WorldWideScience

Sample records for weaning age diet

  1. Diet and weaning age affect the growth and condition of Dover sole (Solea solea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diet type (frozen Artemia biomass and two inert diets: micro-bound [MB] and micro-extruded [ME] and two weaning ages (early weaning and late weaning, 50 and 64 days after hatching, respectively were studied in Solea solea larvae. The experiment lasted 56 and 42 days for early and late weaning, respectively. The mortality results showed the highest values for late weaning (39% in the Artemia treatment. No significant differences in mortality were observed between the inert diets. The final dry weight values were higher for late weaning than for early weaning. At both weaning ages, fish receiving the same treatments had similar tendencies for dry weight and standard length. Fish fed with MB presented significantly higher dry weight and standard length, followed by ME, while the lowest values at both weaning ages were recorded for the Artemia treatment. Similar amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acid fractions among the inert diets were reflected by the absence of significant differences in the susceptibility to oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances testing; however, significant differences were found in carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents of whole-body homogenates for both early and late weaning. At the end of the experiment no significant differences in biochemical contents were observed between the two inert diets. The results of this study suggest that weaning starting on day 50 (early weaning, using a good quality inert diet, leads to higher survival, growth and fish condition.

  2. A diet containing dried chicory root does not protect against post-weaning diarrhoea in an E. coli challenge model using piglets weaned at 7 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether fructan from dried chicory root provided protection against E. coli induced post-weaning diarrhoea in an experimental challenge model. Piglets from 6 litters, 8 piglets per litter, were included in the experiment. Starting 10 d prior to weaning, 4 piglets per...... litter received a control diet (0.9% fructan of DM) and 4 piglets received an experimental diet containing 20% dried chicory root (11.6% fructan of DM). The piglets were weaned at 7 weeks of age. On d 2 and 3 post-weaning half of the piglets were orally challenged with E. coli O149, the remaining piglets...... 4 and 5. Body weight gain and feed intake was not influenced by either E. coli challenge or diet. However, feed conversion ratio was lower in pigs fed the chicory diet during d 0-12 post-weaning. This experiment did not provide evidence for a protective effect of fructan on post-weaning diarrhoea...

  3. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides in diets for weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, R; van der Aar, P; Molist, F

    2012-12-01

    To examine the effect of inclusion insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (iNSP) in weaned diets on postweaning piglet performance, intestinal activity, and microbial composition 2 experiments were designed. In Exp. 1, 180 piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and divided over 3 treatments: positive control (PC; highly digestible protein), negative control (NC; standard cereal-based diet), and an experimental diet {iNSP; standard + 15% iNSP [wheat straw and oat (Avena sativa) hull]}. Diets were fed during 14 d after weaning. The ADFI, ADG, and G:F were determined. The inclusion of iNSP increased (P weaning and increased the ADG (P = 0.008) during days 0 to 7 after weaning compared with the NC diet. In Exp. 2, 36 piglets were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. On days 5 and 14 after weaning, 18 piglets were euthanized to determine enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and microbial population in the ileum and colon and organ weight. The iNSP diet reduced the concentration of Escherichia coli bacteria in the ileum (P = 0.021) and in the colon (P = 0.002) digesta and tended to increase (P = 0.060) the amylase activity. The iNSP diet stimulated the physical adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract because stomach weight as percentage of BW was heavier (P = 0.004) than for the NC diet. In conclusion, the consumption of diets with higher iNSP content in the early weaning period affects the microbial colonization without reducing enzyme activity or animal performance compared with a standard weaned pig diet.

  5. Fiber sources in diets for newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets. A total of 72 piglets (36 castrated males and 36 females weaned at 21 days of age (BW 6.45±0.66 kg was distributed according to a randomized block design, for evaluation of performance, transit time, diarrhea incidence and blood parameters of piglets which received diets containing different sources of fiber. The experimental diets were: control diet - diet composed of corn, soybean meal and a source of lactose; control + 1.5% purified cellulose; control + 3% soybean hull and control + 9% citrus pulp. The inclusion of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in diets of weaned piglets did not affect the performance or transit time of diets in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the use of purified cellulose reduced incidence of diarrhea. The use of purified cellulose, soybean hull and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets does not affect performance or gastrointestinal transit time. The addition of purified cellulose promotes a beneficial effect to control the diarrhea in weaned piglets.

  6. Dietary preferences of weaned piglets offered diets containing organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A preference test and a performance trial were carried out to examine weaned piglets’ feed intake response to diets containing either lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate (8 g kg-1 feed.In Experiment 1, throughout a 21-d post-weaning period,30 entire litters (306 piglets weaned at the age of 30 d were allowed to choose between two organic-acid-supplemented diets. All of the four different organic-acid-supplemented diets were tested in pairs against each other,and the six possible combinations were lactic acid +formic acid,lactic acid +calcium formate,lactic acid + sodium benzoate,formic acid +calcium formate,formic acid +sodium benzoate,and calcium for-mate +sodium benzoate.Piglets preferred diets supplemented with sodium benzoate to ones supplemented with formic acid or calcium formate.The acceptability of diets supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,or calcium formate was similar.In Experiment 2,until the age of 58 d,60 piglets from 10 litters weaned at the age of 28 or 38 d were fed non-acidified diets or ones supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate.Feed consumption did not differ between piglets fed non-acidified and those fed organic-acid-supplemented diets. Growth performance was reduced by dietary calcium formate supplementation, while the performance of piglets fed other organic-acid-supplemented diets did not differ significantly from those fed the non-acidified control diet.The frequency of post-weaning diarrhoea was highest in piglets fed diets supplemented with calcium formate and lowest in piglets fed diets supplemented with formic acid.;

  7. Dietas para Leitões nas Fases de Creche e Diferentes Idades ao Desmame Diets for Piglets in the Nursery Phases and Different Ages at Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Alves da Trindade Neto

    2002-01-01

    , with five replicates of four animals per experimental unit, to evaluate two diets and two weaning periods and its effects in the growing and finishing phases. Different characteristics of diets were obtained with inclusion levels of ingredients: dried skin milk, sugar and soybean oil. There was no interaction between diets and weaning ages, but isolated effects of these factors on animal performance occurred. Piglets fed diet with high inclusion of dried skin milk and sugar and oil showed the best performance until 42 days, while the effect of the higher age was prominent only on weight gain. In the period from 42 to 63 days of age, the skin milk based diet allowed better feed/gain ratio and the effect of the oldest age persisted on weight gain. The animals fed diets with high levels of milk product (40 and 20% in nursery phases reached the 94.1 kg at minor age and compared to the ones that received 10 and 0% of milk products in same phases, the reduction time was of 5 days at finishing. In the beginning of the growing phase, the high level of dried skim milk favored the piglets performance and the weaning at 25 days. It is more recommended that weaning at 20 days. The accumulate of the differences subsequently to the nursery applied treatments must be better evaluated in the final age of pig at slaughter weight.

  8. Pigs weaned from the sow at 10 days of age respond to dietary energy source of manufactured liquid diets and exogenous porcine somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, W T; Touchette, K J; Coalson, J A; Whisnant, C S; Brown, J A; Oliver, S A Mathews; Odle, J; Harrell, R J

    2005-05-01

    Previous research indicates that the neonatal pig does not alter feed intake in response to changes in the energy density of manufactured liquid diets. Also, the limited response of IGF-I to exogenous porcine ST (pST) previously observed in young pigs may be influenced by the source of dietary energy. Our objectives were to 1) determine the effect of a high-fat (HF; 25% fat and 4,639 kcal/kg ME; DM basis) or low-fat (LF; 2% fat and 3,481 kcal/kg ME; DM basis) manufactured liquid diet on pig performance; and 2) determine whether the limited response to exogenous pST in young pigs depends on the source of dietary energy. Two replicates of 60 pigs (n = 120; barrows and gilts distributed evenly), with an initial BW of 4,207 +/- 51 g, were weaned from the sow at 10 d of age and used in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were assigned by BW to one of six pens. Diets were formulated to provide a constant lysine:ME ratio and were fed on a pen basis for a duration of 9 d. On d 5, barrows and gilts within a pen were assigned randomly to receive either 0 or 120 microg of pST.kg BW(-1).d(-1) for 4 d. Pigs gained 336 +/- 9 g/d, which resulted in an ending BW of 7,228 +/- 120 g, regardless of dietary treatment (P > 0.15). Pigs fed the LF diet consumed 17% more DM per pen daily than pigs fed the HF diet (2,777 +/- 67 vs. 2,376 +/- 67 g/d, P 0.20). The G:F was 24% greater in HF- than in LF-fed pigs (P pigs (11.0 +/- 0.6 mg/dL) than in pigs fed the LF diet (6.2 +/- 0.6 mg/dL; P 0.30). Circulating leptin averaged 1.8 +/- 0.1 ng/mL and was not affected by dietary treatment (P > 0.35) or pST (P > 0.40). These results suggest that the ST/IGF axis is responsive in the young pig and the increase in circulating IGF-I and growth is independent of the source of dietary energy. Also, young pigs respond to a lower energy density liquid diet with increased feed intake, without altering growth performance, apparently utilizing a mechanism other than circulating leptin.

  9. Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Kittelmann, Sandra; Young, Wayne; Kerr, Katherine R; Swanson, Kelly S; Roy, Nicole C; Thomas, David G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled ("Diet A"; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned ("Diet B"; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment). Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18) and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24) and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (Pcomposition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (PDiet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (PDiet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest.

  10. Short communication: insoluble fibres in supplemental pre-weaning diets affect behaviour of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, C; Stokvis, L; Bolhuis, J E; van Hees, H M J

    2017-07-13

    We investigated the effect of offering supplementary dietary fibres to suckling piglets on their behaviour and performance before weaning. From 5 to 22 days of age, suckling piglets were offered a high-fibre diet (HF; 5% cellulose; n=5 litters), or a control low-fibre diet (n=5 litters). Piglets were housed with the sows in individual farrowing pens, and had access to maternal milk until weaning, at 23 days of age. Behaviours of six focal piglets per pen were scored at 6, 16 and 21 days of age. All piglets were individually weighed at 5, 15 and 20 days of age and feed intake was measured daily at the pen level. Piglets on the HF diet were more active than controls (P=0.05), and spent more time suckling or massaging the udder (P=0.01) and interacting with pen mates (P=0.008). Time spent manipulating pen mates, which may reflect re-directed foraging activity in the absence of substrate, accounted for most of the time spent interacting with pen mates (⩾73% of total time spent interacting). Dietary fibres had no effect on BW and feed intake. In conclusion, inclusion of cellulose in the supplemental diet of suckling piglets affects behaviour, with no deleterious effects on performance before weaning.

  11. Haematology and Nutrient Digestibility of Pigs at Three Weaning Ages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology and Nutrient Digestibility of Pigs at Three Weaning Ages. ... Animal Production Research Advances ... Dry matter and nitrogen free extract (NFE) Digestibility was highest (p<0.05) in piglets weaned at 4 weeks of age, while crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility were highest ...

  12. UTILIZATION OF MEXICAN SUNFLOWER LEAF MEAL-BASED DIETS BY PRE WEANED WEST AFRICAN DWARF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Henry Ekeocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted using 16 West African Dwarf (WAD lambs selected from 16 ewes brought to heat (Oestrus by synchronization and served by 2 rams. The experimental animals were placed at 6 weeks of age and were fed with Panicum maximum plus concentrate diet mixture of Mexican Sunflower Leaves (MSL and Wheat Bran (WB such that 0, 15, 30 and 45% of wheat bran was replaced by weight with MSL gravimetrically in diets A, B, C and D respectively. The experiment lasted for seven weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and routine vaccination and medication were administered. Parameters measured were weight gain, dry matter intake, weaning weight and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. The Dry Matter Intake - DMI (g/day was highest for lambs on diet C (156.94 followed by B (156.53, A (154.29 and D (152.04 g/day respectively. This increase was numerically higher than observed values for animals on treatments A and B but statistically significant (P0.05. Results from this study showed that 30% MSLM-based diet was acceptable to the pre-weaned lambs as it supported dry matter intake, optimum weight gain, weaning weight and feed conversion ratio before diminishing return sets in.

  13. Leeftijd van zelfstandig eten bij papegaaien : literatuur onderzoek = Weaning ages in parrot species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2014-01-01

    Young parrots can be separated safely from their parents when they are able to eat independently (weaned). Weaning ages of parrots differ between species. Based on written sources a list of weaning ages is made for all parrot species.

  14. Lactose levels in diets for piglets weaned at 21 days of age Níveis de lactose em rações para leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Pelição Molino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating levels of lactose in diets for piglets weaned at 21 days of age, it was carried out an experiment with 72 animals, with average weight of 6.12 kg, distributed in a completely randomized block design with four diets (0, 4, 8, and 12% lactose, six replicates, and 3 animals per experimental unit. Animals were fed the experimental diets from 21 to 35 days of age and they were fed a lactose-free basal diet from 36 to 49 days of age. The lactose levels did not affect daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion of piglets from 21 to 35 days of age. The use of lactose levels in the diets also did not affect performance of the piglets assessed from 21 to 49 days old. Diets also did not influence villous height, crypt depth and villous:crypt ratio. Lactose resulted in greater diversity and balance of the intestinal microbial community. The Lactobalillus spp. richness increases with the addition of lactose in diet up to the level of 8% in relation to the total number of intestinal microorganisms, which may a possible improvement of intestinal health.Com o objetivo de avaliar níveis de lactose em rações para leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade, foi realizado um experimento com 72 animais com peso inicial médio de 6,10 kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro rações (0, 4, 8 e 12% de lactose, seis repetições e três animais por unidade experimental. Os animais foram alimentados com as rações experimentais no período de 21 a 35 dias de idade e, no período de 36 a 49 dias, receberam uma ração basal isenta de lactose. Os níveis de lactose não afetaram o ganho diário de peso, o consumo diário de ração e a conversão alimentar dos leitões de 21 a 35 dias. O uso de lactose nas rações também não afetou o desempenho dos leitões avaliados dos 21 aos 49 dias de idade. As rações também não influenciaram a altura das vilosidades, a profundidade de criptas e a rela

  15. Níveis de plasma sanguíneo em dietas pós-desmame para leitões desmamados aos 28 dias de idade Spray-dried plasma levels in post-weaning diets for piglets weaned at 28 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Inácio de Assis Júnior

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar níveis de plasma sanguíneo (PS em dietas para leitões desmamados aos 28 dias de idade, foi realizado um experimento utilizando-se 128 leitões com peso inicial de 7,64 ± 0,103 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos, composto por quatro níveis de plasma, oito blocos e quatro animais por unidade experimental. Para avaliação dos níveis de plasma, utilizaram-se as seguintes dietas: ração com leite desnatado (LD e sem plasma sanguíneo (PS dos 29 aos 42 dias; ração com LD mais 2,8% de PS dos 29 aos 35 dias (período 1 e 2,0% de PS dos 36 aos 42 dias (período 2; ração com LD mais 4,2% de PS no período 1 e 3,0% de PS no período 2; e ração sem LD e com 5,6% de PS no período 1 e 4,0% de PS no período 2. Na fase dos 42 aos 56 dias (período 3, a mesma ração de creche foi fornecida para os animais. Não se verificou efeito da inclusão de plasma sanguíneo nas dietas sobre o consumo de ração médio diário. No período 1 verificou-se efeito linear dos níveis de plasma sanguíneo sobre o índice bionutricional (IBN = 6,8371GPMD - 3,5732CRMD e o ganho de peso médio diário (^Y = 0,1364 + 0,0100X. Não houve efeito dos níveis de plasma na dieta sobre o índice de diarréia. O melhor nível de plasma sanguíneo em dietas para o período dos 29 aos 35 dias de idade de leitões desmamados aos 28 dias de idade é de 5,6% e não há efeitos benéficos da adição de plasma sanguíneo na segunda semana após o desmame.Aiming to evaluate the spray-dried plasma levels (BP in diets for piglets weaned at 28 days of age, an experiment with 128 piglets with initial body weight of 7.635 ± 0.103 kg was conducted and allocated in a experimental block design composed of four treatments, eight replicates and four animals per replicate. The treatments used were: diets with dried milk (DM and without spray-dried plasma (BP from 29 to 42 days of age; diets with DM and 2.8% of BP from 29 to 35 days of age (period I and 2

  16. Maternal High Fructose Intake Increases the Vulnerability to Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet-Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Kay L H; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2018-01-09

    Widespread consumption of high-fructose and high-fat diets relates to the global epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension may originate from early life by a combination of prenatal and postnatal nutritional insults. We examined whether maternal high-fructose diet increases vulnerability to post-weaning high-fructose or high-fat diets induced hypertension in adult offspring and determined the underlying mechanisms. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (ND) or chow supplemented with 60% fructose (HFR) during the entire pregnancy and lactation periods. Male offspring were onto either the regular chow, 60% fructose, or high-fat diet (HFA) from weaning to 12 weeks of age and assigned to four groups: ND/ND, HFR/ND, HFR/HFR, and HFR/HFA. Maternal high-fructose diet exacerbates post-weaning high-fat diet-induced programmed hypertension. Post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets similarly reduced Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkag2, Ppara, Pparb, and Ppargc1a mRNA expression in offspring kidneys exposed to maternal high-fructose intake. Additionally, post-weaning high-fat diet significantly reduced renal mRNA levels of Ulk1, Atg5, and Nrf2 and induced greater oxidative stress than did high-fructose diet. Although maternal high-fructose intake increases soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) expression in the kidney, which was restored by post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Maternal high-fructose diet programs differential vulnerability to developing hypertension in male offspring in response to post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Our data implicated that specific therapy targeting on nutrient sensing signals, oxidative stress, and SEH may be a promising approach to prevent hypertension in children and mothers exposed to high-fructose and high-fat consumption.

  17. Supplementation of diets for weaned piglets withL-Valine and L-Glutamine+ L-Glutamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Diedrich Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of diets for weaned piglets with L-valine and L-glutamine + L-glutamic acid on performance, frequency of diarrhea, organ weight, digesta pH, intestinal morphology, and economic viability. Seventy-two piglets with a live weight of 7.53 ± 0.84 kg and 24 days of age were used. The animals were submitted to the following four treatments from 24 to 46 days of age: diet not supplemented with amino acids (control diet, CD; diet supplemented with glutamine + glutamic acid (GD; diet supplemented with glutamine + glutamic acid + valine (GVD, and diet supplemented with valine (VD. Two sequential phases (pre-initial I and pre-initial II with a duration of 12 and 11 days, respectively, were established. A completely randomized design, consisting of six repetitions and three pigs per experimental unit, was used. Nine days after weaning, at 32 days of age, a piglet per pen was slaughtered for the evaluation of organ weight, digesta pH and intestinal morphology. All animals received a single diet from days 47 to 65. No effects on performance were observed during the pre-initial phases I and II; however, when the whole study period was considered (24 to 65 days of age, piglets fed GVD consumed less feed and exhibited better feed conversion than animals of the VD group. With respect to morphometric parameters, GD provided a greater ileal crypt depth than CD and VD. There was an economic advantage of diets supplemented with L-valine and L-glutamine + L-glutamic acid, validating their use in diets for weaned piglets until 46 days of age.

  18. Short Communication Towards an abalone weaning diet: evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of post-settlement abalone when 'weaning' them from diatoms onto macroalgae/artificial feed remains unpredictable for farmers. It is hypothesised that spirulina algae, which are high in protein, may be a suitable feed ingredient for weaning abalone. Over a period of 27 days, the growth and survival of juvenile (4–6 ...

  19. Post-weaning high-fat diet results in growth cartilage lesions in young male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S Haysom

    Full Text Available To determine if a high-fat diet (HF from weaning would result in a pro-inflammatory state and affect joint cartilage, we fed male rats either HF or Chow diet post-weaning, and voluntary wheel exercise (EX or cage only activity (SED after 9 weeks of age. At 17 weeks body composition, plasma biomarkers and histomorphology scores of femoro-tibial cartilages of HF-SED, HF-EX, Chow-SED and Chow-EX groups were compared. Food intake and activity were not significantly different between groups. HF diet resulted in significantly higher weight gain, %fat, fat:lean ratio, and plasma leptin, insulin and TNFα concentrations, with significant interactions between diet and exercise. No abnormal features were detected in the hyaline articular cartilage or in the metaphyseal growth plate in all four groups. However, collagen type X- positive regions of retained epiphyseal growth cartilage (EGC was present in all HF-fed animals and significantly greater than that observed in Chow-fed sedentary rats. Most lesions were located in the lateral posterior aspect of the tibia and/or femur. The severity of lesions was greater in HF-fed animals. Although exercise had a significantly greater effect in reducing adiposity and associated systemic inflammation in HF-fed rats, it had no effect on lesion incidence or severity. Lesion incidence was also significantly associated with indices of obesity and plasma markers of chronic inflammation. Clinically, EGC lesions induced by HF feeding in rats from very early in life, and possibly by insufficient activity, is typical of osteochondrosis in animals. Such lesions may be the precursor of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans requiring surgery in children/adolescents, conservative management of which could benefit from improved understanding of early changes in cellular and gene expression.

  20. Central Role of the PPARγ Gene Network in Coordinating Beef Cattle Intramuscular Adipogenesis in Response to Weaning Age and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Faulkner, Dan B.; Meteer, William T.; Keisler, Duane; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Adipogenic/lipogenic transcriptional networks regulating intramuscular fat deposition (IMF) in response to weaning age and dietary starch level were studied. The longissimus muscle (LM) of beef steers on an early weaning (141 days age) plus high-starch diet (EWS) or a normal weaning (NW, 222 days age) plus starch creep-feed diet (CFS) was biopsied at 0 (EW), 25, 50, 96 (NW), 167, and 222 (pre-slaughter) days. Expression patterns of 35 target genes were studied. From NW through slaughter, all steers received the same high-starch diet. In EWS steers the expression of PPARG, other adipogenic (CEBPA, ZFP423) and lipogenic (THRSP, SREBF1, INSIG1) activators, and several enzymes (FASN, SCD, ELOVL6, PCK1, DGAT2) that participate in the process of IMF increased gradually to a peak between 96 and 167 days on treatment. Steers in NW did not achieve similar expression levels even by 222 days on treatment, suggesting a blunted response even when fed a high-starch diet after weaning. High-starch feeding at an early age (EWS) triggers precocious and sustained adipogenesis, resulting in greater marbling. PMID:24516329

  1. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong Sheng; Ton, So Ha; Phang, Sonia Chew Wen; Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets) and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult) on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively) Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal), and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water) diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group). Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  2. Persistent effects of pre-weaning in piglets on composition of fecal microbiota are diet-, genus-, and time-specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of diet on gut microbiota composition in the pre-weaning period have been characterized, but it is unknown whether differences in composition are sustained after weaning. The objective of this study was to determine if post-natal diet-induced differences in microbiota persist after weani...

  3. Baby-led weaning and the family diet. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Hannah; Harris, Cristen

    2012-06-01

    Baby-led weaning (BLW) is a style of solid food introduction that emphasizes self-feeding rather than spoon-feeding. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether parents using BLW change their dietary intake during weaning, and if their babies are offered family foods. Participants kept diet diaries at baseline and three months later, post-BLW implementation. Wilcoxon tests revealed no significant changes in dietary intake during the first three months of weaning, however, parents offered their children 57% of the same foods they were consuming. Results suggest that BLW does not lead to dietary changes among parents during the weaning process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of exposure to a cafeteria diet during gestation and after weaning on the metabolism and body weight of adult male offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Goularte, Jéferson Ferraz; de Araujo da Cunha, Ana Carla; Caceres, Rafael Corrêa; Noschang, Cristie; da Silva Benetti, Carla; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, we investigated whether maternal exposure to a cafeteria diet affects the metabolism and body composition of offspring and whether such an exposure has a cumulative effect during the lifetime of the offspring. Female rats were fed a control (CON) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet from their own weaning to the weaning of their offspring. At 21 d of age, male offspring were divided into four groups by diet during gestation and after weaning (CON-CON, CON-CAF, CAF-CON and CAF-CAF). Blood was collected from dams (after weaning) and pups (at 30 and 120 d of age) by decapitation. CAF dams had significantly greater body weight and adipose tissue weight and higher concentrations of total cholesterol, insulin and leptin than CON dams (Student's t test). The energy intake of CAF rats was higher than that of CON rats regardless of the maternal diet (two-way ANOVA). Litters had similar body weights at weaning and at 30 d of age, but at 120 d, CON-CAF rats were heavier. At both ages, CAF rats had greater adipose tissue weight than CON rats regardless of the maternal diet, and the concentrations of TAG and cholesterol were similar between the two groups, as were blood glucose concentrations at 30 d of age. However, at 120 d of age, CAF rats were hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and hyperleptinaemic regardless of the maternal diet. These findings suggest that maternal obesity does not modulate the metabolism of male offspring independently, modifying body weight only when associated with the intake of a cafeteria diet by the offspring.

  5. Palaeolithic diet ("stone age" diet)

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeberg, Staffan

    2005-01-01

    A popular diet in Sweden today is the palaeolithic diet, where lean meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, roots and nuts are dietary staples, while cereals, dairy products, salt and processed fat and sugar are avoided. The underlying rationale is that foods that were available during the evolution of primates, up to the emergence of fully modern humans, are healthier than recently introduced ones (dairy products, cereals, beans, refined fat, sugar, etc.), since our digestive and metabolic systems we...

  6. Dietary habits of partly breast-fed and completely weaned infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Fleischer Michaelsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    : Healthy term infants (n 312) at 9 months of age (mean 9?1 (SD 0?3) months). Results: The infants partly breast-fed (n 168) at 9 months had significantly lower body weight (P,0?0001), were significantly shorter (P50?0022) and were introduced to complementary foods significantly later (P,0?0001) than...... breast-fed compared with the completely weaned infants. These differences appear to be caused primarily by differences in the type and amount of milk consumed, as the energy derived from sources other than milk was similar except for fatty spread and vegetables as a side dish. Only small differences were...... found for absolute intakes of foods between feeding groups, although fatty spread had significantly higher intake rates and consumption (P50?031) among partly breast-fed compared with completely weaned infants. Conclusions: At 9 months the infants partly breast-fed did not eat a less diversified diet...

  7. Effects of weaning age on survival and growth factors of Heterotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two independent series of weaning experiments were conducted under natural conditions. The first experiment (early weaning stage) included four treatments, namely: T1 (control) = larvae fed only Artemia nauplii, and T2, T3, T4 corresponding to three weaning ages of 11, 13, and 15 days after hatch (DAH), respectively.

  8. Weaning age influences the severity of gastrointestinal microbiome shifts in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meale, S J; Li, S C; Azevedo, P; Derakhshani, H; DeVries, T J; Plaizier, J C; Steele, M A; Khafipour, E

    2017-03-15

    Ruminants microbial consortium is responsible for ruminal fermentation, a process which converts fibrous feeds unsuitable for human consumption into desirable dairy and meat products, begins to establish soon after birth. However, it undergoes a significant transition when digestion shifts from the lower intestine to ruminal fermentation. We hypothesised that delaying the transition from a high milk diet to an exclusively solid food diet (weaning) would lessen the severity of changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome during this transition. β-diversity of ruminal and faecal microbiota shifted rapidly in early-weaned calves (6 weeks), whereas, a more gradual shift was observed in late-weaned calves (8 weeks) up to weaning. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant ruminal phyla in pre- and post-weaned calves, respectively. Yet, the relative abundance of these phyla remained stable in faeces (P ≥ 0.391). Inferred gene families assigned to KEGG pathways revealed an increase in ruminal carbohydrate metabolism (P ≤ 0.009) at 9, compared to 5 weeks. Conversely, carbohydrate metabolism in faeces declined (P ≤ 0.002) following a change in weaning status (i.e., the shift from pre- to post-weaning). Our results indicate weaning later facilitates a more gradual shift in microbiota and could potentially explain the negative effects of early-weaning associated with feeding a high-plane of pre-weaning nutrition.

