M. This meeting is open to the public. Any... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Meeting of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific...

  1. 75 FR 61695 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Sixtieth Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... and USDA speakers will discuss an array of plans and ideas under development for addressing global..., etc., in the functional areas of teaching, research, and extension for addressing global problems. The...

  2. 76 FR 5650 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Social Reintegration; Sensory Systems/Communication; Spinal Cord Injury; and Career Development Award... and animal subjects. A general session of each subcommittee meeting will be open to the public for...

  3. developing of antique olympic plays in a roman period at board of different emperors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko O.G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Researched the questions of development the Ancient Olympic Games, after the capture Greece territory by the Roman army. This condition and development in future fully depended on the social and political phenomena in Roman society preferring more aggressive types of «spectacles». The direction of quickly changing emperors was represented on status of the competitions. Positive relation authorities to competitions brought to achievement the second «bloom» of the Olympic Games in the Roman period.

  4. Non-State actors’ pursuit of CBRN weapons: From motivation to potential humanitarian consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, S.E.; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses non-State actors’ motivation and capacity to develop and use chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) improvised weapons in attacks, as well as the possible consequences of such use. Six types of groups have been identified as potential CBRN weapons users that may

  5. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the

  6. Iran’s Growing Nuclear Weapons Program: A Catalyst for Regional Instability in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-10

    military spending . This increase has been primarily in the area of conventional forces, however there is growing evidence that Iran is also attempting to develop a nuclear weapons capability as well. This study examines Iran’s nuclear weapons program in detail, and Tehran’s increasing ability to emerge as a regional power in the Middle

  7. Acquiring Affordable Weapons Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    series of efforts are ongoing. New draft management directives have been prepared in OSD and the Services aimed at infusing affordability considera- tions...a greater emphasis on O&S costs during system development may result in somewhat increased development, acquisition and/or produccion costs. This...mod,,i’design/ series (M/D/S) equipments, such as the F-4E aircraft, the DLG ship, etc.) The first step within this milestone was to develop the

  8. 78 FR 58267 - Notice of October 15 Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... hear from USAID, the university community and other experts on progress and mechanisms for advancing... from USAID on its Feed the Future Innovation Labs and the Higher Education Solutions Network in a panel...; Extension; Policy, Agribusiness and Open Data; and Exploration of Capacity Development Opportunities with...

  9. 78 FR 51713 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Hall, and Climate Change Resource Overview. Conservation and, Climate Change, Program Manager. 10:30 a... Conservation Dr. John Hall, and Climate Change Resource Overview. Conservation and, Climate Change, Program...- Developing Smart Franklin, Infrastructure for a Lawrence Changing Arctic Berkeley Environment using National...

  10. 78 FR 68825 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Development of Low-Toxicity Liquid Warfare Center, China Lake, Propellant System for Orbital/Sub- CA. Orbital..., Aerojet Environmentally Sustainable Liquid Gas General Corporation, Redmond, Generator Formulations. WA... Mass Balance Modeling with Massachusetts Institute of Passive Sampling at Contaminated Technology...

  11. 78 FR 58526 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...-011 (WP-2401): Development of Low- Mr. Joseph Clubb, Naval Toxicity Liquid Propellant System for.... 10:30 a.m 14 WP01-009 (WP-2400): Environmentally Mr. Gary Holland, Aerojet Sustainable Liquid Gas... ER03-028 (ER-2429): Combining Mass Balance Dr. Philip Gschwend, Modeling with Passive Sampling at...

  12. Development of an On-board Diagnostics System Based on Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng FENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to control vehicle exhaust emission effectively, an OBD is developed based on Zigbee technology. Overall solution design of the system is proposed and the vehicle-mounted monitoring database is established. The wireless network communication hardware platform is set up by the MC9S08GT60 microcontroller and the MC13192 wireless module. The project document is produced with the help of BeeKit wireless connectivity toolkit. Under the CodeWarrior IDE development environment, the monitoring station coordinator networking program and the vehicle-mounted terminal device networking program are designed. Experimental results shows that this system complete data exchange between the monitoring station coordinator and the vehicle-mounted terminal device and transfer data into monitoring station computer. The wireless network of OBD is realized.

  13. Development and Experimental Comparison of Low-Cost, Reliable Capacitive Touch Sensing Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Ferat; Şahin, Özge Cihanbeğendi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two types of direct interface capacitive sensors, self- and mutual-capacitance, were developed and compared experimentally. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) tests—International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61000-4-3, IEC 61000-4-4, IEC 61000-4-6—were applied in an accredited laboratory to measure the immunity of the sensors against radiated and conducted interference. The frequency hopping algorithm could be implemented for the mutual-capacitance sensor without using any particular circuit. The effects of EMC disturbance were detected by means of a new noise detection algorithm and when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) became lower, the operation frequency of the sensors switched to an undisturbed frequency to ensure safe operation. For this purpose, a new noise detection algorithm was developed and frequency hopping was performed with a standard controller. Both cards were tested under several conditions and their performances compared. PMID:27792202

  14. Tactical Nuclear Weapons and NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    nuclear weapons, leading to a weakening of Russia’s global position. It would down- grade Russia to sixth or seventh place in the geostrate- gic...years with the dismaying realization that the reinforcement of conventional forces and the up- grade of infrastructure for their defense, which NATO...Russian temptation to exploit the presence of its NSNWs to threaten, in- timidate , or coerce NATO allies or others, especially in crisis. The continued

  15. History of Laser Weapon Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Quartz Flash Tube100% Reflective Mirror Polished Aluminum Reflecting Cylinder 95% Reflective Mirror Laser Beam 29 History of Laser Weapon Research short...are among the combustion products. Just downstream from the combustor, deuterium and helium are injected into the exhaust. Deuteri- um (U) combines...with the excited fluorine to cre- ate excited deuterium fluoride (DF) molecules, while the helium stabilizes the reaction and con- trols the

  16. Defining Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    U.S. military had full access to the products of science and technology during the war, he also was intimately familiar with the destruc- tive...agents, usually anthrax hoaxes .104 After 1994, 21 states and the District of Columbia also adopted laws incorpo- rating WMD definitions (see appendix D...interpretation” of what constituted WMD, and the President’s science advi- sor made clear that he thought WMD meant nuclear weapons plus “BW–CW

  17. Future Treaties: Chemical Weapons Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Rnmrvn ia ALL;t rai EK upi Kepv i Sri Lanka he: giu Fra ’nce mexic 1-r Brazi G Moi7Y𔄁lia A.S.S.R. Bulgz’ari "RG Morocco At.41 Or< n Surma7; Hjnqar: Wh...Carpenter, W., Government Regulation of Chemical Manufacturing in the USA as a Basis for Surveillance of Compliance With the Projected Chemical Weapons

  18. Board meetings

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ruxandra Staicu

    Purpose: Board meetings. Date(s):. 2015-11-16 to 2015-11-19. Destination(s):. Ottawa. Airfare: $5,596.11. Other. Transportation: $67.54. Accommodation: $340.45. Meals and. Incidentals: $175.39. Other: $0.00. Total: $6,179.49. Comments: 2015-2016 Travel and Hospitality Expense. Reports for Shainoor Khoja, Governor.

  19. Board meetings

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ruxandra Staicu

    Purpose: Board meetings. Date(s):. 2015-07-13 to 2015-07-14. Destination(s):. Ottawa. Airfare: $5,687.53. Other Transportation: $60.14. Accommodation: $344.56. Meals and. Incidentals: $150.00. Other: Total: $6,242.23. Comments: 2015-2016 Travel and Hospitality Expense. Reports for Shainoor Khoja, Governor.

  20. Board news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    Thanks to the hospitality and arrangements of Professor IWATSUKI, the Board could meet during the XV International Botanical Congress. At the meeting Prof. LUCAS AND DR. Roos were re-appointed, whereas Dr. BURLEY was appointed to succeed Dr. STEVENS as representative of the Harvard University. The

  1. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  2. Development of Flip Chip Rework Method for High Dense Printed Circuit Board

    OpenAIRE

    森, 史成; 鳥山, 和重; 勝, 直樹; 荘司, 郁夫

    2000-01-01

    Flip chip attach technology has many advantages and is considered one of the most important technology in the micro joining field. However, the flip chip rework is difficult when the flip chip bonding is formed on the high density card. We developed new flip chip rework method using the solder capped chip technology. In this technology, Sn-37Pb solder, which is neccessary to form the flip chip joint again, is applied on Pb-3Sn bumps of bare chip by the paste printing method. That solder cappe...

  3. Dripstone Columns: A Strategy Development Model for Strategic Renewal for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Callisto, Kristen Alana Wong

    2016-01-01

    The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards was established in 1987 and is an independent, non-profit, and non-governmental organization that works to advance accomplished teaching. At the time of my residency, the National Board was in the midst of several significant changes: a major re-design of its board certification assessment, the launch of ATLAS – an online case library of accomplished teaching, the transition of a new president and CEO, and the wind-down of several large g...

  4. Development of the Kiel sensors for the EPD instrument on-board Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cesar; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao R.; Tammen, Jan; Terasa, Christoph; Yu, Jia; Boden, Sebastian; Steinhagen, Jan; Panitzsch, Lauri; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Boettcher, Stephan; Hamann, Christian; Seimetz, Lars; Rodriguez-Pacheco, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Solar Orbiter is ESA's next solar and heliospheric mission, planned for launch in January 2017 and approaching the Sun as close as 0.28 AU. One of the Solar Orbiter's scientific questions is "How do the solar eruptions produce energetic particle radiation that fills the heliosphere?". The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) will provide key measurements for this and the other Solar Orbiter science objectives. The EPD suite consists of four sensors measuring electrons, protons, and ions from helium to iron, and operating at partly overlapping energy ranges from 2 keV/n up to 200 MeV/n. The EPD sensors are: SupraThermal Electrons and Protons(STEP), Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS), Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) and High Energy Telescope (HET). Besides, the EPD sensors share the Instrument Control Unit (ICU). The University of Kiel in Germany is responsible for developing the EPT-HET, STEP and SIS sensors. Here we present the development status of the EPT-HET and STEP sensors focusing on the activities planned for the current phase C. Those activities include results of the integration and EMC tests on the EPT-HET and STEP Engineering Model (EM) and the assembly of the Proto Qualification Model (PQM).

  5. Development of Self Fire Retardant Melamine-Animal Glue Formaldehyde (MGF) Resin for the Manufacture of BWR Ply Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Dubey, Rajib Kumar; Roymahapatra, Gourisankar; Mishra, Anjan; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Kalawate, Aparna

    2017-10-01

    Wood is one of the most sustainable, naturally growing materials that consist mainly of combustible organic carbon compounds. Since plywood are widely used nowadays especially in buildings, furniture and cabinets. Too often the fire behavior of ply-board may be viewed as a drawback. Amino-plastic based thermosetting resin adhesives are the important and most widely used in the plywood panel industries. The fire retardant property of wood panel products by adding animal glue as an additive in the form of MGF resin and used as substitute of melamine for manufacture of plywood. Environment concerns and higher cost of petroleum based resins have resulted in the development of technologies to replace melamine partially by biomaterials for the manufacturing of resin adhesive. Natural bio-based materials such as tannin, CNSL (cardanol), lignin, soya etc. are used as partial substitution of melamine. This article presents the development of melamine-animal glue formaldehyde resin as plywood binder. About 30 % melamine was substituted by animal glue and optimized. The different physico-mechanical and fire retardant property properties tested as per IS: 1734-1983 and IS: 5509-2000 respectively are quite satisfactory. The production of adhesive from melamine with compatible natural proteinous material is cost effective, eco-friendly and enhance the fire retardant property.

  6. Developing a Why–How Question Answering system on community web boards with a causality graph including procedural knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pechsiri, C; Piriyakul, R

    2016-01-01

    ... by asking a Why question (Why-Q) type, asking for reasons, and/or a How question (How-Q) type, asking for a problem solving approach. However, the speed of response to questions depends on the question domain, the chat room type of a certain web-board, the web-board domain, etc. Most plant disease questions receive responses within a week through ...

  7. North Korea, Nuclear Weapons, and No Good Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    How would Pyongyang’s development of the capability to target the United States with nuclear weapons influence North Korea’s foreign policy? I argue that it would cause more dangerous crises than those of the last decade, and predict that these crises would eventually cause Kim Jong Un and his...

  8. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    hand, governments and military services hope to develop game-changing technologies, that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’. In this paper, I wish to show how different and competing regimes of justification shape the technopolitical controversy and risk management of autonomous weapon systems...

  9. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    In recent years, the development of autonomous weapon systems and so-called ‘killer robots’, has caused a number of serious legal and ethical concerns in the international community, including questions of compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Laws of Armed Conflict. On the other...

  10. Trends in weapon-related injuries from violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Luef, Stefan; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Faergemann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the development in incidence rates and the severity of weapon-related physical interpersonal violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark from 1991 to 2009. METHODS: All victims of physical interpersonal violence with weapon-related injuries treated...... at the Emergency Department in the 1991-2009 period at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and/or subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in the 1991-2009 period at the University of Southern Denmark were included. Incidence rates were estimated following stratification by gender...... rate was 4.8 per 1,000 victims in males and 29.1 per 1,000 victims in females. More than half (57%) of the homicides were caused by lesions due to sharp weapons. CONCLUSION: Weapon-related injuries are rare in the Odense Municipality. The incidence rate of weapon-related violence did not increase...

  11. Board Structure and Price Informativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Daniel; Ferreira, Miguel A.; Raposo, Clara C.

    2008-01-01

    We develop and test the hypothesis that private information incorporated into stock prices affects the structure of corporate boards. Stock price informativeness may be a complement to board monitoring, because the information revealed by prices can be used by directors to monitor management. But price informativeness may also be a substitute for board monitoring, because more informative prices can trigger external monitoring mechanisms, such as takeovers. We find robust evidence for the sub...

  12. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    udviklingspotentiale. Rammer og baggrund for projektet er beskrevet i bilag 1. Dette resumé er skrevet på baggrund af kvalitative data, som er indsamlet i forbindelse med afprøvning af BuddyBoard på Havly (Sæby Ældrecenter) i perioden november 2014 – marts 2015. Hovedpunkterne i resuméet er en beskrivelse teknologiens...

  13. First AGU Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2010-08-01

    On 1 July 2010, the first AGU Board of Directors took office. The board is composed of the president, president-elect, immediate past president, general secretary, international secretary, development board chair, six members elected by the Union membership, vice chair of the AGU Council, and the executive director. Two additional members may be nominated by the AGU president and approved by the board. The creation of the board is a result of the new governance structure approved by the AGU membership in November 2009. The board is responsible for the business aspects of the Union, while an expanded AGU Council will focus on science issues. Council members will be introduced in a future issue of Eos.

  14. Development of the front-end board of a Xenon gas Time Projection Chamber at the AXEL neutrinoless double beta decay search experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shunsuke; AXEL Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    AXEL is a project to search for 0νββ using a High pressure Xenon gas TPC. AXEL uses SiPM’s to measure the energies and the tracks of 0νββ events. About 50,000 SiPM’s are required for final 0νββ searching version, so developing Front-End Boards (FEB) are necessary. We develop FEB that has high energy resolution and wide dynamic range.

  15. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Texas National Guard Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterner, Jeanette

    2000-01-01

    .... The era of conventional weapons and conventional tactics is over. The arsenal of the world is now comprised of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons collectively known as weapons of mass destruction (WMD...

