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Sample records for weaning technology humane

  1. Isolated weaning technology: Humane benefits and concerns in the production of pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Terry L.; Pasma, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The age at which piglets are separated from the sow has been identified as an animal welfare risk in current swine production systems. Animal welfare gains of a minimal disease state must be objectively balanced against the welfare costs of early weaning. Veterinary practitioners should continue to participate in the development and validation of humane animal production methods. PMID:18390104

  2. Isolated weaning technology: humane benefits and concerns in the production of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Terry L; Pasma, Tim

    2008-03-01

    The age at which piglets are separated from the sow has been identified as an animal welfare risk in current swine production systems. Animal welfare gains of a minimal disease state must be objectively balanced against the welfare costs of early weaning. Veterinary practitioners should continue to participate in the development and validation of humane animal production methods.

  3. Mass of weaned elephant seal pups in areas of low and high human presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; van den Hoff, J; Broekman, M; Baarspul, ANJ; Field, [No Value; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    On sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, we examined pup weaning mass of southern elephant seals in relation to human presence. Pup weaning mass was previously found to be positively associated with 1st-year survivorship. Weaned pups were weighed in a remote area, Middle Beach, and in an area of

  4. Mass of weaned elephant seal pups in areas of low and high human presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Hoff, van den J.; Broekman, M.; Baarspul, A.N.J.; Field, I.; Burton, H.R.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    On sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, we examined pup weaning mass of southern elephant seals in relation to human presence. Pup weaning mass was previously found to be positively associated with 1st-year survivorship. Weaned pups were weighed in a remote area, Middle Beach, and in an area of

  5. Studies in human lactation: milk volume and nutrient composition during weaning and lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, M C; Allen, J C; Archer, P C; Casey, C E; Seacat, J; Keller, R P; Lutes, V; Rasbach, J; Neifert, M

    1991-07-01

    Concentrations and secretion rates of macronutrients and major ions in human milk during lactogenesis (birth to 8 d) and late lactation (greater than 6 mo postpartum) are reported. Postpartum changes in lactose, sodium, and chloride concentrations signalled closure of the paracellular pathway during days 1-2. From days 2 to 4 postpartum, initiation of copious milk secretion was accompanied by significant increases in citrate, free phosphate, glucose, and calcium concentrations and a decrease in pH. During weaning, significant changes in milk protein, lactose, chloride, and sodium concentrations were observed only when milk volume fell below 400 mL/d; more than one feed per day was necessary to maintain milk secretion. Temporal changes in the concentration of other milk components, except glucose and magnesium, were not different in weaning and non-weaning women. Differences between the relation of milk volume and composition during lactogenesis and weaning suggest that volume is differently regulated in the two periods.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of the stress response to weaning at housing in bovine leukocytes using RNA-seq technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Loughlin Aran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning of beef calves is a necessary husbandry practice and involves separating the calf from its mother, resulting in numerous stressful events including dietary change, social reorganisation and the cessation of the maternal-offspring bond and is often accompanied by housing. While much recent research has focused on the physiological response of the bovine immune system to stress in recent years, little is known about the molecular mechanisms modulating the immune response. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological response to weaning at housing in beef calves using Illumina RNA-seq. Results The leukocyte transcriptome was significantly altered for at least 7 days following either housing or weaning at housing. Analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that four main pathways, cytokine signalling, transmembrane transport, haemostasis and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPRC signalling were differentially regulated between control and weaned calves and underwent significant transcriptomic alterations in response to weaning stress on day 1, 2 and 7. Of particular note, chemokines, cytokines and integrins were consistently found to be up-regulated on each day following weaning. Evidence for alternative splicing of genes was also detected, indicating a number of genes involved in the innate and adaptive immune response may be alternatively transcribed, including those responsible for toll receptor cascades and T cell receptor signalling. Conclusions This study represents the first application of RNA-Seq technology for genomic studies in bovine leukocytes in response to weaning stress. Weaning stress induces the activation of a number of cytokine, chemokine and integrin transcripts and may alter the immune system whereby the ability of a number of cells of the innate and adaptive immune system to locate and destroy pathogens is

  7. Quantitative reconstruction of weaning ages in archaeological human populations using bone collagen nitrogen isotope ratios and approximate Bayesian computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Tsutaya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen has been used to reconstruct the breastfeeding practices of archaeological human populations. However, weaning ages have been estimated subjectively because of a lack of both information on subadult bone collagen turnover rates and appropriate analytical models. METHODOLOGY: Temporal changes in human subadult bone collagen turnover rates were estimated from data on tissue-level bone metabolism reported in previous studies. A model for reconstructing precise weaning ages was then developed using a framework of approximate Bayesian computation and incorporating the estimated turnover rates. The model is presented as a new open source R package, WARN (Weaning Age Reconstruction with Nitrogen isotope analysis, which computes the age at the start and end of weaning, (15N-enrichment through maternal to infant tissue, and [Formula: see text] value of collagen synthesized entirely from weaning foods with their posterior probabilities. The model was applied to 39 previously reported Holocene skeletal populations from around the world, and the results were compared with weaning ages observed in ethnographic studies. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in the age at the end of weaning between the archaeological (2.80±1.32 years and ethnographic populations. By comparing archaeological populations, it appears that weaning ages did not differ with the type of subsistence practiced (i.e., hunting-gathering or not. Most of [Formula: see text]-enrichment (2.44±0.90‰ was consistent with biologically valid values. The nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults after the weaning process were lower than those of adults in most of the archaeological populations (-0.48±0.61‰, and this depletion was greater in non-hunter-gatherer populations. Our results suggest that the breastfeeding period in humans had already been shortened by the early Holocene compared with those in extant great apes.

  8. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul...... - is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact with the fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities...

  9. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known...... for as a better humanity.      The paper will investigate how the two cultures are combined in this way in a TV-commercial. Technology points, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not to the often-motioned post-human condition.    ......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...

  10. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... Research Initiative supporting Roskilde University’s new Humanities and Technology bachelor programme (‘HumTek’), and its three dimensions: Design, Humanities, and Technology. The research initiative involves 70 researchers from different departments and research groups at Roskilde University through...

  11. Infant weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    This communication supplement provides instructions for weaning an infant through the 1st year of life. Since a new born infant grows much faster than an older child, the baby requires sufficient nourishment. The order of foods, though, is important. The baby should begin with liquid foods, then semisolid foods, and lastly solid foods. The best food for an infant, breast milk, contains all the necessary nutrients for a baby. It is clean, safe, easy to digest, and it protects the new born from disease and infection. But when the baby reaches 4 months of age, the weaning process should begin. Fruit juice and soup made of green leafy vegetables contain the vitamins and minerals that the baby needs. Beginning in the 5th month, the baby's diet should include boiled mashed potatoes and smashed bananas. And by the 7th month, the baby is able to digest semisolid food such as khichadi or dalia (roasted cereal which is grounded and mixed with water and dal, and then cooked). Parents should realize that the weaning process does not beginning immediately after birth, and when it begins, the food should be introduced gradually. The food should not contain any spices and should be freshly prepared (the hands should be washed and the utensils cleaned before preparing the foods). To prevent diarrhea and other infections, the food must be kept covered, protected from dust and flies. By the end of the 1st year, the baby should able to eat the normal diet of the family.

  12. Variations in the Post-weaning Human Gut Metagenome Profile As Result of Bifidobacterium Acquisition in the Western Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soverini, Matteo; Rampelli, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Schnorr, Stephanie L.; Quercia, Sara; Castagnetti, Andrea; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the gut microbiome variation among human populations revealed the existence of robust compositional and functional layouts matching the three subsistence strategies that describe a trajectory of changes across our recent evolutionary history: hunting and gathering, rural agriculture, and urban post-industrialized agriculture. In particular, beside the overall reduction of ecosystem diversity, the gut microbiome of Western industrial populations is typically characterized by the loss of Treponema and the acquisition of Bifidobacterium as an abundant inhabitant of the post-weaning gut microbial ecosystem. In order to advance the hypothesis about the possible adaptive nature of this exchange, here we explore specific functional attributes that correspond to the mutually exclusive presence of Treponema and Bifidobacterium using publically available gut metagenomic data from Hadza hunter-gatherers and urban industrial Italians. According to our findings, Bifidobacterium provides the enteric ecosystem with a diverse panel of saccharolytic functions, well suited to the array of gluco- and galacto-based saccharides that abound in the Western diet. On the other hand, the metagenomic functions assigned to Treponema are more predictive of a capacity to incorporate complex polysaccharides, such as those found in unrefined plant foods, which are consistently incorporated in the Hadza diet. Finally, unlike Treponema, the Bifidobacterium metagenome functions include genes that permit the establishment of microbe–host immunological cross-talk, suggesting recent co-evolutionary events between the human immune system and Bifidobacterium that are adaptive in the context of agricultural subsistence and sedentary societies. PMID:27462302

  13. Variations in the post-weaning human gut metagenome profile as result of Bifidobacterium acquisition in the Western microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Soverini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the gut microbiome variation among human populations revealed the existence of robust compositional and functional layouts matching the three subsistence strategies that describe a trajectory of changes across our recent evolutionary history: hunting and gathering, rural agriculture, and urban post-industrialized agriculture. In particular, beside the overall reduction of ecosystem diversity, the gut microbiome of Western industrial populations is typically characterized by the loss of Treponema and the acquisition of Bifidobacterium as an abundant inhabitant of the post-weaning gut microbial ecosystem. In order to advance the hypothesis about the possible adaptive nature of this exchange, here we explore specific functional attributes that correspond to the mutually exclusive presence of Treponema and Bifidobacterium using publically available gut metagenomic data from Hadza hunter-gatherers and urban industrial Italians. According to our findings, Bifidobacterium provides the enteric ecosystem with a diverse panel of saccharolytic functions, well suited to the array of gluco- and galacto-based saccharides that abound in the Western diet. On the other hand, the metagenomic functions assigned to Treponema are more predictive of a capacity to incorporate complex polysaccharides, such as those found in unrefined plant foods, which are consistently incorporated in the Hadza diet. Finally, unlike Treponema, the Bifidobacterium metagenome functions include genes that permit the establishment of microbe-host immunological cross-talk, suggesting recent co-evolutionary events between the human immune system and Bifidobacterium that are adaptive in the context of agricultural subsistence and sedentary societies.

  14. Whither Humanities and Advanced Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Discusses humanities projects that can be facilitated by communications technology: multiple language representations, providing cross-platform multilingual font sets and distributed multilingual enabling technologies; high-quality images and tools for archival image annotation, search, and retrieval; three-dimensional representations to provide…

  15. STS: Bonding Humanities and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Tonya

    1988-01-01

    Our technologically advancing, globally interconnected world has forced educators to rethink interdisciplinarity. Discipline boundaries separating the humanities, sciences, and mathematics are being erased across the curriculum as students are being asked to think critically about socially relevant science, technology, and society topics. Includes…

  16. Human health monitoring technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  17. [Wireless human body communication technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2014-12-01

    The Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a key part of the wearable monitoring technologies, which has many communication technologies to choose from, like Bluetooth, ZigBee, Ultra Wideband, and Wireless Human Body Communication (WHBC). As for the WHBC developed in recent years, it is worthy to be further studied. The WHBC has a strong momentum of growth and a natural advantage in the formation of WBAN. In this paper, we first briefly describe the technical background of WHBC, then introduce theoretical model of human-channel communication and digital transmission machine based on human channel. And finally we analyze various of the interference of the WHBC and show the AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping) technology which can effectively deal with the interference.

  18. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  19. Relationships between individual behavioural traits and post-weaning growth in segregated early-weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux; Martineau; Robert

    2000-11-01

    Piglets' individual behavioural traits have been studied in the last decade but no report has linked these traits with growth. This experiment was conducted to determine if behavioural traits of segregated early-weaned piglets could be good predictors of their post-weaning growth and, thus, help to predict their adaptation to early weaning. Following segregated early weaning at 17+/-1 days old, 252 piglets were submitted to three tests between 20 and 25 days of age: open-field, reaction to humans and rank order based on competition for a restricted-access feeder. The body weight of each piglet was measured the day before weaning and once a week for the next 4 weeks. A principal component analysis yielded five factors with an Eigenvalue higher than 0.90 that accounted for 81% of the total variation between individuals: reaction to humans (25%), active response to stress (21%), passive response to stress (14%), feeding behaviour (10%) and rank order (9%). Passive reaction to stress was associated with better weight gain during the first week post-weaning (r=0.18; P=0.01), and a positive correlation was found between social status and weight gain during the 4 weeks following weaning (-0.15weaning.

  20. Stories of Human Autonomy, Law, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Considering the relationship between human autonomy, law and technology has deep origins. Both technology studies and legal theory tell origin stories about human autonomy as the prize from either a foundational technological or jurisprudential event. In these narratives either law is considered a second order consequence of technology or…

  1. A preliminary study of the effects of individual response to challenge tests and stress induced by humans on learning performance of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether individual behavioural characteristics of piglets and stress induced by experience with humans can influence learning performance. After weaning, piglets received a chronic experience with humans to modulate their emotional state: rough (ROU), gentle (GEN), or minimal (MIN) experience. Simultaneously, they were trained on a discrimination task. Afterward, their behaviour during challenge tests was assessed. The first learning step of the task involved associating a positive sound cue with a response (approach a trough) and success of piglets depended mostly on motivation to seek for reward. Although the experience with humans did not have direct effect, the degree of fear of handler, measured based on their reactivity to a human approach test, was related to motivation to seek rewards and learning speed of this first step in stressed ROU piglets, but not in MIN and GEN piglets. In contrast, the second learning step was more cognitively challenging, since it involved discrimination learning, including negative cues during which piglets had to learn to avoid the trough. Locomotion activity, measured during an open-field test, was associated with performance of the discrimination learning. To conclude, fearfulness towards humans and locomotion activity are linked with learning performance in relation to task complexity, highlighting the necessity to take into account these factors in animal research and management. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transitions from breast milk to other sources of nourishment. When to wean is a personal decision. A ... when you would typically be nursing. For an older child, try a healthy snack, offering a cup, ...

  3. Technology--The Extension of Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2018-01-01

    Technology is defined differently depending on one's point of view, but in "Standards for Technological Literacy," technology is defined as "Human innovation…the generation of knowledge and processes…that solve problems and extend human capabilities" (ITEA/ITEEA 2000/2002/2007). The processes associated with the development of…

  4. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  5. Human Spaceflight Technology Needs - A Foundation for JSC's Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2013-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation s primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (TechNeeds) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology

  6. [Technology and humanization in critical care environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Isaac Rosa; Souza, Agnaldo Rodrigues de

    2010-01-01

    Because of the advances made with the industrial revolution through technological discoveries in machinery, professional-patient relationship has become increasingly automated, leaving the humanization in the background. The purpose of this paper was to reflect about the humanization process in intensive environments and its relation with the technology insertion. Technology contributes as an effective way to treat patients who require extreme care. However, if it is associated with humanization can achieves satisfactory results, improving the host of customer who receives the care provided by technology.

  7. Philosophical inquiry of technology in humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Анатольевна Муратова

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology is overcome as a In the formation of a new humanism as a direct, i.e. human man's relationship to himself and humanity of his general state, self-fulfillment, technology overcomes as a means, as it is embodied, extinguished the intended goal, and brought into being the result given by a non-for-mean and by a goal. Humanism involves an end in itself of human life, freedom - arbitrariness of conscious goal-setting and goal-implementation

  8. Technological Literacy and Human Cloning. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how technology educators can deal with advances in human genetics, specifically, cloning. Includes a definition and history of cloning, discusses its benefits, and looks at social concerns and arguments for and against human cloning. Includes classroom activities and websites. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)

  9. The Humanities, Science and Technology: Making Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badra, Robert

    In the summers of 1991 and 1992, 4-week faculty institutes were held at Kalamazoo Valley Community College (KVCC), in Michigan. Funded by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the institutes sought to examine the ways in which the humanities, science, and technology have each advanced human understanding. During the 1991…

  10. Technology-enhanced human interaction in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C

    2017-07-01

    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. RFID Technology for Human Implant Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an overview on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for human implants and investigates the technological feasibility of such implants for locating and tracking persons or for remotely controlling human biological functions. Published results on the miniaturization of implantable passive RFID devices are reported as well as a discussion on the choice of the transmission frequency in wireless communication between passive RFID device impl...

  12. South African human language technologies audit

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grover, AS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Human language technologies (HLT) can play a vital role in bridging the digital divide and thus the HLT field has been recognised as a priority area by the South African government. The authors present the work on conducting a technology audit...

  13. Human resource management and technological challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the challenges and changes that new technologies bring to human resources (HR) of modern organizations. It examines the technological implications of the last changes taking place and how they affect the management and motivation of human resources belonging to these organizations. It looks for ways to understand and perceive how organizational HR, individually and as a team, conceptualize, invent, adapt, define and use organizational technology, as well as how they are constrained by features of it. The book provides discussion and the exchange of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications of human resources management and technological challenges and changes in the field of industry, commerce and services.

  14. Enabling technology for human collaboration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Tim Andrew (MindTel, LLC, Syracuse, NY); Jones, Wendell Bruce; Warner, David Jay (MindTel, LLC, Syracuse, NY); Doser, Adele Beatrice; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-month LDRD late start project which explored the potential of enabling technology to improve the performance of small groups. The purpose was to investigate and develop new methods to assist groups working in high consequence, high stress, ambiguous and time critical situations, especially those for which it is impractical to adequately train or prepare. A testbed was constructed for exploratory analysis of a small group engaged in tasks with high cognitive and communication performance requirements. The system consisted of five computer stations, four with special devices equipped to collect physiologic, somatic, audio and video data. Test subjects were recruited and engaged in a cooperative video game. Each team member was provided with a sensor array for physiologic and somatic data collection while playing the video game. We explored the potential for real-time signal analysis to provide information that enables emergent and desirable group behavior and improved task performance. The data collected in this study included audio, video, game scores, physiological, somatic, keystroke, and mouse movement data. The use of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was explored to search for emergent trends in the physiological data as it correlated with the video, audio and game scores. This exploration resulted in the development of two approaches for analysis, to be used concurrently, an individual SOM and a group SOM. The individual SOM was trained using the unique data of each person, and was used to monitor the effectiveness and stress level of each member of the group. The group SOM was trained using the data of the entire group, and was used to monitor the group effectiveness and dynamics. Results suggested that both types of SOMs were required to adequately track evolutions and shifts in group effectiveness. Four subjects were used in the data collection and development of these tools. This report documents a proof of concept

  15. Advances in gene technology: Human genetic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, W.A.; Ahmad, F.; Black, S.; Schultz, J.; Whelan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the papers presented at the conference on the subject of ''advances in Gene technology: Human genetic disorders''. Molecular biology of various carcinomas and inheritance of metabolic diseases is discussed and technology advancement in diagnosis of hereditary diseases is described. Some of the titles discussed are-Immunoglobulin genes translocation and diagnosis; hemophilia; oncogenes; oncogenic transformations; experimental data on mice, hamsters, birds carcinomas and sarcomas.

  16. Diabetes technology and the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, A; Buckingham, B; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    When developing new technologies for human use the developer should take into consideration not only the efficacy and safety of the technology but also the desire and capabilities of the potential user. Any chronic disease is a challenge for both the patient and his/her caregivers. This statement is especially true in the case of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) where adherence to therapy is crucial 24 hours a day 365 days a year. No vacation days are possible for the T1DM patient. It is therefore obvious why any new technology which is developed for helping patients cope with the disease should take into consideration the 'human factor' before, during and after the production process starts. There is no doubt that technology has changed the life of patients with T1DM in the last few decades, but despite the availability of new meters, new syringes, new sophisticated insulin pumps and continuous glucose sensors and communication tools, these technologies have not been well utilised by many patients. It is therefore important to understand why the technology is not always utilised and to find new ways to maximise use and benefits from the technology to as many patients as possible. The present chapter will review papers published in the last year where the patient's ability or willingness was an important factor in the success of the technology. We will try to understand why insulin pumps, glucose sensors and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are not used enough or appropriately, whether there is a specific group that finds it more difficult than others to adopt new technologies and what can be done to overcome that issue. For this chapter we chose articles from a Public Medicine review of the literature related to human factors affecting the outcome of studies and of user acceptance of continuous glucose monitoring, insulin infusion pump therapy. We also searched the literature in the field of psychology in order to accurately define the problems

  17. Human Capital, Technology, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindo Sulaiman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated the impact of human capital and technology on economic growth in Nigeria. We employed annual time series data for the period of 35 years (1975-2010 and applied autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration to examine the relationship between human capital, technology, and economic growth. Two proxies of human capital (secondary and tertiary school enrollments were used in two separate models. The cointegration result revealed that all the variables in the two separate models were cointegrated. Furthermore, the results of the two estimated models showed that human capital in form in secondary and tertiary school enrollments have had significant positive impact on economic growth. More so, technology also shows significant positive impact on economic growth. In a nutshell, both human capital and technology are important determinants of growth in Nigeria. Therefore, improvement of the educational sector and more funding for research and development (R&D to encourage innovations are needed to facilitate Nigeria’s sustained economic growth.

  18. RFID technology for human implant devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Hervé

    2011-09-01

    This article presents an overview on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for human implants and investigates the technological feasibility of such implants for locating and tracking persons or for remotely controlling human biological functions. Published results on the miniaturization of implantable passive RFID devices are reported as well as a discussion on the choice of the transmission frequency in wireless communication between a passive RFID device implanted inside human body and an off-body interrogator. The two techniques (i.e., inductive coupling and electromagnetic coupling) currently used for wirelessly supplying power to and read data from a passive implantable RFID device are described and some documented biomedical and therapeutic applications of human RFID-implant devices are finally reported.

  19. [Technology and notion of human life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Yoshimi

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to examine the rules of robotics whose sense is modified in society and which change the notion of human body. Asimov proposed three rules of robotics in his novel of science fiction, which become the basis of the rules concerning the study of the development of robotics. These rules are created in order to avoid harming human beings and to mitigate the variant difficulties of being human being. As for latter, robotics has functioned as a meaning of extension of the physical faculty. Thus, technology develops in the direction of the enhancement of the capability of human body beyond the necessities of life. Robotics doesn't only suggest a rethinking of the notion of a human being but also changes our understanding of the human body.

  20. Nigerian dental technology students and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‑infected individuals. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students' knowledge and ...

  1. Human Performance Technology and Its Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Roger; Bernardez, Mariano L.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional human performance technology has had a good run. It allowed scientific and data-based research to be applied to improve performance, usually just individual performance. The field must be expanded without losing this individual performance focus to include a scope that measurably improves performance for individuals and organizations…

  2. Educational Cognitive Technologies as Human Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Nesterova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity is characterized by profound changes in all spheres of human life caused by the global transformations on macro and micro levels of social reality. These changes allow us to speak about the present as the era of civilizational transition in the mode of uncertainty. Therefore, this situation demands qualitative transformations of human adaptive strategies and educational technologies accordingly. The dominant role in the dynamics of pedagogics and andragogy’s landscape belongs to transformative learning. The transformative learning theory is considered as the relevant approach to education of the individual, which is able to become an autonomous communicative actor of the social complexity. The article considers the cognitive technologies of social cohesion development and perspectives of their implementation in the educational dimension. In addition to implementing the principles of inclusion, equity in education, an important factor for improving social cohesion, stability and unity of society is the development of cognitive educational technologies. The key factors and foundations for the cognitive educational technologies are transversal competencies. They create the conditions for civil, public dialogue, non-violent type of communication. These “21st century skills” are extremely important for better human adaptation. One of the aspects and roots of social adaptation is social cohesion. Mutual determinations and connections between social cohesion development and transversal competences have been shown. The perspective direction of further researches is to find a methodological base for the further development of cognitive education technologies and platform for realization of innovative services for educational programs. New educational paradigm offers the concept of human adaptation as cognitive effectiveness and how to reach it through educational technologies. The article includes topics of creative thinking, teambuilding

  3. United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI)

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Steffens, H; Balogh, W; Haubold, H J; Othman, M; Doi, T

    2015-01-01

    The Human Space Technology Initiative was launched in 2010 within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations. It aims to involve more countries in activities related to human spaceflight and space exploration and to increase the benefits from the outcome of such activities through international cooperation, to make space exploration a truly international effort. The role of the Initiative in these efforts is to provide a platform to exchange information, foster collaboration between partners from spacefaring and non-spacefaring countries, and encourage emerging and developing countries to take part in space research and benefit from space applications. The Initiative organizes expert meetings and workshops annually to raise awareness of the current status of space exploration activities as well as of the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications. The Initiative is also carrying out primary ...

  4. MicroRNA Transcriptome in Swine Small Intestine during Weaning Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xin; Xu, Ziwei

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in intestinal diseases; however, the role of miRNAs during weaning stress is unknown. In our study, six jejunal small RNA libraries constructed from weaning piglets at 1, 4 and 7 d after weaning (libraries W1, W4 and W7, respectively) and from suckling piglets on the same days as the weaning piglets (libraries S1, S4 and S7, respectively) were sequenced using Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology. Overall, 260 known swine miRNAs and 317 novel can...

  5. Weaning age influences the severity of gastrointestinal microbiome shifts in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meale, S J; Li, S C; Azevedo, P; Derakhshani, H; DeVries, T J; Plaizier, J C; Steele, M A; Khafipour, E

    2017-03-15

    Ruminants microbial consortium is responsible for ruminal fermentation, a process which converts fibrous feeds unsuitable for human consumption into desirable dairy and meat products, begins to establish soon after birth. However, it undergoes a significant transition when digestion shifts from the lower intestine to ruminal fermentation. We hypothesised that delaying the transition from a high milk diet to an exclusively solid food diet (weaning) would lessen the severity of changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome during this transition. β-diversity of ruminal and faecal microbiota shifted rapidly in early-weaned calves (6 weeks), whereas, a more gradual shift was observed in late-weaned calves (8 weeks) up to weaning. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant ruminal phyla in pre- and post-weaned calves, respectively. Yet, the relative abundance of these phyla remained stable in faeces (P ≥ 0.391). Inferred gene families assigned to KEGG pathways revealed an increase in ruminal carbohydrate metabolism (P ≤ 0.009) at 9, compared to 5 weeks. Conversely, carbohydrate metabolism in faeces declined (P ≤ 0.002) following a change in weaning status (i.e., the shift from pre- to post-weaning). Our results indicate weaning later facilitates a more gradual shift in microbiota and could potentially explain the negative effects of early-weaning associated with feeding a high-plane of pre-weaning nutrition.

  6. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Werner; Miyoshi, Takanori

    2016-07-01

    The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) launched the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) in 2010 within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, based on relevant recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III). The activities of HSTI are characterized by the following "Three Pillars": International Cooperation, Outreach, and Capacity-building. For International Cooperation, OOSA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) jointly launched a new programme entitled "KiboCUBE". KiboCUBE aims to provide educational or research institutions located in developing countries with opportunities to deploy cube satellites of their own design and manufacture from Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The Announcement of Opportunity was released on 8 September 2015 and the selected institution is to be announced by 1 August 2016. OOSA is also collaborating with WHO and with the COPUOS Expert Group on Space and Global Health to promote space technologies and ground- and space-based research activities that can contribute to improving global health. For Outreach, OOSA and the government of Costa Rica are jointly organising the United Nations/Costa Rica Workshop on Human Space Technology from 7 to 11 March 2016. Participants will exchange information on achievements in human space programmes and discuss how to promote international cooperation by further facilitating the participation of developing countries in human space exploration-related activities. Also, it will address the role of space industries in human space exploration and its related activities, considering that they have become significant stakeholders in this field. For Capacity-building, OOSA has been carrying out two activities: the Zero-Gravity Instrument Project (ZGIP) and the Drop Tower Experiment Series (DropTES). In ZGIP, OOSA has annually distributed

  7. United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Mika; Niu, Aimin; Steffens, Heike; Balogh, Werner; Haubold, Hans; Othman, Mazlan; Doi, Takao

    2014-11-01

    The Human Space Technology Initiative was launched in 2010 within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations. It aims to involve more countries in activities related to human spaceflight and space exploration and to increase the benefits from the outcome of such activities through international cooperation, to make space exploration a truly international effort. The role of the Initiative in these efforts is to provide a platform to exchange information, foster collaboration between partners from spacefaring and non-spacefaring countries, and encourage emerging and developing countries to take part in space research and benefit from space applications. The Initiative organizes expert meetings and workshops annually to raise awareness of the current status of space exploration activities as well as of the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications. The Initiative is also carrying out primary science activities including the Zero-Gravity Instrument Project and the Drop Tower Experiment Series aimed at promoting capacity-building activities in microgravity science and education, particularly in developing countries.

  8. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design and und...... and understanding of audio-based mobile systems are evolving to offer new perspectives on interaction and design and support such systems to be applied in areas, such as the humanities.......Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...

  9. Technology innovation, human resources and dysfunctional integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Arne Stjernholm; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2005-01-01

    The case included in this paper is based on a real life case in Ericsson Denmark. The innovation project is described from its start in summer 1997 to the end of 2001. This is a unique case study in more than one respect. The first author has collected the data and written all the logbooks during...... (Internet technology), which transcends the traditional business of the company in question. It illustrates what goes wrong when innovative human resources do not succeed in becoming integrated into the rest of the host organization and therefore may become trapped by their own passion in a position as self...

  10. Evaluation of Weaning Stress in Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Chelsea E

    2011-01-01

    Conventional techniques within the beef cattle industry involve weaning the calf from the dam when the calf is about 205 days of age. Weaning induces a stress-response that is implicated in reducing the health and productivity of newly weaned calves. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of weaning on the stress immune responses of beef calves. To that end, we 1) evaluated novel methods to quantify physiological markers of stress, 2) compared immune function and growth of calves grazing legum...

  11. Distance education: the humanization of technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Rodrigues Ferreira, Orlando

    2015-08-01

    The Distance Education [DE] presents significant growth in graduates and postgraduates programs. Regarding this fact, new challenges arise and others must be considered, as the generation gap between digital immigrants and digital natives, the establishment of a population increasingly accustomed to Information and Communication Technologies [ICT] and teaching methodologies that should be used and developed. Vygotsky’s model of social interaction related to mediation can and should be used in DE, and concerning historical, social and cultural approaches affecting Brazilian reality, Paulo Freire is still up-to-date, integrating humanization into the use of ICT. This work only proceeds with analyses of these elements, being an excerpt of the master’s dissertation of one of the authors [Ferreira], under the guidance of another [Voelzke].

  12. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in

  13. Loving Machines: Theorizing Human and Sociable-Technology Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Garlock, Glenda

    Today, human and sociable-technology interaction is a contested site of inquiry. Some regard social robots as an innovative medium of communication that offer new avenues for expression, communication, and interaction. Other others question the moral veracity of human-robot relationships, suggesting that such associations risk psychological impoverishment. What seems clear is that the emergence of social robots in everyday life will alter the nature of social interaction, bringing with it a need for new theories to understand the shifting terrain between humans and machines. This work provides a historical context for human and sociable robot interaction. Current research related to human-sociable-technology interaction is considered in relation to arguments that confront a humanist view that confine 'technological things' to the nonhuman side of the human/nonhuman binary relation. Finally, it recommends a theoretical approach for the study of human and sociable-technology interaction that accommodates increasingly personal relations between human and nonhuman technologies.

  14. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robonaut 2 Technologies Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the Robonaut 2 (R2) Technology Project Element within Human Robotic Systems (HRS) is to developed advanced technologies for infusion into the Robonaut 2...

  15. Prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in post-weaned dairy calves in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2004-07-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained from 3- to 8-month-old post-weaned dairy calves on farms in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. After removal of fecal debris by sieving and density gradient centrifugation, 59 of 452 calves (13%) from 11 farms in six states were found positive for Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Based on gene sequence data this genotype of E. bieneusi found in post-weaned calves was 100% identical to that found in pre-weaned calves in North America and differed by only two positions in 1,069 base pairs from specimens analyzed from humans. However, compared with previous reports, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was significantly higher in post-weaned than in pre-weaned calves from many of the same farms. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  16. Nigerian Dental Technology Students and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology. Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non‑parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package ...

  17. Echocardiographic evaluation during weaning from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Medianeira Schifelbain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables can change during weaning from mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To analyze changes in cardiac function, using Doppler echocardiogram, in critical patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation, using two different weaning methods: pressure support ventilation and T-tube; and comparing patient subgroups: success vs. failure in weaning. METHODS: Randomized crossover clinical trial including patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h and considered ready for weaning. Cardiorespiratory variables, oxygenation, electrocardiogram and Doppler echocardiogram findings were analyzed at baseline and after 30 min in pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Pressure support ventilation vs. T-tube and weaning success vs. failure were compared using ANOVA and Student's t-test. The level of significance was p<0.05. RESULTS: Twenty-four adult patients were evaluated. Seven patients failed at the first weaning attempt. No echocardiographic or electrocardiographic differences were observed between pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Weaning failure patients presented increases in left atrium, intraventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness and diameter of left ventricle and shorter isovolumetric relaxation time. Successfully weaned patients had higher levels of oxygenation. CONCLUSION: No differences were observed between Doppler echocardiographic variables and electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables during pressure support ventilation and T-tube. However cardiac structures were smaller, isovolumetric relaxation time was larger, and oxygenation level was greater in successfully weaned patients

  18. Cyborg intentionality : rethinking the phenomenology of human- technology relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the types of intentionality involved in human-technology relations. It aims to augment Don Ihde's analysis of the relations between human beings and technological artifacts, by analyzing a number of concrete examples at the limits of Ihde's analysis. The article

  19. Characteristics and modalities of changes in Human Technology Relationship models

    OpenAIRE

    ADELE, Sonia; Brangier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Technology adoption research has distinguished several models of human-technology relationships such as resistance or rejection, acceptance (Davis, 1985) and technosymbiosis (Licklider, 1960; Brangier & Hammes, 2006, 2007, 2011), the latter considers human-technology relationships through the ideas of co-evolution, capabilities extension and mutual dependence. This paper aims to show that those models are not stable over time; people change their model or transform it. With questionnaires com...

  20. Change in Human Technology's Publisher: Continued Focus on Open Access Human–Technology Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pasi,

    2016-01-01

    Beginning January 1, 2017, the role of publisher of the journal Human Technology will be moved from the Agora Center to the Open Science Center at the University of Jyvaskyla because of internal university restructuring. Day-to-day operations and ongoing open access will continue for Human Technology's without interruption.

  1. Change in Human Technology's Publisher: Continued focus on open access human–technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Beginning January 1, 2017, the role of publisher of the journal Human Technology will be moved from the Agora Center to the Open Science Center at the University of Jyvaskyla because of internal university restructuring. Day-to-day operations and ongoing open access will continue for Human Technology's without interruption.

  2. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  3. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Rover Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In FY15, the HRS Rover Technologies will begin design of a prototype rover designed for the lunar surface, begin development of resource efficient navigation...

  4. Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology: The Blurring Boundaries Between Human and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The currently developing fields of Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology bring about a convergence of information technology and cognitive science. Smart environments that are able to respond intelligently to what we do and that even aim to influence our behaviour challenge the basic frameworks we commonly use for understanding the relations and role divisions between human beings and technological artifacts. After discussing the promises and threats of these technologies, this artic...

  5. Inter-individual variation in weaning among rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): Serum stable isotope indicators of suckling duration and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J; Partrick, Katherine A; Muir, Andrew B

    2016-10-01

    Weaning is a transition in early development with major implications for infant survival and well-being, and for maternal lifetime reproductive success. The particular strategy a primate mother adopts in rearing her offspring represents a negotiation between her ability to invest and her need to invest, and can be considered adaptive and influenced by biological and social factors. Any investigation into how and why maternal weaning strategies differ among non-human primates is limited by the precision of the measurement tool used to assess infants' weaning ages. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of soft tissues (e.g., hair, nails, feces, urine, blood) offers an objective means of monitoring the weaning status of infants. In this study, we assess stable isotope ratios in blood serum from 14 captive rhesus macaque dyads (Macaca mulatta) at infant ages 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 months to estimate the timing of weaning events. Male infants wean earlier than female infants. Infants with the lowest birth weights wean latest. Most infants wean upon reaching 2.5 times their birth weights, sooner than when weaning elsewhere has been predicted for captive cercopithecine primates. The longest weaning periods (ca. 10 months) are observed among infants of small mothers. The shortest weaning period, between 2 and 5 months, was among the lowest ranking dyad. Parity and mothers' ages had no discernible effect on the timing of weaning events. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of dams during lactation are significantly different than those of a non-lactating adult female outgroup, raising questions about the suitability and selection of adult comparative baselines in studies where lactating mothers cannot be sampled longitudinally (e.g., bioarchaeology; paleontology). Am. J. Primatol. 78:1113-1134, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Integrating From the Nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M.C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov; Bainbridge, W.S. [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2002-08-15

    In the early decades of the twenty-first century, concentrated efforts can unify science based on the unity of nature, thereby advancing the combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new humane technologies based in cognitive science. Converging technologies integrated from the nanoscale could determine a tremendous improvement in human abilities and societal outcomes. This is a broad, cross cutting, emerging, and timely opportunity of interest to individuals, society, and humanity in the long term.About eighty scientific leaders, industry experts, and policy makers across a range of fields have contributed to develop a vision for the potential to improve human physical, mental, and social capabilities through the convergence of the four technologies. Six major themes have emerged: (a) The broad potential of converging technologies; (b) Expanding human cognition and communication; (c) Improving human health and physical capabilities; (d) Enhancing group and societal outcomes; (e) National security, and (f) Unifying science and education. This article summarizes the observations, conclusions, and recommendations made in the report (Roco and Bainbridge, eds., 2002. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, NSF-DOC Report, June 2002, Arlington VA, USA)

  7. Problems of information technologies integration into humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana F. Milova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author considers main transformations impacted by information technologies in humanitarian researches, discourse and education. Net resources, штащкьфешщт exchange, hypertext and interactive learn means are focused as key integration points.

  8. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design and und...

  9. An Assault on Poverty: Basic Human Needs, Science, and Technology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Does science and technology (S&T) truly have a part to play in meeting basic human needs? Can S&T help the world's communities secure adequate nutrition, health care, water, sanitary facilities, and access to education and information?

  10. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  11. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI)

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Niu, A; Haubold, H; Balogh, W; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    The Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) has been launched under the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications with its aims of promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among United Nations Member States on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. The International Space Station (ISS), being operational with a permanent crew of six (6), is an unprecedented facility for research on science and technology and can be regarded as one of the greatest resources for humankind to explore space. The HSTI seeks to promote human space technology and to expand ISS utilization. This report describes the background, objectives, and current three-year work plan of HSTI which is composed of organizing expert meetings, seminars, and workshops as well as building capacity by distributing educational materials and zero-gravity experimen...

  12. Weaning - a challenge to gut physiologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalles, J.P.; Bosi, P.; Smidt, H.; Stokes, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the most relevant findings obtained over the last four years on the physiology, microbiology and immunology of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs as influenced by weaning and nutrition in the post-weaning period through the action of feed components or alternative

  13. Center for development technology and program in technology and human affairs. [emphasizing technology-based networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The role of technology in nontraditional higher education with particular emphasis on technology-based networks is analyzed nontraditional programs, institutions, and consortia are briefly reviewed. Nontraditional programs which utilize technology are studied. Technology-based networks are surveyed and analyzed with regard to kinds of students, learning locations, technology utilization, interinstitutional relationships, cost aspects, problems, and future outlook.

  14. Initial Model of Social Acceptability for Human Augmentation Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eghtebas, Chloe; Pay, Yun Suen; Väänänen, Kaisa; Pfeiffer, Ties; Meyer, Joachim; Lukosch, S.G.

    2017-01-01

    Academia and industry engage in major efforts to develop technologies for augmenting human senses and activities. Many of these technologies, such as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) head mounted displays (HMD), haptic augmentation systems, and exoskeletons can be applied in numerous

  15. Digital technology and human development: A charter for nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffey, G.; Homans, H.; Banks, K.; Arts, K.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The application of digital technology in conservation holds much potential for advancing the understanding of, and facilitating interaction with, the natural world. In other sectors, digital technology has long been used to engage communities and share information. Human development—which holds

  16. Being human in a global age of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Beverly J B

    2016-01-01

    This philosophical enquiry considers the impact of a global world view and technology on the meaning of being human. The global vision increases our awareness of the common bond between all humans, while technology tends to separate us from an understanding of ourselves as human persons. We review some advances in connecting as community within our world, and many examples of technological changes. This review is not exhaustive. The focus is to understand enough changes to think through the possibility of healthcare professionals becoming cyborgs, human-machine units that are subsequently neither human and nor machine. It is seen that human technology interfaces are a different way of interacting but do not change what it is to be human in our rational capacities of providing meaningful speech and freely chosen actions. In the highly technical environment of the ICU, expert nurses work in harmony with both the technical equipment and the patient. We used Heidegger to consider the nature of equipment, and Descartes to explore unique human capacities. Aristotle, Wallace, Sokolowski, and Clarke provide a summary of humanity as substantial and relational. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Information Technology: A challenge to the Human Factors Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    In his presidential address at the annual meeting of the Human Factors Society, Julian Christensen urged the members of the society to spread the gospel and to persuade the members of other professional societies such as psychologists,sociologists and engineers to join the Human Factors Society......, the argument being that advanced technology requires a cross-disciplinary approach to human factors problems. In the present note, I would like to support this presidential effort. In fact, I will go further in that direction and argue that the present fast pace of information technology threatens to overrun...... the methodological capability of the human factors profession. In the following sections, I will briefly review this development, as I see it, and outline the approach to human factors problems needed in advanced technological systems....

  18. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: INFORMATION CHALLENGES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is discussed the role of technology development, especially in connection with social transformation and transition of humanity to the era of information/knowledge, analyzed the trend accelerating technological change and its relation to civil and military changes in society. It is emphasized the fundamental novelty of the information age, namely the transition of mankind from the production of material products mainly to intangible (information, knowledge, human cognitive processes. It is emphasized that ICT gain not only growing importance, but become a driving force of human civilization. The basic features of education in the information age, including ICT educational purpose out technology for distance education are described.

  19. Technological advances for interrogating the human kinome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharani, Akanksha; Trost, Brett; Kusalik, Anthony; Napper, Scott

    2017-02-08

    There is increasing appreciation among researchers and clinicians of the value of investigating biology and pathobiology at the level of cellular kinase (kinome) activity. Kinome analysis provides valuable opportunity to gain insights into complex biology (including disease pathology), identify biomarkers of critical phenotypes (including disease prognosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy), and identify targets for therapeutic intervention through kinase inhibitors. The growing interest in kinome analysis has fueled efforts to develop and optimize technologies that enable characterization of phosphorylation-mediated signaling events in a cost-effective, high-throughput manner. In this review, we highlight recent advances to the central technologies currently available for kinome profiling and offer our perspectives on the key challenges remaining to be addressed. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Naturalizing language: human appraisal and (quasi) technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    interactivity. This species-specific form of sense-making sustains, among other things, using texts, making/construing phonetic gestures and thinking. Human action is thus grounded in appraisals or sense-saturated coordination. To illustrate interactivity at work, the paper focuses on a case study. Over 11 s......, a crime scene investigator infers that she is probably dealing with an inside job: she uses not words, but intelligent gaze. This connects professional expertise to circumstances and the feeling of thinking. It is suggested that, as for other species, human appraisal is based in synergies. However, since...