  9. Response of early weaned pigs to full-fat soyabean diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    24 Large White X Landrace pigs weaned at 28 days with initial liveweight of 5.27 ±0.23 kg were fed four animal protein concentrates (fish meal (FM), Chicken offal meal (COM), fresh blood meal (FBM) and parboiled blood meal (PBM) in diets based on full-fat soyabean (FFSB) for 8 weeks to test different animal protein ...

  10. Low Folate and Selenium in the Mouse Maternal Diet Alters Liver Gene Expression Patterns in the Offspring after Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P.G. Barnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, selenium (Se and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate and DNA oxidation (Se. This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H, or marginally deficient in (diet L, Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis, methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  11. Effect of fatty acid composition of the sow diet on the innate and adaptive immunity of the piglets after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, Sofie; Cox, Eric; Melkebeek, Vesna; De Smet, Stefaan; Millet, Sam

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated whether the immunocompetence of piglets at weaning was modulated by including different sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the maternal diet. From day 73 of gestation until weaning at 4 weeks, 32 pregnant sows were fed a palm oil-based diet (control group) or a diet including 1% linseed oil (C18:3n-3), 1% echium oil (C18:3n-3, C18:4n-3, C18:3n-6) or 1% fish oil (C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3). It was hypothesized that each diet would differently affect immune function through effects such as specific eicosanoid production. Piglets were fed a conventional diet without added n-3 PUFA from weaning until day 35 post-weaning. At weaning and 21 days post-weaning, four piglets per litter were immunized with bovine thyroglobulin. Blood samples were taken from weaning until day 35 post-weaning to determine thyroglobulin-specific antibodies, serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration and fatty acid composition. The fatty acid composition of the maternal diets was reflected in the plasma and red blood cells of the weaned piglets. The onset of the thyroglobulin-specific IgM response differed between dietary groups, with a delay in response for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet. No significant dietary effects were observed on the thyroglobulin-specific IgG and IgA titres or on SAA concentrations in the piglet serum. Including n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet at the concentrations used in the present study had no major effects on the adaptive and innate immunity of the piglets after weaning. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Fontes e níveis de proteína em rações iniciais para leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade Protein sources and levels in the initial diets for piglets weaned at 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Laurindo Lopes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar fontes e níveis de proteína em rações iniciais para leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, onde foram estudados os fatores: tipos de dieta (soro de leite em pó e farinha de peixe + lactose, níveis de proteína bruta (20,0% e 24,0% e pesos dos leitões ao desmame ( 6,0 kg, totalizando oito tratamentos com quatro repetições cada. O desempenho de leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo farinha de peixe + lactose foi superior ao dos leitões que consumiram apenas o soro de leite em pó. O nível de 24% de proteína bruta nas rações foi mais eficiente, sobretudo com a combinação farinha de peixe + lactose. Concluiu-se que os tipos de dietas estudados não exerceram efeito sobre os parâmetros histológicos e que a altura das vilosidades é uma função direta do peso do leitão.The experiment was conducted to evaluate protein sources and levels in the initial diets, for piglets weaned at 21 days of age. The animals were allotted in a completely randomized design in a factorial 2 x 2 x 2, with type of diets ( dried whey and fish meal + lactose, levels of crude protein (20 and 24% and piglet weight at weaning ( 6,0kg, in a total of 8 treatments and four replications each. In the experimental conditions, it can be concluded that among the protein sources tested, the performance of 21 day-age weaned piglets was better for the animals fed fish meal + lactose compared to dried whey. The level of 24% crude protein was more efficient, mainly in the fish meal + lactose diets. It was concluded that the type of diets studied did not influence the histologycal parameters and the villous height is a direct funcion of piglets weight.

  13. Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bermingham, Emma N; Kittelmann, Sandra; Young, Wayne; Kerr, Katherine R; Swanson, Kelly S; Roy, Nicole C; Thomas, David G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat...

  14. Increasing weaning age of piglets from 4 to 7 weeks reduces stress, increases post-weaning feed intake but does not improve intestinal functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Meulen, van der, J.; Koopmans, S.J.; Dekker, R. A.; Hoogendoorn, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that late weaning and the availability of creep feed during the suckling period compared with early weaning, improves feed intake, decreases stress and improves the integrity of the intestinal tract. In this study with 160 piglets of 16 litters, late weaning at 7 weeks of age was compared with early weaning at 4 weeks, with or without creep feeding during the suckling period, on post-weaning feed intake, plasma cortisol (as an indicator of stress) and plasma i...

  15. Sex-biased weaning and early childhood diet among middle holocene hunter-gatherers in Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerkens, Jelmer W; Bartelink, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    This article evaluates age of weaning and early childhood diets of eight males and nine females from a Middle Holocene (4300-3000 BP) site in Central California, CA-CCO-548. All individuals died as adults. δ(15) N values from serial sections of dentin collagen in first molars suggest females were fully weaned, on average, by 3.6 years of age, about 0.4 years later than males in the sample, suggesting possible greater parental investment in female offspring. However, throughout childhood females consumed lower trophic-level foods than males. This could indicate greater investment in males through provisioning of higher quality foods, or alternatively, some degree of independent foraging by males starting as early as 2 to 3 years of age. Even as adults, these same males and females consumed a different range of foods as indicated by their bone collagen δ(13) C and δ(15) N values. Overall, the data suggest children were enculturated early into their respective gendered diets, with girls consuming greater amounts of plant foods and boys consuming greater amounts of higher-trophic level fish and meat protein. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Weaning practices among pastoralists: New evidence of infant feeding patterns from Bronze Age Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca Miller, Alicia; Hanks, Bryan K; Judd, Margaret; Epimakhov, Andrey; Razhev, Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates infant feeding practices through stable carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotopic analyses of human bone collagen from Kamennyi Ambar 5, a Middle Bronze Age cemetery located in central Eurasia. The results presented are unique for the time period and region, as few cemeteries have been excavated to reveal a demographic cross-section of the population. Studies of weaning among pastoral societies are infrequent and this research adds to our knowledge of the timing, potential supplementary foods, and cessation of breastfeeding practices. Samples were collected from 41 subadults (nursing) that began at 6 months of age, occurred over several years of early childhood, and was completed by 4 years of age. Our results indicate that weaning was a multi-stage process that was unique among late prehistoric pastoralist groups in Eurasia that were dependent on milk products as a supplementary food. Our discussion centers on supporting this hypothesis with modern information on central and east Eurasian herding societies including the age at which complementary foods are introduced, the types of complementary foods, and the timing of the cessation of breastfeeding. Integral to this work is the nature of pastoral economies and their dependence on animal products, the impact of complementary foods on nutrition and health, and how milk processing may have affected nutrition content and digestibility of foods. This research on Eurasian pastoralists provides insights into the complexities of weaning among prehistoric pastoral societies as well as the potential for different complementary foods to be incorporated into infant diets in the past. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Soja integral processada (fermentada e extrusada e farelo de soja em substituição ao leite em pó em dieta de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade Whole processed (fermented and extruded soybean and soybean meal in replacement of dried milk in diet of piglets weaned at 14 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Soares

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da utilização de soja integral fermentada (SIF, soja integral extrusada (SIE e farelo de soja (FS, em substituição ao leite em pó (LP da dieta, sobre desempenho e alterações morfológicas do sistema digestivo de leitões dos 14 aos 35 dias e dos 14 aos 56 dias e o seu efeito residual dos 36 aos 56 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 96 leitões machos, mestiços (Landrace x Large White, desmamados aos 14 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições e seis animais por unidade experimental. A fonte de proteína influenciou o desempenho dos leitões dos 14 aos 35 e dos 14 aos 56 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior ganho de peso nas três primeiras semanas após o desmame e no período total. No entanto, no período de 36 aos 56 dias, não se observou influência dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho dos animais. Verificou-se efeito da fonte de proteína na altura de vilosidade (AV, na relação vilosidade: cripta dos leitões abatidos aos 21 dias de idade e na AV dos animais abatidos com 35 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior AV que os dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o LP pode ser substituído pela SIE e pelo FS nas dietas de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade e os altos níveis de fatores antitripsina na SIF comprometeram os resultados.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the use of whole fermented soybean (WFS, whole extruded soybean (WES and soybean meal (SBM in replacement to the dried milk (MD of the diet on the performance, feed intake and morphological alterations on the digestive system of piglets from 14 to 35 day and from 14 to 56 days, and its residual effects from 36 to 56 days of age. Ninety-six crossbreed (Landrace x Large White piglets weaned at 14 days of age were allotted to a completely randomized experimental design with

  18. The effect of a diet with fructan-rich chicory roots on intestinal helminths and microbiota with special focus on Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter in piglets around weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Mejer, Helene; Mølbak, Lars

    2011-01-01

    . Approximately half of 67 piglets from nine litters were experimentally infected with Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis in the suckling period (1 to 7 weeks of age) and 58 of the piglets were challenged daily with Eschericia coli O138:F8 for 9 days after weaning to induce weaning diarrhoea. The litters were fed...... either chicory (30% dry matter) or a control diet. The effect of chicory on intestinal helminths, intestinal microbiota, especially Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter spp. and E. coli post-weaning diarrhoea was assessed. The weight gain of the piglets was not impaired significantly by chicory....... The intestinal A. suum worm burden was reduced by 64% (P = 0.034) in the chicory-fed piglets, whereas these same piglets had 63% more T. suis worms (P = 0.016). Feeding with chicory elicited no changes among the main bacterial groups in ileum according to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism...

  19. The influences of weaning age and weight on carcass traits and meat quality of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Bo; Kim, Gap-Don; Kang, Dong-Geun; Kim, Yeong-Hwa; Yang, Ik-Dong; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of weaning age and weight on pigs, and their interaction with carcass traits and meat quality. A total of 468 piglets were obtained from 57 sows and four boars and grouped by age at weaning (D21, 18-24 days; D28, 25-32 days). Each weaning group was subdivided into three weight groups (L, M and H) according to weaning weight. The D28 group had heavier carcass weight, redness and yellowness, but had lower marbling scores and less drip loss than the D21 group (P negative correlation with drip loss, while weaning weight was negatively correlated with carcass weight and drip loss (P meat quality traits in pigs were significantly related to their age and weight at weaning. Therefore, we find that piglet weaning age and weight are no less important than post-weaning growth performance and behavior, with regard to carcass traits and meat quality. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Infant weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    This communication supplement provides instructions for weaning an infant through the 1st year of life. Since a new born infant grows much faster than an older child, the baby requires sufficient nourishment. The order of foods, though, is important. The baby should begin with liquid foods, then semisolid foods, and lastly solid foods. The best food for an infant, breast milk, contains all the necessary nutrients for a baby. It is clean, safe, easy to digest, and it protects the new born from disease and infection. But when the baby reaches 4 months of age, the weaning process should begin. Fruit juice and soup made of green leafy vegetables contain the vitamins and minerals that the baby needs. Beginning in the 5th month, the baby's diet should include boiled mashed potatoes and smashed bananas. And by the 7th month, the baby is able to digest semisolid food such as khichadi or dalia (roasted cereal which is grounded and mixed with water and dal, and then cooked). Parents should realize that the weaning process does not beginning immediately after birth, and when it begins, the food should be introduced gradually. The food should not contain any spices and should be freshly prepared (the hands should be washed and the utensils cleaned before preparing the foods). To prevent diarrhea and other infections, the food must be kept covered, protected from dust and flies. By the end of the 1st year, the baby should able to eat the normal diet of the family.

  1. Effect of Pre-weaning Diet on the Ruminal Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Communities of Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available At birth, calves display an underdeveloped rumen that eventually matures into a fully functional rumen as a result of solid food intake and microbial activity. However, little is known regarding the gradual impact of pre-weaning diet on the establishment of the rumen microbiota. Here, we employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the effects of the inclusion of starter concentrate (M: milk-fed vs. MC: milk plus starter concentrate fed on archaeal, bacterial and anaerobic fungal communities in the rumens of 45 crossbred dairy calves across pre-weaning development (7, 28, 49, and 63 days. Our results show that archaeal, bacterial, and fungal taxa commonly found in the mature rumen were already established in the rumens of calves at 7 days old, regardless of diet. This confirms that microbiota colonization occurs in the absence of solid substrate. However, diet did significantly impact some microbial taxa. In the bacterial community, feeding starter concentrate promoted greater diversity of bacterial taxa known to degrade readily fermentable carbohydrates in the rumen (e.g., Megasphaera, Sharpea, and Succinivribrio. Shifts in the ruminal bacterial community also correlated to changes in fermentation patterns that favored the colonization of Methanosphaera sp. A4 in the rumen of MC calves. In contrast, M calves displayed a bacterial community dominated by taxa able to utilize milk nutrients (e.g., Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides. In both diet groups, the dominance of these milk-associated taxa decreased with age, suggesting that diet and age simultaneously drive changes in the structure and abundance of bacterial communities in the developing rumen. Changes in the composition and abundance of archaeal communities were attributed exclusively to diet, with more highly abundant Methanosphaera and less abundant Methanobrevibacter in MC calves. Finally, the fungal community was dominated by members of the genus SK3 and Caecomyces

  2. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age, piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age, all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age, response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT. During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06, but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05 than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05, and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10. Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by

  3. A post-weaning obesogenic diet exacerbates the detrimental effects of maternal obesity on offspring insulin signaling in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Faria, Juliana; Duque-Guimarães, Daniella; Carpenter, Asha A M; Loche, Elena; Ozanne, Susan E

    2017-03-24

    Previous studies have shown that maternal diet-induced obesity leads to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in offspring. The current study investigated if weaning onto an obesogenic diet exaggerated the detrimental effects of maternal diet-induced obesity in adipose tissue. Maternal obesity and offspring obesity led to reduced expression of key insulin signalling proteins, including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). The effects of maternal obesity and offspring obesity were, generally, independent and additive. Irs1 mRNA levels were similar between all four groups of offspring, suggesting that in both cases post-transcriptional regulation was involved. Maternal diet-induced obesity increased miR-126 expression however levels of this miR were not influenced by a post-weaning obesogenic diet. In contrast, a post-weaning obesogenic diet was associated with increased levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1, implicating increased degradation of IRS-1 as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that whilst programmed reductions in IRS-1 are associated with increased levels of miR-126 and consequently reduced translation of Irs1 mRNA, the effects of a post-weaning obesogenic diet on IRS-1 are mediated by miR-126 independent mechanisms, including increased IRS-1 protein degradation. These divergent mechanisms explain why the combination of maternal obesity and offspring obesity leads to the most pronounced effects on offspring metabolism.

  4. Thyroid function in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid and pituitary hormone levels in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling (21 days. The dams and pups were divided into 2 groups: a control group fed a diet containing 22% protein that supplies the necessary amount of protein for the rat and is the usual content of protein in most commercial rat chow, and a diet group fed a low-protein (8% diet in which the protein was substituted by an isocaloric amount of starch. After weaning all dams and pups received the 22% protein diet. Two hours before sacrifice of pups aged 21, 30 and 60 days, a tracer dose (0.6 µCi of 125I was injected (ip into each animal. Blood and thyroid glands of pups were collected for the determination of serum T4, T3 and TSH and radioiodine uptake. Low protein diet caused a slight decrease in radioiodine uptake at 21 days, and a significant decrease in T3 levels (128 ± 14 vs 74 ± 9 ng/dl, P<0.05, while T4 levels did not change and TSH was increased slightly. At 30 days, T3 and TSH did not change while there was a significant increase in both T4 levels (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 6.1 ± 0.2 µg/dl, P<0.05 and in radioiodine uptake levels (0.34 ± 0.02 vs 0.50 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. At 60 days serum T3, T4 and TSH levels were normal, but radioiodine uptake was still significantly increased (0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. Thus, it seems that protein malnutrition of the dams during suckling causes hypothyroidism in the pups at 21 days that has a compensatory mechanism increasing thyroid function after refeeding with a 22% protein diet. The radioiodine uptake still remained altered at 60 days, when all the hormonal serum levels returned to the normal values, suggesting a permanent change in the thyroid function

  5. Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Jungil Choi; Ju Young Chang; Jeana Hong; Sue Shin; Jeong Su Park; Sohee Oh

    2017-01-01

    Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children?s development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5?12.0), the median ...

  6. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed

  7. Weaning age influences the severity of gastrointestinal microbiome shifts in dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Meale; Li, S. C.; Azevedo, P.; Derakhshani, H.; T. J. DeVries; J. C. Plaizier; Steele, M. A.; Khafipour, E

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants microbial consortium is responsible for ruminal fermentation, a process which converts fibrous feeds unsuitable for human consumption into desirable dairy and meat products, begins to establish soon after birth. However, it undergoes a significant transition when digestion shifts from the lower intestine to ruminal fermentation. We hypothesised that delaying the transition from a high milk diet to an exclusively solid food diet (weaning) would lessen the severity of changes in the g...

  8. Effects of protein sources and levels in antibiotic-free diets on diarrhea, intestinal morphology, and expression of tight junctions in weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined effects of dietary protein sources and levels on intestinal health of 21 to 35 d-old weaned piglets fed antibiotics-free diets. A total of 150 weaned piglets (21 d of age were allotted to 5 dietary treatment groups. Diets were formulated, based on corn-soybean meal, with different protein sources (fish meal and soy protein concentrate to provide different dietary CP levels. Piglets within 5 dietary treatments were fed diets as follows, respectively: 1 control diet of 17% CP (control; 2 19% CP diets formulated with more soy protein concentrate (SPC19; 3 fish meal (FM19; 4 23.7% CP diets formulated with more soy protein concentrate (SPC23; 5 fish meal (FM23. The results showed that piglets from control group had higher ADG and lower incidence of diarrhea compared with those of other groups (P < 0.05. The incidence of diarrhea of piglets in FM19 group was lower than those from SPC23 group and FM23 group (P < 0.05. With the higher CP levels, villous height and villous height to crypt depth ratio of piglets in the duodenum and jejunum were decreased (P < 0.05, but crypt depth was increased (P < 0.05. Comparing control group and other groups, we found the expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interferon-γ (IFN-γ were increased (P < 0.05 in the jejunum and colon of piglets, as did cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTR in the distal colon. The relative transcript abundance of Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 in the jejunum, and occludin in the jejunum and ileum of piglets fed 23.7% CP diets were reduced compared with those fed control diet (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the 17% CP diet without in-feed antibiotics helped improve growth performance and relief of diarrhea of 21 to 35 d-old weaned piglets. Dietary CP level, rather than its source (either fish meal or soy protein concentrate, has more significant impacts on the growth performance and intestinal health of 21 to 35 d-old weaned piglets

  9. Effects of weaning age on growth, nutrient digestibility and metabolism, and serum parameters in Hu lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Chai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, nutrient digestion and metabolism, and serological indicators, and to obtain an optimal weaning age in Hu lambs. Forty-eight newborn Hu lambs (birth weight, 2.53 ± 0.14 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups. The lambs in control group (ER suckled their dams. The lambs in other three experimental groups were weaned on milk replacer at 10, 20, and 30 days of age (EW10, EW20, and EW30 groups, respectively. The results were as follows: 1 lambs in EW10 and EW30 groups had a lower (P  0.05 among groups; however, the apparent digestibility and deposition of calcium in early weaned lambs were lower (P < 0.05 than those in ewe-reared lambs. 4 The albumin content in EW30 group was lower (P < 0.05 than that in ER group; the globulin content in EW30 group was higher (P < 0.05 than that in other groups; the content of serum insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ in weaned lambs tended to increase compared with lambs in ER group. Finally, the growth rate of lambs decreased within 10 days post-weaning, but early weaning boosted creep feed intake, leading to better growth and health later in life. The Hu lambs can be weaned on milk replacer and creep feed at 10 days of age.

  10. Apparent digestibility of diets with different concentrations of lysine and energy in piglets with different body weights and post-weaning age Digestibilidade aparente de dietas com diferentes concentrações de lisina e energia, em leitões de diferentes pesos corporais e idade pós-desmame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Alves da Trindade Neto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of body weight or age and dietary digestible lysine and metabolizable energy on apparent digestibility of energy and dry matter were evaluated in piglets after weaning. The animals were weaned at 21 days of age and distributed in two groups: 8.68 ± 0.76 kg at 28 days of age (weaned 7 days earlier; and 12.73 ± 0.99 kg at 35 days of age (weaned 14 days earlier. The pigs were allotted in digestibility cages in a completely randomized block design with the following factorial arrangements: 2 × 4 composed of two weight categories and four levels of digestible lysine (1.222; 1.305; 1.390 and 1.497%; and 2 × 3 composed of two weight categories and three levels of metabolizable energy (3,510; 3,700 and 3,830 kcal/kg rations. Digestible lysine was evaluated in six replications and metabolizable energy in eight replications and each animal constituted an experimental unit. Piglets with higher body weight and age were more efficient in nitrogen retention and energetic balance, compared to lighter and younger piglets, particularly those given lower concentration of lysine in the diet. The energy increase favored nitrogen retention by the heavier and older piglets. However, coefficients of dry matter and energy apparent digestibility did not differ among weight categories. Older and heavier piglets were more efficient in nitrogen retention, although this efficacy depended on concentration of the energy in the diet. This better use of protein and energy suggest differences on nutritional requirements.Os efeitos do peso corporal ou idade e da lisina digestível e energia metabolizável dietéticas sobre a digestibilidade aparente da energia e matéria seca, foram avaliados em leitões após o desmame. Os animais foram desmamados aos 21 dias de idade e distribuídos em dois grupos: 8,68 ± 0,76 kg com 28 dias de idade (desmamados há sete dias; e 12,73 ± 0,99 kg com 35 dias de idade (desmamados há 14 dias. Foram alocados em gaiolas de

  11. Effects of feeding low protein diets to piglets on plasma urea nitrogen, faecal ammonia nitrogen, the incidence of diarrhoea and performance after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung-Min; Kim, Jae-Cheol; Hansen, Christian Fink; Mullan, Bruce P; Hampson, David J; Pluske, John R

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feeding pigs low protein (LP) diets for different lengths of time after weaning on indices of protein fermentation, the incidence of postweaning diarrhoea (PWD), growth performance, and total-tract apparent digestibility. Sixty weaner pigs weighing 6.1 +/- 0.13 kg (mean +/- SEM) were used in a completely randomised design having five treatments: (i) a high protein diet (HP, 243 g/kg CP) fed for 14 d after weaning (HP14); (ii) a low protein diet (LP, 173 g CP/kg) fed for 5 d after weaning (LP5); (iii) LP diet fed for 7 d after weaning (LP7); (iv) LP diet fed for 10 d after weaning (LP10), and (v) LP diet fed for 14 d after weaning (LP14). All diets were supplemented with lysine, methionine, tryptophan and threonine, with all LP diets additionally fortified with crystalline isoleucine and valine to conform to a proposed ideal amino acid (AA) pattern. A second-stage diet (215 g CP/kg) was fed to pigs at the conclusion of each treatment. None of the diets contained antimicrobial compounds. Feeding a LP diet, regardless of duration of feeding, decreased plasma urea nitrogen (p 0.05) growth performance up to 106 days after weaning compared to pigs fed the HP diet. Total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, energy and crude protein were similar (p > 0.05) between treatments. Our data suggest that feeding a LP diet, supplemented with AA to conform to an ideal AA pattern, for 7-10 days after weaning can reduce PWD in pigs fed antibiotic-free diets without compromising production.

  12. Raw potato starch in weaned pig diets and its influence on postweaning scours and the molecular microbial ecology of the digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, S K; Nyachoti, C M; Krause, D O

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of raw potato starch (RPS) on growth performance, postweaning diarrhea, and gastrointestinal microbial populations in weaned piglets. Eighty-four piglets were weaned at 17 +/- 2 d of age with an average BW of 6.0 +/- 0.9 kg. Pigs were blocked by BW and assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a randomized complete block design with 7 replicate pens per diet and 3 pigs per pen. Treatments were 1) a positive control (PC) containing an antibiotic, 2) a negative control (NC) with no RPS and no antibiotic, 3) NC + 7% RPS (7% RPS), and 4) NC + 14% RPS (14% RPS). Diets were corn-wheat-soybean meal-based and formulated to meet NRC (1998) recommendations. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F ratio were determined weekly. Fecal consistency (FC) scoring was determined daily. After wk 3, 1 pig with a BW closest to the pen mean was killed to evaluate ileal and colonic mucosal-attached Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacteria, as well as digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N concentrations. The DNA was extracted from ileum and colon digesta and used for molecular microbial evaluations using terminal-RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA genes. The ADG for wk 1 was greater (P diet, but diet had no effect on ADG during wk 3. The ADFI did not differ among treatments during the first 2 wk, and ADFI was least for 7% RPS diet during wk 3. The NC diet had a greater (P diet had no effect on FC score during wk 2 and 3. Diets had no effect on the colon lactic acid bacterial counts; however, the PC diet had decreased (P diets had greater (P diets. There was more diarrhea (P < 0.05) in the 14% than the 7% RPS and control treatments at d 21. This difference correlated with a decline (P < 0.05) in microbial diversity in the colon. We concluded that 7% RPS can be used to prevent postweaning diarrhea in weaned piglets, but there are no effects on growth performance.

  13. Influence of feeding strategy and diet for reproductive rabbit does on intake, performances, and health of young and females before and after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, T; Combes, S; Gidenne, T; Destombes, N; Bébin, K; Balmisse, E; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the influences of feeding strategy and diet for reproductive females on feed intake, BW, reproductive performances, and milk composition and their effects on kit performances from birth (d 0) to 70 d of age (d 70). A total of 133 does followed for 3 reproductive cycles and their offspring, 2,322 kits from 236 litters, were divided into 3 experimental groups that differed only by the diet offered to the doe. Three experimental diets were used: a reproduction (Repro) diet (11.01 MJ DE/kg, 24.0 g lipids/kg, 161 g starch/kg, and 343 g/kg NDF), a lactation (Lact) diet (11.88 MJ DE/kg, 49.0 g lipids/kg, 161 g starch/kg, and 302 g/kg NDF), and a fattening (Fatt) diet (9.73 MJ DE/kg, 23.0 g lipids/kg, 70 g starch/kg, and 415 g/kg NDF). In group RR, does received feed Repro throughout the study (d 0 to 42 of each cycle). In group RF, does received diet Repro from d 0 to 25 and d 35 to 42 and diet Fatt from d 25 to 35. In group LR, does received diet Lact from d 0 to 25 and diet Repro from d 25 to 42. Kits in all groups received diet F from d 18 to 70, where intake was restricted from d 35 to 63. Doe BW was similar throughout the study (4,495 g; > 0.05). Doe feed intake differed only from weaning to the subsequent kindling (+7.8% in group RF; = 0.042). Reproductive performances were similar, except for litter weight at birth (+3.6% in group LR; = 0.029). From d 0 to 25, a negative energy balance was observed in does yet most markedly in group LR (-8.61 MJ vs. -3.15 and -2.39 for groups RF and RR, respectively; 0.05). Feed intake per kit from d 18 to 25 was greater in groups RR and RF than in group LR (+26%; 0.05) but was lowest in group RF after weaning compared to groups RR and LR (1.7 vs. 4.8 and 5.8%, respectively; health after weaning.