  16. [Hygienic aspects of elimination of chemical weapons in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkodich, P E; Klauchek, V V

    2003-01-01

    A specialized and unified package of measures has been developed for hygienic provision of work on the elimination of chemical weapons. The optimum algorithms of hygienic studies have been defined at all stages of the elimination of chemical weapons from the start of design of operations to conversion and transition for national economic needs. Guidelines for safe work at the objects of elimination of chemical weapons and for the protection of the environment and human health in the areas where they are located--have been developed.

  17. China's ASAT Weapon: Capabilities and the Potential Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Geoffrey

    2008-04-01

    Much has been said about China's 11 January 2007 test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon but few analysts have based their comments on a scientific determination of the weapons capabilities. This paper presents such an analysis derived from the observed pattern of debris, as observed by NORAD and posted on-line by NASA. It is clear that this was a direct hit-to-kill weapon (as opposed to a fragmentation-type explosive warhead), it massed about 600 kg, and was capable of accelerations of at least 6 Gs. It can be inferred with a reasonable degree of confidence that it used an on-board optical tracker, most likely operating in visible light. Furthermore, since the closing speed between the target satellite and the interceptor was 8 km/s during the test, this weapon could be used to attack satellites at higher altitude orbits, such as NAVSTAR/GPS and geostationary satellites that include communications and early warning satellites. This test produced ten times as many pieces of debris as an earlier US hit-to-kill ASAT test which, because of their higher altitudes, will last thousands of years---hundreds of times longer than the debris in the US test. China's test increased the chances of some low earth orbit satellite being hit by a piece of debris by 50%, from about 12% to 18% each year. Given this weapon's capabilities, it is possible to ``war game'' what an all-out Chinese ASAT attack would look like and what responses the US could take. (It is important to emphasize that this is a capabilities-based exercise and not based on Chinese intentions.) If China did launch such an attack, it could eliminate a large fraction of US military satellites in low earth orbit including photo-reconnaissance and electronic intelligence satellites, but not all of them, in the first 24 hours; the requirement that the target satellites be illuminated by the sun limits the attack. Furthermore, the US could maneuver its LEO satellites in the first hours of the attack and greatly

  18. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H

    2007-08-01

    Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection.

  19. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  20. Development of the science instrument CLUPI: the close-up imager on board the ExoMars rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cessa, V.; Martin, P.

    2017-11-01

    First mission of the Aurora Exploration Programme of ESA, ExoMars will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies, and will pursue fundamental scientific investigations. Planned for launch in 2013, ExoMars will send a robotic rover to the surface of Mars. The Close-UP Imager (CLUPI) instrument is part of the Pasteur Payload of the rover fixed on the robotic arm. It is a robotic replacement of one of the most useful instruments of the field geologist: the hand lens. Imaging of surfaces of rocks, soils and wind drift deposits at high resolution is crucial for the understanding of the geological context of any site where the Pasteur rover may be active on Mars. At the resolution provided by CLUPI (approx. 15 micrometer/pixel), rocks show a plethora of surface and internal structures, to name just a few: crystals in igneous rocks, sedimentary structures such as bedding, fracture mineralization, secondary minerals, details of the surface morphology, sedimentary bedding, sediment components, surface marks in sediments, soil particles. It is conceivable that even textures resulting from ancient biological activity can be visualized, such as fine lamination due to microbial mats (stromatolites) and textures resulting from colonies of filamentous microbes, potentially present in sediments and in palaeocavitites in any rock type. CLUPI is a complete imaging system, consisting of an APS (Active Pixel Sensor) camera with 27° FOV optics. The sensor is sensitive to light between 400 and 900 nm with 12 bits digitization. The fixed focus optics provides well focused images of 4 cm x 2.4 cm rock area at a distance of about 10 cm. This challenging camera system, less than 200g, is an independent scientific instrument linked to the rover on board computer via a SpaceWire interface. After the science goals and specifications presentation, the development of this complex high performance miniaturized imaging system will be described.

  1. Development status of the mechanical cryocoolers for the Soft X-ray Spectrometer on board Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoichi; Sawada, Kenichiro; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Nishibori, Toshiyuki; Sato, Ryota; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh; Goto, Ken; Nakagawa, Takao; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Kenichi; Murakami, Masahide; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Ootsuka, Kiyomi; Kanao, Kenichi; Narasaki, Katsuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Astro-H is the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite to be launched in 2015. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board Astro-H is a high energy resolution spectrometer utilizing an X-ray micro-calorimeter array, which is operated at 50 mK by the ADR with the 30 liter superfluid liquid helium. The mechanical cryocoolers, 4 K-class Joule Thomson (JT) cooler and 20 K-class double-staged Stirling (2ST) cooler, are key components of the SXS cooling system to extend the lifetime of LHe cryogen beyond 3 years as required. Higher reliability was therefore investigated with higher cooling capability based on the heritage of existing cryocoolers. As the task of assessing further reliability dealt with the pipe-choking phenomena by contaminant solidification of the on-orbit SMILES JT cryocooler, outgassing from materials and component parts used in the cryocoolers was measured quantitatively to verify the suppression of carbon dioxide gas by their storage process and predict the total accumulated carbon dioxide for long-term operation. A continuous running test to verify lifetime using the engineering model (EM) of the 4 K-JT cooler is underway, having operated for a total of 720 days as of June 2013 and showing no remarkable change in cooling performance. During the current development phase, prototype models (PM) of the cryocoolers were installed to the test SXS dewar (EM) to verify the overall cooling performance from room temperature to 50 mK. During the EM dewar test, the requirement to reduce the transmitted vibration from the 2ST cooler compressor was recognized as mitigating the thermal instability of the SXS microcalorimeter at 50 mK.

  2. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  3. Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

  4. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  5. Broken arrow: America's first lost nuclear weapon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leach, Norman

    2008-01-01

    .... Did an atomic bomb lie undetected for years in coastal British Columbia? Or was the nuclear weapon jettisoned and destroyed only miles from Canadian shores, becoming the world's first dirty bomb? Was this America's first lost nuclear weapon? Finally, and most baffling, did one of the missing crewmembers, the last man aboard, attempt to pilot the doomed aircraft back to its Alaskan base?"

  6. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  7. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the

  8. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  9. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  10. The GT-MHR for destruction of weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, A.M.; Neylan, A.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of nearly 100 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) made surplus by the disarmament treaties is receiving urgent attention, highlighted by the recent seizure in Germany of small quantities of weapons-useful plutonium. Unlike highly enriched uranium, simple denaturing cannot make this plutonium worthless for use in future weapons. The use of physical security and institutional barriers, including long-term storage in high-level waste repositories, to provide secure storage for centuries to come is questionable when considering government instability and the possibility of national recidivism. The Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and General Atomics have signed an agreement for the cooperative design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) to burn the WG-Pu stockpile. A formal proposal for a joint U.S./Russian program for the development of this reactor has been submitted by MINATOM to Vice President Gore. The major benefit of this program is that the reactor would deplete the Russian surplus plutonium stockpile, provide jobs for technical specialists in the former weapons complex, and produce valuable electric power. It would also provide a mutually assured means of destroying the U.S. and Russian stockpiles.

  11. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Mark; Martin, Greg

    2009-01-01

    In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level. PMID:19220910

  12. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  13. A Competency-Based Model of the Human Resource Development Management of "Ustadz" at Salaf Boarding School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhbiyati, Nur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the criteria of qualified "ustadz" and how the "salaf" boarding school leader ("kyai") manages the ustadz in order for them to become qualified "ustadz." Design/Methodology/Approach: This study uses a qualitative research approach. Data were collected by…

  14. Leadership Advisory Boards in Texas: Their Perceived Ability and Utilization as the Visioning Body for Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Jeff P.; Cummings, Scott R.; Lockett, Landry L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Leadership Advisory Boards within Texas AgriLife Extension Service to function as the primary visioning/needs assessment source is paramount to maintaining the grassroots connection for programs. The study reported here sought to measure the self-perceptions of members' ability to meet the demand associated with this role. The study…

  15. Prototype board development for the validation of the VMM ASICs for the New Small Wheel ATLAS upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The VMM is a custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) which was designed to be used in the frontend readout electronics of both micromegas (MM) and small Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) detectors of the New Small Wheel (NSW) Phase-I upgrade project of the ATLAS experiment. A new version of the VMM was recently fabricated and for that reason various prototype boards, the micromegas Front-End (MMFE1) and the General Purpose VMM (GPVMM), have been fabricated and extensively tested in order to validate the functionality of the ASIC. These boards use commercial Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for direct communication with computers which is achieved through 10=100=1000 Mbps Ethernet and UDP/IP protocols. The low noise performance of these boards gave the opportunity to be used in various test beams with micormegas detectors for validating the VMM and for performance studies of the sTGC detectors. A detailed description of the boards along with the results of the test beam and the detector studies will...

  16. How the Nutritional Foods in the Schools Committee of the Sudbury Board of Education Developed a Food Services Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackman, Bernardine

    This paper chronicles the attempt by the Sudbury Board of Education (Ontario) to minimize the addiction of the children and teenagers in its schools to "junk foods." The plan involved the teaching of good eating habits and the principles of nutrition in food choices. The program used a variety of pedagogical and merchandising strategies to effect…

  17. Lipophilic super-absorbent swelling gels as cleaners for use on weapons systems and platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasingly stringent environmental regulations on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) demand the development of disruptive technologies for cleaning weapons systems and platforms. Currently employed techniques such as vapor degreasing, solvent, aqueous, or blast c...

  18. Total Quality Management and nuclear weapons: A historian`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) has become a significant management theme at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper discusses the historical roots of TQM at Los Alamos and how TQM has been used in the development of nuclear weapons.

  19. 3-D Characterization of Seismic Properties at the Smart Weapons Test Range, YPG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The Smart Weapons Test Range (SWTR) lies within the Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. SWTR is a new facility constructed specifically for the development and testing of futuristic intelligent battlefield sensor networks...

  20. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the dynamic processes within the gun barrel during the firing process in exploitation. It generally defines the basic principles of constructing tube elements, and shows the distortion of the basic geometry of the tube interior due to wear as well as the impact it causes during exploitation. The article also defines basic empirical models as well as a model based on fracture mechanics for the calculation of a use-life of the barrel, and other elements essential for the safe use of the barrel as the basic weapon element. Erosion causes are analysed in order to control and reduce wear and prolong the lifetime of the gun barrel. It gives directions for the reparation of barrels with wasted resources. In conclusion, the most influential elements of tube wear are given as well as possible modifications of existing systems, primarily propellant charges, with a purpose of prolonging lifetime of gun barrels. The guidelines for a proper determination of the lifetime based on the barrel condition assessment are given as well. INTRODUCTION The barrel as the basic element of each weapon is described as well as the processes occurring during the firing that have impulsive character and are accompanied by large amounts of energy. The basic elements of barrel and itheir constructive characteristics are descibed. The relation between Internal ballistics, ie calculation of the propellant gas pressure in the firing process, and structural elements defined by the barrel material resistance is shown. In general, this part of the study explains the methodology of the gun barrel structural elements calculation, ie. barrel geometry, taking into account the degrees of safety in accordance with Military Standards.   TUBE WEAR AND DEFORMATIONS The weapon barrel gradually wears out during exploitation due to which it no longer satisfies the set requirements. It is considered that the barrel has experienced a lifetime when it fails to fulfill the

  1. Weapon Acquisition Program Outcomes and Efforts to Reform DOD’s Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    Range Strike Carrier replacement KC-46 Tanker Ohio Class Replacement DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs (GAO-16-329SP...202-512-9310 Objectives This is GAO’s 14th annual assessment of DOD weapon system acquisitions, an area that has been on GAO’s high-risk list for...amount of future development funding required is likely due to newer programs with less risk entering system development. Changes in the 2015

  2. Measurement techniques for the verification of excess weapons materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Yates, M.A.

    1998-12-01

    The end of the superpower arms race has resulted in an unprecedented reduction in stockpiles of deployed nuclear weapons. Numerous proposals have been put forward and actions have been taken to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, including unilateral initiatives such as those made by President Clinton in September 1993 to place fissile materials no longer needed for a deterrent under international inspection, and bilateral and multilateral measures currently being negotiated. For the technologist, there is a unique opportunity to develop the technical means to monitor nuclear materials that have been declared excess to nuclear weapons programs, to provide confidence that reductions are taking place and that the released materials are not being used again for nuclear explosive programs. However, because of the sensitive nature of these materials, a fundamental conflict exists between the desire to know that the bulk materials or weapon components in fact represent evidence of warhead reductions, and treaty commitments and national laws that require the protection of weapons design information. This conflict presents a unique challenge to technologists. The flow of excess weapons materials, from deployed warheads through storage, disassembly, component storage, conversion to bulk forms, and disposition, will be described in general terms. Measurement approaches based on the detection of passive or induced radiation will be discussed along with the requirement to protect sensitive information from release to unauthorized parties. Possible uses of measurement methods to assist in the verification of arms reductions will be described. The concept of measuring attributes of items rather than quantitative mass-based inventory verification will be discussed along with associated information-barrier concepts required to protect sensitive information.

  3. The pediatric board game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogershok, Paul R; Cottrell, Scott

    2004-09-01

    A game was designed to further student learning in the field of pediatric medicine. This educational tool was designed in a board game format. Players advance through the board by answering questions correctly. A total of 400 questions were written with emphasis in content from core pediatric textbooks. Questions were created to encompass four increasingly difficult levels of play. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether gaming can be a valuable learning experience. During clinical clerkships and rotations in pediatric medicine, both third-year medical students and residents played the game in small-group settings. To date, 37 medical students and 12 residents have completed a post-game survey with a standard 5-point Likert scale. Seven faculties have also played the game and completed the survey. The survey was designed to assess the extent to which students, residents and faculty understood the purpose of the game and agreed that it was a valuable learning experience. The data yielded descriptive statistics for preliminary evaluation of the game. The survey responses suggest that medical students, pediatric residents and faculty observed that the game was a practical and engaging learning experience. The students have universally given high scores to all 10 survey questions. The development of The Pediatric Board Game has been a successful endeavor in medical education. Both educators and learners agree that the board game is a creative and innovative educational tool. Future plans of study will help develop, refine and apply the game to advance students' knowledge of pediatric medicine.

  4. Taser and Conducted Energy Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Thomas G; Meriano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that CEWs are an increasingly prevalent law enforcement tool, adopted to address a complex and challenging problem. The potential for serious injury from a single deployment of a CEW is extremely low. The debate regarding the link between these electrical weapons and sudden in-custody death is likely to continue because their use is often in complex and volatile situations. Any consideration of injuries has to be put into that context. One must also consider what injuries to a subject would result if an alternative force method was used. Furthermore, the potential benefits of CEWs, including reduction in injuries to the public and law-enforcement officers, need to be considered.