  1. Colloquium: Digital Technologies--Help or Hindrance for the Humanities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Elton; Bissell, Chris; Hardwick, Lorna; Jones, Allan; Ridge, Mia; Wolffe, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers reflections arising from a recent colloquium at the Open University on the implications of the development of digital humanities for research in arts disciplines, and also for their interactions with computing and technology. Particular issues explored include the ways in which the digital turn in humanities research is also a…

  2. Learning from History: Chronicling the Emergence of Human Performance Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Defines human performance technology (HPT) as systems thinking applied to human resource activities, chronicles the emergence of HPT and the development of the HPT process model, and considers its use to define and implement high-performance work systems in information age organizations. (Author/LRW)

  3. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Human Performance Technology Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelu, Ramaswamy N.

    2010-01-01

    Human Performance Technology (HPT) is a field of practice that has evolved from advancements in organizational development, instructional design, strategic human resource management and cognitive psychology. As globalization and trends like outsourcing and off-shoring start to dominate the way organizations grow, HPT practitioners are managing the…

  4. Digital technology and human development: a charter for nature conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffey, Georgina; Homans, Hilary; Banks, Ken; Arts, Koen

    2015-11-01

    The application of digital technology in conservation holds much potential for advancing the understanding of, and facilitating interaction with, the natural world. In other sectors, digital technology has long been used to engage communities and share information. Human development-which holds parallels with the nature conservation sector-has seen a proliferation of innovation in technological development. Throughout this Perspective, we consider what nature conservation can learn from the introduction of digital technology in human development. From this, we derive a charter to be used before and throughout project development, in order to help reduce replication and failure of digital innovation in nature conservation projects. We argue that the proposed charter will promote collaboration with the development of digital tools and ensure that nature conservation projects progress appropriately with the development of new digital technologies.

  5. Technology for human self-sufficiency in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed Pathfinder program would determine the critical human and technology requirements for human self-sufficiency and productivity on manned and long-duration missions to the moon and Mars. Human health would require countermeasures against weightlessness, protection from space radiation and habitats conducive to psychological well-being. Life support systems would need regeneration of expendable resources, power systems for plant life support and processing; and microbial contaminant control. Operational performance requirements include extravehicular activities suit, interactive systems for shared control between humans and computers, and human-centered semi-autonomous systems.

  6. Critical Technology Determination for Future Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Vangen, Scott D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Stecklein, Jonette M.; Rahman, Shamim A.; Rosenthal, Matthew E.; Hornyak, David M.; Alexander, Leslie; Korsmeyer, David J.; Tu, Eugene L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepares to extend human presence throughout the solar system, technical capabilities must be developed to enable long duration flights to destinations such as near Earth asteroids, Mars, and extended stays on the Moon. As part of the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team, a Technology Development Assessment Team has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support this broad range of missions. Dialog between mission planners, vehicle developers, and technologists was used to identify a minimum but sufficient set of technologies, noting that needs are created by specific mission architecture requirements, yet specific designs are enabled by technologies. Further consideration was given to the re-use of underlying technologies to cover multiple missions to effectively use scarce resources. This suite of critical technologies is expected to provide the needed base capability to enable a variety of possible destinations and missions. This paper describes the methodology used to provide an architecture-driven technology development assessment ("technology pull"), including technology advancement needs identified by trade studies encompassing a spectrum of flight elements and destination design reference missions.

  7. Alternative Control Technologies: Human Factors Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    the late 60’s and has been installed in a variety of Theta angle (angle of fan bea when onedo hle intersecting Tea angle)_. Surveyin Fingure 2...7-11 24. Sutter, E.E., "The Visual Evoked Response as a Communication Channel", in "Proceedings: IEEE Symposium on Biosensors ", IEEE, 1984, pp 95-100...interactive communication", IBM Hursley Human Symposium on Biosensors ", IEEE, 1984, pp 95-100. Factors Laboratory Report, 1983. Taheri, B., Smith, R.L

  8. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  9. CONTEMPORARY DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIONS IN HUMAN INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riabtseva, N.K.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New digital technologies not only “change language” (David Cristal, but also “upgrade” human intelligence making it perform new and uncommon operations. The present paper is an analysis and a survey of most prominent innovations in human intelligence, which are instigated by the latest digital information technologies. These innovations include, according to the point of view of outstanding specialists in contemporary digital technologies, such operations as multitasking, serendipity, connectivity, hypermodality, visuality, and cybersemiotic convergence of objective and virtual reality. The paper is based on the data presented in the publications of such outstanding “digital” specialists as Larry Rosen, Jay David Bolter, Steven Downes, Jay Lemke, Gunther Kress, Soren Brier, etc. In their works they particularly stress the impact of digital technologies and internet communication on all spheres of human activities, their role in the inner psychological and mental states, in professional and educational domain, as well as the importance of their investigation and a gap between the intensive development of digital technologies and their insufficient usage in scientific, didactic, social and cultural life. Special attention in the paper focuses on the tendency towards visualization in the global information flows and its role in information processing and knowledge transfer. The paper particularly stresses the fact that the impact of contemporary digital technologies on all spheres of human activities, including the intellectual one, needs further and profound investigation.

  10. Technology Investment Agendas to Expand Human Space Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The paper develops four alternative core-technology advancement specifications, one for each of the four strategic goal options for government investment in human space flight. Already discussed in the literature, these are: Explore Mars; Settle the Moon; accelerate commercial development of Space Passenger Travel; and enable industrial scale-up of Space Solar Power for Earth. In the case of the Explore Mars goal, the paper starts with the contemporary NASA accounting of ?55 Mars-enabling technologies. The analysis decomposes that technology agenda into technologies applicable only to the Explore Mars goal, versus those applicable more broadly to the other three options. Salient technology needs of all four options are then elaborated to a comparable level of detail. The comparison differentiates how technologies or major developments that may seem the same at the level of budget lines or headlines (e.g., heavy-lift Earth launch) would in fact diverge widely if developed in the service of one or another of the HSF goals. The paper concludes that the explicit choice of human space flight goal matters greatly; an expensive portfolio of challenging technologies would not only enable a particular option, it would foreclose the others. Technologies essential to enable human exploration of Mars cannot prepare interchangeably for alternative futures; they would not allow us to choose later to Settle the Moon, unleash robust growth of Space Passenger Travel industries, or help the transition to a post-petroleum future with Space Solar Power for Earth. The paper concludes that a decades-long decision in the U.S.--whether made consciously or by default--to focus technology investment toward achieving human exploration of Mars someday would effectively preclude the alternative goals in our lifetime.

  11. [New technologies for the human genome exploration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, B; Schluth-Bolard, C; Egea, G; Sanlaville, D

    2010-11-01

    Human genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes, bearing our genetic information. Basically, there are two main approaches to analyse our genome: molecular genetics with direct sequencing, which detects genic mutations, and cytogenetics with the karyotype, which detects number and structural chromosomal anomalies. The main limitation of the karyotype is its level of resolution: it cannot detect abnormalities smaller than five megabases. The combined use of cytogenetics and molecular genetics has allowed the development of several new techniques that provide a comprehensive analysis of the genome with a very high level of resolution. Currently, the most efficient of those techniques is comparative genomic hybridization on microarray (array CGH), which already has diagnostic applications. However, those new methods are challenging to interpret and they raise ethical problems. Therefore they must be cautiously supervised. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Technology Completely Replace Human Interaction in Class?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alonso Gómez Carrillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are so many different and surprising possibilities of applications for ICT ́s in the educational field, that there is a belief that one day ICT will be able to replace the teacher, and in general terms, the man, in any field or human activity. Is it possible that technology will replace the teacher in the pedagogical work? Can technology replace the man himself?

  13. Decisional responsibility for mechanical ventilation and weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Louise; Blackwood, Bronagh; Egerod, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Optimal management of mechanical ventilation and weaning requires dynamic and collaborative decision making to minimize complications and avoid delays in the transition to extubation. In the absence of collaboration, ventilation decision making may be fragmented, inconsistent, and delayed. Our ob...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of an immunomodulating dose of levamisole in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suran, Jelena; Flajs, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Speranda, Marcela; Božić, Frane

    2013-09-01

    Levamisole has been shown to stimulate the immune response in immunocompromised humans and animals. However, its use as an adjuvant in immunocompromised weaned pigs prone to colibacillosis has only been experimentally tested but not yet officially approved. Therefore, the aim of these studies was to study the pharmacokinetics (PK) of an immunomodulating dose of levamisole in weaned pigs. For that purpose, 20 weaned crossbred pigs were divided into two treatment groups. In this parallel-design study, a single dose of levamisole (2.5 mg/kg body weight) was administered by the intramuscular (i.m.) or oral (p.o.) route. Statistically significant differences between the i.m. and p.o. routes in terminal beta rate constant (β), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC) for plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-inf), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last quantifiable time point (AUC0-t) were determined. Further research is needed to establish a relationship between the PK and the immunomodulating effect of levamisole in pigs.

  15. HEIDEGGER’S HUMAN DIMENSION UNDERSTANDING OF TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uliana R. Vynnyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to identify M. Heidegger's human dimension approach to the issue of technology .It is achieved by means of applying methods of analysis and synthesis in relation to philosopher’s philosophical and technical ideas. Scientific novelty. Philosopher’s important human dimension trends concerning technology are outlined in the research and are manifested in the concern for individuals to keep their humanity and dignity and make for the freedom eliminating everything that may adversely affect their essence.(немного поменяла слова и их порядок The term "individual measurability" involves a process of spiritual and intellectual development of a man and, in this context, through his development and humanity one should evaluate everything created by him; technical, social progress should be seen primarily from the point of view of a free man, humane, rationally and existentially independent from the artificially created world, who is able to play an advanced role in the process of his own development, social progress and technology. Techniques and technologies, in their turn, should progress, based primarily on human needs. Individuals, coexisting with technical means should take everything that is good for them and simultaneously use them for their spiritual and personal development. Conclusion. Having occupied a special position in relation to the tradition of European criticism, the philosopher considered technology, its essence and specificity, as well as features of technical activities in different historical periods to be a subject of a positive philosophical analysis. Heidegger broke with the tradition of European philosophy of technology, which focused its attention on the direct, "obvious" achievements of progress, having showed that the effects of intrusion of technology are diverse and difficult to be predicted in the long run. Technological dependence is hardly fatal to humans in the

  16. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  17. Digital dance: (dis)entangling human and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gündüz, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis extrapolates from three exemplary practices of staged digital dance created with real-time interactive technology operating with motion-tracking software, to consider theoretically such practices’ destabilization of human-centered conventions in dance. Dance’s assumed heritage of

  18. Designer Babies? Teacher Views on Gene Technology and Human Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, Renato

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the views of a sample of primary and high school teachers on the application of gene technology to human medicine. In general, high school teachers are more positive about these developments than primary teachers, and both groups of teachers are more positive than interested lay publics. Highlights ways in which this topic can be…

  19. Application of Data Collection Techniques by Human Performance Technology Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Minjing

    2011-01-01

    By content-analyzing 22 published cases from a variety of professional and academic books and journals, this study examines the status quo of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners' application of five major data collection techniques in their everyday work: questionnaire, interview, focus group, observation, and document collection. The…

  20. Shifting Human Resources in South Korean Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyaeweol

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the changing status of South Korea in the world economy has affected the movement of Korean human resources in science and technology. Examines trends in overseas study by Korean graduate students, the migration of highly educated personnel, and the recent repatriation of Korean scientists and engineers. (SV)

  1. Human Exploration Missions - Maturing Technologies to Sustain Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Chiaki; Koch, Bernhard; Reese, Terrence G.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will be long duration with abort scenarios of days to months. Providing crews with the essentials of life such as clean air and potable water means recycling human metabolic wastes back to useful products. Individual technologies are under development for such things as CO2 scrubbing, recovery of O2 from CO2, turning waste water into potable water, and so on. But in order to fully evaluate and mature technologies fully they must be tested in a relevant, high-functionality environment; a systems environment where technologies are challenged with real human metabolic wastes. It is for this purpose that an integrated systems ground testing capability at the Johnson Space Center is being readied for testing. The relevant environment will include deep space habitat human accommodations, sealed atmosphere of 8 psi total pressure and 32% oxygen concentration, life support systems (food, air, water), communications, crew accommodations, medical, EVA, tools, etc. Testing periods will approximate those of the expected missions (such as a near Earth asteroid, Earth ]Moon L2 or L1, the moon, and Mars). This type of integrated testing is needed not only for research and technology development but later during the mission design, development, test, and evaluation phases of preparing for the mission.

  2. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  3. Animation, embodiment, and digital media human experience of technological liveliness

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, K

    2013-01-01

    Animation, Embodiment and Digital Media articulates the human experience of technology-mediated animated phenomena in terms of sensory perception, bodily action and imaginative interpretation, suggesting a new theoretical framework with analyses of exemplary user interfaces, video games and interactive artworks.

  4. Editorial: Technology for higher education, adult learning and human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhong Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to technology-enabled approaches for improving higher education, adult learning, and human performance. Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals, institutions, and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages. It becomes crucial to help adult learners and knowledge workers to improve their self-directed and life-long learning capabilities. Meanwhile, advances in technology have been increasingly enabling and facilitating learning and knowledge-related initiatives.. They have largely extended learning opportunities through the provision of resource-rich and learner-centered environment, computer-based learning support, and expanded social interactions and networks. Papers in this special issue are representative of ongoing research on integration of technology with learning for innovation and sustainable development in higher education institutions and organizational and community environments.

  5. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Science Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, A; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has been conducting various scientific activities to promote microgravity education and research. The primary science activity is called 'Zero-gravity Instrument Distribution Project', in which one-axis clinostats will be distributed worldwide. The distribution project will provide unique opportunities for students and researchers to observe the growth of indigenous plants in their countries in a simulated microgravity condition and is expected to create a huge dataset of plant species with their responses to gravity.

  6. Human walking in virtual environments perception, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Visell, Yon; Campos, Jennifer; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a survey of past and recent developments on human walking in virtual environments with an emphasis on human self-motion perception, the multisensory nature of experiences of walking, conceptual design approaches, current technologies, and applications. The use of virtual reality and movement simulation systems is becoming increasingly popular and more accessible to a wide variety of research fields and applications. While, in the past, simulation technologies have focused on developing realistic, interactive visual environments, it is becoming increasingly obvious that our everyday interactions are highly multisensory. Therefore, investigators are beginning to understand the critical importance of developing and validating locomotor interfaces that can allow for realistic, natural behaviours. The book aims to present an overview of what is currently understood about human perception and performance when moving in virtual environments and to situate it relative to the broader scientific and ...

  7. Genome editing: a robust technology for human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Pandian; Song, Minjung; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells comprise induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells, which have tremendous potential for biological and therapeutic applications. The development of efficient technologies for the targeted genome alteration of stem cells in disease models is a prerequisite for utilizing stem cells to their full potential. Genome editing of stem cells is possible with the help of synthetic nucleases that facilitate site-specific modification of a gene of interest. Recent advances in genome editing techniques have improved the efficiency and speed of the development of stem cells for human disease models. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system are powerful tools for editing DNA at specific loci. Here, we discuss recent technological advances in genome editing with site-specific nucleases in human stem cells.

  8. Can donepezil facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation in difficult to wean patients? An interventional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Saeed; Farsaei, Shadi; Fazel, Kamran; Golzari, Samad Ej; Mahmoodpoor, Ata

    2015-03-01

    Management of difficult to wean patients is a dilemma for health care system. Recently published studies demonstrated efficacy of donepezil to counteract respiratory depression in sleep apnea. However, to the best of our knowledge, pharmaceutical interventions with donepezil to facilitate weaning have not been tested so far. Therefore in the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of using donepezil on weaning course in difficult to wean patients. In this non-randomized interventional clinical study, difficult to wean patients with prior inappropriately depressed respiratory responses were included from two referral intensive care units (ICU) in Iran. Patients with another potentially reasons of weaning failure were excluded from the study. Donepezil was started for eligible patients at dose of 10 mg daily for 2-4 weeks. For the primary outcomes, arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters were also measured before and after intervention to evaluate the possible effects of donepezil on them. In addition, weaning outcomes of patients were reported as final outcome in response to this intervention. Twelve out of 16 studied patients experienced successful results to facilitate weaning with donepezil intervention. The mean duration of donepezil treatment until outcome measurement was 12 days. There were not any significant differences in ABG parameters among patients with successful and failed weaning trial on day of donepezil initiation. However after donepezil intervention, mean of PCO2 and HCO3 decreased in patients with successful weaning trial and mean of PCO2 increased in those with weaning failure. Reduced central respiratory drive was infrequently reason of failed weaning attempts but it must be considered especially in patients with hypercapnia secondary to inefficient gas exchange and slow breathing. Our results in the clinical setting suggest that, the use of donepezil can expedite weaning presumably by stimulation of respiratory center and obviate the need to re

  9. Technological Advances, Human Performance, and the Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Jonathan K.

    Many unfortunate and unintended adverse industrial incidents occur across the United States each year, and the nuclear industry is no exception. Depending on their severity, these incidents can be problematic for people, the facilities, and surrounding environments. Human error is a contributing factor in many such incidents. This dissertation first explored the hypothesis that technological changes that affect how operators interact within the systems of the nuclear facilities exacerbate the cost of incidents caused by human error. I conducted a review of nuclear incidents in the United States from 1955 through 2010 that reached Level 3 (serious incident) or higher on the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES). The cost of each incident at facilities that had recently undergone technological changes affecting plant operators' jobs was compared to the cost of events at facilities that had not undergone changes. A t-test determined a statistically significant difference between the two groups, confirming the hypothesis. Next, I conducted a follow-on study to determine the impact of the incorporation of new technologies into nuclear facilities. The data indicated that spending more money on upgrades increased the facility's capacity as well as the number of incidents reported, but the incident severity was minor. Finally, I discuss the impact of human error on plant operations and the impact of evolving technology on the 21st-century operator, proposing a methodology to overcome these challenges by applying the systems engineering process.

  10. From Darwinian to technological evolution: forgetting the human lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The GRIN technologies (-geno, -robo, -info, -nano) promise to change the inner constitution of human body and its own existence. This transformation involves the structure of our lives and represent a brave new world that we have to explore and to manage. In this sense, the traditional tools of humanism seems very inadequate to think the biotech century and there is a strong demand of a new thought for the evolution and the concrete history of life. The posthuman philosophy tries to take this new path of human existence in all of its novelty since GRIN technologies seem to promise new and unexpected paths of evolution to living beings and, above all, man. For this, the post-human thought, as we see, is a new anthropological overview on the concrete evolution of human being, an overview that involves an epistemological revolution of the categories that humanism uses to conceptualize the journey that divides the Homo sapiens from the man. But, is this right?

  11. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  12. Technology audit: the state of human language technologies (HLT) R&D in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grover, AS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa (SA) epitomises diversity, with the nation boasting eleven official languages. The field of human language technology (HLT) can play a vital role in bridging the digital divide and thus has been recognised as a priority area...

  13. Effect of pre-weaning feeding regimens on post-weaning growth performance of Sahiwal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, S A; Ali, A; Nawaz, H; McGill, D; Sarwar, M; Afzal, M; Khan, M S; Ehsanullah; Amer, M A; Bush, R; Wynn, P C; Warriach, H M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the post-weaning growth response of Sahiwal calves reared on four different pre-weaning dietary regimens. The four diets were: (a) whole cow's milk, starter ration (SR; CP = 20%, total digestible nutrients (TDN) = 72%) and Berseem hay (H; Egyptian clover; CP = 21%, TDN = 63%); (b) whole cow's milk + H; (c) milk replacer (MR; reconstituted to supplier specification; Sprayfo®) + SR + H; and (d) MR + H. The protein and fat percentages of reconstituted MR were 2.22 and 1.84, respectively. Milk or MR were fed at the rate of 10% of the calves' body weight (BW) until 56 days of age, and then withdrawn gradually until weaned completely by 84 days of age. The average initial BW of calves in groups A, B, C and D were 56.3 ± 1.0, 47.5 ± 1.0, 40.4 ± 1.0 and 30.3 ± 1.0 kg, respectively. Initially, there were 12 calves in each group with six of each sex; however, one male calf died from each of groups B and C and were not replaced. During the post-weaning period, 13 to 24 weeks, the calves were fed a single total mixed ration ad libitum based on maize, canola meal, wheat straw and molasses containing 16% CP and 70% TDN. Daily feed intake and weekly BW gains were recorded. The data were analyzed by MIXED model analysis procedures using the statistical program SAS. The intake of calves as percent of their BW, feed conversion ratio and cost per kg of BW gain were not different (P > 0.05) across treatments. The daily gain at 24 weeks of age for the pre-weaning treatments A, B, C and D were 746 ± 33, 660 ± 33, 654 ± 33 and 527 ± 33 g/day and the final liveweights of calves were 119 ± 4.2, 102 ± 4.2, 95 ± 4.2 and 75 ± 4.2 kg, respectively. Gains were influenced significantly (P pre-weaning treatments. The calves fed MR and H only during the pre-weaning period were unable to catch up post weaning with calves on other dietary treatments. The calves fed whole milk from birth at the rate of 10% of liveweight together with concentrates

  14. An impoverished machine: challenges to human learning and instructional technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Roman

    2008-08-01

    Many of the limitations to human learning and processing identified by cognitive psychologists over the last 50 years still hold true, including computational constraints, low learning rates, and unreliable processing. Instructional technology can be used in classrooms and in other learning contexts to address these limitations to learning. However, creating technological innovations is not enough. As part of psychological science, the development and assessment of instructional systems should be guided by theories and practices within the discipline. The technology we develop should become an object of research like other phenomena that are studied. In the present article, I present an informal account of my own work in assessing instructional technology for engineering thermodynamics to show not only the benefits, but also the limitations, in studying the technology we create. I conclude by considering several ways of advancing the development of instructional technology within the SCiP community, including interdisciplinary research and envisioning learning contexts that differ radically from traditional learning focused on lectures and testing.

  15. First Human Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In two previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of the technology in a representative environment with simulated human metabolic loads. The next step in developmental testing at JSC was to replace the simulated humans with real humans; this testing was conducted in the spring of 2008. This first instance of human testing of a new Orion ARS technology included several cases in a sealed Orion-equivalent free volume and three cases using emergency breathing masks connected directly to the ARS loop. Significant test results presented in this paper include comparisons between the standard metabolic rates for CO2 and water vapor production published in Orion requirements documents and real-world rate ranges observed with human test subjects. Also included are qualitative assessments of process flow rate and closed-loop pressure-cycling tolerability while using the emergency masks. Recommendations for modifications to the Orion ARS design and operation, based on the test results, conclude the paper.

  16. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design.

  17. Challenges and Paradoxes of Human Factors in Health Technology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Plinio P; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    Usability testing allows human factors professionals to identify and mitigate issues with the design and use of medical technology. The test results, however, can be paradoxical and therefore be misinterpreted, limiting their usefulness. The paradoxical findings can lead to products that are not aligned with the needs and constraints of their users. We herein report on our observations of the paradox of expertise, the paradox of preference versus performance, and the paradox of choice. Each paradox explored is in the perspective of the design of medical technology, the issues that need to be considered in the interpretation of the test results, as well as suggestions on how to avoid the pitfalls in the design of medical technology. Because these paradoxes can influence product design at various stages of product development, it is important to be aware of the effects to interpret the findings properly.

  18. Toward a Theory for the Design of Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche

    2014-01-01

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. A theory about the pro-cess and practice of design might be important to estab-lish design as a main subject at universities. We believe it is in the interest of many design communities – not least the Partic...... the PD community to engage in collective theory building, and we present a framework intended to support our shared reflections on the design of human technologies....

  19. Weaning triggers a maturation step of pancreatic β cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Enk, Jonatan; Vikesa, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    -stimulated oxidative phosphorylation and insulin secretion from islets. Transcriptome analysis reveals that weaning increases the expression of genes involved in replication licensing, suggesting a mechanism for increased responsiveness to the mitogenic activity of high glucose. We propose that weaning triggers...

  20. A Minimized Technological Approach towards Human Self Sufficiency off Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1970's it has been known that it is technically feasible to build large habitats in space where many people could live, more or less, independently off Earth. These large habitats would require decades of Apollo level expenditures to build. The objective of this paper is to begin the study of the minimum technological system that wi11 enable the historic shift from the state where all of humanity is dependent on Earth to the state where an independent human community can exist off Earth. It is suggested that such a system is more on the order of a homestead than a city. A minimum technical system is described that could support one human reproductive unit (family) in free space or on a planetary or lunar surface. The system consists of life support, materials extraction, mobility, and power production. Once the technology is developed for the single unit, many could be deployed. They could reproduce themselves at an exponential rate using space resources and energy. One would imagine cooperation of these units to build any combination of towns, cities and nations in space to extend human life beyond Earth.

  1. Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Akamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility, driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate, driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment, crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.

  2. and post-weaning performance of lambs on Italian ryegrass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between pre- and post-weaning performance oflambs on Italian ryegrass was investigated by graz- ing tambs at different stocking rates. A positive correlation was found between both the pre-weaning stocking rate. (P = 0.008) and weaning mass (P = 0.001) and the posGweaning average daily gain, where ...

  3. The differential diagnosis for failure to wean from mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduin, J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Heunks, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss the causes for a failed weaning trial and specific diagnostic tests that could be conducted to identify the cause for weaning failure. We briefly highlight treatment strategies that may enhance the chance of weaning success. RECENT FINDINGS: Impaired

  4. Micro-organisms Associated with Locally Available Infant Weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to ascertain the micro-organisms associated with the local cereal-based infant weaning foods in Jos, Nigeria. These weaning foods include fresh cow milk and pap, which is made from different types of cereals. The sampled weaning foods included maize and sugar; maize, sugar and milk; ...

  5. Development of Ruminal and Fecal Microbiomes Are Affected by Weaning But Not Weaning Strategy in Dairy Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Meale, Sarah J.; Li, Shucong; Azevedo, Paula; Derakhshani, Hooman; Plaizier, Jan C.; Khafipour, Ehsan; Steele, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift, and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holste...

  6. Development of ruminal and fecal microbiomes are affected by weaning but not weaning strategy in dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Jade Meale; Shucong eLi; Paula eAzevedo; Hooman eDerakhshani; Plaizier, Jan C.; Ehsan eKhafipour; Michael eSteele

    2016-01-01

    The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holstei...

  7. Recent technology development for the biosynthesis of Human Milk Oligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Chen, Rachel

    2017-05-30

    Human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) is a third most abundant component in breast milk. HMOs are molecules naturally tailored to the need of an infant. They protect infants from diseases, foster healthy gastrointestinal systems, reinforce fledgling immune function, and promote early brain development. Supplementing HMOs to infant formulae, which lack this critical element, would substantially improve the function of formulae. Overwhelming evidences also indicate that HMOs can be used for the treatment of arthritis and related autoimmune disease, and inhibition of bacteria adhesion or as potential prebiotics. The prospect of using HMO in these applications has stimulated worldwide interest in developing synthesis technology for these valuable products. As the quantities extracted from human milk are limited, and chemical synthesis methods are time-consuming, costly, and complex, biotechnological approach, involving either enzyme catalysis or metabolically engineered bacteria is preferred. In this review, we highlight the most recent advances in the synthesis technologies, as disclosed in patents and patent applications, and analyze these technologies against those reported in literatures. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Zachary; Losacco, Joseph; McDevitt, Sophie; Zhang, Zhiwen; Lu, Biao

    2016-03-25

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell-cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, Zachary, E-mail: zstickney@scu.edu; Losacco, Joseph, E-mail: jlosacco@scu.edu; McDevitt, Sophie, E-mail: smmcdevitt@scu.edu; Zhang, Zhiwen, E-mail: zzhang@scu.edu; Lu, Biao, E-mail: blu2@scu.edu

    2016-03-25

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell–cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy.

  10. Neuromuscular dysfunction associated with delayed weaning from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study EMG and sensory–motor nerve conduction study was done. Results: 26% show normal study, 63% showed moderate to severe axonal sensory–motor peripheral neuropathy and 11% showed a picture of myopathy. The study revealed that 33% of the patients with peripheral neuropathy failed weaning ...

  11. IRON BIOAVAILABILITY IN CAMEROON WEANING FOODS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to assess the "in vitro" bioavailability of iron in the main Cameroon traditional complementary foods identified during interviews of one month with 91 mothers of weaning babies of up to 30 months, in order to identify and select good food sources of iron to fight against iron deficiency and iron ...

  12. NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENT OF GHANAIAN WEANING FOODS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CSTC

    2 days). Mill. Blanche in boiling water for 5 minutes. Figure 2: Flowchart for processing the raw orange sweetpotato used in the weaning food formulation ... were served at 40ºC to members of a taste panel consisting of workers at the CSIR-.

  13. Neuromuscular dysfunction associated with delayed weaning from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yehia Khalil

    2012-03-21

    Mar 21, 2012 ... Neuromuscular dysfunction associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory failure. Yehia Khalil a. , Emad El Din Mustafa a. , Ahmed Youssef a. ,. Mohamed Hassan Imam b,. *, Amni Fathy El Behiry a a Department of Chest, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, ...

  14. Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

  15. Human antibody technology and the development of antibodies against cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlin, Mats; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus that causes chronic infections in a large set of the population. It may cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, is linked to immunosenescence and implied to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Modulation of the immune system's abilities to manage the virus represent a highly viable therapeutic option and passive immunotherapy with polyclonal antibody preparations is already in clinical use. Defined monoclonal antibodies offer many advantages over polyclonal antibodies purified from serum. Human CMV-specific monoclonal antibodies have consequently been thoroughly investigated with respect to their potential in the treatment of diseases caused by CMV. Recent advances in human antibody technology have substantially expanded the breadth of antibodies for such applications. This review summarizes the fundamental basis for treating CMV disease by use of antibodies, the basic technologies to be used to develop such antibodies, and relevant human antibody specificities available to target this virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early modern human lithic technology from Jerimalai, East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwick, Ben; Clarkson, Chris; O'Connor, Sue; Collins, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene. Second, the assemblage is dominated by small chert cores and implements rather than pebble tools and choppers, a pattern we argue pattern, we argue, that is common in island SE Asian sites as opposed to mainland SE Asian sites. Third, the Jerimalai assemblage bears a striking resemblance to the assemblage from Liang Bua, argued by the Liang Bua excavation team to be associated with Homo floresiensis. We argue that the near proximity of these two islands along the Indonesian island chain (c.100 km apart), the long antiquity of modern human occupation in the region (as documented at Jerimalai), and the strong resemblance of distinctive flake stone technologies seen at both sites, raises the intriguing possibility that both the Liang Bua and Jerimalai assemblages were created by modern humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Editorial: Technology in higher education and human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhong Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages. It becomes crucial to help adult learners and knowledge workers to improve their self-directed and life-long learning capabilities. Meanwhile, learning in this context has expanded from individual to community and organizational levels with new focuses on externalization of tacit knowledge, creation of new knowledge, retention of knowledge assets for continuous improvement, and cross-cultural communication. To adapt to these changes, technologies have played an increasingly important role in enhancing and transforming learning at individual, community, and organizational levels. Papers in this special issue are representative of ongoing research on integration of technology with learning for innovation and sustainable development in higher education institutions and organizational and community environments.

  18. Technology, expertise and social cognition in human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Dietrich; Passingham, Richard; Frith, Christopher; Apel, Jan; Chaminade, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Paleolithic stone tools provide concrete evidence of major developments in human behavioural and cognitive evolution. Of particular interest are evolving cognitive mechanisms implied by the cultural transmission of increasingly complex prehistoric technologies, hypothetically including motor resonance, causal reasoning and mentalizing. To test the relevance of these mechanisms to specific Paleolithic technologies, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of Naïve, Trained and Expert subjects observing two toolmaking methods of differing complexity and antiquity: the simple 'Oldowan' method documented by the earliest tools 2.5 million years ago; and the more complex 'Acheulean' method used to produce refined tools 0.5 million years ago. Subjects observed 20-s video clips of an expert demonstrator, followed by behavioural tasks designed to maintain attention. Results show that observational understanding of Acheulean toolmaking involves increased demands for the recognition of abstract technological intentions. Across subject groups, Acheulean compared with Oldowan toolmaking was associated with activation of left anterior intraparietal and inferior frontal sulci, indicating the relevance of resonance mechanisms. Between groups, Naïve subjects relied on bottom-up kinematic simulation in the premotor cortex to reconstruct unfamiliar intentions, and Experts employed a combination of familiarity-based sensorimotor matching in the posterior parietal cortex and top-down mentalizing involving the medial prefrontal cortex. While no specific differences between toolmaking technologies were found for Trained subjects, both produced frontal activation relative to Control, suggesting focused engagement with toolmaking stimuli. These findings support motor resonance hypotheses for the evolutionary origins of human social cognition and cumulative culture, directly linking these hypotheses with archaeologically observable behaviours in prehistory. © 2011 The

  19. Managing information technology human resources in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Sathiadev; Crow, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The health care sector has seen a major increase in the use of information technology (IT). The increasing permeation of IT into the enterprise has resulted in many non-IT employees acquiring IT-related skills and becoming an essential part of the IT-enabled enterprise. Health care IT employees work in a continually changing environment dealing with new specializations that are often unfamiliar to other personnel. The widespread use of outsourcing and offshoring in IT has introduced a third layer of complexity in the traditional hierarchy and its approach to managing human resources. This article studies 3 major issues in managing these human resources in an IT-enabled health care enterprise and recommends solutions to the problem.

  20. Human Enhancement Technologies. Verso nuovi modelli antropologici Parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lo Sapio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the important topic of human enhancement and tries to focus the question under a new perspective. The international debate is focused around two main theoretical positions: bio-conservatorism and techno-enthusiasm. We seem to be forced to choose one or another conception in order to understand the relationship between human beings and technology. The first part of the paper analyzes different authors trying to circumscribe the principal features of each one. We can notice two main paradigms which are incapable to rightly understand the phenomenon we are considering. The relieves emerging in the first part will be suitable to prosecute the analysis in the second part of the work.

  1. Gastrointestinal dysfunction induced by early weaning is attenuated by delayed weaning and mast cell blockade in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeser, Adam J; Ryan, Kathleen A; Nighot, Prashant K; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2007-08-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that weaning at 19 days of age has deleterious effects on mucosal barrier function in piglet intestine that are mediated through peripheral CRF receptor signaling pathways. The objectives of the present study were to assess the impact of piglet age on weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and to determine the role that mast cells play in weaning-induced breakdown of mucosal barrier function. Nursing Yorkshire-cross piglets were either weaned at 19 days of age (early-weaned, n = 8) or 28 days of age (late-weaned, n = 8) and housed in nursery pens. Twenty-four hours postweaning, segments of midjejunum and ascending colon from piglets within each weaning age group were harvested and mounted on Ussing chambers for measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance and serosal-to-mucosal [(3)H]mannitol fluxes. Early weaning resulted in reductions in transepithelial electrical resistance and increases in mucosal permeability to [(3)H]mannitol in the jejunum and colon (P piglets weaned at 28 days of age. Early-weaned piglet intestinal mucosa had increased expression of CRF receptor 1 protein, increased mucosal mast cell tryptase levels, and evidence of enhanced mast cell degranulation compared with late-weaned intestinal mucosa. Pretreatment of piglets with the mast cell stabilizer drug cromolyn, injected intraperitoneally 30 min prior to weaning, abolished the early-weaning-induced intestinal barrier disturbances. Our results indicate that early-weaning stress induces mucosal dysfunction mediated by intestinal mast cell activation and can be prevented by delaying weaning.

  2. Neonatal weaning from ventilator: PSV versus SIMV mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeri F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The use of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV and pressure support ventilation (PSV have been used for older children and adults. The purpose of this study was to compare PSV and SIMV modes in weaning from mechanical ventilation in neonate with respiratory failure. "nMethods: A randomized clinical trial study carried out in NICU ward of Valiasr hospital Imam Khomeini Hospital complex, Tehran, Iran. Thirty neonates enrolled in two groups of 15. At the weaning time they randomly assigned to SIMV or PSV. They compared for tidal volume (VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, incidence of pneumothorax, weaning failure and duration of weaning. For two groups to be homogeneous, maternal disease during pregnancy were also considered. "nResults: In this study, VT, PIP, incidence of pneumothorax and weaning failure did not differ between groups; duration of ventilation of the two methods (hours and duration of hospitalization (days were separately calculated. The only meaningful difference in two groups were due to weaning duration. The neonates weaned by PSV mode experienced shorter weaning time. (6.05 hours. The weaning time in SIMV mode was longer (45 hours (P=0.006. There were no other meaningful differences between the two groups "nConclusions: According to the results of this study there were no advantage using PSV over SIMV except that the weaning time were shorter in PSV. This decrease in weaning time causes less dependence of the neonate to the ventilator and as a result secure them from complications.

  3. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: HUMAN AND ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a brief overview of projects initiated by the U.S. National Science Foundation that related to new knowledge on integration and mutual development of social systems is proposed. The projects have a potential for transformation of science and researches, improvement of life quality and economy prosperity, as well as they should ensure outrunning development of information and communication technologies for all spheres of human activity: anthropocentric computerization, integration of information and informatics, robust intelligence, cyber-human systems, as well as two cross-technical areas - human and/or robots interaction, security and information protection.

  4. The Application of NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    With the help of satellites, the Earth's environment can be monitored from a distance. Earth observing satellites and sensors collect data and survey patterns that supply important information about the environment relating to its affect on human health. Combined with ground data, such patterns and remote sensing data can be essential to public health applications. Remote sensing technology is providing information that can help predict factors that affect human health, such as disease, drought, famine, and floods. A number of public health concerns that affect Earth's human population are part of the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Applications Plan to provide remotely gathered data to public health decision-makers to aid in forming and implementing policy to protect human health and preserve well-being. These areas of concern are: air quality; water quality; weather and climate change; infectious, zoonotic, and vector-borne disease; sunshine; food resource security; and health risks associated with the built environment. Collaborations within the Earth Science Applications Plan join local, state, national, or global organizations and agencies as partners. These partnerships engage in projects that strive to understand the connection between the environment and health. The important outcome is to put this understanding to use through enhancement of decision support tools that aid policy and management decisions on environmental health risks. Future plans will further employ developed models in formats that are compatible and accessible to all public health organizations.

  5. Law in Transition Biblioessay: Globalization, Human Rights, Environment, Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As globalization continues, many transformations in international and domestic laws areunderway or called for. There are too many laws and too few, too much law that is inadequateor obsolete, and too much law-breaking. This biblioessay covers some 100 recentbooks, nearly all recently published, arranged in four categories. 1 International Lawincludes six overviews/textbooks on comparative law, laws related to warfare and security,pushback against demands of globalization, and gender perspectives; 2 Human Rightsencompasses general overviews and normative visions, several books on how some statesviolate human rights, five items on how good laws can end poverty and promote prosperity,and laws regulating working conditions and health rights; 3 Environment/Resources coversgrowth of international environmental law, visions of law for a better environmental future,laws to govern genetic resources and increasingly stressed water resources, two books onprospects for climate change liability, and items on toxic hazards and problems of compliance;4 Technology, Etc. identifies eight books on global crime and the failed war on drugs,books on the response to terrorism and guarding privacy and mobility in our high-tech age,seven books on how infotech is changing law and legal processes while raising intellectualproperty questions, biomedical technologies and the law, and general views on the need forupdated laws and constitutions. In sum, this essay suggests the need for deeper and timelyanalysis of the many books on changes in law.

  6. Weaning newborn infants from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Biban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive mechanical ventilation is a life-saving procedure which is largely used in neonatal intensive care units, particularly in very premature newborn infants. However, this essential treatment may increase mortality and cause substantial morbidity, including lung or airway injuries, unplanned extubations, adverse hemodynamic effects, analgosedative dependency and severe infectious complications, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, limiting the duration of airway intubation and mechanical ventilator support is crucial for the neonatologist, who should aim to a shorter process of discontinuing mechanical ventilation as well as an earlier appreciation of readiness for spontaneous breathing trials. Unfortunately, there is scarce information about the best ways to perform an effective weaning process in infants undergoing mechanical ventilation, thus in most cases the weaning course is still based upon the individual judgment of the attending clinician. Nonetheless, some evidence indicate that volume targeted ventilation modes are more effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation than traditional pressure limited ventilation modes, particularly in very preterm babies. Weaning and extubation directly from high frequency ventilation could be another option, even though its effectiveness, when compared to switching and subsequent weaning and extubating from conventional ventilation, is yet to be adequately investigated. Some data suggest the use of weaning protocols could reduce the weaning time and duration of mechanical ventilation, but better designed prospective studies are still needed to confirm these preliminary observations. Finally, the implementation of short spontaneous breathing tests in preterm infants has been shown to be beneficial in some centres, favoring an earlier extubation at higher ventilatory settings compared with historical controls, without worsening the extubation failure rate. Further

  7. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  8. [Three dimensional bioprinting technology of human dental pulp cells mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-hua; Lv, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Ting

    2013-02-18

    To explore the three dimensional(3D)bioprinting technology, using human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) mixture as bioink and to lay initial foundations for the application of the 3D bioprinting technology in tooth regeneration. Imageware 11.0 computer software was used to aid the design of the 3D biological printing blueprint. Sodium alginate-gelatin hydrosol was prepared and mixed with in vitro isolated hDPCs. The mixture contained 20 g/L sodium alginate and 80 g/L gelatin with cell density of 1×10(6)/mL. The bioprinting of hDPCs mixture was carried out according to certain parameters; the 3D constructs obtained by printing were examined; the viability of hDPCs after printing by staining the constructs with calcein-AM and propidium iodide dye and scanning of laser scanning confocal microscope was evaluated. The in vitro constructs obtained by the bioprinting were cultured, and the proliferation of hDPCs in the constructs detected. By using Imageware 11.0 software, the 3D constructs with the grid structure composed of the accumulation of staggered cylindrical microfilament layers were obtained. According to certain parameters, the hDPCs-sodium alginate-gelatin blends were printed by the 3D bioprinting technology. The self-defined shape and dimension of 3D constructs with the cell survival rate of 87%± 2% were constructed. The hDPCs could proliferate in 3D constructs after printing. In this study, the 3D bioprinting of hDPCs mixtures was realized, thus laying initial foundations for the application of the 3D bioprinting technology in tooth regeneration.