  14. Diet and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Ribarič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition has important long-term consequences for health that are not only limited to the individual but can be passed on to the next generation. It can contribute to the development and progression of chronic diseases thus effecting life span. Caloric restriction (CR can extend the average and maximum life span and delay the onset of age-associated changes in many organisms. CR elicits coordinated and adaptive stress responses at the cellular and whole-organism level by modulating epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and aging (e.g., TOR, AMPK, p53, and FOXO, and cell-to-cell signaling molecules (e.g., adiponectin. The overall effect of these adaptive stress responses is an increased resistance to subsequent stress, thus delaying age-related changes and promoting longevity. In human, CR could delay many diseases associated with aging including cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. As an alternative to CR, several CR mimetics have been tested on animals and humans. At present, the most promising alternatives to the use of CR in humans seem to be exercise, alone or in combination with reduced calorie intake, and the use of plant-derived polyphenol resveratrol as a food supplement.

  15. Growth performance, gastrointestinal microbial activity, and nutrient digestibility in early-weaned pigs fed diets containing flaxseed and carbohydrase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M; Slominski, B A; Blank, G

    2007-11-01

    The effects of ground flaxseed (FS) and a multicarbohydrase enzyme (C) supplement on piglet performance, gastrointestinal microbial activity, and nutrient digestibility were investigated in a 28-d trial. The enzyme supplement provided 500 units of pectinase, 50 units of cellulase, 400 units of mannanase, 1,200 units of xylanase, 450 units of glucanase, and 45 units of galactanase per kilogram of diet. Ninety-six pigs were weaned at 17 d of age (BW, 6.1 +/- 0.4 kg, mean +/- SD) and assigned to treatments based on a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design, with 6 pens per diet (4 pigs per pen). The diets contained wheat, barley, peas, soybean meal, and canola meal with 0 or 12% FS, and were fed without or with C. Flaxseed was included by changing the levels of the other ingredients to balance the diets for DE and nutrients. Diets had similar nutrient contents and met the NRC (1998) nutrient specifications, with the exception of DE, CP, and AA, which were 95, 94, and 97% of the NRC requirements, respectively. Diets were fed in a 2-phase feeding program (2 wk/phase). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly, and 1 pig per pen with a BW nearest the pen average was bled weekly to evaluate plasma urea nitrogen. On d 28, fresh fecal samples were collected from each pen and 1 pig per pen with a BW nearest the pen average was killed to evaluate intestinal microbial activity and nutrient digestibility. A dietary effect on piglet performance was observed only in wk 3, when the FS diets decreased (P = 0.005) ADG and G:F, tended to decrease (P = 0.070) ADFI, and increased (P = 0.027) plasma urea nitrogen. An interaction between FS and C was observed for ileal digesta viscosity (P = 0.045), such that C increased viscosity in the FS diet but had no effect in the non-FS diet. Flaxseed and C interacted to affect ileal ammonia content (P = 0.049), such that in the absence of FS, pigs fed the diet with C had lower ammonia than those on the diet without C. Flaxseed

  16. Source of carbohydrate and metabolizable lysine and methionine in the diet of recently weaned dairy calves on digestion and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-04-01

    Two 56-d trials with weaned Holstein dairy calves (initially 72 ± 1.8 kg of body weight, 58 to 60 d of age) fed 95% concentrate and 5% chopped grass hay diets were conducted. Each trial used 96 calves (4 calves/pen). During 15 of the last 21 d of the first trial and 10 of 14 d of the second and third week of the second trial, fecal samples were taken to estimate digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Digestibility estimates along with 56-d average daily gain (ADG), hip width change, body condition score, and fecal score were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit. In trial 1, a textured diet (19% crude protein) with high starch [52% starch, 13% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] based on whole corn and oats or a pelleted low-starch (20% starch, 35% NDF), high-digestible fiber diet were used. Within starch level, diets were formulated from supplemental soybean meal or soybean meal with blood meal and Alimet (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) to provide 2 metabolizable protein levels (1 and 1.07% metabolizable lysine plus methionine). The 4 treatments were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement (6 pens/diet). In trial 2, all pelleted diets (19% crude protein) were fed. Diets were based on soybean hulls, wheat middlings, or corn, which contained increasing concentrations of starch (13, 27, and 42% starch and 42, 23, and 16% NDF, respectively; 8 pens/diet). Contrast statements were constructed to separate differences in the means (soybean hulls plus wheat middlings vs. corn; soybean hulls vs. wheat middlings). In trial 1, intake of organic matter (OM) did not differ. Digestibility of OM was greater in calves fed high- versus low starch-diets. Digestibility of NDF and starch were less in calves fed the high- versus low-starch diets. Calf ADG and hip width change were greater for high- versus low-starch diets. Source of protein did not influence digestibility or ADG. In trial 2, intake of OM was not

  17. Sex of calf and age of dam adjustment factors for birth and weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records on 2 257 Composite and 5 923 Tswana calves born between the period of 1988 and 2006 in Botswana were used to calculate additive correction factors for the effects of sex of calf and age of dam on birth weight and weaning weight. The mature age group in both breeds for the two growth characteristics was 5 ...

  18. Alternative for improving gut microbiota: use of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics in diet of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovska, A; Jemeljanovs, A; Pilmane, M; Zitare, I; Konosonoka, I H; Lazdins, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics on defence activity of intestinal cells of weaning pigs. One hundred eighty piglets (7 weeks old) were fed with basal feed supplemented with Jerusalem artichoke, Lactobacillus reuteri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. After 5 weeks, the piglets were slaughtered and the gastrointestinal contents and intestine samples were taken for analysis. Results demonstrated that in pigs fed basal diet with both probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke (5% of basal diet) (T3 group) had less (PJerusalem artichoke powder (T2 group), but Salmonella enteritidis - only in T1 group. In jejunum of T2 group piglets, large deterioration of crypts, a moderate inflammation process and plasmocytes were seen, but in jejunum of T3 group piglets - branching of apical surface of villi, moderate degeneration and mitosis of enterocytes were observed. A moderate number of apoptotic cells in T2 group was found mainly in colon inflammation cells and plasmocytes, but for T3 group piglets--both in jejunum enterocytes and migrating cells. Our study indicated that beta-defensin 2 and 3 expression in jejunum and colon segments were incresed in T1 and T2 groups. Findings suggest that feeding with probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke significantly improves the microbial contents, defence and regeneration processes in the intestine of pigs.

  19. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate in diets for weaning piglets ─ effect on growth performance, intestinal morphometry and microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opheim, Margareth; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Sterten, Hallgeir; Øverland, Margareth; Kjos, Nils Petter

    2016-01-01

    Salmon protein hydrolysates (SPH) from two different rest raw materials were evaluated in diets for weaning piglets. Four experimental diets were included in the study: a diet based on plant protein with soy protein as the main protein source (Diet PP), a diet based on fishmeal in exchange for soy protein (Diet FM) and two diets in which different SPH replaced fishmeal in the FM diet. The experimental diets were fed to piglets from the day of weaning until 32 d postweaning. In addition to the record of performance data, an intestinal sampling for mucosal morphometry and microbiota 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed at day 11 on a subset of the animals. The duodenal villi absorption area was significantly larger in piglets receiving Diets SPH compared with Diet PP (p diets. To conclude, SPH seem to be an interesting novel protein source in weanling piglets.

  20. Supplementation of dextrose to the diet during the weaning to estrus interval affects subsequent variation in within-litter piglet birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of supplementation of dextrose to the diet of sows during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on subsequent litter size and within-litter variation were investigated. After weaning, 223 sows (first to fifth parity) were fed 3.5 kg/d. Half of the sows additionally received 150 g of dextrose

  1. Consuming a low-fat diet from weaning to adulthood reverses the programming of food preferences in male, but not in female, offspring of 'junk food'-fed rat dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the negative effects of maternal 'junk food' feeding on food preferences and gene expression in the mesolimbic reward system could be reversed by weaning the offspring onto a low-fat diet. Offspring of control (n = 11) and junk food-fed (JF, n = 12) dams were weaned onto a standard rodent chow until 6 weeks (juvenile) or 3 months (adult). They were then given free access to both chow and junk food for 3 weeks and food preferences determined. mRNA expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward system was determined by qRT-PCR at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months of age. In the juvenile group, both male and female JF offspring consumed more energy and carbohydrate during the junk food exposure at 6 weeks of age and had a higher body fat mass at 3 months (P junk food; however, female JF offspring had a higher body fat mass at 6 months (P junk food exposure on food preferences and fat mass can be reversed by consuming a low-fat diet from weaning to adulthood in males. Females, however, retain a higher propensity for diet-induced obesity even after consuming a low-fat diet for an extended period after weaning. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbiota of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cangyou; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Qing; Peng, Qian; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the experiment on 180 weaned piglets (8.9 kg body weight) was to investigate the influence of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea incidence and numbers of faecal microbiota. The dietary treatments included a Control diet and five high fibre diets formulated with different fibre sources including wheat bran, soybean hulls, naked oat hulls, palm kernel expeller and bamboo fibre. The high fibre diets averaged 14.6% neutral detergent fibre with different non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) components and were fed ad libitum for 28 d. Faecal samples were collected during the last 3 d of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fibre components were determined. Pigs fed the Control and wheat bran diets had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than pigs fed the palm kernel expeller and bamboo meal diets. The reduced ADG for pigs appeared to be related to reductions in the digestibility of gross energy and dry matter, respectively. The feed-to-gain ratio was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the fibre diets. The digestibility of NSP components was different among the treatments. The diarrhoea incidence was not affected by treatments. The abundance of faecal bifidobacteria was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the wheat bran diet than for pigs fed the bamboo meal diet. It was concluded that the diets formulated with different fibre sources when fed to weaned piglets have different effects on pig performance, nutrient digestibility and numbers of faecal microbiota. The wheat bran diet rich in arabinoxylans enabled a better performance than the other tested diets with fibre addition.

  3. A meta-analytical study about the relation of blood plasma addition in diets for piglets in the post-weaning and productive performance variables

    OpenAIRE

    Remus, A.; Andretta,I.; Kipper, M.; Lehnen, C.R.; Klein, C.C.; LOVATTO, P.A.; L. Hauschild

    2013-01-01

    The meta-analysis was used to evaluate the performance of piglets in post-weaning period, without imposition of sanitary challenge and fed diets containing blood plasma, obtained by spray-dried process (SDBP). Piglets are faced with normal challenges in post-weaning period such as environmental stress and the substitution of the liquid diet to a solid one. References regarding sanitary challenges were disregarded in this study. Only data regarding normal and expected challenges were considere...

  4. Influence of various levels of milk by-products in weaner diets on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen, diarrhea incidence, and pork quality of weaning to finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S H; Hong, J S; Yoo, H B; Han, T H; Jeong, J H; Kim, Y Y

    2017-11-03

    This study was conducted to evaluate various levels of milk by-product of weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profiles, carcass characteristics and economic analysis for weaning to finishing pigs. A total of 160 weaning pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc), average 7.01 ± 1.32 kg body weight (BW), were allotted to four treatments by BW and sex in 10 replications with 4 pigs per pen in a RCBD. Pigs were fed each treatment diet with various levels of milk by-product (Phase 1: 0, 10, 20 and 30%, Phase 2: 0, 5, 10 and 15%, respectively). During weaning period (0-5 week), weaning pigs were fed experimental diets and all pigs were fed the same commercial feed during growing-finishing period (6-14 week). In the growth trial, BW, ADG, and ADFI in the nursery period (5 weeks) increased as the milk by-product level in weaning pig diet increased(Linear, Pproduct levels were observed until late growing period (Linear, P=0.01). However, there were no significant differences in BW at the finishing periods, ADG, ADFI, and G:F ratio during the entire growing-finishing periods. The BUN concentration had no significant difference among dietary treatments. High inclusion level of milk by-product in weaner diet decreased crude protein (Quadratic, P=0.05) and crude ash (Linear, P=0.05) of LM. In addition, cooking loss decreased (Linear, Pproduct levels in the weaner diets (Linear, P=0.05). High milk by-product treatment had higher feed cost to 110 kg compared to non-milk by-products treatment. Supplementation of 10-5% milk by-products in weaning pig diet had equivalent results as 30-15% milk treatment and 0% milk by-product supplemented in weaning pig diet had no negative influence on growth performance of finishing pigs.

  5. Chronic Powder Diet After Weaning Induces Sleep, Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Neurophysiological Changes in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Anegawa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of chronic powder diet feeding on sleep patterns and other physiological/anatomical changes in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups from weaning: a group fed with solid food (SD and a group fed with powder food (PD, and sleep and physiological and anatomical changes were compared between the groups. PD exhibited less cranial bone structure development and a significant weight gain. Furthermore, these PD mice showed reduced number of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Sleep analysis showed that PD induced attenuated diurnal sleep/wake rhythm, characterized by increased sleep during active period and decreased sleep during rest period. With food deprivation (FD, PD showed less enhancement of wake/locomotor activity compared to SD, indicating reduced food-seeking behavior during FD. These results suggest that powder feeding in mice results in a cluster of detrimental symptoms caused by abnormal energy metabolism and anatomical/neurological changes.

  6. Feeding weaned piglets and growing-finishing pigs with diets based on mainly home-grown organic feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, EU regulations for organic animal production set new guidelines for organic pig feeding requiring that this be based on mainly home-grown organic feedstuffs. Doubts were however raised whether these feeding regimes can maintain good growth performance and carcass quality of pigs. Three experiments were carried out to study different organic feeding regimes in weaned piglets and fattening pigs. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the use of peas and faba beans (0, 120, or 240 g kg-1 in diets for weaned piglets. Piglets fed pea diets performed as well as those fed the control diet, whereas the highest faba bean level resulted in reduced feed intake and growth performance. In Experiment 2, we studied the replacement (0, 33, or 67% of rapeseed cake with blue lupins in fattening pig diets. The dietary lupin level had a quadratic effect on the weight gain of growing pigs, the best performance being observed at the 33% replacement level. However, dietary lupin level did not influence weight gain during the finishing period and total fattening. Back fat became softer with increasing dietary lupin levels. In Experiment 3, different protein supplements were compared in organic diets from weaning to slaughter. In two-phase feeding, the best performance was observed when whey protein was used as the protein supplement, followed by soya bean cake + whey protein and rapeseed cake + fish meal. The effects of a one-phase organic feeding regime with cold-pressed rapeseed cake + whey protein did not differ from those of the two-phase organic feeding regimes. Fattening pigs fed organic diets required from two to seven days longer to reach slaughter weight than those fed conventional diets. Pigs fed organic diets had fatter carcasses, but the eating quality of organic pork did not differ from that of pork from pigs fed conventional diets. Feed costs and the circulation rate of pigs, weaners in particular, were greater and carcass prices lower in the organic

  7. High-Protein Exposure during Gestation or Lactation or after Weaning Has a Period-Specific Signature on Rat Pup Weight, Adiposity, Food Intake, and Glucose Homeostasis up to 6 Weeks of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclée de Maredsous, Caroline; Oozeer, Raish; Barbillon, Pierre; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Delteil, Corine; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; van der Beek, Eline M; Davila, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Early-life nutrition has a programming effect on later metabolic health; however, the impact of exposure to a high-protein (HP) diet is still being investigated. This study evaluated the consequences on pup phenotype of an HP diet during gestation and lactation and after weaning. Wistar rat dams were separated into 2 groups fed an HP (55% protein) or normal protein (NP) (control; 20% protein) isocaloric diet during gestation, and each group subsequently was separated into 2 subgroups that were fed an HP or NP diet during lactation. After weaning, male and female pups from each mother subgroup were separated into 2 groups that were fed either an NP or HP diet until they were 6 wk old. Measurements included weight, food intake, body composition, blood glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, insulin-like growth factor I, and lipids. Feeding mothers the HP diet during gestation or lactation induced lower postweaning pup weight (gestation diet × time, P lactation diet × time, P lactation, and of the pups' diet after weaning influenced pup phenotype, including body weight, fat accumulation, food intake, and glucose tolerance at 6 wk of age. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Quantitative reconstruction of weaning ages in archaeological human populations using bone collagen nitrogen isotope ratios and approximate Bayesian computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Tsutaya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen has been used to reconstruct the breastfeeding practices of archaeological human populations. However, weaning ages have been estimated subjectively because of a lack of both information on subadult bone collagen turnover rates and appropriate analytical models. METHODOLOGY: Temporal changes in human subadult bone collagen turnover rates were estimated from data on tissue-level bone metabolism reported in previous studies. A model for reconstructing precise weaning ages was then developed using a framework of approximate Bayesian computation and incorporating the estimated turnover rates. The model is presented as a new open source R package, WARN (Weaning Age Reconstruction with Nitrogen isotope analysis, which computes the age at the start and end of weaning, (15N-enrichment through maternal to infant tissue, and [Formula: see text] value of collagen synthesized entirely from weaning foods with their posterior probabilities. The model was applied to 39 previously reported Holocene skeletal populations from around the world, and the results were compared with weaning ages observed in ethnographic studies. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in the age at the end of weaning between the archaeological (2.80±1.32 years and ethnographic populations. By comparing archaeological populations, it appears that weaning ages did not differ with the type of subsistence practiced (i.e., hunting-gathering or not. Most of [Formula: see text]-enrichment (2.44±0.90‰ was consistent with biologically valid values. The nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults after the weaning process were lower than those of adults in most of the archaeological populations (-0.48±0.61‰, and this depletion was greater in non-hunter-gatherer populations. Our results suggest that the breastfeeding period in humans had already been shortened by the early Holocene compared with those in extant great apes.

  9. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, H; Qiao, S Y

    2015-12-01

    As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg) were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON), a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR) and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet) for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG) (pBCAA group improved ADG (pBCAA groups was not different (p>0.05). The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (pBCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (pBCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (pBCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal immunoglobulin mentioned above. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation to protein restricted diet improved intestinal immune defense function by protecting villous morphology and by increasing levels of intestinal immunoglobulins in weaned piglets. Our finding has the important implication that BCAA may be used to reduce the negative effects of a protein restricted diet on growth performance and intestinal immunity in weaned piglets.

  10. Body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferolla da Camara Boueri, B; Ribeiro Pessanha, C; Rodrigues da Costa, L; Ferreira, M R; Saldanha Melo, H; Duque Coutinho de Abreu, M; Rozeno Pessoa, L; Alves da Silva, P C; Pereira, A D; Cavalcante Ribeiro, D; de Meneses, J A; Soares da Costa, C A; Teles Boaventura, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was analyzed if the flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, part of the pups was evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control (C60) was fed with control diet. EW was divided in control (EWC60); flaxseed flour (EWFF60); flaxseed oil (EWFO60) diets until 60 days. Body mass, length and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined. EW21 (v. C21) and EWC60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (Pcomposition. EWFO60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (Pcomposition after early weaning.

  11. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in weaned rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitose Sugiyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effects of Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in the liver of weaned male rats fed high fat, carbohydrate-free diets. The rats of three experimental groups and control were fed for 10 days. The diets were high fat, carbohydrate-free diets consisting either of a corn oil or MCT, and high protein carbohydrate-free diet and a control (high carbohydrate diet. The hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase activity increased in the experimental groups. Despite the elevated G6Pase activity in these groups, hepatic activities of glutamic alanine transaminase (GAT, pyruvate carboxylase (PC and arginase differed among the experimental groups. The HF-corn oil rats showed elevation of PC activity, but no elevation of GAT activity, and the lowest arginase activity among the three groups. The HF-MCT diet-fed rats showed higher GAT and arginase activities than the HF-corn oil group. In the HP diet-fed rats, GAT and arginase activities enhanced, PC did not.

  12. Performance, feeding behaviour and microbial diversity in weaned piglets fed liquid diets based on water or wet wheat-distillers grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Carsten; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2005-06-01

    Performance, nutrient digestibility, feeding behaviour, diarrhoea frequency and faecal microbial diversity was studied in weaned piglets allotted to dry feed (diet A), liquid feed with water (diet B) or liquid feed with wet wheat-distillers grain (diet C). There were no differences in digestibility of organic matter and energy, and the performance was similar between piglets fed liquid diets. Piglets fed diet A spent more time on eating/drinking compared with piglets fed liquid diets. The frequency of diarrhoea decreased (p < 0.05) from from diet A (11 out of 16) to diet B (6 out of 16) and further to diet C (1 out 16). The type of diet did not affect the diversity of coliform bacteria or lactobacilli, but the composition of the Lactobacillus flora was changed. The lower diarrhoea frequency when feeding diet C may be due to a prophylactic effect induced by the inclusion of wet wheat-distillers grain in the diet.

  13. Addition of fructooligosaccharides and alfalfa hay to the diet of weaned piglets on the microbiota and the small intestine morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Enrique Lemos Budiño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to verify the effect of the fructooligossaccharide prebiotic (FOS addition in the diet containing varying levels of alfalfa hay, on the microbiology and intestinal morphology of weaned piglets. It was used 72 piglets, crossed, both sexes, with initial weight of 5.95 ± 0.73 Kg, with approximate age of 21 days. It was evaluated the treatment: T1 – Basal feed + 0% FOS; T2 – Basal feed + 0.3% FOS; T3 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; T4 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS; T5 – Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS. In the end of the experimental period one piglet of each replication was slaughtered for the collection of sample aiming to analyze Salmonela sp. and coliformes and intestinal morphology (height of villus and depht of crypt. The analysis for coliformes didn’t show statistic difference among the levels of FOS and alfalfa hay. It wasn’t find Salmonella sp. colonies in the samples. No difference was observe in the crypt depht (P>0.05 among the treatments. The height of villus and the relation of height of villus per depht of crypt, the group without the addition of FOS didn’t show difference (P>0.05, however, the group supplemented with 0.3% of FOS showed a significant improvement (P<0.05 related to levels of 5% and 10% of alfalfa. There was no influence of treatment on the presence of Salmonella sp. and E. Coli. Regarding intestinal morphology data for villus height and villus height ratio/crypt depth showed the best results in the presence of FOS.

  14. Increasing vitamin A in post-weaning diets reduces food intake and body weight and modifies gene expression in brains of male rats born to dams fed a high multivitamin diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Cho, Clara E; Kubant, Ruslan; Reza-López, Sandra A; Poon, Abraham N; Wang, Jingzhou; Huot, Pedro S P; Smith, Christopher E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-10-01

    High multivitamin gestational diets (HV, 10-fold AIN-93G levels) increase body weight (BW) and food intake (FI) in rat offspring weaned to a recommended multivitamin (RV), but not to a HV diet. We hypothesized that high vitamin A (HA) alone, similar to HV, in post-weaning diets would prevent these effects of the HV maternal diet consistent with gene expression in FI and reward pathways. Male offspring from dams fed HV diets were weaned to a high vitamin A (HA, 10-fold AIN-93G levels), HV or RV diet for 29 weeks. BW, FI, expression of genes involved in regulation of FI and reward and global and gene-specific DNA methylation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus were measured. Both HV and HA diets slowed post-weaning weight gain and modified gene expression in offspring compared to offspring fed an RV post-weaning diet. Hypothalamic POMC expression in HA offspring was not different from either HV or RV, and dopamine receptor 1 was 30% (Pweight gain and FI and modifies gene expression in FI and reward pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Níveis de proteína bruta na dieta após o desmame e desempenho em leitões Crude protein levels in the post-weaning diets and performance in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Marisa Bertol

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados três níveis de proteína, com leitões desmamados aos 29 dias de idade, no período de 0 a 15 dias após o desmame. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T1- dieta testemunha, com 20% de proteína bruta (PB; T2 - dieta com 18% PB; T3 - dieta com 16% PB. As dietas eram isolisínicas com 1,15% de lisina. Durante a fase de aleitamento foi fornecida uma dieta pré-inicial a todos os leitões, a partir do sétimo dia de vida. De 16 a 36 dias após o desmame, foi fornecida uma dieta com 18% de PB a todos os leitões. A redução do nível de PB da dieta para 18% ou 16% não afetou (P>0,10 o desempenho dos leitões em nenhum dos períodos estudados e reduziu (PThree crude protein levels were compared with weaning piglets (29 days of age, in the period from 0 to 15 days post-weaning. The treatments compared were: T1- control diet, 20% crude protein (CP; T2 - 18% CP diet; T3 - 16% CP diet. Diets were isolisinic, containing 1,15% total lysine. During the weanling phase a pre-starter diet was fed to all piglets, from seventh day of age. An 18% CP diet was fed to all piglets, from 16 to 36 days post-weaning. The reduction of CP level in the diet to 18% or 16% did not affect (P>0,10 the performance of piglets in any of the studied periods and it decreased (P<0,01 the incidence and severity of diarrhea. It was concluded that the reduction in the crude protein level and in the proportion of soybean meal on the diet for piglets weaned at 29 days, fortified with lysine, fed for 15 days post-weaning, decrease the incidence and severity of diarrhea, and not decrease the performance.

  16. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein in a percentage of 17% (control, C or 6% (low, L during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp. or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp. after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation.

  17. Why are babies weaned early? Data from a prospective population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C M; Parkinson, K N; Drewett, R F

    2004-09-01

    The recommended age of introduction of solids food to the diet of infants (weaning) has recently been increased in the UK to 6 months, but most babies are still weaned before the age of 4 months. To examine what predicts the age of weaning and how this relates to weight gain and morbidity using data from a population based cohort. Parents of 923 term infants born in a defined geographical area and recruited shortly after birth were studied prospectively using postal questionnaires, weaning diaries, and routinely collected weights, of whom 707 (77%) returned data on weaning. The median age of first weaning solids was 3.5 months, with 21% commencing before 3 months and only 6% after 4 months of age. Infants progressed quickly to regular solids with few reported difficulties, even when weaned early. Most parents did not perceive professional advice or written materials to be a major influence. The strongest independent predictors of earlier age at weaning were rapid weight gain to age 6 weeks, lower socioeconomic status, the parents' perception that their baby was hungry, and feeding mode. Weight gain after 6 weeks was unrelated to age of weaning. Babies weaned before 3 months, compared to after 4 months, had an increased risk of diarrhoea. Social factors had some influence on when weaning solids were introduced, but the great majority of all infants were established on solids before the previously recommended age of 4 months, without difficulty. Earlier weaning was associated with an increased rate of minor morbidity.

  18. Weaning of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis postlarvae to an inert diet with a co-feeding regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the weaning success of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, postlarvae when cofed a compound diet, by means of the analysis of growth parameters (relative growth rate [RGR] and condition factor [K], survival, protein and lipid content. Total ammonia in the rearing water was also measured. The experiment lasted for 46 days (36 to 82 days posthatching. One group was fed only with enriched Artemia sp. metanauplii (Artemia treatment, whereas in another group, the Artemia sp. metanauplii were gradually replaced by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES diet over a period of 39 days (ICES treatment. Postlarvae were sampled on rearing days 0, 9, 23, 30, 39 and 46 for growth and biochemical analysis. Water was sampled on rearing day 30 during a 24-h cycle in both treatments. Postlarvae from the ICES treatment were weaned, though by the end of the experiment the Artemia treatment exhibited significantly higher values for growth, RGR, K and survival rates (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed concerning total lipid content. Protein content was significantly higher for the Artemia treatment after 46 days of rearing (P < 0.05. The total ammonia nitrogen concentration in the water increased after each meal and remained below a harmless level for postlarvae.

  19. Villus height and gut development in weaned piglets receiving diets containing either glucose, lactose or starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the differential effects of dietary glucose, lactose and starch on small-intestinal morphology, organ weights, pH of chyme and haptoglobin levels in blood plasma of weaned piglets. It was hypothesised that lactose consumption would ameliorate the

  20. evaluation of the nutritional quality of “tom brown” weaning diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Also, the nitrogen and protein intakes, carcass and faecal nitrogen were comparable with those obtained for ... breastfeeding or bottle feeding and normal intake of semi solid foods. Weaning period is a crucial period in .... bottom and wire mesh top (North Kent Co. Ltd,. England), and were supplied with feed and tap water ...