  5. Development of a novel sweeping Langmuir probe instrument for monitoring the upper ionosphere on board a pico-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranvier, Sylvain; De Keyser, Johan; Cardoen, Pepijn; Pieroux, Didier

    2014-05-01

    A novel Langmuir probe instrument, which will fly on board the Pico-Satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations (PICASSO), is under development at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. PICASSO was initiated to join the QB50 project as scientific in-orbit demonstrator. The sweeping Langmuir probe (SLP) instrument is designed to measure both plasma density and electron temperature at an altitude varying from about 400 km up to 700 km from a high inclination orbit. Therefore, the plasma density is expected to fluctuate over a wide range, from about 1e6/m³ at high latitude and high altitude up to 1e12/m³ at low/mid latitude and low altitude. The electron temperature is expected to lie between approximately 1000 K and 3000 K. Given the high inclination of the orbit, the SLP instrument will allow a global monitoring of the ionosphere with a maximum spatial resolution of the order of 150 m. The main goals are to study 1) the ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling, 2) the subauroral ionosphere and corresponding magnetospheric features, 3) auroral structures, 4) polar caps, and 5) ionospheric dynamics via coordinated observations with EISCAT's heating radar. To achieve the scientific objectives described above, the instrument includes four thin cylindrical probes whose electrical potential is swept in such a way that both plasma density and electron temperature can be derived. In addition, since at least two probes will be out of the spacecraft's wake at any given time, differential measurements can be performed to increase the accuracy. Along the orbit, the Debye length is expected to vary from a few millimetres up to a few meters. Due to the tight constraints in terms of mass and volume inherent to pico-satellites, the use of long booms, which would guarantee that the probes are outside the sheath of the spacecraft (several Debye lengths away), is not possible. Consequently, the probes might be in the sheath of the spacecraft in polar regions. Extensive

  6. Characterising the online weapons trafficking on cryptomarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Werner, Denis; Gilliéron, Quentin; Staehli, Ludovic; Broséus, Julian; Rossy, Quentin

    2017-12-08

    Weapons related webpages from nine cryptomarkets were manually duplicated in February 2016. Information about the listings (i.e. sales proposals) and vendors' profiles were extracted to draw an overview of the actual online trafficking of weapons. Relationships between vendors were also inferred through the analysis of online digital traces and content similarities. Weapons trafficking is mainly concentrated on two major cryptomarkets. Besides, it accounts for a very small proportion of the illicit trafficking on cryptomarkets compared to the illicit drugs trafficking. Among all weapon related listings (n=386), firearms only account for approximately 25% of sales proposal since the proportion of non-lethal and melee weapons is important (around 46%). Based on the recorded pseudonyms, a total of 96 vendor profiles were highlighted. Some pseudonyms were encountered on several cryptomarkets, suggesting that some vendors may manage accounts on different markets. This hypothesis was strengthened by comparing pseudonyms to online traces such as PGP keys, images and profiles descriptions. Such a method allowed to estimate more accurately the number of vendors offering weapons across cryptomarkets. Finally, according to the gathered data, the extent of the weapons trafficking on the cryptomarkets appear to be limited compared to other illicit goods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of side effects of novel therapies for multiple myeloma: consensus statements developed by the International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Page; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Colson, Kathleen; Curran, Kathleen; Doss, Deborah; Faiman, Beth; Gavino, Maria; Jenkins, Bonnie; Lilleby, Kathy; Love, Ginger; Mangan, Patricia A; McCullagh, Emily; Miceli, Teresa; Miller, Kena; Rogers, Kathryn; Rome, Sandra; Sandifer, Stacey; Smith, Lisa C; Tariman, Joseph D; Westphal, Jeanne

    2008-06-01

    Nurses play an essential role in managing the care of patients with multiple myeloma, who require education and support to receive and adhere to optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation created a Nurse Leadership Board comprised of oncology nurses from leading cancer centers and community practices. An assessment survey identified the need for specific recommendations for managing key side effects of novel antimyeloma agents. Myelosuppression, thromboembolic events, peripheral neuropathy, steroid toxicities, and gastrointestinal side effects were selected for the first consensus statements. The board developed recommendations for healthcare providers in any medical setting, including grading of side-effect toxicity and strategies for managing the side effects in general, with specific recommendations pertaining to the novel agents.

  8. Management of Side Effects of Novel Therapies for Multiple Myeloma: Consensus Statements Developed by the International Myeloma Foundation’s Nurse Leadership Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Page; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Colson, Kathleen; Curran, Kathleen; Doss, Deborah; Faiman, Beth; Gavino, Maria; Jenkins, Bonnie; Lilleby, Kathy; Love, Ginger; Mangan, Patricia A.; McCullagh, Emily; Miceli, Teresa; Miller, Kena; Rogers, Kathryn; Rome, Sandra; Sandifer, Stacey; Smith, Lisa C.; Tariman, Joseph D.; Westphal, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Nurses play an essential role in managing the care of patients with multiple myeloma, who require education and support to receive and adhere to optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation created a Nurse Leadership Board comprised of oncology nurses from leading cancer centers and community practices. An assessment survey identified the need for specific recommendations for managing key side effects of novel antimyeloma agents. Myelosuppression, thromboembolic events, peripheral neuropathy, steroid toxicities, and gastrointestinal side effects were selected for the first consensus statements. The board developed recommendations for healthcare providers in any medical setting, including grading of side-effect toxicity and strategies for managing the side effects in general, with specific recommendations pertaining to the novel agents. PMID:18490252

  9. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  10. German versus Nordic Board Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law......Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...... conceptual differences, as emphasized by the 2014 Lekvall Report on the Nordic Corporate Governance Model. This article provides a conceptual comparison between the two approaches to board structure and confirms the fundamental divergence between both models. However, relying on a number of recent legal...

  11. 2010 Guide to National Board Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This "Guide to National Board Certification" introduces teachers to the assessment process and provides them with useful information as they apply for National Board Certification or certification renewal, or order the "Take One!"[R] professional development kit. By participating in the National Board Certification process, teachers are joining…

  12. 2009 Guide to National Board Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Guide to National Board Certification" introduces teachers to the assessment process and provides them with useful information as they apply for National Board Certification or order the "Take One![R]" professional development kit. By participating in the National Board Certification process, participants are joining tens of thousands of…

  13. Another level of leadership: nurses on boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The movement to place nurses on boards of directors is growing, enriching boards with individuals possessing knowledge of clinical quality tied to care delivery models, human resource competencies and management, finance, and organizational change. Professional development educators are poised to advance a board's capacity to address complex health care problems.

  14. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings | du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the ...

  15. Virtual enterprise model for the electronic components business in the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, T.J.; Long, K.S.; Sayre, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hull, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Carey, D.A.; Sim, J.R.; Smith, M.G. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.

    1994-08-01

    The electronic components business within the Nuclear Weapons Complex spans organizational and Department of Energy contractor boundaries. An assessment of the current processes indicates a need for fundamentally changing the way electronic components are developed, procured, and manufactured. A model is provided based on a virtual enterprise that recognizes distinctive competencies within the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at the vendors. The model incorporates changes that reduce component delivery cycle time and improve cost effectiveness while delivering components of the appropriate quality.

  16. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    1998) published similarities between ABM and the more traditional equation based methods of simulation and developed criteria for choosing one...analysis method of the effects of a new weapon on tactics and combat decision making by modeling flexible agent behaviors in a mission level combat...adaptive system (Bullock, McIntyre, & Hill, 2000). There are several statistical methods available for conducting analysis of simulation models (Law

  17. Directed Energy Weapon System for Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-15

    its civilian nuclear program since the 1990s, but revelations in 2002 and 2003 of clandestine research into fuel enrichment and conversion raised...weaponize its nuclear program.39 Since December 2007, Iran has built a stockpile of low- enriched uranium hexafluoride.40...development program, looking first at gas dynamic carbon dioxide lasers and then deuterium fluoride chemical lasers.88 Although the service experienced some

  18. Development of a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging using a personal computer and a high-speed digital input–output board

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a personal computer and a commercially available high-speed digital input–output board. The software for the pulse programmer was developed using C/C++ and .NET Framework 2.0 running under the Windows 7 operating system. The pulse programmer was connected to a digital MRI transceiver using a 32-bit parallel interface, and 128-bit data (16 bits × 8 words) for the pulse sequence and the digitally detected MRI signal...

  19. Development of integrated, zero-G pneumatic transporter/rotating paddle incinerator/catalytic afterburner subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S. F.; Labak, L. J.; Honegger, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A four component system was developed which consists of a particle size reduction mechanism, a pneumatic waste transport system, a rotating-paddle incinerator, and a catalytic afterburner to be integrated into a six-man, zero-g subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft. The study included the development of different concepts or functions, the establishment of operational specifications, and a critical evaluation for each of the four components. A series of laboratory tests was run, and a baseline subsystem design was established. An operational specification was also written in preparation for detailed design and testing of this baseline subsystem.

  20. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  1. Dealing With Russian Tactical Nuclear Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... tactical weapons in such talks as well--a move that the United States always resisted. Only in recent years have the tables turned, with the United States now taking the lead on nuclear initiatives...

  2. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil

    1967-01-01

    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...... of europium-155 from weapons was estimated at 1400 atoms per 10$^{6}$ fissions, which is close to the yield of europium-155 from fast fission of uranium-238....

  3. Russian Nuclear Weapons: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    this Byzantine policy- spinning can be advanced on the basis of scant evi- dence and gut feeling. The first one is that at the end of Medvedev’s...laboratory at Sarov, Patriarch Kirill, head of Russian Orthodox Church , endorsed nuclear weapons and nuclear de- terrence. Calling the closure of...majority of church lead- ers in the West, is in tune with the dominant view among the Russian public. Nuclear weapons are wide- ly regarded as a symbol

  4. Optimization of Aimpoints for Coordinate Seeking Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    aiming) and independent (ballistic) errors are taken into account, before utilizing each of the three damage functions representing the weapon. A Monte...into account, before utilizing each of the three damage functions representing the weapon. A Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to calculate the...Rectangular Cookie Cutter RDF Rectangular Damage Function REP Range Error Probable xvi SSPD Single Sortie Probability of Damage TLE Target Location

  5. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  7. The flap by flap dissection in terminal ballistic applied to less lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freminville, Humbert; Rongieras, Fréderic; Prat, Nicolas; Voiglio, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Medical examiners often have to solve questions such as firing distance and bullet trajectory for lethal weapons. Knowledge in the field of terminal ballistics has increased during the last 30 years and layer by layer dissection reveals superficial wounds that can be linked with the permanent cavity. At the end of the 1990s, terminal ballistics also focused on less lethal weapons and their wounds. Here, 2 different less lethal weapons with single bullets were tested on nonembalmed and undressed cadavers (N = 26) at different ranges and speeds. We have developed a technique for dissection which we call flap by flap dissection that reveals the advantage of the bullet-skin-bone entity, the absence of wounds linking its components and range of less lethal weapons.

  8. How Reliance on Nuclear Weapons Erodes and Distorts International Law and Global Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Burroughs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of nuclear forces as an international security mechanism for prevention of major war is far removed from the world envisaged by the United Nations Charter in which threat or use of force is the exception, not the rule. Reliance on nuclear weapons has also distorted the development of major instruments of international humanitarian law and international criminal law, the 1977 Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions and the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Awareness is deepening of the inherent incompatibility of reliance on nuclear weapons with an ever more entrenched normative framework stressing states’ responsibilities to protect their populations against atrocities and to comply with international humanitarian law and the Rome Statute. International humanitarian law is a solid foundation for the emerging norm of non-use of nuclear weapons and for building a legal framework of a nuclear-weapons-free world that is universal in its approach.

  9. [The classification of the injuries inflicted to the human body by gunshots from the pneumatic weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachenko, I N

    2016-01-01

    The classification of the injuries inflicted to the human body by gunshots from the pneumatic weapons remains to be developed. The objective of the present work was to elaborate the classification of the injuries caused by gunshots from the pneumatic weapons based on the analysis of 98 expert and acts of forensic medical expertises (surveys) of living subjects (n=76) and corpses (n=22) affected by gunshots from the pneumatic weapons. These materials were collected from the bureaus of forensic medical expertise in different regions of the Ukraine during the period from 2006 till 2015. In addition, scientific publications concerned with the problem of interest were used along with the relevant explanatory and terminological dictionaries. The terminology and the conceptual framework proposed by the author in the earlier papers provided a basis for the development of the first standard classification of the injuries inflicted to the human body by gunshots from the pneumatic weapons categorized into 15 groups. It is believed that this classification will lay the foundation for the common approach of forensic medical experts to the examination and analysis of the data on the gunshots from the pneumatic weapons used to be found on the bodies of living subjects and the corpses. Moreover, it may be useful for the clinicians in their diagnostic and therapeutic practices and for the legal practitioners engaged in the quality assessment of the results of forensic medical expertises. It is recommended to present information about the gunshots from the pneumatic weapons in the accounting documents in a separate line.

  10. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  11. Coating Processes Group (Electrochemical Processes Lab and Vacuum Processes Lab) Materials Fabrication Division. Progress report, November 1982-January 1983. [Coatings development for weapons, lasers, magnetic fusion, and other programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Romo, J.G.

    1983-01-31

    Some technical highlights are given for the following programs: Weapons Program - we are continuing to support the aluminum ion plating effort for the W-84 both at Y-12 and in-house; Weapons Program - a number of electroformed parts have been supplied for Crowdie; Nuclear Test Program - heavy support from VPL in vacuum engineering activities for Diamond Ace, Tomme and Cabra; Nuclear Design Program - heavy effort was supplied by VPL in the coating of various foils with lithium fluoride; Laser Program - we are gradually optimizing procedures for producing boron foils for Argus/Dante experiments; MFE Program - a pyrophosphate copper deposit shows potentially interesting properties for RTNS-II applications; Soft X-ray Multilayer Coatings - preliminary results with alternate layers of carbon and tungsten look promising; PERL - chemical milling is being used to mill channels in hydrostatic bearings; and Alpha Claddings - we are actively involved in generating data and providing consultation on this program in conjunction with LODTM.

  12. Implementation of Non-proliferation Measures Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoudi, M. [Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), The Hague (Netherlands). Industry Verification Branch

    2003-05-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention) prohibits the development, production stockpiling, acquisition or use of chemical weapons. States Parties to the Convention undertake a number of obligations with respect to any chemical weapons that they possess or that are present on their territory. This includes the destruction of these chemical weapons and related production facilities, in a safe manner in accordance with the time periods laid down in the Convention and monitoring of civilian chemical industry with obligations under the Convention. The Convention lays down obligations for States Parties, among other ways, through its system for monitoring compliance. It requires the States Parties to declare chemical weapons related information and activities and allowing the monitoring of chemical weapons production, storage, and destruction facilities, as well as that of old and abandoned weapons. The Convention further requires declaration above established thresholds and verification of industries that produce, process and/or consume chemicals listed specifically or by family in the Schedule of Chemicals in the Annex on Chemicals in the Convention as well as other production facilities of unscheduled discrete organic chemicals (DOC's). Additionally, the Convention requires declaration of transfers and trade (imports/exports) in relation to scheduled chemicals for the purposes of data monitoring. Furthermore, the Convention allows for challenge inspections and investigation of alleged use of chemicals weapons. This paper addresses the non-proliferation provisions of the CWC and, in particular, the verification regimes applied to both chemicals and related chemical industry facilities with obligations under Article VI of the CWC. The paper also provides an insight into the experience gained so far in the implementation of these regimes (Abstract only)

  13. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  14. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  15. Hypothyroidism among former workers of a nuclear weapons facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Frank, Arthur L; Pinson, Barbara; Shepherd, Sara; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Ionizing radiation alters thyroid function, and workers at a nuclear weapons facility may be exposed to above environmental levels of radiation. Hypothyroid status was determined for 622 former workers of a nuclear weapons facility located in Texas, using a combination of measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid medication history, as part of an on-going health surveillance program. We classified 916 unique job titles into 35 job categories. According to the most stringent TSH definition used in this study (0.3-3.0 IU/ml), 174 (28.0%) former workers were considered to be hypothyroid; of these 66 (41.8%) were females and 108 (23.3%) were males. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and smoking status, only having worked as a material handler (n = 18) exhibited an elevated risk of developing hypothyroidism compared to other jobs (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.43-11.07). This is one of the jobs with suspected exposure to radiation. No excess risk of hypothyroidism was observed for any of the other job categories. There is suggestive evidence that only material handlers at this nuclear weapons facility may have elevated risk of hypothyroidism; further evaluation of thyroid health in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High-energy laser weapons since the early 1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joung

    2013-02-01

    Both the U.S. and Russia/USSR have made great strides toward developing high-energy laser weapons for their future national defense systems since the early 1960s. Many billions of dollars and rubles were invested in the effort. Many hundreds of gifted scientists and engineers devoted their careers to working on the problems. They achieved major technological advances and made impressive and successful demonstrations. After more than half a century, however, neither side has yet adapted the first laser weapon for a military use. Why? This paper discusses the history of key technological advancements and successes, as well as some of the difficulties encountered. It also discusses fundamental technological advantages and limitations of high-energy laser weapons, and also the unique social, cultural, and political environments that have contributed to the history. The high-energy laser technical community is in the process of finding ways to adapt to the new warfare environment by taking advantage of the lessons learned in the past while incorporating the new technologies and ideas evolved in recent years.