  9. [Factors influencing ventilator weaning and predictive value of weaning criteria in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyan; He, Yanxia

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the factors that influence the outcome of ventilator weaning and the predictive value of ventilator weaning criteria such as PaO2/FiO2, Vt/kg, Cst, RSBI and the changing trend of RSBI [ΔRSBI = (RSBI2-RSBI1)/RSBI1, RSBI1 and RSBI2 are the start and end of SBT separately] in children. One hundred and thirty-two children who were mechanically ventilated over 24 hours were enrolled from April 2012 to October 2013 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital. SIMV+PSV and SBT ventilator mode were used in ventilator weaning according to clinical experience. Age, gender, weight, critical illness score, duration of mechanical ventilation, PICU stays and the causes to mechanical ventilation were taken into account as the effect on the result of ventilator weaning. Using area under ROC curve of the indexes such as PaO2/FiO2, Vt/kg, Cst, RSBI and the ΔRSBI to evaluate the predictability of children ventilator weaning. One hundred and thirty-two children were enrolled and 109 succeeded in ventilator weaning, while 23 failed. Seventy-nine children using SIMV+PSV mode and 64 succeeded in ventilator weaning among them, while 23 failed. The success rate was 81.0%. The remaining 53 children using SBT mode, 45 among them succeeded and 8 failed in ventilator weaning, which success rate was 84.9%. There was no statistically significant difference in ventilator weaning mode(χ2=0.334, P=0.563). Age, gender, weight, critical illness score between the succeeded group and the failed group did not show statistically significant difference (t=-0.661; χ2=1.271; t=-0.749, -0.020; P>0.05), but duration of mechanical ventilation, PICU stays and the causes for mechanical ventilation showed significant difference (t=3.751, 3.701; χ2=11.273, P0.05). But the area under ROC curve of ΔRSBI in SBT was 0.814, which was significantly different compared to RSBI in SIMV+PSV (Z=2.966, Pover 24 hours, duration of mechanical ventilation, PICU stays and the causes for mechanical ventilation are the main

  10. Intelligence and technology the impact of tools on the nature and development of human abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    In this volume, Robert J. Sternberg and David D. Preiss bring together different perspectives on understanding the impact of various technologies on human abilities, competencies, and expertise. The inclusive range of historical, comparative, sociocultural, cognitive, educational, industrial/organizational, and human factors approaches will stimulate international multi-disciplinary discussion. Major questions that are addressed include:*What is the impact of different technologies on human abilities?*How does technology enhance or limit human intellectual functioning?*What is the cognitive im

  11. Distance Education: the humanization of technology in a Freirean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Orlando Rodrigues; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2014-05-01

    The Distance Education [DE] presents significant growth in graduates and postgraduates programs. Regarding this fact, new challenges arise and others must be considered, as the generation gap between digital immigrants and digital natives, the establishment of a population increasingly accustomed to Information and Communication Technologies [ICT] and teaching methodologies that should be used and developed. Vygotsky's model of social interaction related to mediation can and should be used in DE, and concerning historical, social and cultural approaches affecting Brazilian reality, Paulo Freire is still up-to-date, integrating humanization into the use of ICT. This work only proceeds with analyzes of these elements, being an excerpt of the master's dissertation of one of the authors [Ferreira], under the guidance of another [Voelzke].

  12. The humanization of technology and science in distance learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Rodrigues Ferreira, Orlando

    2016-07-01

    The Distance Education [DE] presents significant growth in graduates and postgraduates programs. Regarding this fact, new challenges arise and others must be considered, as the generation gap between digital immigrants and digital natives, the establishment of a population increasingly accustomed to Information and Communication Technologies [ICT] and teaching methodologies that should be used and developed. Vygotsky's model of social interaction related to mediation can and should be used in DE, and concerning historical, social and cultural approaches affecting Brazilian reality, Paulo Freire is still up-to-date, integrating humanization into the use of ICT. This work only proceeds with analyses of these elements, being an excerpt of the master's dissertation of one of the authors [Ferreira], under the guidance of another [Voelzke].

  13. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aircrew Performance Cutting-Edge Technology: Emerging Human Performance Enhancement Technology Vision in Support of Operational Military Aviation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belland, Kris M

    2003-01-01

    Using cutting-edge technology to create a human factors advantage in military operations will contribute to success on the battlefield of the future whether below the surface, on the surface, in the air, or in space...

  15. Endocrine pancreas development at weaning in goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Rosi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen three-day old Saanen goat kids were divided into MILK and WEAN groups. MILK kids received goat milk to age 48 days; WEAN kids were initially fed milk but started weaning at 25 days and were completely weaned by 40 days. Total intake per group was recorded daily. On day 25, 40 and 48, body weights were recorded, and plasma samples were taken and analyzed for glucose, free amino-acids and insulin. On day 48, all animals were slaughtered and pancreas samples were analyzed for total DNA and RNA content. Histological sections of pancreas were examined by light microscope and images analyzed by dedicated software. Seven days after the beginning of the weaning program, dry matter intake in the WEAN group began to decrease compared to the MILK one. Nonetheless, body weight did not differ throughout the study period. Weaning significantly decreased plasma levels of glucose, amino-acids and insulin. No difference was observed in pancreatic DNA and RNA content. Histological analysis of pancreas showed that the size of pancreatic islets was not different, but islet number per section was lower in the pancreas of WEAN animals. In conclusion, weaning affects glucose and amino-acid metabolism and influences endocrine pancreas activity and morphology.

  16. Pre-weaning mortality in pigs - Causes and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar B.P.; H. S. Madhusudhan and Harish. D. B

    2009-01-01

    Data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS, 2001) indicate that the average number of pigs born per sow is 10.9, of which 10.0 are born alive and only 8.9 are able to survive until weaning. This results in a 11% pre-weaning mortality rate. In comparison, NAHMS data from 1990 and 1995 respectively indicate that the number of pigs born alive was 9.9 and 9.5, with 8.4 and 8.6 piglets weaned per litter. So, although we saw a decrease in pre-weaning mortality between 1990 and 19...

  17. Factors Affecting the Weaning from Nasal CPAP in Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age (GA who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW of 1357±392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3±2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (<0.001 that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (<0.01, chorioamnionitis (<0.01, anemia (<0.0001, and GER (<0.02 played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP.

  18. 1 kb of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase promoter directs post-weaning decline and small intestinal-specific expression in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, J T; Mehlum, A; Spodsberg, N

    1994-01-01

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a genetic condition making approximately one half of the human population intolerant to milk because of abdominal symptoms. The cause is a post-weaning down-regulation of the intestinal-specific enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) reducing the intestinal capacity...... to hydrolyze lactose. We here demonstrate that the stretch -17 to -994 in the pig LPH-promoter carries cis-elements which direct a small intestinal-specific expression and a post-weaning decline of a linked rabbit beta-globin gene. These data demonstrate that the post-weaning decline of LPH is mainly due...

  19. [Does scientific-technological progress endanger human dignity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forschner, Maximilian

    2002-01-01

    1) The goal of modern science, to which also today's medicine is obliged, is the unlimited advance of knowledge and ability. It objectifies, neutralises and levels all of its objects to parameters which can be analysed, calculated, manipulated and performed; it abstracts from all personal mentality, experience and achievements in our surroundings and from all goals and personal daily appraisals of ourselves and the world around us. 2) The goal of scientific knowledge, its progress and its translation into technology is in today s understanding the abolition of distress, disease and suffering as well as the increase of ways and means to make human existence more endurable, comfortable, richer in experience and longer. As such a functionally defined good, science is bound to the laws and dynamics of the (national and global) market. 3) The term 'human dignity' as it is used in article 1 of the German constitution is based on the idea of self-purpose, respectively self-worth, which a human has a right to for his own sake, irrespective of other goods or purposes. This term finds its binding interpretation in the system of basic rights (R. Zippelius). Here, an elemental legal right of the individual is addressed, which cannot be put to disposition for any benefit or damage to the state or the society, one last taboo which protects every individual 'without consideration of the person' from interference and complete instrumentation by others. 4) Man as an object of modern, scientific research is 'objectified' like any other object. The drive to knowledge is limitless. The general and scientific relations between the progress of knowledge and ability and the goods and market values mentioned above offer no protection of man as a person from complete objectification and instrumentation. In the context of a society-dominated naturalistic concept of man, in which man is considered no more than a complex system of needs and interests, human dignity does in fact seem to be

  20. The value of supplementary feeding to pre-weaned and weaned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pre-weaning stocking rate applied, was 20 South African Mutton Merino ewes with lambs/ha and the following treatments were applied: Control: continuous grazing - no creep feed; forward creep grazing by the lambs in a rotational grazing system where the lambs were allowed to graze paddocks allocated to the ewes, ...

  1. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. full text

  2. Leeftijd van zelfstandig eten bij papegaaien : literatuur onderzoek = Weaning ages in parrot species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2014-01-01

    Young parrots can be separated safely from their parents when they are able to eat independently (weaned). Weaning ages of parrots differ between species. Based on written sources a list of weaning ages is made for all parrot species.

  3. A Mouse Model Study for the Villous Atrophy of the Early Weaning Piglets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TSUKAHARA, Takamitsu; INOUE, Ryo; YAMADA, Kaori; YAJIMA, Takaji

    2010-01-01

    Early weaning induces villous atrophy in the small intestine of piglets. We evaluated an influence of early weaning at 16 days old in mice for the use of villous atrophy model observed in early-weaned piglets...

  4. Predicting Delayed Ventilator Weaning after Lung Transplantation: The Role of Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Soh

    2014-11-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Low BMI might be associated with delayed ventilator weaning in lung transplantation patients. In addition, instead of the traditional weaning predictors of RSBI and RR, TV might be a better predictor for ventilator weaning after lung transplantation.

  5. A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal describes, "A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies." NASA has a powerful research...

  6. Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies: Organizational Outcomes and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Digital advancements and discoveries are now challenging traditional human resource management services within businesses. The Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies: Organizational Outcomes and Challenges provides practical, situated, and unique

  7. Characterisation of the Whole Blood mRNA Transcriptome in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey Calves in Response to Gradual Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Johnston

    Full Text Available Weaning of dairy calves is an early life husbandry management practice which involves the changeover from a liquid to a solid feed based diet. The objectives of the study were to use RNA-seq technology to examine the effect of (i breed and (ii gradual weaning, on the whole blood mRNA transcriptome of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. The calves were gradually weaned over 14 days (day (d -13 to d 0 and mRNA transcription was examined one day before gradual weaning was initiated (d -14, one day after weaning (d 1, and 8 days after weaning (d 8. On d -14, 550 genes were differentially expressed between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves, while there were 490 differentially expressed genes (DEG identified on d 1, and 411 DEG detected eight days after weaning (P 0.05. The pathways, gene ontology terms, and biological functions consistently over-represented among the DEG between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey were associated with the immune response and immune cell signalling, specifically chemotaxis. Decreased transcription of several cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin-like genes, phagocytosis-promoting receptors and g-protein coupled receptors suggests decreased monocyte, natural killer cell, and T lymphocyte, chemotaxis and activation in Jersey compared to Holstein-Friesian calves. Knowledge of breed-specific immune responses could facilitate health management practices better tailored towards specific disease sensitivities of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. Gradual weaning did not compromise the welfare of artificially-reared dairy calves, evidenced by the lack of alterations in the expression of any genes in response to gradual weaning.

  8. Can chromatin conformation technologies bring light into human molecular pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Marta; Lewandowska, Marzena Anna

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes involves many complex processes, in which chromatin structure plays an important role. In addition to the epigenetic effects, such as DNA methylation and phosphorylation or histone modifications, gene expression is also controlled by the spatial organization of chromatin. For example, distant regulatory elements (enhancers, insulators) may come into direct physical interaction with target genes or other regulatory elements located in genomic regions of up to several hundred kilobases in size. Such long-range interactions result in the formation of chromatin loops. In the last several years, there has been a rapid increase in our knowledge of the spatial organization of chromatin in the nucleus through the chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology. Here we review and compare the original 3C and 3C-based methods including chromosome conformation capture-on-chip (4C), chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C), hi-resolution chromosome confomation capture (HiC). In this article, we discuss different aspects of how the nuclear organization of chromatin is associated with gene expression regulation and how this knowledge is useful in translational medicine and clinical applications. We demonstrate that the knowledge of the chromatin 3D organization may help understand the mechanisms of gene expression regulation of genes involved in the development of human diseases, such as CFTR (responsible for cystic fibrosis) or IGFBP3 (associated with breast cancer pathogenesis). Additionally, 3C-derivative methods have been also useful in the diagnosis of some leukemia subtypes.

  9. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicholas R; Laroche, Fabrice J F; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients.

  10. Evaluation of some predictors for successful weaning from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Mabrouk

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: ABG and RSBI can be used as good weaning predictors and the CORE index is better in predicting the weaning outcome than the CROP index, the IWI and the RSBI as their value is better in the NPPV group which expresses the highest success rate.

  11. Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalles, J.P.; Bosi, P.; Smidt, H.; Stokes, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Early weaning of piglets is often accompanied by a severe growth check and diarrhoea. It is well established that this process is multi-factorial and that post-weaning anorexia and undernutrition are major aetiological factors. Gastrointestinal disturbances include alterations in small intestine

  12. Changes in tail length between docking and weaning of lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted with crossbred lambs (n = 109 female and 120 male) to quantify tail length at docking and weaning. Lambs were born in April of one year and weaned at ˜ 125 d of age. Within 24 h after birth, lambs were weighed and ear tagged, and rubber rings were applied to dock tails. R...

  13. bioavailability of iron from cereal-based weaning foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    highest availability, 44%, from sour dough fermented bread containing no phytate and the lowest,. 12%, from yeast-fermented bread. There was a strong inverse correlation between available iron and the phytate content of different weaning foods. The weaning foods tested may not be regarded as a useful source of ...

  14. Pre-weaning mortality in pigs - Causes and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar B. P.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS, 2001 indicate that the average number of pigs born per sow is 10.9, of which 10.0 are born alive and only 8.9 are able to survive until weaning. This results in a 11% pre-weaning mortality rate. In comparison, NAHMS data from 1990 and 1995 respectively indicate that the number of pigs born alive was 9.9 and 9.5, with 8.4 and 8.6 piglets weaned per litter. So, although we saw a decrease in pre-weaning mortality between 1990 and 1995, we show a slight increase from 9% to 11% between 1995 and 2000. Because average litter size has slowly increased, we have been able to realize a slow increase in the number weaned from 1990, 1995, and 2000; resulting in 8.4, 8.6, and currently 8.9 pigs weaned per litter. The NAHMS 2000 data indicate that of the 11% pre-weaning mortality, 52.1% die from becoming crushed by the sow, 16.7% die from starvation, 11.5% die from “other known problem”, 9.3% die from scours, 7.4% from “unknown problem”, and 3% from respiratory problems. The majority of pigs are weaned at 17. 2 days of age, with an average of 19.3 days of age. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 236-239

  15. Evaluation of suckling and post weaning practices for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Evaluation of suckling and post weaning practices for improving reproductive efficiency in Nepalese Pakhribas pigs ... competition. It also helps to take the pressure off a good milking sow, which will help to minimise the weight loss and restore positive nutrient balance just before weaning. (English, 1988). However, this ...

  16. Post-weaning body morphology to sexual maturity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on some linear measurements of rabbits at weaning and post weaning ages to sexual maturity were recorded on weekly interval to quantify rabbit conformation and determine their interrelationships and how well they can predict body weight of rabbits. The rabbits were of mixed breeds raised at the University of Benin ...

  17. Endocrine and metabolic traits in goat kids around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rosi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Saanen kids, three days after birth, were divided into two groups: WEAN and MILK. All kids were fed goat milk until the 5th week of age, when the WEAN group began a weaning protocol. MILK group continued to receive goat milk for the entire experimental period, while WEAN group was weaned at 47 days of age. Starting from the 3rd week of age, body weight was recorded and blood samples were taken weekly, before the first meal of the day. Plasma was analysed for glucose, total protein, free aminoacid, insulin, leptin and ghrelin.Weaning did not affect plasma levels of total protein and leptin, but decreased plasma glucose and free aminoacid, and increased ghrelin concentration. Moreover, weaning decreased plasma insulin level more than three times. This result was probably the consequence of the lower concentration of plasma glucose of the WEAN group, but the effect could be enforced by the milk-borne insulin ingested by the MILK kids with the diet. Goat milk contains peptides that can pass across the intestinal epithelium and enter the systemic circulation, suggesting a possible role in accomplishing the immature ability of suckling animals to produce hormones and growth factors.

  18. Haematology and Nutrient Digestibility of Pigs at Three Weaning Ages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology and Nutrient Digestibility of Pigs at Three Weaning Ages. ... Animal Production Research Advances ... Dry matter and nitrogen free extract (NFE) Digestibility was highest (p<0.05) in piglets weaned at 4 weeks of age, while crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility were highest ...

  19. Short Communication Towards an abalone weaning diet: evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of post-settlement abalone when 'weaning' them from diatoms onto macroalgae/artificial feed remains unpredictable for farmers. It is hypothesised that spirulina algae, which are high in protein, may be a suitable feed ingredient for weaning abalone. Over a period of 27 days, the growth and survival of juvenile (4–6 ...

  20. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a public health problem in Nigeria accounting for more than 50% of all childhood ... of weanly albino rats fed millet and maize based complimentary weaning foods for 3 weeks. Two diets, ... these diets were not significantly(p<0.05) different and also compared well with the growth rate of rats on.

  1. Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tom Brown (roasted-maize porridge) is one of the traditional weaning foods in Ghana. As an effort by the Ministry of Health to enhance the nutrient content of this lownutrient- density weaning food, a product called weanimix, which is Tom Brown fortified with legumes (cowpeas or soybeans and groundnuts), was introduced ...

  2. Delirium during Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Aparecida Leite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We compare the incidence of delirium before and after extubation and identify the risk factors and possible predictors for the occurrence of delirium in this group of patients. Methods. Patients weaned from mechanical ventilation (MV and extubated were included. The assessment of delirium was conducted using the confusion assessment method for the ICU and completed twice per day until discharge from the intensive care unit. Results. Sixty-four patients were included in the study, 53.1% of whom presented with delirium. The risk factors of delirium were age (P=0.01, SOFA score (P=0.03, APACHE score (P=0.01, and a neurological cause of admission (P=0.01. The majority of the patients began with delirium before or on the day of extubation. Hypoactive delirium was the most common form. Conclusion. Acute (traumatic or medical neurological injuries were important risk factors in the development of delirium. During the weaning process, delirium developed predominantly before or on the same day of extubation and was generally hypoactive (more difficult to detect. Therefore, while planning early prevention strategies, attention must be focused on neurological patients who are receiving MV and possibly even on patients who are still under sedation.

  3. Weaning age influences the severity of gastrointestinal microbiome shifts in dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Meale; Li, S. C.; Azevedo, P.; Derakhshani, H.; T. J. DeVries; J. C. Plaizier; Steele, M. A.; Khafipour, E

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants microbial consortium is responsible for ruminal fermentation, a process which converts fibrous feeds unsuitable for human consumption into desirable dairy and meat products, begins to establish soon after birth. However, it undergoes a significant transition when digestion shifts from the lower intestine to ruminal fermentation. We hypothesised that delaying the transition from a high milk diet to an exclusively solid food diet (weaning) would lessen the severity of changes in the g...

  4. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis of dentine serial sections elucidate sex differences in weaning patterns of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Geraldine E; Richards, Michael P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Deschner, Tobias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Offspring provisioning is one of the most energetically demanding aspects of reproduction for female mammals. Variation in lactation length and weaning strategies between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), our closest living relative, and modern human societies have been reported. When and why these changes occurred is frequently debated. Our study used stable nitrogen isotope data of tooth root dentine from wild Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to quantify weaning in these chimpanzees and explore if infant sex plays a role in maternal investment. We analyzed serial sections of deciduous lateral incisor root dentine from four Taï chimpanzees to establish the δ(15) N signal of nursing infants; we then analyzed serial sections of first permanent mandibular molar root dentine from 12 Taï chimpanzees to provide quantitative δ(15) N data on weaning in this population. Up to 2 years of age both sexes exhibited dentine δ(15) N values ≈2-3‰ higher than adult female Taï chimpanzees, consistent with a nursing signal. Thereafter a steady decrease in δ(15) N values consistent with the onset, and progression, of weaning, was visible. Sex differences were also evident, where male δ(15) N values decreased at a significantly slower rate compared to females. Confirmation of sex differences in maternal investment among Taï chimpanzees, demonstrates the viability of using isotope analysis to investigate weaning in non-human primates. Additionally, assuming that behaviors observed in the Taï chimpanzees are illustrative of the ancestral pattern, our results provide a platform to enable the trajectory of weaning in human evolution to be further explored. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.

    1987-10-01

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning.

  6. Development of ruminal and fecal microbiomes are affected by weaning but not weaning strategy in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jade Meale

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holstein dairy calves exposed to two different weaning strategies, gradual (step-down or abrupt. We describe the shifts towards a mature ruminant state, a transition which is hastened by the introduction of the solid feeds initiating ruminal fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the predicted functional roles of these communities, which also appear to represent that of the mature gastrointestinal system prior to weaning, suggesting functional maturity. This assumed state of readiness also appeared to negate the effects of weaning strategy on ruminal and fecal microbiomes and therefore, we conclude that the shift in gastrointestinal microbiota may not account for the declines in gain and intakes observed in calves during an abrupt weaning.

  7. Development of Ruminal and Fecal Microbiomes Are Affected by Weaning But Not Weaning Strategy in Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meale, Sarah J; Li, Shucong; Azevedo, Paula; Derakhshani, Hooman; Plaizier, Jan C; Khafipour, Ehsan; Steele, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift, and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holstein dairy calves exposed to two different weaning strategies, gradual (step-down) or abrupt. We describe the shifts toward a mature ruminant state, a transition which is hastened by the introduction of the solid feeds initiating ruminal fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the predicted functional roles of these communities, which also appear to represent that of the mature gastrointestinal system prior to weaning, suggesting functional maturity. This assumed state of readiness also appeared to negate the effects of weaning strategy on ruminal and fecal microbiomes and therefore, we conclude that the shift in gastrointestinal microbiota may not account for the declines in gain and intakes observed in calves during an abrupt weaning.

  8. Technology with a human face: African and Western profiles | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We are challenged as created co-creators to give a human face to technology. Africa can be considered relatively free of the influence of high technology. The way technology is imbedded in African metaphysics, myth and worldview is investigated from the perspectives of life force and ubuntu. Although the African example ...

  9. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Optimizing stability towards gut conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Ballegaard, Anne-Sofie; Røjel, Nanna

    Brief description of research area: A common problem in swine production is diarrhoea in newly weaned piglets, and huge quantities of antibiotics go to treat post-weaning diarrhoeas in piglets. The use of antibiotics can lead to the development of multi- and fully resistant bacteria, which...... consequently pose a great threat to human health. Therefore, sustainable alternatives for treating post-weaning diarrhoea without using antibiotics are in demand. Swine that are old (and big) enough for slaughter have during their upbringing been challenges by many different pathogens and thus have developed...... immunity towards these pathogens, which include pathogen-specific immunoglobulins (antibodies). We hypothesis that by harvesting natural immunoglobulins from porcine blood plasma, a waste product from swine slaughter, and feeding these immunoglobulins to the piglets this can subsequently (by passive...

  10. Human-Interactive Annealing Process with Pictogram for Extracting New Scenarios for Patent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Horie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The latent structure behind an observation often plays an important role in the dynamics of visible events. Such latent structure is composed of invisible events named dark events. Human-interactive annealing is developed to visualize and understand dark events. This paper presents an application of human-interactive annealing for extracting new scenarios for patent technology using the latent technology structure behind current patented technology.

  11. Human-Interactive Annealing Process with Pictogram for Extracting New Scenarios for Patent Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Horie; Yoshiharu Maeno; Yukio Ohsawa

    2007-01-01

    The latent structure behind an observation often plays an important role in the dynamics of visible events. Such latent structure is composed of invisible events named dark events. Human-interactive annealing is developed to visualize and understand dark events. This paper presents an application of human-interactive annealing for extracting new scenarios for patent technology using the latent technology structure behind current patented technology.

  12. Integrating Human Factors Engineering and Information Processing Approaches to Facilitate Evaluations in Criminal Justice Technology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The Human Side of Reference in an Era of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie-Mensah, Kwasi

    1997-01-01

    Argues that as libraries adopt more technology, reference librarians must recognize diverse users and their needs, gauge user knowledge and connectivity, use technological terminology clearly, emphasize critical thinking, stress the existence of print sources, pursue innovative ways of doing reference, and learn new concepts. (PEN)

  14. Personal and Interpersonal Development of Humans in High Technology Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Konrad; Morgan, Madeleine; Hall, John

    This paper discusses psychological effects associated with the latest technology in computer interfaces. Emphasis is given to issues involved with multi-media systems and the development of the self on emotional, intellectual, and social levels. A review of technology attitudes and individual differences is presented in relation to the voluntary…

  15. Automated versus non-automated weaning for reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation for critically ill adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Schultz, Marcus J; Cardwell, Chris R; Jouvet, Philippe; McAuley, Danny F; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2014-06-10

    Automated closed loop systems may improve adaptation of mechanical support for a patient's ventilatory needs and facilitate systematic and early recognition of their ability to breathe spontaneously and the potential for discontinuation of ventilation. This review was originally published in 2013 with an update published in 2014. The primary objective for this review was to compare the total duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation, defined as the time from study randomization to successful extubation (as defined by study authors), for critically ill ventilated patients managed with an automated weaning system versus no automated weaning system (usual care).Secondary objectives for this review were to determine differences in the duration of ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS), mortality, and adverse events related to early or delayed extubation with the use of automated weaning systems compared to weaning in the absence of an automated weaning system. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 8); MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1948 to September 2013); EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to September 2013); CINAHL (EBSCOhost) (1982 to September 2013); and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). Relevant published reviews were sought using the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and the Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA Database). We also searched the Web of Science Proceedings; conference proceedings; trial registration websites; and reference lists of relevant articles. The original search was run in August 2011, with database auto-alerts up to August 2012. We included randomized controlled trials comparing automated closed loop ventilator applications to non-automated weaning strategies including non-protocolized usual care and protocolized weaning in patients over four weeks of age receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in

  16. Transports of delight how technology materializes human imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This inspiring book shows how the spiritual side of life, with its thoughts, feelings, and aspirations, is intimately bound up with our material technologies. From the wonder of Gothic Cathedrals, to the quiet majesty of lighter than air flight, to the ultimate in luxury of the north Atlantic steamers, Peter Hancock explores how these sequential heights of technology have enabled our dreams of being transported to new and uncharted realms to become reality. Sometimes literally, sometimes figuratively, technology has always been there to make material the visions of our imagination. This book shows how this has essentially been true for all technologies from Stonehenge to space station. But technology is far from perfect. Indeed, the author argues here that some of the most public and tragic of its failures still remain instructive, emblematic, and even inspiring. He reports on examples such as a Cathedral of the Earth (Beauvais), a Cathedral of the Seas (Titanic), and a Cathedral of the Air (Hindenburg) and t...

  17. Difficult weaning in delayed onset diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively rare and result from either blunt or penetrating trauma. Regardless of the mechanism, diagnosis is often missed and high index of suspicion is vital. The clinical signs associated with a diaphragmatic hernia can range from no outward signs to immediately life-threatening respiratory compromise. Establishing the clinical diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries (DI can be challenging as it is often clinically occult. Accurate diagnosis is critical since missed DI may result in grave sequelae due to herniation and strangulation of displaced intra-abdominal organs. We present a case of polytrauma with rib fracture and delayed appearance of diaphragmatic hernia manifesting as difficult weaning from ventilatory support.

  18. Social Robotic Experience and Media Communication Practices: An Exploration on the Emotional and Ritualized Human-technology-relations

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Linke

    2013-01-01

    This article approaches the subject of social robots by focusing on the emotional relations people establish with media and information and communication technology (ICTs) in their everyday life. It examines human-technology-relation from a social studies point of view, seeking to raise questions that enable us to make a connection between the research on human relationships and the topic of human-technology relation, especially human-humanoid-relation. In order to explore the human-technolog...

  19. The Integrative Weaning Index in Elderly ICU Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Leandro M; Nemer, Sérgio N; Barbas, Carmen Sv; Caldeira, Jefferson B; Noé, Rosângela; Guimarães, Bruno L; Caldas, Célia P

    2017-03-01

    With increasing life expectancy and ICU admission of elderly patients, mechanical ventilation, and weaning trials have increased worldwide. We evaluated a cohort with 479 subjects in the ICU. Patients younger than 18 y, tracheostomized, or with neurologic diseases were excluded, resulting in 331 subjects. Subjects ≥70 y old were considered elderly, whereas those elderly. Besides the conventional weaning indexes, we evaluated the performance of the integrative weaning index (IWI). The probability of successful weaning was investigated using relative risk and logistic regression. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test was used to calibrate and the C statistic was calculated to evaluate the association between predicted probabilities and observed proportions in the logistic regression model. Prevalence of successful weaning in the sample was 83.7%. There was no difference in mortality between elderly and non-elderly subjects (P = .16), in days of mechanical ventilation (P = .22) and days of weaning (P = .55). In elderly subjects, the IWI was the only respiratory variable associated with mechanical ventilation weaning in this population (P elderly subjects that may contribute to the critical moment of this population in intensive care. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. GPS Technology and Human Psychological Research: A Methodological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. A. Wolf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74

  1. Light-based science and technologies and human civilization: an optical course for general education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaotong; Wang, Kaiwei; Yang, Qing; Si, Ke

    2017-08-01

    Starting from 2015, a general education course named "Light-based science and technologies and human civilization" has been offered in Zhejiang University. We try to give a humanism view angle to observe optics and optical engineering, and combine them with the relationship of human and the nature, the development of human society and human health. In this course we introduce different historical periods of light-based science and technologies, the great optical researchers, the typical research methods, advantages, academic discussions and the relationship with human civilization. The relevant cross-fields of learning and Nobel Prize winners are also included. This course provides the students with the typical examples about how academic revolution influences the world development, and also with humanism sight which exceeds the range of science and technologies themselves.

  2. Study of the temperament of bos indicus calves on weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo da Silva Freitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ones of the largest commercial cattle herd in the world, Brazil has its cattle characterized by the use of an extensive system and the predominance of zebu breeds, especially the Nelore and its crosses. In this system the temperament of cattle becomes a problem because of the low human-animal interaction, and bad-tempered animals can cause accidents, increase maintenance costs of facilities and provide poorer quality of the carcass, meat and leather. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperament of 24 calves Nellore and Guzerath purebreds , with a mean of 235.81 ± 39.95 days of age after submitted into two treatments during the breeding season of the cows. The treatments were: T1 - calves submitted to the management of permanent feeding (PF and T2 - calves submitted to the management of controlled feeding (CF. Ninety days after the beginning of the breeding season, the CF was interrupted and the calves stayed with their mothers until weaning. The temperament of calves was evaluated in the weaning management through the following methods: escape velocity in meters/second (EV, reactivity test in the contention trunk (RT, crush score (CS and escape distance (ED. The EV was obtained with the use of the equipment "flight speed" placed in the exit of the trunk contention. The animals with higher velocity were considered the worst temperament. The CS, on a scale of 1 to 5, evaluated the general condition of the animals including movement, stress, behavioral signs of stress such as muscle tone, sclerotic membrane and muscle shake. The highest scores were given to animals with worst temperament. The ED was held inside the barn (97m², where the observer moved toward the animal (one step per second and registered the distance in meters of how the animal allowed the approach before starting the escape. The animals that maintained for a period more than 60 seconds inside the barn had the highest ED (8.5 m. With the adoption of the CF and a good

  3. Effect of Choice Feeding in the Pre-weaning Period on the Growth Performance of Calves during the Pre- and Post-weaning Periods

    OpenAIRE

    M. W. Hassani; M. Gorgulu; S. Goncu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of choice feeding in the pre-weaning period on the growth performance of calves during the pre- and post-weaning period. It is possible that high Crude protein (CP) intake during the pre-weaning period may improve post-weaning performance of calves. Currently, there is insufficient data available on the effect of pre-weaning feeding method on post-weaning performance of calves; therefore the aim of this study was to examine the effect of ch...

  4. Evolution of Biotechnology and Information Technology and Its Impact on Human Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The development of post-industrial society initiates profound economic, technological and cultural change in the way of life of all mankind. The revolutionary breakthroughs in the field of new technologies such as biotechnology and information technology are reflected in all spheres of human activity, directly affecting the human security. The article analyzes the consequences of widespread usage biotechnology and information technology in the foreign policy practice on the basis of the human security theory. The detailed description of the main directions of the use of biometric technology in the foreign policy and consular practices is provided, the challenges and threats to information security associated with biometrics are analyzed, arising from widespread biotechnology are the main challenges and threats to as well as human security threats arising at the present stage of development and application of these technologies. Human security threats associated with the use of biotechnology are placed in the broader context of global trends in scientific and technological development. The recommendations are formulated in the field of foreign policy and international cooperation, which would neutralize new threats to international and personal safety arising at the present stage of development of biotechnology. The authors conclude that in order to ensure ethical regulation of new technologies that address issues of human security, it is necessary to organize multi-stakeholder partnerships at national and international level with the participation of states, representatives of civil society, business and the research community.

  5. Technology as Human Social Tradition : Cultural Transmission among Hunter-Gatherers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Technology as Human Social Tradition outlines a novel approach to studying variability and cumulative change in human technology—a research theme that spans both archaeology and anthropology. Peter Jordan argues that human material culture is best understood as an expression of social tradition.

  6. What Children Think about Human-Animal Relationships: Incorporating Humane Education Goals in Science and Technology Curriculum and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a shift in the direction of biocentrism that advocates the incorporation of humane education goals. Investigates preconceptions of human-animal relationships among a group of grade 5 students with a view to understanding their readiness to embrace a biocentric perspective. Includes recommendations for science and technology curricula and…

  7. The effect of herd of origin by year on post-weaning traits of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data consisted of post-weaning traits of beef bulls tested between 1990 and 2003, with available weaning weight (WWT) and weaning management group information as well as weaning weights of their contemporaries. A multiple-trait animal model including ADG, DFI, SDH and SCR, together with WWT was used.

  8. Postphenomenological Investigations: Essays on Human-Technology Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, Robert; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Postphenomenological Investigations: Essays on Human–Technology Relations provides an introduction to the school of thought called postphenomenology and showcases projects at the cutting edge of this perspective. Postphenomenology presents a unique blend of insights from the philosophical traditions

  9. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions activity has four tasks:Asteroid Retrieval Capture Mechanism Development and Testbed;Mission Operations...

  10. Virtual and augmented reality technologies in Human Performance: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Crocetta,Tânia Brusque; Oliveira, Sandra Rogéria de; Liz, Carla Maria de; Andrade, Alexandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction : Today's society is influenced by Information and Communication Technologies. Toys that were once built by hand have been reinterpreted and have become highly commercialized products. In this context, games using Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies are present in the everyday lives of children, youth and adults. Objective : To investigate how Physical Education professionals in Brazil have been making use of AR and VR games to benefit their wo...

  11. Editorial: Technology for higher education, adult learning and human performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minhong Wang; Chi-Cheng Chang; Feng Wu

    2013-01-01

    .... Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals, institutions, and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages...

  12. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  13. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  14. A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing Human Machine Interface Requirements for New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    This dissertation examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will be deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies with increasingly capable automation, is how work will be accomplished by human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by designers. The human machine interface (HMI), which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the predicted performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements for a detect and avoid (DAA) system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned in order

  15. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  16. Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology: The Blurring Boundaries Between Human and Technology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The currently developing fields of Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology bring about a convergence of information technology and cognitive science. Smart environments that are able to respond intelligently to what we do and that even aim to influence our behaviour challenge the basic

  17. Glutamine supplementation influences immune development in the newly weaned piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian R; Ball, Ron O; Baracos, Vickie E; Field, Catherine J

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine changes that occur in immune function during the early post-weaning period and the effect of supplementing glutamine (gln, 4% w/w) to the weaning diet of piglets. Dutch-Landrace piglets (n=10/group) were killed prior to weaning (21 d) or randomized to one of two nutritionally complete weaning diets with or without gln. With age there was an increased ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) cells to proliferate (rate of (3)H-thymidine uptake) to T cell mitogens (Ppiglets produced less of a Th-1 type response after stimulation (Pweaning diet significantly (P<0.05) modified immune cells in the MLN, in a potentially beneficial manner (with respect to mucosal infections) by preventing an increase in antigen naïve CD4+ cells, increasing the proliferative response to pokeweed mitogen and supporting a Th-1 type cytokine response after T cell (phytohemagglutinin) stimulation.

  18. Randomized controlled trial of bottle weaning intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Richard; Bonuck, Karen; Trombley, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    Inappropriate baby bottle use is associated with tooth decay, anemia, and overweight, and it may adversely affect dietary patterns. Parents often do not follow guidance to wean by 18 months of life. We piloted a brief, counseling-based weaning intervention in an urban WIC agency among primarily Hispanic parent/toddler dyads. At baseline (n = 48), toddlers consumed a mean 4.7 bottles/day. At follow-up (n = 39), the intervention group consumed fewer mean bottles/day than controls (0.09 vs 2.0 bottles/day, P < .045). Half the toddlers in the experimental group and one third of the control groups weaned completely. Parents of weaned children were satisfied with the outcome.

  19. Weaning triggers a maturation step of pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Enk, Jonatan; Vikesa, Jonas; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Saada, Ann; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval

    2015-03-09

    Because tissue regeneration deteriorates with age, it is generally assumed that the younger the animal, the better it compensates for tissue damage. We have examined the effect of young age on compensatory proliferation of pancreatic β cells in vivo. Surprisingly, β cells in suckling mice fail to enter the cell division cycle in response to a diabetogenic injury or increased glycolysis. The potential of β cells for compensatory proliferation is acquired following premature weaning to normal chow, but not to a diet mimicking maternal milk. In addition, weaning coincides with enhanced glucose-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation and insulin secretion from islets. Transcriptome analysis reveals that weaning increases the expression of genes involved in replication licensing, suggesting a mechanism for increased responsiveness to the mitogenic activity of high glucose. We propose that weaning triggers a discrete maturation step of β cells, elevating both the mitogenic and secretory response to glucose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation technology of human behavior cognition; Ningen kodo ninchi hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For human engineering and improvement of the living environment, the evaluation technology of human behavior cognition was studied. For the future reformation and creation of economic structure, the following are required: establishment of safe and affluent communities, further improvement of the safety and harmonious balance of people, lives and society, and R & D close to people and social needs. Introduction of Product Liability law and a fail-safe concept are examples of such efforts. However, since many accidents are found in the human society, the relation between human errors and human characteristics should be studied in detail. The cognitive science of human behavior is an objective evaluation technology from the viewpoint of human being, object, environment and society. Based on these social and technological background, the feasibility of the evaluation technology is studied, and the future trend and skeleton of this project are clarified. The domestic and foreign trends of technologies concerned are thus surveyed, and the important points, features, skeleton and ripple effect of the technology are summarized. 500 refs., 70 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Human Enhancement Technologies. Verso nuovi modelli antropologici Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lo Sapio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to furnish some arguments against the dichotomical approach to human enhancement debate. In particular we flash out the major shortcomings of bioconservative perspective together with the principle criticalities of transhumanist point of view. We aim at delineating a different way of theorizing human enhancement topic pointing out the main results associated with the findings of current scientific research. Our thesis is that we ought to look at human enhancement within a conceptual framework which includes hybridization, openness to alterity, overcoming of nature/culture dichotomy.

  2. Perceived decisional responsibility for mechanical ventilation and weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugdahl, Hege S; Storli, Sissel; Rose, Louise

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore variability in perceptions of nurse managers and physician directors regarding roles, responsibilities and clinical-decision making related to mechanical ventilator weaning in Norwegian intensive care units (ICUs). BACKGROUND: Effective teamwork is crucial for providing optimal...... patient care in ICU. More knowledge on nurses' and physicians' perceptions of responsibility in clinical decision-making for mechanical ventilation is needed. METHODS: Self-administered survey of mechanical ventilation and weaning responsibilities was sent to nurse managers and physician directors...

  3. Non-invasive Mechanic Ventilation During the “Weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Ünsel,; Perihan Ergin Özcan

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Weaning of the patients from mechanical ventilation is a clinically important subject. Recently, applications of non-invasive mechanic ventilation (NIV) are increasing in post extubation respiratory failure. Studies show that NIV is effective in the weaning of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, presenting with hypercapneic respiratory failure and in the attacks of other chronic respiratory failure, but efficacy and reliability in the other patient ...

  4. Insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides in diets for weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, R; van der Aar, P; Molist, F

    2012-12-01

    To examine the effect of inclusion insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (iNSP) in weaned diets on postweaning piglet performance, intestinal activity, and microbial composition 2 experiments were designed. In Exp. 1, 180 piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and divided over 3 treatments: positive control (PC; highly digestible protein), negative control (NC; standard cereal-based diet), and an experimental diet {iNSP; standard + 15% iNSP [wheat straw and oat (Avena sativa) hull]}. Diets were fed during 14 d after weaning. The ADFI, ADG, and G:F were determined. The inclusion of iNSP increased (P weaning and increased the ADG (P = 0.008) during days 0 to 7 after weaning compared with the NC diet. In Exp. 2, 36 piglets were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. On days 5 and 14 after weaning, 18 piglets were euthanized to determine enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and microbial population in the ileum and colon and organ weight. The iNSP diet reduced the concentration of Escherichia coli bacteria in the ileum (P = 0.021) and in the colon (P = 0.002) digesta and tended to increase (P = 0.060) the amylase activity. The iNSP diet stimulated the physical adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract because stomach weight as percentage of BW was heavier (P = 0.004) than for the NC diet. In conclusion, the consumption of diets with higher iNSP content in the early weaning period affects the microbial colonization without reducing enzyme activity or animal performance compared with a standard weaned pig diet.

  5. The reasons for the rapid development of human technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    While playing with a two-year-old girl in Australia, Alan Macfarlane explains one reason for the rapid development of humans, namely their curiosity and desire to experiment and to imagine and make new things.

  6. Advanced Technologies, Embedded and Multimedia for Human-Centric Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Han-Chieh; Deng, Der-Jiunn; Park, James; HumanCom and EMC 2013

    2014-01-01

    The theme of HumanCom and EMC are focused on the various aspects of human-centric computing for advances in computer science and its applications, embedded and multimedia computing and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of human-centric computing. And the theme of EMC (Advanced in Embedded and Multimedia Computing) is focused on the various aspects of embedded system, smart grid, cloud and multimedia computing, and it provides an opportunity for academic, industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of embedded and multimedia computing. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in human-centric computing and embedded and multimedia computing.

  7. Human and organisational aspects of adoption of gis technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major characteristic of the diffusion and adoption of GIS technology in Botswana is localised arrangement of resources in different government agencies. After the first enthusiasm shown in late 80's, and practical results achieved in the middle 90's, the utilization of GIS systems at national level has been substantially ...

  8. Technology and human issues in reusing learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Strijker, A.

    2004-01-01

    Reusing learning objects is as old as retelling a story or making use of libraries and textbooks, and in electronic form has received an enormous new impetus because of the World Wide Web and Web technologies. Are we at the brink of changing the "shape and form of learning, ... of being able to

  9. Civil Service Human Resource Capacity and Information Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tesfaye

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... 2. Information Technology has enabled business organisations to operate at a global level. This global business operation has increased the volume of organisational activities, which led them to track and record abundant data for planning and decision. This can lead to the additional need of manpower in.

  10. [Effect of preterm infant position on weaning from mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Letícia C O; Rugolo, Lígia M S S; Crocci, Adalberto J

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effects of prone positioning on cardiorespiratory stability and weaning outcome of preterm infants during weaning from mechanical ventilation. From January to December 1999, a sample of 42 preterm infants, with birthweight position: supine position (n = 21) or prone position (n = 21). Heart rate, respiratory rate, transcutaneous oxygen saturation and ventilatory parameters were recorded every one hour. Length of the weaning process and complications were also assessed. In both groups the mean gestational age was 29 weeks, most of the patients presented very low birthweight and respiratory distress syndrome. The mean length of the weaning process was 2 days. There were no differences between the groups regarding respiratory rate, heart rate and transcutaneous oxygen saturation, however, oxygen desaturation episodes were more frequent in supine position (p = 0.009). Ventilatory parameters decreased faster and reintubation was less frequent in the prone group (4% versus 33%). No adverse effects of prone positioning were observed. These results suggest that prone position is a safe and beneficial procedure during weaning from mechanical ventilation and may contribute to weaning success in preterm infants.