  1. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate in diets for weaning piglets ─ effect on growth performance, intestinal morphometry and microbiota composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opheim, Margareth; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Sterten, Hallgeir

    2016-01-01

    protein (Diet FM) and two diets in which different SPH replaced fishmeal in the FM diet. The experimental diets were fed to piglets from the day of weaning until 32 d postweaning. In addition to the record of performance data, an intestinal sampling for mucosal morphometry and microbiota 16S rRNA gene...... postweaning was detected. Only small differences in intestinal microbiota community and no differences in growth performance were detected between the experimental diets. To conclude, SPH seem to be an interesting novel protein source in weanling piglets....

  2. Effect of genetic origin, diet and weaning weight on carcass composition, muscle physicochemical and histochemical traits in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, A; Ouhayoun, J

    1998-12-01

    Fifty rabbits originating from the crossing of one dam strain with three sire strains, Hy+, INRA 9077 and INRA 3889, were studied. The adult body weights of the sire strains were 5·1, 4·1 and 3·1kg, respectively. After weaning, the Hy+ and the INRA 9077 rabbits were fed either an H (11·99MJ DEkgDM(-1)) or L diet (9·67MJ DEkg DM(-1)). The INRA 3889 rabbits were fed only the H diet. In each of these five blocks, two weaning weights were studied and the rabbits were slaughtered when the average body weight of each block reached 2·5kg. Slaughter yield, carcass fatness and hindleg meat to bone ratio were determined. Muscular tissue was described using (1) physicochemical criteria (ultimate pH, L(*)a(*)b(*) colour) of the biceps femoris (BFE), tensor fasciae latae (TFL) and semimembranosus accessorius (SMA) muscles and (2) histochemical characteristics of the longissimus lumborum muscle (LL) through computerised image analysis (fibre type composition, cross-sectional area). At slaughter, the rabbits of INRA 3889 sire origin, which had the highest degree of maturity (72%), gave the best slaughter yield (p<0·01), the heaviest reference carcass weight (p<0·01), and highest LL proportion (p<0·01), hindleg meat to bone ratio (p<0·05) and fatness (p<0·01); their LL muscle showed the lowest percentage of βR fibres, while the cross-sectional area of their muscular fibres was the highest (p<0·05). When all sire × diet combinations were put together, the heavier the weaning weight, the lower the daily gain (p<0·01) and the lightness (L*) of thigh muscles (p<0·05). The lower the DE content of the diet, the lower the growth rate, the slaughter yield, the reference carcass weight (p<0·01) and the cross-sectional area of all types of muscle fibres of the rabbits of both Hy+ and INRA 9077 sire origin.

  3. Predicting in vivo starch digestibility coefficients in newly weaned piglets from in vitro assessment of diets using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Frederic J; White, Gavin A; Wulfert, Florian; Hill, Sandra E; Wiseman, Julian

    2010-05-01

    The study was based on correlating a dataset of in vivo mean starch digestibility coefficients obtained in the immediate post-weaning phase of piglets with a range of dietary in vitro variables. The paper presents a model that predicts (R2 0.71) in vivo average starch digestibility coefficients in the 0.5 small-intestinal region of newly weaned piglets fed cereal-based diets using seven in vitro variables describing starch properties that are fundamentally associated with the quality of feed materials, i.e. hydration, structure and amylolytic digestion. The variables were: Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA; measures the viscosity of materials when sheared under defined hydration and temperature regimens); RVA end viscosity; RVA (gelatinisation) peak viscosity; DeltaH (gelatinisation enthalpy that provides an estimate of helical order or degree of crystallinity in starch); water solubility index (WSI; that denotes the amount of soluble polysaccharides released from starch granules to the aqueous phase); grain endogenous amylase (concentration of endogenous alpha-amylase in cereals, assessed by pasting cereal flours in 25 g of AgNO3, an amylase inhibitor v. water using RVA).

  4. Raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum and lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia seeds as protein sources in weaned piglets’ diets: effect on growth rate and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 42 days trial was carried out using 140 piglets weaned at 28 days of age. The piglets were allocated according to  weight and sex to the 5 dietary treatments with 7 replicates for each treatments (4 pens x 4 castrated males and 3 pens  x 4 females. The piglets were fed according to the following experimental design: 1 control diet (CTR with soybean  meal (SBM 44% c.p. as protein source; 2 CRT diets with 200 g/kg of raw pea (Pisum sativum (RP; 3 CTR diet with  200 g/kg extruded pea (EP; 4 CRT diet with 170 g/kg raw lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia (RL; 5 CTR diet with  170 g/kg of extruded lupin (EL. During the trial, animals were weighed at 0 - 21 and 42 days from the start of the trial.  Feed intake was monitored and feed conversion ratio was calculated for the periods 0-21 d and 22-42 d. At the end of  the trial, blood samples were taken for 14 animals for each dietary treatment (2 animals per replicate and analysed for  total protein, urea and liver activity (ALT, AST and ALP parameters. Average daily weight gain and feed intake did not  differ according to dietary treatments whereas during the total experimental period (0-42 d, feed conversion ratio was  higher for EP vsCTR diet (2.35 vs2.09, respectively; P   compared with diets containing the raw ingredients did not differ. Feed conversion ratio for the RP was numerically high-  er than for the EP (2.35 vs2.16 and 2.76 vs2.32, respectively during 22-42 d and 0-42 d periods. Blood parameters  did not show significant difference among dietary treatments except for higher total protein for CTR diet vsRL diet, EL  and RP (67.3 vs62.2, 62.8 and 63.6 g/l, respectively; PvsRL  and RL (4.7 vs3.7 and 3.8 mmol/l respectively; P 

  5. Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Chang, Ju Young; Hong, Jeana; Shin, Sue; Park, Jeong Su; Oh, Sohee

    2017-04-06

    Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children's development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5-12.0), the median levels of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were 1.2 μg/L, 0.05 μg/L, 0.8 μg/L, and 0.83 μg/dL, respectively. In adjusted linear regression models, post-birth weight gain (Pb) and current head circumference (As, Pb) were negatively associated with toxic metal levels. In multiple linear regression or logistic regression analysis, the duration of breastfeeding (all four metals), perceived adequacy of rice-based food intake (As), regular fish intake (As, Hg), and iron deficiency with/without anemia (Cd, Pb) were associated with increased toxic metal levels. Although levels of toxic metals may not usually be high in this population, individual exposure risk may need to be assessed after considering the type of feeding or intake of complementary foods and the iron/anemia status while evaluating growth status during late infancy.

  6. Early-life patterns of plasma gut regulatory peptide levels in calves. Effects of age, weaning and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, R; Chayvialle, J A; Guilloteau, P; Bernard, C

    1992-05-01

    1. The effects of age, weaning and feeding on the release of seven gut regulatory peptides [gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), motilin and somatostatin] were studied in calves either exclusively milk-fed between birth and 91 days (P group) or weaned between 22-56 days of age (R group). 2. During the first 3 weeks, the basal plasma immunoreactive levels increased with age for secretin, CCK and PP, decreased for gastrin, motilin and somatostatin and were unaffected for VIP. The changes were particularly rapid for somatostatin and gastrin. After 3 weeks, no significant trend was observed with age in the P group. 3. Weaning resulted in an increase of basal gastrin, CCK, PP and VIP and in a decrease of basal secretin and somatostatin. 4. In the P group, the morning meal was followed 1 hr later by an increase of gastrin and CCK, and by a fall of secretin, PP, motilin and somatostatin, but no significant effect was observed in VIP. Weaning resulted in a reduction of the differences between the fasting and the post-feeding values. 5. These changes suggest a large involvement of endocrine cells in the adaptation of gut tissues, secretions and motility at birth, during the maintenance at the pre-ruminant stage and at weaning.

  7. What do preweaned and weaned calves need in the diet: a high fiber content or a forage source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Pedrals, E; Dalmau, A; Bach, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the improvement of performance of young calves associated with the supplementation of chopped grass hay reported in some studies is due to an increase in the total neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of the consumed diet or to the provision of chopped grass hay. Sixty-three Holstein calves [9±4.4 d old; mean ± standard deviation (SD)] were randomly distributed in 4 treatments resulting from the combination of 2 levels of NDF content of a pelleted starter and the supply or absence of forage provision: low-NDF starter (18%) with or without chopped oat hay, and high-NDF starter (27%) with or without chopped oat hay. All animals were fed the same milk replacer (21% crude protein and 19.2% fat) at the rate of 4 L/d at 15% dry matter from d 1 to 34, and 2 L/d at 15% dry matter from d 35 to 42 (weaning). The study finished 2 wk after weaning. Body weight was measured weekly and individual calf starter and hay intake was recorded daily. On d 50, blood samples were drawn 2h after the morning concentrate offer to determine serum glucose and insulin concentrations. On d 52, samples of ruminal fluid were obtained via an esophageal tube, and pH was measured immediately. During the preweaning period, pelleted starter intake was similar among treatments, but average daily gain tended to be greater in low- than in high-NDF treatments (0.69 vs. 0.63±0.020 kg/d, respectively; mean ± SD). However, during the 2 wk after weaning, supplementation of forage improved pelleted starter intake and average daily gain without affecting the gain-to-feed ratio. Probably, the greater pelleted starter intake observed in forage-supplemented calves was mainly due to the greater ruminal pH found in forage-supplemented calves compared with forage-deprived calves (5.81 vs. 5.05±0.063, respectively). Blood insulin-to-glucose ratio was greater in forage-supplemented compared with unsupplemented calves [mean ± SD; 6.53 vs. 4.24±0.125 insulin

  8. Relationship of post-weaning growth and age at puberty in crossbred beef heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ribas Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was intended to evaluate body size structure and growth parameters of crossbred heifers fed at four nutritional levels to achieve puberty earlier. Animals were classified depending on their level of crossing between Nelore and Hereford and subjected to four nutritional levels (kg day−1 as follows: 0.5 (light; n = 32, 0.75 (medium; n = 32, 1.00 (high; n = 29, and 1.25 (very high; n = 27. Heifers at puberty and at weaning were individually classified for growth parameters. The fat thickness and longissimus muscle area throughout the experimental period were determined by ultrasonography. The height, heart girth, frame, and weight:height ratio were variables used to evaluate body traits. Univariate analysis of variance using the GLIM MIXED procedure os SPSS was performed and the significance level was set at 0.05. Age and body weight at puberty were 388±1.9 days and 331.4±1.3 kg, respectively. Body condition score demonstrated an interaction between nutritional level and crossbred degree. Heifers with the highest degree of Nelore had higher fat thickness and lower weight:height ratio compared with other racial groups at puberty. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a negative association for body condition score (−0.34 and fat thickness (−0.58 compared with age at puberty. The increased fat thickness at younger ages at puberty was observed in all racial groups. The increased weight:height ratio at younger ages at puberty was observed in all racial groups. We observed higher values for a frame in animals at the higher level of supplementation. There is a greater correlation between live weight gain and phenotypic traits during weaning to achieve puberty at an earlier age in crossbred heifers.

  9. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  10. Elevating glucose and insulin secretion by carbohydrate formulation diets in late lactation to improve post-weaning fertility in primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Lines, D; Dickson, C; Go, C; Kirkwood, R N; Langendijk, P

    2016-10-01

    Primiparous (P1) sows commonly lose excessive body reserves to meet energy requirements for maintenance and milk production during lactation, and consequently, post-weaning reproductive performance may be compromised. The present studies determined whether ad libitum feeding a glucogenic carbohydrate diet (CHO) during late lactation could stimulate insulin and glucose secretion (experiment 1) and improve subsequent litter size (experiment 2). For experiment 1, 15 P1 sows, and for experiment 2, 99 P1 sows (198.5 ± 2.7 kg) were allocated randomly according to suckled litter size (≥10 piglets), either to a CHO diet (14.3 MJ DE/kg, 19.8% crude protein) or a standard lactation diet (control; 14.2 DE MJ/kg, 19.5% crude protein) at 8 days before weaning. The CHO diet aimed to provide glucogenic content (extruded wheat, dextrose and sugar) as energy sources instead of fat sources without changing total dietary energy. Pre-prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not influenced by treatments. However, post-prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and their peaks were both higher (p  .05). Second litter size was not influenced by diet (p > .05), but the weaning-to-mating interval was shorter in CHO sows (p < .05). This study demonstrates that providing an enriched CHO diet in late lactation did influence post-weaning follicle growth but did not improve subsequent litter size. This may be due to the primiparous sows in this study not experiencing severe negative energy balance and there was no second litter syndrome in this farm which limited the ability of diet to improve sow fertility. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Post-weaning selenium and folate supplementation affects gene and protein expression and global DNA methylation in mice fed high-fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of high-fat diets has negative impacts on health and well-being, some of which may be epigenetically regulated. Selenium and folate are two compounds which influence epigenetic mechanisms. We investigated the hypothesis that post-weaning supplementation with adequate levels of selenium and folate in offspring of female mice fed a high-fat, low selenium and folate diet during gestation and lactation will lead to epigenetic changes of potential importance for long-term health. Methods Female offspring of mothers fed the experimental diet were either maintained on this diet (HF-low-low), or weaned onto a high-fat diet with sufficient levels of selenium and folate (HF-low-suf), for 8 weeks. Gene and protein expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications were measured in colon and liver of female offspring. Results Adequate levels of selenium and folate post-weaning affected gene expression in colon and liver of offspring, including decreasing Slc2a4 gene expression. Protein expression was only altered in the liver. There was no effect of adequate levels of selenium and folate on global histone modifications in the liver. Global liver DNA methylation was decreased in mice switched to adequate levels of selenium and folate, but there was no effect on methylation of specific CpG sites within the Slc2a4 gene in liver. Conclusions Post-weaning supplementation with adequate levels of selenium and folate in female offspring of mice fed high-fat diets inadequate in selenium and folate during gestation and lactation can alter global DNA methylation in liver. This may be one factor through which the negative effects of a poor diet during early life can be ameliorated. Further research is required to establish what role epigenetic changes play in mediating observed changes in gene and protein expression, and the relevance of these changes to health. PMID:23497688

  12. Herd specific risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, Heiko; Woeste, Henrike; Doehring, Stefanie; Fahrion, Anna S; Doherr, Marcus G; Beilage, Elisabeth grosse

    2013-04-12

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia mainly occurring in fattening pigs. It is assumed that horizontal transmission of the pathogen during nursery and growing phase starts with few suckling pigs vertically infected by the sow. The aim of the present study was the exploration of the herd prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs followed by an investigation of various herd specific factors for their potential of influencing the occurrence of this pathogen at the age of weaning. In this cross-sectional study, 125 breeding herds were examined by taking nasal swabs from 20 suckling pigs in each herd. In total, 3.9% (98/2500) of all nasal swabs were tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR. Piglets tested positive originated from 46 different herds resulting in an overall herd prevalence of 36.8% (46/125) for M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs at the age of weaning. While the herds were epidemiologically characterized, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae was significantly increased, when the number of purchased gilts per year was more than 120 (OR: 5.8), and when the number of farrowing pens per compartment was higher than 16 (OR: 3.3). In herds with a planned and segregated production, where groups of sows entered previously emptied farrowing units, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae in piglets was higher in herds with two or four weeks between batches than in herds with one or three weeks between batches (OR: 2.7). In this cross-sectional study, several risk factors could be identified enhancing the probability of breeding herds to raise suckling pigs already infected with M. hyopneumoniae at the time of weaning. Interestingly, some factors (farrowing rhythm, gilt acclimatisation issues) were overlapping with those also influencing the seroprevalences among sows or the transmission of the pathogen between older age groups. Taking the multifactorial character of enzootic pneumonia

  13. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  14. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  15. Gastrointestinal ecosystem and immunological responses in E.coli challenged pigs after weaning fed liquid diets containing whey permeate fermented with different lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    were collected from the GIT segments. Lactic acid concentration was higher (P stomach of the INF+WP+LAB3 fed piglets than in the other piglets, but the difference was not significant compared to the INF+WP+LAB1 and INF+WP+LAB2 fed piglets. Compared to the control diet, the fermented WP......The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding liquid feed containing whey permeate (WP) fermented with different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiota and mucosal immune responses of Escherichia coli F4 inoculated piglets post weaning. The study consisted of 52 weaned...

  16. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Dasgin, Halil; Gülec, Atila; Onbasilar, İlyas; Akyol, Asli

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6) as the control group (C), or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7) as the experimental group (WG) through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring's plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring's plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development.

  17. Diet during pregnancy and weaning and adult disease in the offspring in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Dormans JAMA; Loveren H van; Klerk A de; Vleeming W; Schenk E; Kuil T van de; Biesebeek JD te; Verharen H; Verhoef A; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Several epidemiological as well as experimental studies suggest that the composition of the maternal diet during pregnancy may have a programming effect on the fetus leading to epigenetic predisposition of chronic diseases in adulthood. Here, effects of various diets given during pregnancy and

  18. Increasing weaning age of piglets from 4 to 7 weeks reduces stress, increases post-weaning feed intake but does not improve intestinal functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Koopmans, S.J.; Dekker, R.A.; Hoogendoorn, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that late weaning and the availability of creep feed during the suckling period compared with early weaning, improves feed intake, decreases stress and improves the integrity of the intestinal tract. In this study with 160 piglets of 16 litters, late weaning at 7

  19. Effects of beta-glucanase and xylanase supplementation on gastrointestinal digestive enzyme activities of weaned piglets fed a barley-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C L; Han, X Y; Xu, Z R; Wang, L J; Shi, L R

    2009-04-01

    The effects of supplementing a barley-based diet for weaned piglets withexogenous beta-glucanase and xylanase on gastrointestinal digestiveenzyme activities were investigated. Thirty-six cross-bred weaned pigletswere randomly assigned to two groups with three pens based on sexand mass. Each group was fed on the diet based on barley with or withoutadded beta-glucanase and xylanase (0.15%) for a 4-week period. Theresults showed that enzyme supplementation improved growth performanceof piglets significantly (p digestion and absorption of the nutrients. In conclusion,the current results indicated that supplementation with enzymes in barley-based diets could improve the growth performance of piglets,decrease the activities of amylase and lipase in duodenal contents andincrease the activities of disaccharidase and gamma-GT in jejunal and ilealmucosa.

  20. Age, introduction of solid feed and weaning are more important determinants of gut bacterial succession in piglets than breed and nursing mother as revealed by a reciprocal cross-fostering model

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Shouqing; ZHU, Zhigang; Su, Yong; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; MACKIE, Roderick; Liu, Junhua; Mu, Chunlong; Huang, Ruihua; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the acquisition and development gut bacteria from birth until after weaning. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes results revealed an age- and diet-dependent bacterial succession process in piglets. During the first 3 days after birth, the bacterial community was relatively simple and dominated by Firmicutes with 79% and 65% relative abundance...

  1. Fighting Oxidative Stress: Increased Resistance of Male Rat Cerebellum at Weaning Induced by Low Omega 6/Omega 3 Ratio in a Protein-Deficient Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Ricielle Lopes; Isaac, Alinny Rosendo; Silva-Júnior, Ivanildo Inácio da; Santana, David Filipe de; Ferreira, Diorginis José Soares; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques; Gonçalves-Pimentel, Catarina; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araujo; Andrade-da-Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira

    2017-02-01

    The cerebellum is vulnerable to malnutrition effects. Notwithstanding, it is able to incorporate higher amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the cerebral cortex (Cx) when low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio is present in a multideficient diet. Considering importance of DHA for brain redox balance, we hypothesize that this cerebellum feature improves its antioxidant status compared to the Cx. A chronic malnutrition status was induced on dams before mating and kept until weaning or adulthood (offspring). A group nutritionally rehabilitated from weaning was also analyzed. Morphometric parameters, total-superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) and catalase activities, lipoperoxidation (LP), nitric oxide (NO), reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/phosphate levels were assessed. Both ROS and LP levels were increased (∼53 %) in the Cx of malnourished young animals while the opposite was seen in the cerebellum (72 and 20 % of the control, respectively). Consistently, lower (∼35 %) and higher t-SOD (∼153 %) and catalase (CAT) (∼38 %) activities were respectively detected in the Cx and cerebellum compared to the control. In malnourished adult animals, redox balance was maintained in the cerebellum and recovered in the Cx (lower ROS and LP levels and higher GSH/GSSG ratio). NO production was impaired by malnutrition at either age, mainly in the cerebellum. The findings suggest that despite a multinutrient deficiency and a modified structural development, a low dietary n-6/n-3 ratio favors early antioxidant resources in the male cerebellum and indicates an important role of astrocytes in the redox balance recovery of Cx in adulthood.

  2. Glutamine supplementation influences immune development in the newly weaned piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian R; Ball, Ron O; Baracos, Vickie E; Field, Catherine J

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine changes that occur in immune function during the early post-weaning period and the effect of supplementing glutamine (gln, 4% w/w) to the weaning diet of piglets. Dutch-Landrace piglets (n=10/group) were killed prior to weaning (21 d) or randomized to one of two nutritionally complete weaning diets with or without gln. With age there was an increased ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) cells to proliferate (rate of (3)H-thymidine uptake) to T cell mitogens (Ppiglets produced less of a Th-1 type response after stimulation (Pweaning diet significantly (P<0.05) modified immune cells in the MLN, in a potentially beneficial manner (with respect to mucosal infections) by preventing an increase in antigen naïve CD4+ cells, increasing the proliferative response to pokeweed mitogen and supporting a Th-1 type cytokine response after T cell (phytohemagglutinin) stimulation.

  3. The effect of group composition and age on social behaviour and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færevik, G.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Bøe, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were...

  4. MIND diet slows cognitive decline with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christy C; Wang, Yamin; Sacks, Frank M; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Aggarwal, Neelum T

    2015-09-01

    The Mediterranean and dash diets have been shown to slow cognitive decline; however, neither diet is specific to the nutrition literature on dementia prevention. We devised the Mediterranean-Dietary Approach to Systolic Hypertension (DASH) diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet score that specifically captures dietary components shown to be neuroprotective and related it to change in cognition over an average 4.7 years among 960 participants of the Memory and Aging Project. In adjusted mixed models, the MIND score was positively associated with slower decline in global cognitive score (β = 0.0092; P diet scores versus the lowest was equivalent to being 7.5 years younger in age. The study findings suggest that the MIND diet substantially slows cognitive decline with age. Replication of these findings in a dietary intervention trial would be required to verify its relevance to brain health. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Neonatal Leptin Antagonism in Male Rat Offspring Is Dependent upon the Interaction between Prior Maternal Nutritional Status and Post-Weaning Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beltrand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies report associations between overweight mothers and increased obesity risk in offspring. It is unclear whether neonatal leptin regulation mediates this association between overweight mothers and offspring obesity. We investigated the effect of neonatal treatment with a leptin antagonist (LA on growth and metabolism in offspring of mothers fed either a control or a high fat diet. Wistar rats were fed either a control (CON or a high fat diet (MHF during pregnancy and lactation. Male CON and MHF neonates received either saline (S or a rat-specific pegylated LA on days 3, 5, and 7. Offspring were weaned onto either a control or a high fat (hf diet. At day 100, body composition, blood glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma leptin and insulin were determined. In CON and MHF offspring, LA increased neonatal bodyweights compared to saline-treated offspring and was more pronounced in MHF offspring. In the post-weaning period, neonatal LA treatment decreased hf diet-induced weight gain but only in CON offspring. LA treatment induced changes in body length, fat mass, body temperature, and bone composition. Neonatal LA treatment can therefore exert effects on growth and metabolism in adulthood but is dependent upon interactions between maternal and post-weaning nutrition.

  6. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON, a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG (p0.05. The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (p<0.05 plasma concentration of methionine and threonine than the CON treatment. The level of some essential and functional amino acids (such as arginine, phenylalanine, histidine, glutamine etc. in plasma of the PR group was lower (p<0.05 than that of the CON group. Compared with CON group, BCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (p<0.01 and decreased urea concentration (p<0.01 in pig plasma indicating that the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization was increased. Compared with CON group, the small intestine of piglets fed PR diet showed villous atrophy, increasing of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs number (p<0.05 and declining of the immunoglobulin concentration, including jejunal immunoglobulin A (IgA (p = 0.04, secreted IgA (sIgA (p = 0.03 and immunoglobulin M (p = 0.08, and ileal IgA (p = 0.01 and immunoglobulin G (p = 0.08. The BCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (p<0.01, reversed the trend of an increasing IELs number. Notably, BCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal

  7. Endocrine and metabolic traits in goat kids around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rosi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Saanen kids, three days after birth, were divided into two groups: WEAN and MILK. All kids were fed goat milk until the 5th week of age, when the WEAN group began a weaning protocol. MILK group continued to receive goat milk for the entire experimental period, while WEAN group was weaned at 47 days of age. Starting from the 3rd week of age, body weight was recorded and blood samples were taken weekly, before the first meal of the day. Plasma was analysed for glucose, total protein, free aminoacid, insulin, leptin and ghrelin.Weaning did not affect plasma levels of total protein and leptin, but decreased plasma glucose and free aminoacid, and increased ghrelin concentration. Moreover, weaning decreased plasma insulin level more than three times. This result was probably the consequence of the lower concentration of plasma glucose of the WEAN group, but the effect could be enforced by the milk-borne insulin ingested by the MILK kids with the diet. Goat milk contains peptides that can pass across the intestinal epithelium and enter the systemic circulation, suggesting a possible role in accomplishing the immature ability of suckling animals to produce hormones and growth factors.

  8. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  9. Growth of exclusively breastfed and self-weaned children of Greece aged 0-36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourou, Anna; Konstantinides, Theodoros; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Zarras, Charalambos; Balaska, Athena; Simopoulos, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios

    2012-12-01

    Breastfeeding is recognized as an important public health issue with substantial social and economic implications. Moreover, the growth of exclusively breastfed babies differs from that of their formula-fed counterparts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical growth of exclusively breastfed and self-weaned boys and girls of Greece 0-36 months of age. The physical growth of children was monitored from birth up to 36 months of age. Body weight, length/height, and head circumference were recorded. The study population included 101 boys and 105 girls who were recruited consecutively from a private breastfeeding clinic in the second largest city of Greece and through La Leche League groups throughout the country during 2000 to 2005. All infants were exclusively breastfed for ≥ 6 months. Anthro software ( www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/index.html ) was used to compare the data of our study population and the World Health Organization standards for weight, length/height, and head circumference for age. Male and female infants at 12 months had almost tripled their weight (192% and 190% increase, respectively) and had increased their length (height) by 48% and 47%, respectively, and head circumference had increased by 35% and 33%, respectively. In both sexes the relative length/height and the head circumference-for-age increase rates were higher from the first to the second month of life than at any other period. Long-term exclusively breastfed infants grow normally. Hence, no recommendations for the interruption of lactation and/or supplementation with formula are justified.