  17. Sequential Immune Responses: The Weapons of Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charles D; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what 'immunity' means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different tempos) which together provide host protection. SIR1 uses rapidly activated enzymes like the NADPH oxidases and is present in all animal cells. SIR2 is mediated by the first 'immune' cells: macrophage-like cells. SIR3 evolved in animals like invertebrates and provides enhanced protection through advanced macrophage recognition and killing of pathogens and through other innate immune cells such as neutrophils. Finally, in vertebrates, macrophages developed SIR4: the ability to present antigens to T cells. Though much slower than SIR1-3, adaptive responses provide a unique new protection for higher vertebrates. Importantly, newer SIR responses were added on top of older, evolutionarily conserved functions to provide 'layers' of host protection. SIR transcends existing models by elucidating the different weapons of immunity that provide host protection in higher animals. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Sequential Immune Responses: The Weapons of Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charles D.; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Johnathan

    2016-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what ‘immunity’ means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different tempos) which together provide host protection. SIR1 uses rapidly activated enzymes like the NADPH oxidases and is present in all animal cells. SIR2 is mediated by the first ‘immune’ cells: macrophage-like cells. SIR3 evolved in animals like invertebrates and provides enhanced protection through advanced macrophage recognition and killing of pathogens and through other innate immune cells such as neutrophils. Finally, in vertebrates, macrophages developed SIR4: the ability to present antigens to T cells. Though much slower than SIR1–3, adaptive responses provide a unique new protection for higher vertebrates. Importantly, newer SIR responses were added on top of older, evolutionarily conserved functions to provide ‘layers’ of host protection. SIR transcends existing models by elucidating the different weapons of immunity that provide host protection in higher animals. PMID:25871013

  19. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.

    2013-10-01

    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.

  20. Primary Polymer Aging Processes Identified from Weapon Headspace Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D M; Bazan, J M; Ithaca, J G

    2002-03-25

    A current focus of our weapon headspace sampling work is the interpretation of the volatile chemical signatures that we are collecting. To help validate our interpretation we have been developing a laboratory-based material aging capability to simulate material decomposition chemistries identified. Key to establishing this capability has been the development of an automated approach to process, analyze, and quantify arrays of material combinations as a function of time and temperature. Our initial approach involves monitoring the formation and migration of volatile compounds produced when a material decomposes. This approach is advantageous in that it is nondestructive and provides a direct comparison with our weapon headspace surveillance initiative. Nevertheless, this approach requires us to identify volatile material residue and decomposition byproducts that are not typically monitored and reported in material aging studies. Similar to our weapon monitoring method, our principle laboratory-based method involves static headspace collection by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SPME is a sorbent collection technique that is ideally suited for preconcentration and delivery of trace gas-phase compounds for analysis by GC. When combined with MS, detection limits are routinely in the low- and sub-ppb ranges, even for semivolatile and polar compounds. To automate this process we incorporated a robotic sample processor configured for SPME collection. The completed system will thermally process, sample, and analyze a material sample. Quantification of the instrument response is another process that has been integrated into the system. The current system screens low-milligram quantities of material for the formation or outgas of small compounds as initial indicators of chemical decomposition. This emerging capability offers us a new approach to identify and non-intrusively monitor decomposition mechanisms that are

  1. U-PHOS Project: Development of a Large Diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe Experiment on board REXUS 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannipieri, P.; Anichini, M.; Barsocchi, L.; Becatti, G.; Buoni, L.; Celi, F.; Catarsi, A.; Di Giorgio, P.; Fattibene, P.; Ferrato, E.; Guardati, P.; Mancini, E.; Meoni, G.; Nesti, F.; Piacquadio, S.; Pratelli, E.; Quadrelli, L.; Viglione, A. S.; Zanaboni, F.; Mameli, M.; Baronti, F.; Fanucci, L.; Marcuccio, S.; Bartoli, C.; Di Marco, P.; Bianco, N.; Marengo, M.; Filippeschi, S.

    2017-01-01

    U-PHOS Project aims at analysing and characterising the behaviour of a large diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) on board REXUS 22 sounding rocket. A PHP is a passive thermal control device where the heat is efficiently transported by means of the self-sustained oscillatory fluid motion driven by the phase change phenomena. Since, in milli-gravity conditions, buoyancy forces become less intense, the PHP diameter may be increased still maintaining the slug/plug typical flow pattern. Consequently, the PHP heat power capability may be increased too. U-PHOS aims at proving that a large diameter PHP effectively works in milli-g conditions by characterizing its thermal response during a sounding rocket flight. The actual PHP tube is made of aluminum (3 mm inner diameter, filled with FC-72), heated at the evaporator by a compact electrical resistance, cooled at the condenser by a Phase Change Material (PCM) embedded in a metallic foam. The tube wall temperatures are recorded by means of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors; the local fluid pressure is acquired by means of a pressure transducer. The present work intends to report the actual status of the project, focusing in particular on the experiment improvements with respect to the previous campaign.

  2. Bread-Board Testing of the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) being developed for the ESA JUICE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Hajdas, Wojtek; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Xiao, Hualin; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Marco; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Meier, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The RADEM instrument will serve as the radiation monitor for the JUICE spacecraft. It will characterize the highly dynamic radiation environment of the Jovian system by measuring the energy spectra of energetic electrons and protons up to 40 MeV and 250 MeV, respectively. It will also determine the directionality of 0.3-10 MeV electrons. Further goals include the detection of heavy ions, and the determination of the corresponding LET spectra and dose rates. Here, the tests of the Electron and Proton Telescopes, and the Directionality Detector of the RADEM Bread-Board model are described. The objective of these tests is to validate RADEM design and physical concept applied therein. The tests were performed at various irradiation facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) where energy ranges relevant for space applications can be covered (electrons: ≤100 MeV and protons: ≤230 MeV). The measured values are also compared with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo Simulation results.

  3. Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board: Improvements Needed to Strengthen Internal Control and Promote Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    of nuclear weapons, disposal of nuclear waste and components, and decommissioning and cleanup of facilities once they are no longer needed.1 These...design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of DOE defense nuclear facilities ; (2) investigating any event or practice at these facilities that...DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Improvements Needed to Strengthen Internal Control and Promote

  4. Board of Directors or Supervisory Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the legal consequences of the choice now available to Danish public limited companies, which can now opt for a two-tier management structure, in which the management board undertakes both the day-to-day and the overall management, while a supervisory board exercises control o...... over the management board, including its appointment and dismissal. The article considers which companies a two-tier structure may be relevant for, and reviews the consequences for the composition, election and functioning of the company organs.......The article analyses the legal consequences of the choice now available to Danish public limited companies, which can now opt for a two-tier management structure, in which the management board undertakes both the day-to-day and the overall management, while a supervisory board exercises control...

  5. Development of two-step process for enhanced biorecovery of Cu-Zn-Ni from computer printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monal B; Tipre, Devayani R; Purohit, Mamta S; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-08-01

    Metal pollution due to the huge electronic waste (E-waste) accumulation is widespread across the globe. Extraction of copper, zinc and nickel from computer printed circuit boards (c-PCB) with a two-step bleaching process using ferric sulphate generated by Leptospirillum ferriphilum dominated consortium and the factors influencing the process were investigated in the present study. The studied factors with 10 g/L pulp density showed that pH 2.0 was optimum which resulted in 87.50-97.80% Cu-Zn-Ni extraction. Pre-treatment of PCB powder with acidified distilled water and NaCl solution showed 3.80-7.98% increase in metal extraction corresponding to 94.08% Cu, 99.80% Zn and 97.99% Ni extraction. Particle size of 75 μm for Cu and Zn while 1680 μm for Ni showed 2-folds increase in metal extraction, giving 97.35-99.80% Cu-Zn-Ni extraction in 2-6 days of reaction time. Whereas; 2.76-3.12 folds increase in Cu and Zn extraction was observed with the addition of 0.1% chelating agents. When the studies were carried out with high pulp density, ferric iron concentration of 16.57 g/L was found to be optimum for metal extraction from 75 g/L c-PCB and c-PCB addition in multiple installments resulted in 8.81-26.35% increase in metal extraction compared to single addition. The studied factors can be implemented for the scale-up aimed at faster recovery of multimetals from E-waste and thereby providing a secondary source of metal in an eco-friendly manner. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hospital boards and hospital strategic focus: the impact of board involvement in strategic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Eickhoff, Karen; Plowman, Donde Ashmos; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2011-01-01

    Despite pressures to change the role of hospital boards, hospitals have made few changes in board composition or director selection criteria. Hospital boards have often continued to operate in their traditional roles as either "monitors" or "advisors." More attention to the direct involvement of hospital boards in the strategic decision-making process of the organizations they serve, the timing and circumstances under which board involvement occurs, and the board composition that enhances their abilities to participate fully is needed. We investigated the relationship between broader expertise among hospital board members, board involvement in the stages of strategic decision making, and the hospital's strategic focus. We surveyed top management team members of 72 nonacademic hospitals to explore the participation of critical stakeholder groups such as the board of directors in the strategic decision-making process. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore our hypotheses that there is a relationship between both the nature and involvement of the board and the hospital's strategic orientation. Hospitals with broader expertise on their boards reported an external focus. For some of their externally-oriented goals, hospitals also reported that their boards were involved earlier in the stages of decision making. In light of the complex and dynamic environment of hospitals today, those charged with developing hospital boards should match the variety in the external issues that the hospital faces with more variety in board makeup. By developing a board with greater breadth of expertise, the hospital responds to its complex environment by absorbing that complexity, enabling a greater potential for sensemaking and learning. Rather than acting only as monitors and advisors, boards impact their hospitals' strategic focus through their participation in the strategic decision-making process.

  7. ORDNANCE CORPS VIEWS ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION HAZARDS TO WEAPONS SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    EXPLOSIVES INITIATORS, * ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), HAZARDS, ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, ANTENNAS, ATTENUATORS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING, SENSITIVITY, WEAPON SYSTEMS, MODULATION, CIRCUITS, BROADBAND

  8. [On necessity to modify biochemical methods for detecting organophosphorus componds in chemical weapons extinction objects (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofieva, D S; Shmurak, V I; Sadovnikov, S V; Gontcharov, N V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of biochemical methods assessing organophosphorus toxic compounds in objects of chemical weapons extinction. The authors present results of works developing new, more specific and selective biochemical methods.

  9. US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) style guide, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.

    1996-09-30

    A stated goal of the U.S. Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIS) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of style guides. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide. This document, the U.S. Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide, represents the first version of that style guide. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for RT/NRT Army systems across the weapon systems domains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each domain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their domains.

  10. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  11. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  12. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  13. Maize Cob Board (MCB)

    OpenAIRE

    HERRERAS GADEA, ALBERTO

    2010-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis is giving an overview of light wood composites materials, to compare some of these materials, which are already in the trade, with the MCB board. The MCB boards use the sandwich technology as the Honeycomb panel, gluing a core layer between two surface layers. This board uses maize for the core layer, putting the small cobs cylinders in vertical position between two surface layers of HDF by gluing. The technical characteristics from MCB board are comparable with Honeycomb...

  14. What Do Americans Know about Nuclear Weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenhaft, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a survey of knowledge of and attitudes toward nuclear weapons. Respondents (N=938) were students and adults aged 15 to 89 who completed a 51-item questionnaire. Also reports on an experiment in which college students (N=166) were given the survey under one of four different conditions. (JN)

  15. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  16. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  17. Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden

    The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

  18. Recoil Considerations for Shoulder-Fired Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    close to reaching the muzzle, and the bolt is thrust rearward by the propellant gases against the action of a spring. The impulse generated before...weapon at the hip and adjusting fire (to the desired impact point) by *Incidentally, there have been

  19. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Benoist, K.W.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human

  20. The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

    This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

  1. New Weapons in the War on Malaria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    against the mosquitoes that carry malaria. www .idrc.ca/tehip. New Weapons in the War on Malaria. Halting the disease is crucial to improving overall health in Tanzania. Evidence showing the large impact of malaria on Tanzanians' health has provided the impetus for significant policy changes on how to treat and prevent ...

  2. The Politics of Weapons Standardization in NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    to be the case a few years ago. You could buy a Volkswagen for less than a Ford; you could buy a Toyota for less than a Chevrolet. The purpose of the...purchase of the Belgian weapon is an inducement for the Belgians to purchase our F-16 aircraft. Which to me is worse than the current scandals involving

  3. Igniting the Light Elements: The Los Alamos Thermonuclear Weapon Project, 1942-1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Anne C. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The American system of nuclear weapons research and development was conceived and developed not as a result of technological determinism, but by a number of individual architects who promoted the growth of this large technologically-based complex. While some of the technological artifacts of this system, such as the fission weapons used in World War II, have been the subject of many historical studies, their technical successors--fusion (or hydrogen) devices--are representative of the largely unstudied highly secret realms of nuclear weapons science and engineering. In the postwar period a small number of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's staff and affiliates were responsible for theoretical work on fusion weapons, yet the program was subject to both the provisions and constraints of the US Atomic Energy Commission, of which Los Alamos was a part. The Commission leadership's struggle to establish a mission for its network of laboratories, least of all to keep them operating, affected Los Alamos's leaders' decisions as to the course of weapons design and development projects. Adapting Thomas P. Hughes's ''large technological systems'' thesis, I focus on the technical, social, political, and human problems that nuclear weapons scientists faced while pursuing the thermonuclear project, demonstrating why the early American thermonuclear bomb project was an immensely complicated scientific and technological undertaking. I concentrate mainly on Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Theoretical, or T, Division, and its members' attempts to complete an accurate mathematical treatment of the ''Super''--the most difficult problem in physics in the postwar period--and other fusion weapon theories. Although tackling a theoretical problem, theoreticians had to address technical and engineering issues as well. I demonstrate the relative value and importance of H-bomb research over time in the postwar era to

  4. Auditing nuclear weapons quality programs at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the problems involved in introducing quality assurance on a broad scale in a national laboratory are discussed. A philosophy of how QA can be utilized beneficially in research and development activities is described briefly, and our experiences at Los Alamos in applying QA to nuclear weapons activities are outlines. The important role of audits is emphasized; audits are used not merely to determine the effectiveness of QA programs but also to explain and demonstrate the usefulness of QA to a generally sceptical body of engineers and scientists. Finally, some ways of easing the application of QA in the future are proposed. 1 ref.