  11. VWPS: A Ventilator Weaning Prediction System with Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Austin H.; Chen, Guan-Ting

    How to wean patients efficiently off mechanical ventilation continues to be a challenge for medical professionals. In this paper we have described a novel approach to the study of a ventilator weaning prediction system (VWPS). Firstly, we have developed and written three Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to predict a weaning successful rate based on the clinical data. Secondly, we have implemented two user-friendly weaning success rate prediction systems; the VWPS system and the BWAP system. Both systems could be used to help doctors objectively and effectively predict whether weaning is appropriate for patients based on the patients' clinical data. Our system utilizes the powerful processing abilities of MatLab. Thirdly, we have calculated the performance through measures such as sensitivity and accuracy for these three algorithms. The results show a very high sensitivity (around 80%) and accuracy (around 70%). To our knowledge, this is the first design approach of its kind to be used in the study of ventilator weaning success rate prediction.

  12. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Winther, K D; Secher, J O; Callesen, H

    2015-10-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 ± 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Göttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most

  13. An Alternative to Liquid Human Nature at the Crossroads of the Technological Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Santos Arnaiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the idea of an ethic of weakness, expressing distrust about the rise of exacerbated capitalist individualism that drives a technological perfectionism. The extended modernity, as uncompleted project, provides context around the strong separation between humanity and nature. Both concepts posts in relation to perfectionism of the human beings eventually devalue and even deny a more or less permanent human nature. It therefore urges return to a concept of human nature understood as the development program of a free human being, which includes a number of common elements due to genotypic and phenotypic traits, while an ontological concept of human dignity that stems from political equity of all human beings. Historical time must be rethought to make ethical, medical and legal decisions in technology with prudence and responsibility, considering that unfortunately processes undertaken are irreversible.

  14. Engineering planetary exploration systems : Integrating novel technologies and the human element using work domain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, C.; Naikar, N.; Neerincx, M.

    2008-01-01

    The realisation of sustainable space exploration and utilisation requires not only the development of novel concepts and technologies, but also their successful integration. Hardware, software, and the human element must be integrated effectively to make the dream for which these technologies were

  15. Virtual HR: The Impact of Information Technology on the Human Resource Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sharyn D.; Lepak, David P.; Bartol, Kathyrn M.

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 357 complete pairs of human resources executives and professionals from the same company showed that information technology has increased autonomy, the responsiveness of their information dissemination, and networking with other professionals; they spend more time in technology support activities. Organizational climate moderated…

  16. Baby-led Weaning: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Elisa; Jenkins, Kielyn; Mathews, Maria; Roebothan, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    To date, baby-led weaning (BLW) has not been examined in a Canadian population. This research investigated common BLW practices and compared associated knowledge and perceptions of practicing mothers and health care professionals (HCPs). Sixty-five mothers practicing BLW and 33 HCPs were surveyed using 2 online questionnaires. Mothers were recruited through the Newfoundland and Labrador BLW Facebook page and HCPs via email at 2 regional health authorities. Mothers described BLW in terms of food shape and consistency (whole, solid); however, in practice, some mothers offered puréed foods such as infant cereals. More HCPs than mothers indicated choking, inadequate energy, and iron intake as concerns. Mothers relied on the Facebook page over HCPs for BLW information and support. Although all practicing mothers would recommend BLW to others, less than half (48.5%) of HCPs would support it in their practice. Mothers following BLW vary greatly in their experiences and adherence to BLW. They view the practice and its disadvantages very differently than HCPs. Although most HCPs were aware of BLW, few were familiar with specific practices. HCPs may benefit from a greater understanding of BLW to provide guidance to the growing number of mothers following this practice.

  17. Seven Pillars of Survivability: Appropriate Technology with a Human Face

    OpenAIRE

    Corinthias Pamatang Morgana Sianipar; Kiyoshi Dowaki; Gatot Yudoko; Akbar Adhiutama

    2013-01-01

    There were evidence for the inappropriateness of just three pillars of sustainability whenengineers have attempted to construct appropriate technology for underdevelopedcommunities. Engineers from developed countries have tended to conduct technologicaladaptations by treating communities as objects, rather than engaging them as subjects ofdevelopment. As objects, communities could not decide what they wanted to be and wereeven forced into systematic development that was more likely to benefit...

  18. Technological innovations for human outposts on planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1988-01-01

    Technology developments which have applications for establishing man-tended outposts on the moon and Mars are reviewed. The development of pressurized rovers and computer-aided control, repair, and manufacturing is discussed. The possibility of utilizing aerodynamic drag by optimizing dynamic pressure to accomplish the necessary spacecraft velocity reduction for planetary orbital capture is considered and research in the development of artificial gravity is examined.

  19. Virtual and augmented reality technologies in Human Performance: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Brusque Crocetta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Today's society is influenced by Information and Communication Technologies. Toys that were once built by hand have been reinterpreted and have become highly commercialized products. In this context, games using Augmented Reality (AR and Virtual Reality (VR technologies are present in the everyday lives of children, youth and adults. Objective : To investigate how Physical Education professionals in Brazil have been making use of AR and VR games to benefit their work. Materials and methods : We only included studies that addressed exercise or physical activity using AR or VR games. We searched the databases of Virtual Health Library (VHL and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, using the words augmented reality, virtual reality, exergames, Wii and serious games. Results : Nineteen articles were included in the systematic review. The most frequently used device was the Nintendo(r Wii, with over 25 different kinds of games. With regard to the subjects of the studies, four studies were conducted with healthy individuals (mean = 65.7, three with patients with Parkinson's disease (mean = 18.0, three with elderly women (mean = 7.7 and two with patients with stroke injury (mean = 6.0. Conclusion : Many physical therapists and occupational therapists use serious games with AR or VR technologies as another work tool, especially for rehabilitation practices. The fact that these technologies are also used in Physical Education classes in Brazil indicates that electronic games are available and can be a tool that can contribute to the widespread adoption of exercise as an enjoyable form of recreation.

  20. Increasing weaning age of piglets from 4 to 7 weeks reduces stress, increases post-weaning feed intake but does not improve intestinal functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Koopmans, S.J.; Dekker, R.A.; Hoogendoorn, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that late weaning and the availability of creep feed during the suckling period compared with early weaning, improves feed intake, decreases stress and improves the integrity of the intestinal tract. In this study with 160 piglets of 16 litters, late weaning at 7

  1. An online survey of knowledge of the weaning guidelines, advice from health visitors and other factors that influence weaning timing in UK mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amanda P; Milligan, Peter; Goff, Louise M

    2014-07-01

    The UK weaning guidelines recommend the introduction of solid food at or around 6 months. The evidence suggests that knowledge of the guidelines is high, although only a small minority of parents wait until 6 months to wean. The aim of this study was to assess understanding of the UK weaning guidelines in a sample of UK parents and investigate the associations of this understanding with weaning timing, and in comparison to other influencing factors. This study conducted an online survey of UK parents. Eligible participants had weaned a child since the introduction of the current guidelines. Of 3607 participants, 86% accurately understood the guidelines. Eighty-seven per cent of health visitors were reported to have advised weaning at or around 6 months. Knowledge of the guidelines was associated with later weaning (independently of demographic factors) (P guidelines. Younger mothers (P guidelines was the most reliable predictor of early weaning (P = 0.021) together with young maternal age (P = 0.014). Following the baby-led weaning approach was the most reliable predictor of those weaning at 26 weeks, together with the Internet being the most influential source of advice. Understanding of the current weaning guidelines is high and is a key independent predictor of weaning age in this population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of pre-weaning housing in a multi-suckling system on performance and carbohydrate absorption of relatively light and heavy piglets around weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwamerongen, van S.E.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    The low feed intake and stress associated with abrupt weaning in conventional pig farming often result in poor post-weaningperformance, which is related to impaired intestinal function. We investigated effects of housing conditions before weaning onperformance around weaning of relatively light and

  3. CRISPR-Cas9 technology: applications and human disease modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ruiz, Raul; Rodriguez-Perales, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Genome engineering is a powerful tool for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and medicine. The development of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system has revolutionized the field of gene editing, thus facilitating efficient genome editing through the creation of targeted double-strand breaks of almost any organism and cell type. In addition, CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been used successfully for many other purposes, including regulation of endogenous gene expression, epigenome editing, live-cell labelling of chromosomal loci, edition of single-stranded RNA and high-throughput gene screening. The implementation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has increased the number of available technological alternatives for studying gene function, thus enabling generation of CRISPR-based disease models. Although many mechanistic questions remain to be answered and several challenges have yet to be addressed, the use of CRISPR-Cas9-based genome engineering technologies will increase our knowledge of disease processes and their treatment in the near future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Low-density microarray technologies for rapid human norovirus genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjuncti...

  5. Technological Dangers and the Potential of Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The ethical debate on social robotics has become one of the cutting edge topics of our time. When it comes to both academic and non-academic debates, the methodological framework is, with few exceptions, typically and tacitly grounded in an us-versus-them perspective. It is as though we were...... a certain kind of self-realization for the human involved....

  6. The wearable technologies of fashion and the relationship between human and nonhuman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sayuri Saga Kitamura Marini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the affinity of wearable technologies of fashion in relation to the current technological context in which the non-human activity becomes increasingly active. The conception of the internet of things and the development of ubiquitous, pervasive and sentient communication expose a favorable view to wearable technologies. Authors such as Bruno Latour, Giselle Beiguelman and André Lemos point to a symmetrical treatment of modern dualities: physical and virtual, man and machine, nature and culture, in short, human and nonhuman. This is a current of thought that suggests the combination of dualistic poles, recognizing the hybridization process.

  7. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.; Olson, Jarrod

    2011-03-17

    DHS’ Science & Technology Directorate directed PNNL to conduct an exploratory study on the domain of human trafficking in the Pacific Northwest in order to examine and identify technology and research requirements for enhancing communication, analysis, reporting, and information sharing – activities that directly support efforts to track, identify, deter, and prosecute human trafficking – including identification of potential national threats from smuggling and trafficking networks. This effort was conducted under the Knowledge Management Technologies Portfolio as part of the Integrated Federal, State, and Local/Regional Information Sharing (RISC) and Collaboration Program.

  8. The role of educational technology in the development of the human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of the human resources of the. SA Defence Force for the .... technology (probably unconventional or anti-terrorist) threat demand- ..... 14.0. Table. 1. A diagrammatic representation of the steps considered necessary to execute the action plan for human resources development in the. SADF of the year. 2000.

  9. Human Impact of Technological Innovation on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-15

    and Mr. B. Theodore S. Clarke of the staff of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, and Mr. R.E. Worrall and Mr. H.J. Staff, In-Pensioners Col. Maurice Bresson ...PP. 61, 148. 2. Christopher Foss, ed. Jane’s Armor and Artillery, 1979-1980 (London: Jane’s Publishing Co., Ltd.-, 1980, p. 554. 3. US Department of...writer and Col. Bliss. 22 22~4 Bibliography of Sources for Case Study on Improved Munitions Technologies in the Vietnam War Books Foss, Christopher

  10. Human Factors Research Conducted under the COMDAT Technology Demonstrator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Report Humansystems® Incorporated Résumé Le projet de démonstration de la technologie (PDT) d’aide aux décisions de commandement (COMDAT) avait ...COMDAT was not necessarily directly related to the development and evaluation of the TD. Its goal was to increase DRDC and industry capability to...commandement (COMDAT) avait pour objet d’étudier les technologies de fusion de données multi-sources (MSDF) et d’en faire la démonstration ainsi

  11. Personalized Development of Human Organs using 3D Printing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of o...

  12. Technology, conflict early warning systems, public health, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Phuong N; Vinck, Patrick

    2012-12-15

    Public health and conflict early warning are evolving rapidly in response to technology changes for the gathering, management, analysis and communication of data. It is expected that these changes will provide an unprecedented ability to monitor, detect, and respond to crises. One of the potentially most profound and lasting expected change affects the roles of the various actors in providing and sharing information and in responding to early warning. Communities and civil society actors have the opportunity to be empowered as a source of information, analysis, and response, while the role of traditional actors shifts toward supporting those communities and building resilience. However, by creating new roles, relationships, and responsibilities, technology changes raise major concerns and ethical challenges for practitioners, pressing the need for practical guidelines and actionable recommendations in line with existing ethical principles. Copyright © 2012 Pham and Vinck. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  13. Factors affecting the success of weaning in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Teke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Weaning failure rate was higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and many factors affect it. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the success of weaning in COPD patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV.Materials and methods: Totally 43 COPD patients who received IMV in intensive care unit were included. Clinical and laboratory results and Acute Physiology Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scores were recorded and affecting factors on weaning success were investigated.Results: In 43 patients, 25 had successful weaning (58.1%. Patients with high APACHE II score prior to intubation was found as associated with weaning failure. High Glasgow coma scale (GCS scores before entubation and weaning are associated with weaning success. Pre-weaning anxiety, positive endotracheal aspirate culture, pulmonary arterial pressure value, enteral feeding, pre-weaning tachycardia, pre-weaning cuff leaking and FiO2 values were found to be associated with weaning failure. Pre-weaning cortisol levels were associated with weaning success. In successful weaning group, measured NIF and VT in spontaneous mode were found as higher and f/VT ratio was lower compared with unsuccessful group. T-tube during the 15th and 30th minutes of the symptoms of fatigue (sweating assets were associated with weaning failure. IMV duration and longer extubation duration of weaning, and more number of t-tube insertion attempts were found as associated with failure of weaning.Conclusions: Infection in patients with COPD, the presence of anxiety, and hemodynamic and respiratory instability significantly increases the weaning failure.

  14. Increasing weaning age of piglets from 4 to 7 weeks reduces stress, increases post-weaning feed intake but does not improve intestinal functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Meulen, van der, J.; Koopmans, S.J.; Dekker, R. A.; Hoogendoorn, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that late weaning and the availability of creep feed during the suckling period compared with early weaning, improves feed intake, decreases stress and improves the integrity of the intestinal tract. In this study with 160 piglets of 16 litters, late weaning at 7 weeks of age was compared with early weaning at 4 weeks, with or without creep feeding during the suckling period, on post-weaning feed intake, plasma cortisol (as an indicator of stress) and plasma i...

  15. Melanopsin bistability: a fly's eye technology in the human retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic S Mure

    Full Text Available In addition to rods and cones, the human retina contains light-sensitive ganglion cells that express melanopsin, a photopigment with signal transduction mechanisms similar to that of invertebrate rhabdomeric photopigments (IRP. Like fly rhodopsins, melanopsin acts as a dual-state photosensitive flip-flop in which light drives both phototransduction responses and chromophore photoregeneration that bestows independence from the retinoid cycle required by rods and cones to regenerate photoresponsiveness following bleaching by light. To explore the hypothesis that melanopsin in humans expresses the properties of a bistable photopigment in vivo we used the pupillary light reflex (PLR as a tool but with methods designed to study invertebrate photoreceptors. We show that the pupil only attains a fully stabilized state of constriction after several minutes of light exposure, a feature that is consistent with typical IRP photoequilibrium spectra. We further demonstrate that previous exposure to long wavelength light increases, while short wavelength light decreases the amplitude of pupil constriction, a fundamental property of IRP difference spectra. Modelling these responses to invertebrate photopigment templates yields two putative spectra for the underlying R and M photopigment states with peaks at 481 nm and 587 nm respectively. Furthermore, this bistable mechanism may confer a novel form of "photic memory" since information of prior light conditions is retained and shapes subsequent responses to light. These results suggest that the human retina exploits fly-like photoreceptive mechanisms that are potentially important for the modulation of non-visual responses to light and highlights the ubiquitous nature of photoswitchable photosensors across living organisms.

  16. Weaning of inhaled nitric oxide: is there a best strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Ware

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO has been used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in neonates for many years. iNO was approved by the FDA in 1999 for hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF in term and near term infants, defined as > 34 weeks gestational age (GA. iNO is used for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN, secondary pulmonary hypertension caused by congenital heart disease (CHD, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS, pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, and other pathologies. iNO has its effect locally on the pulmonary vasculature and has been studied extensively regarding its effect on morbidities such as: need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, oxygen requirements, and mechanical ventilatory support. However, protocols for weaning iNO and for the duration of iNO weaning have not been studied extensively. It has been shown that an abrupt discontinuation leads to rebound pulmonary hypertension.Methods: Electronic literature search and review of published articles on the use of iNO in the neonate.Results: Electronic databases including Medline and PubMed were searched from the years 1995-2015, using the keywords "iNO", "nitric oxide", "neonate", and "weaning nitric oxide." This search revealed 2,124 articles. Articles were determined to be eligible for review if they included a specific protocol for weaning iNO, and were published in English. 16 articles with specific protocols for iNO weaning have been identified and reviewed. The studies had enrolled a total of 1,735 neonates either at term either preterm and with a mean birth weight of 3.3 kg (± 2 kg. Main diagnoses included MAS, CHD (total anomalous pulmonary venous return [TAPVR], d-transposition of the great vessels [DTGV], atrial septal defect [ASD], pulmonary atresia [PA], hypoplastic left heart syndrome [HLH], pneumonia, RDS, hyaline membrane disease (HMD, PPHN, CDH, sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia

  17. Breastfeeding and weaning in renaissance Italy: the Medici children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffra, Valentina; Fornaciari, Gino

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Exploration of the Medici Chapels in the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence, Italy, revealed the burials of nine infantile members of the Medici family. Eight children were found in the intact tomb of the last Grand Duke GianGastone (1671-1737), and another child was exhumed from the Chapel of Grand Duke Ferdinando I (1549-1609). Skeletal ages ranged from newborn to 5 years, suggesting an identification with infantile members of the family. A paleonutritional study has been performed on the bone samples of all members of the Medici family exhumed so far. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of bone collagen was used to detect the timing of the weaning process in this population. The (15)N values of the Medici children are significantly higher than those of adults, indicating that these infants were breastfed for a long time period. In particular, the levels of (15)N are high before the second year but decrease in older children, evidently after weaning, reaching the levels of adults. During the Renaissance, it was the common opinion that children should not be weaned before the second year of life. Archival documents suggest that the Medici children were never weaned before that age and, in most cases, even some months later. Combination of paleonutritional data and historical sources allowed reconstruction of the breastfeeding and weaning patterns of this aristocratic Renaissance class.

  18. Activation of respiratory muscles during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Gückler, Julia; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim; Dreher, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is a key component of weaning failure. Balancing respiratory muscle loading and unloading by applying different ventilation modes along with spontaneous breathing episodes are established weaning strategies. However, the effects of body positioning on the respiratory muscles during weaning remains unclear. This study aimed at assessing respiratory drive by surface electromyography (EMG) of the diaphragm (EMGdia) and parasternal muscles (EMGpara) in tracheotomized patients during prolonged weaning in 3 randomized body positions-supine, 30° semirecumbent, and 80° sitting-during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing. Nine patients were included for analysis. Cardiorespiratory parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, dyspnea) did not change under each condition (all P>.05). EMGpara and EMGdia did not change under mechanical ventilation (both P>.05). EMGdia changed under spontaneous breathing from supine to sitting (0.45±0.26 vs 0.32±0.19; P=.012) and between semirecumbent to sitting (0.41±0.23 vs 0.32±0.19; P=.039), whereas EMGpara did not change. This is the first study to show that body positioning influences respiratory drive to the diaphragm in tracheotomized patients with prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation during unassisted breathing. Sitting position reduces respiratory drive compared with semirecumbent and supine positioning and might therefore be favored during spontaneous breathing trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fiber sources in diets for newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets. A total of 72 piglets (36 castrated males and 36 females weaned at 21 days of age (BW 6.45±0.66 kg was distributed according to a randomized block design, for evaluation of performance, transit time, diarrhea incidence and blood parameters of piglets which received diets containing different sources of fiber. The experimental diets were: control diet - diet composed of corn, soybean meal and a source of lactose; control + 1.5% purified cellulose; control + 3% soybean hull and control + 9% citrus pulp. The inclusion of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in diets of weaned piglets did not affect the performance or transit time of diets in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the use of purified cellulose reduced incidence of diarrhea. The use of purified cellulose, soybean hull and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets does not affect performance or gastrointestinal transit time. The addition of purified cellulose promotes a beneficial effect to control the diarrhea in weaned piglets.

  20. [Investigation of adjuvant treatment for difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lijing; Li, Hongliang; Bai, Yu; Zhu, Xi

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the value of drug intervention for difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. A prospective single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. 120 patients with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation encountered in Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital from January 2008 to December 2013 were included, and the patients were divided into treatment group and control group according to random number table, with 60 cases in each group. Patients received furosemide therapy in the treatment group 3 days before weaning up to 48 hours after weaning in order to control negative liquid balance. Enema was given the day before weaning to reduce abdominal pressure. On the weaning day, all of the patients received nitroglycerin and beta blocker or cedilanid to prevent or control elevation of blood pressure and heart rate in the process of weaning. All patients in treatment group received anisodamine in small dosage 2 hours before extubation. The patients in control group received conventional treatment without drug intervention. Baseline indexes of two groups were compared, including the heart rate, respiration rate (RR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse blood oxygen saturation (SpO₂), blood gas, hemoglobin (HG), albumin (ALB) and creatinine (Cr). The main reasons of difficulty in weaning, sedative and analgesic drug selection, presence of abdominal discomfort before weaning, interval between sputum suction before extubation, liquid balance at the beginning of the investigation and at time of weaning, 24 hours and 48 hours after weaning, failures of spontaneous breathing test (SBT), length of mechanical ventilation,length of ICU stay, and total length of mechanical ventilation and total length of ICU stay during hospitalization. There was no statistically significant difference in the heart rate, RR, MAP, SpO₂, blood gas, HG, ALB, Cr at the beginning of the investigation between the two groups. The main

  1. Human interphase chromosomes: a review of available molecular cytogenetic technologies

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    Yurov Yuri B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human karyotype is usually studied by classical cytogenetic (banding techniques. To perform it, one has to obtain metaphase chromosomes of mitotic cells. This leads to the impossibility of analyzing all the cell types, to moderate cell scoring, and to the extrapolation of cytogenetic data retrieved from a couple of tens of mitotic cells to the whole organism, suggesting that all the remaining cells possess these genomes. However, this is far from being the case inasmuch as chromosome abnormalities can occur in any cell along ontogeny. Since somatic cells of eukaryotes are more likely to be in interphase, the solution of the problem concerning studying postmitotic cells and larger cell populations is interphase cytogenetics, which has become more or less applicable for specific biomedical tasks due to achievements in molecular cytogenetics (i.e. developments of fluorescence in situ hybridization -- FISH, and multicolor banding -- MCB. Numerous interphase molecular cytogenetic approaches are restricted to studying specific genomic loci (regions being, however, useful for identification of chromosome abnormalities (aneuploidy, polyploidy, deletions, inversions, duplications, translocations. Moreover, these techniques are the unique possibility to establish biological role and patterns of nuclear genome organization at suprachromosomal level in a given cell. Here, it is to note that this issue is incompletely worked out due to technical limitations. Nonetheless, a number of state-of-the-art molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e multicolor interphase FISH or interpahase chromosome-specific MCB allow visualization of interphase chromosomes in their integrity at molecular resolutions. Thus, regardless numerous difficulties encountered during studying human interphase chromosomes, molecular cytogenetics does provide for high-resolution single-cell analysis of genome organization, structure and behavior at all stages of cell cycle.

  2. Human Capital Efficiency and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study on Malaysian Technology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Azlina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between human capital efficiency and firm’s performance in Malaysian technology industry. Using accounting data, this study reviewed annual reports of all technology companies listed under Main Market and Ace Market of Bursa Malaysia in year 2009. The study applied Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM methodology developed by Ante Pulic to measure human capital efficiency. The results showed that there was not much difference in terms of human capital efficiency between the Main Market and Ace Market. Results from correlation analysis indicate that human capital efficiency has significant and positive relation with firm’s performance. Findings from this study may be useful to companies’ managers to make better decision pertaining to the proper deployment of their strategic asset, namely human capital.

  3. Cyclodextrins in Food Technology and Human Nutrition: Benefits and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyvesi, É; Vikmon, M; Szente, L

    2016-09-09

    Cyclodextrins are tasteless, odorless, nondigestible, noncaloric, noncariogenic saccharides, which reduce the digestion of carbohydrates and lipids. They have low glycemic index and decrease the glycemic index of the food. They are either non- or only partly digestible by the enzymes of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and fermented by the gut microflora. Based on these properties, cyclodextrins are dietary fibers useful for controlling the body weight and blood lipid profile. They are prebiotics, improve the intestinal microflora by selective proliferation of bifidobacteria. These antiobesity and anti-diabetic effects make them bioactive food supplements and nutraceuticals. In this review, these features are evaluated for α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins, which are the cyclodextrin variants approved by authorities for food applications. The mechanisms behind these effects are reviewed together with the applications as solubilizers, stabilizers of dietary lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, vitamins, flavonoids, carotenoids and other nutraceuticals. The recent applications of cyclodextrins for reducing unwanted components, such as trans-fats, allergens, mycotoxins, acrylamides, bitter compounds, as well as in smart active packaging of foods are also overviewed.

  4. Experimental annotation of the human genome using microarray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, D D; Schadt, E E; Armour, C D; He, Y D; Garrett-Engele, P; McDonagh, P D; Loerch, P M; Leonardson, A; Lum, P Y; Cavet, G; Wu, L F; Altschuler, S J; Edwards, S; King, J; Tsang, J S; Schimmack, G; Schelter, J M; Koch, J; Ziman, M; Marton, M J; Li, B; Cundiff, P; Ward, T; Castle, J; Krolewski, M; Meyer, M R; Mao, M; Burchard, J; Kidd, M J; Dai, H; Phillips, J W; Linsley, P S; Stoughton, R; Scherer, S; Boguski, M S

    2001-02-15

    The most important product of the sequencing of a genome is a complete, accurate catalogue of genes and their products, primarily messenger RNA transcripts and their cognate proteins. Such a catalogue cannot be constructed by computational annotation alone; it requires experimental validation on a genome scale. Using 'exon' and 'tiling' arrays fabricated by ink-jet oligonucleotide synthesis, we devised an experimental approach to validate and refine computational gene predictions and define full-length transcripts on the basis of co-regulated expression of their exons. These methods can provide more accurate gene numbers and allow the detection of mRNA splice variants and identification of the tissue- and disease-specific conditions under which genes are expressed. We apply our technique to chromosome 22q under 69 experimental condition pairs, and to the entire human genome under two experimental conditions. We discuss implications for more comprehensive, consistent and reliable genome annotation, more efficient, full-length complementary DNA cloning strategies and application to complex diseases.

  5. Human dignity and transhumanism: do anthro-technological devices have moral status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand, Fabrice

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, I focus on the concept of human dignity and critically assess whether such a concept, as used in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, is indeed a useful tool for bioethical debates. However, I consider this concept within the context of the development of emerging technologies, that is, with a particular focus on transhumanism. The question I address is not whether attaching artificial limbs or enhancing particular traits or capacities would dehumanize or undignify persons but whether nonbiological entities introduced into or attached to the human body contribute to the "augmentation" of human dignity. First, I outline briefly how the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights uses the concept of dignity. Second, I look at the possibility of a universal bioethics in relation to the concept of human dignity. Third, I examine the concept of posthuman dignity and whether the concept of human dignity as construed in the declaration has any relevance to posthuman dignity.

  6. Hygiene intervention reduces contamination of weaning food in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Sirajul; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Zaman, Rokon Uz; Hossain, Zakir; Islam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Mondal, Dinesh; Sharker, Mohammad Abu Yushuf; Islam, Khairul; Jahan, Hasin; Bhuiya, Abbas; Endtz, Hubert P; Cravioto, Alejandro; Curtis, Valerie; Touré, Ousmane; Cairncross, Sandy

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the impact of a hygiene intervention on the contamination of weaning food in Bangladesh. Sixty households were selected: 30 study and 30 control households. Samples of weaning food were collected from all the 60 households at baseline and examined for faecal coliforms (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) and Clostridium perfringens (CP) following standard procedures. After cooking, food samples were collected on three occasions before feeding. Following Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) procedures, critical control points were determined. The mothers in the 30 study households were then trained for 4 weeks in how to attain the control point conditions. Then, again the food samples were collected and analysed. At baseline, weaning foods from study and control households were heavily contaminated with FC and FS. The FC and FS counts were 1.84 log(10) and 1.92 log(10) colony-forming unit (cfu)/g, respectively, in the study households, and 0.86 log(10) and 1.33 log(10)  cfu/g, respectively, in the control households in the first feeding. After the intervention, the FC and FS counts in study households had dropped to 0.10 log(10) and 0.09 log(10)  cfu/g, respectively, a statistically significant reduction (P food hygiene. A hygiene intervention following the HACCP approach reduced the weaning food contamination significantly. Awareness building among mothers about weaning food hygiene could be an important intervention for preventing weaning food-related diarrhoea in Bangladesh. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Oxygen weaning after hospital discharge in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jennifer; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Collaco, Joseph M

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, approximately 12,000 preterm infants are diagnosed with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and many of these infants require supplemental oxygen after initial hospital discharge. In children with BPD we sought to identify factors associated with supplemental oxygen use after initial hospital discharge, factors associated with duration of supplemental oxygen use, and methods used to wean off supplemental oxygen in the home environment. All subjects (n = 420) with the diagnosis of BPD were recruited from a single center Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Subject information was obtained from patient history records, patient demographics, and caregiver questionnaires. Younger gestational age and having a Nissen fundoplication were associated with home supplemental oxygen use in subjects with BPD. Of the 154 subjects who received supplemental oxygen at home, 38% received flows ≤1/8 LPM, 30% received flows >1/8 LPM and ≤1/4 LPM, 21% received flows >1/4 LPM and ≤1/2 LPM, and 11% received flows >1/2 LPM. Among subjects receiving ≤1/8 LPM of oxygen, the median age of weaning off oxygen was 10.1 months, but increased depending on level of oxygen flow at initial outpatient visit. Of the 137 subjects weaned off of oxygen during the study period, weaning was not supervised by a physician in 32.1% of subjects. Home supplemental oxygen use is common in infants diagnosed with BPD. In this study, the median age of weaning off supplemental oxygen was 10.1 months after initial hospital discharge. Unsupervised weaning of supplemental oxygen occurred in 32.1% of subjects with BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:1206-1211. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cognitive Technologies: The Design of Joint Human-Machine Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, David D.

    1985-01-01

    This article explores the implications of one type of cognitive technology, techniques and concepts to develop joint human-machine cognitive systems, for the application of computational technology by examining the joint cognitive system implicit in a hypothetical computer consultant that outputs some form of problem solution. This analysis reveals some of the problems can occur in cognitive system design-e.g., machine control of the interaction, the danger of a responsibility-authority doubl...

  9. Teaching medical humanities in the digital world: affordances of technology-enhanced learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Sandra Joy; Day, Giskin

    2014-12-01

    Medical humanities courses are typically taught in face-to-face teaching environments, but now medical humanities educators, alongside educators from other disciplines, are facing shifts in higher education towards online (and sometimes open) courses. For the medical humanities educator, there is limited guidance regarding how technology-enhanced learning design can support the learning outcomes associated with medical humanities. This article aims to provide useful direction for such educators on how digital technologies can be used through learner-focused pedagogies. Specific examples are provided as to how the affordances of Web 2.0 and other tools can be realised in innovative ways to help achieve skills development within the medical humanities. The guidance, alongside the practical suggestions for implementation, can provide important conceptual background for medical humanities educators who wish to embrace technology-enhanced learning, and reconceptualise or redesign medical humanities for an online or blended teaching environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of a Provincial Prolonged-Ventilation Weaning Centre: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing numbers of critically ill patients require prolonged mechanical ventilation and experience difficulty with weaning. Specialized centres may facilitate weaning through focused interprofessional expertise with an emphasis on rehabilitation.

  11. Non-invasive Mechanic Ventilation During the “Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ünsel,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Weaning of the patients from mechanical ventilation is a clinically important subject. Recently, applications of non-invasive mechanic ventilation (NIV are increasing in post extubation respiratory failure. Studies show that NIV is effective in the weaning of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, presenting with hypercapneic respiratory failure and in the attacks of other chronic respiratory failure, but efficacy and reliability in the other patient group is limited. NIV must be applied by the experienced team in the selected patient group.

  12. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  13. Upgrading pretransplant human islet culture technology requires human serum combined with media renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr-Conte, Julie; Vandewalle, Brigitte; Moerman, Ericka; Lukowiak, Bruno; Gmyr, Valery; Arnalsteen, Laurent; Caiazzo, Robert; Sterkers, Adrien; Hubert, Thomas; Vantyghem, Marie Christine; Pattou, François

    2010-05-15

    BACKGROUND.: The original Edmonton protocol used fresh islets, but for obvious logistic advantages most transplant centers have implemented pretransplant culture in human albumin. The aim of this study was to improve current pretransplant human islet culture techniques. METHODS.: Clinical-grade purified human islets from a total of 24 donors were directly resuspended after isolation in CMRL 1066-based media at 37 degrees C, and media additions and renewal were tested. At days 1 and 5 of culture, in vitro quality controls included islet viability, insulin content and function, apoptosis, and in vivo islet potency assay in nude mice. RESULTS.: Replacing human albumin with human AB serum improved 1- and 5-day preservation of islet function and viability which was further enhanced with antioxidant Stem Ease, leading to the iCulture medium (enriched CMRL: pyruvate, zinc sulfate, insulin, transferrin, selenium, 2.5% human AB serum and Stem Ease). Major damage occurs in the first day of culture and frequent media renewal (25% vol/hr) in this period further improved viability, apoptosis, islet recovery, and function in vitro and in vivo, compared with only changing medium after overnight culture. CONCLUSIONS.: The described human islet culture technique (iCulture medium+renewal) seems to be the best choice for clinical human islet culture when short (1 day) or long (5 days) periods are used. Media choice and dilution play a major role in the function and survival of human islets in culture.

  14. Defining the Relationship Between Human Error Classes and Technology Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Rantanen, Eas M.

    2003-01-01

    The modus operandi in addressing human error in aviation systems is predominantly that of technological interventions or fixes. Such interventions exhibit considerable variability both in terms of sophistication and application. Some technological interventions address human error directly while others do so only indirectly. Some attempt to eliminate the occurrence of errors altogether whereas others look to reduce the negative consequences of these errors. In any case, technological interventions add to the complexity of the systems and may interact with other system components in unforeseeable ways and often create opportunities for novel human errors. Consequently, there is a need to develop standards for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the biggest benefit to flight safety as well as to mitigate any adverse ramifications. The purpose of this project was to help define the relationship between human error and technological interventions, with the ultimate goal of developing a set of standards for evaluating or measuring the potential benefits of new human error fixes.

  15. Investigation of Virtual Digital Human and Robotic Device Technology Merger Complimented by Haptics and Autostereoscopic Displays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovations conform precisely to the technology needs described in Subtopic T5.02, Robotics and Virtual Digital Human Technologies. ?Two potential areas...

  16. Effect of pre-weaning solid feed and milk intake on caecal content characteristics and performance of rabbits around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to know the effect of different solid feed and milk intake during suckling on performance around weaning and on caecal content characteristics at weaning. In order to obtain different intakes of milk and solid feed, 13 litters of pregnant females (PF inseminated the day after delivery and 14 litters of non-pregnant females (NPF were compared. At birth the litters were equalized at eight pups and during lactation dead pups were replaced by pups of the same age from nursing does. Compared to the PF group, rabbits in the NPF group had a higher milk intake (26.0 versus 21.4 g/day; P < 0.01 and lower solid feed intake (9.1 versus 11.5 g/day; P < 0.01 between 20 and 28 days of age. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in weight gain before and post-weaning (28-49 days. At weaning, the rabbits in group PF showed higher values in caecal content (g 26.3 versus 22.6; P < 0.05 and volatile fatty acids (mmol/l 52.2 versus 43.6; P < 0.01 and lower values in empty caecal weight (g 7.18 versus 7.78; P < 0.05, C3 (6.4 versus 9.3%; P < 0.01 and C3/C4 ratio (0.39 versus 0.63; P < 0.01 than the group NPF. On the basis of the above results, it may be concluded that the quantity of solid feed and milk intake before weaning influenced the charac- teristics of the caecal content, but not the performance of rabbits around weaning.

  17. Political Minimalism and Social Debates: The Case of Human-Enhancement Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alcázar, Javier

    2017-09-01

    A faulty understanding of the relationship between morality and politics encumbers many contemporary debates on human enhancement. As a result, some ethical reflections on enhancement undervalue its social dimensions, while some social approaches to the topic lack normative import. In this essay, I use my own conception of the relationship between ethics and politics, which I call "political minimalism," in order to support and strengthen the existing social perspectives on human-enhancement technologies.

  18. The ecological imperative and its application to ethical issues in human genetic technology

    OpenAIRE

    W. Malcolm Byrnes

    2003-01-01

    As a species, we are on the cusp of being able to alter that which makes us uniquely human, our genome. Two new genetic technologies, embryo selection and germline engineering, are either in use today or may be developed in the future. Embryo selection acts to alter the human gene pool, reducing genetic diversity, while germline engineering will have the ability to alter directly the genomes of engineered individuals. Our genome has come to be what it is through an evolutionary process extend...

  19. Expanding the Human Performance Technologist's Repertoire: Knowledge Management, Organizational Learning and Human Performance Technology Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Mary Ann

    Successful performance improvement efforts draw from such disciplines as psychology and systems theory, and from the fields of instructional design and human resource development. Both knowledge management and organizational learning are valuable additions to the human performance technologist's repertoire for performance analysis and intervention…

  20. Diet and weaning age affect the growth and condition of Dover sole (Solea solea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diet type (frozen Artemia biomass and two inert diets: micro-bound [MB] and micro-extruded [ME] and two weaning ages (early weaning and late weaning, 50 and 64 days after hatching, respectively were studied in Solea solea larvae. The experiment lasted 56 and 42 days for early and late weaning, respectively. The mortality results showed the highest values for late weaning (39% in the Artemia treatment. No significant differences in mortality were observed between the inert diets. The final dry weight values were higher for late weaning than for early weaning. At both weaning ages, fish receiving the same treatments had similar tendencies for dry weight and standard length. Fish fed with MB presented significantly higher dry weight and standard length, followed by ME, while the lowest values at both weaning ages were recorded for the Artemia treatment. Similar amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acid fractions among the inert diets were reflected by the absence of significant differences in the susceptibility to oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances testing; however, significant differences were found in carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents of whole-body homogenates for both early and late weaning. At the end of the experiment no significant differences in biochemical contents were observed between the two inert diets. The results of this study suggest that weaning starting on day 50 (early weaning, using a good quality inert diet, leads to higher survival, growth and fish condition.

  1. Why are babies weaned early? Data from a prospective population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C M; Parkinson, K N; Drewett, R F

    2004-09-01

    The recommended age of introduction of solids food to the diet of infants (weaning) has recently been increased in the UK to 6 months, but most babies are still weaned before the age of 4 months. To examine what predicts the age of weaning and how this relates to weight gain and morbidity using data from a population based cohort. Parents of 923 term infants born in a defined geographical area and recruited shortly after birth were studied prospectively using postal questionnaires, weaning diaries, and routinely collected weights, of whom 707 (77%) returned data on weaning. The median age of first weaning solids was 3.5 months, with 21% commencing before 3 months and only 6% after 4 months of age. Infants progressed quickly to regular solids with few reported difficulties, even when weaned early. Most parents did not perceive professional advice or written materials to be a major influence. The strongest independent predictors of earlier age at weaning were rapid weight gain to age 6 weeks, lower socioeconomic status, the parents' perception that their baby was hungry, and feeding mode. Weight gain after 6 weeks was unrelated to age of weaning. Babies weaned before 3 months, compared to after 4 months, had an increased risk of diarrhoea. Social factors had some influence on when weaning solids were introduced, but the great majority of all infants were established on solids before the previously recommended age of 4 months, without difficulty. Earlier weaning was associated with an increased rate of minor morbidity.

  2. Effects of weaning age on survival and growth factors of Heterotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two independent series of weaning experiments were conducted under natural conditions. The first experiment (early weaning stage) included four treatments, namely: T1 (control) = larvae fed only Artemia nauplii, and T2, T3, T4 corresponding to three weaning ages of 11, 13, and 15 days after hatch (DAH), respectively.

  3. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  4. IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENT ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO YENEPOYA UNIVERSITY, DERALAKATTE IN MANGALORE

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abhitha; Dr. Yathish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the impact of information technology on Human Resource Management. The study was guided by three distinctive objectives related to the topic that is to know the demographic details of employees, to find out the impact of information technology on human resource management and to know the satisfaction level of employees towards the benefits of information technology on human resource management. The study employed descriptive research design. Primary and sec...

  5. Genome engineering through CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the human germline and pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassena, R; Heindryckx, B; Peco, R; Pennings, G; Raya, A; Sermon, K; Veiga, A

    2016-06-01

    With the recent development of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 genome editing technology, the possibility to genetically manipulate the human germline (gametes and embryos) has become a distinct technical possibility. Although many technical challenges still need to be overcome in order to achieve adequate efficiency and precision of the technology in human embryos, the path leading to genome editing has never been simpler, more affordable, and widespread. In this narrative review we seek to understand the possible impact of CRISR/Cas9 technology on human reproduction from the technical and ethical point of view, and suggest a course of action for the scientific community. This non-systematic review was carried out using Medline articles in English, as well as technical documents from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority and reports in the media. The technical possibilities of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology with regard to human reproduction are analysed based on results obtained in model systems such as large animals and laboratory rodents. Further, the possibility of CRISPR/Cas9 use in the context of human reproduction, to modify embryos, germline cells, and pluripotent stem cells is reviewed based on the authors' expert opinion. Finally, the possible uses and consequences of CRISPR/cas9 gene editing in reproduction are analysed from the ethical point of view. We identify critical technical and ethical issues that should deter from employing CRISPR/Cas9 based technologies in human reproduction until they are clarified. Overcoming the numerous technical limitations currently associated with CRISPR/Cas9 mediated editing of the human germline will depend on intensive research that needs to be transparent and widely disseminated. Rather than a call to a generalized moratorium, or banning, of this type of research, efforts should be placed on establishing an open, international, collaborative and regulated research

  6. Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

  7. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  8. Genetic parameters for weaning weight of Kenyan Boran cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters were estimated for weaning weight (WW) in Kenya Boran cattle using animal models that assumed non-zero direct-maternal genetic covariance. In addition to the direct and maternal genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental and sire by herd-year interaction effects were tested. Two datasets ...

  9. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  10. Modern developments in early weaning of pigs | Bellis | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (1973) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Modern developments in early weaning of pigs.

  11. Changes in the viscosity and energy density of weaning maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of replacing 25% of the basic maize flour with groundnut paste (w/w) and/or 10% of the liquid ingredients with fresh dairy milk (v/v) on the viscosity and energy density of weaning maize porridge was investigated in a 2• fractional factorial experiment. Other factors investigated included (i) particle size of the flour (ii) ...

  12. Estimated genetic trends for weaning weight in three Dorper lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weaning daily gain in the feedlot as a percentage of the mean. E = Feed efficiency in the feedlot as a percentage of the mean. (Els er a/., 1985). Group 3: Animals were selected according to breed standards. (Dorpers Sheep Breeder's Association of ...

  13. Weaning strategies to improve the performance of sows and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restricted suckling resulted in an increased creep feed intake by the piglets. Piglets that were suckled once a day consumed 8.76 kg creep feed during the experimental period compared to 8.49, 8.35 and 8.21 kg for split weaning, twice a day suckling and the control, respectively. All intakes were significantly different.

  14. Growth Rate and Health Status of Weaned Rabbits Fed Ensiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 6 week feeding experiment, twenty five New Zealand white breed of weaned rabbits, with an average age of 8-10 weeks were used to assess the effect of ensiled water hyacinth (WH) with different additives on growth rate and blood parameters of the animals. The animals were randomly allotted to five dietary groups, ...