  10. Effect of pre-weaning feeding regimens on post-weaning growth performance of Sahiwal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, S A; Ali, A; Nawaz, H; McGill, D; Sarwar, M; Afzal, M; Khan, M S; Ehsanullah; Amer, M A; Bush, R; Wynn, P C; Warriach, H M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the post-weaning growth response of Sahiwal calves reared on four different pre-weaning dietary regimens. The four diets were: (a) whole cow's milk, starter ration (SR; CP = 20%, total digestible nutrients (TDN) = 72%) and Berseem hay (H; Egyptian clover; CP = 21%, TDN = 63%); (b) whole cow's milk + H; (c) milk replacer (MR; reconstituted to supplier specification; Sprayfo®) + SR + H; and (d) MR + H. The protein and fat percentages of reconstituted MR were 2.22 and 1.84, respectively. Milk or MR were fed at the rate of 10% of the calves' body weight (BW) until 56 days of age, and then withdrawn gradually until weaned completely by 84 days of age. The average initial BW of calves in groups A, B, C and D were 56.3 ± 1.0, 47.5 ± 1.0, 40.4 ± 1.0 and 30.3 ± 1.0 kg, respectively. Initially, there were 12 calves in each group with six of each sex; however, one male calf died from each of groups B and C and were not replaced. During the post-weaning period, 13 to 24 weeks, the calves were fed a single total mixed ration ad libitum based on maize, canola meal, wheat straw and molasses containing 16% CP and 70% TDN. Daily feed intake and weekly BW gains were recorded. The data were analyzed by MIXED model analysis procedures using the statistical program SAS. The intake of calves as percent of their BW, feed conversion ratio and cost per kg of BW gain were not different (P > 0.05) across treatments. The daily gain at 24 weeks of age for the pre-weaning treatments A, B, C and D were 746 ± 33, 660 ± 33, 654 ± 33 and 527 ± 33 g/day and the final liveweights of calves were 119 ± 4.2, 102 ± 4.2, 95 ± 4.2 and 75 ± 4.2 kg, respectively. Gains were influenced significantly (P pre-weaning treatments. The calves fed MR and H only during the pre-weaning period were unable to catch up post weaning with calves on other dietary treatments. The calves fed whole milk from birth at the rate of 10% of liveweight together with concentrates

  11. Response of weaned piglets to a challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) when fed diets with pea or pea fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Wagenaars, C.M.F.; Meulen, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of using pea and various fractions of pea on the consequences of an oral challenge with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were evaluated in post weaning piglets. The experiment comprised six treatment groups each consisting of 12 individually housed weaned piglets. Each group

  12. A standard experimental diet for the study of fatty acid requirements of weaning and first ongrowing stages of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): selection of the basal diet

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P.; Van Stappen, G.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    A standard experimental diet was developed to study lipid nutrition in marine fish larvae during weaning and first ongrowing. Basal diets were prepared by extrusion-cooking, crumbling of the pellets, and sieving to obtain particles in the size ranges 150-300 µm and 300-500 µm. Three protein sources in the extruded basal diet were evaluated: (1) micronized cod protein granulate (COD); (2) a mixture of casein, gelatin, and albumin (CGA); (3) a mixture of cod fish meal, whey protein, soybean pro...

  13. Brain development in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, C R; da Camara Boueri, B Ferolla; da Costa, L Rodrigues; Ferreira, M Rocha; Melo, H Saldanha; de Abreu, M Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, L Rozeno; da Silva, P C Alves; Pereira, A D'Avila; Ribeiro, D Cavalcante; de Meneses, J Azevedo; da Costa, C A Soares; Boaventura, G T

    2015-08-01

    The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.

  14. Knowledge on practice of weaning among the mothers with infant below six months of age in Salem, Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dhanasekaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Weaning is essential to child nutrition, which reduce infant mortality rate and related malnutrition with healthy feeding practice. Hence the mothers are expected to be knowledgeable on weaning.Objectives: To assess the knowledge on practice of weaning, to compare the knowledge on practice and to find out association between the knowledge scores of mothers with infant below 6 months with selected demographic variables.Materials and Methods: A descriptive design with cross sectional survey approach was undertaken to assess the knowledge on practice of weaning mothers with infant below 6 months of age in selected hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu. Fifty mothers were selected by purposive sampling technique and data was collected by using structured interview schedule from 06/11/14 to 20/11/14.Results: Demographic characteristics reveal that highest percentage (84 % of them belongs to the Hindu religion and had one child below the 6 months of the age. Comparisons of the knowledge score with demography highest mean and SD in relation to family income Rs 4001 - 6000 shows that (14.7 ± 1.16. The Overall Mean knowledge score was (11.5 ± 3.26and (50 % revealing average knowledge. However there was significant association between knowledge score and education & type of family (P = 0.0151 & P = 0.0091 revealing that maximum demographic variables do not affected the level of knowledge.Conclusion: The overall knowledge is average. However lowest percentage in the areas of “principles of feeding and storage” and “age of introducing on weaning” were attention seeking, implying the necessity to improve the knowledge in regard to prevent malnutrition.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(1: 12-16

  15. Responses of Growth Performance and Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression to Fish Oil Supplementation in Lactation Sows’ and/or Weaned Piglets’ Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P<0.05 than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P<0.05 during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P<0.01 in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P<0.10 towards lower ADG and higher feed : gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P<0.01 in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression.

  16. Effects of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds inclusion in low-fiber diets on post-weaned rabbits' health status, growth performances, carcass characteristics, and meat chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouki, Sabah; Chalghoumi, Raja; Abdouli, Hedi

    2017-03-01

    Newly weaned rabbits frequently suffer from digestive disorders particularly when fed low-fiber diets. Fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber and would be suited to moderate such disorders. This study investigated the effect of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds (PGFS) on rabbits' health, digestibility, growth performance, and carcass parameters. Fourteen weaned rabbits were fed one of the following diets: (1) low fiber as negative control (NC), (2) low fiber containing 5% PGFS (F5), (3) low fiber containing 10% PGFS (F10), and (4) adequate fiber as positive control (PC). Each rabbit was reared in an individual cage for 7 weeks. Morbidity and sanitary risk indexes were not different (P > 0.05) between the four diets. Only 20% of the rabbits had a detectable caecal Escherichia Coli (E. coli) count (<10 5  cfu/g), and all rabbits did not show Eimeria oocysts in their feces. Compared to NC, PC gave a lower (P < 0.05) weight gain and a higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was associated with a lighter (P < 0.05) chilled carcass weight, and its meat had slightly more moisture and ether extract with less protein. Inclusion of PGFS decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake at the 10% level and, consequently, tended to improve FCR, while no effect was detected on carcass characteristics and meat composition. This study suggested that (1) the low-fiber diet was adequate for both health and growth aspects of post-weaned rabbits, and (2) the inclusion of PGFS was without consequence on rabbits' health status and growth performance.

  17. Insulin-stimulating diets during the weaning-to-estrus interval do not improve fetal and placental development and uniformity in high-prolific multiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjes, J G M; Soede, N M; Laurenssen, B F A; Koopmanschap, R E; van den Brand, H; Kemp, B

    2013-08-01

    Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity are important for piglet survival. Insulin-stimulating sow diets before mating may improve subsequent piglet birth weights and litter uniformity, but the physiological mechanisms involved are not clear. This study evaluated effects of different levels of insulin-stimulating feed components (dextrose plus starch; fed twice daily) during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations, and on follicle development and subsequent luteal, fetal and placental development and uniformity at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. During WEI, multiparous sows were isocalorically fed diets supplemented with 375 g/day dextrose plus 375 g/day corn starch (INS-H), with 172 g/day dextrose plus 172 g/day corn starch and 144 g/day animal fat (INS-L), or with 263 g/day animal fat (CON). Jugular vein catheters were inserted through the ear vein at 1.5 days before weaning to asses plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations. After estrus, all sows received a standard gestation diet until slaughter at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. The dextrose plus starch-diets enhanced the postprandial insulin response in a dose-dependent manner (e.g. at day 2 insulin area under the curve was 4516 μU/444 min for CON, 8197 μU/444 min for INS-L and 10 894 μU/444 min for INS-H; s.e.m. = 694; P uniformity were not affected by the dietary treatments, nor related to plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations during WEI. Pre-weaning plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were negatively related to sow body condition loss during lactation, but were not related to subsequent reproduction characteristics. This study shows that dietary dextrose plus starch are effective in stimulating insulin secretion (both postprandial peak and long-term concentration), but not IGF-1 secretion during the first 3 days after weaning in multiparous sows. The extreme insulin-stimulating diets during WEI did, however, not improve follicle development, or subsequent

  18. Effects of Dietary Forage and Calf Starter Diet on Ruminal pH and Bacteria in Holstein Calves during Weaning Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Nagata, Rie; Ohtani, Natsuki; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Ikuta, Kentaro; Sato, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between ruminal pH and bacteria in calves fed calf starter with and without forage during weaning transition. First, 16 Holstein bull calves were obtained from dairy farms and equipped with rumen cannulas by cannulation surgery. Then, calves (73.5 ± 4.2 kg; mean ± SE) were assigned to groups fed calf starter either with forage (HAY, n = 8) or without forage (CON, n = 8), and all calves were weaned at 8 weeks of age. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid samples were collected at 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of age, namely -1, 0, 1, and 3 weeks after weaning, respectively, to assess volatile fatty acid concentrations and bacterial DNA. The 24-h mean ruminal pH was significantly (P forage alleviates subacute ruminal acidosis due to diurnal changes in ruminal pH. Furthermore, changes in ruminal pH affect the ruminal bacterial diversity and relative abundance, and these changes might have influenced the establishment of fermentative ruminal functions during weaning transition.

  19. Effect of Supplementing Mouse Maternal Diet during Pregnant and Weaning Period by Fish Oil and Vitamin E on Male Offspring Reproductive Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Zare Ebrahim Abad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fed fish oil (FO with or without vitamin E for mothers on the testis cells of male offsprings. Materials and Methods: Sixty mature female NMRI mice were divided into different groups: control (CTR; Standard diet(vitamin E 50 mg IU/kg pre and postnatal period; I Gavages 0.01 ml/day/mother fish oil (FO+CTR diet during prenatal period; II Gavages FO+CTR diet during postnatal period; III consumed VITE(125 mg IU/kg 2.5 folded greater than standard recommendations(2×during prenatal period; IVconsumed VITE(2×diet during pre and postnatal period; Vconsumed VITE(2×diet during postnatal period; VI Gavages FO+VITE(2× diet during prenatal period; VII Gavage FO+VITE(2×diet during postnatal period ;VIII Gavages FO+VITE (2×diet during pre and postnatal period. After weaning, the testes were collected and histological data were analyzed using SAS software by Duncan test. Results: testes cells length, width and weight was lower in offspring which their mothers fed FO+CTR diet during prenatal, (p<0.05.Vitamin E consumption during postnatal period improved these parameters (p<0.05. Spermatogoni (47 vs. 43, spermatocyte (43 vs. 34, Spermatid (63 vs. 44, Sertoli (0.9 vs. 2, and Leydig (3 vs. 1.7 were increased as FO+VITE was used than CTR (p<0.05. Conclusion: The positive effects of supplementation maternal diet by FO with VITE or sole VITE was observed. Thus, antioxidants should be consumed along with omega-3 fatty acids in maternal diet.

  20. Weaning triggers a maturation step of pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Enk, Jonatan; Vikesa, Jonas; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Saada, Ann; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval

    2015-03-09

    Because tissue regeneration deteriorates with age, it is generally assumed that the younger the animal, the better it compensates for tissue damage. We have examined the effect of young age on compensatory proliferation of pancreatic β cells in vivo. Surprisingly, β cells in suckling mice fail to enter the cell division cycle in response to a diabetogenic injury or increased glycolysis. The potential of β cells for compensatory proliferation is acquired following premature weaning to normal chow, but not to a diet mimicking maternal milk. In addition, weaning coincides with enhanced glucose-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation and insulin secretion from islets. Transcriptome analysis reveals that weaning increases the expression of genes involved in replication licensing, suggesting a mechanism for increased responsiveness to the mitogenic activity of high glucose. We propose that weaning triggers a discrete maturation step of β cells, elevating both the mitogenic and secretory response to glucose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of nutritional and management factors on piglet weight gain to weaning in a commercial herd in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, J; Halas, D; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    The effects of weaning age, type of creep diet and the classification of piglets as ‘eaters' or ‘non eaters' of creep feed on weight gain to weaning were examined. Four antimicrobial-free diets were offered from day 14 of lactation: (i) wheat-soy based diet with animal and vegetable (‘mixed......') protein sources (COMM), (ii) heat-processed rice (HPR) with barley hulls and potato starch and mixed protein sources (RBPS), (iii) HPR with sugar-beet pulp and mixed protein sources (RSBP), and (iv) HPR with mixed protein sources (R). Pigs were weaned at an average of either 27 (early) or 33 (late) days...

  2. Effects Of A Post-Weaning Cafeteria Diet In Young Rats: Metabolic Syndrome, Reduced Activity And Low Anxiety-Like Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanza, Jaume F.; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M.; Torregrosa, Daniel; Cigarroa, Igor; Pallàs, Mercè; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2014-01-01

    Among adolescents, overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome are rapidly increasing in recent years as a consequence of unhealthy palatable diets. Animal models of diet-induced obesity have been developed, but little is known about the behavioural patterns produced by the consumption of such diets. The aim of the present study was to determine the behavioural and biochemical effects of a cafeteria diet fed to juvenile male and female rats, as well as to evaluate the possible recovery from these effects by administering standard feeding during the last week of the study. Two groups of male and female rats were fed with either a standard chow diet (ST) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet from weaning and for 8 weeks. A third group of males (CAF withdrawal) was fed with the CAF diet for 7 weeks and the ST in the 8th week. Both males and females developed metabolic syndrome as a consequence of the CAF feeding, showing overweight, higher adiposity and liver weight, increased plasma levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides, as well as insulin resistance, in comparison with their respective controls. The CAF diet reduced motor activity in all behavioural tests, enhanced exploration, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and increased social interaction; this last effect was more pronounced in females than in males. When compared to animals only fed with a CAF diet, CAF withdrawal increased anxiety in the open field, slightly decreased body weight, and completely recovered the liver weight, insulin sensitivity and the standard levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides in plasma. In conclusion, a CAF diet fed to young animals for 8 weeks induced obesity and metabolic syndrome, and produced robust behavioural changes in young adult rats, whereas CAF withdrawal in the last week modestly increased anxiety, reversed the metabolic alterations and partially reduced overweight. PMID:24482678

  3. Evaluating the behavior, growth performance, immune parameters, and intestinal morphology of weaned piglets after simulated transport and heat stress when antibiotics are eliminated from the diet or replaced with L-glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of post-weaning transport during heat stress (HS) and thermoneutral (TN) conditions when dietary antibiotics are removed or replaced with a nutraceutical. Sixty mixed sex piglets from 10 sows (n = 6 piglets/sow) were weaned (18.8 ± 0.8 d of age) and then...

  4. Influence of low protein diets on gene expression of digestive enzymes and hormone secretion in the gastrointestinal tract of young weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-Mei; Ma, Xian-Yong; Yang, Xue-Fen; Fan, Qiu-Li; Xiong, Yun-Xia; Qiu, Yue-Qin; Wang, Li; Wen, Xiao-Lu; Jiang, Zong-Yong

    To investigate dietary protein level effects on digestive mechanisms, weaned piglets were fed for 45 d with diets containing 20%, 17%, or 14% crude protein (CP) supplemented to meet requirements for essential amino acids. This article describes the influence of dietary protein on gastrointestinal hormones and expression of an array of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in expression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, except for maltase in the duodenum. In the jejunum, amylase expression in pigs fed 20% CP was much higher than that in pigs fed other diets (P0.05), there was a trend towards higher expression of various proteases in pigs fed 17% CP. The duodenal expression of enteropeptidase in diets with 14% and 17% CP was significantly higher than that with 20% CP (P0.05). The expression of GPR93 as a nutrient-responsive G protein-coupled receptor in 14% and 17% CP diets was significantly higher than that in 20% CP diet in the small intestine (Pdigestion of nutrient substance in the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Influence of low protein diets on gene expression of digestive enzymes and hormone secretion in the gastrointestinal tract of young weaned piglets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-mei; Ma, Xian-yong; Yang, Xue-fen; Fan, Qiu-li; Xiong, Yun-xia; Qiu, Yue-qin; Wang, Li; Wen, Xiao-lu; Jiang, Zong-yong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate dietary protein level effects on digestive mechanisms, weaned piglets were fed for 45 d with diets containing 20%, 17%, or 14% crude protein (CP) supplemented to meet requirements for essential amino acids. This article describes the influence of dietary protein on gastrointestinal hormones and expression of an array of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in expression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, except for maltase in the duodenum. In the jejunum, amylase expression in pigs fed 20% CP was much higher than that in pigs fed other diets (P0.05), there was a trend towards higher expression of various proteases in pigs fed 17% CP. The duodenal expression of enteropeptidase in diets with 14% and 17% CP was significantly higher than that with 20% CP (P0.05). The expression of GPR93 as a nutrient-responsive G protein-coupled receptor in 14% and 17% CP diets was significantly higher than that in 20% CP diet in the small intestine (Pdigestion of nutrient substance in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27704744

  6. Idade de desmame de cordeiros deslanados para terminação em confinamento, no litoral norte da Bahia Weaning age on fedlot hair sheep lambs performance in the northern litoral of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Correia de Freitas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e dois cordeiros (16 machos e 16 fêmeas deslanados mestiços de Santa Inês, criados com as matrizes em pastagem de Brachiaria humidicola e suplementados em creep-feeding no período noturno, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2 - quatro idades de desmame (56, 70, 84 e 98 dias e sexo, com o objetivo de determinar a melhor idade para o desmame desses animais. Ao desmame, os cordeiros foram confinados, até completarem 126 dias de vida, em baias individuais, onde receberam feno de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv Tifton 85, água e sal mineral ad libitum e ração concentrada na proporção de 2% do peso vivo. Houve efeito significativo da interação dos fatores idade de desmame e sexo sobre GPC e GPD, em que os cordeiros desmamados aos 84 dias foram superiores às cordeiras desmamadas com a mesma idade. Não se observou efeito significativo na interação dos fatores idade de desmame e sexo sobre GPND e CAC. Verificou-se efeito quadrático da idade de desmame para as variáveis GPND, GPD e CAC. Não se observou efeito significativo do sexo em nenhum dos parâmetros avaliados. A idade de desmame de 76 dias proporcionou maximização dos parâmetros GPND e GPD, enquanto a CAC mais eficiente foi observada nos animais desmamados aos 72 dias.Thirty-two crossbred Santa Inês hair sheep lambs (16 males and 16 females bred with their female progenitors on pasture of Brachiaria humidicola grass, supplemented in creep-feeding during the night, were allotted to a completely randomized design, in a factorial arrangement 4 x 2, four weaning ages (56, 70, 84 and 98 days and sex to determine the best weaning age. At weaning, the lambs were confined in individual pens until 126 days old, when were daily fed Tifton 85 hay, water and mineral salt ad libitum and concentrate diet in the proportion of 2% body weight. There was a significant effect of weaning age vs sex interaction on DWC and DWG, where the males

  7. Effects of dietary forage and calf starter diet on ruminal pH and bacteria in Holstein calves during weaning transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Han KIM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between ruminal pH and bacteria in calves fed calf starter with and without forage during weaning transition. First, 16 Holstein bull calves were obtained from dairy farms and equipped with rumen cannulas by cannulation surgery. Then, calves (73.5 ± 4.2 kg; mean ± SE were assigned to groups fed calf starter either with forage (HAY, n = 8 or without forage (CON, n = 8, and all calves were weaned at 8 weeks of age. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid samples were collected at 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of age, namely 1, 0, 1, and 3 weeks after weaning, respectively, to assess volatile fatty acid concentrations and bacterial DNA. The 24-h mean ruminal pH was significantly (P < 0.05 different between the two groups. Diurnal changes in the 1-h mean ruminal pH were observed throughout the study in the HAY group; however, they were not observed at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the CON group. Moreover, the HAY group had significantly (P < 0.05 higher proportions of acetate and butyrate and lower proportion of propionate, and significantly (P < 0.05 lower ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratios were observed in the CON group. The ruminal bacterial diversity indices decreased after -1 week in both groups and increased at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the HAY and CON groups, respectively. From the 454 pyrosequencing analysis, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed in the relative abundance of several phyla (Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes and one genus (Prevotella between the two groups. From quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the HAY group had the higher copy numbers of cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus compared with the CON group. This study demonstrated that feeding of dietary forage alleviates subacute ruminal acidosis due to diurnal changes in ruminal pH. Furthermore, changes in ruminal pH affect the ruminal bacterial diversity and relative

  8. MIND diet slows cognitive decline with aging

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christy C; Wang, Yamin; Sacks, Frank Martin; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David William; Aggarwal, Neelum T.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mediterranean and dash diets have been shown to slow cognitive decline; however, neither diet is specific to the nutrition literature on dementia prevention. METHODS: We devised the Mediterranean-Dietary Approach to Systolic Hypertension (DASH) diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet score that specifically captures dietary components shown to be neuroprotective and related it to change in cognition over an average 4.7 years among 960 participants ...

  9. An Interaction of the Pre- and Post-Weaning Diets Rich in Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fats Alters Plasma Lipids, Hepatic Gene Expression and Aortic Vascular Reactivity in Adult 057Bl/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Chechi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of diets rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA fed during pre- and post-weaning time periods on the lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity in adult C57Bl/6 mice, in order to assess the impact of maternal nutrition and its interaction with the offspring diet on the metabolism of adult offspring. Methods Female C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet enriched with n-6 PUFA (P or control diet (C for 2-weeks before, during mating, gestation and lactation, while their pups received either P or C for 8-weeks post-weaning. Results A significant interaction between the maternal and post-weaning diets was observed for the offspring body weight, food-, caloric-intake, plasma lipids, hepatic mRNA expression of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, aortic contractile and relaxation responses ( P < 0.05. Conclusion The overall metabolic and physiological outcome in the offspring is dependent upon the interaction between the pre- and post-weaning dietary environments.

  10. Dose-response effects of in-feed antibiotics on growth performance and nutrient utilization in weaned pigs fed diets supplemented with yeast-based nucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Waititu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary nucleotides are bioactive compounds with the potential to mitigate weaning-associated challenges in piglets. An experiment was conducted to determine the interaction effect of antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP and a nucleotide-rich yeast extract (NRYE on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and gross energy (GE, and to establish whether NRYE supplementation may completely or partially replace AGP in diets for weaned pigs. In phase 1 and 2, corn, wheat, canola meal and soybean meal based diets, which were formulated to contain 0.0 or 0.1% NRYE with 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of the recommended AGP dosage, were fed to 108 twenty-one day old piglets (initial body weight 7.11 ± 0.9 kg; mean ± SD from d 1 to 14 and 15 to 28, respectively. Overall, increasing AGP level in NRYE supplemented diets linearly decreased average daily gain (ADG (P = 0.002 and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F (P = 0.007; and quadratically decreased ATTD of DM (P = 0.001, CP (P = 0.003 and G:F (P = 0.017 during phase 2. Compared with control and pigs fed NRYE with 100% of recommended AGP dosage, pigs fed 0.1% NRYE without AGP had greater (P < 0.05 ADG and G:F in phase 2 and overall. In conclusion, supplementing 0.1% NRYE improved growth performance of pigs but this beneficial effect was reduced by increasing dietary AGP dosage.

  11. Teaching an old jaw new tricks: diet-induced plasticity in a model organism from weaning to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeremiah E; McAbee, Kevin R; Eastman, Meghan M; Ravosa, Matthew J

    2014-11-15

    Many organisms exhibit a decrease in the ability to modify their phenotypes in response to shifts in environmental conditions as they mature. Such age-dependent plasticity has important implications in a variety of evolutionary and ecological contexts, particularly with respect to understanding adaptive responses to heterogeneous environments. In this study, we used experimental diet manipulation to examine the life-history trajectory of plasticity in the feeding complex of a model organism, the white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We demonstrate that, contrary to expectations derived from previous cross-sectional studies of skeletal plasticity, the jaws of weanlings and young adults exhibit similar increases in relative bone cross-sectional areas in response to the introduction of mechanically challenging foods into their diets. Furthermore, we present evidence that sensitivity to loading patterns persists well into adulthood in some regions of the masticatory apparatus in rabbits, indicating that there is an extended window of opportunity to respond to changes in dietary properties during an animal's life span. We conclude that certain aspects of the facial skeleton of rabbits, and perhaps mammals in general, are sensitive to environmental stimuli long after skeletal maturity is achieved, highlighting the importance of plasticity as a source of adaptive variation at later life-history stages. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Influence of diet and of lamb slaughtering age on the coagulating properties of rennet paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Albenzio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rennet composition varies along with several factors such as source (animal species, herbage, microbial and genetic, physical state (liquid, powder and paste, enzymatic composition (chymosin/ pepsin ratio, lipolitic enzymes. Main factors influencing rennet paste are diet (milk feeding, weaning and slaughtering age. Rennet paste composition influences cheese-making and ripening processes in cheese. Little is known about the effects of probiotic addition to milk substitute on the microbial status and enzyme profile of rennet, and on ripening characteristics of cheese. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of rearing systems and of lamb slaughtering age on microbial profile and time of coagulation of rennet pastes used for Pecorino Foggiano cheese-making.

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hypersensitivity in female rats on a post-weaning high-fat diet after chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lian; Yang, Junqiang; Qian, Feng; Lu, Chengbiao

    2017-07-01

    A high-fat diet (HFD) is highly correlated to obesity, metabolic diseases and certain behavioral changes. However, the effects of post-weaning HFD in rats during puberty and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this process have remained elusive. The present study hypothesized that the HPA axis mediates the behavioral alterations induced by a post-weaning HFD. To investigate this, female rats were divided into two groups, one of which was fed a HFD from postnatal weeks (PWs) 4-12, while the other group received standard chow. Rats in each group were then subdivided into two subgroups each, and from PW 9-12, animals from one of the two subgroups were subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), while the other subgroup received no stress. At PW 12, the body weight of rats receiving a HFD but no DMS was significantly higher than that in the control group. The frequency of crossing and rearing in the open field test and the time in the center of the Y-maze were decreased following CMS. Total time to escape was decreased in rats receiving HFD and after CMS. The serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone were increased in rats receiving an HFD and after CMS, and the mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin in the hypothalamus were increased in the HFD + CMS group compared to that in the control group. The mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampi of rats in the HFD + CMS group was significantly decreased and the mineralocorticoid receptor/GR ratio was increased compared to that in the groups receiving either CMS or a HFD. In conclusion, these results indicated that female rats fed a post-weaning HFD showed HPA axis hypersensitivity under CMS, which may mediate behavioral alterations.

  14. Effects of different levels of protein supplements in the diet of early-weaned yaks on growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of crude protein (CP supplements to the diet of early-weaned yaks on their growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response. Forty 3-month-old weaned yaks were selected and assigned to four dietary groups (Control, 17, 19 and 21% CP. Dietary CP supplements had a significant effect on average daily gain (ADG, crypt depth (CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum, villous height (VH (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and CD/VH (jejunum and ileum. Average daily gain, CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and VH (ileum showed quadratic increases as the dietary CP increased, whereas CD/VH (jejunum and ileum ratios showed quadratic decreases. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, glucose (GLU, immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ concentrations increased significantly, whereas albumin (ALB, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST decreased significantly with dietary CP supplements. Dietary CP supplements significantly increased the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and the nuclear factor of activated T cell transcription factor (NFAT for gene expression. As the dietary CP supplements increased, IL-6, IFN-γ and NF-AT gene expression showed quadratic increases. These results showed that the appropriate dietary CP supplementation improved the growth performance and intestinal development of earlyweaned yaks and thus that the CP supplements were beneficial and enhanced the humoral immunity response of yaks.

  15. A nutritional approach for the prevention of Post Weaning Syndrome in piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Dirkzwager, Annemarie; Veldman, Bert; Bikker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    International audience; In this article the disturbing steps in the process leading to the Post Weaning Syndrome (PWS) in piglets and its prevention is discussed from a nutritional point of view. The proposed sequence of disturbing steps in the gut is the following: when weaning occurs at three or four weeks of age, gut development to digest a 'vegetable' diet is immature and the normal gut morphology is disturbed by stress, infection, and a low feed intake. The impaired absorption and digest...