  5. Chemical weapons: documented use and compounds on the horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuth, Chantal; Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J; Barriot, Patrick

    2004-04-01

    Man's inhumanity to man is expressed through a plethora of tools of modern warfare and terror. The use of chemical and biological weapons with the goals of assault, demoralisation and lethality has been documented in recent history, both on the battlefield and in urban terror against civilians. A general review of a few of the currently employed chemical weapons and biological toxins, along with a look at potential chemical weapons and tools of counter-terrorism, follows. While these weapons are fearsome elements, the dangers should be viewed in the context of the widespread availability and efficacy of conventional weapons.

  6. Nonprofit Board Leadership. Understanding the Role of a Board Member

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Martha A.

    2012-01-01

    Defines the purpose of a board in a nonprofit organization, the legal standards all board actions are framed around, the functions of the board, and the role and expectations of a board member so that members of these boards can have a more complete understanding of the role they play in their board and in the nonprofit they serve.

  7. Specialty Board on Fluency Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Newsletter Who are Board Certified Specialists in Fluency? Board Certified Specialists in Fluency are individuals who ... Fluency Disorders. How can Board Certified Specialists in Fluency help? Board Certified Specialists in Fluency are clinical ...

  8. Radiocesium Discharges and Subsequent Environmental Transport at the Major U.S. Weapons Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, Jr. C.T.; Hamby, D.M.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1999-11-14

    Radiocesium is one of the more prevalent radionuclides in the environment as a result of weapons production related atomic projects in the United States and the former Soviet Union. Radiocesium discharges during the 1950's account for a large fraction of the historical releases from U.S. weapons production facilities. Releases of radiocesium to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems during the early ,years of nuclear weapons production provided the opportunity to conduct multidisciplinary studies on the transport mechanisms of this potentially hazardous radionuclide. The major U.S. Department of Energy facilities (Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina) are located in regions of the country that have different geographical characteristics. The facility siting provided diverse backgrounds for the development of an understanding of environmental factors contributing to the fate and transport of radiocesium. In this paper, we summarize the significant environmental releases of radiocesium in the early -years of weapons production and then discuss the historically significant transport mechanisms for r37Cs at the three facilities that were part of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex.

  9. Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Ron G

    2006-09-01

    The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved.

  10. A miniature infrared sight for both weapon-mounted and handheld security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Terre, William A.; Frank, Jeff; Malmberg, Roy; Switzer, Larry; Antesberger, Wayne; Newsome, Gwendolyn

    2004-08-01

    Thermal weapon sights have been used by the U.S. military for decades. More recently, there has been a growing interest in infrared imagers for paramilitary and civilian applications such as law-enforcement and homeland defense. However, traditional weapon sights are not always ideal products for these applications because they do not typically have form-factor or features allowing them to be readily employed as general-purpose imagers off the weapon. Simply stated, most law-enforcement agencies cannot afford a dedicated sniper scope. Instead, this market demands a thermal imager that can be employed in a variety of situations, both weapon-mounted and handheld. Described herein is a new infrared sight that provides this multi-use capability. Based around the Omega imaging core developed by Indigo Systems, this lightweight system employs a unique housing design that mounts to a weapon rail or tripod or is held comfortably in one hand for use as a short-range "pocket scope". Key aspects of the design are discussed, with particular focus on ergonomics, human factors, and advanced features that enhance its utility in a multi-use role.

  11. Transforming the Corporate Training Function through Developing a Training Strategy and Advisory Board: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined use of a strategic planning process to reinvent a corporate training department. The naturalistic case describes how the corporate training function gained credibility and influence with senior management, developed alignment with organizational goals, and began transforming the function into a performance improvement…

  12. Development of a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging using a personal computer and a high-speed digital input-output board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a personal computer and a commercially available high-speed digital input-output board. The software for the pulse programmer was developed using C∕C++ and .NET Framework 2.0 running under the Windows 7 operating system. The pulse programmer was connected to a digital MRI transceiver using a 32-bit parallel interface, and 128-bit data (16 bits × 8 words) for the pulse sequence and the digitally detected MRI signal were transferred bi-directionally every 1 μs. The performance of the pulse programmer was evaluated using a 1.0 T permanent magnet MRI system. The acquired MR images demonstrated the usefulness of the pulse programmer. Although our pulse programmer was developed for a specially designed digital MRI transceiver, our approach can be used for any MRI system if the interface for the transceiver is properly designed. Therefore, we have concluded that our approach is promising for MRI pulse programmers.

  13. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a

  14. X chromosome inactivation in human pluripotent stem cells as a model for human development: back to the drawing board?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Mieke; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2017-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), both embryonic and induced (hESC and hiPSC), are regarded as a valuable in vitro model for early human development. In order to fulfil this promise, it is important that these cells mimic as closely as possible the in vivo molecular events, both at the genetic and epigenetic level. One of the most important epigenetic events during early human development is X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells. XCI is important for proper development and aberrant XCI has been linked to several pathologies. Recently, novel data obtained using high throughput single-cell technology during human preimplantation development have suggested that the XCI mechanism is substantially different from XCI in mouse. It has also been suggested that hPSC show higher complexity in XCI than the mouse. Here we compare the available recent data to understand whether XCI during human preimplantation can be properly recapitulated using hPSC. We will summarize what is known on the timing and mechanisms of XCI during human preimplantation development. We will compare this to the XCI patterns that are observed during hPSC derivation, culture and differentiation, and comment on the cause of the aberrant XCI patterns observed in hPSC. Finally, we will discuss the implications of the aberrant XCI patterns on the applicability of hPSC as an in vitro model for human development and as cell source for regenerative medicine. Combinations of the following keywords were applied as search criteria in the PubMed database: X chromosome inactivation, preimplantation development, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, primordial germ cells, differentiation. Recent single-cell RNASeq data have shed new light on the XCI process during human preimplantation development. These indicate a gradual inactivation on both XX chromosomes, starting from Day 4 of development and followed by a random choice

  15. Augmentation of board games using smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulsinskas, Arturas; Balan, Catalin; Egede Bukdahl, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains details about research into the effect of digital augmentation on social presence in board games. A case study of the board game Tobago was performed during the project and a prototype application for smartphones was developed in order to compare the players’ social presence...

  16. Dangers associated with civil nuclear power programmes: weaponization and nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Frank

    2015-07-24

    The number of nuclear power plants in the world rose exponentially to 420 by 1990 and peaked at 438 in 2002; but by 2014, as closed plants were not replaced, there were just 388. In spite of using more renewable energy, the world still relies on fossil fuels, but some countries plan to develop new nuclear programmes. Spent nuclear fuel, one of the most dangerous and toxic materials known, can be reprocessed into fresh fuel or into weapons-grade materials, and generates large amounts of highly active waste. This article reviews available literature on government and industry websites and from independent analysts on world energy production, the aspirations of the 'new nuclear build' programmes in China and the UK, and the difficulties in keeping the environment safe over an immense timescale while minimizing adverse health impacts and production of greenhouse gases, and preventing weaponization by non-nuclear-weapons states acquiring civil nuclear technology.

  17. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S; Dolan, P J

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  18. Threat credibility and weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Leon E

    2002-03-15

    Individual or collective preparedness for an attack involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD) must be based on an analysis of the threat. In threat assessment one takes many factors into account, including the physical and psychological parameters of the attacker. Although the potential devastation caused by WMD is significant, there are many limitations to the effective use of such weapons. Casualty rates will likely be measured in the thousands rather than millions because of factors that will be discussed. The psychological ramifications, it should be noted, the permutations of which have not yet been defined, will be much longer lasting. In this paper the author discusses these and other characteristics of the current threat.

  19. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

  20. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in

  1. Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    1998-03-01

    A novel cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of metallic and non-metallic concealed weapons. This technique uses a vertical array of millimeter- wave antennas which is mechanically swept around a person in a cylindrical fashion. The wideband millimeter-wave data is mathematically reconstructed into a series of high- resolution images of the person being screened. Clothing is relatively transparent to millimeter-wave illumination,whereas the human body and concealed items are reflective at millimeter wavelengths. Differences in shape and reflectivity are revealed in the images and allow a human operator to detect and identify concealed weapons. A full 360 degree scan is necessary to fully inspect a person for concealed items. The millimeter-wave images can be formed into a video animation sequence in which the person appears to rotate in front of a fixed illumination source.This is s convenient method for presenting the 3D image data for analysis. This work has been fully sponsored by the FAA. An engineering prototype based on the cylindrical imaging technique is presently under development. The FAA is currently opposed to presenting the image data directly to the operator due to personal privacy concerns. A computer automated system is desired to address this problem by eliminating operator viewing of the imagery.

  2. Seaborne Delivery Interdiction of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauser, H

    2011-03-03

    Over the next 10-20 years, the probability of a terrorist attack using a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) on the United States is projected to increase. At some point over the next few decades, it may be inevitable that a terrorist group will have access to a WMD. The economic and social impact of an attack using a WMD anywhere in the world would be catastrophic. For weapons developed overseas, the routes of entry are air and sea with the maritime vector as the most porous. Providing a system to track, perform a risk assessment and inspect all inbound marine traffic before it reaches US coastal cities thereby mitigating the threat has long been a goal for our government. The challenge is to do so effectively without crippling the US economy. The Portunus Project addresses only the maritime threat and builds on a robust maritime domain awareness capability. It is a process to develop the technologies, policies and practices that will enable the US to establish a waypoint for the inspection of international marine traffic, screen 100% of containerized and bulk cargo prior to entry into the US if deemed necessary, provide a palatable economic model for transshipping, grow the US economy, and improve US environmental quality. The implementation strategy is based on security risk, and the political and economic constraints of implementation. This article is meant to provide a basic understanding of how and why this may be accomplished.

  3. Casualty Estimation for Nuclear and Radiological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Weapons Isotope Symbol Activity (TBq) Mass (kg) Radiation Source Form Cesium-137 137Cs 1.11x105 34.5 β and γ Irradiators: sterilization and food...include ionizing and thermal radiation , and air shock (blast). Ionizing radiation , in particular gamma and neutron radiation , are considered in the...expressed, not surprisingly, as the pressure increase (in pascals (Pa)) above the ambient pressure. The transport of ionizing radiation , in particular gamma

  4. Reinventing the weapons systems of the future

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    "If lucky, a surface ship has ten to twenty seconds to defend itself once a guided missile is launched from a nearby shore, or a sea-skimming missile is detected coming over the horizon. Because reaction times are so short, especially with ships now closer to shore missile batteries due to the Navy's focus on littoral missions, a directed energy weapon travelling near the speed of light becomes critical for survival, let alone defense..."

  5. Interdicting a Nuclear-Weapons Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    every fowl of tyrant wing. Shakespeare, The Phoenix and the Turtle 1. Introduction Sixty years after the United States detonated the first nuclear...be more difficult (e.g., EPA 2007). Highly enriched uranium (HEU) can be used in a gun-type or implosion -type fission weapon, but it can also fuel...thereby maximizes the project’s over- all completion time; simultaneously , it also represents the proliferator’s desire to minimize that time by choosing

  6. Imprecise Probability Methods for Weapons UQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Building on recent work in uncertainty quanti cation, we examine the use of imprecise probability methods to better characterize expert knowledge and to improve on misleading aspects of Bayesian analysis with informative prior distributions. Quantitative approaches to incorporate uncertainties in weapons certi cation are subject to rigorous external peer review, and in this regard, certain imprecise probability methods are well established in the literature and attractive. These methods are illustrated using experimental data from LANL detonator impact testing.

  7. Nuclear Weapon Accident Response Procedures (NARP) Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    an Nevada. N -S] assets may he included as a part of the effect into Canada or Mexico . Activities at the scene 1)o- ARti. of the accident include...OF POSSIBLE OR ACTUAL EXPOSURE TO RADIATION/CONTAMINATION AM[ or PM[ day/ vino /yr time (14) DURATION OF EXPOSURE HOURS - - MINUTES __.._-_ (15...to a nuclear weapon accident, at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico , offers a variety of courses commanders of designated response forces should ensure

  8. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    current Interim Polar System and serve as a polar adjunct to the Advanced EHF (AEHF) system. EPS consists of three segments : two EHF payloads hosted on...area on GAO’s high- risk list. DOD and Congress have taken steps to improve the acquisition of weapon systems. Still some programs continue to...DOD’s Selected Acquisition Reports from 2010, 2014, and 2015. GAO also collected program office data through two questionnaires on technology

  9. Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) Reference Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic Hailing Devices (AHD) 2 Enhanced Underwater Loudhailer (eLOUDTM) 3 X26 TASER ® 3 FN 303® 3 Stingball Grenade 4 12...RAVEN teams on both domestic bases and overseas transiting airfields. These kits consist of riot gear, TASER ®, munitions, and vehicle stopping...protection, and cordon and search operations. The U.S. Army employs this system. X26 TASER ®. A handheld weapon that launches two tethered barbs to

  10. The Nuclear Weapons Effects National Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    spirals, which is likely to be cost prohibitive .27 Some notable progress, however, is starting to occur. The Army elevated its watchdog agency, the...widespread high-altitude electromagnetic pulse ( HEMP ). These tests were hastily planned and among the last to occur prior to the 1962 moratorium on nuclear... HEMP levels and system response for different weapon yields and burst altitudes did not occur. The observed effects on systems at the time of the

  11. 24 CFR 964.415 - Resident board members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident board members. 964.415... DEVELOPMENT TENANT PARTICIPATION AND TENANT OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING Resident Board Members § 964.415 Resident board members. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 964.405(b) and 964.425, the membership of the...

  12. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  13. Rebalancing the board's agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Nordberg, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the activities of corporate boards have been dominated by the governance agenda. In Europe - to an even greater degree than the United States - governance codes have proliferated. This paper examines the resulting imbalance, where compliance with codes of conduct threatens to overwhelm the board's primary responsibility, i.e. the creation of wealth. We consider a model of board processes that starts with four key roles: setting direction, marshalling resources, controlling and rep...

  14. Investigating the problems associated with interior air quality of bedroms in boarding schools and developing a new system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ertürk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems associated with interior air quality in the dormitory of a vocational and technical training center that consist of six bedrooms with a capacity of sixty students are studied for December of 2016. Measurements are carried out with 11 Testo 535 CO2 measuring instruments, two and nine of which are used for exterior and interior air, respectively. The outdoor CO2 measurements are made in the garden and in front of open window situated at the second floor of the building. The data received from other nine measuring instruments placed at five different locations where the students are mostly present are recorded continuously and averaged manually. These measurements are conducted for seven different hours of four different days on December (1500, 1600, 1800, 2000, 2200, 0000, 0300, 0630. According to results obtained at 1500, it is found that the amount of CO2 level in rooms is measured to 1100 ppm, which is under the permitted amount of level. Students begin to enter the bedrooms from 1800, the amount of CO2 increase staidly to up to 2000. The free time of students from 930 to 2200 increases the amount of CO2 and continues until 0600 in the morning due to their increased activities in this period of times. To solve the problem associated with interior air quality of this dormitory, a novel system which controls the interior air quality continuously and keeps it stabile is developed. In this newly developed system, it is aimed to keep the amount of CO2 at 1100 ppm level by transferring the data collected from CO2 sensors in bedrooms to ABB brand driver, and designing a variable air flow system that controls the fresh air and exhaust fans. This system is also expected to constantly stabilize the blown air temperature at 25 °C by activating the electric resistances present in the air channel according to the load, when the outside air temperature drops below 20 °C.