  15. Evaluation of suckling and post weaning practices for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    at a single time in the villages, since they are fully dependent on the availability of a market to sell their piglets in the local weekly market. Considering an advantage of the progressive weaning method it is desirable to find a method of allowing this to continue offering better reproductive efficiency of sows. Several studies ...

  16. Acrylamide neurotoxicity on the cerebrum of weaning rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-min Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on acrylamide-induced toxicity in adult rodents, but neurotoxicity in weaning rats has not been investigated. To explore the neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on the developing brain, weaning rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg acrylamide for 4 consecutive weeks. No obvious neurotoxicity was observed in weaning rats in the low-dose acrylamide group (5 mg/kg. However, rats from the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups (15 and 30 mg/kg had an abnormal gait. Furthermore, biochemical tests in these rats demonstrated that glutamate concentration was significantly reduced, and γ-aminobutyric acid content was significantly increased and was dependent on acrylamide dose. Immunohistochemical staining showed that in the cerebral cortex, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid decarboxylase and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased remarkably in the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups. These results indicate that in weaning rats, acrylamide is positively associated with neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which may correlate with upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and subsequent neuronal degeneration after the initial acrylamide exposure.

  17. 191 Weaning Practices and Nutritional Status of Infants in Isoko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    It was observed that some of the infants had normal nutritional status. Others were malnourished. It was recommended among others that the mothers should be encouraged to wean their babies with legumes, green leafy vegetables, soymilk, fish and fruits to enhance their nutritional status. Introduction. The first few years of ...

  18. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Nie, Yangfan; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhichang; Fan, Qiwen; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia) significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of two genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium) significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida) significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  19. Short Communication Growth of post-weaning abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of five formulated feeds supplemented with fresh wild seaweed on the growth of post-weaning juvenile abalone Haliotis midae (6–20 mm shell length) was investigated by means of a growth trial at a commercial abalone farm over a period of 11 months. The experiment included 10 diet treatments with two ...

  20. PEDIATRICIANS' REPRESENTATIONS ON DAIRY ALTERNATIVES WHEN WEANING IS UNAVOIDABLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarubbi, Vicente; Muylaert, Camila Junqueira; Bastos, Isabella Teixeira; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Leone, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    To analyze pediatricians' representations on the nutritional alternatives that are adopted when weaning becomes inevitable. This is a mixed cross-sectional analytical study with probabilistic sampling. Fifty-seven randomly selected pediatricians were interviewed with the use of a semi-structured script for thematic analysis. The technique of free evocations was used, and the terms were processed using software EVOC 2005. The thematic categories were established on software NVivo10, and their co-occurrence matrix was exported and analyzed in terms of their simple similarity hierarchy on software CHIC. In the pediatricians' representations, whole milk was cited as a foodstuff with high allergenic risk (35.1%) and nutritionally inappropriate, and they did not recommend its use if weaning occurred before 1 year of age. The infant formula, referred by 98.3% of the pediatricians as the best alternative at the moment of weaning, was cited by 38.1% of them owing to its nutritional adequacy. The points quoted as unfavorable to the use of the formula were the price, the possibility of causing allergy and the risk of the inadequate use of such a highly industrialized product. The pediatricians' representations show that they are sensitive to the importance of breast-feeding and at the same time, to the sociocultural difficulties inherent in the practice. Generally speaking, the interviewed pediatricians recommend the use of milk formulas, and not of whole cow's milk, if weaning occurs before the end of the first year of life.

  1. Changes in Certain Serum and Faeces Parameters in Weaned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in Certain Serum and Faeces Parameters in Weaned Piglets as a Response to Nutritional Stress. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The authors conclude that providing dietary protein at a particular level (diet 1), while maintaining AAs at normal level, limits faecal nitrogenous content without significantly ...

  2. Physiotherapy contributions to weaning and extubation of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Response rate was 43% (n=184). The majority of respondents (n=135, 73%) 'never' or 'seldom' got involved in decision-making to wean patients from MV; a minority (n=8, 4%) were 'routinely' involved in decision-making. Some respondents (n=54, 29%) performed extubation 'often' or 'routinely'. The majority used ...

  3. Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure for weaning with tracheostomy tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, Willem; Aarts, Leon P. H. J.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; Delwig, Hans; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In patients who are weaned with a tracheostomy tube ( TT), continuous positive airway pressure ( CPAP) is frequently used. Dedicated CPAP systems or ventilators with bulky tubing are usually applied. However, CPAP can also be effective without a ventilator by the disposable Bous-signac

  4. Weaning from the ventilator in patients with respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.W. van den Berg (Bart)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWeaning from the ventilator is the gradual withdrawal of mechanical ventilatory support. Mechanical ventilation is well-accepted as rescue therapy in patients with life-threatening respiratory failure. As this treatment is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, ventilatory

  5. Nutritional strategy affects gut wall integrity in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, J.M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Weaning is a stressful event for pigs and induces changes in the gut integrity of pigs. Feed intake is a very important determinant for gut integrity. In this thesis the effect of nutritional strategies (with regard to feed intake level and physical structure of the feed) on changes in gut

  6. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Nie, Yangfan; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhichang; Fan, Qiwen; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia) significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of two genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium) significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida) significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants. PMID:27853453

  7. Nutrient Analysis of Indigenous Fortified Baby Weaning Foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Complementary food blends based on some cereals and legumes that are sold in. Plateau State, Nigeria were formulated for baby weaning foods and were analyzed. The cereals used included Zea mays (white corn), Pennisetum typhoides (millet) and. Digitaria exilis (acha). The legumes included Voandzeia ...

  8. Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans were carried out. Cereals (wheat and millet) were malted for the period of 144 hours and further fermented for 48 hours by natural fermentation. The millet, wheat and locust bean flours were mixed together in the ratio ...

  9. Variability in eating behavior throughout the weaning period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, M.W.G.; Hunnius, S.; Van Geert, P. L. C.

    During the introduction of solid food (usually indicated as the weaning period), infant and caregiver have to adjust their feeding interactions to a completely changed feeding context. In this paper, we argue that these adjustments can be seen as a complex process in which many factors are involved.

  10. Breast-feeding and weaning practices in Venda, 1990 | Zollner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast-feeding and weaning practices in Venda, 1990. ... Journal Home > Vol 83, No 8 (1993) > ... and duration of breast-feeding alllong Venda mothers as well as the foods that Venda children commonly ate in their first 2 years of life. Nearly ...

  11. Haematological profile and serum biochemical indices of weaned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the haematological profile and serum biochemical indices of rabbits fed pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaves as feed supplement to a corn – soybean mealbasal diet. The study involved thirty six (36) cross bred (New Zealand White X Chinchilla) mixed sex weaned rabbits of five - six ...

  12. Nutritional, pasting and sensory properties of a weaning food from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective use of readily available and inexpensive sources of protein and micronutrients has become a major focus of research in recent years. This study sought to provide a nutritionally adequate and culturally acceptable weaning food for infants, as well as tap the potential of broken rice fraction as an alternative use ...

  13. Genetic parameter estimates for weaning weight of Boran cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrislukovian Wasike

    Abstract. Genetic parameters were estimated for weaning weight (WW) in Kenya Boran cattle using animal models that assumed non-zero direct-maternal genetic covariance. In addition to the direct and maternal genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental and sire by herd-year interaction effects were tested. Two.

  14. Nutrient Analysis of Indigenous Fortified Baby Weaning Foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary food blends based on some cereals and legumes that are sold in Plateau State, Nigeria were formulated for baby weaning foods and were analyzed. The cereals used included Zea mays (white corn), Pennisetum typhoides (millet) and Digitaria exilis (acha). The legumes included Voandzeia subterranean ...

  15. Spontaneous Breathing Trial a Reliable Method for Weaning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsi Gaffari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Mechanical ventilation may be lifesaving intervention,It can be associated with complications,Thus,successful weaning is constitutive.One of the factors which is  important in successful weaning is  method of weaning. It is shown that  weaning is conducted successfully by using Spontaneous Breathing Trial (SBT through T-piece and pressure support (PS ventilation.But few studies have not accepted it.In this study,we evaluated the role of  SBT in extubation of patients in pediatric intensive care.  Materials and Methods In a cross sectional and analytical study, three hundred sixty  patients  with adequate gas exchange (indicated by PaO2 higher than 60 mm/Hg while FIO2 of 0.40 or less (or PaO2 ∕ FIO2ratio> 300 were enrolled. Patients underwent a 2-hours trial of spontaneous breathing with pressure support ventilation.They were monitored during the test for 2 hours and were classified as failing the test if at any time in the 2-hours period ,there was tachypnea , excessive work of breathing,Tachycardia and SPO2

  16. Estimated genetic trends for weaning weight in three Dorper lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three selection groups were derived from one parent Dorper flock. Each group consisted of about 150 ewes until 1970. after which it was reduced to. 120 ewes. Replacement ewes and rams were chosen according to the following criteria: Group 1: Both ewe and ram replacaments were selected for weaning weight ...

  17. Physiotherapy contributions to weaning and extubation of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deconditioning and muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, increased risk for morbidity and mortality, prolonged intensive care ... MV support too quickly, however, may result in fatigue or cardiovascular instability, either of which may delay the weaning ..... DOI:10.1136/bmj.c7237. 5. Martin UJ, Hincapie L, Nimchuk M, et al.

  18. Genomics and metabolomics of post-weaning return to estrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weaning-to-estrus interval is a multifaceted trait that has the potential to substantially improve production efficiency in today's global swine industry, if variation in this measure can be reduced. Systems-biology approaches should help close the knowledge gap and increase selection tools and ...

  19. Astrovirus epidemiologically linked to pre-weaning diarrhoea in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, L.; Chriél, Mariann; Dietz, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    and Sweden to investigate whether enteric virus infections! may be a risk factor in the development of pre-weaning diarrhoea. Tissue samples from the enteric tract of 180 sacrificed mink kits were analysed histologically. Faecal contents were examined by electron microscopy (EM). Astrovirus was detected...

  20. Weaning strategies to improve the performance of sows and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The effect of restricted suckling and split weaning on the reproductive performance of dams and subsequent performance of their litters was studied in an experiment involving 48 Landrace x Large White sows of second and third parity. The sows and their litters were allocated to four treatments as follows:.

  1. Evolution of human factors research and studies of health information technologies: the role of patient safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M. C.; Borycki, E.; Carayon, P.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Pelayo, S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this survey paper is to present and explain the impact of recent regulations and patient safety initiatives (EU, US and Canada) on Human Factors (HF)/Usability studies and research focusing on Health Information Technology (HIT). The authors have selected the most prominent of these

  2. Mode 2 in action. Working across sectors to create a Center for Humanities and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyatt, S.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines recent developments in Amsterdam to establish a Center for Humanities and Technology (CHAT). The project is a collaboration between public research institutions and a private partner. To date, a White Paper has been produced that sets out a shared research agenda addressing

  3. Promising Practices in Higher Education: Art Education and Human Rights Using Information, Communication Technologies (ICT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanna; Cap, Orest

    2014-01-01

    Promising pedagogical practices is described in relation to incorporating ICT (Information, Communication and Technologies) with the study of Human Rights issues in Visual Arts Education for teacher candidates. As part of a course, "Senior Years Art," students at the Faculty of Education, University of Manitoba during 2013-2014…

  4. Information Technology Applications on Human Resources Management Functions in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsawafy, Qais Abdulkadum Kahalf

    2013-01-01

    The existing bond between human resources (HR) that team up in a business enterprise and the "real medium" information technology (IT) itself appears in the moment that the relationship is generated independently of the kind of enterprise and the relationship established between them. In today's competitive business world, companies who…

  5. O corpo, o desenvolvimento humano e as tecnologias Body human development and technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afonso Antônio Machado; Marcelo Callegari; Altair Moioli

    2011-01-01

    ... ações que validem seus princípios. O estudo usa o MSN para coletar os dados aqui analisados.The aim of this work is to study and analyze the relationships among body, technology and human development...

  6. The Contributions of Digital Communications Technology to Human Rights Education: A Case Study of Amnesty International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Rebecca Joy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the need for critical assessment and evaluation of human rights education (HRE) programs and activities, especially newer initiatives that incorporate the use of digital information and communications technology (ICT). It provides an in-depth case study of the use of digital ICT in Amnesty International's HRE efforts,…

  7. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  8. Development of Human Resources Using New Technologies in Long-Life Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micu Bogdan Ghilic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT offer new opportunities to reinvent the education and to make people and makes learning more fun and contemporary but poses many problems to educational institutions. Implementation of ICT determines major structural changes in the organizations and mental switch from bureaucratic mentality to customer-oriented one. In this paper I try to evaluate methods of developing the lifelong learning programs, impact to human resources training and development and the impact of this process on educational institutions. E-learning usage in training the human resources can make a new step in development of the education institutions, human resources and companies.

  9. The Development of Human Capacity in Malawi: the Role of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampota, Dorothy; Thompson, Jeff; Wikeley, Felicity

    2009-01-01

    Faced with accelerating poverty, the Malawi government has re-awakened its commitment to the development of human capacity and the role of development in this context. This paper explores the relationship between development and science and technology. It goes on to review the country's science and technology needs and how these justify taking developmental action. It concludes that strategies designed to increase access to education should not be limited to the primary sector, but should also include secondary curricula and university science and technology programmes. Drawing on the arguments in the article and personal experience, the authors suggest promoting the development of human capacity in Malawi by creating special "science schools" in the secondary sector and increasing the number of scholarships for university science students.

  10. Humanity and Environment Co-influence in the Shadow of Technological Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezdina, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    Today one of the most important issues is the search for controlled ways of sustainable development of civilization, society, and a human. Previously, the development of society was determined by natural and evolutionary factors based on the principle of natural selection of living organisms and populations. However, as social institutions are developing, the technological factors of development, determined by the ideas about this phenomenon - the special arrangement of productive forces and the need to protect or change the environment, began to appear. The end of the 20th century was marked by the realization of a new, universal form of economic and technological synthesis - convergence, which, in the process of developing science and improving technology, became so comprehensive and widespread that today it can be called the force that transforms the environment. In this regard, it is convergent technologies that become the focus and the basis for research of the processes uniting the main spheres of human activity - science, society and technology, which will lead to a new form of interaction with the environment, conditioned not only by scientific and technological changes and social factors, but also new organizational forms of their interaction.

  11. Weaning practices among pastoralists: New evidence of infant feeding patterns from Bronze Age Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca Miller, Alicia; Hanks, Bryan K; Judd, Margaret; Epimakhov, Andrey; Razhev, Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates infant feeding practices through stable carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotopic analyses of human bone collagen from Kamennyi Ambar 5, a Middle Bronze Age cemetery located in central Eurasia. The results presented are unique for the time period and region, as few cemeteries have been excavated to reveal a demographic cross-section of the population. Studies of weaning among pastoral societies are infrequent and this research adds to our knowledge of the timing, potential supplementary foods, and cessation of breastfeeding practices. Samples were collected from 41 subadults (nursing) that began at 6 months of age, occurred over several years of early childhood, and was completed by 4 years of age. Our results indicate that weaning was a multi-stage process that was unique among late prehistoric pastoralist groups in Eurasia that were dependent on milk products as a supplementary food. Our discussion centers on supporting this hypothesis with modern information on central and east Eurasian herding societies including the age at which complementary foods are introduced, the types of complementary foods, and the timing of the cessation of breastfeeding. Integral to this work is the nature of pastoral economies and their dependence on animal products, the impact of complementary foods on nutrition and health, and how milk processing may have affected nutrition content and digestibility of foods. This research on Eurasian pastoralists provides insights into the complexities of weaning among prehistoric pastoral societies as well as the potential for different complementary foods to be incorporated into infant diets in the past. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Nasr-Eldin M; El-Sebaie, Ali; Hammad, Hammad Zaghloul

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8) weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6) weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned), and buffalo calves (n=4) weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned). Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning). The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW) post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift). There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (pweaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) and growth rate. Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness) is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological characters of growth suggest that IGF-1 is a reliable indicator for assessing metabolic status of individual calves.

  13. Patterns of Sedation Weaning in Critically Ill Children Recovering From Acute Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Kaitlin M; Asaro, Lisa A; Franck, Linda S; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q

    2016-01-01

    To characterize sedation weaning patterns in typical practice settings among children recovering from critical illness. A descriptive secondary analysis of data that were prospectively collected during the prerandomization phase (January to July 2009) of a clinical trial of sedation management. Twenty-two PICUs across the United States. The sample included 145 patients, aged 2 weeks to 17 years, mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure who received at least five consecutive days of opioid exposure. None. Group comparisons were made between patients with an intermittent weaning pattern, defined as a 20% or greater increase in daily opioid dose after the start of weaning, and the remaining patients defined as having a steady weaning pattern. Demographic and clinical characteristics, tolerance to sedatives, and iatrogenic withdrawal symptoms were evaluated. Sixty-six patients (46%) were intermittently weaned; 79 patients were steadily weaned. Prior to weaning, intermittently weaned patients received higher peak and cumulative doses and longer exposures to opioids and benzodiazepines, demonstrated more sedative tolerance (58% vs 41%), and received more chloral hydrate and barbiturates compared with steadily weaned patients. During weaning, intermittently weaned patients assessed for withdrawal had a higher incidence of Withdrawal Assessment Tool-version 1 scores of greater than or equal to 3 (85% vs 46%) and received more sedative classes compared with steadily weaned patients. This study characterizes sedative administration practices for pediatric patients prior to and during weaning from sedation after critical illness. It provides a novel methodology for describing weaning in an at-risk pediatric population that may be helpful in future research on weaning strategies to prevent iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome.

  14. Leveraging Health Care Simulation Technology for Human Factors Research: Closing the Gap Between Lab and Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Dong, Yue; Halamek, Louis P; Rosen, Michael A; Taekman, Jeffrey M; Rice, John

    2016-11-01

    We describe health care simulation, designed primarily for training, and provide examples of how human factors experts can collaborate with health care professionals and simulationists-experts in the design and implementation of simulation-to use contemporary simulation to improve health care delivery. The need-and the opportunity-to apply human factors expertise in efforts to achieve improved health outcomes has never been greater. Health care is a complex adaptive system, and simulation is an effective and flexible tool that can be used by human factors experts to better understand and improve individual, team, and system performance within health care. Expert opinion is presented, based on a panel delivered during the 2014 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Health Care Symposium. Diverse simulators, physically or virtually representing humans or human organs, and simulation applications in education, research, and systems analysis that may be of use to human factors experts are presented. Examples of simulation designed to improve individual, team, and system performance are provided, as are applications in computational modeling, research, and lifelong learning. The adoption or adaptation of current and future training and assessment simulation technologies and facilities provides opportunities for human factors research and engineering, with benefits for health care safety, quality, resilience, and efficiency. Human factors experts, health care providers, and simulationists can use contemporary simulation equipment and techniques to study and improve health care delivery. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Design of admission medication reconciliation technology: a human factors approach to requirements and prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesselroth, Blake J; Adams, Kathleen; Tallett, Stephanie; Wood, Scott D; Keeling, Amy; Cheng, Karen; Church, Victoria L; Felder, Robert; Tran, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Our objectives were to (1) develop an in-depth understanding of the workflow and information flow in medication reconciliation, and (2) design medication reconciliation support technology using a combination of rapid-cycle prototyping and human-centered design. Although medication reconciliation is a national patient safety goal, limitations both of physical environment and in workflow can make it challenging to implement durable systems. We used several human factors techniques to gather requirements and develop a new process to collect a medication history at hospital admission. We completed an ethnography and time and motion analysis of pharmacists in order to illustrate the processes used to reconcile medications. We then used the requirements to design prototype multimedia software for collecting a bedside medication history. We observed how pharmacists incorporated the technology into their physical environment and documented usability issues. Admissions occurred in three phases: (1) list compilation, (2) order processing, and (3) team coordination. Current medication reconciliation processes at the hospital average 19 minutes to complete and do not include a bedside interview. Use of our technology during a bedside interview required an average of 29 minutes. The software represents a viable proof-of-concept to automate parts of history collection and enhance patient communication. However, we discovered several usability issues that require attention. We designed a patient-centered technology to enhance how clinicians collect a patient's medication history. By using multiple human factors methods, our research team identified system themes and design constraints that influence the quality of the medication reconciliation process and implementation effectiveness of new technology. Evidence-based design, human factors, patient-centered care, safety, technology.

  16. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  17. Analysis of weaning-induced stress in Saanen goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, D; Aufy, A A; Pinotti, L; Rosi, F

    2013-08-01

    In young ruminants' life, weaning often coincides with a period of growth stasis and poor welfare. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of coping with the new diet on behavioural and haematological stress indicators in goat kids subjected to a commonly adopted weaning practice. Immediately after birth, male Saanen goat kids were divided into two groups: MILK and WMIX. All were fed colostrum for the first 3 days and then goat milk to the age of 29 days. After that, MILK kids continued to receive milk, while the WMIX kids underwent weaning and were completely weaned by day 48. Animal behaviour was recorded daily. From day 23-50, blood samples were taken weekly and analysed for indicators of stress and immune function. No abnormal behaviour, such as injurious behaviours or stereotypies, was observed in either of the experimental groups throughout the experimental period. During the last week, fasting plasma cortisol level was significantly lower, whereas plasma activity of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly higher in WMIX kids, in relation to the MILK ones. Anyway, data were within the normal physiological range and no difference was observed neither in plasma haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, albumin and antithrombin III, nor in plasma immunoglobulin A and G, at any time, signalling no stressful condition. Therefore, differences observed in cortisol, ALT and AST could be the consequence of the metabolic changes that occur during the transition from pre-ruminant to ruminant state. The gradual weaning at 48 days of age did not result in any stressful condition and had no negative effect on weight gain. Results suggest that parameters commonly adopted to provide information on animal stress, such as cortisol and aminotransferase activity, can vary in relation to the physiological status of the animals and may bias stress assessment. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallès, Jean-Paul; Bosi, Paolo; Smidt, Hauke; Stokes, Chris R

    2007-05-01

    Early weaning of piglets is often accompanied by a severe growth check and diarrhoea. It is well established that this process is multi-factorial and that post-weaning anorexia and undernutrition are major aetiological factors. Gastrointestinal disturbances include alterations in small intestine architecture and enzyme activities. Recent data indicate transiently-increased mucosal permeability, disturbed absorptive-secretory electrolyte balance and altered local inflammatory cytokine patterns after weaning. These responses appear to operate according to two distinct temporal patterns, an acute response followed by a long-lasting adaptation response. Pigs coexist with a diverse and dense commensal microbiota in their gastrointestinal tract. Most of these microbes are beneficial, providing necessary nutrients or protection against harmful pathogens for the host. The microbial colonisation of the porcine intestine begins at birth and follows a rapid succession during the neonatal and weaning period. Following the withdrawal of sow's milk the young piglets are highly susceptible to enteric diseases partly as a result of the altered balance between developing beneficial microbiota and the establishment of intestinal bacterial pathogens. The intestinal immune system of the newborn piglet is poorly developed at birth and undergoes a rapid period of expansion and specialisation that is not achieved before early (commercial) weaning. Here, new insights on the interactions between feed components, the commensal microbiota and the physiology and immunology of the host gastrointestinal tract are highlighted, and some novel dietary strategies are outlined that are focused on improving gut health. Prebiotics and probiotics are clear nutritional options, while convincing evidence is still lacking for other bioactive substances of vegetable origin.

  19. The influence of early counselling on weaning from a bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, S; Theriot, J; Greenwell, A

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intensive counselling on bottle weaning. A randomised prospective controlled study was conducted. Parents of 4-month-old babies who attended an inner-city clinic affiliated with the Department of Paediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky with predominately African-American, indigent population were invited to participate. The parent/infant pairs were randomized to either intervention or control groups. Demographic information was recorded and both groups were surveyed on the parent's beliefs and knowledge of weaning from the bottle. The intervention group parents received scripted counselling, including use of feeding cups, and were shown pictures of severe early childhood caries and a dental model of early childhood caries at four, six, nine, and 12 month visits. Two paediatricians who are on the clinic staff used the same script when talking to parents while showing the same photos and dental model to assure symmetry. The control group parents received brief counselling on the use of a feeding cup at 6 month and bottle weaning at nine and 12 months with no photographs or dental models shown. Two dentists, blinded to the group assignment, examined all of the children between the ages of 12 months and 24 months. One hundred eighty-five parent/infant pairs were enrolled and 132 pairs (65 control and 67 intervention) remained at the end of the study. Demographic variables, socioeconomic status and race were similar for both groups. When surveyed, more of the control mothers believed that children should be weaned by 12 months (p = 0.049). Yet, only 17% of their infants were weaned by 12 months, compared to 27% of the intervention infants (p = 0.168). This small study demonstrated no change in parental behaviour after intense counselling.

  20. Dietary preferences of weaned piglets offered diets containing organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A preference test and a performance trial were carried out to examine weaned piglets’ feed intake response to diets containing either lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate (8 g kg-1 feed.In Experiment 1, throughout a 21-d post-weaning period,30 entire litters (306 piglets weaned at the age of 30 d were allowed to choose between two organic-acid-supplemented diets. All of the four different organic-acid-supplemented diets were tested in pairs against each other,and the six possible combinations were lactic acid +formic acid,lactic acid +calcium formate,lactic acid + sodium benzoate,formic acid +calcium formate,formic acid +sodium benzoate,and calcium for-mate +sodium benzoate.Piglets preferred diets supplemented with sodium benzoate to ones supplemented with formic acid or calcium formate.The acceptability of diets supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,or calcium formate was similar.In Experiment 2,until the age of 58 d,60 piglets from 10 litters weaned at the age of 28 or 38 d were fed non-acidified diets or ones supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate.Feed consumption did not differ between piglets fed non-acidified and those fed organic-acid-supplemented diets. Growth performance was reduced by dietary calcium formate supplementation, while the performance of piglets fed other organic-acid-supplemented diets did not differ significantly from those fed the non-acidified control diet.The frequency of post-weaning diarrhoea was highest in piglets fed diets supplemented with calcium formate and lowest in piglets fed diets supplemented with formic acid.;

  1. Preferences for technology versus human assistance and control over technology in the performance of kitchen and personal care tasks in baby boomers and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Scott R; Schulz, Richard; Matthews, Judith T; Courtney, Karen; Dabbs, Annette DeVito

    2014-11-01

    Quality of Life technology (QoLT) stresses humans and technology as mutually dependent and aware, working together to improve task performance and quality of life. This study examines preferences for technology versus human assistance and control in the context of QoLT. Data are from a nationally representative, cross-sectional web-based sample of 416 US baby boomers (45-64) and 114 older adults (65+) on preferences for technology versus human assistance and control in the performance of kitchen and personal care tasks. Multinomial logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression were used to determine predictors of these preferences. Respondents were generally accepting of technology assistance but wanted to maintain control over its' operation. Baby boomers were more likely to prefer technology than older adults, and those with fewer QoLT privacy concerns and who thought they were more likely to need future help were more likely to prefer technology over human assistance and more willing to relinquish control to technology. Results suggest the need for design of person- and context-aware QoLT systems that are responsive to user desires for level of control over operation of the technology. The predictors of these preferences suggest potentially receptive markets for the targeting of QoLT systems.

  2. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Activity Status in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) was launched by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. The Initiative aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities, creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications, and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has conducted a series of outreach activities and expert meetings bringing together participants from around the world. HSTI will also be implementing science and educational activities in relevant areas to raise the capacities, particularly in developing countries, in pursuit of the development goals of the United Nations, thus contributing to promoting the peaceful uses of outer space.

  3. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Damiano; Rosi, Fabia

    2014-07-23

    In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower ( p milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower ( p UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower ( p UHT milk. Leptin was correlated ( p milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT) is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  4. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Magistrelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower (p < 0.05 than that observed in raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower (p < 0.0001 than those of full-cream UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower (p < 0.0001 than in full-cream UHT milk. Leptin was correlated (p < 0.001 with lipid content. Leptin level of infant formulas was not different to that of skimmed milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  5. Announcing the arrival of enrichment increases play behaviour and reduces weaning-stress-induced behaviours of piglets directly after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudink, S.; Simonse, H.; Marks, I.; Jonge, de F.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Piglets have difficulties with the abrupt changes at weaning associated with conventional pig production systems. Previously, it has been shown in rats that reward and announcement of reward counteracts impact of stress effects. In the present study, it was investigated if announcement of an

  6. Calf health from birth to weaning. II. Management of diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. The second of this three part review series considers the management of diarrhoeic diseases in pre-weaned calves. In neonatal calf diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy is the single most important therapeutic measure to be carried out by the farmer and is usually successful if instigated immediately after diarrhoea has developed. Continued feeding of milk or milk replacer to diarrhoeic calves is important, to prevent malnourishment and weight loss in affected calves. Indiscriminative antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated diarrhoea is discouraged, whereas systemically ill calves can benefit from systemic antibiotic treatment for the prevention of septicaemia or concurrent diseases. Ancillary treatments and specific preventive measures are discussed. Eimeriosis has a high economic impact on the farming industries due to direct cost of treatment and calf losses, but especially due to decreased performance of clinically as well as sub-clinically affected animals. Emphasis lies on prophylactic or metaphylactic treatment, since the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa once diarrhoea has developed, makes therapeutic intervention unrewarding.

  7. The Maturing Development of Gut Microbiota in Commercial Piglets during the Weaning Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Limei; Xu, Yuesong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Fang, Chao; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Early weaned piglets are vulnerable to diarrhea because of weaning stress and immaturity of intestinal tract. Compelling evidence suggests that gut microbiota is vital to host health. However, it is not well understood on the composition and succession of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. In our two trials, total 17 commercial piglets were studied in a pig farm in Jiangxi Province, China. Fresh feces were collected for four times (10 days before weaned, weaned day, 10 days after weaned, 21 days after weaned) by rectal massage. Fecal bacterial composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 regions sequencing by Illumina Miseq platform. The results showed that the gut microbiota of piglets shifted quickly after weaned and reached relatively stable level in 10 days after weaned. The alpha diversity increased significantly with the age of piglets. The microbiota of suckling piglets was mainly represented by Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, and Megasphaera. This pattern contrasted with that of Clostridium sensu stricto, Roseburia, Paraprevotella, Clostridium XIVa, and Blautia, which were major representative genera after weaned. In summary, we delineated the development of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. This study helps us understand the maturing development of gut microbiota in commercial piglets.

  8. The Maturing Development of Gut Microbiota in Commercial Piglets during the Weaning Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early weaned piglets are vulnerable to diarrhea because of weaning stress and immaturity of intestinal tract. Compelling evidence suggests that gut microbiota is vital to host health. However, it is not well understood on the composition and succession of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. In our two trials, total 17 commercial piglets were studied in a pig farm in Jiangxi Province, China. Fresh feces were collected for four times (10 days before weaned, weaned day, 10 days after weaned, 21 days after weaned by rectal massage. Fecal bacterial composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 regions sequencing by Illumina Miseq platform. The results showed that the gut microbiota of piglets shifted quickly after weaned and reached relatively stable level in 10 days after weaned. The alpha diversity increased significantly with the age of piglets. The microbiota of suckling piglets was mainly represented by Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, and Megasphaera. This pattern contrasted with that of Clostridium sensu stricto, Roseburia, Paraprevotella, Clostridium XIVa, and Blautia, which were major representative genera after weaned. In summary, we delineated the development of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. This study helps us understand the maturing development of gut microbiota in commercial piglets.

  9. Genetic relationship between weaning weight and milk yield in Nguni cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesengani, L T; Nephawe, K A; Sebei, J; Norris, D; Maiwashe, A

    2017-07-11

    A study was conducted to estimate the genetic relationship between weaning weight and milk yield in Nguni cattle. Milk yield data (n=125) were collected from 116 Nguni cows from Mara Research Station located in Limpopo Province and Loskop South Farm located in Mpumalanga Province using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. Weaning weight data (n=19 065) were obtained from stud Nguni cattle from 146 herds distributed throughout South Africa. Estimates of (co)variance components for milk yield and weaning weight were calculated using PEST and VCE softwares. The average weaning weight, age of the calf at weaning and 24-h milk yield was 158.94 kg, 210 days and 5.25 kg/day, respectively. Heritability estimates for milk yield, direct and maternal weaning weight were 0.22±0.238, 0.47±0.039 and 0.25±0.029, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations for milk yield and maternal weaning weight, milk yield and direct weaning weight, direct and maternal weaning weight were 0.97±0.063, -0.71±0.416 and -0.56±0.247, respectively. The results indicate that maternal weaning weight is genetically highly predictive of milk yield in Nguni cattle. Maternal breeding values for weaning weight could therefore be used as a selection criterion to improve milk yield in Nguni cattle.

  10. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  11. Third nature: the co-evolution of human behavior, culture, and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William A

    2005-07-01

    Within a dynamical-systems framework, human behavior is seen as emergent from broad evolutionary processes associated with three basic forms of nature. First nature, matter, emerged from the big bang some 12-15 billion years ago; second nature, life, from the first bacteria up to 4 billion years ago; third nature, ideology and cultural artifacts (e.g., institutions and technology), with a shift to self-reflective, symbolic thought and agrarianism in humans some 8-40 thousand years ago. The co-evolution of these three natures has dramatically altered human behavior and its relationship to the whole planet. Third nature has infused human minds with several powerful ideas, or memes, including the idea of progress. These ideas have fueled the evolution of a complex institutional order (e.g., political systems and technology) and myriad attendant global problems (e.g., wars and environmental degradation). The human brain/mind is seen as the primary medium by which third nature governs human behavior and, therefore, self perpetuates.

  12. Stress echocardiography in patients who experienced mechanical ventilation weaning failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Cobo-Molinos, Jesús; Castillo-Rivera, Ana; Pola-Gallego-de-Guzmán, María Dolores; Cárdenas-Cruz, Antonio; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Sevilla-Martínez, María; Hernández-Caballero, Clara

    2017-06-01

    Critically ill patients may suffer varying degrees of temporary myocardial dysfunction during respiratory weaning that could play an important role in weaning failure. In this study, we tried to assess the existence of temporary diastolic dysfunction during respiratory weaning. Inclusion period is from 2006 to 2015. In this study, we included 181 ventilated patients with cardiogenic shock that were being weaned from mechanical ventilation. Twenty of those patients were successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation, and the rest (161) experienced complications in their weaning process. All patients had a left ventricular ejection fraction >0.45 and E/E' ratio≤8, did not require vasoactive drugs at that time, and did not have remaining significant ischemic disease. We divided our patients into 3 groups, as follows: A, patients who could not tolerate a T-tube and required pressure-support ventilation (82); B, patients who successfully tolerated a T-tube period (20); and C, patients who could not tolerate spontaneous breathing modes of mechanical ventilation and remained on assisted mechanical ventilation. We performed stress echocardiography for the last two groups; using dobutamine to assess diastolic function and using ephedrine to evaluate functional mitral regurgitation (MR). We estimated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure through the E/E' ratio and the flow in the pulmonary veins. In group A (ie, those patients who could not tolerate a T-tube trial), we observed an increase in the E/E' ratio (6.32±0.77 vs 15.2±6.65; P=.0001) and a worsening of strain (S) and strain rate (SR) (-13.6±1.80 vs -11.88±5.6, P=.0001; and -1.3±1.28 vs -0.95±0.38, P=.0001; respectively). We did not observe a change in the E/E' ratio during stress echocardiogram on those patients with successful weaning from mechanical ventilation (7.41±0.43 vs 8.38±4.57, P=.001). However, we did see in this group an increased peak velocity of the S wave and of SR (-16.11±08.72 vs -19.89±5

  13. Automatic control of pressure support for ventilator weaning in surgical intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Dirk; Engel, Christoph; Elke, Gunnar; Pulletz, Sven; Haake, Nils; Frerichs, Inéz; Zick, Günther; Scholz, Jens; Weiler, Norbert

    2012-03-15

    Despite its ability to reduce overall ventilation time, protocol-guided weaning from mechanical ventilation is not routinely used in daily clinical practice. Clinical implementation of weaning protocols could be facilitated by integration of knowledge-based, closed-loop controlled protocols into respirators. To determine whether automated weaning decreases overall ventilation time compared with weaning based on a standardized written protocol in an unselected surgical patient population. In this prospective controlled trial patients ventilated for longer than 9 hours were randomly allocated to receive either weaning with automatic control of pressure support ventilation (automated-weaning group) or weaning based on a standardized written protocol (control group) using the same ventilation mode. The primary end point of the study was overall ventilation time. Overall ventilation time (median [25th and 75th percentile]) did not significantly differ between the automated-weaning (31 [19-101] h; n = 150) and control groups (39 [20-118] h; n = 150; P = 0.178). Patients who underwent cardiac surgery (n = 132) exhibited significantly shorter overall ventilation times in the automated-weaning (24 [18-57] h) than in the control group (35 [20-93] h; P = 0.035). The automated-weaning group exhibited shorter ventilation times until the first spontaneous breathing trial (1 [0-15] vs. 9 [1-51] h; P = 0.001) and a trend toward fewer tracheostomies (17 vs. 28; P = 0.075). Overall ventilation times did not significantly differ between weaning using automatic control of pressure support ventilation and weaning based on a standardized written protocol. Patients after cardiac surgery may benefit from automated weaning. Implementation of additional control variables besides the level of pressure support may further improve automated-weaning systems. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00445289).

  14. Fifteen years of using a second stage protein substitute for weaning in phenylketonuria: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S; Daly, A; MacDonald, J; Pinto, A; MacDonald, A

    2017-09-21

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), during weaning, it is necessary to introduce a second stage phenylalanine (Phe)-free protein substitute (PS) to help meet non-Phe protein requirements. Semi-solid weaning Phe-free PS have been available for >15 years, although no long-term studies have reported their efficacy. Retrospective data from 31 children with PKU who commenced a weaning PS were collected from clinical records from age of weaning to 2 years, on: gender; birth order; weaning age; anthropometry; blood Phe levels; age commenced and dosage of weaning PS and Phe-free infant L-amino acid formula; natural protein intake; and issues with administration of PS or food. Median commencement age for weaning was 17 weeks (range 12-25 weeks) and, for weaning PS, 20 weeks (range 13-37 weeks). Median natural protein was 4 g day(-1) (range 3-11 g day(-1) ) and total protein intake was >2 g kg(-1) day(-1) from weaning to 2 years of age. Children started on 2-4 g day(-1) protein equivalent (5-10 g day(-1) of powder) from weaning PS, increasing by 0.2 g kg(-1) day(-1) (2 g day(-1) ) monthly to 12 months of age. Teething and illness adversely affected the administration of weaning PS and the acceptance of solid foods. Altogether, 32% of children had delayed introduction of more textured foods, associated with birth order (firstborn 80% versus 38%; P = 0.05) and food refusal when teething (80% versus 29%; P = 0.02). Timing of introduction of solid foods and weaning PS, progression onto more textured foods and consistent feeding routines were important in aiding their acceptance. Any negative behaviour with weaning PS was mainly associated with food refusal, teething and illness. Parental approach influenced the acceptance of weaning PS. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Science and technology integration for increased human potential and societal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C

    2004-05-01

    Unifying science based on the material unity of nature at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge, innovation, and integration of technology. Revolutionary and synergistic advances at the interfaces between previously separated fields of science, engineering and areas of relevance are ready to create nano-bio-info-cogno (NBIC) transforming tools. Developments in systems approach, mathematics, and computation in conjunction with NBIC allow us to understand the natural world and scientific research as closely coupled, complex, hierarchical entities. At this unique moment of scientific and technical achievement, improvement of human performance at individual and group levels, as well as development of suitable revolutionary products, becomes possible and these are primary goals for converging new technologies. NBIC addresses long-term advances in key areas of human activity, including working, learning, aging, group interaction, organizations, and human evolution ((Roco and Bainbridge, 2003)). Fundamentally new tools, technologies, and products will be integrated into individual and social human architecture. This introductory chapter of the Annals outlines research and education trends, funding activities, and the potential of development of revolutionary products and services.

  16. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  17. Implicit prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The technology of eye tracker has become the main methods of analyzing the recognition issues in human-computer interaction. Human eye image capture is the key problem of the eye tracking. Based on further research, a new human-computer interaction method introduced to enrich the form of speech synthetic. We propose a method of Implicit Prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology to extract the parameters from the image of human eyes when reading, control and drive prosody generation in speech synthesis, and establish prosodic model with high simulation accuracy. Duration model is key issues for prosody generation. For the duration model, this paper put forward a new idea for obtaining gaze duration of eyes when reading based on the eye image capture technology, and synchronous controlling this duration and pronunciation duration in speech synthesis. The movement of human eyes during reading is a comprehensive multi-factor interactive process, such as gaze, twitching and backsight. Therefore, how to extract the appropriate information from the image of human eyes need to be considered and the gaze regularity of eyes need to be obtained as references of modeling. Based on the analysis of current three kinds of eye movement control model and the characteristics of the Implicit Prosody reading, relative independence between speech processing system of text and eye movement control system was discussed. It was proved that under the same text familiarity condition, gaze duration of eyes when reading and internal voice pronunciation duration are synchronous. The eye gaze duration model based on the Chinese language level prosodic structure was presented to change previous methods of machine learning and probability forecasting, obtain readers' real internal reading rhythm and to synthesize voice with personalized rhythm. This research will enrich human-computer interactive form, and will be practical significance and application prospect in terms of

  18. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  19. Human Pressure on the Environment : A study on the effect of population, affluence and technology on the Ecological Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Filippa; Johnsson, Petter

    2017-01-01

    Human Impact on the environment is an important subject. The purpose of this study is to examine what impact population, affluence and technology have on the environment. Environmental impact is measured by the Ecological Footprint, a measure of human pressure on nature. The study is primarily based on the IPAT (Impact, Population, Affluence & technology) and STRIPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology) frameworks and a fixed effects regression with ...

  20. Sustainable Wearables: Wearable Technology for Enhancing the Quality of Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to elicit insights about sustainable wearables by investigating recent advancements in wearable technology and their applications. Wearable technology has advanced considerably from a technical perspective, but it has stagnated due to barriers without penetrating wider society despite early positive expectations. This situation is the motivation behind the focus on studies by many research groups in recent years into wearable applications that can provide the best value from a human-oriented perspective. The expectation is that a new means to resolve the issue can be found from a viewpoint of sustainability; this is the main point of this paper. This paper first focuses on the trend of wearable technology like bodily status monitoring, multi-wearable device control, and smart networking between wearable sensors. Second, the development intention of such technology is investigated. Finally, this paper discusses about the applications of current wearable technology from the sustainable perspective, rather than detailed description of the component technologies employed in wearables. In this paper, the definition of sustainable wearables is discussed in the context of improving the quality of individual life, social impact, and social public interest; those wearable applications include the areas of wellness, healthcare, assistance for the visually impaired, disaster relief, and public safety. In the future, wearables will not be simple data trackers or fun accessories but will gain extended objectives and meanings that play a valuable role for individuals and societies. Successful and sustainable wearables will lead to positive changes for both individuals and societies overall.

  1. Smart Care? versus respiratory physiotherapy?driven manual weaning for critically ill adult patients: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi,Corinne; Victor, Elivane S.; Pieri, Talita; Henn, Renata; Santana, Carolina; Giovanetti, Erica; Saghabi, Cilene; Timenetsky, Karina; Caserta Eid, Raquel; Silva,Eliezer; Matos, Gustavo F. J.; Schettino, Guilherme P. P.; Barbas, Carmen S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A recent meta-analysis showed that weaning with SmartCare? (Dr?ger, L?beck, Germany) significantly decreased weaning time in critically ill patients. However, its utility compared with respiratory physiotherapist?protocolized weaning is still a matter of debate. We hypothesized that weaning with SmartCare? would be as effective as respiratory physiotherapy?driven weaning in critically ill patients. Methods Adult critically ill patients mechanically ventilated for more than 24 hou...