  16. Assessments of body composition and bone parameters of lactating rats treated with diet containing flaxseed meal (Linum usitatissinum) during post-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante Ribeiro, Danielle; Alves da Silva, Paula Cristina; D'Avila Pereira, Aline; Ferolla da Camara Boueri, Bianca; Ribeiro Pessanha, Carolina; Duque Coutinho de Abreu, Maíra; Saldanha Melo, Henrique; Rozeno Pessoa, Letícia; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-08-01

    There are few studies on body composition and the effects of diet on weight postpartum women. The aim was to evaluate the body composition and bone parameters in lactating rats treated with diet containing flaxseed flour during postweaning period. After weaning, the lactating rat were divided in control (n = 6) and experimental (F, n = 6) group, treated with 25% flaxseed flour diet. After 30 days, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum analysis, organs and intra-abdominal fat mass, femur and lumbar vertebra parameters were determined. The groups showed similar food intake, body mass and bone parameters. While F group showed the following: lower body (-5%), gonadal (-17%), mesenteric (-23%) and intra-abdominal (-6%) fat mass. Increase of HDL-cholesterol (+10%) and lower glucose (-15%), triglycerides (P < 0.05, -37%) and cholesterol (P < 0.05, -21%). The findings highlight the effects of flaxseed for control of adiposity and to maintain a healthy biochemical profile during the postnatal period. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Age, introduction of solid feed and weaning are more important determinants of gut bacterial succession in piglets than breed and nursing mother as revealed by a reciprocal cross-fostering model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Shouqing; Zhu, Zhigang; Su, Yong; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Mackie, Roderick; Liu, Junhua; Mu, Chunlong; Huang, Ruihua; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-05-01

    A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the acquisition and development gut bacteria from birth until after weaning. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes results revealed an age- and diet-dependent bacterial succession process in piglets. During the first 3 days after birth, the bacterial community was relatively simple and dominated by Firmicutes with 79% and 65% relative abundance for Meishan and Yorkshire piglets, respectively. During the suckling period until day 14, the piglet breed and the nursing mother lead to increasing differentiation of the fecal bacterial community, with specific bacteria taxa associated with breed, and others with the nursing sow most likely due to its milk composition. Although the effect of nursing mother and the breed were evident through the suckling period, the introduction of solid feed and subsequent weaning were the major events occurring that dominated succession of the gut microbiota in the early life of piglets. This piglet cross-fostering model is a useful tool for studying the effects of diet, host genetics and the environment on the development and acquisition of the gut microbiota and over longer studies the subsequent impact on growth, health and performance of pigs. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of diets supplemented with organic acids and nucleotides on growth, immune responses and digestive tract development in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D N; Liu, S R; Chen, Y T; Wang, R C; Lin, S Y; Weng, C F

    2007-12-01

    Sixty-eight (Experiment 1, 46 days feeding) and sixteen (Experiment 2, 21 days feeding) 21-days-old weaned pigs were allotted to four dietary treatments including control, 0.6% organic acids (OA), 0.1% nucleotides (NA) and 0.6% OA plus 0.1% NA for determining the dietary effects. In Experiment 1, OA enhanced peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation on day 28 and 46. The plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) A level was elevated by OA (p < 0.06) and NA (p < 0.07), respectively. In Experiment 2, NA increased plasma IgM level, and had an interactive effect with OA on ileal Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph node lymphocyte proliferation, bile and plasma IgA levels, and jejunal crypt depth. NA elevated gastric pepsin and jejunal alkaline phosphatase activities, however, decreased ileal aminopeptidase N, sucrase or maltase activity. These results suggest that OA and NA have synergistically enhanced the gut-associated lymphocyte responses and NA modulates the digestive tract development of weaned pigs.

  19. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...... was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next...... day,D7: seven days after). Supplementary, we evaluated dam body condition (weight, score), nipple activity and health at separation. The two treatment groups had an equal litter size at the time of separation(7w: 5.5 ± 0.17; 8 w: 5.5 ± 0.17 kits; P = 0.76). Likewise, there was no significant...

  20. Diet-Induced Ketosis Improves Cognitive Performance in Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Eroku, Bernadette O.; Tsipis, Constantinos P.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; LaManna, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic insult and declines in behavioral function which may be due to attenuated adaptive/defense responses. We investigated if diet-induced ketosis would improve behavioral performance in the aged rats. Fischer 344 rats (3- and 22-month-old) were fed standard (STD) or ketogenic (KG) diet for 3 weeks and then exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Cognitive function was measured using the T-maze and object recognition tests. Motor function was measured using the inclined-screen test. Results showed that KG diet significantly increased blood ketone levels in both young and old rats. In the aged rats, the KG diet improved cognitive performance under normoxic and hypoxic conditions; while motor performance remained unchanged. Capillary density and HIF-1α levels were elevated in the aged ketotic group independent of hypoxic challenge. These data suggest that diet-induced ketosis may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:20204773

  1. Mannan-oligosaccharide and organic acids for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Souza Vieira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of acetic, propionic, and formic (50% organic acids and mannan-oligosaccharide (50% on growth performance, digestibility, and faecal score in challenged weaned piglets. Twenty male piglets (5.57 ± 0.32 kg of BW; 21-24 days of age were housed individually in metabolic cages for 28 days in an acclimatised room. The treatments were composed of the inclusion (0.1%; n = 10 or not (n = 10 of additive in the diet. The experimental design was completely randomised with two treatments, 10 replicates, and one piglet per replicate. The nutritional matrix was supplemented with 10% of barley and 35.9 to 34.0% of soybean meal in the pre-starter diet (3-14 days post-weaning and the starter diet (15-28 days post-weaning, respectively, to cause an intestinal challenge. Diets did not include any antimicrobial or growth promoters. Weekly, the animal and the leftover diet were weighed to evaluate growth performance. Digestibility was evaluated through total faeces and urine collection. Piglets fed diets with additive had 8.7% greater weight gain (P < 0.05 compared to those piglets in the control treatment in the starter phase. For other growth performance responses there was no treatment effect. Similarly, the inclusion of additive in the piglet diets did not affect the faecal score or the energy and nutrient digestibility. In the starter phase and throughout the experimental period, piglets fed diets with additive had 18.37% and 15.07% greater nitrogen (N intake and 19.53% and 16.05% greater N retention, respectively, compared to piglets in the control treatment (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the addition of additive composed by organic acids and mannan-oligosaccharide does not improve energy and nutrient digestibility but increases the N retention and weight gain in weaned piglets in the starting phase.

  2. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  3. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6-8 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-05-06

    To compare the food, nutrient and 'family meal' intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6-8 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1-3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in 'family meals'. BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, pBLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, pBLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the food, nutrient and ‘family meal’ intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Study design and participants Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6–8 months of age. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1–3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in ‘family meals’. Results BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, pBLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, pBLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Conclusions Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. PMID:27154478

  6. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ghassemi Nejad; Hosseindoust, A.; Shoae, A.; Ghorbani, B.; Lee, B. H.; Oskoueian, E.; Hajilari, D.; A. Amouzmehr; Lohakare, J. D.; Sung, K. I.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk) and post-weaning (8 wk) was lower in calv...

  7. Evaluation of Weaning Stress in Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Chelsea E

    2011-01-01

    Conventional techniques within the beef cattle industry involve weaning the calf from the dam when the calf is about 205 days of age. Weaning induces a stress-response that is implicated in reducing the health and productivity of newly weaned calves. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of weaning on the stress immune responses of beef calves. To that end, we 1) evaluated novel methods to quantify physiological markers of stress, 2) compared immune function and growth of calves grazing legum...

  8. Efeito da idade de desmame e suplementação no desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte Effect of weaning age and supplementation on beef heifers growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Salgueiro Pio de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de 47 novilhas de corte cruzas Bos taurus x Bos indicus até os dois anos de idade, desmamadas precocemente (DP, com idade média de 91 dias e peso mínimo de 70 kg de peso vivo, ou desmamadas à idade convencional (DC, com média de 170 dias de idade e 130,3 kg, suplementadas (Su ou não (NSu com suplemento comercial com 14% de proteína bruta e 75% de NDT, durante 91 dias no primeiro inverno pós-desmame. Os animais do DP e o grupo não-suplementado apresentaram menores pesos vivos até um ano de idade. A idade do desmame não influenciou a taxa de prenhez das novilhas (77,3 e 72%, para o DP e DC, respectivamente. A suplementação no primeiro inverno não influenciou o desempenho das novilhas aos dois anos de idade. O desmame precoce não afetou o desenvolvimento e a fertilidade das novilhas aos dois anos de idade, quando comparado ao desmame à idade convencional.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of 47 Bos taurus x Bos indicus beef heifers until two years of age. Heifers were early weaned (EW with average age of 91 days and minimum of 70 kg of liveweight or weaned at conventional age with average of 170 days and average liveweight of 130.3 kg (CW, supplemented (Su or not (NSu with concentrate containing 14% crude protein and 75% total digestible nutrients (TDN during 91 days in the first winter. The early weaning and the no supplemented group were lightier until one year of age. Weaning age did not affect pregnancy rate (77.3% and 72% to EW and CW, respectively. The supplementation during the first winter did not affect the heifers performance until two years of age. Early weaning did not affected the growth and the fertility of heifers until two years of age when compaired with the weaning at the conventional age.

  9. The Effects of Weaning Methods on Gut Microbiota Composition and Horse Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Núria; Foury, Aline; Kittelmann, Sandra; Reigner, Fabrice; Moroldo, Marco; Ballester, Maria; Esquerré, Diane; Rivière, Julie; Sallé, Guillaume; Gérard, Philippe; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Lansade, Léa

    2017-01-01

    Weaning has been described as one of the most stressful events in the life of horses. Given the importance of the interaction between the gut-brain axis and gut microbiota under stress, we evaluated (i) the effect of two different weaning methods on the composition of gut microbiota across time and (ii) how the shifts of gut microbiota composition after weaning affect the host. A total of 34 foals were randomly subjected to a progressive (P) or an abrupt (A) weaning method. In the P method, mares were separated from foals at progressively increasing intervals every day, starting from five min during the fourth week prior to weaning and ending with 6 h during the last week before weaning. In the A method, mares and foals were never separated prior to weaning (0 d). Different host phenotypes and gut microbiota composition were studied across 6 age strata (days −30, 0, 3, 5, 7, and 30 after weaning) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results revealed that the beneficial species belonging to Prevotella, Paraprevotella, and Ruminococcus were more abundant in the A group prior to weaning compared to the P group, suggesting that the gut microbiota in the A cohort was better adapted to weaning. Streptococcus, on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern after weaning. Fungal loads, which are thought to increase the capacity for fermenting the complex polysaccharides from diet, were higher in P relative to A. Beyond the effects of weaning methods, maternal separation at weaning markedly shifted the composition of the gut microbiota in all foals, which fell into three distinct community types at 3 days post-weaning. Most genera in community type 2 (i.e., Eubacterium, Coprococcus, Clostridium XI, and Blautia spp.) were negatively correlated with salivary cortisol levels, but positively correlated with telomere length and N-butyrate production. Average daily gain was also greater in the foals harboring a community type 2 microbiota. Therefore, community type 2 is likely to

  10. The Effects of Weaning Methods on Gut Microbiota Composition and Horse Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Núria; Foury, Aline; Kittelmann, Sandra; Reigner, Fabrice; Moroldo, Marco; Ballester, Maria; Esquerré, Diane; Rivière, Julie; Sallé, Guillaume; Gérard, Philippe; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Lansade, Léa

    2017-01-01

    Weaning has been described as one of the most stressful events in the life of horses. Given the importance of the interaction between the gut-brain axis and gut microbiota under stress, we evaluated (i) the effect of two different weaning methods on the composition of gut microbiota across time and (ii) how the shifts of gut microbiota composition after weaning affect the host. A total of 34 foals were randomly subjected to a progressive (P) or an abrupt (A) weaning method. In the P method, mares were separated from foals at progressively increasing intervals every day, starting from five min during the fourth week prior to weaning and ending with 6 h during the last week before weaning. In the A method, mares and foals were never separated prior to weaning (0 d). Different host phenotypes and gut microbiota composition were studied across 6 age strata (days -30, 0, 3, 5, 7, and 30 after weaning) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results revealed that the beneficial species belonging to Prevotella, Paraprevotella , and Ruminococcus were more abundant in the A group prior to weaning compared to the P group, suggesting that the gut microbiota in the A cohort was better adapted to weaning. Streptococcus , on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern after weaning. Fungal loads, which are thought to increase the capacity for fermenting the complex polysaccharides from diet, were higher in P relative to A. Beyond the effects of weaning methods, maternal separation at weaning markedly shifted the composition of the gut microbiota in all foals, which fell into three distinct community types at 3 days post-weaning. Most genera in community type 2 (i.e., Eubacterium, Coprococcus, Clostridium XI, and Blautia spp.) were negatively correlated with salivary cortisol levels, but positively correlated with telomere length and N-butyrate production. Average daily gain was also greater in the foals harboring a community type 2 microbiota. Therefore, community type 2 is likely to

  11. The Effects of Weaning Methods on Gut Microbiota Composition and Horse Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Mach

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Weaning has been described as one of the most stressful events in the life of horses. Given the importance of the interaction between the gut-brain axis and gut microbiota under stress, we evaluated (i the effect of two different weaning methods on the composition of gut microbiota across time and (ii how the shifts of gut microbiota composition after weaning affect the host. A total of 34 foals were randomly subjected to a progressive (P or an abrupt (A weaning method. In the P method, mares were separated from foals at progressively increasing intervals every day, starting from five min during the fourth week prior to weaning and ending with 6 h during the last week before weaning. In the A method, mares and foals were never separated prior to weaning (0 d. Different host phenotypes and gut microbiota composition were studied across 6 age strata (days −30, 0, 3, 5, 7, and 30 after weaning by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results revealed that the beneficial species belonging to Prevotella, Paraprevotella, and Ruminococcus were more abundant in the A group prior to weaning compared to the P group, suggesting that the gut microbiota in the A cohort was better adapted to weaning. Streptococcus, on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern after weaning. Fungal loads, which are thought to increase the capacity for fermenting the complex polysaccharides from diet, were higher in P relative to A. Beyond the effects of weaning methods, maternal separation at weaning markedly shifted the composition of the gut microbiota in all foals, which fell into three distinct community types at 3 days post-weaning. Most genera in community type 2 (i.e., Eubacterium, Coprococcus, Clostridium XI, and Blautia spp. were negatively correlated with salivary cortisol levels, but positively correlated with telomere length and N-butyrate production. Average daily gain was also greater in the foals harboring a community type 2 microbiota. Therefore, community type 2 is

  12. Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Li, Tianshui; Kim, Inho

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P digestibility, and fecal Lactobacilli counts, and linearly decreased (P growth performance, nutrient digestibility, shifted microbiota by increasing fecal Lactobacillus counts, decreased BUN concentration, fecal score, and fecal NH3 and H2 S emission in weaning pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Growth and reproductive development from weaning through 20 months of age among breeds of bulls in subtropical Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; Randel, R D

    1997-02-01

    To determine the effect of breed on growth and reproductive development, weaned bulls in each of 2 yr were managed as a single group for approximately a year. In Year 1, the study group consisted of 24 Angus, 24 Brahman, 20 Hereford and 14 Senepol bulls, while in Year 2, it contained 25 Angus, 17 Brahman. 13 Romosinuano and 9 Nellore x Brahman bulls. Body and testicular growth measurements were recorded at 6-wk intervals. At approximately 1 yr of age and quarterly thereafter (4 periods), bulls were evaluated for libido, pubertal status, and GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion. Significant breed-by-age interactions occurred for most growth measurements. Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ) were (P Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (Bos taurus ). Libido scores were lowest for Brahman and Nell ore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). highest for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) and intermediate for Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds; P Senepol, Romosinuano and Nellore x Brahman bulls (tropical breeds). In conclusion, reproductive development of Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds) was more similar to Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) than to Brahman and Nellore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ).

  14. Effect of Weaning Age on Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood-biochemical Parameters in Droughtmaster Crossbred Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Guo, Feng; Diao, Qi-Yu; Tu, Yan; Si, Bing-Wen; Xing, Yu-Chuan; Huang, De-Jun

    2017-11-03

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weaning age on intake, performance, nutrition metabolism and serum parameters of beef calves. 60 head of Droughtmaster crossbred calves were assigned to 5 groups with 12 calves in each group. The calves in control Group were remained with the dams till the 22-week age, while the calves weaned at 28d (4w), 42 d(6w), 56 d(8w) and 70 d(10w) of age were sent to Group 4W, Group6W, Group 8Wand Group 10W separately, and then they were fed on milk replacer (MR) till the 22-week age. DMI of calves in Group 4W was significantly lower than that in the rest groups from w17 to 22 (Pfeed efficiency of the calves were higher in the Group 4W and 6W than that in Group 6W and 8W from 11 to 13w (P0.05). Calves in Group 4W and 6W had lower body weight than that in the Group 8W and Group 10W and control group at 10-week age (P0.05). Calve in Group 6W had higher final body weight and total gain than that in Group 4W, but no difference of total gain with that in Group 8W, 10W and control group. And weaning calve at age of 6-week age brought higher feed efficiency and average daily gain from w14 to 22, and higher DM and OM digestibility at w21. It is concluded that the weaning of calves at 6 weeks of age gave positive results.

  15. the effect of age of dam on weaning mass for ftve dam breed types in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at an earlier age than the Charolais, Simmentaler and Dual Purpose types. This was probably due to their rate of maturity. These results indicate that when the average dam-age is low in a herd, the early maturing types can be more productive than later maturing types. Extrapolating this data to extensive conditions, where ...

  16. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    .... This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped...

  17. Aging in Community Nutrition, Diet Therapy, and Nutrition and Aging Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Peggy Schafer; Wellman, Nancy S.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette; Elfenbein, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Using content analysis, this study evaluated the aging content and context in 11 nutrition sub-specialty textbooks: community nutrition (n = 3), diet therapy (n = 4), and nutrition and aging (n = 4). Pages with paragraphs on aging were identified in community nutrition and diet therapy textbooks, and 10% random samples of pages were evaluated in…

  18. Pre- and post-weaning performance of artificially reared calves. II. The effects of milk substitute and milk substitute-whey diets on the performance of calves with particular reference to the selection of calves with improved growth potential from their blood composition a week after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvaras, S

    1981-03-01

    Sixteen Friesland bull calves were divided into two groups and raised artificially in an early weaning system. The liquid feeding of one group consisted of a commercial milk substitute and that of the other group of a 50:50 milk substitute-whey mixture. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals, starting one week after birth, and analysed for packed cell volume (PCV), blood glucose and haemoglobin (Hb); serum albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, Mg, Na and K. The liquid portion of the diet had no significant effect on either the blood composition of the calves or on their performance (mass gain, dry matter intake and feed conversion) at the end of the experimental period (week 13). The only significant difference (P less than 0,05) between the two groups was the body mass of the calves at weaning. There were significant changes in the concentrations of most blood constituents with age (P less than 0,001 for Hb, PCV, albumin, globulin, Pi and K; P less than 0,01 for urea and Ca). A significant correlation (P less than 0,05) was also found between the calves' growth rates from 1 to 13 weeks and the concentration of globulin at one week of age. The regression of growth rate from 1 to 13 weeks with the blood constituents, globulin, Hb, PCV, Pi, Mg and Ca at one week of age accounted for 67,4% of the variance among calves. The evidence suggests that the above types of liquid feeding in an early weaning system would not significantly affect the composition of the blood of calves when sampled approximately six weeks or more after weaning, provided a predictive assessment of subsequent growth performance.

  19. Energy requirements of puppies of two different breeds for ideal growth from weaning to 28 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobenecker, B; Endres, V; Kienzle, E

    2013-02-01

    To ensure an optimal growth is crucial in raising healthy dogs, especially in large and giant breeds. Dogs with a moderate growth velocity tend to have lesser problems with developmental orthopaedic diseases than those with forced or maximum weight gain. In this study, the energy needs of growing dogs from two different breeds (Beagles as a medium-size breed and Foxhound crossbreds as a large-size breed) to ensure a growth development as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC) were determined at the age of 6-28 weeks. After weaning at the age of 6 weeks, the food rations sufficient to meet the energy requirements of each individual puppy were adjusted every other day according to growth level, guaranteeing a development consistent with the recommended weight curve for the respective breed size. The food and therefore energy intake of the puppies was registered daily; it ranged from 0.72 to 2.34 times the maintenance requirements with little effect of age. During the whole period, however, there was a consistent breed difference: Foxhound-Boxer-Ingelheim Labrador crossbreds (FBIs) had higher energy intakes expressed as multiples of maintenance than Beagles, suggesting that during the major period of growth, the energy requirement is not a function of age. Adult Beagles and FBIs showed similar differences in energy requirements as already during growth as shown in this study. This indicates that breed differences in energy requirements have already to be taken into account during growth. On the other hand, the results showed clearly lower energy needs for growth in these two different breeds than recommended in the NRC. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Bone mineralisation of weaned piglets fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase, as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Weremko, Dagmara; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen female piglets (58 d of age, 16.8 ± 0.8 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to two groups (n = 8) and received until day 100 of age (50.3 ± 1.2 kg BW) ad libitum either a diet with a standard (diet C) or low (diet L) total phosphorus (P) content (5.38 and 4.23 g/kg, respectively). Diet C was supplemented with mineral P (1.15 g/kg) and did not contain microbial phytase. Diet L did not contain any inorganic P but 750 FTU/kg of microbial phytase. Despite these treatments, both diets were composed with the same ingredients. Body mineralisation of each gilt was assessed by determining the bone mineral content (BMC), area bone mineral density (BMD) by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at days 58, 72, 86 and 100 of age. Feeding diet L caused a higher P digestibility (p = 0.008) measured from days 72 to 86 of age and at 100 days of age a higher BMC and BMD (p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, the gilts of group L deposited more minerals in the body than control pigs (by 2.4 g/d, p = 0.008). It was found that BMD and BMC were positively correlated with body lean mass and digestible P intake. The results indicated that, even for very young pigs, the addition of microbial phytase instead of inorganic P increases the amount of digestible P covering the requirements of piglets for proper bone mineralisation. Furthermore, it was proved that the DXA method can be successfully applied to measure body fat and lean mass contents as well as bone mineralisation of growing pigs using the same animals.

  1. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    .01), indicative of dam hunger/metabolic burden in the preceding period. We found no signs of nipple/inflammation problems, evaluated visually and by Infrared Thermography (IRT) measuring surface temperatures of active teats.Dams separated at litter age 7 weeks had higher concentrations of cortisol metabolites...

  2. Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity during aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusli, Fenni

    2016-01-01

    Increasing life expectancy in the past decades has led to the emergence of age-related chronic diseases and disabilities. A deeper understanding in the molecular events of the aging process is essential to provide evidence-based guidance how lifestyle interventions will be more efficient in delaying

  3. An advanced glycation endproduct (AGE)-rich diet promotes accumulation of AGEs in Achilles tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Svensson, Rene B; Scheijen, Jean

    2017-01-01

    the relationship between AGE content in the diet and accumulation of AGEs in weight-bearing animal Achilles tendon. Two groups of mice (C57BL/6Ntac) were fed with either high-fat diet low in AGEs high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 14) or normal diet high in AGEs (ND) (n = 11). AGE content in ND was six to 50-fold higher......Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins like collagen in bone and tendon causing modification of the biomechanical properties. This has been hypothesized to raise the risk of orthopedic injury such as bone fractures and tendon ruptures. We evaluated...... both ND and HFD) (P diet (ND) resulted in an increase in CML (P

  4. Gene expression profiling in hepatic tissue of newly weaned pigs fed pharmacological zinc and phytase supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Link Jane E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element. However, Zn bioavailability from commonly consumed plants may be reduced due to phytic acid. Zn supplementation has been used to treat diarrheal disease in children, and in the U.S. swine industry at pharmacological levels to promote growth and fecal consistency, but underlying mechanisms explaining these beneficial effects remain unknown. Moreover, adding supplemental phytase improves Zn bioavailability. Thus, we hypothesized that benefits of pharmacological Zn supplementation result from changes in gene expression that could be further affected by supplemental phytase. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding newly weaned pigs dietary Zn (150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg as Zn oxide with or without phytase [500 phytase units (FTU/kg] for 14 d on hepatic gene expression. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg, or 1,000 mg Zn/kg with phytase (n = 4 per treatment was reverse transcribed and examined using the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150 or 2,000 mg Zn/kg (n = 4 per treatment was also evaluated using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. Results Expressed sequence tags for 61 putatively differentially expressed transcripts were cloned and sequenced. In addition, interrogation of a 13,297 element oligonucleotide microarray revealed 650 annotated transcripts (FDR ≤ 0.05 affected by pharmacological Zn supplementation. Seven transcripts exhibiting differential expression in pigs fed pharmacological Zn with sequence similarities to genes encoding GLO1, PRDX4, ACY1, ORM1, CPB2, GSTM4, and HSP70.2 were selected for confirmation. Relative hepatic GLO1 (P PRDX4 (P ACY1 (P HSP70.2 (P Conclusion Results suggest that feeding pharmacological Zn (1,000 or 2,000 mg Zn/kg affects genes involved in reducing oxidative stress and in amino acid metabolism, which are essential for cell

  5. Gut response induced by weaning in piglet features marked changes in immune and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Lorenzo; Minuti, Andrea; Moisá, Sonia J; Trevisi, Erminio; Eufemi, Elisa; Lizier, Michela; Chegdani, Fatima; Lucchini, Franco; Rzepus, Marcin; Prandini, Aldo; Rossi, Filippo; Mazza, Raffaele; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Loor, Juan J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    At weaning, piglets are exposed to many stressors, such as separation from the sow, mixing with other litters, end of lactational immunity, and a change in their environment and gut microbiota. The sudden change of feeding regime after weaning causes morphological and histological changes in the small intestine which are critical for the immature digestive system. Sixteen female piglets were studied to assess the effect of sorbic acid supplementation on the small intestine tissue transcriptome. At weaning day (T0, piglet age 28 days), four piglets were sacrificed and ileal tissue samples collected. The remaining 12 piglets were weighed and randomly assigned to different postweaning (T5, piglet age 33 days) diets. Diet A (n = 6) contained 5 g/kg of sorbic acid. In diet B (n = 6), the organic acids were replaced by barley flour. Total RNA was isolated and then hybridized to CombiMatrix CustomArray™ 90-K platform microarrays, screening about 30 K genes. Even though diet had no detectable effect on the transcriptome during the first 5 days after weaning, results highlighted some of the response mechanisms to the stress of weaning occurring in the piglet gut. A total of 205 differentially expressed genes were used for functional analysis using the bioinformatics tools BLAST2GO, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis 8.0, and Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that apoptosis, RIG-I-like, and NOD-like receptor signaling were altered as a result of weaning. Interferons and caspases gene families were the most activated after weaning in response to piglets to multiple stressors. Results suggest that immune and inflammatory responses were activated and likely are a cause of small intestine atrophy as revealed by a decrease in villus height and villus/crypt ratio.

  6. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influência da suplementação no pré-parto e da idade de desmama sobre o desempenho de cordeiros terminados em confinamento Effect of ewe pre-partum supplementation and weaning age on performance of feedlot finished lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Teixeira da Rosa

    2007-08-01

    body weight [BW] with a balanced diet according to NRC (1985 requirements. After parturition, both groups were supplemented. Half of lambs from the SUPL and NS groups were weaned at 45 days of age and the other half at 60 days of age. After weaning lambs were feedlot fed with a diet balanced according to NRC (1985 model. Lambs were slaughtered when they reached 30 kg of BW after 16 hours of solids fasting. Both BW and body condition score of ewes at parturition differed between SUPL and NS groups while the same was not observed at weaning. Birth weight, weaning weight, weight gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to slaughter, days in feedlot, and slaughter age all were not different in lambs born from ewes of the SUPL or NS groups. However, significant differences were observed for weaning weight and weight gain from weaning to slaughter between groups of animals weaned at 45 or 60 days of age.