  15. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The utilization of reconnaissance/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem integrated circuits, may undergo permanent or transient changes of the electrical properties of the active components when exposed to these sources of radiation. This report summarizes the results of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH v1.0 calculations designed to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized spaced based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emanating from a thermonuclear weapon detonation. The MASH calculations modeled several source/platform geometry configurations, obtaining results for multiple distances and weapon detonation positions relative to the platform. For certain source/platform orientations, the results indicate vulnerabilities to the C{sup 3} bay critical components box to radiation damage from a nuclear weapon detonation. Neutron protection factors ranged from 0.7 to 3.4 for the three platform configurations analyzed, and gamma-ray protection factors ranged from approximately 1.5 to 9.8. The results further indicate the source has a direct line-of-sight to the critical components box for certain source/platform orientations, regardless of the number of interceptors present. The merits of utilizing the MASH code system for estimating dose and shielding factors for spaced based assets has been demonstrated. The geometry configuration studied here is greatly simplified compared to those that will be encountered in an actual design.

  16. Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew B.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2003-08-01

    The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or terahertz (THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz) radiation, to non-invasively detect biological and chemical agents, explosives and drugs/narcotics inside sealed containers. Small-to-medium sized molecules (3-100 atoms) in gas, liquid and solid phases consistently exhibit identifiable spectral features in the far-IR portion of the spectrum. Many compounds associated with weapons of mass destruction are made up of molecules of this size. The THz portion of the spectrum lies between visible light and radio waves, allowing for partial transmission of 0.3-10.0 THz (30-1000 μm, 10-330 cm-1) light through most common materials. Therefore, transmission measurements of THz light can potentially be used to non-invasively detect the presence of CWA/BWA, explosives and drugs in the pathway of a THz radiation beam.

  17. Controlling the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Study Guide for Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Institute of Peace, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this teaching guide are: (1) to increase student understanding of the prevalence and spread of nuclear weapons; (2) to familiarize students with historic and contemporary measures to control nuclear proliferation and stimulate their thinking of potential strategies for doing so in the future; (3) to develop students' analytical…

  18. Tactical Nuclear Weapons-Does the U.S. Army Still Need Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-17

    142 James M. Warford, "The Russian T-90/T-90S Tank: An Old Dog With Some Dangerous New Tricks...45 States has renounced the use of biological weapons, agreeing not to develop, produce, stockpile, acquire, or retain biological agents or toxins ...including anthrax, botulism , gas gangrene, and 242 Ibid, p. 117. 243 William Safire, "Iraq’s

  19. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of t...

  20. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S J

    2011-12-20

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the

  1. Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

  2. Entwicklung neuer Kommunikationswege - Einsatz und Nutzen von Foren in der Tiermedizin [Development of new structures - Message boarding: application and use in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers, Jan P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] The availability of information and communication in german veterinary medicine is widespread and web-based media is a growing factor in this phenomenon. Parallel to this development, social and professional networks are becoming increasingly more important in the profession. The goal of the internet-based message board with the domain name Foren4Vet.de (founded 2002, is to establish a point of contact for professional members, students, and individuals interested in studying veterinary medicine. Today, in cooperation with the School of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover and with the veterinary panel of the Association of Medical Education, Foren4Vet provides an integrative platform for all members of the veterinary medicine profession. An online evaluation of the website showed a high demand for such a platform especially among the younger group of student users. Part of the website offers secure access for authorized members only, ensuring closed-group communication between professional groups and individuals associated with the university. At the same time, the message board supports the increasing demand for asynchronous and interdisciplinary communication. [german] Information und Kommunikation der veterinärmedizinischen Berufsgruppe findet heutzutage vielerorts statt, dabei gewinnen webbasierte Medien stetig an Bedeutung. Gleichzeitig nimmt die Bildung von fachlichen und sozialen Netzwerken innerhalb der Veterinärmedizin einen immer größeren Stellenwert ein. Im Jahr 2002 wurde die Diskussionsplattform Foren4Vet gegründet mit dem Ziel, eine Anlaufstelle für Mitglieder dieser Berufsgruppe zu sein und einen Austausch zu ermöglichen. Foren4Vet erfreut sich zunehmenden Interesses und bietet durch Kooperation mit der Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover und dem Ausschuss Tiermedizin der GMA, sowie anderen veterinärmedizinischen Projekten eine einheitliche und übergreifende Forenplattform. In einer Online-Befragung der Nutzer

  3. Commentary: linking health equity with economic development: insights from my year as Chairman of the Board of the Chamber of Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Gerard P

    2012-12-01

    Many urban areas struggle with significant health disparities. In Tulsa, Oklahoma, there is a 14-year difference in life expectancy between the predominantly African American population in north Tulsa and the predominantly Caucasian population in south Tulsa. The roots of Tulsa's health disparities can be linked, in part, to a long history of racial mistrust stemming from the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot, arguably one of the worst race riots in U.S. history. In 2011, the author served as both a university campus president and chairman of the board of the Tulsa region's chamber of commerce. Through his work with the chamber, he discovered the business community's substantial resources and advocacy abilities. He also found that regional business leaders strongly supported health equity, diversity, and inclusion initiatives, both as moral obligations and regional economic development imperatives. After sharing the lessons he learned from working closely with business leaders, the author encourages other academic health centers (AHCs) to reach out to their business communities, which are likely willing and able to help them undertake similar initiatives. In doing so, AHCs and businesses can work together to improve the economic vitality of their regions.

  4. MEDICAL ASPECT OF DEFENSE AGAINST WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent KENAR

    Full Text Available Since NBC weapons so called weapons of mass destruction cause massive deaths and injuries in a short period of time, medical aspect of NBC defence is of great importance as operational aspect is. Some measures against these weapons including the establishment of a first-aid and treatment system, a complete organisation and coordination, and conductance of training and intelligency items are discussed in this paper in details. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(10.000: 243-259

  5. 76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a... weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the...

  6. SMART Boards Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    SMART Board is a technology that combines the functionality of a whiteboard, computer, and projector into a single system. The interactive nature of the SMART Board offers many practical uses for providing an introduction to or review of material, while the large work area invites collaboration through social interaction and communication. As a…

  7. Warhead politics: Livermore and the competitive system of nuclear weapon design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Sybil [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    From the 1950s onward, US evolved a two-laboratory system to design, develop, and test nuclear weapons. LANL (New Mexico) dates from World War II. The founding in 1952 of LLNL in California effectively established the two-laboratory system. Despite essentially identical missions, LANL and LLNL adopted different strategies and approaches to the development of nuclear weapons. This thesis looks to their joint history for an explanation of this and consequent questions (how did the two-laboratory system originate and evolve? how did it function? what impact did it have on nuclear weapons development?) The incentives and constraints that shaped laboratory strategies and outputs was determined by military demand for nuclear weapons, an informal mandate against laboratory duplication, congressional support for competition, and Livermore`s role as the ``second lab.`` This thesis discusses the laboratories` role in the arms race, organizational strategies for coping with changing political environments, dynamics of technological innovation, and the leverage of policymakers over large organizations.

  8. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro–macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we...... identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...... influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions...

  9. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  10. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  11. Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Gennady P.

    2002-01-01

    9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover

  12. 13 CFR 120.823 - CDC Board of Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CDC Board of Directors. 120.823 Section 120.823 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development... member of a CDC's staff may be a voting member of the Board except for the CDC manager. The Board Members...

  13. Teaching Efficacy Beliefs of National Board Certified Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Rhoades, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The National Board of Professional Teaching Standards offers a voluntary advanced certification for K-12 teachers. The majority of teachers who pursue this professional development program live in the USA, although there are National Board Certified teachers across the globe. This study examined National Board Certified Physical Education…

  14. Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons.

  15. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  16. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.S. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  17. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons at an Inflection Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AF-35A_flight_( cropped ).jpg. Figure 6. Clockwise from top left: 3M-54 Kalibr anti-ship missile, by Allocer (Own work...modernization of the nuclear production complex, the focus of US weapons efforts became refurbishment and replacement . New warhead designs were off-limits...fighter bomber. The Air Force selected a single version as a replacement for all legacy B61 bomb variants. The B61-12 features a new tail kit assembly

  18. The Development and Optimization of Techniques for Monitoring Water Quality on-Board Spacecraft Using Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction (C-SPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, April Ann [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is the design, development, and ground and microgravity validation of methods for monitoring drinking water quality on-board NASA spacecraft using clorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE). The Introduction will overview the need for in-flight water quality analysis and will detail some of the challenges associated with operations in the absence of gravity. The ability of C-SPE methods to meet these challenges will then be discussed, followed by a literature review on existing applications of C-SPE and similar techniques. Finally, a brief discussion of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy theory, which provides a means for analyte identification and quantification in C-SPE analyses, is presented. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 reports the results from microgravity testing of existing C-SPE methods and procedures aboard NASA's C-9 microgravity simulator. Chapter 2 discusses the development of a C-SPE method for determining the total concentration of biocidal silver (i.e., in both dissolved and colloidal forms) in water samples. Chapter 3 presents the first application of the C-SPE technique to the determination of an organic analyte (i.e., formaldehyde). Chapter 4, which is a departure from the main focus of the thesis, details the results of an investigation into the effect of substrate rotation on the kinetics involved in the antigen and labeling steps in sandwich immunoassays. These research chapters are followed by general conclusions and a prospectus section.

  19. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  20. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International...

  1. 77 FR 59891 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998 and Commerce Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR) specify the rights...

  2. 77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons...) 482-4895, [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons... direct or indirect transfer of chemical weapons. This collection implements the following provision of...

  3. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Aloïs Girardoz with regard to classification and advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the Board's report and the Director-General's decision will be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 15 to 29 August 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  4. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Poul Frandsen concerning his assimilation into the new career structure. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 13 to 24 January 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  5. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Gert Jan Bossen with regard to dependent child allowance. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 1st to 15 March 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  6. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to advancement. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) from 24 March to 10 April 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  7. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  8. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  9. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Personnel Division

    1999-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Joào Bento with regard to residential category. As the appellant has not objected, the recommendations of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article RÊVIÊ1.20 of the Staff Regulations.The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N¡ 60) from 29 October to 12 November 1999.Personnel DivisionTel. 74128

  10. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Olivier Francis Martin with regard to indefinite contract. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 8 to 25 June 2001.

  11. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  12. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  13. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  14. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  15. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  16. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Judith Igo-Kemenes concerning the application of procedures foreseen by Administrative Circular N§ 26 (Rev. 3). As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 6 to 20 June 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  17. U.S. Army weapon systems human-computer interface style guide. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.; Donohoo, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    A stated goal of the US Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIs) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of HCI design guidance documents. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA), now termed the Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTA-A). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide, which resulted in the US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide Version 1. Based on feedback from the user community, DISC4 further tasked PNNL to revise Version 1 and publish Version 2. The intent was to update some of the research and incorporate some enhancements. This document provides that revision. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for the RT/NRT Army system domain across the weapon systems subdomains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each subdomain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their subdomains.

  18. TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

    2013-07-16

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  19. Status report on the county administrative boards and the development of the regional energy and climate policies; Statusrapport avseende laensstyrelsernas arbete och utveckling av de regionala energi- och klimatstrategierna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This status report deals with the regional work on energy and climate issues. It is a summary and analysis of the County Administrative Board's work with the planning, implementation and monitoring of energy and climate change. The County Administrative Board's have since 2008 held the position of establishing and developing regional energy and climate strategies. It is an important part of government policy for energy conversion and reduced climate impact. Local and regional stake holders play an important role in the implementation of development for an energy efficient and sustainable society and the task to design and develop a regional strategic energy and climate work is then an important tool. This report was compiled by staff at the units Society and transports and Public sector at the Department for Energy Efficiency.

  20. On-board Diagnostics Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    For as long as complex machines have been around there has also been a need for accurate diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. Over the last decades there have been many attempts to develop and implement systems with various degrees of diagnostic and prognostic abilities, some successful some not. This master thesis presents a software architecture that is used to implement an on-board diagnostic framework capable of advanced diagnostics and prognostics in industrial vehicles. The presented...

  1. Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should I Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animals talking about weapons and violence fascination with violent video games, television, and movies threatening or bullying others isolation from family and friends Of course, these signs don't necessarily mean that a person will become violent or bring a weapon to school. Still, you ...

  2. Hamburgian weapon delivery technology: a quantitative comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2010-01-01

    cran). Numerous studies have addressed the question of whether these points tipped arrows fired from bows, darts launched with the help of spear-throwers, or some other projectile delivery weapon. This paper approaches the question of Hamburgian weapon delivery technology from a quantitative...

  3. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section 27.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears, gigs...

  4. A tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model for surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model is proposed by modelling the weapon assignment problem as a multi-objective variation of the celebrated vehicle routing problem with time windows. A multi-objective, evolutionary metaheuristic for solving the vehicle routing problem with time windows is ...

  5. A tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model for surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... Mateo (CA). [12] Hosein PA & Athans M, 1989, The dynamic weapon-target assignment problem, (Unpublished). Technical Report, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (MA). [13] Huaiping C, Jingxu L, Yingwu C & Hao W, 2006, Survey of the research on dynamic weapon-target assignment ...

  6. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  7. A GERMAN DISCUSSION OF ATOMIC WEAPONS AND THE LAW,

    Science.gov (United States)

    of the relationship between atomic weapons and the law has been discussed in the German press. On May 18, 1957, a letter to the editor was published...in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung uder the heading ’Atomic Weapons and the Law ’. The letter is reproduced in translation. Although it furnishes only

  8. Rapid Estimation of Building Damage by Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    graphical form (After [4]). Figure 6 is “generated by Dr. Jane Dewey back in the 1960s where she conducted experiments at the Army Ballistic Research...Preliminary Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. [3] M. R. Driels, Weaponeering: Conventional Weapon System Effectiveness. Reston, Virginia

  9. BLDC technology and its application in weapon system launching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to inherent properties of BLDC Technology BLDC Motors and Drives are profoundly used in military and strategic weapon system applications. In this paper, BLDC Motor and Electromechanical Servo Drive System, operating principle, modeling, characteristics and its application in various weapon system programs are ...

  10. A multiobjective approach towards weapon assignment in a ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conditions under which human operators have to propose assignments of weapon systems to engage these aircraft are severely stressful since time is a critical factor and there is no room for error. Some progress has already been made with respect to the design of computerised threat evaluation and weapon ...

  11. Advances in Neuroscience and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Dando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse.

  12. Boat boarding ladder placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Presented in three volumes; 'Boat Boarding Ladder Placement,' which explores safety considerations including potential for human contact with a rotating propeller; 'Boat Handhold Placement,' which explores essential principles and methods of fall con...

  13. Optimized Environmental Test Sequences to Ensure the Sustainability and Reliability of Marine Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ho Yang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in the types of marine weapons used in response to diverse hostile threats. However, because marine weapons are only tested under a single set of environmental conditions, failures due to different environmental stresses have been difficult to detect. Hence, this study proposes an environmental test sequence for multi-environment testing. The environmental test sequences for electrical units described in the international standard IEC 60068-1, and for military supply described in the United States national standard MIL-STD-810G were investigated to propose guidelines for the appropriate test sequences. This study demonstrated the need for tests in multiple environments by investigating marine weapon accidents, and evaluated which environmental stresses and test items have the largest impacts on marine weapons using a two-phase quality function deployment (QFD analysis of operational scenarios, environmental stresses, and environmental test items. Integer programming was used to determine the most influential test items and the shortest environmental test time, allowing us to propose optimal test procedures. Based on our analysis, we developed optimal environmental test sequences that could be selected by a test designer.