  2. Human-computer interaction handbook fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This second edition of The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook provides an updated, comprehensive overview of the most important research in the field, including insights that are directly applicable throughout the process of developing effective interactive information technologies. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base, as well as visionary perspectives and developments that fundamentally transform the way in which researchers and practitioners view the discipline. As the seminal volume of HCI research and practice, The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook feature

  3. Exploring the role of the human resource function in the South African information technology industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Hall

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Information Technology (IT industry is one that is characterised by rapid change and a heavy reliance on human skills. A study was conducted to qualitatively explore the role of the Human Resource (HR function in the South African IT industry. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews with professionals in this function highlighted many opportunities for HR to render a more strategic role in an environment where a skills shortage and many related problem areas exist. The implications of these findings are discussed and proposals for redefining the role of HR in the specific industry are offered.

  4. Microencapsulation Technology: A Powerful Tool for Integrating Expansion and Cryopreservation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Margarida Serra; Cláudia Correia; Rita Malpique; Catarina Brito; Janne Jensen; Petter Bjorquist; Carrondo, Manuel J. T.; Alves, Paula M

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D) culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i) single cells, ii) ag...

  5. Microencapsulation technology: a powerful tool for human embryonic stem cells expansion and cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Cláudia Susana Pedreira

    2010-01-01

    Dissertation presented to obtain a Master degree in Biotechnology at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are known by their ability to either self-renewal and differentiate into any adult cell type. These properties confer to hESCs a huge applicability for cell therapy, tissue engineering and drug screening. However, successful implementation of hESCs-based technologies requires the production of large numbers of well chara...

  6. Assistive technology use and human rights enjoyment: a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Johan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About half a billion people with disabilities in developing countries have limited access to assistive technology. The Convention on the Rights of persons with Disabilities requires governments to take measures to ensure provision of such technologies. To guide implementation of these measures there is a need for understanding health outcomes from a human rights perspective. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the relation between assistive technology use and enjoyment of human rights in a low-income country. Methods Data was collected in eight districts of Bangladesh through interviews of people with hearing impairments using and not using hearings aids, and people with ambulatory impairments using and not using manual wheelchairs (N = 583. Using logistic regression, self-reported outcomes on standard of living, health, education, work, receiving information and movement were analyzed. Results The adjusted likelihood of reporting greater enjoyment of human rights was significantly higher among people using hearing aids compared to non-users for all outcomes except working status. Compared to non-users, users of wheelchairs reported a significantly higher adjusted likelihood of good ambulatory performance and a significantly lower adjusted likelihood of reporting a positive working status. Further analyses indicated that physical accessibility to working places and duration of wheelchair use had a statistically significant impact on the likelihood of reporting positive work outcomes. Conclusions The findings support the notion that assistive technology use increases the likelihood of human rights enjoyment, particularly hearing aid use. Physical accessibility should always be addressed in wheelchair provision.

  7. Human-Robot Interaction and Neuroprosthetics: A review of new technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Cangelosi, A; Invitto, S

    2017-01-01

    © 2012 IEEE. New technologies in the field of neuroprosthetics and robotics are leading to the development of innovative commercial products based on user-centered, functional processes of cognitive neuroscience and perceptron studies. The aim of this review is to analyze this innovative path through the description of some of the latest neuroprosthetics and human-robot interaction applications, in particular the brain-computer interface (BCI) linked to haptic systems, interactive robotics, a...

  8. Prevalence and molecular identification of cryptosporidium spp. In pre-weaned dairy calves in mashhad area, khorasan razavi province, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Mohhammed; Razmi, Gholamreza; Mohhammadi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasen

    2013-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic pathogen transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. The aim of study was to detect and isolate the Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of naturally infected pre-wean calves in the Mashhad area. Overall, 300 fecal specimens from 1 to 30 days pre-weaned calves were collected from 10 farms in the Mashhad area the capital center of the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran and microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium spp. All infected samples were also analyzed using nested -PCR. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was also used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in PCR- positive samples. Eighty five (28.3%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 8-14 days old and diarrheic calves were significantly higher than other groups. Restriction digestion of the PCR products by SspI, VspI restriction enzymes and sequence analysis revealed the presence of C. parvum bovine genotype in all isolates. Our results suggest that pre-weaned calves are likely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic C. parvum.

  9. Human Mars EDL Pathfinder Study: Assessment of Technology Development Gaps and Mitigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Randolph; Olejniczak, Joe; Polsgrove, Tara; Cianciolo, Alice Dwyer; Munk, Michelle; Whetsel, Charles; Drake, Bret

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA initiated Agency-wide assessment to better characterize the risks and potential mitigation approaches associated with landing human class Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems on Mars. Due to the criticality and long-lead nature of advancing EDL techniques, it is necessary to determine an appropriate strategy to improve the capability to land large payloads. A key focus of this study was to understand the key EDL risks and with a focus on determining what "must" be tested at Mars. This process identified the various risks and potential risk mitigation strategies along with the key near term technology development efforts required and in what environment those technology demonstrations were best suited. The study identified key risks along with advantages to each entry technology. In addition, it was identified that provided the EDL concept of operations (con ops) minimized large scale transition events, there was no technology requirement for a Mars pre-cursor demonstration. Instead, NASA should take a direct path to a human-scale lander.

  10. Percussive technology in human evolution: an introduction to a comparative approach in fossil and living primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-11-19

    Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Parallels between primate percussive technologies and early archaeological sites need to be further explored in order to assess the emergence of technological behaviour in our evolutionary line, and firmly establish bridges between Primatology and Archaeology. What are the anatomical, cognitive and ecological constraints of percussive technology? How common are percussive activities in the Stone Age and among living primates? What is their functional significance? How similar are archaeological percussive tools and those made by non-human primates? This issue of Phil. Trans. addresses some of these questions by presenting case studies with a wide chronological, geographical and disciplinary coverage. The studies presented here cover studies of Brazilian capuchins, captive chimpanzees and chimpanzees in the wild, research on the use of percussive technology among modern humans and recent hunter-gatherers in Australia, the Near East and Europe, and archaeological examples of this behaviour from a million years ago to the Holocene. In summary, the breadth and depth of research compiled here should make this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, a landmark step forward towards a better understanding of percussive technology, a unique behaviour shared by some modern and fossil primates. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. [Weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients (excluding premature neonates)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, F; Noizet, O; Botte, A; Binoche, A; Chaari, W; Sadik, A; Riou, Y

    2010-04-01

    The process of weaning from mechanical ventilation (WMV) is the same in children as in adults. In the pediatric literature, weaning failure rate ranges from 1.4 to 34%. So far, no indices of weaning success have been demonstrated to be sufficiently accurate. The criteria for assessing readiness to wean, which must be screened daily, have neither been validated nor adapted to the pediatric population. The spontaneous breathing test (SBT), the reference screening test for weaning, precedes extubation; it can be achieved with pressure support ventilation or spontaneous breathing (T piece or canopy or flow-inflating bag). A standardized weaning protocol (which can be computer driven) was used in only three pediatric studies and the impact on shortening the duration of mechanical ventilation has not yet been demonstrated. It should be paired with a sedative interruption protocol. Weaning criteria, SBT criteria, and/or protocol tolerance are guides, but clinicians must individualize decisions to use these criteria. The use of noninvasive ventilation is increasing and its place in weaning protocols for children needs to be determined; it might modify the definitions of weaning failure and weaning success in the future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Xianghua Yan; Jun Hu; Yangfan Nie; Jianwei Chen; Yong Zhang; zhichang wang; qiwen fan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, acco...

  13. Mannan-oligosaccharide and organic acids for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Souza Vieira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of acetic, propionic, and formic (50% organic acids and mannan-oligosaccharide (50% on growth performance, digestibility, and faecal score in challenged weaned piglets. Twenty male piglets (5.57 ± 0.32 kg of BW; 21-24 days of age were housed individually in metabolic cages for 28 days in an acclimatised room. The treatments were composed of the inclusion (0.1%; n = 10 or not (n = 10 of additive in the diet. The experimental design was completely randomised with two treatments, 10 replicates, and one piglet per replicate. The nutritional matrix was supplemented with 10% of barley and 35.9 to 34.0% of soybean meal in the pre-starter diet (3-14 days post-weaning and the starter diet (15-28 days post-weaning, respectively, to cause an intestinal challenge. Diets did not include any antimicrobial or growth promoters. Weekly, the animal and the leftover diet were weighed to evaluate growth performance. Digestibility was evaluated through total faeces and urine collection. Piglets fed diets with additive had 8.7% greater weight gain (P < 0.05 compared to those piglets in the control treatment in the starter phase. For other growth performance responses there was no treatment effect. Similarly, the inclusion of additive in the piglet diets did not affect the faecal score or the energy and nutrient digestibility. In the starter phase and throughout the experimental period, piglets fed diets with additive had 18.37% and 15.07% greater nitrogen (N intake and 19.53% and 16.05% greater N retention, respectively, compared to piglets in the control treatment (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the addition of additive composed by organic acids and mannan-oligosaccharide does not improve energy and nutrient digestibility but increases the N retention and weight gain in weaned piglets in the starting phase.

  14. Analysis of human resources in science and technology in ICT companies–case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Horvat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates theories and findings of the level of tertiary educated workforce, the human resources in science and technology and skills that are desirable in employees from in the information and communication technologies (ICT sector. It is important to examine the real situation on the labor market in the ICT sector, which is often referred to as the key to overcoming the crisis and the future of national economy. Basic statistical elements, upon which to predict future demand for human resources in science and technology (HRST, are people who enter tertiary level of education (inputs or are already in the system (throughputs, but until graduation are not considered HRST’s (outputs. Analysis is based on a sample of 56 small companies in ICT sector in Croatia. This paper presents the overview of the situations of human resources in small companies ICT sector in Croatia. Existing literature on HRST, employee’s skills and ICT sector is reviewed in the light of this analysis, in order to better understand current employment structure and desirable competencies of future employees of small companies in the ICT sector in Croatia.

  15. Weaning in an Arctic wolf pack: behavioral mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.; Ream, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    If behavioral mechanisms controlling suckling have been shaped by parent-offspring conflict in the ultimate sense, then proximate behavioral determinants of conflict should occur throughout lactation, with greatest intensity in the terminal phase, and offspring should have tactics for overcoming parental resistance. We observed the weaning process in a habituated wild wolf pack (Canis lupus) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, from estimated ages 5 through 10 weeks (including a continuous record for 192 h). The following variables declined with age: percentage of suckling bouts initiated by the nurser, persistence by pups, and mean duration of suckling bouts. Variables that increased with age were interbout interval, percentage of suckling bouts terminated by the nurser, and wincing or agonistic actions of the nurser. Behavioral conflict appeared in the develop mental stage (estimated age 7 -8 weeks) during which pups could feed on opened carcasses. Countertactics by pups to obtain milk were not apparent, although the pups developed diverse tactics for obtaining and sharing meat. In this group of wolves, weaning mechanisms were a complex function of food-delivery by adults, discomfort of the nursing female as pups developed, and declining persistence of pups. If there is a conflict over what is optimal for pups and for the nurser in the ultimate sense, behavioral conflict is more likely to be expressed with regard to access to meat, or as conditional tactics dependent on food availability, rather than weaning conflict being controlleg by fixed rules in this species.

  16. Monitoring human health behaviour in one's living environment: a technological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Shane A; Ólaighin, Gearóid

    2014-02-01

    The electronic monitoring of human health behaviour using computer techniques has been an active research area for the past few decades. A wide array of different approaches have been investigated using various technologies including inertial sensors, Global Positioning System, smart homes, Radio Frequency IDentification and others. It is only in recent years that research has turned towards a sensor fusion approach using several different technologies in single systems or devices. These systems allow for an increased volume of data to be collected and for activity data to be better used as measures of behaviour. This change may be due to decreasing hardware costs, smaller sensors, increased power efficiency or increases in portability. This paper is intended to act as a reference for the design of multi-sensor behaviour monitoring systems. The range of technologies that have been used in isolation for behaviour monitoring both in research and commercial devices are reviewed and discussed. Filtering, range, sensitivity, usability and other considerations of different technologies are discussed. A brief overview of commercially available activity monitors and their technology is also included. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human brain MRI at 500 MHz, scientific perspectives and technological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Denis; Schild, Thierry

    2017-03-01

    The understanding of the human brain is one of the main scientific challenges of the 21st century. In the early 2000s the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission launched a program to conceive and build a ‘human brain explorer’, the first human MRI scanner operating at 11.7 T. This scanner was envisioned to be part of the ambitious French-German project Iseult, bridging together industrial and academic partners to push the limits of molecular neuroimaging, from mouse to man, using ultra-high field MRI. In this article we provide a summary of the main neuroscience and medical targets of the Iseult project, mainly to acquire within timescales compatible with human tolerances images at a scale of 100 μm at which everything remains to discover, and to create new approaches to develop new imaging biomarkers for specific neurological and psychiatric disorders. The system specifications, the technological challenges, in terms of magnet design, winding technology, cryogenics, quench protection, stability control, and the solutions which have been chosen to overcome them and build this outstanding instrument are provided. Lines of the research and development which will be necessary to fully exploit the potential of this and other UHF MRI scanners are also outlined.

  18. Near-Field Coupling Communication Technology For Human-Area Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Nagai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses near-field coupling TRXs. This technology aims to achieve a "touch and connect" form of communication and a new concept of "touch the world" by using a quasi-electrostatic field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body. This paper explains the principles underlying near-field coupling communication. Special attention has been paid to common-mode noise since our communication system is strongly susceptible to this. We designed and made a common-mode choke coil and a transformer to act as common-mode noise filters to suppress common-mode noise. Moreover, we describe how we evaluated the quality of communication using a phantom model with the same electrical properties as the human body and present the experimental results for the packet error rate (PER as a function of the signal to noise ratio (SNR both with the common-mode choke coil or the transformer and without them. Finally, we found that our system achieved a PER of less than 10-2 in general office rooms using raised floors, which corresponded to the quality of communication demanded by communication services in ordinary office spaces.

  19. The human power amplifier technology at the University of California, Berkeley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, H.; Ellis, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A human's ability to perform physical tasks is limited by physical strength, not by intelligence. We define "extenders" as a class of robot manipulators worn by humans to augment human mechanical strength, while the wearer's intellect remains the central control system for manipulating the extender. Our research objective is to determine the ground rules for the design and control of robotic systems worn by humans through the design, construction, and control of several prototype experimental direct-drive/non-direct-drive multi-degree-of-freedom hydraulic/electric extenders. The design of extenders is different from the design of conventional robots because the extender interfaces with the human on a physical level. Two sets of force sensors measure the forces imposed on the extender by the human and by the environment (i.e., the load). The extender's compliances in response to such contact forces were designed by selecting appropriate force compensators. This paper gives a summary of some of the selected research efforts related to Extender Technology, carried out during 1980s. The references, at the end of this article, give detailed description of the research efforts.

  20. Technology Development to Support Human Health and Performance in Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, C.E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Charles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of defining the level of risks and mitigating the risks for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit, NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) has identified the need for technology development in several areas. Long duration missions increase the risk of serious medical conditions due to limited options for return to Earth; no resupply; highly limited mass, power, volume; and communication delays. New space flight compatible medical capabilities required include: diagnostic imaging, oxygen concentrator, ventilator, laboratory analysis (saliva, blood, urine), kidney stone diagnosis & treatment, IV solution preparation and delivery. Maintenance of behavioral health in such an isolated, confined and extreme environment requires new sensory stimulation (e.g., virtual reality) technology. Unobtrusive monitoring of behavioral health and treatment methods are also required. Prolonged exposure to weightlessness deconditions bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. Novel exercise equipment or artificial gravity are necessary to prevent deconditioning. Monitoring of the degree of deconditioning is required to ensure that countermeasures are effective. New technologies are required in all the habitable volumes (e.g., suit, capsule, habitat, exploration vehicle, lander) to provide an adequate food system, and to meet human environmental standards for air, water, and surface contamination. Communication delays require the crew to be more autonomous. Onboard decision support tools that assist crew with real-time detection and diagnosis of vehicle and habitat operational anomalies will enable greater autonomy. Multi-use shield systems are required to provide shielding from solar particle events. The HRP is pursuing the development of these technologies in laboratories, flight analog environments and the ISS so that the human health and performance risks will be acceptable with the available resources.

  1. Autophagy up-regulation by early weaning in the liver, spleen and skeletal muscle of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojin; Li, Xiao; Li, Lei; Yan, Xianghua

    2011-07-01

    Autophagy, a catabolic process responsible for the degradation of cytosolic components and the preservation of cellular homeostasis in virtually all eukaryotic organisms, is up-regulated when nutrient supplies are limited. However, whether early weaning induces autophagy in infants is not completely clear. In the present study, we used piglets as the early-weaning model to examine the autophagic activity in different tissues in response to nutrient status. Western blot analysis demonstrated that microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II, a promising marker protein for macroautophagy, was expressed at a notably higher level at 12 and 24 h weaning treatments than without weaning treatment (P weaning treatments (P early weaning may be helpful for the physiological system, which controls the balance of energy and nutrients for basic cell functions in the piglet model.

  2. Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among young children: weaning education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A; Feachem, R G

    1985-01-01

    A review of data from 12 developing countries suggests that it is possible, even in poor communities, to improve substantially the nutritional status of infants and young children by weaning education. Face-to-face communication by locally recruited workers, reinforced by radio and other mass media, may be the most effective channels for weaning education. It is estimated that, through its effect on nutritional status, weaning education may reduce the diarrhea mortality rate among children under 5 years of age by 2-12%. The possible impacts of weaning education on food hygiene and on feeding during and after diarrheal illness are not considered in this paper. Preliminary estimates of cost-effectiveness suggest that weaning education may be an economically attractive intervention for reducing diarrhea mortality in some countries. Several important aspects of weaning education and its relation to diarrhea need to be clarified by research. (author's)

  3. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  4. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Grau

    Full Text Available Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI. These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B communication between subjects (hyperinteraction. Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  5. In Situ Resource Utilization Technology Research and Facilities Supporting the NASA's Human Systems Research and Technology Life Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Sibille, Laurent; Sacksteder, Kurt; Owens, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Science program has transitioned research required in support of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. Research disciplines including the Materials Science, Fluid Physics and Combustion Science are now being applied toward projects with application in the planetary utilization and transformation of space resources. The scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure in these traditional fields developed at multiple NASA Centers and by external research partners provide essential capabilities to support the agency s new exploration thrusts including In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Among the technologies essential to human space exploration, the production of life support consumables, especially oxygen and; radiation shielding; and the harvesting of potentially available water are realistically achieved for long-duration crewed missions only through the use of ISRU. Ongoing research in the physical sciences have produced a body of knowledge relevant to the extraction of oxygen from lunar and planetary regolith and associated reduction of metals and silicon for use meeting manufacturing and repair requirements. Activities being conducted and facilities used in support of various ISRU projects at the Glenn Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center will be described. The presentation will inform the community of these new research capabilities, opportunities, and challenges to utilize their materials, fluids and combustion science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  6. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  7. Epidemiology of Weaning Outcome according to a New Definition. The WIND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béduneau, Gaëtan; Pham, Tài; Schortgen, Frédérique; Piquilloud, Lise; Zogheib, Elie; Jonas, Maud; Grelon, Fabien; Runge, Isabelle; Nicolas Terzi; Grangé, Steven; Barberet, Guillaume; Guitard, Pierre-Gildas; Frat, Jean-Pierre; Constan, Adrien; Chretien, Jean-Marie; Mancebo, Jordi; Mercat, Alain; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Brochard, Laurent

    2017-03-15

    The weaning process concerns all patients receiving mechanical ventilation. A previous classification into simple, prolonged, and difficult weaning ignored weaning failure and presupposed the use of spontaneous breathing trials. To describe the weaning process, defined as starting with any attempt at separation from mechanical ventilation and its prognosis, according to a new operational classification working for all patients under ventilation. This was a multinational prospective multicenter observational study over 3 months of all patients receiving mechanical ventilation in 36 intensive care units, with daily collection of ventilation and weaning modalities. Pragmatic definitions of separation attempt and weaning success allowed us to allocate patients in four groups. A total of 2,729 patients were enrolled. Although half of them could not be classified using the previous definition, 99% entered the groups on the basis of our new definition as follows: 24% never started a weaning process, 57% had a weaning process of less than 24 hours (group 1), 10% had a difficult weaning of more than 1 day and less than 1 week (group 2), and 9% had a prolonged weaning duration of 1 week or more (group 3). Duration of ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and mortality (6, 17, and 29% for the three groups, respectively) all significantly increased from one group to the next. The unadjusted risk of dying was 19% after the first separation attempt and increased to 37% after 10 days. A new classification allows us to categorize all weaning situations. Every additional day without a weaning success after the first separation attempt increases the risk of dying.

  8. Opioid and Benzodiazepine Weaning in Pediatric Patients: Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Norman E; Plake, Kimberly S

    2017-11-01

    Pediatric opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal are avoidable complications of pain and sedation management that is well described in the literature. To prevent withdrawal from occurring, practitioners regularly use a steady decrease of pain and sedation medications, also known as a weaning or tapering schedule. The weaning schedule is highly variable based on clinician preference and is usually dependent on the clinician. The purposes of this review are to evaluate the current literature on the process of opioid and benzodiazepine weaning in pediatric patients and to assess the various standardized protocols used to decrease withdrawal occurrences. We conducted a search of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Academic Search Premier, and PsycInfo databases. Studies were included if they described a wean or taper in pediatric patients aged 18 years or younger. Studies describing neonatal abstinence syndrome were excluded from the review. A total of 97 studies published between 2000 and 2014 were retrieved; of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated for selection of withdrawal assessment tool, wean protocol summary, preferred weaning agents, benzodiazepine withdrawal, and wean-at-home regimen. The most common opioid-weaning protocol approaches described a 10-20% dose decrease per day. Benzodiazepine weaning was not regularly standardized or described. The use of a standardized opioid-weaning protocol reduced withdrawal rates compared with nonstandardized weaning plans. Benzodiazepine weaning was inconsistently evaluated and may have affected study outcomes. Identified areas of improvement include the use of newer withdrawal assessment tools validated in the older pediatric population and standardized withdrawal assessment and reporting. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  9. O corpo, o desenvolvimento humano e as tecnologias Body human development and technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Antônio Machado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudar e analisar as relações entre corpo, desenvolvimento humano e tecnologias é objetivo deste trabalho. O avanço das tecnologias e as relações humanas sofrem mudanças nas sociedades atuais e estas alterações podem ser percebidas em todos os ambientes. Verifica-se que o ambiente escolar e a educação física escolar passa por transformações tecnológicas e seus professores tentam realizar ações que validem seus princípios. O estudo usa o MSN para coletar os dados aqui analisados.The aim of this work is to study and analyze the relationships among body, technology and human development. Technological advances and human relations are going through changes in contemporary societies and these changes can be noticed in all environments. It seems that the school environment and the physical education are passing through technological changes and their teachers try to perform actions that validate its principles. This study has used MSN to collect the analyzed data.

  10. Overview of Human-Centric Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Science and Technology (S&T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, J.; Aleva, D.; Ellis, S.

    2012-09-01

    A number of organizations, within the government, industry, and academia, are researching ways to help humans understand and react to events in space. The problem is both helped and complicated by the fact that there are numerous data sources that need to be planned (i.e., tasked), collected, processed, analyzed, and disseminated. A large part of the research is in support of the Joint Space Operational Center (JSpOC), National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC), and similar organizations. Much recent research has been specifically targeting the JSpOC Mission System (JMS) which has provided a unifying software architecture. This paper will first outline areas of science and technology (S&T) related to human-centric space situational awareness (SSA) and space command and control (C2) including: 1. Object visualization - especially data fused from disparate sources. Also satellite catalog visualizations that convey the physical relationships between space objects. 2. Data visualization - improve data trend analysis as in visual analytics and interactive visualization; e.g., satellite anomaly trends over time, space weather visualization, dynamic visualizations 3. Workflow support - human-computer interfaces that encapsulate multiple computer services (i.e., algorithms, programs, applications) into a 4. Command and control - e.g., tools that support course of action (COA) development and selection, tasking for satellites and sensors, etc. 5. Collaboration - improve individuals or teams ability to work with others; e.g., video teleconferencing, shared virtual spaces, file sharing, virtual white-boards, chat, and knowledge search. 6. Hardware/facilities - e.g., optimal layouts for operations centers, ergonomic workstations, immersive displays, interaction technologies, and mobile computing. Secondly we will provide a survey of organizations working these areas and suggest where more attention may be needed. Although no detailed master plan exists for human

  11. The Effects of Weaning Methods on Gut Microbiota Composition and Horse Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Núria; Foury, Aline; Kittelmann, Sandra; Reigner, Fabrice; Moroldo, Marco; Ballester, Maria; Esquerré, Diane; Rivière, Julie; Sallé, Guillaume; Gérard, Philippe; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Lansade, Léa

    2017-01-01

    Weaning has been described as one of the most stressful events in the life of horses. Given the importance of the interaction between the gut-brain axis and gut microbiota under stress, we evaluated (i) the effect of two different weaning methods on the composition of gut microbiota across time and (ii) how the shifts of gut microbiota composition after weaning affect the host. A total of 34 foals were randomly subjected to a progressive (P) or an abrupt (A) weaning method. In the P method, mares were separated from foals at progressively increasing intervals every day, starting from five min during the fourth week prior to weaning and ending with 6 h during the last week before weaning. In the A method, mares and foals were never separated prior to weaning (0 d). Different host phenotypes and gut microbiota composition were studied across 6 age strata (days −30, 0, 3, 5, 7, and 30 after weaning) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results revealed that the beneficial species belonging to Prevotella, Paraprevotella, and Ruminococcus were more abundant in the A group prior to weaning compared to the P group, suggesting that the gut microbiota in the A cohort was better adapted to weaning. Streptococcus, on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern after weaning. Fungal loads, which are thought to increase the capacity for fermenting the complex polysaccharides from diet, were higher in P relative to A. Beyond the effects of weaning methods, maternal separation at weaning markedly shifted the composition of the gut microbiota in all foals, which fell into three distinct community types at 3 days post-weaning. Most genera in community type 2 (i.e., Eubacterium, Coprococcus, Clostridium XI, and Blautia spp.) were negatively correlated with salivary cortisol levels, but positively correlated with telomere length and N-butyrate production. Average daily gain was also greater in the foals harboring a community type 2 microbiota. Therefore, community type 2 is likely to

  12. The Effects of Weaning Methods on Gut Microbiota Composition and Horse Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Núria; Foury, Aline; Kittelmann, Sandra; Reigner, Fabrice; Moroldo, Marco; Ballester, Maria; Esquerré, Diane; Rivière, Julie; Sallé, Guillaume; Gérard, Philippe; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Lansade, Léa

    2017-01-01

    Weaning has been described as one of the most stressful events in the life of horses. Given the importance of the interaction between the gut-brain axis and gut microbiota under stress, we evaluated (i) the effect of two different weaning methods on the composition of gut microbiota across time and (ii) how the shifts of gut microbiota composition after weaning affect the host. A total of 34 foals were randomly subjected to a progressive (P) or an abrupt (A) weaning method. In the P method, mares were separated from foals at progressively increasing intervals every day, starting from five min during the fourth week prior to weaning and ending with 6 h during the last week before weaning. In the A method, mares and foals were never separated prior to weaning (0 d). Different host phenotypes and gut microbiota composition were studied across 6 age strata (days -30, 0, 3, 5, 7, and 30 after weaning) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results revealed that the beneficial species belonging to Prevotella, Paraprevotella , and Ruminococcus were more abundant in the A group prior to weaning compared to the P group, suggesting that the gut microbiota in the A cohort was better adapted to weaning. Streptococcus , on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern after weaning. Fungal loads, which are thought to increase the capacity for fermenting the complex polysaccharides from diet, were higher in P relative to A. Beyond the effects of weaning methods, maternal separation at weaning markedly shifted the composition of the gut microbiota in all foals, which fell into three distinct community types at 3 days post-weaning. Most genera in community type 2 (i.e., Eubacterium, Coprococcus, Clostridium XI, and Blautia spp.) were negatively correlated with salivary cortisol levels, but positively correlated with telomere length and N-butyrate production. Average daily gain was also greater in the foals harboring a community type 2 microbiota. Therefore, community type 2 is likely to

  13. The Effects of Weaning Methods on Gut Microbiota Composition and Horse Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Mach

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Weaning has been described as one of the most stressful events in the life of horses. Given the importance of the interaction between the gut-brain axis and gut microbiota under stress, we evaluated (i the effect of two different weaning methods on the composition of gut microbiota across time and (ii how the shifts of gut microbiota composition after weaning affect the host. A total of 34 foals were randomly subjected to a progressive (P or an abrupt (A weaning method. In the P method, mares were separated from foals at progressively increasing intervals every day, starting from five min during the fourth week prior to weaning and ending with 6 h during the last week before weaning. In the A method, mares and foals were never separated prior to weaning (0 d. Different host phenotypes and gut microbiota composition were studied across 6 age strata (days −30, 0, 3, 5, 7, and 30 after weaning by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results revealed that the beneficial species belonging to Prevotella, Paraprevotella, and Ruminococcus were more abundant in the A group prior to weaning compared to the P group, suggesting that the gut microbiota in the A cohort was better adapted to weaning. Streptococcus, on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern after weaning. Fungal loads, which are thought to increase the capacity for fermenting the complex polysaccharides from diet, were higher in P relative to A. Beyond the effects of weaning methods, maternal separation at weaning markedly shifted the composition of the gut microbiota in all foals, which fell into three distinct community types at 3 days post-weaning. Most genera in community type 2 (i.e., Eubacterium, Coprococcus, Clostridium XI, and Blautia spp. were negatively correlated with salivary cortisol levels, but positively correlated with telomere length and N-butyrate production. Average daily gain was also greater in the foals harboring a community type 2 microbiota. Therefore, community type 2 is

  14. Appropriate Weaning Practice and Associated Factors among Infants and Young Children in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liknaw Bewket Zeleke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The right nutrition from the start of a pregnancy to the child’s second birthday has a profound impact on the future health, wellbeing, and success of a child. This can be achieved through proper maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and appropriate weaning practice. Objective. This study was aimed at assessing appropriate weaning practice and associated factors among infants and young children aged 6–23 months in Feres Bet Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 351 children aged 6–23 months. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with appropriate weaning practice. Results. Nearly quarter (23.9% of mothers have practiced appropriate weaning. Proportion of children who started consumption of weaning food timely and met the recommended dietary diversity was 61.5% and 43.9%, respectively. Child age [AOR (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 7.04], husband’s occupation [AOR: 6.85], and maternal weaning advice [AOR: 4.38] were positively associated with appropriate weaning practice, while family size [AOR: 0.28] showed negative association. Conclusion. Appropriate weaning practice was found to be low. Health education at community level and one-on-one advice for mothers in health institutions are highly recommended to improve appropriate weaning.

  15. [Mechanical ventilation and early weaning: a qualitative study on patient's experiences in an intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Silvio; Perrone, Marco; Dell'Angelo, Grazia; Rea, Teresa; Gargiulo, Gianpaolo; Ferrigno, Salvatore; Vosa, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation and early weaning: a qualitative study on patient's experiences in an intensive care unit. The weaning from mechanical ventilation of intensive care unit (ICU) patients may cause anxiety. The feelings and experience during this procedure may affect their physical and psychological wellbeing. To describe patients' feelings during intubation time and weaning. Phenomenological study on 16 patients who underwent an off pump bypass and mechanical ventilation Mechanical ventilation and weaning, in spite of the evolution of the anesthetic techniques, continue to generate unpleasant feelings.

  16. Sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation weaning strategy for patients after tracheostomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xue-xue Pu Jiong Wang Xue-bo Yan Xue-qin Jiang

    2015-01-01

    ...: Fifty patients including 24 patients with withdrawal of mechanical ventilation(conventional group) and 26 patients with sequential invasive-noninvasive weaning by directly plugging of tracheostomy...

  17. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-Eldin M. Aref

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to: (1 Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2 Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8 weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6 weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned, and buffalo calves (n=4 weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned. Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning. Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift. There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05 in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  18. Novel therapeutic approaches: Rett syndrome and human induced pluripotent stem cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology target screening and discovering of therapeutic agents for the possible cure of human diseases. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are the right kind of platform for testing potency of specific active compounds. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine developed between 2,500 and 500 BC, is a science involving the intelligent formulations of herbs and minerals. It can serve as a “goldmine” for novel neuroprotective agents used for centuries to treat neurological disorders. This review discusses limitations in screening drugs for neurological disorders and the advantages offered by hiPSC integrated with Indian traditional system of medicine. We begin by describing the current state of hiPSC technology in research on Rett syndrome (RTT) followed by the current controversies in RTT research combined with the emergence of patient-specific hiPSC that indicate an urgent need for researchers to understand the etiology and drug mechanism. We conclude by offering recommendations to reinforce the screening of active compounds present in the ayurvedic medicines using the human induced pluripotent neural model system for research involving drug discovery for RTT. This integrative approach will fill the current knowledge gap in the traditional medicines and drug discovery. PMID:28447035

  19. Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on ''Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies'' in the period August 27-August 31, 2001. The Summer School was intended for scientists, engineers and technicians working for nuclear installations, engineering companies, industry and members of universities and research institutes, who wanted to broaden their nuclear background by getting acquainted with Man-Technology-Organisation-related subjects and issues. The Summer School should also serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the nuclear field. The following presentations were given: (1) Overview of the Nuclear Community and Current issues, (2) The Elements of Safety Culture; Evaluation of Events, (3) Quality Management (QM), (4) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PSA), (5) Human Behaviour from the Viewpoint of Industrial Psychology, (6) Technical tour of the Halden Project Experimental Facilities, (7) Human Factors in Control Room Design, (8) Computerised Operator Support Systems (COSSs) and (9) Artificial Intelligence; a new Approach. Most of the contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  20. Automating CapCom: Pragmatic Operations and Technology Research for Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    2003-01-01

    During the Apollo program, NASA and the scientific community used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. More recently, computer scientists and human factors specialists have followed geologists and biologists into the field, learning how science is actually done on expeditions in extreme environments. Research stations have been constructed by the Mars Society in the Arctic and American southwest, providing facilities for hundreds of researchers to investigate how small crews might live and work on Mars. Combining these interests-science, operations, and technology-in Mars analog field expeditions provides tremendous synergy and authenticity to speculations about Mars missions. By relating historical analyses of Apollo and field science, engineers are creating experimental prototypes that provide significant new capabilities, such as a computer system that automates some of the functions of Apollo s CapCom. Thus, analog studies have created a community of practice-a new collaboration between scientists and engineers-so that technology begins with real human needs and works incrementally towards the challenges of the human exploration of Mars.

  1. The ecological imperative and its application to ethical issues in human genetic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Malcolm Byrnes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As a species, we are on the cusp of being able to alter that which makes us uniquely human, our genome. Two new genetic technologies, embryo selection and germline engineering, are either in use today or may be developed in the future. Embryo selection acts to alter the human gene pool, reducing genetic diversity, while germline engineering will have the ability to alter directly the genomes of engineered individuals. Our genome has come to be what it is through an evolutionary process extending over millions of years, a process that has involved exceedingly complex and unpredictable interactions between ourselves or our ancestors and myriad other life forms within Earth's biosphere. In this paper, the ecological imperativ e, which states that we must not alter the human genome or the collective human genetic inheritance, will be introduced. It will be argued based on ecological principles that embryo selection and germline engineering are unethical and unwise because they will diminish our survivability as a species, will disrupt our relationship with the natural world, and will destroy the very basis of that which makes us human.

  2. Perspectives for induced pluripotent stem cell technology: new insights into human physiology involved in somatic mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoki; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2014-01-31

    Induced pluripotent stem cell technology makes in vitro reprogramming of somatic cells from individuals with various genetic backgrounds possible. By applying this technology, it is possible to produce pluripotent stem cells from biopsy samples of arbitrarily selected individuals with various genetic backgrounds and to subsequently maintain, expand, and stock these cells. From these induced pluripotent stem cells, target cells and tissues can be generated after certain differentiation processes. These target cells/tissues are expected to be useful in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug screening, toxicology testing, and proof-of-concept studies in drug development. Therefore, the number of publications concerning induced pluripotent stem cells has recently been increasing rapidly, demonstrating that this technology has begun to infiltrate many aspects of stem cell biology and medical applications. In this review, we discuss the perspectives of induced pluripotent stem cell technology for modeling human diseases. In particular, we focus on the cloning event occurring through the reprogramming process and its ability to let us analyze the development of complex disease-harboring somatic mosaicism.

  3. Discrimination between weaned and unweaned Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in capture-based aquaculture (CBA by X-ray imaging and radio-frequency metal detector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Misimi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA. Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60-70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups - unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented.

  4. Discrimination between Weaned and Unweaned Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in Capture-Based Aquaculture (CBA) by X-Ray Imaging and Radio-Frequency Metal Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misimi, Ekrem; Martinsen, Svein; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Erikson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg) in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA). Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60–70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups – unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band) and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented. PMID:24743448

  5. Discrimination between weaned and unweaned Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in capture-based aquaculture (CBA) by X-ray imaging and radio-frequency metal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misimi, Ekrem; Martinsen, Svein; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Erikson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg) in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA). Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60-70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups - unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band) and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented.

  6. TECHNOLOGY VS NATURE: HUMAN ERROR IN DEALING WITH NATURE IN CRICHTON'S JURASSIC PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prasasti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Witnessing the euphoria of the era of biotechnology in the late twentieth century, Crichton exposes the theme of biotechnology in his works. In Jurassic Park, he voices his concern about the impact of the use of biotechnology to preserve nature and its living creatures. He further describes how the purpose of preserving nature and the creatures has turned out to be destructive. This article discusses Crichton's main character, Hammond, who attempts to control nature by genetically recreating the extinct fossil animals. It seems that the attempt ignores his human limitations. Although he is confident that has been equipped with the technology, he forgets to get along with nature. His way of using technology to accomplish his purpose proves not to be in harmony with nature. As a consequence, nature fights back. And he is conquered.

  7. Investigation of Virtual Digital Human and Robotic Device Technology Merger Complimented by Haptics and Autostereoscopic Displays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As expected, the STTR Phase I investigation confirmed that the Digital Virtual Human (DVH) and Robonaut technologies can be merged, and that haptic and...

  8. Aircrew Performance Cutting-Edge Tech: Emerging Human Performance Enhancement Technology Vision in Support of Operational Military Aviation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belland, Kris

    2002-01-01

    Using cutting-edge technology to create a human factors advantage in military operations will contribute to success on the battlefield of the future whether below the surface, on the surface, in the air, or in space...

  9. Effects of altrenogest treatment in sows on the variation of piglet birth weight and pre-weaning piglet performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatee Kitkha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of altrenogest (ALT feeding combined with induced ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG in sows was evaluated on piglet birth weight (BW variation and pre-weaning performance. Sows were divided into four groups: the control (no ALT; without hCG induction; artificial inseminated (AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 40, ALT + hCG72 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2 (D0: weaning day; hCG 750 IU at 72 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41, ALT + hCG96 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2; hCG 750 IU at 96 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41 and ALT + no hCG (20 mg/d, D-4–D2; without hCG induction; AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 41. The results revealed that piglet BW was not different among the groups (p > 0.05. However, the standard deviation of piglet BW (SDBW was lower in ALT + hCG72 (0.32 ± 0.02 kg; p = 0.032, compared to ALT + hCG96 (0.40 ± 0.02 kg and ALT + no hCG (0.40 ± 0.02 kg, except for the control (0.39 ± 0.02 kg. In addition, the pre-weaning mortality rate (%PWM due to underweight elimination at weaning (below 3.50 kg was decreased in ALT + hCG72 (8.33% compared to the control (32.50%; p = 0.007 but similar to ALT + hCG96 (10.71% and ALT + no hCG (24.05%. Therefore, ALT + hCG72 treatment in sows could reduce piglet BW variation and the number of piglets eliminated at weaning.

  10. Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraube, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The first-person perspective is a central concept of critical psychology trying to make psychological processes and the subjective dimension of human life understandable. The concept refers to the point of view of the “I” as the way in which a human subject has access to herself/himself and the w...

  11. [The practice of intensive care nursing: alliance among technique, technology and humanization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafael Celestino; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção

    2013-12-01

    A qualitative, field research study whose aim was to characterize the specific practice of intensive care nursing. Observation and interviews were conducted with 21 nurses in an intensive care unit. The results evidenced eight characteristics of this care, which included subjectivity and objectivity, translated into: interaction, dialogue, humanistic principles, vigilance, knowledge, and mastery of machinery. Because of this practice, subjectivity is not always expressed in a clear way, and objectivity requires training of nurses to perform intensive care. It is concluded that the practice of intensive care nursing combines technique, technology and humanization, which underlie the nursing care performed at the unit.

  12. Human-Computer Interaction Handbook Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jacko, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    The third edition of a groundbreaking reference, The Human--Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications raises the bar for handbooks in this field. It is the largest, most complete compilation of HCI theories, principles, advances, case studies, and more that exist within a single volume. The book captures the current and emerging sub-disciplines within HCI related to research, development, and practice that continue to advance at an astonishing rate. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base as well as visionary perspe

  13. Humans-with-media and the reorganization of mathematical thinking information and communication technologies, modeling, visualization and experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Borba, Marcelo C; Villarreal, Monica E

    2005-01-01

    This book offers a new conceptual framework for reflecting on the role of information and communication technology in mathematics education. Discussion focuses on how computers, writing and oral discourse transform education at an epistemological as well as a political level. Building on examples, research and theory, the authors propose that knowledge is not constructed solely by humans, but by collectives of humans and technologies of intelligence.

  14. Model training of future specialists in human health to strengthen the use of health technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Mikheenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop a model of scientific and methodological training of future specialists in human health to strengthen the use of health technologies. Material : processed more than 100 literary sources. Results : analyzed the methodological, organizational and educational and training aspects of the training of future specialists in human health. On the basis of scientific modeling, the basic structural components of the model of professional training of future specialists, are characterized by their nature and relationship. Theoretical basis to ensure a high level of training future specialist is an integral concept of professionalization based on the theoretical and methodological basis of its essence. Conclusions : it is proved that the effectiveness of training future specialist determined holistic concept of professionalization and relevant scientific and methodological support of the educational process.

  15. Rapid detection of structural variation in a human genome using nanochannel-based genome mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Hastie, Alex R.; Cao, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Structural variants (SVs) are less common than single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels in the population, but collectively account for a significant fraction of genetic polymorphism and diseases. Base pair differences arising from SVs are on a much higher order (>100 fold) than poi...... mapping technology as a comprehensive and cost-effective method for detecting structural variation and studying complex regions in the human genome, as well as deciphering viral integration into the host genome.......BACKGROUND: Structural variants (SVs) are less common than single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels in the population, but collectively account for a significant fraction of genetic polymorphism and diseases. Base pair differences arising from SVs are on a much higher order (>100 fold) than point...... mutations; however, none of the current detection methods are comprehensive, and currently available methodologies are incapable of providing sufficient resolution and unambiguous information across complex regions in the human genome. To address these challenges, we applied a high-throughput, cost...