  8. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-17

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p 1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p exposure through breastfeeding and fish intake as a complementary food did not directly affect anthropometry in this population. If prolonged breastfeeding is expected, however, the Hg exposure through fish intake may need to be monitored for both mothers and infants.

  9. A Systematic Process for Weaning Children With Aspiration From Thickened Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Nikolaus E; Hernandez, Kayla; Irace, Alexandria L; Davidson, Kathryn; Perez, Jennifer A; Larson, Kara; Rahbar, Reza

    2017-11-09

    Thickening of fluids is a common strategy for feeding patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia but has known risks and should be stopped once it is safe to do so. Weaning children from thickened fluids safely can be challenging, and novel methods are required. To describe the use of a systematic weaning process (SWP) for children who received thickened liquids owing to oropharyngeal dysphagia and identified risk of aspiration. Retrospective case series (2010 to 2015) at a tertiary care center of 50 children with documented aspiration by clinical swallowing assessment, airway evaluation, and videofluoroscopic swallow study with at least 4 months of follow-up. All patients were initially receiving thickened fluids. A 10% reduction in thickness was made every 2 weeks based on clinical symptoms. Caregivers progressed to the next incremental level if there were no signs or symptoms of aspiration. Number of patients weaned to a thin-fluid diet. Of 50 children (32 [64%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 0.7 [1.0] y at presentation and 1.8 [1.3] y at start of wean) using the SWP, 44 (88%) were able to reduce the amount of thickener used. A successful wean from thickened fluids to thin fluids was completed in 39 (78%). The mean (SD) duration of a successful wean was 0.9 (0.6) years. Five patients tolerated a reduction in thickener but not a full wean to thin fluids. For 6 patients, weaning failed and they continued to receive thickened fluids. Of those whose weaning failed, 2 patients developed pneumonia. Of the 39 successfully weaned patients, 14 (36%) experienced a temporary stall but eventually tolerated thin fluids. Only 2 (5%) developed pneumonia while all other successfully weaned patients (n = 37 [95%]) did not experience any substantial respiratory issues. Overall, 46 (92%) of children required 2 or fewer videofluoroscopic swallow study evaluations. Patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration should be gradually weaned off of thickened fluids. The

  10. Inoculation of weaned pigs with E. coli reduces depots of vitamin E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Ellen-Margrethe; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    of weaning) and 9 of the experiment, and serum was analyzed for α-tocopherol concentration. On day 10 of the experiment, pigs were killed and samples of liver, heart, muscle, adipose tissue and intestinal epithelium were obtained, and immune cells (alveolar macrophages) were harvested, and analyzed for α......This study was designed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin E depots and immune responses in weaned pigs after an E. coli inoculation. The design was a 2 × 2 factorial with vitamin E supplementation (150 mg/kg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate versus a control diet containing...... 60 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and E. coli 0 149 inoculation (inoculation of 1 × 108 CFU on day 2 and 3 after weaning versus inoculation of vehicle). The pigs were housed individually during the experiment which lasted for 10 days from weaning at 7 weeks of age. Blood was sampled on day 1 (day...

  11. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level mercury (Hg exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24 µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99 µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001 and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015, the duration (months of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001, and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033. In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles, dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001 and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017, were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg

  12. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A; Kang, Jae H; Cook, Nancy R; Manson, Joann E; Buring, Julie E; Willett, Walter C; Okereke, Olivia I

    2013-07-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. We included 6174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive substudy of the Women's Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence nine-point score was constructed based on intakes of vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P for score quintiles medians-x-time interaction = 0.26 for global cognition and 0.40 for verbal memory), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P trend = 0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, a higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P for ratio quintiles medians-x-time = 0.03 for global cognition and 0.05 for verbal memory). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories but was related to better averaged global cognition (P trend = 0.02). In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study.

  13. Effects of different protein sources of diet on yield and quality of lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained in the study of the effects of different protein sources in diet on fattening parameters, yield and quality of meat from weaned lambs are presented in this study. Experiment was conducted on 60 lambs of MIS population, weaned at the age of 60 days and divided into three groups. The effect of use of three ...

  14. Effects of feeding levels of starter on weaning age, performance, nutrient digestibility and health parameters in holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, J Ghassemi; Hosseindoust, A; Shoae, A; Ghorbani, B; Lee, B H; Oskoueian, E; Hajilari, D; Amouzmehr, A; Lohakare, J D; Sung, K I

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk) and post-weaning (8 wk) was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (ppre-weaning period (pweaning and total DMI was higher in that calves received 800 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (pCalves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter were weaned earlier (pcalves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter (p>0.05). Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05).Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05). Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM) intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05).

  15. The effect of a mixture of dairy-based feed ingredients, vegetable fats, and yeast cell walls on performance and innate immunity of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, R; Klaassen, G J; Schuttert, G; Rouwers, S M G; Parmentier, H K; Molist, F

    2012-12-01

    Positive effects of yeast concentrate on immunity and performance of weaned piglets have been reported. However, the effects on innate immunity were not examined. Natural antibodies (NAb) are part of innate immunity and have been related to health and survival in fish, poultry, rodents, and man. Yeast cell walls may also affect innate immunity of weaned piglets. We studied the effect of Nuklospray ProHealth containing a spray dried blend of dairy-based feed ingredients, vegetable fats, and processed yeast cell walls as protein source on NAb levels and performance of weaned piglets. A total of 120 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were assigned 2 treatments comprising a control diet and an experimental diet with the test product. Piglets were housed in groups of 6 during the first 4 weeks after weaning. Blood samples of 20 healthy nonmedicated piglets per treatment were taken at days 0, 14, and 28 after weaning and analyzed for NAb levels binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin by an indirect ELISA procedure. Performance parameters also were determined. Overall, the experimental diet tended to improve feed intake (574 vs. 522 g/d; P < 0.1), ADG (449 vs. 412 g/d; P < 0.1), and final BW (21.4 vs. 20.3 kg; P = 0.08) compared to the control diet. No differences were found in feed conversion ratio or fecal score. At day 0, no differences in NAb levels were found, but on day 14 after weaning, NAb levels of piglets fed the experimental diet were significantly higher than of piglets fed the control diet (2.05 vs. 1.70; P < 0.05). On day 28 after weaning no differences were found. These results indicate that day 14 postweaning levels of NAb as a parameter of innate immunity were improved and indicate a tendency for improvement of postweaning performance of piglets fed diets supplemented with Nuklospray ProHealth.

  16. Exercise participation and diet monitoring in pursuit of healthy aging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the level of exercise participation and diet monitoring in pursuit of healthy aging. Descriptive survey research design and self-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. Proportionate stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select two hundred ...

  17. Aging, longevity, and diet: historical remarks on calorie intake reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The link between longevity and diet is of great interest to biological and gerontological research. The fact that relevant knowledge has generally been available for many centuries is often not remarked upon. This article examines three aspects of early modern Western medicine which thematize the following links between the elderly, longevity and caloric intake: (1) the question of a diet specifically tailored to old age as background to certain theories of aging; (2) the transfer of these dietetic concepts to younger patients in order to improve health and extend life, and (3) the promotion of dieting in order to avoid the consequences of plethora and to retard the aging process. A number of Latin texts from premodern medical and health literature will be examined and their contents will be analyzed for material relating to diet for the elderly and longevity in their historic contexts. We will clearly indicate fundamental parallels as well as differences between historic and modern scientific thought. We will thereby show that although a modern understanding of hormones and molecular genetics was obviously lacking, basic knowledge of the influence of nutrition on old age was prevalent. In contrast, the early modern lay concept of longevity through calorie reduction was based on coincidental observation. These premodern, but nonetheless rational ideas must be integrated into the socio-cultural setting and the question must be raised as to the link between contemporary research aims and social reality. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a public health problem in Nigeria accounting for more than 50% of all childhood ... of weanly albino rats fed millet and maize based complimentary weaning foods for 3 weeks. Two diets, ... these diets were not significantly(p<0.05) different and also compared well with the growth rate of rats on.

  19. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  20. A carvacrol-thymol blend decreased intestinal oxidative stress and influenced selected microbes without changing the messenger RNA levels of tight junction proteins in jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H-K; Xue, H-X; Zhou, Z X; Peng, J

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that intestinal oxidative stress and microbiota imbalance is involved in weaning-induced intestinal dysfunction in piglets. We have investigated the effect of feeding a carvacrol-thymol blend supplemented diet on intestinal redox status, selected microbial populations and the intestinal barrier in weaning piglets. The piglets (weaned at 21 days of age) were randomly allocated to two groups with six pens per treatment and 10 piglets per pen. At weaning day (21 days of age), six piglets were sacrificed before weaning to serve as the preweaning group. The weaned group was fed with a basal diet, while the weaned-CB group was fed with the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg carvacrol-thymol (1 : 1) blend for 14 days. On day 7 post-weaning, six piglets from each group were sacrificed to determine intestinal redox status, selected microbial populations, messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of intestinal barrier function. Weaning resulted in intestinal oxidative stress, indicated by the increased concentration of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances present in the intestine. Weaning also reduced the population of Lactobacillus genus and increased the populations of Enterococcus genus and Escherichia coli in the jejunum, and increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6). In addition, decreased mRNA levels of zonula occludens and occludin in the jejunal mucosa and increased plasma diamine oxidase concentrations indicated that weaning induced dysfunction of the intestinal barrier. On day 7 post-weaning, supplementation with the carvacrol-thymol blend restored weaning-induced intestinal oxidative stress. Compared with the weaned group, the weaned-CB group had an increased population of Lactobacillus genus but reduced populations of Enterococcus genus and E. coli in the jejunum and decreased mRNA levels of TNF-α. The

  1. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynski, David T.; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P.

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual’s associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  2. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  3. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aging in community nutrition, diet therapy, and nutrition and aging textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Peggy Schafer; Wellman, Nancy S; Himburg, Susan P; Johnson, Paulette; Elfenbien, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Using content analysis, this study evaluated the aging content and context in 11 nutrition sub-specialty textbooks: community nutrition (n = 3), diet therapy (n = 4), and nutrition and aging (n = 4). Pages with paragraphs on aging were identified in community nutrition and diet therapy textbooks, and 10% random samples of pages were evaluated in nutrition and aging textbooks. Paragraphs were assigned to one of four categories: gerontology, nutrition as primary, nutrition as secondary, or tertiary prevention. A total of 310 pages was qualitatively analyzed using NUD*IST 5 software and quantitatively with percentages. Only 7% of community nutrition and 2% of diet therapy pages were devoted to aging. There was little integration of aging beyond the chapters on aging. Community nutrition had the most gerontology (30%) and primary prevention (43%) content. Diet therapy and nutrition and aging had more secondary prevention (33% and 42%, respectively) and tertiary prevention (27% each) content. Some important databases and studies were absent. Of the 1,239 ageism words, 10% were positive, 53% neutral, and 36% negative. Photographs were generally positive. Women, but not minorities, reflected current older adult demographics. Future textbook editions should address aging more comprehensively and positively to better prepare dietitians for the job market. Recommendations for authors, course instructors, and publishers are given.

  5. Effect of inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates in the diet on fermentation end-product profile in feces of weanling piglets1

    OpenAIRE

    Awati, A.; Williams, B A; Bosch, M.W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to monitor the changes in fermentation end products in the feces of weaning piglets due to the inclusion of selected fermentable carbohydrates in the diet. The experiment involved 3 groups of 16 piglets each. Specially raised piglets (neither antibiotics nor creep feeding) were weaned abruptly at 4 wk of age. The piglets were offered 1 of 2 dietary treatments [a control diet (CON), or a fermentable carbohydrate-enriched diet (CHO)] and were subjected to 1 o...

  6. Age and diet act through distinct isoforms of the class II transactivator gene in mouse intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Ian R; Bustin, Stephen A; Dziennis, Suzan; Paraszczuk, Joanna; Stamm, Demetra S

    2004-07-01

    Normal weaning induces class II major histocompatibility complex (Ia) and invariant chain (Ii) expression in the mouse intestinal epithelium. Because the class II transactivator protein (CIITA) induces Ia and Ii in most cell types, we hypothesized that diet-induced expression of these genes was through CIITA. Mouse litters were split and weaned onto an elemental diet or a normal (complex) chow diet. On days 24, 31, and 45, epithelial cells were isolated from small intestine with EDTA, and the RNA was extracted from both wild-type and interferon (IFN)-gamma receptor knockout mice. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured by Northern blotting, RNase protection assay, and real-time polymerase chain reaction and Ia localized by immunohistochemistry. By day 31, CIITA mRNA was induced in the intestinal epithelium of normally weaned wild-type mice, and this mirrored the expression of Ii chain mRNA. Mice weaned onto an elemental diet did not exhibit Ii mRNA or increased CIITA mRNA in the intestinal epithelium by day 31, but low levels of Ii mRNA were detectable by day 45. Of the 3 isoforms of CIITA, weaning onto a complex diet induced only CIITA IV by day 31. Mice deficient in the IFN-gamma receptor expressed Ia in the epithelium and they also accumulated Ii mRNA (at low levels) by day 45, irrespective of diet. CIITA III mRNA accumulation mirrored the dietary-independent changes of Ii mRNA. Two mechanisms regulate Ii in the mouse intestinal epithelium: a rapid one, which is diet-induced acting through CIITA IV; and a slower, dietary-independent pathway, acting through CIITA III.

  7. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus x Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-03-31

    Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Longissimus lumborum (LL) from Angus (n = 6) and Angus x Simmental (A x S; n = 6) steer calves (155 +/- 10 days age) fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 +/- 0.57 Mcal/d) across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A x S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD) increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4) being less pronounced in A x S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L) and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 microg/L) by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A x S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM). Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold) occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A x S steers. The lipogenic

  8. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus × Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Results Longissimus lumborum (LL) from Angus (n = 6) and Angus × Simmental (A × S; n = 6) steer calves (155 ± 10 days age) fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 ± 0.57 Mcal/d) across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A × S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD) increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4) being less pronounced in A × S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L) and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 μg/L) by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A × S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM). Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold) occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A × S steers. The

  9. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus × Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graugnard Daniel E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Results Longissimus lumborum (LL from Angus (n = 6 and Angus × Simmental (A × S; n = 6 steer calves (155 ± 10 days age fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6 or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6 diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 ± 0.57 Mcal/d across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A × S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4 being less pronounced in A × S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 μg/L by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A × S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM. Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A

  10. Analysis of weaning-induced stress in Saanen goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, D; Aufy, A A; Pinotti, L; Rosi, F

    2013-08-01

    In young ruminants' life, weaning often coincides with a period of growth stasis and poor welfare. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of coping with the new diet on behavioural and haematological stress indicators in goat kids subjected to a commonly adopted weaning practice. Immediately after birth, male Saanen goat kids were divided into two groups: MILK and WMIX. All were fed colostrum for the first 3 days and then goat milk to the age of 29 days. After that, MILK kids continued to receive milk, while the WMIX kids underwent weaning and were completely weaned by day 48. Animal behaviour was recorded daily. From day 23-50, blood samples were taken weekly and analysed for indicators of stress and immune function. No abnormal behaviour, such as injurious behaviours or stereotypies, was observed in either of the experimental groups throughout the experimental period. During the last week, fasting plasma cortisol level was significantly lower, whereas plasma activity of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly higher in WMIX kids, in relation to the MILK ones. Anyway, data were within the normal physiological range and no difference was observed neither in plasma haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, albumin and antithrombin III, nor in plasma immunoglobulin A and G, at any time, signalling no stressful condition. Therefore, differences observed in cortisol, ALT and AST could be the consequence of the metabolic changes that occur during the transition from pre-ruminant to ruminant state. The gradual weaning at 48 days of age did not result in any stressful condition and had no negative effect on weight gain. Results suggest that parameters commonly adopted to provide information on animal stress, such as cortisol and aminotransferase activity, can vary in relation to the physiological status of the animals and may bias stress assessment. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Diet and aging: bearing on thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A; Dawson, Beryl

    2005-02-01

    Diet is one of the environmental factors that influences thrombosis and hemostasis. Macronutrients, micronutrients, and other bioactive food components alter the predisposition to thrombosis. The type and amount of dietary fat has been shown to alter thromboxane A2 production and platelet aggregation, bleeding time, factor VII, fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Both epidemiological studies and clinical trials indicate that the very long chain n-3 fatty acids lower thrombotic tendency and risk of heart disease. Other polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fat appear to have antithrombotic properties, but further studies are indicated. Hypercaloric diets and those with high glycemic loads are associated with elevations of PAI-1. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with decreased platelet aggregation. Low intakes of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 predispose to hyperhomocysteinemia, and the benefits of supplementation in decreasing vascular disease are under investigation. In a limited number of clinical and laboratory studies, vitamin E has been shown to decrease platelet aggregation and the concentration of PAI-1. Flavonoids and isoflavones appear to inhibit platelet aggregation at pharmacologic concentrations only. Nutritional status frequently declines with aging and may exacerbate the already increased risk for thrombosis. Diet presents an interesting area for research into thrombophilia, but additional work is indicated before specific recommendations are made.

  12. Isoleucine and valine supplementation of crude protein-reduced diets for pigs aged 5-8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment had two purposes: (i) to study crystalline amino acid supplementation to crude protein-reduced diets, and (ii) to study the effect of different isoleucine (Ile) to lysine (Lys) and valine (Val) to Lys ratios in diets for young pigs. A total of 145 pigs were weaned at 28 days...... the PRD diet. These results indicate that Val is limiting before Ile, when reduced relative to Lys. By supplying crystalline amino acids, dietary crude protein can be reduced without negative effects on animal performance....... and fed one of 5 diets for a total of 4 weeks. Two basal diets were formulated to provide crude protein in levels either as recommended (positive reference diet, PRD), or below recommendations (negative reference diet, NRD). The basal diets contained 95% of recommended Lys, and all other essential amino...

  13. Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δC) in Organs of Weaned Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Borges Amorim; Dirlei Antonio Berto; Mayra Anton Dib Saleh; Filipe Garcia Telles; Juliana Célia Denadai; Maria Márcia Pereira Sartori; Fabiana Golin Luiggi; Luan Sousa Santos; Carlos Ducatti

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and physiological alterations occur in the digestive system of weanling piglets, compromising the performance in subsequent phases. This experiment aimed at verifying the influence of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides on the carbon turnover in the pancreas and liver of piglets weaned at 21 days of age. Four diets were evaluated: glutamine, glutamic acid or nucleotides-free diet (CD); containing 1% glutamine (GD); containing 1% glutamic acid (GAD) and containing 1% nucleotides...

  14. The effects of weaning age, diet composition, and categorisation of creep feed intake by piglets on diarrhoea and performance after weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, J; Halas, D; Thorup, F

    2007-01-01

    with animal and vegetable (‘mixed') protein sources (COMM), (ii) heat-processed rice (HPR) with barley hulls and potato starch and mixed protein sources (RBHPS), (iii) HPR with sugar-beet pulp and mixed protein sources (RSBP), and (iv) HPR with mixed protein sources (R). Piglets were individually examined...

  15. Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Yannakoulia, Mary; Kosmidis, Mary H; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Giorgos M; Sakka, Paraskevi; Arampatzi, Xanthi; Bougea, Anastasia; Labropoulos, Ioannis; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with a decreased risk of many degenerative diseases and cognitive function in particular; however, relevant information from Mediterranean regions, where the prototype Mediterranean diet is typically adhered to, have been very limited. Additionally, predefined Mediterranean diet (MeDi) scores with use of a priori cut-offs have been used very rarely, limiting comparisons between different populations and thus external validity of the associations. Finally, associations between individual components of MeDi (i.e., food groups, macronutrients) and particular aspects of cognitive performance have rarely been explored. We evaluated the association of adherence to an a priori defined Mediterranean dietary pattern and its components with dementia and specific aspects of cognitive function in a representative population cohort in Greece. Participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD), an on-going population-based study, exploring potential associations between diet and cognitive performance in a representative sample from Greek regions, were included in this analysis. Diagnosis of dementia was made by a full clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, while cognitive performance was assessed according to five cognitive domains (memory, language, attention-speed, executive functioning, visuospatial perception) and a composite cognitive score. Adherence to MeDi was evaluated by an a priori score (range 0-55), derived from a detailed food frequency questionnaire. Among 1,865 individuals (mean age 73±6 years, 41% male), 90 were diagnosed with dementia and 223 with mild cognitive impairment. Each unit increase in the Mediterranean dietary score (MedDietScore) was associated with a 10% decrease in the odds for dementia. Adherence to the MeDi was also associated with better performance in memory, language, visuospatial perception and the composite cognitive score; the associations were

  16. Efeito da idade do desmame no desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte até os 14/15 meses de idade Effect of weaning age on beef heifers growth until 14/15 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz

    2010-02-01

    cultivated summer (Pennisetum americanum and winter/spring (Avena strigosa Schreb and Lolium multiflorum Lam cultivated pastures. Body weight, daily Body weight gain and body condition were assessed every 28 days. There was interaction between weaning age and year for body weight and weight gain. Early weaning did not influence body weight but the body weight was smaller at 147 days in the animals born in 2005 and 2006. The avegage daily gain between the weaning ages was similar in the three years for early weaning (0.538, 0.477 and 0.472 kg, respectively, but increased significantly in the conventional weaning as the years progressed (0.516, 0.704 and 1.040 kg respectively. The average daily weight gain on Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum pasture was similar for both treatments. The weight at the beginning of the reproduction period for early weaned heifers in 2004 (283.4 kg was higher than in 2005 (260.7 kg, while for conventional weaning there was no difference between years (272.9 and 263.8 kg, respectively. The body condition at the beginning of the reproduction period was affected by the year of observation. Calf age was positively correlated to weight at conventional weaning (r = 0.510 and beginning of the reproduction period (r = 0.491. Both weaning ages showed the possibility of mating beef heifers at 14/15 months of age.

  17. Gastrointestinal dysfunction induced by early weaning is attenuated by delayed weaning and mast cell blockade in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeser, Adam J; Ryan, Kathleen A; Nighot, Prashant K; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2007-08-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that weaning at 19 days of age has deleterious effects on mucosal barrier function in piglet intestine that are mediated through peripheral CRF receptor signaling pathways. The objectives of the present study were to assess the impact of piglet age on weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and to determine the role that mast cells play in weaning-induced breakdown of mucosal barrier function. Nursing Yorkshire-cross piglets were either weaned at 19 days of age (early-weaned, n = 8) or 28 days of age (late-weaned, n = 8) and housed in nursery pens. Twenty-four hours postweaning, segments of midjejunum and ascending colon from piglets within each weaning age group were harvested and mounted on Ussing chambers for measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance and serosal-to-mucosal [(3)H]mannitol fluxes. Early weaning resulted in reductions in transepithelial electrical resistance and increases in mucosal permeability to [(3)H]mannitol in the jejunum and colon (P piglets weaned at 28 days of age. Early-weaned piglet intestinal mucosa had increased expression of CRF receptor 1 protein, increased mucosal mast cell tryptase levels, and evidence of enhanced mast cell degranulation compared with late-weaned intestinal mucosa. Pretreatment of piglets with the mast cell stabilizer drug cromolyn, injected intraperitoneally 30 min prior to weaning, abolished the early-weaning-induced intestinal barrier disturbances. Our results indicate that early-weaning stress induces mucosal dysfunction mediated by intestinal mast cell activation and can be prevented by delaying weaning.

  18. Age, introduction of solid feed and weaning are more important determinants of gut bacterial succession in piglets than breed and nursing mother as revealed by a reciprocal cross-fostering model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Shouqing; Zhu, Zhigang; Su, Yong; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Mackie, Roderick; Liu, Junhua; Mu, Chunlong; Huang, Ruihua; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the acquisition and development gut bacteria from birth until after weaning. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes results revealed an age- and

  19. Uso de plasma suíno desidratado por Spray-Dryer na dieta de leitões desmamados precocemente The use of Spray-Dried porcine plasma in early-weaned pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Afonso F. Butolo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso do plasma suíno desidratado (PSD, na dieta de leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade. Cento e vinte leitões, com peso médio inicial de 5,75 kg, foram usados para testar os níveis de inclusão de 0; 2,5; 5,0; e 7,5% de plasma na fase 1 (0 a 14 dias e o seu efeito na fase 2 (14 a 28 dias. À exceção dos leitões mantidos em dieta controle, o restante foi alimentado com ração inicial com 2,5% PSD e 2,5% de hemácias desidratadas no período 15 a 28 dias pós-desmama. As dietas foram formuladas para conter nas fases 1 e 2, respectivamente, 1,40 e 1,20% de lisina, 0,54 e 0,41% de metionina e 15 e 8% de lactose. Foi usado delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições por tratamento e seis animais por unidade experimental. O consumo médio diário de ração aumentou linearmente, nas fases 1 e 2, com o aumento de PSD na ração. No período de 0 a 28 dias, houve resposta linear para o consumo médio diário de ração para os níveis de PSD da fase 1. O plasma estimulou maior consumo de ração pré-inicial, nas duas semanas subseqüentes ao desmame. Este efeito foi mantido durante a segunda fase (15 a 28 dias pós-desmame, quando foi usada na ração inicial combinação de 2,5% de plasma e 2,5% de hemácias desidratada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP in the diet of 21 day-weaned pig. One hundred and twenty piglets averaging 5.75 kg of initial weight were used to test the inclusion levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% of porcine plasma on phase 1 (from 0 to 14 days and its effects on phase 2 (from 15 to 28 days. Except for the piglets in the control diet, all other animals were fed a starter diet with 2.5% of SDPP and 2.5% of spray-dried red blood cell (SDBC during 15 to 28-day-post weaning period. The diets were formulated to contain in the phases 1 and 2, respectively, 1.4 and 1.2% of lysine, .54 and .42% of methionine, and 15

  20. A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase activity in aging cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Marta; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Casoli, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Solazzi, Moreno; Platano, Daniela; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Impairment of energy metabolism and an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production seem to play a major role in age-related apoptotic loss of cardiomyocytes. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) is an important marker of the mitochondrial capability to provide an adequate amount of ATP. Moreover, because of its unique redox properties, SDH activity contributes to maintain the reduced state of the ubiquinone pool. Recent reports have shown that ketone body intake improves cardiac metabolic efficiency and exerts a cardioprotective antioxidant action, we therefore performed a cytochemical investigation of SDH activity in cardiomyocytes of late-adult (19-month-old) rats fed for 8 weeks with a medium-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet (MCT-KD). Young, age-matched and old animals fed with a standard chow were used as controls. The overall area of the precipitates (PA) from SDH activity and the area of the SDH-positive mitochondria (MA) were measured. The percent ratios PA/MA and MA/total myocardial tissue area (MA/TA) were the parameters taken into account. We found that PA/MA was significantly higher in young control rats and in MCT-KD-fed rats versus late-adult and old control rats and in young control versus MCT-KD-fed rats. MA/TA of MCT-KD-fed rats was significantly higher versus age-matched and old control rats and tended to be higher versus young control rats; this parameter was significantly higher in young versus old control rats. Thus, MCT-KD intake partially recovers age-related decrease of SDH activity and increases the myocardial area occupied by metabolically active mitochondria. These effects might counteract metabolic alterations leading to apoptosis-induced myocardial atrophy and failure during aging.