  14. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35 versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24 versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16 versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact.

  15. What can Iran gain by having a nuclear weapons program that threatens to destabilize security in the Middle East?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz

    In this paper, Iran’s nuclear aspiration to destabilise power in the Middle East is analysed. Iran is attempting to develop a nuclear energy program, and perhaps even a nuclear weapons program, despite assurances of the opposite. An Iranian nuclear weapon would be a game changer in the region......, and domestic challenges, caused in part by United Nations’ sanctions, lack of development and internal political power struggles. Iran balances cleverly on the edge of either further international isolation or becoming a significant local power. It uses the threat of developing nuclear weapons, in com...... and a lot of neigh- bouring countries fear such a development for security reasons. But why is Iran following a nuclear path that may further destabilise the fragile security situation in the Middle East? It is to do with Iran’s own perception of security risks, its desire for greatness in the region...

  16. Chemical Disarmament: Current Problems in Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek, J.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC is briefly characterised by stressing its main pillars, such as verified destruction ofCWstockpiles and destruction/conversion ofCWproduction facilities (CWPFs, verified non-production of CW by the chemical industries, assistance and protection, and international cooperation. The CWC´s leading principle in defining theCW(protecting it generally against scientific and technological development, i. e. so called General Purpose Criterion is thoroughly elucidated showing its relation to the CWC´s sophisticated verification system. Status of implementation (as of August 2005 shows main data obligatory declared by the States Parties (SP, among them 6 possessors of CW stockpiles (Russia, USA, India, South Korea, Albania and Libya. From the declared 71 373 agent-tons, 12 889 have been destroyed, from the declared 8 679 M items of munitions (containers, 2 420 have been destroyed, which means that the anticipated 10 years deadline for CW destruction (after entry into force – EIF will be not managed. For Russia and USA the allowed extension by another 5 years has been already agreed. From the 64 CWPFs (operational after 1946, declared by 12 SPs, 53 have been certified as destroyed/converted. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW is briefly presented and main results of the First Review Conference (2003 analysed on the base of the adopted principal documents. Future problems of implementing the CWC are connected in the first line with its universality, because among 16 non-SPs, several countries (located mainly in the Near East and on the Korean peninsula are presumed to be CW-possessors. Special emphasis is laid on both, threats and benefits of the scientific and technological development for current implementing the CWC as well as of its implementation in future after all CW stockpiles have been destroyed.

  17. Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-07-01

    The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

  18. Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Guy R

    2008-05-01

    Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts.

  19. Acute and Long-Term Impact of Chemical Weapons: Lessons from the Iran-Iraq War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, D D; Fox, S C

    2014-07-01

    Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns. Special emphasis is placed on the genocidal use of chemical weapons by the regime of Saddam Hussein, both against Iranians and on Kurdish citizens of his own country, during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. The historical development of chemical weapons use is summarized to show how progressively better insight into biochemistry and physiology was adapted to this form of warfare. Major attributes of the most frequently used chemical agents and a description of how they affected military campaigns are explained. Portions of this review describing chemical-casualty care devote particular focus to Iranian management of neurotoxic (nerve) agent casualties due to the unique nature of this experience. Both nerve and blistering "mustard" agents were used extensively against Iranian forces. However, Iran is the only nation in history to have sustained large-scale attacks with neurotoxic weapons. For this reason, an understanding of the successes and failures of countermeasures to nerve-agent use developed by the Iranian military are particularly valuable for future civil defense and military planning. A detailed consideration of these strategies is therefore considered. Finally, the outcomes of clinical research into severe chronic disease triggered by mustard-agent exposure are examined in the context of the potential of these outcomes to determine the etiology of illness among US and Allied veterans

  20. How to Make Historical Surveys of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, Thomas [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    2003-05-01

    In 1998 SKI initiated a project in order to make a historical survey of the Swedish nuclear weapons research during the period 1945-2000. The survey is now fulfilled and contains of three reports. IAEA became interested in the project and accepted it in 2000 as a support program to increase transparency and to support the implementation of the Additional Protocol in Sweden. In the eyes of IAEA, the most important aim is to create knowledge and refine tools to enhance the means to strengthen the Safeguard System within the Additional Protocol. Other countries have now showed interest to follow the Swedish example and to make their own reviews of the nuclear energy and nuclear weapons research of their pasts. A co-operation between Sweden, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and Latvia has now been initiated in order to make such historical reviews. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate is the initiator and financial supporter of the project. The cooperation project has three comprehensive goals: a. to create transparency in the nuclear energy field of the past. The intention is that the results of the conducted studies could be attached to the State Declaration according to the Additional Protocol in order to enhance transparency b. to account for the nuclear material traffic of the past and; c. to develop the competence in nuclear energy matters in general, and in particular, to extend the knowledge regarding each participating State's nuclear experience in the past. The first purpose of this paper is to describe the project and its aims. The second purpose is to present a general model of how a historical review of a State's nuclear related activities and nuclear weapons research can be designed. The model has been created in order to serve as a guide for other countries strengthening of their safeguards systems in the framework of the Additional Protocol. The third purpose is to present the pedagogy that has been used as a teaching method in order to train

  1. COLLABORATION BOARD (CB55)

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Cousins

    Open Access Publication Policy ATLAS had recently issued a short statement in support of open access publishing. The mood of the discussions in the December CMS Collaboration Board had appeared to be in favour and so it was being proposed that CMS issue the same statement as that made by ATLAS (the statement is attached to the agenda of this meeting). The Collaboration Board agreed. Election of the Chair of the Collaboration Board Following the agreement to shorten the terms of both the Spokesperson and the Collaboration Board Chair, and to introduce a longer overlap period between the election and the start of the term, the election for the next Collaboration Board Chair was due in December 2007. If the old standard schedule specified in the Constitution were adapted to this date, then the Board should be informed at the present meeting that the election was being prepared. However, it was felt that the experience of the previous year's election of the Spokesperson had shown that it would be desirable to...

  2. Weapons Retrieved After the Implementation of Emergency Department Metal Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, S Terez; Chisholm, Robin; Doehring, Marla; Chisholm, Carey

    2015-09-01

    Several high-profile violent incidents have occurred within emergency departments (EDs). There are no recent studies reporting the effectiveness of ED metal detection. Our aim was to assess the effect of metal detection on ED weapons retrieval. In September 2011, a metal detector was installed at the entrance of an urban, high-volume teaching hospital ED. The security company recorded retrieved firearms, knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons. We performed qualitative analysis of weapons retrieval data for a 26-month period. A total of 5877 weapons were retrieved, an average of 218 per month: 268 firearms, 4842 knives, 512 chemical sprays, and 275 other weapons, such as brass knuckles, stun guns, and box cutters. The number of retrieved guns decreased from 2012 to 2013 (from 182 to 47), despite an increase in metal detection hours from 8 h per day to 16 h per day. The number of retrieved knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons increased. Recovered knives increased from 2062 in 2012 to 2222 in 2013, chemical sprays increased from 170 to 305, and other weapons increased from 51 to 201. A large number of weapons were retrieved after the initiation of metal detection in the ED entrance. Increasing hours of metal detection increased the number of retrieved knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons. Retrieved firearms decreased after increasing metal detection hours. Metal detection in the ED entrance is effective in reducing entrance of weapons into the ED. Metal detectors may offer additional benefit in reducing attempts to enter with firearms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... public, licensees, certificate holders, and other stakeholders on a draft guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders... the use for enhanced weapons. The Commission is authorized under Section 161A of the Atomic Energy Act...

  4. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Development, Nuclear Power Plant, Uranium, Missiles, Space Firm Protested, Satellite, Rocket Launching, Nuclear Submarine, Environmental, Radioactivity, Nuclear Plant...

  5. School Boards: Emerging Governance Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Patricia; Osborne, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The governance role of school boards is not new. Local school boards have governed education in Canada since the 19th century. However, significant forces are impacting on school boards and how they enact their roles and responsibilities. In this article, the authors want to look at the growing pressures on school boards, to actively acknowledge…

  6. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  7. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  8. Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G M

    2003-06-01

    One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs.

  9. How well-run boards make decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useem, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the aftermath of seismic debacles like those that toppled Enron and WorldCom, corporate boards have been shaken up and made over. More directors are independent these days, for instance, and corporations now disclose directors' salaries and committee members' names. Research shows that most of the changes are having a positive effect on companies' performance. They are primarily structural, though, and don't go to the heart of a board's work: making the choices that shape a firm's future. Which decisions boards own and how those calls are made are largely hidden from the public. As a result, boards are often unable to learn from the best governance practices of their counterparts at other companies. This article pulls back the curtain and provides an inside look. Drawing on interviews with board members and executives at 31 companies, along with a close examination of three boardroom decisions, the author identifies several formal processes that can help companies improve their decision making: creating calendars that specify when the board and the standing committees will consider key items; drafting charters that define the decisions committees are responsible for; and developing decision protocols that divvy up responsibilities between directors and executives. The author also identifies a number of informal decision-making principles: Items that are strategically significant and touch on the firm's core values should go to the board. Large decisions should be divided into small pieces, so the board can devote sufficient attention to each one. Directors must remain vigilant to ensure that their decisions are effectively implemented. The CEO and either the nonexecutive chair or the lead director should engage in ongoing dialogue regarding which decisions to take to the full board and when. And directors should challenge assumptions before making yes-or-no decisions on management proposals.

  10. Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory at Pantex: Testing and data handling capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories at the Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, W.R.

    1993-08-01

    The Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory (WETL), operated by Sandia Laboratories at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, is engaged primarily in the testing of weapon systems in the stockpile or of newly produced weapon systems for the Sandia Surety Assessment Center. However, the WETL`s unique testing equipment and data-handling facilities are frequently used to serve other organizations. Service to other organizations includes performing special tests on weapon components, subassemblies, and systems for purposes such as basic development and specific problem investigation. The WETL staff also sends equipment to other laboratories for specific tests that cannot be performed at Pantex. For example, we modified and sent equipment to Brookhaven National Laboratory for testing with their Neutral Particle Beam. WETL supplied the engineering expertise to accomplish the needed modifications to the equipment and the technicians to help perform many special tests at Brookhaven. A variety of testing is possible within the WETL, including: Accelerometer, decelerometer, and G-switch g-level/closure testing; Neutron generator performance testing; weapon systems developmental tests; weapon system component testing; weapon system failure-mode-duplication tests; simultaneity measurements; environmental extreme testing; parachute deployment testing; permissive action link (PAL) testing and trajectory-sensing signal generator (TSSG) testing. WETL`s existing equipment configurations do not restrict the testing performed at the WETL. Equipment and facilities are adapted to specific requirements. The WETL`s facilities can often eliminate the need to build or acquire new test equipment, thereby saving time and expense.

  11. 75 FR 32416 - Defense Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Systems and Assets to Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and other Nuclear Weapons Effects will meet in closed... Strategic Test Resource Management Center Plan for Nuclear Weapons Effects test & evaluation resources; DTRA...

  12. Experimental Investigations of a Precision Sensor for an Automatic Weapons Stabilizer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Korobiichuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of a precision sensor for an automatic weapons stabilizer system. It also describes the experimental equipment used and the structure of the developed sensor. A weapons stabilizer is designed for automatic guidance of an armament unit in the horizontal and vertical planes when firing at ground and air targets that are quickly maneuvering, and at lower speeds when firing anti-tank missiles, as well as the bypass of construction elements by the armament unit, and the automatic tracking of moving targets when interacting with a fire control system. The results of experimental investigations have shown that the error of the precision sensor developed on the basis of a piezoelectric element is 6 × 10−10 m/s2 under quasi-static conditions, and ~10−5 m/s2 for mobile use. This paper defines metrological and calibration properties of the developed sensor.

  13. Board Governance: Transformational Approaches Under Healthcare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastocki, Deborah K

    2015-01-01

    Previous successes of healthcare organizations and effective governance practices in the pre-reform environment are not predictive of future success. Healthcare has been through numerous phases of growth and development using tried-and-true strategies. The challenge is that our toolbox does not contain what is needed to build the future healthcare delivery systems required in the post-reform world. Healthcare has had a parochial focus at the local level, with some broadening of horizons at the state and national levels. But healthcare delivery is now a global issue that requires a totally different perspective, and many countries are confronting similar issues. US healthcare reform initiatives have far-reaching implications. Compounding the reform dynamics are the simultaneously occurring, gamechanging accelerants such as enabling information technologies and mobile health, new providers of healthcare, increased consumer demands, and limited healthcare dollars, to name a few. Operating in this turbulent environment requires transformational board, executive, and physician leadership because traditional ways of planning for incremental change and attempting to time those adjustments can prove disastrous. Creating the legacy healthcare system for tomorrow requires governing boards and executive leadership to act today as they would in the desired future system. Boards need to create a culture that fosters.innovation with a tolerance for risk and some failure. To provide effective governance, boards must essentially develop new skills, expertise, and ways of thinking. The rapid rate of change requires board members to possess certain capabilities, including the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty while demonstrating flexibility and adaptability, all with a driving commitment to metrics and results. This requires development plans for both individual members and the overall board. In short, the board needs to function differently, particularly regarding the

  14. Research methods to develop Measures of Effectiveness of the United States Coast Guard`s Vessel Inspection and Boarding Program. Volume 2, Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.; Cox, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gawande, K. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Economics; Stone, R.; Waisel, L.; Wallace, W.A. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, New York (United States). Dept. of Decision Sciences and Engineering Systems

    1995-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) of the US Coast Guard Marine Inspection and Boarding Program based on objective scientific methods. A secondary objective of the study is to provide USCG management with a methodologically and theoretically sound aid to effective policy decision-making. The MOEs constructed in this study are specific to the Marine Inspection and Boarding Program, but the methodology of the study is based on sound theoretical principles that are probably applicable to a range of USCG activities. Hence the methodology applied equally to other important USCG programs and can be similarly used to measure their effectiveness and as an aid to decision-making.

  15. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  16. New Service Status Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On Monday 14 October, the Service Status Board for GS and IT will change. The new Status Board will be integrated with the CERN Service Portal and with the CERN Service Catalogue.   As of today, the SSB will display “Service Incidents”, “Planned Interventions” and “Service Changes”. References valid from 14 October: CERN SSB at https://cern.ch/ssb Computing SSB (previously IT SSB) at https://cern.ch/itssb   Nicole Cremel, IT and GS Service Management Support

  17. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a former member of the personnel, a beneficiary of the CERN Pension Fund, against the calculation of his pension in the framework of the Progressive Retirement Programme.   The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be available from 26 July to 11 August 2013 at the following link. HR Department Head Office

  18. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

    This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

  20. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Notice of November 4, 2010--Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

  1. 77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the President... threat of weapons of mass destruction proliferation activities. On June 28, 2005, the President issued... combat proliferation. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the means of delivering them...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of... Order 12938 to respond more effectively to the worldwide threat of weapons of mass destruction...

  3. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and... to Section 306(a) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of...