  16. "Science Discovers, Genius Invents, Industry Applies, and Man Adapts Himself...": Some Thoughts on Human Autonomy, Law, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This short note considers the relationships between human autonomy, both individual and collective, and technology. At the collective level, numerous writers have observed the profound effects on society of technological discoveries--leading to the suggestion that societal mechanisms through which we might seek to make deliberate choices about…

  17. [Factors associated with early weaning in a Spanish region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, J M; Ortuño, J; Rivas, C; Maravall, M; Calzado, M A; López, A; Aguar, M; Vento, M

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding has undoubtedly great benefits. Previous studies have foundan early dropout. Only a few studies have investigated related factors. Our aim was to find out on-going breastfeeding rates along the first 12 months after birth and analyse factors associated with early weaning. This is a prospective study including consecutive pairs (mother and newborn) till completion of the required sample. Variables were collected performing a structured program of surveys to the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate analysis of the data was performed. A total of 452 pairs were recruited. It was found that 81% of them started breastfeeding, with a prevalence of breastfeeding of 39% and 21% at 3 and 6 months after birth, respectively. Factors associated with early discontinuation of breastfeeding were: pregnancy induced by assisted reproduction methods (OR=5.58; 95% CI: 2.62-11.91), maternal smoking (OR=1.56; 95% CI: 1.10-2.22), poor maternal expectations about the duration of breastfeeding (OR=2.19; 95% CI: 1.49-3.23), use of nipple shields for breastfeeding (OR=2.57; 95% CI: 1.69-3.90), pacifier use on a regular basis during the first month after delivery (OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.91), maternal university educational level (OR=0,59; 95% CI: 0,40-0,88), attending birth preparation programs during pregnancy (OR=0,68; 95% CI: 0,49-0,94), and believing having enough milk output at the time of discharge (OR=0,66; 95% CI: 0,47-0,92). International recommendations about duration of breastfeeding are not achieved in our country because of high rates of early weaning. We describe the known factors involved and other novel factors. The implementation of interventions to increase breastfeeding rates and to prevent early weaning are strongly recommended. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative Emissions Technologies, the Paris Agreement, and the Need for a Human-Rights Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. C. G.

    2016-12-01

    The new Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contemplates that its prospective Parties will balance emissions and sinks by 2050 as a means to effectuate the goal of holding temperature increases to well below 2°C from pre-industrial levels, as well as the more aspirational goal of holding temperature increases to 1.5°C. Most of the IPCC's AR5 scenarios that achieve these objectives contemplate the large-scale deployment of so-called "negative emissions technologies," with an emphasis on bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (BECCS), and to a lesser degree afforestation. BECCS could assuredly help society avoid passing critical climatic thresholds, or address overshoot scenarios in this century and beyond. However, it could also profound implications for food production, the status of forests, access to lands for livelihoods by vulnerable populations, and the integrity of critical ecosystems. This, in turn could have serious ramifications for human rights of some of the world's most vulnerable populations, including the rights to food, water, livelihoods and the benefits of biodiversity. The Preamble to the Paris Agreement acknowledges the need to take into consideration the potential impact of responses to climate change, providing that "Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights." This presentation will outline how application of a human rights-based approach to assessing such options could help to reconcile the objectives of ameliorating potential climatic impacts while protecting the human rights of potentially affected individuals and groups. This will include the potential role of Human Rights Impacts Assessments and potential configuration of HRIAs at the national and international level. It will also briefly suggest how to operationalize this approach within the Paris Agreement framework, including institutional

  19. Technology and human purpose: the problem of solids transport on the Earth's surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Haff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Displacement of mass of limited deformability ("solids" on the Earth's surface is opposed by friction and (the analog of form resistance – impediments relaxed by rotational motion, self-powering of mass units, and transport infrastructure. These features of solids transport first evolved in the biosphere prior to the emergence of technology, allowing slope-independent, diffusion-like motion of discrete objects as massive as several tons, as illustrated by animal foraging and movement along game trails. However, high-energy-consumption technology powered by fossil fuels required a mechanism that could support fast advective transport of solids, i.e., long-distance, high-volume, high-speed, unidirectional, slope-independent transport across the land surface of materials like coal, containerized fluids, minerals, and economic goods. Pre-technology nature was able to sustain regional- and global-scale advection only in the limited form of piggybacking on geophysical flows of water (river sediment and air (dust. The appearance of a mechanism for sustained advection of solids independent of fluid flows and gravity appeared only upon the emergence of human purpose. Purpose enables solids advection by, in effect, simulating a continuous potential gradient, otherwise lacking, between discrete and widely separated fossil-fuel energy sources and sinks. Invoking purpose as a mechanism in solids advection is an example of the need to import anthropic principles and concepts into the language and methodology of modern Earth system dynamics. As part of the emergence of a generalized solids advection mechanism, several additional transport requirements necessary to the function of modern large-scale technological systems were also satisfied. These include spatially accurate delivery of advected payload, targetability to essentially arbitrarily located destinations (such as cities, and independence of structure of advected payload from transport mechanism. The

  20. Continuity of microblade technology in the Indian Subcontinent since 45 ka: implications for the dispersal of modern humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mishra

    Full Text Available We extend the continuity of microblade technology in the Indian Subcontinent to 45 ka, on the basis of optical dating of microblade assemblages from the site of Mehtakheri, (22° 13' 44″ N Lat 76° 01' 36″ E Long in Madhya Pradesh, India. Microblade technology in the Indian Subcontinent is continuously present from its first appearance until the Iron Age (~3 ka, making its association with modern humans undisputed. It has been suggested that microblade technology in the Indian Subcontinent was developed locally by modern humans after 35 ka. The dates reported here from Mehtakheri show this inference to be untenable and suggest alternatively that this technology arrived in the Indian Subcontinent with the earliest modern humans. It also shows that modern humans in Indian Subcontinent and SE Asia were associated with differing technologies and this calls into question the "southern dispersal" route of modern humans from Africa through India to SE Asia and then to Australia. We suggest that modern humans dispersed from Africa in two stages coinciding with the warmer interglacial conditions of MIS 5 and MIS 3. Competitive interactions between African modern humans and Indian archaics who shared an adaptation to tropical environments differed from that between modern humans and archaics like Neanderthals and Denisovans, who were adapted to temperate environments. Thus, while modern humans expanded into temperate regions during warmer climates, their expansion into tropical regions, like the Indian Subcontinent, in competition with similarly adapted populations, occurred during arid climates. Thus modern humans probably entered the Indian Subcontinent during the arid climate of MIS 4 coinciding with their disappearance from the Middle East and Northern Africa. The out of phase expansion of modern humans into tropical versus temperate regions has been one of the factors affecting the dispersal of modern humans from Africa during the period 200

  1. Continuity of microblade technology in the Indian Subcontinent since 45 ka: implications for the dispersal of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sheila; Chauhan, Naveen; Singhvi, Ashok K

    2013-01-01

    We extend the continuity of microblade technology in the Indian Subcontinent to 45 ka, on the basis of optical dating of microblade assemblages from the site of Mehtakheri, (22° 13' 44″ N Lat 76° 01' 36″ E Long) in Madhya Pradesh, India. Microblade technology in the Indian Subcontinent is continuously present from its first appearance until the Iron Age (~3 ka), making its association with modern humans undisputed. It has been suggested that microblade technology in the Indian Subcontinent was developed locally by modern humans after 35 ka. The dates reported here from Mehtakheri show this inference to be untenable and suggest alternatively that this technology arrived in the Indian Subcontinent with the earliest modern humans. It also shows that modern humans in Indian Subcontinent and SE Asia were associated with differing technologies and this calls into question the "southern dispersal" route of modern humans from Africa through India to SE Asia and then to Australia. We suggest that modern humans dispersed from Africa in two stages coinciding with the warmer interglacial conditions of MIS 5 and MIS 3. Competitive interactions between African modern humans and Indian archaics who shared an adaptation to tropical environments differed from that between modern humans and archaics like Neanderthals and Denisovans, who were adapted to temperate environments. Thus, while modern humans expanded into temperate regions during warmer climates, their expansion into tropical regions, like the Indian Subcontinent, in competition with similarly adapted populations, occurred during arid climates. Thus modern humans probably entered the Indian Subcontinent during the arid climate of MIS 4 coinciding with their disappearance from the Middle East and Northern Africa. The out of phase expansion of modern humans into tropical versus temperate regions has been one of the factors affecting the dispersal of modern humans from Africa during the period 200-40 ka.

  2. Survival analysis of piglet pre-weaning mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Carnier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis methodology was applied in order to analyse sources of variation of preweaning survival time and to estimate variance components using data from a crossbred piglets population. A frailty sire model was used with the litter effect treated as an additional random source of variation. All the variables considered had a significant effect on survivability: sex, cross-fostering, parity of the nurse-sow and litter size. The variance estimates of sire and litter were closed to 0.08 and 2 respectively and the heritability of pre-weaning survival was 0.03.

  3. The use of phytobiotics in growth stimulation of weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Stamen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytogene feed additives (phytobiotics are plant origin compounds used in animal nutrition in order to improve their productivity by improving the production performance of animals, feed properties and the quality of food of animal origin. These additives stimulate animal growth by using their natural and physiological potentials and mechanisms providing conditions for the realization of the genetically projected production volumes. Data on the use of phytobiotics as growth stimulators are incomplete and often very contradictory, especially those related to their impact on the health and performance of weaned pigs. Given the relevance and importance of these issues the feeding trial was organized by the group-control system. The experiment lasted for 40 days and it was divided into two phases of 20 days each. Trial was conducted on 24 piglets, F1 generation of Swedish Landrace and Pietrain, weaned from sows at the age of 35 days. Tests were carried out on piglets, with an average body weight of 8.61±1.59 kg, which were subjected to one of the two feeding treatments immediately after weaning. The control group was fed with a mixture without growth promoters, while the experimental group received a diet containing preparation of phytobiotic (Enviva EO 101, Danisco Animal Nutrition in the amount recommended by the manufacturer (0.1 kg/t. The mixtures for piglets nutrition were formulated in accordance with the recommendations of the NRC (1998, and AEC (1993 and they met the nutritional requirements completely. During the experiment, there was no disturbance of health and/or the manifestation of clinical signs of disease. The control group, fed with the diet without added growth stimulators, achieved body weight (25.32±6.31 kg, average daily gain (0.42±0.12 kg, consumption (0.89 kg and feed conversion (2.119 normal for a given race, age and housing conditions. The use of preparation of phytobiotics as growth promoters, led to better production

  4. Impact of delirium on weaning from mechanical ventilation in medical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kyeongman; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Ko, Myeong Gyun; Nam, Jimyoung; Yoo, Hongseok; Chung, Chi Ryang; Suh, Gee Young

    2016-02-01

    Delirium is an important predictor of negative clinical outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU), including prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV). However, delirium has not yet proven to be directly linked to weaning difficulties. The objective of this cohort study was to evaluate the association between delirium, as observed on the day of the weaning trial, and subsequent weaning outcomes in medical patients. This is a retrospective analysis with prospectively collected data on weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV) and delirium, as assessed by bedside ICU nurses using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) between October 2011 and September 2013. During the study period, a total of 393 patients with MV support underwent a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) according to the standardized protocol. Of these patients, 160 (40.7%) were diagnosed with delirium on the day of the first SBT. Patients without delirium were more successfully extubated than those with delirium (81.5% vs 69.4%, P = 0.005). Delirium was found to be associated with final weaning outcomes, including difficult (OR 1.962, 95% CI 1.201-3.205) and prolonged weaning (OR 2.318, 95% CI 1.272-4.226) when simple weaning was used as a reference category. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, delirium was still significantly associated with difficult weaning (adjusted OR 2.073, 95% CI 1.124-3.822), but not with prolonged weaning (adjusted OR 2.001, 95% CI 0.875-4.575). Delirium, as assessed by the CAM-ICU at the time of first weaning trial, was significantly associated with weaning difficulties in medical patients. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. An arterio-venous bridge for gradual weaning from adult veno-arterial extracorporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z U D; Sharma, A S; Ganushchak, Y M; Delnoij, T S R; Donker, D W; Maessen, J G; Weerwind, P W

    2015-11-01

    Weaning from extracorporeal life support (ELS) is particularly challenging when cardiac recovery is slow, largely incomplete and hard to predict. Therefore, we describe an individualized gradual weaning strategy using an arterio-venous (AV) bridge incorporated into the circuit to facilitate weaning. Thirty adult patients weaned from veno-arterial ELS using an AV bridge were retrospectively analyzed. Serial echocardiography and hemodynamic monitoring were used to assess cardiac recovery and load responsiveness. Upon early signs of myocardial recovery, an AV bridge with an Hoffman clamp was added to the circuit and weaning was initiated. Support flow was reduced stepwise by 10-15% every 2 to 8 hours while the circuit flow was maintained at 3.5-4.5 L/min. The AV bridge facilitated gradual weaning in all 30 patients (median age: 66 [53-71] years; 21 males) over a median period of 25 [8-32] hours, with a median support duration of 96 [31-181] hours. During weaning, the median left ventricular ejection fraction was 25% [15-32] and the median velocity time integral of the aortic valve was 16 cm [10-23]. Through the weaning period, the mean arterial blood pressure was maintained at 70 mmHg and the activated partial thromboplastin time was 60 ± 10 seconds without additional systemic heparinization. Neither macroscopic thrombus formation in the ELS circuit during and after weaning nor clinically relevant thromboembolism was observed. Incorporation of an AV bridge for weaning from veno-arterial ELS is safe and feasible to gradually wean patients with functional cardiac recovery without compromising the circuit integrity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Eilish M; Earley, Bernadette; McGee, Mark; Doyle, Sean

    2010-07-20

    Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i) abrupt weaning and ii) subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d) 0, mean age of calf (s.d.) 212 (24.5) d), cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed in a slatted floor shed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus a mineral-vitamin supplement daily. Rectal body temperature was recorded and blood samples were obtained on i) d 0 (weaning), 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and subsequently on ii) d 0 (housing), 2, 7, 14 and 21 for physiological, haematological and immunological measurements. Post-weaning, concentration of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were unchanged (P > 0.05). Rectal body temperature, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-weaning baseline. Lymphocyte and neutrophil number decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. Interferon-gamma production decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. An increase (P pre-weaning baseline. Concentration of glucose increased on d 2 to 28, whereas non-esterified fatty acid decreased on d 2 to 35 compared with pre-weaning baseline. Post-housing, concentrations of cortisol, rectal body temperature, total leukocyte number, and glucose were unchanged (P > 0.05). On d 2 post-housing, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-housing baseline. Concentration of haptoglobin increased (P post-housing. A transitory increase in neutrophil number and decrease in lymphocyte number, increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio coupled with decreased interferon-gamma production, and increased concentration of acute phase proteins indicate a stress response in cows post-weaning, whereas post-housing, changes were less marked.

  7. Human missions to Mars enabling technologies for exploring the red planet

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, Donald

    2016-01-01

    A mission to send humans to explore the surface of Mars has been the ultimate goal of planetary exploration since the 1950s, when von Braun conjectured a flotilla of 10 interplanetary vessels carrying a crew of at least 70 humans. Since then, more than 1,000 studies were carried out on human missions to Mars, but after 60 years of study, we remain in the early planning stages. The second edition of this book now includes an annotated history of Mars mission studies, with quantitative data wherever possible. Retained from the first edition, Donald Rapp looks at human missions to Mars from an engineering perspective. He divides the mission into a number of stages: Earth’s surface to low-Earth orbit (LEO); departing from LEO toward Mars; Mars orbit insertion and entry, descent and landing; ascent from Mars; trans-Earth injection from Mars orbit and Earth return. For each segment, he analyzes requirements for candidate technologies. In this connection, he discusses the status and potential of a wide range of el...

  8. Social Robotic Experience and Media Communication Practices: An Exploration on the Emotional and Ritualized Human-technology-relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Linke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the subject of social robots by focusing on the emotional relations people establish with media and information and communication technology (ICTs in their everyday life. It examines human-technology-relation from a social studies point of view, seeking to raise questions that enable us to make a connection between the research on human relationships and the topic of human-technology relation, especially human-humanoid-relation. In order to explore the human-technology-relations, theoretical ideas of a mediatization of communication and of a ritual interaction order are applied. Ritual theory is particularly used to enable a focus on emotion as a significant dimension in analyzing social technologies. This explorative article refers to empirical findings regarding media communication practices in close relationships. It argues that following the developed approach regarding mediatized and ritualized relational practices, useful insights for a conceptualization of the human-social robot relation can be achieved. The article concludes with remarks regarding the challenge of an empirical approach to human-social robot-relations.

  9. A Human Factors Approach to Bridging Systems and Introducing New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    The application of human factors in aviation has grown to cover a wide range of disciplines and methods capable of assessing human-systems integration at many levels. For example, at the individual level, pilot workload may be studied while at the team level, coordinated workload distribution may be the focal point. At the organizational level, the way in which individuals and teams are supported by training and standards, policies and procedures may introduce additional, relevant topics. A consideration of human factors at each level contributes to our understanding of successes and failures in pilot performance, but this system focused on the flight deck alone -- is only one part of the airspace system. In the FAA's NextGen plan to overhaul the National Airspace System (NAS), new capabilities will enhance flightdeck systems (pilots), flight operations centers (dispatchers) and air traffic control systems (controllers and air traffic managers). At a minimum, the current roles and responsibilities of these three systems are likely to change. Since increased automation will be central to many of the enhancements, the role of automation is also likely to change. Using NextGen examples, a human factors approach for bridging complex airspace systems will be the main focus of this presentation. It is still crucial to consider the human factors within each system, but the successful implementation of new technologies in the NAS requires an understanding of the collaborations that occur when these systems intersect. This human factors approach to studying collaborative systems begins with detailed task descriptions within each system to establish a baseline of the current operations. The collaborative content and context are delineated through the review of regulatory and advisory materials, letters of agreement, policies, procedures and documented practices. Field observations and interviews also help to fill out the picture. Key collaborative functions across systems

  10. Leather waste--potential threat to human health, and a new technology of its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomaznik, K; Adamek, M; Andel, I; Uhlirova, M

    2008-12-30

    In this paper, the authors deal with the problem of processing various types of waste generated by leather industry, with special emphasis to chrome-tanned waste. The agent that makes this waste potentially hazardous is hexavalent chromium. Its compounds can have negative effects on human health and some CrVI salts are considered carcinogens. The authors present the risks of spontaneous oxidization of CrIII to CrVI in the open-air dumps as well as the possible risks of wearing bad quality shoes, in which the chromium content is not controlled. There are several ways of handling primary leather waste, but no satisfactory technology has been developed for the secondary waste (manipulation waste, e.g. leather scraps and used leather products). In this contribution, a new three-step hybrid technology of processing manipulation waste is presented and tested under laboratory, pilot-scale and industrial conditions. The filtrate can be used as a good quality NPK fertilizer. The solid product, titanium-chromium sludge, can serve as an inorganic pigment in glass and ceramic industry. Further, the authors propose selective collection of used leather products (e.g. old shoes), the hydrolysable parts of which can be also processed by the new hybrid technology.

  11. Microencapsulation technology: a powerful tool for integrating expansion and cryopreservation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Margarida; Correia, Cláudia; Malpique, Rita; Brito, Catarina; Jensen, Janne; Bjorquist, Petter; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D) culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i) single cells, ii) aggregates and iii) immobilized on microcarriers. In order to establish a scalable bioprocess, hESC-microcapsules were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors.The combination of microencapsulation and microcarrier technology resulted in a highly efficient protocol for the production and storage of pluripotent hESCs. This strategy ensured high expansion ratios (an approximately twenty-fold increase in cell concentration) and high cell recovery yields (>70%) after cryopreservation. When compared with non-encapsulated cells, cell survival post-thawing demonstrated a three-fold improvement without compromising hESC characteristics.Microencapsulation also improved the culture of hESC aggregates by protecting cells from hydrodynamic shear stress, controlling aggregate size and maintaining cell pluripotency for two weeks.This work establishes that microencapsulation technology may prove a powerful tool for integrating the expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. The 3D culture strategy developed herein represents a significant breakthrough towards the implementation of hESCs in clinical and industrial applications.

  12. Microencapsulation technology: a powerful tool for integrating expansion and cryopreservation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Serra

    Full Text Available The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i single cells, ii aggregates and iii immobilized on microcarriers. In order to establish a scalable bioprocess, hESC-microcapsules were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors.The combination of microencapsulation and microcarrier technology resulted in a highly efficient protocol for the production and storage of pluripotent hESCs. This strategy ensured high expansion ratios (an approximately twenty-fold increase in cell concentration and high cell recovery yields (>70% after cryopreservation. When compared with non-encapsulated cells, cell survival post-thawing demonstrated a three-fold improvement without compromising hESC characteristics.Microencapsulation also improved the culture of hESC aggregates by protecting cells from hydrodynamic shear stress, controlling aggregate size and maintaining cell pluripotency for two weeks.This work establishes that microencapsulation technology may prove a powerful tool for integrating the expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. The 3D culture strategy developed herein represents a significant breakthrough towards the implementation of hESCs in clinical and industrial applications.

  13. Microencapsulation Technology: A Powerful Tool for Integrating Expansion and Cryopreservation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpique, Rita; Brito, Catarina; Jensen, Janne; Bjorquist, Petter; Carrondo, Manuel J. T.; Alves, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D) culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i) single cells, ii) aggregates and iii) immobilized on microcarriers. In order to establish a scalable bioprocess, hESC-microcapsules were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors. The combination of microencapsulation and microcarrier technology resulted in a highly efficient protocol for the production and storage of pluripotent hESCs. This strategy ensured high expansion ratios (an approximately twenty-fold increase in cell concentration) and high cell recovery yields (>70%) after cryopreservation. When compared with non-encapsulated cells, cell survival post-thawing demonstrated a three-fold improvement without compromising hESC characteristics. Microencapsulation also improved the culture of hESC aggregates by protecting cells from hydrodynamic shear stress, controlling aggregate size and maintaining cell pluripotency for two weeks. This work establishes that microencapsulation technology may prove a powerful tool for integrating the expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. The 3D culture strategy developed herein represents a significant breakthrough towards the implementation of hESCs in clinical and industrial applications. PMID:21850261

  14. Performance comparison of digital microRNA profiling technologies applied on human breast cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Knutsen

    Full Text Available MicroRNA profiling represents an important first-step in deducting individual RNA-based regulatory function in a cell, tissue, or at a specific developmental stage. Currently there are several different platforms to choose from in order to make the initial miRNA profiles. In this study we investigate recently developed digital microRNA high-throughput technologies. Four different platforms were compared including next generation SOLiD ligation sequencing and Illumina HiSeq sequencing, hybridization-based NanoString nCounter, and miRCURY locked nucleic acid RT-qPCR. For all four technologies, full microRNA profiles were generated from human cell lines that represent noninvasive and invasive tumorigenic breast cancer. This study reports the correlation between platforms, as well as a more extensive analysis of the accuracy and sensitivity of data generated when using different platforms and important consideration when verifying results by the use of additional technologies. We found all the platforms to be highly capable for microRNA analysis. Furthermore, the two NGS platforms and RT-qPCR all have equally high sensitivity, and the fold change accuracy is independent of individual miRNA concentration for NGS and RT-qPCR. Based on these findings we propose new guidelines and considerations when performing microRNA profiling.

  15. Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, D

    2006-10-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well-being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are often overlooked in discussions about HRC. Furthermore, there are people who are willing to use the technology. Several scientists have been outspoken in their intent to pursue HRC. The importance of concerns about the physical safety of children created by HRC and comparisons with concerns about the safety of IVF are discussed. A model to be used to determine when it is acceptable to use HRC and other new assisted reproductive technologies, balancing reproductive freedom and safety concerns, is proposed. Justifications underpinning potential applications of HRC are discussed, and it is determined that these are highly analogous to rationalisations used to justify IVF treatment. It is concluded that people wishing to conceive using HRC should have a prima facie negative right to do so.

  16. Overview of FY1997 human media technology R and D; 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seido Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku jigyo. Human media no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports a summary of results in fiscal 1997 of research and development of human media technology. Fiscal 1997 launched design and trial fabrication of the following items: interface to improve efficiency and safety of plant operators, accommodation of multimedia contents to aid Kansei design, city development design aiding technologies using contents retrieval and presentation technologies and virtual reality, and empirical evaluation technologies for safety, comfort and convenience. Specific study assignments were extracted on a virtual media technology, a Kansei media technology and a knowledge media technology being three elementary technologies for human media to make clear the research and development approaches to be taken in the coming fiscal years. In addition, a human media technology committee, a research and development working group, and an investigation working group were established. Also launched were investigations on research trends in the human media technology, and investigative researches on contacts of information needs in industries with human media. 59 refs., 114 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Social stress increases fecal shedding of Salmonella typhimurium by early weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, T R; Morrow, J L; Edrington, T S; Genovese, K J; Dowd, S; Carroll, J; Dailey, J W; Harvey, R B; Poole, T L; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J

    2006-09-01

    "Segregated early weaning" (SEW) of pigs reduces exposure to pathogenic bacteria, but upon arrival at grower facilities pigs may be co-mingled regardless of farm of origin. The present study was designed to examine the effect of mixing (social) stress on populations of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in SEW pigs. Piglets (7 days old; n = 28 in each of 2 replicates) were separated into 2 treatments (control and mixed groups) of 2 pens per treatment (7 piglets/pen). One (n = 1) "seeder" pig/pen was inoculated with 10(9) CFU of S. Typhimurium. Each seeder was placed with non-inoculated "contact" piglets (n = 6). A"contact" piglet was swapped each day between the "mixed" pens for 5 days; pigs in control pens were not exchanged. On day 5, the incidence of fecal Salmonella shedding was higher in the mixed contact pigs (P weaned pigs may increase susceptibility to and/or fecal shedding of Salmonella. Food-borne Salmonella infections in the United States are estimated to cost the economy dollar 2.4 billion annually (ERS/USDA, 2001). Approximately 6-9% of human salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of pork products (Frenzen et al., 1999). Salmonella is relatively common on swine farms and has been isolated from all stages of the pork production chain (Davies et al., 1999; Fedorka-Cray et al., 1997b; Rostagno et al., 2003). Salmonella is a threat to the pork industry not only from a food-safety perspective as a public health concern, but some Salmonella serotypes can cause clinical illnesses in swine, negatively impacting production efficiency and profitability (Schwartz, 1991).

  18. A Topographical Atlas of Shiga Toxin 2e Receptor Distribution in the Tissues of Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Steil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx 2e of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is the primary virulence factor in the development of pig edema disease shortly after weaning. Stx2e binds to the globo-series glycosphingolipids (GSLs globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ1-3Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer, the latter acting as the preferential Stx2e receptor. We determined Stx receptor profiles of 25 different tissues of a male and a female weaned piglet using immunochemical solid phase binding assays combined with mass spectrometry. All probed tissues harbored GSL receptors, ranging from high (category I over moderate (category II to low content (category III. Examples of Gb4Cer expression in category I tissues are small intestinal ileum, kidney pelvis and whole blood, followed by colon, small intestinal duodenum and jejunum belonging to category II, and kidney cortex, cerebrum and cerebellum as members of category III organs holding true for both genders. Dominant Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer lipoforms were those with ceramides carrying constant sphingosine (d18:1 and a variable C16:0, C22:0 or C24:1/C24:0 fatty acid. From the mapping data, we created a topographical atlas for Stx2e receptors in piglet tissues and organs, which might be helpful to further investigations on the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie infections of Stx2e-producing STEC in pigs and their zoonotic potential for humans.

  19. Weaning children with accommodative esotropia out of spectacles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, K A; Ellish, N J; Lambert, S R

    2003-01-01

    Background/aim: Many children with accommodative esotropia must continue spectacle use throughout life. This study was undertaken to determine which factors are predictive of successfully weaning children with accommodative esotropia out of spectacles. Methods: A retrospective review of 10 children with accommodative esotropia, who were gradually weaned from their hyperopic correction, and three age matched controls was performed. The main outcome measure was resolution or non-resolution of esotropia following weaning and eventual discontinuation of spectacles. Secondary outcome measures were final refractive error and the final esotropic or esophoric angle without correction. Results: Six patients were successfully weaned from spectacles. At the completion of the weaning period one child was orthophoric and the other five children had well controlled esophorias. The other four patients remained spectacle dependent because of persistent esotropia or decreased vision without spectacles. The baseline and final refractive errors were significantly lower in the children successfully weaned from spectacles (p = 0.014). While the children who were successfully weaned from spectacles were older when initially diagnosed with accommodative esotropia (4.6 v 2.5 years), this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Some children with accommodative esotropia may be weaned out of spectacles during the grade school years with resolution of their esotropia. It is likely that gradual reduction of the hyperopic correction increases divergence amplitudes, but it is unclear whether this facilitates emmetropisation. PMID:12488252

  20. Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Bakker, G.C.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and on small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets. In total, 108 piglets were used, without access to creep feed during the suckling period. Piglets were weaned at 27 days of age. They were fed ad

  1. Coping personality type and environment enrichment affect aggression at weaning in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melotti, L.; Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Held, S.; Mendl, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different environmental treatments and personality types on aggression at mixing of newly weaned domestic piglets. From birth to weaning, 16 litters were housed with their dams in either barren (B) or larger, substrate-enriched (E) environments. At 15 days old,

  2. Study of post-weaning growth of F 1 and F 2 backcrosses of goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that season of rearing had significant (P<0.05) effect on the post weaning live body weight of the animals. As growth progressed, kids raised in late rainy (July - September) and early dry season (October - December) had the heaviest body weight. The post weaning weight were significantly higher in ...

  3. Impact of bioactive substances on the gastrointestinal tract and performance of weaned piglets: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalles, J.P.; Bosi, P.; Janczyk, P.; Koopmans, S.J.; Torrallardona, D.

    2009-01-01

    The EU ban on in-feed antibiotics has stimulated research on weaning diets as a way of reducing post-weaning gut disorders and growth check in pigs. Many bioactive components have been investigated but only few have shown to be effective. Amongst these, organic acids (OA) have been shown to exert a

  4. The influences of weaning age and weight on carcass traits and meat quality of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Bo; Kim, Gap-Don; Kang, Dong-Geun; Kim, Yeong-Hwa; Yang, Ik-Dong; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of weaning age and weight on pigs, and their interaction with carcass traits and meat quality. A total of 468 piglets were obtained from 57 sows and four boars and grouped by age at weaning (D21, 18-24 days; D28, 25-32 days). Each weaning group was subdivided into three weight groups (L, M and H) according to weaning weight. The D28 group had heavier carcass weight, redness and yellowness, but had lower marbling scores and less drip loss than the D21 group (P negative correlation with drip loss, while weaning weight was negatively correlated with carcass weight and drip loss (P meat quality traits in pigs were significantly related to their age and weight at weaning. Therefore, we find that piglet weaning age and weight are no less important than post-weaning growth performance and behavior, with regard to carcass traits and meat quality. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Effect of Season, Birth Weight and Weaning Weight on the onset of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of season, birth weight and weaning weight on the onset of puberty of 31 crossbred (Friesian & Bunaji) calves born from 1999 to 2005. The parameters considered were season of birth, birth weight, weaning weight body weight from 12-27 month of age and age and weight at ...

  6. Follicle size and reproductive hormone profiles during a post-weaning altrenogest treatment in primiparous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.J.J.; Martens, M.R.T.M.; Jourquin, J.; Draincourt, M.A.; Wagner, A.; Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the endocrine background of follicle size changes during post-weaning altrenogest treatment. altrenogest-treated sows received a 20-mg dosage daily at 8.00 a.m. from Day –1 to Day 14 after weaning. On Day –1, only 3/13 altrenogest-treated sows showed LH pulses compared with

  7. Can Protocolised Weaning Applied in Denmark Transfer to Egyptian Intensive Care Units? A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Zaiton, Hala; Pedersen, Birthe D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether protocol-directed weaning applied by nurses in the Intensive Care Unit at Odense University Hospital in Denmark (ICUD) can be transferred to the Intensive Care Unit at Zagazig University Hospital in Egypt (ICUE), where weaning is physician...

  8. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the variation in backfat at weaning and its relations to reproduction results in organic sow herds in Denmark. The study included eight herds and 573 sows. The average backfat at weaning (mean = 13 mm; SD = 4.2 mm) ranging from 10.5 to 17.3 mm among herds shows th...

  9. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocheng; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d), 1 d (w1d), 3 d (w3d), 5 d (w5d), and 7 d (w7d) after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets. PMID:27022727

  10. Effects of Transport at Weaning on the Behavior, Physiology and Performance of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A. Sutherland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport of pigs to separate production facilities at the time of weaning is a common practice, primarily performed to reduce vertical transfer of disease and enhance production and overall farm efficiency. During transport, pigs are exposed to numerous stressors in conjunction with the stress experienced as a result of weaning. In this review, the behavioral and physiological response of pigs experiencing weaning and transport simultaneously will be described, including the effects of space allowance, season and transport duration. Based on the scientific literature, the gaps in the knowledge regarding potential welfare issues are discussed. Changes in behavior and physiology suggest that weaned pigs may experience stress due to transport. Space allowance, season and duration are aspects of transport that can have a marked impact on these responses. To date, the literature regarding the effects of transport on weaned pigs has primarily focused on the short term stress response and little is known about the effects of concurrent weaning and transport on other aspects of pig welfare including morbidity and mortality rates. Greater understanding of the short and long term consequences of transport on weaned pig welfare particularly in relation to factors such as trip duration, provision of feed and water, and best handling practices would benefit the swine industry. Furthermore, the development of guidelines and recommendations to enhance the short and long term welfare of weaned pigs in relation to transport are needed.

  11. crossbreeding wit}i africander dam as basis . 3. post-weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-weaning growth pertbrmance was studied for 342 steers out ot'Africander cows and by Africander, Brahman. Charolais,. Hereford and ... tance to consider additional aspects concerning efficien- cy of beef production in terms of net ... Mean squares for weaning moss, linal mass and average dail.v gain (ADG ) of steers.

  12. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  13. Insights from stable light isotopes on enamel defects and weaning in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Stuart-Williams and Schwarcz 1997; Feranec and Mac-. Fadden 2000; Balasse et al 2002). The weaning transition is detectable because milk is significantly enriched in 18O compared to drinking water, resulting in higher δ 18OCO3 in suckling calves compared to weaned calves and adults. (Fricke and O'Neil 1996).

  14. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli...

  15. Variance and covariance estimates for weaning weight of Senepol cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D W; Johnson, Z B; Brown, C J; Wildeus, S

    1991-10-01

    Variance and covariance components were estimated for weaning weight from Senepol field data for use in the reduced animal model for a maternally influenced trait. The 4,634 weaning records were used to evaluate 113 sires and 1,406 dams on the island of St. Croix. Estimates of direct additive genetic variance (sigma 2A), maternal additive genetic variance (sigma 2M), covariance between direct and maternal additive genetic effects (sigma AM), permanent maternal environmental variance (sigma 2PE), and residual variance (sigma 2 epsilon) were calculated by equating variances estimated from a sire-dam model and a sire-maternal grandsire model, with and without the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix (A-1), to their expectations. Estimates were sigma 2A, 139.05 and 138.14 kg2; sigma 2M, 307.04 and 288.90 kg2; sigma AM, -117.57 and -103.76 kg2; sigma 2PE, -258.35 and -243.40 kg2; and sigma 2 epsilon, 588.18 and 577.72 kg2 with and without A-1, respectively. Heritability estimates for direct additive (h2A) were .211 and .210 with and without A-1, respectively. Heritability estimates for maternal additive (h2M) were .47 and .44 with and without A-1, respectively. Correlations between direct and maternal (IAM) effects were -.57 and -.52 with and without A-1, respectively.

  16. Six Different Models for Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Breeding Values for Pre-weaning and Post-weaning Weights in Suckler Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ulutaş, Zafer

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of (co)variance components and breeding values for pre-weaning (100-day) and post-weaning (300-day) weights were obtained for a commercial herd of Welsh Black cattle recorded from 1976 to 1996. Estimates were obtained from six animal models ranging from a model with only an additive direct effect to a model that also included an additive maternal effect, a maternal permanent environmental effect and a covariance between additive direct and additive maternal effects. The most appropr...

  17. The influence of music during mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Breanna; Lindquist, Ruth; Chlan, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) causes many distressing symptoms. Weaning, the gradual decrease in ventilator assistance leading to termination of MV, increases respiratory effort, which may exacerbate symptoms and prolong MV. Music, a non-pharmacological intervention without side effects may benefit patients during weaning from mechanical ventilatory support. A narrative review of OVID Medline, PsychINFO, and CINAHL databases was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of music intervention in MV and MV weaning. Music intervention had a positive impact on ventilated patients; 16 quantitative and 2 qualitative studies were identified. Quantitative studies included randomized clinical trials (10), case controls (3), pilot studies (2) and a feasibility study. Evidence supports music as an effective intervention that can lesson symptoms related to MV and promote effective weaning. It has potential to reduce costs and increase patient satisfaction. However, more studies are needed to establish its use during MV weaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasonography evaluation during the weaning process: the heart, the diaphragm, the pleura and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, P; Volpicelli, G; Lerolle, N; Schreiber, A; Doelken, P; Vieillard-Baron, A

    2016-07-01

    On a regular basis, the intensivist encounters the patient who is difficult to wean from mechanical ventilatory support. The causes for failure to wean from mechanical ventilatory support are often multifactorial and involve a complex interplay between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction. A potential application of point of care ultrasonography relates to its utility in the process of weaning the patient from mechanical ventilatory support. This article reviews some applications of ultrasonography that may be relevant to the process of weaning from mechanical ventilatory support. The authors have divided these applications of ultrasonography into four separate categories: the assessment of cardiac, diaphragmatic, and lung function; and the identification of pleural effusion; which can all be evaluated with ultrasonography during a dynamic process in which the intensivist is uniquely positioned to use ultrasonography at the point of care. Ultrasonography may have useful application during the weaning process from mechanical ventilatory support.

  19. A diet containing dried chicory root does not protect against post-weaning diarrhoea in an E. coli challenge model using piglets weaned at 7 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether fructan from dried chicory root provided protection against E. coli induced post-weaning diarrhoea in an experimental challenge model. Piglets from 6 litters, 8 piglets per litter, were included in the experiment. Starting 10 d prior to weaning, 4 piglets per...... litter received a control diet (0.9% fructan of DM) and 4 piglets received an experimental diet containing 20% dried chicory root (11.6% fructan of DM). The piglets were weaned at 7 weeks of age. On d 2 and 3 post-weaning half of the piglets were orally challenged with E. coli O149, the remaining piglets...... 4 and 5. Body weight gain and feed intake was not influenced by either E. coli challenge or diet. However, feed conversion ratio was lower in pigs fed the chicory diet during d 0-12 post-weaning. This experiment did not provide evidence for a protective effect of fructan on post-weaning diarrhoea...

  20. Prevalence of and management factors contributing to Cryptosporidium sp. infection in pre-weaned and post-weaned calves in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhid, Aida; Robertson, Ian; Ng, Josephine; Ryan, Una

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify species and determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. shedding in pre-weaned and post-weaned dairy calves and to identify management factors that may be contributing to disease. A total of 240 calf faecal samples were collected from 16 farms in two districts in Johor, Malaysia, and screened by PCR. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence was 27.1%. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in pre-weaned calves was 32.4% for C. parvum, 26.5% for C. bovis, followed by C. andersoni (20.6%), C. ryanae (11.8%) and mixed sp. (8.8%). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in post-weaned calves was 35% for C. bovis followed by C. andersoni and C. ryanae (30% each) and mixed sp. (5%). Subtyping analysis of 8 of the 11 C. parvum isolates at the gp60 locus identified five isolates as IIdA15G1, one as IIa18A3R1 and two isolates as IIa17G2R1. Management factors that increased the risk of Cryptosporidium infection included having other cattle farms close by, feeding calves with saleable milk, keeping pre-weaned calves in pens with slatted floors and keeping post-weaned calves in pens with a sand floor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Factors and Ergonomics in the Design of Health Information Technology: Trends and Progress in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, S; Ong, Ms

    2015-08-13

    To summarize significant contributions to the research on human factors and organizational issues in medical informatics. An extensive search using PubMed/Medline and Web of Science® was conducted to identify the scientific contributions, published in 2014, to human factors and organizational issues in medical informatics, with a focus on health information technology (HIT) usability. The selection process comprised three steps: (i) 15 candidate best papers were selected by the two section editors, (ii) external reviewers from a pool of international experts reviewed each candidate best paper, and (iii) the final selection of three best papers was made by the editorial board of the IMIA Yearbook. Noteworthy papers published in 2014 describe an efficient, easy to implement, and useful process for detecting and mitigating human factors and ergonomics (HFE) issues of HIT. They contribute to promote the HFE approach with interventions based on rigorous and well-conducted methods when designing and implementing HIT. The application of HFE in the design and implementation of HIT remains limited, and the impact of incorporating HFE principles on patient safety is understudied. Future works should be conducted to advance this field of research, so that the safety and quality of patient care are not compromised by the increasing adoption of HIT.

  2. Neural correlates of Early Stone Age toolmaking: technology, language and cognition in human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Dietrich; Toth, Nicholas; Schick, Kathy; Chaminade, Thierry

    2008-06-12

    Archaeological and palaeontological evidence from the Early Stone Age (ESA) documents parallel trends of brain expansion and technological elaboration in human evolution over a period of more than 2Myr. However, the relationship between these defining trends remains controversial and poorly understood. Here, we present results from a positron emission tomography study of functional brain activation during experimental ESA (Oldowan and Acheulean) toolmaking by expert subjects. Together with a previous study of Oldowan toolmaking by novices, these results document increased demands for effective visuomotor coordination and hierarchical action organization in more advanced toolmaking. This includes an increased activation of ventral premotor and inferior parietal elements of the parietofrontal praxis circuits in both the hemispheres and of the right hemisphere homologue of Broca's area. The observed patterns of activation and of overlap with language circuits suggest that toolmaking and language share a basis in more general human capacities for complex, goal-directed action. The results are consistent with coevolutionary hypotheses linking the emergence of language, toolmaking, population-level functional lateralization and association cortex expansion in human evolution.

  3. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing weight- and YG-related penalties improved profitability. Opportunities may exist with existing and new technology to uniformly allocate cattle into feeding and marketing groups, decrease overfeeding, and increase carcass value and profitability.

  4. Factors associated with weaning practices in term infants: a prospective observational study in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-11-01

    The WHO (2001) recommends exclusive breast-feeding and delaying the introduction of solid foods to an infant\\'s diet until 6 months postpartum. However, in many countries, this recommendation is followed by few mothers, and earlier weaning onto solids is a commonly reported global practice. Therefore, this prospective, observational study aimed to assess compliance with the WHO recommendation and examine weaning practices, including the timing of weaning of infants, and to investigate the factors that predict weaning at ≤ 12 weeks. From an initial sample of 539 pregnant women recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, 401 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Quantitative data were obtained on mothers\\' weaning practices using semi-structured questionnaires and a short dietary history of the infant\\'s usual diet at 6 months. Only one mother (0.2%) complied with the WHO recommendation to exclusively breastfeed up to 6 months. Ninety-one (22.6%) infants were prematurely weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks with predictive factors after adjustment, including mothers\\' antenatal reporting that infants should be weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks, formula feeding at 12 weeks and mothers\\' reporting of the maternal grandmother as the principal source of advice on infant feeding. Mothers who weaned their infants at ≤ 12 weeks were more likely to engage in other sub-optimal weaning practices, including the addition of non-recommended condiments to their infants\\' foods. Provision of professional advice and exploring antenatal maternal misperceptions are potential areas for targeted interventions to improve compliance with the recommended weaning practices.

  5. Analysis of Light Emitting Diode Technology for Aerospace Suitability in Human Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, Todd H.