  4. A choice reduction model for the concept phase of a weapon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Erasmus

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the concept phase of a weapon system it is often necessary to decide between a number of different development or purchasing options. This typically involves using a multidimensional value system that incorporates aspects such as performance, cost, risk, logistics and time-scales. This paper describes a model which assists in the choice in the performance dimension by including application battlefield scenarios in the analysis, and calculating the relative worth of competing systems based on the expected utility of the component weapon system attributes. The author would like to acknowledge the contributions of Mr B L Logan and Mr A E Heijdenrijch in the development of the model. This project would not have been possible without their suggestions and support, especially on the detail procedures for implementing the model.

  5. Modern Weapons and Military Equipment for Issue 1/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen R. Tišma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Czech Aero star development of L-169 trainer; Scorpion light attack jet performs maiden flight; New M-345 HET trainer revealed; Turkish attack helicopter again in delay; India’s LCA Tejas reaches IOC; Iran reveals UCAV Fotros; Integration of Meteor missile onto Gripen E agreed; French MoD and MBDA signed development and production contract for antitank system Moyenne Portee; UK invests 79 million Pounds into development of new generation submarines; German Iris-T SL surface-to-air missile successful trails; Alexander Nevsky submarine enters into operation with the Russian Navy; Maiden flight of Chinese Z-20 helicopter; F-35’s first live AMRAAM firing; KAI reveals model of the new version of its KFX fighter; Lockheed’s Skunk Works reveals SR-72; India’s DRDO presents tactical ballistic missile Pragati; Sikorsky Innovations wins contract for VTOL experimental aircraft; Jordanian gunship CN235 performs maiden flight; General Atomics shows its EMRG railgun; Aurora too wins contract for Phase I of VTOL X-Plane program; Airbus Military reveals more details on new Fire-fighter; US proposal of weapons and equipment for Romanian F-16A/B; Russia to develop light-weight front-line fighter; Start of Eurofighter cruise missile integration trails.

  6. Maximizing Weapon System Availability With a Multi-Echelon Supply Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    that system availability is maximized. This thesis develops a stochastic optimization model that prescribes optimal investments in spare parts for... stochastic optimization to maximize the expected number of time periods a weapon system is 2 available for use. The key decisions in our model ...stationary demands over time. Simchi-Levi and Zhao provide methods for evaluating stochastic , multi-echelon inventory systems , specifically, the queuing

  7. Involvement Bulletin Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugge, Dorothy J.; And Others

    "Thoroughly engrossing children and stimulating in them the desire to discover as much as possible about the materials displayed, involvement bulletin boards encourage their viewers to interact positively with these materials: to relate and respond." This pamphlet first discusses the rationale and strategies for planning involvement bulletin…

  8. Why do firms have boards?

    OpenAIRE

    Bennedsen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    In a world where corporate boards are not required by law, I identify a governance and a distribute motive for board establishment and board composition. I investigate the presence of these motives in a sample of 23.000+ closely held corporations. Board frequency increases with more owners, if control is diluted and in larger firms. Given firms have a board, non-controlling owners are more likely to be on the board when controlling owners are more powerful. Finally, consistent with an equilib...

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching about Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Willard; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Concepts which represent the minimal conceptual essentials for the study of nuclear weapons in secondary level social studies classes are discussed, and issues and controversies which may rise during such a study are examined. (RM)

  10. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  11. Model National Implementing Legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. We are grateful to the Republique Gabonaise for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for supporting it. This seminar is another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting we speak only for ourselves, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. This paper discusses model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Every State Party likely must enact implementing legislation - not only the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme.

  12. Can Al Qaeda Be Deterred from Using Nuclear Weapons?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunn, Lewis A

    2005-01-01

    The use of a nuclear weapon would be the ultimate al Qaeda terrorist outrage. Over the past decade, however, the prevailing assessment of the likelihood of terrorist acquisition and use of nuclear (specifically...

  13. Directed Energy Weapons: De We Have a Game Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lincoln, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Today's military performs missions across the spectrum of warfare. In these roles, operators and planners must leverage technology in order to gain an advantage over their enemy and protect their forces. Directed Energy (DE) weapons (DEW...

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory JOWOG 31 Weapons Engineering Education & Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domzalski, Mark W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-03

    The objectives of this report are to recruit talented staff, invest in new and early/mid career staff, retain trained and talented staff and future leaders, and shorten the ~5-10 year time line to realize new Weaponeers.

  15. 76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice...

  16. Nuclear Weapons Tests and Environmental Consequences: A Global Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prăvălie, Remus

    2014-01-01

    .... The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments...

  17. Evolutionary Trade-off between Weapons and Testes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leigh W. Simmons; Douglas J. Emlen

    2006-01-01

    ...-history traits such as mate acquisition. Here, we use a genus of horned beetle, Onthophagus, to examine the trade-off between investment in testes required for fertilizations and investment in weapons used to obtain matings...

  18. The use of neutron scattering in nuclear weapons research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzaitis, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We had a weapons science breakout session last week. Although it would have been better to hold it closer in time to this workshop, I think that it was very valuable. it may have been less of a {open_quotes}short-sleeve{close_quotes} workshop environment than we would have liked, but as the first time two communities-the weapons community and the neutron scattering community- got together, it was a wonderful opportunity to transfer information during the 24 presentations that were made. This report contains discussions on the fundamental analysis of documentation of the enduring stockpile; LANSCE`s contribution to weapons; spallation is critical to understanding; weapons safety assessments; applied nuclear physics requires cross section information; fission models need refinement; and establishing teams on collaborative projects.

  19. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  20. Nuclear weapons and outdated U.S. bases in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Susi

    2010-01-01

    The national roles are different for each of the countries that currently host U.S. nuclear weapons. Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands each maintain aircraft capable of dropping the B61 bombs stored...

  1. The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal environments. This report presents safety considerations for the design and implementation of UQSs in the context of the overall safety system.

  2. Weapon-Specific Strategic Material Estimation Process (WSSMEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    vec - tors, each of which corresponds to a U.S. weapon. The vector components specify percentages of system purchase price that go to companies in a...release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Weapon-Specific Strategic Material Estimation Process (WSSMEP) is a modeling ...inputs to WSSMEP are pro- prietary or classified, but the model itself is not. WSSMEP is a modeling tool used to estimate the demand for the strategic

  3. Theater nuclear weapons in Europe the contemporary debate

    OpenAIRE

    Polser, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Are U.S. nuclear weapons still needed in Europe now that the threat that brought them there is gone? This thesis examines whether basing theater nuclear weapons in Europe is useful, irrelevant or counterproductive for maintaining European security. U.S. and NATO policymakers adhere to political and military utility arguments, while others argue TNWs in Europe are irrelevant-their utility has been supplanted by political, cultural and e...

  4. Historical fencing and scientific research medieval weapons: common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Hrynchyshyn

    2015-07-01

    We considered various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. It is proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods The various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. Proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods.

  5. Iran's growing nuclear weapons program: A catalyst for regional instability in the Middle East. Study project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyermond, J.J.

    1993-03-10

    Following the end of the Cold War, the United States as well as other nations around the world now find themselves in a state of political, economic, and military transition. While the US and other nations such as the Islamic Republic of Iran are undergoing significant increases in military spending. This increase has been primarily in the area of conventional forces, however there is growing evidence that Iran is also attempting to develop a nuclear weapons capability as well. This study examines Iran's nuclear weapons program in detail, and Tehran's increasing ability to emerge as a regional power in the Middle East.

  6. Simulation training tools for nonlethal weapons using gaming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, Alexsana; Eagan, Justin; Tse, Gabriel; Vanderslice, Tom; Woods, Jerry

    2006-05-01

    Modern simulation techniques have a growing role for evaluating new technologies and for developing cost-effective training programs. A mission simulator facilitates the productive exchange of ideas by demonstration of concepts through compellingly realistic computer simulation. Revolutionary advances in 3D simulation technology have made it possible for desktop computers to process strikingly realistic and complex interactions with results depicted in real-time. Computer games now allow for multiple real human players and "artificially intelligent" (AI) simulated robots to play together. Advances in computer processing power have compensated for the inherent intensive calculations required for complex simulation scenarios. The main components of the leading game-engines have been released for user modifications, enabling game enthusiasts and amateur programmers to advance the state-of-the-art in AI and computer simulation technologies. It is now possible to simulate sophisticated and realistic conflict situations in order to evaluate the impact of non-lethal devices as well as conflict resolution procedures using such devices. Simulations can reduce training costs as end users: learn what a device does and doesn't do prior to use, understand responses to the device prior to deployment, determine if the device is appropriate for their situational responses, and train with new devices and techniques before purchasing hardware. This paper will present the status of SARA's mission simulation development activities, based on the Half-Life gameengine, for the purpose of evaluating the latest non-lethal weapon devices, and for developing training tools for such devices.

  7. Automated Navigation System based on Weapon-Target Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairudin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating of weapon on the tank is mostly by manually. It is not desired performance for a critical operation. An automatic control system is required to operate the weapon with the target while maintaining the accuracy. In this paper has designed an automatic weapon control system using object image proccessing. Various an image processing methods used to improve the weapon accuracy to obtain the intended target. The method used in digital image processing is the Camshift motion tracking method. This method is compared with the Lucas Canade motion tracking method. This comparison is conducted to found more precise results between the two methods. Results of object image processing are used to control the direction of the weapon that towards the desired goal. The results show that the implementation of the Lucas Canade motion tracking method using fire simulation tools have been successful. The performance of the Lucas Canade motion tracking methods is better than the CamShift method. Using Lucas Canade method for weapon controller is accordance with the purposes.

  8. Screening Adolescents in the Emergency Department for Weapon Carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resko, Stella M.; Harrison, Stephanie Roahen; Zimmerman, Marc; Stanley, Rachel; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence and correlates of past year weapon involvement among adolescents seeking care in an inner-city ED. Methods This cross-sectional study administered a computerized survey to all eligible adolescents (age 14–18), seven days a week seeking care in the ED over an 18 month period in an inner-city Level 1 ED. Validated measures were administered including measures of demographics, sexual activity, substance use, injury, violent behavior and weapon carriage/use. Results Adolescents (N=2069, 86% response rate) completed the computerized survey. 55% were female; 56.5% were African American. In the past year, 20% of adolescents reported knife/razor carriage, 7% reported gun carriage, and 6% pulled a knife/gun on someone; zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models were used to identify correlates of the occurrence and past year frequency of these weapon variables. Although gun carriage was more frequent among males, females were as likely to carry a knife or pull a weapon in the past year. Conclusions One fifth of all adolescent’s seeking care in this inner city ED have carried a weapon. Understanding weapon carriage among teens seeking ED care is a critical first step to future ED based injury prevention initiatives. PMID:20370746

  9. Effects of Weapons on Aggressive Thoughts, Angry Feelings, Hostile Appraisals, and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Weapons Effect Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Arlin J; Kepes, Sven; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-09-01

    Guns are associated with aggression. A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression-called the "weapons effect." This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017. It includes 162 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. The theoretical framework used to explain the weapons effect was the General Aggression Model (GAM), which proposes three routes to aggression-cognitive, affective, and arousal. The GAM also proposes that hostile appraisals can facilitate aggression. As predicted by the GAM, the mere presence of weapons increased aggressive thoughts, hostile appraisals, and aggression, suggesting a cognitive route from weapons to aggression. Weapons did not significantly increase angry feelings. Only one study tested the effects of weapons on arousal. These findings also contribute to the debate about social priming by showing that incidental exposure to a stimulus (weapon) can affect subsequent related behavior (aggression).

  10. The evolution of tail weaponization in amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Zanno, Lindsay E

    2018-01-31

    Weaponry, for the purpose of intraspecific combat or predator defence, is one of the most widespread animal adaptations, yet the selective pressures and constraints governing its phenotypic diversity and skeletal regionalization are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of tail weaponry in amniotes, a rare form of weaponry that nonetheless evolved independently among a broad spectrum of life including mammals, turtles and dinosaurs. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we test for links between morphology, ecology and behaviour in extant amniotes known to use the tail as a weapon, and in extinct taxa bearing osseous tail armaments. We find robust ecological and morphological correlates of both tail lashing behaviour and bony tail weaponry, including large body size, body armour and herbivory, suggesting these life-history parameters factor into the evolution of antipredator behaviours and tail armaments. We suggest that the evolution of tail weaponry is rare because large, armoured herbivores are uncommon in extant terrestrial faunas, as they have been throughout evolutionary history. © 2018 The Author(s).

  11. Finally, proof of weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2003-10-07

    Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (-)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (-) enantiomers, but only the (-) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (-)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research.

  12. Detection of weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkholm, Paul J.

    2003-07-01

    High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

  13. Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-02

    A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

  14. A comparison of national compliance legislation under the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-03

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is unique among multilateral arms control agreements in requiring national compliance legislation. This paper discusses the compliance legislation enacted by Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden in anticipation of this agreement entering into force. It compares how these five nations addressed the requirement for legislation to penalize violations of the Convention, as well as how they have developed legal mechanisms to acquire the information about dual-use chemicals that must be declared to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. This analysis shows that although different options exist to meet these treaty requirements, areas of consistency between nations are emerging that will encourage universal compliance as the regime matures.

  15. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassin, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research.

  16. Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Principle of Unnecessary Suffering : The Use of Nuclear Weapons in an Armed Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Krasny, Jaroslav; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    This research is concerned with the use of nuclear weapons against combatants in an armed conflict and whether such a use violates or would violate the principle of unnecessary suffering as codified in St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868 and the Hague Conventions. In order to analyze what constitutes unnecessary suffering the method chosen for this research is comparison of the effects of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons on the human body. The reason for choosing this method is the abh...

  17. Formal description of board games

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of thesis was to design a mathematical formalism that allows describing and exploring the properties of board games. The work benefits from the findings of automata theory and logic programming. First part of thesis deals with finite automata and their possible applications for the needs of board games. The result is an extension of finite-state automaton covering the specifics of board games called game automaton. Board games are a complex domain hight level tools should be used. Suc...

  18. Board diversity in family firms

    OpenAIRE

    Menozzi, Anna; Fraquelli, Giovanni; Novara, Jolanda de

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with diversity as a key factor to improve the board of directors’ decision process in family firms. The empirical literature about board diversity points at the positive impact of diversity on board functioning and firm performance. The paper uses a statistical diversity index to capture the heterogeneity of board of directors and put it in relation with firm performance, as measured by firm profitability. The empirical analysis is based on a newly collected panel of 327 famil...

  19. Novel host plant leads to the loss of sexual dimorphism in a sexually selected male weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Pablo E; Miller, Christine W

    2017-08-16

    In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible for much of the intraspecific variation in sexually selected ornaments and weapons in wild populations. Here we examined the consequences of developing on a novel plant for the expression of size and shape in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). The males of this species possess enlarged, sexually dimorphic femurs on their hind legs. These legs are used as weapons in male-male contests. Females are typically larger in overall body size. Our study revealed that developing upon a novel host can lead to pronounced phenotypically plastic change in sexually dimorphic traits. Male hind femurs were greatly impacted by the novel diet to the extent that the sexual dimorphism in hind femurs was lost. Further, dimorphism in body size increased, as males became tiny adults while females better maintained their body size. These patterns underscore the complex effects that novel species interactions may have on sexual phenotypes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Preliminary Design of an Automated White Board Cleaner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Abstract. The work presented in this paper is on the preliminary design and fabrication of an automated whiteboard cleaner. The objective here in is to reduce the man-power involved in cleaning white boards after use. Though the use of smart boards is increasing, many institutions in the developed and developing world ...