    Commercial space designers are required to manage space flight designs in accordance with parts selections made from qualified parts listings approved by Department of Defense and NASA agencies for reliability and safety. The research problem was a government and private aerospace industry problem involving how LEDs cannot replace existing fluorescent lighting in manned space flight vehicles until such technology meets DOD and NASA requirements for reliability and safety, and effects on astronaut cognition and health. The purpose of this quantitative experimental study was to determine to what extent commercial LEDs can suitably meet NASA requirements for manufacturer reliability, color reliability, robustness to environmental test requirements, and degradation effects from operational power, while providing comfortable ambient light free of eyestrain to astronauts in lieu of current fluorescent lighting. A fractional factorial experiment tested white and blue LEDs for NASA required space flight environmental stress testing and applied operating current. The second phase of the study used a randomized block design, to test human factor effects of LEDs and a qualified ISS fluorescent for retinal fatigue and eye strain. Eighteen human subjects were recruited from university student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Findings for Phase 1 testing showed that commercial LEDs met all DOD and NASA requirements for manufacturer reliability, color reliability, robustness to environmental requirements, and degradation effects from operational power. Findings showed statistical significance for LED color and operational power variables but degraded light output levels did not fall below the industry recognized <70%. Findings from Phase 2 human factors testing showed no statistically significant evidence that the NASA approved ISS fluorescent lights or blue or white LEDs caused fatigue, eye strain and/or headache, when study participants perform

  6. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  7. Developing de novo human artificial chromosomes in embryonic stem cells using HSV-1 amplicon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralli, Daniela; Monaco, Zoia L

    2015-02-01

    De novo artificial chromosomes expressing genes have been generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) and are maintained following differentiation into other cell types. Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are small, functional, extrachromosomal elements, which behave as normal chromosomes in human cells. De novo HAC are generated following delivery of alpha satellite DNA into target cells. HAC are characterized by high levels of mitotic stability and are used as models to study centromere formation and chromosome organisation. They are successful and effective as gene expression vectors since they remain autonomous and can accommodate larger genes and regulatory regions for long-term expression studies in cells unlike other viral gene delivery vectors currently used. Transferring the essential DNA sequences for HAC formation intact across the cell membrane has been challenging for a number of years. A highly efficient delivery system based on HSV-1 amplicons has been used to target DNA directly to the ES cell nucleus and HAC stably generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) at high frequency. HAC were detected using an improved protocol for hESc chromosome harvesting, which consistently produced high-quality metaphase spreads that could routinely detect HAC in hESc. In tumour cells, the input DNA often integrated in the host chromosomes, but in the host ES genome, it remained intact. The hESc containing the HAC formed embryoid bodies, generated teratoma in mice, and differentiated into neuronal cells where the HAC were maintained. The HAC structure and chromatin composition was similar to the endogenous hESc chromosomes. This review will discuss the technological advances in HAC vector delivery using HSV-1 amplicons and the improvements in the identification of de novo HAC in hESc.

  8. Technological innovation, human capital and social change for sustainability. Lessons learnt from the industrial technologies theme of the EU's Research Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesús Alquézar

    2014-05-15

    Europe is facing a twofold challenge. It must maintain or even increase its competitiveness, a basic requirement in a globalised economy and under the current demographic threat. It needs also to tackle the so-called "grand challenges", especially environmental issues, through a sustainable model of production and consumption. Such challenges should lead to new business and industrial models, based on more sustainable production and consumption chains, from design to end of life. This implies a need for new industrial materials and processes, new skills and, indeed, new values and life-styles. Sustainability and innovation are key elements of EU's Research and Innovation Framework Programmes, particularly in the field of industrial technologies (nanotechnologies, materials and industrial technologies), which objective is to "improve the competitiveness of the European industry and generate knowledge to ensure its transformation from a resource intensive to a knowledge intensive industry". Sustainability and innovation are interrelated challenges for R&D. Research can develop technical solutions to tackle environmental or societal challenges, but such technologies need to be successfully commercialised to have a real environmental impact. Several socio-economic studies carried-out by the European Commission show not only the emerging technological and industrial trends, but they also emphasise the need for linking sustainable technologies with social change. Human capital and new social behaviours are critical factors to combine economic competitiveness and sustainability: technology alone is no longer able to solve global challenges. But what kind of human capital (skills, behaviours, and values) are we referring to? How to encourage the shift towards a greener society through human capital? Which reforms are needed in education systems to move towards a sustainable economy? Are there examples of social innovation to be extrapolated and/or generalised? © 2013

  9. Electrical energy use in different heating systems for early weaned piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbi, J. [Federal Univ. of Santa Maria, Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Animal Science; Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). College of Agricultural Engineering; Rossi, L.A.; Moura, D.J.; Oliveira, R.A.; David, E. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). College of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study compared the electrical energy use and thermal comfort conditions associated with 3 heating technologies used in piglet farms. Heating systems for piglets in nursery and farrowing can be improved to conserve energy without affecting the welfare of the animals. The evaluation was conducted at a commercial farm in a subtropical climate area of Brazil. Each treatment involved 150 weaned piglets at 21 days-old. The systems were designed to keep the piglets at 28 to 30 degrees C for 14 days. Suspended electrical resistors, heated floors and convection heating were the 3 heating technologies examined during this study which evaluated the electrical energy consumption, maximum power demand requirements and dry-bulb temperature. The study also assessed the specific consumption in terms of kWh/kg of live produced body mass as well as the efficiency of heating system in terms of degrees C per cubic metre of air. In terms of electrical energy use, the best heating system was the heated floor. However, the electrical resistance heating system was the best in terms of thermal comfort.

  10. A Survey on the HFE-related Technologies for the Improvements of Human Performance of Safety Personnel in Rail System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, G. O.; Suh, S. M.; Sim, Y. R.; Go, J. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Son, C. H

    2005-08-15

    Many studies have shown that the most cases of rail accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state-of-the-art report describes three major HFE-related technologies, training simulator, the integrated test facility for human factors engineering, and human performance evaluation system, that are used in the other industries including nuclear power industry for the purpose of increasing rail safety through out the improvement of human task performance. Base on this report, the way of developing those technologies that should be applied to the korean rail system is presented.

  11. Information Technology, Human Resources Management Systems and Firm Performance: An Empirical Analysis from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Ficapal-Cusí

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper uses survey data on 1.518 Catalan firms (in Spain, with capital in Barcelona to examine the relationship between IT use, innovative human resources management systems (IHRMS and firm’s performance. Using factor and cluster analysis, we find that only one-third of Catalan firms use IHRMS. Using association analysis we find that firms that adopt IHMRS are more internationalised; show grater ability to adapt to the change environment, to innovate and to collaborate; focuses product/service differentiation strategy enhancing quality; apply a greater degree of new forms of work organization; use IT more intensively; and invest more in training their employees Using regression analysis, we find that features which are structural, technological, strategic, organisational and result-related explain the adoption of IHRMS.

  12. Implementation of a respiratory rehabilitation protocol: weaning from the ventilator and tracheostomy in difficult-to-wean patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Umay, Ebru; Karaahmet, Ozgur Zeliha; Unlu, Ece; Cakci, Aytul

    2017-06-01

    Following repeated weaning failures in acute care services, spinal cord injury (SCI) patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy are discharged to their homes or skilled nursing facilities, with a portable mechanical ventilator (MV) and/or tracheostomy tube (TT) with excess risk of complications, high cost and low quality of life. We hypothesized that many difficult-to-wean patients with cervical SCI can be successfully managed in a rehabilitation clinic. The aim of our study was to develop a respiratory rehabilitation, MV weaning and TT decannulation protocol and to evaluate the effectiveness of this protocol in tetraplegic patients. A multidisciplinary and multifaceted protocol, including respiratory assessment and management themes, was developed and performed based on the findings from other studies in the literature. Tetraplegic patients with the diagnosis of difficult-to-wean, who were admitted to the rehabilitation clinic after having been discharged from the intensive care unit to their home with home-type MV and/or TT, were included in this prospective observational study. The respiratory rehabilitation protocol was applied to 35 tetraplegic patients (10 home-type MV and tracheostomy-dependent, and 25 tracheostomized patients) with C1-C7 ASIA impairment scale grade A, B, and C injuries. Seven out of 10 patients successfully weaned from MV and 30 of 35 patients were decannulated. Four patients were referred for diaphragm pace stimulation and tracheal stenosis surgery. The mean durations of MV weaning and decannulation were 37 and 31 days, respectively. A multifaceted, multidisciplinary respiratory management program can change the process of care used for difficult-to-wean patients with SCI. Implications for rehabilitation Findings from this study indicate the significance of a multidimensional evaluation of any reversible factors for prolonged MV- and/or TT-dependent SCI patients. Thus, rehabilitation specialists should take this

  13. Simulated human patients and patient-centredness: The uncanny hybridity of nursing education, technology, and learning to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Aileen V

    2017-01-01

    Positioned within a hybrid of the human and technology, professional nursing practice has always occupied a space that is more than human. In nursing education, technology is central in providing tools with which practice knowledge is mobilized so that students can safely engage with simulated human patients without causing harm to real people. However, while there is an increased emphasis on deploying these simulated humans as emissaries from person-centred care to demonstrate what it is like to care for real humans, the nature of what is really going on in simulation-what is real and what is simulated-is very rarely discussed and poorly understood. This paper explores how elements of postcolonial critical thought can aid in understanding the challenges of educating nurses to provide person-centred care within a healthcare culture that is increasingly reliant on technology. Because nursing education is itself a hybrid of real and simulated practice, it provides an appropriate case study to explore the philosophical question of technology in healthcare discourse, particularly as it relates to the relationship between the human patient and its uncanny simulated double. Drawing on postcolonial elements such as the uncanny, diaspora, hybridity, and créolité, the hybrid conditions of nursing education are examined in order to open up new possibilities of thinking about how learning to care is entangled with this technological space to assist in shaping professional knowledge of person-centred care. Considering these issues through a postcolonial lens opens up questions about the nature of the difficulty in using simulated human technologies in clinical education, particularly with the paradoxical aim of providing person-centred care within a climate that increasingly characterized as posthuman. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nutritional composition and micronutrient status of home made and commercial weaning foods consumed in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha TCE; Laswai, H S; Tetens, I

    2000-01-01

    About 50% of young children in Tanzania suffer from protein-energy undernutrition (PEU) while more than 45% of children under the age of five suffer from various micronutrient deficiency disorders. The immediate cause of these conditions is inadequate intake and poor utilization of nutrients, which begins in the weaning period and amplifies in the subsequent years. This study was conducted to assess the potential of some home made and commercial weaning foods commonly consumed in Tanzania to supply adequate amounts of both macro- and micronutrients as recommended in the Tanzania and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Standards for cereal/milk-based weaning foods. Six types of home made weaning foods, maize, cassava, millet, sorghum and millet-sardine-peanut composite gruels and plantain pap, and four types of commercial weaning foods, Cerelac- 1, Cerelac-2, Lactogen-1 and Lactogen-2, popularly consumed in Tanzania, were chemically assayed for proximate composition, energy and mineral density. Results of the study indicated that, both the home made and commercial weaning foods were good sources of macro- and micronutrients. When compared with the Codex Alimentarius and Tanzania Bureau of Standards specifications for weaning foods, both home made and commercial weaning foods had some shortcomings in terms of nutrient composition and energy balance. Many of the foods were low in fat. Fe, Ca, Zn and P but high in crude fiber, carbohydrate and magnesium. Ca, Fe and Zn were the most common deficient macro/micronutrients in the home made weaning foods. In spite of these shortcomings, most of the home made and commercial weaning foods were nutritionally sound since they could provide reasonable percentages of the recommended daily allowances for macro/micronutrients and energy. It is suggested that, more efforts must be directed towards increasing the concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in the home made weaning foods through supplementation of the starchy staples with mineral rich

  15. Human cell chips: adapting DNA microarray spotting technology to cell-based imaging assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traver Hart

    Full Text Available Here we describe human spotted cell chips, a technology for determining cellular state across arrays of cells subjected to chemical or genetic perturbation. Cells are grown and treated under standard tissue culture conditions before being fixed and printed onto replicate glass slides, effectively decoupling the experimental conditions from the assay technique. Each slide is then probed using immunofluorescence or other optical reporter and assayed by automated microscopy. We show potential applications of the cell chip by assaying HeLa and A549 samples for changes in target protein abundance (of the dsRNA-activated protein kinase PKR, subcellular localization (nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and activation state (phosphorylation of STAT1 and of the p38 and JNK stress kinases in response to treatment by several chemical effectors (anisomycin, TNFalpha, and interferon, and we demonstrate scalability by printing a chip with approximately 4,700 discrete samples of HeLa cells. Coupling this technology to high-throughput methods for culturing and treating cell lines could enable researchers to examine the impact of exogenous effectors on the same population of experimentally treated cells across multiple reporter targets potentially representing a variety of molecular systems, thus producing a highly multiplexed dataset with minimized experimental variance and at reduced reagent cost compared to alternative techniques. The ability to prepare and store chips also allows researchers to follow up on observations gleaned from initial screens with maximal repeatability.

  16. [Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics - application of „omics” technologies in optimization of human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are perceived as one of the most important research areas ensuring better understanding of an impact of nutrition on human health. Since such researches are interdisciplinary in type, there is a problem with their widespread acceptance and practical clinical application of obtained results. Understanding the new ideas and hypotheses published in researches on nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics requires some knowledge of genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and capabilities and limitations that are associated with the use of statistical and bioinformatic analysis, and above all „omics” research technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics). Highly efficient genome and proteome analysis techniques allow to obtain data necessary for profiling of an individual patient. The main problem is still our insufficient knowledge of cell physiology and biochemistry. The vast amount of information is obtained with the use of „omics” technologies what makes it difficult to interpret and infer. An unquestionable advantage of this type of research is the possibility to utilize system analysis (system biology) which is important in the context of a holistic interpretation of biological phenomena. This review is an attempt to present the main hypotheses and objectives which are carried out by researchers in nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics. This article describes the most important directions of research and anticipated results that are related to the practical use of nutritional genomics as well as the critical assessment of the possible impact of future developments on public health.

  17. Nigerian dental technology students and human immunodeficiency virus infection: knowledge, misconceptions and willingness to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, Cc; Omili, Ma; Akeredolu, Pa

    2014-05-01

    The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students' knowledge and misconceptions about HIV infection and their willingness to care for HIV-infected patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non-parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Illinois, USA). P misconceptions. Specifically, the misconceptions about HIV transmission through a mosquito bite (P = 0.02) and shaking of hands (P = 0.03) were higher among respondents in the higher class than those in lower class. However, 10.6% (21/198), 6.1% (12/198) and 4.0% (8/198) of the respondents erroneous described HIV as harmless, self-limitation and antibiotics responsive infection respectively. Of the respondents, 78.8% (156/198) and 83.3% (165/198) of them expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients and expressed need for training in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients respectively. Overall, the respondents opined that the dental therapists are the most suitable dental professional to pass HIV-related information to patients in the dental setting ahead of dentists and dental surgery assistants. The expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients, knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents were high with existent misconceptions. There were no significant differences in the knowledge about HIV infection and willingness to care for HIV-infected patients among respondents in the lower class and those in upper class.

  18. International Conference on New Technologies in the Humanities and Fourth International Conference on Optics Within Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bally, Gert

    1997-01-01

    New high-tech developments in the field of optics show increasing applicability not only in classical technological fields but also in the humanities. This book contains selected contributions to an international, interdisciplinary joint conference on "New Technologies in the Humanities" and "Optics Within Life Sciences". Its objective is to forward interdisciplinary information and communication between specialists in optics as well as in medicine, biology, environmental sciences, and cultural heritage. It is unique as a presentation of new optical technologies for cultural heritage protection. The contributions cover international research activities in the areas of archaeological research and new technologies, holography and interferometry, material analysis, laser cleaning, pattern recognition, unconventional microscopy, spectroscopial techniques, and profilometry.

  19. Characterizing ncRNAs in human pathogenic protists using high-throughput sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Joan Collins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ncRNAs are key genes in many human diseases including cancer and viral infection, as well as providing critical functions in pathogenic organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and protists. Until now the identification and characterization of ncRNAs associated with disease has been slow or inaccurate requiring many years of testing to understand complicated RNA and protein gene relationships. High-throughput sequencing now offers the opportunity to characterize miRNAs, siRNAs, snoRNAs and long ncRNAs on a genomic scale making it faster and easier to clarify how these ncRNAs contribute to the disease state. However, this technology is still relatively new, and ncRNA discovery is not an application of high priority for streamlined bioinformatics. Here we summarize background concepts and practical approaches for ncRNA analysis using high-throughput sequencing, and how it relates to understanding human disease. As a case study, we focus on the parasitic protists Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, where large evolutionary distance has meant difficulties in comparing ncRNAs with those from model eukaryotes. A combination of biological, computational and sequencing approaches has enabled easier classification of ncRNA classes such as snoRNAs, but has also aided the identification of novel classes. It is hoped that a higher level of understanding of ncRNA expression and interaction may aid in the development of less harsh treatment for protist-based diseases.

  20. Application of Fourier Domain OCT Imaging Technology to the Anterior Segment of the Human Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana; Ortiz, Sergio; Grulkowski, Ireneusz

    The anterior segment is the front part of the human eye, which forms the optical system and hence directly impacts vision. Traumatic or pathological changes in the anterior segment may lead to vision loss and, in some cases, even blindness. Since the eighteenth century, optical instrumentation for measuring and imaging the anterior segment of the human eye has been developing along with modern ophthalmology. The application of OCT to the anterior segment imaging is particularly of interest, since this could potentially provide substantial complementary information regarding the large-scale architecture of the cornea and the crystalline lens, or on small portions of tissue imaged with high spatial resolutions comparable to regular microscopy. Especially an introduction of Fourier domain detection in OCT has opened new frontiers in OCT ophthalmic applications. The resultant substantial speed improvement enables rapid image acquisition, helping to reduce artifacts due to patient motion. Thus, it is currently possible to perform high-speed, in vivo, three-dimensional volumetric imaging over large scales within a reasonable time limit and without reducing system sensitivity. This chapter describes the state-of the art OCT technology dedicated to anterior segment imaging and indicates all important parameters which are required for optimization of the performance of OCT instrument.

  1. Production of Recombinant Human scFv Against Tetanus Toxin Heavy Chain by Phage Display Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Ehsan; Lakzaei, Mostafa; Rasaee, Mohhamad Javad; Aminian, Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    Tetanus, as a major cause of death in developing countries, is caused by tetanus neurotoxin. Recombinant antibodies against tetanus neurotoxin can be useful in tetanus management. Phage display of antibody fragments from immune human antibody libraries with single chain constructs combining the variable fragments (scFv) has been one of the most prominent technologies in antibody engineering. The aim of this study was the generation of a single chain fragment of variable region (scFv) library and selection of specific antibodies with high affinity against tetanus toxin. Immune human single chain fragment variable (HuscFv) antibody phagemid library was displayed on pIII of filamentous bacteriophage. Selection of scFv clones was performed against tetanus toxin antigens after three rounds of panning. The selected scFv clones were analyzed for inhibition of tetanus toxin binding to ganglioside GT1b. After the third round of panning, over 35 HuscFv phages specific for tetanus toxin were isolated from this library of which 15 clones were found to bind specifically to tetanus toxin. The selected HuscFv phages expressed as a soluble HuscFv peptide and some clones showed positive signals against tetanus toxin. We found that six HuscFv clones inhibit toxin binding to ganglioside GT1b. These selected antibodies can be used in the management of tetanus.

  2. Beijing Lunar Declaration 2010: B) Technology and Resources; Infrastructures and Human Aspects; Moon, Space and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Foing, B. H.; Plescial, J.; Cohen, B.; Blamont, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Beijing Lunar Declaration endorsed by the delegates of the Global Lunar Conference/11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, held at Beijing on 30 May- 3 June 2010. Specifically we focus on Part B:Technologies and resources; Infrastructures and human aspects; Moon, Space, Society and Young Explorers. We recommend continued and enhanced development and implementation of sessions about lunar exploration, manned and robotic, at key scientific and engineering meetings. A number of robotic missions to the Moon are now undertaken independently by various nations, with a degree of exchange of information and coordination. That should increase towards real cooperation, still allowing areas of competition for keeping the process active, cost-effective and faster. - Lunar landers, pressurized lunar rover projects as presented from Europe, Asia and America are important steps that can create opportunities for international collaboration, within a coordinated village of robotic precursors and assistants to crew missions. - We have to think about development, modernization of existing navigation capabilities, and provision of lunar positioning, navigation and data relay assets to support future robotic and human exploration. New concepts and new methods for transportation have attracted much attention and are of great potential.

  3. Rethinking risk assessment for emerging technology first-in-human trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genske, Anna; Engel-Glatter, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Recent progress in synthetic biology (SynBio) has enabled the development of novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of human disease. In the near future, first-in-human trials (FIH) will be indicated. FIH trials mark a key milestone in the translation of medical SynBio applications into clinical practice. Fostered by uncertainty of possible adverse events for trial participants, a variety of ethical concerns emerge with regards to SynBio FIH trials, including 'risk' minimization. These concerns are associated with any FIH trial, however, due to the novelty of the approach, they become more pronounced for medical applications of emerging technologies (emTech) like SynBio. To minimize potential harm for trial participants, scholars, guidelines, regulations and policy makers alike suggest using 'risk assessment' as evaluation tool for such trials. Conversely, in the context of emTech FIH trials, we believe it to be at least questionable to contextualize uncertainty of potential adverse events as 'risk' and apply traditional risk assessment methods. Hence, this issue needs to be discussed to enable alterations of the evaluation process before the translational phase of SynBio applications begins. In this paper, we will take the opportunity to start the debate and highlight how a misunderstanding of the concept of risk, and the possibilities and limitations of risk assessment, respectively, might impair decision-making by the relevant regulatory authorities and research ethics committees, and discuss possible solutions to tackle the issue.

  4. Breast feeding and weaning practices of urban housewives in Srinagar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjoo, C; Rowlands, R

    1988-11-01

    Researchers interviewed 125 mothers in Srinagar, India about breast feeding and weaning practices. Overall the mothers were generally illiterate (52%), housewives (67.2%), Muslim (76%), and from a nuclear family (56%). 39% were in the low income group. Most of the children (48%) ranged for 6-12 months old. 96% of the children had been breast fed. Some of the reasons for breast feeding included nutritional quality, economical, pleased the mother, and made the infant feel secure. 65.8% breast fed their infants on demand. 65.7% weaned their infants between 7-9 months yet 52% believed breast feeding should continue to 18 months. 96% breast fed their infants while ill with diarrhea. 57% believed colostrum to be unhygienic and did not feed it to their infants. 72% decided to breast feed before becoming pregnant while 36% decided to bottle feed before pregnancy. 89% of illiterate mothers breast fed while only 45% of literate mothers did. Further, only 11.8% of the mothers whose family income was 1500 rupees/month breast fed whereas 47% in the lower and 41.2% in the middle income groups did. At 7-9 months, 69.8% of illiterate and 69.5% of literate mothers had already introduced semi solid foods. 78.3% of literate mothers gave semi solid foods to their infants 2 times/day, but only 11.6% of the illiterate mothers did so. Moreover 81.4% of illiterate mothers only fed their infants semi solid foods once a day. Literate mothers were more likely than literate mothers to feed their infants solid foods (75% vs. 46.2%), introduce them at an earlier age (22.2% vs 10%, 7-9 months), and feed them more often (55.5% vs 16.6%; twice a day). In conclusion, the higher the educational status the more likely mothers were likely to breast feed.

  5. Bone metabolism in obese rats programmed by early weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Maia, Lígia; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Oliveira, Elaine; da Silva Lima, Natália; Lima, Inaya Correa Barbosa; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; Nonaka, Keico Okino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2014-03-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis seem to have a common pathogenesis, especially because bone and adipose tissue have common origins. Since early weaning (EW) decreases adipogenesis and osteogenesis in neonate, further programming for obesity and hyperleptinemia, we hypothesized that these changes in adipogenesis could affect bone metabolism. Lactating rats were separated into 3 groups: control - dams whose pups ate milk throughout lactation; mechanical EW (MEW) - dams were involved with a bandage interrupting suckling in the last 3days of lactation; pharmacological EW (PEW) - dams were bromocriptine-treated (0.5mg/twice a day via intraperitoneal injection) 3days before weaning. The adult offspring was subjected to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone tissue was also evaluated by computed tomography, microcomputed tomography and biomechanical tests, beyond serum analyses. MEW and PEW presented higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total bone mineral content, spine BMD and bone area in postnatal day 150 (PN150). In PN180, both groups also presented increase of these parameters and higher femur BMD and fourth lumbar vertebra (LV4) BMD, femoral head radiodensity and LV4 vertebral body radiodensity, trabecular number, stiffness and break load; lower trabecular separation, maximal deformation and break deformation, and also hyperleptinemia and higher visceral fat mass and 25-hydroxivitamin D, whereas parathyroid hormone was unchanged. Serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen was lower for both groups. Since both models program for obesity and increased bone mass, and leptin increases plasma vitamin D levels, probably leptin is the link between obesity and higher bone mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of antibacterial peptide on cellular immunity in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z H; Yuan, W; Deng, H D; Deng, J L; Dan, Q X; Jin, H T; Tian, C L; Peng, X; Liang, Z; Gao, S; Xu, S H; Li, G; Hu, Y

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antibacterial peptide (ABP) sufficiency on cellular immune functions by determining the spleen cell cycle and apoptosis, peripheral blood T cell subsets, and T cell proliferation function in weaned piglets. A total of 90 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) of both sexes were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments. Each treatment consisted of 3 replicates with 6 piglets per replicate. The dietary treatments consisted of the negative control (NC; basal diet), positive control (PC; basal diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg Astragalus polysaccharide), and ABP (basal diet mixed with 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg ABP). The experimental lasted for 28 d. Two piglets from each replicate were selected randomly for blood samples extraction from the jugular vein to obtain peripheral blood T cell subsets, and T cell proliferation function analysis was performed on d 32, 39, 46, and 53. Two piglets from each replicate were selected and euthanized to observe the spleen cell cycle and apoptosis on d 39 and 53. In ABP-sufficient piglets, the G0/G1 phase of the spleen cell cycle was much lower (P ABP sufficiency (P ABP-sufficient piglets. Percentages of CD3 (+) and CD3 (+)CD4 (+) ratios (d 39, 46, and 53) and CD4 (+)CD8 (+) ratios (d 32, 39, 46, and 53) increased remarkably (P ABP sufficiency compared with NC. These results suggest that ABP sufficiency could increase the T cell population and proliferation function of T cells and could induce decreased percentages of apoptotic cells. Overall, the cellular immune function was evidently improved in weaned piglets. We suggest optimal dosages of 500 mg/kg ABP for 4-wk addition and 1,000 mg/kg ABP for 2-wk addition.

  7. Fostering and environmental enrichment ameliorate anxious behavior induced by early weaning in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Eri; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2007-06-08

    Postnatal stimuli affect many aspects of physiological and behavioral development. In mice, earlier weaning augments anxiety, putatively as a result of removing mother-pup interactions during the weaning period. Here, we examined the ameliorating effects of social and environmental enrichment on anxiety related to early weaning. Mice weaned at postpartum day 14 were fostered by virgin females, who displayed some nursing behavior during the 1-week fostering period. In elevated plus-maze tests, 10-week-old pups reared with a foster mother spent more time in the open arms than early-weaned mice, and entered into the open arms at a rate between that of normally- and early-weaned mice. Subsequently, the mice from each rearing group were transferred into either standard housing or housing enriched with toys that were changed periodically. Elevated plus-maze tests were conducted again when the mice were 18 and 26 weeks old. The enriched environment increased the duration of time spent in the open arms, but the magnitude of the effect varied with the rearing condition. Furthermore, mice that lived in the enriched environment showed lower activity than those kept in standard housing. These results suggest that fostering after early weaning attenuates increases in anxiety levels, and maternal care during this period may be important in the development of an offspring's emotionality. Environmental stimuli in adulthood may act to blunt the effects deprivation in early life.

  8. [Quantitative evaluation proposal of a ultrasonographic protocol for weaning from mechanichal ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Calatayud, Ángel Augusto; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Arch-Tirado, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a therapy for vital support used in a significant proportion of critically ill patients. The right time to successfully discontinue this therapy is a challenge for the intensive care specialist. For this reason it is still a subject for research. The echocardiographic evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction, the diaphragm, and the lung have become an invaluable tool for weaning from mechanical ventilation protocols, especially in patients with difficult or prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. There is still a need to validate, in controlled trials, the efficacy of an ultrasound protocol for weaning from mechanical ventilation that integrates the three modalities in a single protocol. Based on current literature, we developed a score justified by a mathematical model based on inequations. When χ ⇒ 5 the risk of failure in the weaning process rises, the weaning process should be suspended; when χ ⇒ 1 the risk of failure is low, the weaning process should be continued. The use of math models for decision-making is of great importance, as it sets an objective parameter within the existing evaluations. We proposed the use of inequations to set intervals of solution with the three points of care for ultrasound-guided weaning from mechanical ventilation. With this, the inequations proposed generate an area of certainty within the proposed values and the solution intervals.

  9. Patients' experience during weaning of invasive mechanical ventilation: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán-Tahvanainen, M E; Romero-Belmonte, C; Cundín-Laguna, M; Basterra-Brun, P; San Miguel-Aguirre, A; Regaira-Martínez, E

    Weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is influenced by physiological and psychological factors, the latter being the least studied. The aim was to identify, through the literature, patients' experiences during weaning from IMV and report its influencing factors. The literature search was conducted using the Pubmed, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases. The search terms were: "patient", "experience" and "ventilator weaning". The research limits were: age (>19years) and language (English, Spanish and Finnish). Fifteen publications were analysed. The main results were grouped into three main categories according to patient's perceptions, feelings and experiences, influence of professionals' attention and determinants for successful weaning. Patients remember IMV weaning as a stressful process where they experience anxiety, frustration, despair or uncertainty. Nurses have a key role in improving communication with patients and foreseeing their needs. Family support and the care provided by the caregivers were shown as essential during the process. The patient's self-determination, self-motivation and confidence are identified as important factors to achieve successful IMV weaning. Psychological care, in addition to physical and technical care, is important at providing holistic care. Interventional studies are needed to improve the care during the weaning experience. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance, carcass traits and costs of Suffolk lambs finishing systems with early weaning and controlled suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance, carcass traits and finishing costs of Suffolk lambs were evaluated in three systems: (1 lambs weaned with 22 kg of body weight (BW and supplemented with concentrate on pasture until slaughter; (2 lambs weaned with 22 kg BW and fed in feedlot until slaughter; (3 lambs maintained in controlled nursing after 22 kg BW and creep fed in feedlot until slaughter. Average daily gain (ADG was 224 g/d for lambs weaned and supplemented with concentrate on pasture, 386 g/d for lambs weaned in feedlot and 481 g/d for lambs under controlled nursing. Empty body weight and visceral fat deposition were highest in lambs from feedlot systems. Carcass weights and carcass yields were highest for lambs in controlled nursing. Finishing total costs were highest in controlled nursing and lowest in the system with weaning in feedlot. High concentrate diet associated with controlled nursing in feedlot allowed lambs to reach the growth potential and carcasses with higher weights, higher yields and higher fat content. After weaning, lambs in feedlot fed with high concentrate diet had higher weight gain than lambs supplemented with concentrate on pasture. Carcasses produced under these two systems presented the same characteristics. The system with weaning in feedlot showed the lowest cost per kg carcass.

  11. Music intervention during daily weaning trials-A 6 day prospective randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhan; Ren, Dianxu; Choi, JiYeon; Happ, Mary Beth; Hravnak, Marylyn; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2016-12-01

    To examine the effect of patient-selected music intervention during daily weaning trials for patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation. Using a crossover repeated measures design, patients were randomized to music vs no music on the first intervention day. Provision of music was alternated for 6 days, resulting in 3 music and 3 no music days. During weaning trials on music days, data were obtained for 30min prior to music listening and continued for 60min while patients listened to selected music (total 90min). On no music days, data were collected for 90min. Outcome measures were heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), blood pressure (BP), dyspnea and anxiety assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS-D, VAS-A) and weaning duration (meanh per day on music and non-music days). Of 31 patients randomized, 23 completed the 6-day intervention. When comparisons were made between the 3 music and 3 no music days, there were significant decreases in RR and VAS-D and a significant increase in daily weaning duration on music days (pmusic days (pmusic during daily weaning trials is a simple, low-cost, potentially beneficial intervention for patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation. Further study is indicated to test ability of this intervention to promote weaning success and benefits earlier in the weaning process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous care and patients' basic needs during weaning from mechanical ventilation: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafi, Ali; Elahi, Nasrin; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is associated with a number of risks and complications. Thus, rapid and safe weaning from mechanical ventilation is of great importance. Weaning is a complex and challenging process, requiring continuous care and knowledge of the patient. The aim of the present study was to describe the continuous care process during weaning as well as to analyse the facilitators and obstacles to the weaning process from start to finish from the perspective of intensive care unit (ICU) staff, particularly nurses. Twenty-two ICU staff members, including nurses and physicians, and three patients hospitalised in the ICU were enrolled in this qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection and the transcripts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. 'Continuous care' was found to be the patients' basic need during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Uninterrupted, stable, comprehensive and dynamic care and monitoring with immediate response to all physiological and psychological changes were features of continuous care. The three main themes identified by this study were time spent with the patient, comprehensive supervision and maintenance of the quality of care during shifts. Continuous and constant care should be provided during the weaning process. Such care will help to provide health care staff with a deeper understanding of the patient and his or her continuous changes, leading to a timely and favourable response during weaning. To achieve this goal, skill, communication and organisational changes are essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive Associations of Music, Anxiety, and Sedative Exposure on Mechanical Ventilation Weaning Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Breanna; Lindquist, Ruth; Weinert, Craig R; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia; Savik, Kay; Chlan, Linda

    2017-05-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation requires increased respiratory effort, which can heighten anxiety and later prolong the need for mechanical ventilation. To examine the predictive associations of music intervention, anxiety, sedative exposure, and patients' characteristics on time to initiation and duration of weaning trials of patients receiving mechanical ventilation. A descriptive, correlational design was used for a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. Music listening was defined as self-initiated, patient-directed music via headphones. Anxiety was measured daily with a visual analog scale. Sedative exposure was operationalized as a daily sedation intensity score and a sedative dose frequency. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, graphing, survival analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression, and linear regression. Of 307 patients, 52% were women and 86% were white. Mean age was 59.3 (SD, 14.4) years, mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score was 62.9 (SD, 21.6), mean duration of ventilatory support was 8 (range, 1-52) days, and mean stay in the intensive care unit was 18 (range, 2-71) days. Music listening, anxiety levels, and sedative exposure did not influence time to initial weaning trial or duration of trials. Clinical factors of illness severity, days of weaning trials, and tracheostomy placement influenced weaning patterns in this sample. Prospective studies of music intervention and other psychophysiological factors during weaning from mechanical ventilation are needed to better understand factors that promote successful weaning. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Ventilatory weaning practices in intensive care units in the city of Cali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Vilma; Calvo, Lucía; Ramírez, María Fernanda; Arias, Marcela; Villota, Mario; Wilches-Luna, Esther Cecilia; Soto, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Early weaning from mechanical ventilation is one of the primary goals in managing critically ill patients. There are various techniques and measurement parameters for such weaning. The objective of this study was to describe the practices of ventilatory weaning in adult intensive care units in the city of Cali. Methods A survey of 32 questions (some multiple choice) evaluating weaning practices was distributed to physiotherapists and respiratory therapists working in intensive care units, to be answered anonymously. Results The most common strategy for the parameter set was the combination of continuous positive airway pressure with pressure support (78%), with a large variability in pressure levels, the most common range being 6 to 8cmH2O. The most common weaning parameters were as follows: tidal volume (92.6%), respiratory rate (93.3%) and oxygen saturation (90.4%). The most common waiting time for registration of the parameters was >15 minutes (40%). The measurements were preferably obtained from the ventilator display. Conclusion The methods and measurement parameters of ventilatory weaning vary greatly. The most commonly used method was continuous positive airway pressure with more pressure support and the most commonly used weaning parameters were the measured tidal volume and respiratory rate. PMID:25028947

  15. The Role of Public Policy in Enhancing the Design and Diffusion of Information Systems and Technology for Human Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, John; Newman, Peter; Letch, Nick; Ash, Sue

    Technologies for human benefit, such as information systems and information technology, have a key role to play in the realization of quality of life for all citizenry by modern societies. New forms of IS and IT can be developed and used creatively to improve education, health, social equity, environmental conditions, social and environ mental sustainability, government and not-for-profit services, participation in govern ment, and enjoyment of life in general.

  16. Physical Characterization of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Larionov, Ph D

    2007-06-05

    A special interest in the organization of human centromeric DNA was stimulated a few years ago when two independent groups succeeded in reconstituting a functional human centromere, using constructs carrying centromere-specific alphoid DNA arrays. This work demonstrated the importance of DNA components in mammalian centromeres and opened a way for studying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation and for construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with therapeutic potential. To elucidate the structural requirements for formation of HACs with a functional kinetochore, we developed a new method for cloning of large DNA fragments for human centromeric regions that can be used as a substrate for HAC formation. This method exploits in vivo recombination in yeast (TAR cloning). In addition, a new strategy for the construction of alphoid DNA arrays was developed in our lab. The strategy involves the construction of uniform or hybrid synthetic alphoid DNA arrays by the RCA-TAR technique. This technique comprises two steps: rolling circle amplification of an alphoid DNA dimer and subsequent assembling of the amplified fragments by in vivo homologous recombination in yeast (Figure 1). Using this system, we constructed a set of different synthetic alphoid DNA arrays with a predetermined sequence varying in size from 30 to 140 kb and demonstrated that some of the arrays are competent in HAC formation. Because any nucleotide can be changed in a dimer before its amplification, this new technique is optimal for identifying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation in HACs. Moreover, the technique makes possible to introduce into alphoid DNA arrays recognition sites for DNA-binding proteins. We have made the following progress on the studying of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology: i) minimal size of alphoid DNA array required for de novo kinetochore formation was estimated; ii

  17. Post-Weaning Protein Malnutrition Increases Blood Pressure and Induces Endothelial Dysfunctions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman, Fabiana D. M.; Silveira, Edna A.; Meira, Eduardo F.; da Costa, Carlos P.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Padilha, Alessandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10−10–3.10−4 M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10−4 M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001–300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10−10–10−3 M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model. PMID:22529948

  18. Children's height, health and appetite influence mothers' weaning decisions in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, K B; Costes, R; Delaunay, V; Diallo, A; Simondon, F

    2001-06-01

    In many developing countries, breastfed children have a lower nutritional status than those weaned from 12 months of age. Reverse causality, that is, earlier weaning of healthy and well-nourished children, is a possible explanation. Maternal reasons for early and late weaning were investigated in a cohort of 485 rural Senegalese children using structured interviews during two rounds at the ages of 18--28 and 23--33 months, respectively. Length, weight and height were assessed, and dates of weaning were monitored. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 24.1 months (quartiles 21.9 and 26.3). Two-thirds of mothers of breastfed children under 2 stated that they would wean at the age of 2, while for breastfed children aged 2 years, a 'tall and strong' child was the most prevalent criterion. The main reasons for weaning prior to 2 years (N = 244) were that the child ate well from the family plate (60%), that the child was 'tall and strong' (46%) and maternal pregnancy (35%). The main reasons for weaning later than the age of 2 were: a 'little, weak' child (33%), food shortage (25%), illness of the child (24%) and refusal of family food (14%, N = 120). Children breastfed above the age of 2 because they were 'small and weak' had lower mean height-for-age and a greater prevalence of stunting than children breastfed late for other reasons (P < 0.0001). The habit of postponing weaning of stunted children very likely explains why breastfed children have lower height-for-age than weaned children in this setting.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation with freshwater microalgae on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and gut health in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbeyre, H; van Milgen, J; Mener, T; Gloaguen, M; Labussière, E

    2017-02-01

    In pigs, digestive disorders associated with weaning lead to antibiotic use to maintain intestinal health. Microalgae have been studied in humans and rodents for their beneficial effects on health. The nutritional value of microalgae in animal diets has been assessed, but results were not conclusive. Dietary supplementation with microalgae as an alternative to antibiotic use was studied in two trials (72 piglets with initial BW=9.1±1.1 kg in trial 1 and 24 piglets with initial BW=9.1±0.9 kg in trial 2). All piglets were weaned at 28 days of age and then housed in individual cages. Piglets were randomly allocated to one of the four diets during 2 weeks after weaning: a standard diet with no supplementation (NC) or the standard diet supplemented with 1% Spirulina (SP), with 1% Chlorella (CV), or with 0.2% of colistin as positive control (PC). Trial 1 was performed to determine the effect of microalgae supplementation from 28 to 42 days on performance and incidence of diarrhoea. Animals received then a standard diet from 42 to 56 days of age. Trial 2 was performed from 28 to 42 days of age to assess nutrient digestibility of the experimental diets and to determine inflammatory status and intestinal morphology at 42 days of age. In trial 1, 94% of the pigs had diarrhoea in the 1st week after weaning with no beneficial effect of colistin on diarrhoea incidence, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain : feed (G : F) ratio. This suggests that the diarrhoea was due to digestive disorders that did not result from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. Supplementation with either Spirulina or Chlorella did not affect ADFI, ADG and G : F in trials 1 and 2 (P>0.10). Diarrhoea incidence was reduced in CV pigs compared with NC, SP and PC pigs (Pmicroalgae was greater for gross energy (P<0.05), and tended to be greater for dry matter, organic matter and NDF (P<0.10) compared with NC and PC pigs. Villus height at the jejunum was greater in SP

  20. A Systematic Process for Weaning Children With Aspiration From Thickened Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Nikolaus E; Hernandez, Kayla; Irace, Alexandria L; Davidson, Kathryn; Perez, Jennifer A; Larson, Kara; Rahbar, Reza

    2017-11-09

    Thickening of fluids is a common strategy for feeding patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia but has known risks and should be stopped once it is safe to do so. Weaning children from thickened fluids safely can be challenging, and novel methods are required. To describe the use of a systematic weaning process (SWP) for children who received thickened liquids owing to oropharyngeal dysphagia and identified risk of aspiration. Retrospective case series (2010 to 2015) at a tertiary care center of 50 children with documented aspiration by clinical swallowing assessment, airway evaluation, and videofluoroscopic swallow study with at least 4 months of follow-up. All patients were initially receiving thickened fluids. A 10% reduction in thickness was made every 2 weeks based on clinical symptoms. Caregivers progressed to the next incremental level if there were no signs or symptoms of aspiration. Number of patients weaned to a thin-fluid diet. Of 50 children (32 [64%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 0.7 [1.0] y at presentation and 1.8 [1.3] y at start of wean) using the SWP, 44 (88%) were able to reduce the amount of thickener used. A successful wean from thickened fluids to thin fluids was completed in 39 (78%). The mean (SD) duration of a successful wean was 0.9 (0.6) years. Five patients tolerated a reduction in thickener but not a full wean to thin fluids. For 6 patients, weaning failed and they continued to receive thickened fluids. Of those whose weaning failed, 2 patients developed pneumonia. Of the 39 successfully weaned patients, 14 (36%) experienced a temporary stall but eventually tolerated thin fluids. Only 2 (5%) developed pneumonia while all other successfully weaned patients (n = 37 [95%]) did not experience any substantial respiratory issues. Overall, 46 (92%) of children required 2 or fewer videofluoroscopic swallow study evaluations. Patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration should be gradually weaned off of thickened fluids. The