  1. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  2. Desenvolvimento pós-desmame, escores visuais ao sobreano e características de carcaça de novilhas desmamadas aos 100 ou 180 dias de idade Post-weaning growth, visual scores at yearling age and carcass traits of heifers weaned at 100 or 180 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Augusto Albornoz Pötter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do desmame aos 100 (DP ou 180 (DC dias de idade no desenvolvimento de fêmeas Braford até os 18 meses. As bezerras do DP foram suplementadas diariamente por 63 dias a 1% do peso vivo com ração comercial contendo 18% de proteína bruta e 74% de nutrientes digestíveis totais. Avaliou-se o ganho médio diário do nascimento aos 205 dias (G205, deste aos 365 dias (G365 e do último aos 550 dias (G550. Tomou-se o peso vivo ajustado aos 205 (P205, 365 (P365 e 550 dias de idade (P550. Ao sobreano, os escores visuais de conformação (C, precocidade (P e musculatura (M foram avaliados e a área de olho de lombo (AOL e a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS, medidas pela técnica de ultra-som. O G205 e o P205 foram significativamente inferiores para as novilhas do DP (0,752 kg/dia; 187,0 kg em relação às novilhas do DC (0,885 kg/dia; 214,1 kg. Entretanto, as novilhas do DP tiveram G365 significativamente superiores (0,231 kg/dia às novilhas do DC (0,112 kg/dia, ocasionando P365 semelhantes entre tratamentos (DP = 223,9 kg; DC = 231,9 kg. O G550 não diferiu entre tratamentos, sendo 0,525 kg/dia para as novilhas do DP e 0,513 kg/dia para as novilhas do DC. Conseqüentemente, o P550 também não sofreu influência da idade de desmame (DP = 320,6 kg; DC = 326,3 kg. Os escores visuais de C, P e M não foram influenciados pela idade de desmame, sendo as médias para as novilhas do DP de 4,0; 4,1 e 3,6 para C, P e M e para as do DC de 4,2; 4,1 e 3,9, respectivamente. A idade de desmame também não influenciou a AOL (DP = 41,4 cm²; DC = 43,3 cm² e a EGS (DP = 2,5 mm; DC = 2,7 mm. Os resultados indicam que novilhas desmamadas aos 100 dias de idade são mais leves ao desmame, porém, com nível nutricional adequado, alcançam aos 12 e 18 meses pesos vivos semelhantes às desmamadas aos seis meses de idade.This work was conducted with the aim to evaluate the influence of weaning age at

  3. Bile acid mediated effects on gut integrity and performance of early-weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Diego-Cabero, Nuria; Mereu, Alessandro; Menoyo, David

    2015-01-01

    of body weight (BW) were randomly assigned (n = 18) to receive a standard prestarter diet or the same diet supplemented with 60 mg of CDC per kg of initial BW for ad libitum intake until day 14 postweaning. Thereafter, all pigs were fed the same untreated starter diet for 21 days until the end......Background Early weaning (EW) results in a transient period of impaired integrity of the intestinal mucosa that may be associated with reduced plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-(GLP) 2. We have previously shown that intragastric infusion of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC) increases...... circulating GLP-2 in early-weaned piglets. The aim of this study was to expand previous work to establish whether feeding piglets a cereal-based diet supplemented with CDC can improve gut integrity and animal performance immediately after EW. A cohort of 36 piglets weaned at 20 days of age, 6.2 ± 0.34 kg...

  4. Gene expression is altered in piglet small intestine by weaning and dietary glutamine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Lixiang; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; Zhou, Huaijun; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2008-06-01

    Dietary supplementation of glutamine prevents intestinal dysfunction and atrophy in weanling piglets, but the underlying mechanism(s) are largely unknown. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that weaning or glutamine may modulate expression of genes that are crucial for intestinal metabolism and function. In Expt. 1, we obtained small intestine from 28-d-old pigs weaned at 21 d of age and from age-matched suckling piglets. In Expt. 2, piglets were weaned at 21 d of age and then had free access to diets supplemented with 1% L-glutamine (wt:wt) or isonitrogenous L-alanine (control). At d 28, we collected small intestine for biochemical and morphological measurements and microarray analysis of gene expression using the Operon Porcine Genome Oligo set. Early weaning resulted in increased (52-346%) expression of genes related to oxidative stress and immune activation but decreased (35-77%) expression of genes related to macronutrient metabolism and cell proliferation in the gut. Dietary glutamine supplementation increased intestinal expression (120-124%) of genes that are necessary for cell growth and removal of oxidants, while reducing (34-75%) expression of genes that promote oxidative stress and immune activation. Functionally, the glutamine treatment enhanced intestinal oxidative-defense capacity (indicated by a 29% increase in glutathione concentration), prevented jejunal atrophy, and promoted small intestine growth (+12%) and body weight gain (+19%) in weaned piglets. These findings reveal coordinate alterations of gene expression in response to weaning and aid in providing molecular mechanisms for the beneficial effect of dietary glutamine supplementation to improve nutrition status in young mammals.

  5. Antral follicle populations and embryo production--in vitro and in vivo--of Bos indicus-taurus donors from weaning to yearling ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, K C; Santos, G M G; Koetz Júnior, C; Morotti, F; Siloto, L S; Marcantonio, T N; Urbano, M R; Oliveira, R L; Lima, D C M; Seneda, M M

    2014-04-01

    Interest in indicus-taurus cattle has been increasing, as these animals are likely to present the best characteristics of Zebu and European bovine breeds. The aim of this study was to compare the embryo production of indicus-taurus donors with high vs low antral follicle counts obtained by ovum pickup/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) and superovulation (SOV)/embryo collection. Braford females at weaning age (3/8 Nelore × 5/8 Hereford, n = 137, 9 ± 1 month old) were subjected to six serial ovarian ultrasonographs and were assigned to two groups according to the number of antral follicles ≥ 3 mm as follows: G-High antral follicular count (AFC, n = 20, mean ≥ 40 follicles) and G-Low AFC (n = 20, mean ≤ 10 follicles). When the females (n = 40) reached 24 months of age, they were subjected to both OPU/IVP and SOV/embryo collection. The average number of follicles remained highly stable throughout all of the ultrasound evaluations (range 0.90-0.92). The mean number of COCs recovered (36.90 ± 13.68 vs 5.80 ± 3.40) was higher (p taurus females. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Adult Lifetime Diet Quality and Physical Performance in Older Age: Findings From a British Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sian M; Westbury, Leo D; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana; Ward, Kate; Syddall, Holly E; Sayer, Avan A; Cooper, Cyrus

    2017-10-13

    Current evidence that links "healthier" dietary patterns to better measured physical performance is mainly from older populations; little is known about the role of earlier diet. We examined adult diet quality in relation to physical performance at age 60-64 years. Diet quality was defined using principal component analysis of dietary data collected at age 36, 43, 53, and 60-64. Throughout adulthood, diets of higher quality were characterized by higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, and wholegrain bread. Diet quality scores calculated at each age indicated compliance with this pattern. Physical performance was assessed using chair rise, timed-up-and-go, and standing balance tests at age 60-64. The analysis sample included 969 men and women. In gender-adjusted analyses, higher diet quality at each age was associated with better measured physical performance (all p Diet quality scores were highly correlated in adulthood (0.44 ≤ r ≤ 0.67). However, conditional models showed that higher diet quality at age 60-64 (than expected from scores at younger ages), was associated with faster chair rise speed and with longer standing balance time (adjusted: 0.08 [95% CI: 0.02, 0.15] and 0.07 [0.01, 0.14] SD increase in chair rise speed and balance time, respectively, per SD increase in conditional diet quality; both p diet quality across adulthood is associated with better physical performance in older age. Current diet quality may be particularly important for physical performance, suggesting potential for improvements in diet in early older age.

  7. Could post-weaning dietary chia seed mitigate the development of dyslipidemia, liver steatosis and altered glucose homeostasis in offspring exposed to a sucrose-rich diet from utero to adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortino, M A; Oliva, M E; Rodriguez, S; Lombardo, Y B; Chicco, A

    2017-01-01

    The present work analyzes the effects of dietary chia seeds during postnatal life in offspring exposed to a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) from utero to adulthood. At weaning, chia seed (rich in α-linolenic acid) replaced corn oil (rich in linoleic acid) in the SRD. At 150 days of offspring life, anthropometrical parameters, blood pressure, plasma metabolites, hepatic lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis were analyzed. Results showed that chia was able to prevent the development of hypertension, liver steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Normal triacylglycerol secretion and triacylglycerol clearance were accompanied by an improvement of de novo hepatic lipogenic and carnitine-palmitoyl transferase-1 enzymatic activities, associated with an accretion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total composition of liver homogenate. Glucose homeostasis and plasma free fatty acid levels were improved while visceral adiposity was slightly decreased. These results confirm that the incorporation of chia seed in the diet in postnatal life may provide a viable therapeutic option for preventing/mitigating adverse outcomes induced by an SRD from utero to adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isotopic reconstruction of the weaning process in the archaeological population of Canímar Abajo, Cuba: A Bayesian probability mixing model approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Chinique de Armas

    Full Text Available The general lack of well-preserved juvenile skeletal remains from Caribbean archaeological sites has, in the past, prevented evaluations of juvenile dietary changes. Canímar Abajo (Cuba, with a large number of well-preserved juvenile and adult skeletal remains, provided a unique opportunity to fully assess juvenile paleodiets from an ancient Caribbean population. Ages for the start and the end of weaning and possible food sources used for weaning were inferred by combining the results of two Bayesian probability models that help to reduce some of the uncertainties inherent to bone collagen isotope based paleodiet reconstructions. Bone collagen (31 juveniles, 18 adult females was used for carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses. The isotope results were assessed using two Bayesian probability models: Weaning Ages Reconstruction with Nitrogen isotopes and Stable Isotope Analyses in R. Breast milk seems to have been the most important protein source until two years of age with some supplementary food such as tropical fruits and root cultigens likely introduced earlier. After two, juvenile diets were likely continuously supplemented by starch rich foods such as root cultigens and legumes. By the age of three, the model results suggest that the weaning process was completed. Additional indications suggest that animal marine/riverine protein and maize, while part of the Canímar Abajo female diets, were likely not used to supplement juvenile diets. The combined use of both models here provided a more complete assessment of the weaning process for an ancient Caribbean population, indicating not only the start and end ages of weaning but also the relative importance of different food sources for different age juveniles.

  9. Isotopic reconstruction of the weaning process in the archaeological population of Canímar Abajo, Cuba: A Bayesian probability mixing model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinique de Armas, Yadira; Roksandic, Mirjana; Nikitović, Dejana; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Smith, David; Kanik, Nadine; García Jordá, Dailys; Buhay, William M

    2017-01-01

    The general lack of well-preserved juvenile skeletal remains from Caribbean archaeological sites has, in the past, prevented evaluations of juvenile dietary changes. Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a large number of well-preserved juvenile and adult skeletal remains, provided a unique opportunity to fully assess juvenile paleodiets from an ancient Caribbean population. Ages for the start and the end of weaning and possible food sources used for weaning were inferred by combining the results of two Bayesian probability models that help to reduce some of the uncertainties inherent to bone collagen isotope based paleodiet reconstructions. Bone collagen (31 juveniles, 18 adult females) was used for carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses. The isotope results were assessed using two Bayesian probability models: Weaning Ages Reconstruction with Nitrogen isotopes and Stable Isotope Analyses in R. Breast milk seems to have been the most important protein source until two years of age with some supplementary food such as tropical fruits and root cultigens likely introduced earlier. After two, juvenile diets were likely continuously supplemented by starch rich foods such as root cultigens and legumes. By the age of three, the model results suggest that the weaning process was completed. Additional indications suggest that animal marine/riverine protein and maize, while part of the Canímar Abajo female diets, were likely not used to supplement juvenile diets. The combined use of both models here provided a more complete assessment of the weaning process for an ancient Caribbean population, indicating not only the start and end ages of weaning but also the relative importance of different food sources for different age juveniles.

  10. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  11. High Fat Diets Sex-Specifically Affect the Renal Transcriptome and Program Obesity, Kidney Injury, and Hypertension in the Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lin, Yu-Ju; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-04-03

    Obesity and related disorders have increased concurrently with an increased consumption of saturated fatty acids. We examined whether post-weaning high fat (HF) diet would exacerbate offspring vulnerability to maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension and kidney disease sex-specifically, with a focus on the kidney. Next, we aimed to elucidate the gene-diet interactions that contribute to maternal HF-induced renal programming using the next generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND) or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets) for five weeks before the delivery. The offspring of both sexes were put on either the ND or HF diet from weaning to six months of age, resulting in four groups of each sex (maternal diet/post-weaning diet; n = 5-7/group): ND/ND, ND/HF, HF/ND, and HF/HF. Post-weaning HF diet increased bodyweights of both ND/HF and HF/HF animals from three to six months only in males. Post-weaning HF diet increased systolic blood pressure in male and female offspring, irrespective of whether they were exposed to maternal HF or not. Male HF/HF offspring showed greater degrees of glomerular and tubular injury compared to the ND/ND group. Our NGS data showed that maternal HF diet significantly altered renal transcriptome with female offspring being more HF-sensitive. HF diet induced hypertension and renal injury are associated with oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulated sodium transporters and circadian clock. Post-weaning HF diet sex-specifically exacerbates the development of obesity, kidney injury, but not hypertension programmed by maternal HF intake. Better understanding of the sex-dependent mechanisms that underlie HF-induced renal programming will help develop a novel personalized dietary intervention to prevent obesity and related disorders.

  12. Personalized nutrigenomics: tailoring the diet to the aging diabesity population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Ruden

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Douglas M Ruden1, Xiangyi Lu21Wayne State University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C. S. Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, 190 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is estimated to double by the year 2025. Diabetes is especially prominent in the elderly population because the IDF indicates age above 45 years as a major risk factor for diabetes. The most common trials for controlling diabetes focus on tighter glucose control as a means to reduce the long-term complications. However, whether tight blood sugar control or other dietary or pharmaceutical interventions in the elderly are more appropriate is not known. Major changes have taken place in our diet over the past 10,000 years since the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution, but our genes have not changed. Furthermore, the large numbers of diabetic elderly in the population are a recent phenomenon, because those with diabetes have historically died young. Genetically speaking, humans today live in a nutritional environment that differs from that for which our genetic constitution was selected. For example a high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, found in today’s Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Knowing who is at risk would be useful if it meant that one could avoid the environmental triggers that convert susceptibility to disease. The prospect of targeting specific dietary treatments at the elderly, who are predicted to gain the most therapeutic benefits, clearly has important clinical and economic consequences. In this review, we will discuss modern molecular genetic and epidemiological techniques which are now, or soon will

  13. Age and diet affect gene expression profile in canine skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar S Middelbos

    Full Text Available We evaluated gene transcription in canine skeletal muscle (biceps femoris using microarray analysis to identify effects of age and diet on gene expression. Twelve female beagles were used (six 1-year olds and six 12-year olds and they were fed one of two experimental diets for 12 months. One diet contained primarily plant-based protein sources (PPB, whereas the second diet contained primarily animal-based protein sources (APB. Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome Arrays were used to hybridize extracted RNA. Age had the greatest effect on gene transcription (262 differentially expressed genes, whereas the effect of diet was relatively small (22 differentially expressed genes. Effects of age (regardless of diet were most notable on genes related to metabolism, cell cycle and cell development, and transcription function. All these genes were predominantly down-regulated in geriatric dogs. Age-affected genes that were differentially expressed on only one of two diets were primarily noted in the PPB diet group (144/165 genes. Again, genes related to cell cycle (22/35 and metabolism (15/19 had predominantly decreased transcription in geriatric dogs, but 6/8 genes related to muscle development had increased expression. Effects of diet on muscle gene expression were mostly noted in geriatric dogs, but no consistent patterns in transcription were observed. The insight these data provide into gene expression profiles of canine skeletal muscle as affected by age, could serve as a foundation for future research pertaining to age-related muscle diseases.

  14. Chronic growth faltering amongst a birth cohort of Indian children begins prior to weaning and is highly prevalent at three years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Shabbar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor growth of children in developing countries is a major public health problem associated with mortality, morbidity and developmental delay. We describe growth up to three years of age and investigate factors related to stunting (low height-for-age at three years of age in a birth cohort from an urban slum. Methods 452 children born between March 2002 and August 2003 were followed until their third birthday in three neighbouring slums in Vellore, South India. Field workers visited homes to collect details of morbidity twice a week. Height and weight were measured monthly from one month of age in a study-run clinic. For analysis, standardised z-scores were generated using the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Risk factors for stunting at three years of age were analysed in logistic regression models. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the effect of missing values. Results At age three years, of 186 boys and 187 girls still under follow-up, 109 (66%, 95% Confidence interval 58-73% boys and 93 (56%, 95% CI 49-64% girls were stunted, 14 (8%, 95% CI 4-13% boys and 12 (7%, 95% CI 3-11% girls were wasted (low weight-for-height and 72 (43%, 95% CI 36-51 boys and 66 (39%, 95% CI 31-47% girls were underweight (low weight-for-age. In total 224/331 (68% children at three years had at least one growth deficiency (were stunted and/or underweight and/or wasted; even as early as one month of age 186/377 (49% children had at least one growth deficiency. Factors associated with stunting at three years were birth weight less than 2.5 kg (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.36-9.70 'beedi-making' (manual production of cigarettes for a daily wage in the household (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.86, maternal height less than 150 cm (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.12-3.62, being stunted, wasted or underweight at six months of age (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05-2.93 and having at least one older sibling (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.51. Conclusion A high proportion of urban slum dwelling

  15. Performance responses and indicators of gastrointestinal health in early-weaned pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachoti, C M; Omogbenigun, F O; Rademacher, M; Blank, G

    2006-01-01

    The effects of low-protein AA-supplemented diets on piglet performance, visceral organ mass, incidence of diarrhea, intestinal microbial population, and fermentation were studied in a 3-wk trial. After a 7-d adaptation period, 96 piglets (approximately 6.2 kg of initial BW) were assigned to 4 corn-wheat, soybean meal-based dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to give 6 replicate pens per treatment (n = 4 piglets per pen). The treatments were a control wheat-corn-soybean meal-based phase I diet containing 23% CP, or the same diet with CP reduced to 21%, 19%, or 17% and supplemented with crystalline AA to achieve equal standardized ileal digestible contents of Lys, Met plus Cys, Thr, and Trp in all diets. Diets were formulated to similar nutrient levels and provided ad libitum. Blood from all pigs was taken on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 for determining plasma urea N. Weekly feed intake, BW changes, and G:F were determined. On d 21, 2 pigs per pen were randomly selected and killed to determine small intestinal morphology, digesta pH and ammonia levels, and luminal microbial counts. Average daily feed intake, ADG, and G:F were not affected (P > 0.10) by reducing CP to 21%, but a reduction to 19% or 17% decreased ADFI (P 0.10) on G:F; however, this response criterion was decreased linearly (P 0.10) with dietary CP reduction. Plasma urea N was decreased linearly (P piglets fed low-protein diets were generally lower (P 0.10). The results show that piglet performance may suffer when dietary CP is reduced by 4 or more percentage units from 23% and support the hypothesis that low-CP diets help maintain enteric health in pigs by lowering toxic microbial metabolites such as ammonia.

  16. Relationships between individual behavioural traits and post-weaning growth in segregated early-weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux; Martineau; Robert

    2000-11-01

    Piglets' individual behavioural traits have been studied in the last decade but no report has linked these traits with growth. This experiment was conducted to determine if behavioural traits of segregated early-weaned piglets could be good predictors of their post-weaning growth and, thus, help to predict their adaptation to early weaning. Following segregated early weaning at 17+/-1 days old, 252 piglets were submitted to three tests between 20 and 25 days of age: open-field, reaction to humans and rank order based on competition for a restricted-access feeder. The body weight of each piglet was measured the day before weaning and once a week for the next 4 weeks. A principal component analysis yielded five factors with an Eigenvalue higher than 0.90 that accounted for 81% of the total variation between individuals: reaction to humans (25%), active response to stress (21%), passive response to stress (14%), feeding behaviour (10%) and rank order (9%). Passive reaction to stress was associated with better weight gain during the first week post-weaning (r=0.18; P=0.01), and a positive correlation was found between social status and weight gain during the 4 weeks following weaning (-0.15weaning.

  17. Effects of feeding diets containing highly peroxidized distillers dried grains with solubles and increasing vitamin E levels to wean-finish pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, R; Chen, C; Johnston, L J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Shurson, G C

    2014-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation in animal feed can negatively affect growth performance and meat quality. Weanling pigs (n = 432; BW = 6.6 ± 0.4 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding peroxidized distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with 3 levels of vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) on growth performance, carcass composition, fatty acid composition of pork fat, and lipid peroxidation in LM. The DDGS source used in this study contained the highest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide value, and total S content (5.2 ng malondialdehyde/mg oil, 84.1 mEq/kg oil, and 0.95%, respectively) among 30 DDGS sources sampled. Pens within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 diets in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 8 pens per treatment and 9 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal (CON) or 30% peroxidized DDGS (Ox-DDGS) diets with 3 levels of vitamin E: none supplemented (No-E), NRC (1X-E), or 10X NRC (10X-E). Compared to CON, inclusion of 30% Ox-DDGS in diets reduced (P vitamin E concentrations improved G:F (P = 0.03) of pigs fed 10X-E and 1X-E vs. No-E diets (0.39 and 0.39 vs. 0.38, respectively). Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat depth, and LM area were reduced (P vitamin E levels did not affect fatty acid profiles in belly or back fat. Loin muscle TBARS were measured to determine the lipid peroxidation level in pork loins. Although pigs were fed a Ox-DDGS source in this study, TBARS in LM were similar between Ox-DDGS and CON treatments. There was no interaction between Ox-DDGS and dietary vitamin E concentration in LM TBARS. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in LM was greater (P E than No-E or 1X-E dietary treatments. Compared to CON, feeding Ox-DDGS increased α-tocopherol concentration in LM of pigs fed No-E (1.0 vs. 3.1 mg/kg; P = 0.005) but not in those fed 1X-E or 10X-E. These results indicate that feeding diets containing 30% Ox-DDGS to wean-finish pigs may negatively affect growth performance

  18. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Diet Composition and Caloric Restriction Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamic were applied to statistical databases on nutrition and human growth in order to estimate the entropy generation over the human lifespan. The calculations were performed for the cases of variation in the diet composition and calorie restriction diets; and results were compared to a base case in which lifespan entropy generation was found to be 11 404 kJ/K per kg of body mass, predicting a lifespan of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average male and female individuals respectively. From the analysis of the results, it was found that changes of diet % of fat and carbohydrates do not have a significant impact on predicted lifespan, while the diet % of proteins has an important effect. Reduction of diet protein % to the minimum recommended in nutrition literature yields an average increase of 3.3 years on the predicted lifespan. Changes in the calorie content of the diet also have an important effect, yielding a % increase in lifespan equal or higher than the % reduction in the diet caloric content. This correlates well experimental data on small mammal and insects, in which lifespan has been increased by diet restriction.

  19. Leitões recém-desmamados alimentados com dietas contendo proteína láctea e zinco suplementar Weaned piglets fed diets with milk protein and supplemental zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Livio Panhoza Tse

    2010-09-01

    lasted 14 days and it was carried out using 60 piglets weaned at 21 days of age (5.43 ± 0.46 kg in a complete random design, in a 2 x 2 factorial composed of two levels of milk protein (with and without, 4% and two levels of zinc (with or without, 2,250 ppm in the diet. In the 1-7 day experiment period, zinc provided better feed conversion and the in the 1-14 day experiment period, it promoted higher body weight at 14 days and higher weight gain. Supply of milk protein in the diet worsened feed conversion in the two phases (from 1 to 7 days and from 1 to 14 days of the experiment and it resulted in a lower crypts depth in the jejunum and a higher villous height on day 14 of the experiment. On the 7th day of the experiment, there was an interaction among milk protein and supplemental zinc for villous height:crypts depth relationship, which was also higher for animals fed milk protein. The addition of zinc in the diet reduced insuline-like growth factor concentration and the average weight of the liver on day 14 of the experiment while the use of milk protein increased IGF-I concentrations. The inclusion of milk protein improves feed conversion, affects intestine morphology and increases IGF-I concentration, but supplementation of zinc is not efficient to affect levels of growth hormone in the organism.

  20. Influence of weaning age on the reproductive efficiency of primiparous cows Influência da idade de desmame na eficiência reprodutiva de vacas primíparas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of weaning age (90 days or 156 days of female beef calves were evaluated on their subsequent performance from the beginning of the first pregnancy and the end of the second breeding season, at 22/24 months of age. During pregnancy, heifers were managed as a single group on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture; after calving, on bristle oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; and on Brachiaria humidicula pasture during the second reproductive period. The characteristics studied were not influenced by calf weaning age. Heifers submitted to early or conventional weaning weighed 354.5 and 351.9 kg in the post-calving, and 363.4 and 359.2 kg when they weaned their calves. Average daily gain during the breeding season was 0.562 kg, and body condition score was 3.10 and 3.93 at the beginning and end of the experiment, respectively. Average calf birth and weaning weights were not influenced by dam weaning age, and were 28.7 ± 0.74; 86.5 ± 3.26 and 27.4 ± 0.92; 90.3 ± 4.04 kg, respectively, for dams submitted to early or conventional weaning. Dystocia, calving, birth, and weaning rates were not different between weaning ages, with mean values of 29.5; 95.3; 77.3 e 73.4%. Conception rates were 47.9% in the initial third and 40.8% in the second third versus 11.3% in the final third of the breeding season. Heifer average age at conception was 438 and 434 days for early weaning and conventional weaning. Pregnancy rates and production efficiency estimates at calving and calf weaning were not affected by heifer weaning age. Heifer early weaning did not affect their subsequent performance until the end of the second breeding season, at 22/24 months of age.Avaliaram-se os efeitos da idade de desmame (aos 90 dias e aos 156 dias de bezerras de corte sobre o seu desempenho subsequente entre o início da primeira gestação e o final do segundo período reprodutivo, aos 22/24 meses de idade. Durante a gestação, as

  1. Effect of levels of starch, fiber, and lactose on digestion and growth performance of early-weaned rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, I; Espinosa, A; García, J; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C

    2002-04-01

    The effect of source of carbohydrate on gut histology, digestion efficiency, and growth performance in early-weaned (25 d) rabbits at the starter period (25 to 39 d) was investigated. Six diets were factorially arranged to study the effect of partial substitution of starch (0, 25, or 50%) by lactose at two levels of fiber (30 or 36% NDF). Diets were formulated to meet or exceed essential nutrient requirements of growing rabbits. A feeding trial was conducted to measure the effect of treatments on growth performance in 252 rabbits that were fed the experimental diets in the starter period and thereafter received a common feed until 60 d of age. Fecal apparent digestibility was determined at 35 d of age in nine animals per diet. The four diets with extreme lactose content were used to determine ileal apparent digestibility of starch and lactose (nine replicates per diet), weights of stomach and cecum, stomach pH, cecal fermentation traits, amylase and disaccharidase activities (10 animals per diet), and jejunal morphology (six animals per diet). Weaning increased (P digestibility were not affected by dietary NDF or lactose level and averaged 73.8 and 90.8%, respectively. Substitution of starch by fiber and lactose affected ileal flux of starch plus lactose (by -0.5 and +1.7 g/d) and cecal pH (by +2.1 and -2.8%, respectively). Fecal NDF digestibility was relatively low (23.1% on average) and was not affected by treatments, whereas that of lactose and starch was almost complete. An increase of dietary NDF level led to an impairment of ADG and feed efficiency in the starter (P digestive capability of early-weaned rabbits is limited and should be taken into account to establish optimal levels and sources of carbohydrates in the starter diet.

  2. Influences on diet quality in older age: the importance of social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Ilse; Edwards, Mark; Jameson, Karen A; Syddall, Holly E; Dennison, Elaine; Gale, Catharine R; Baird, Janis; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Robinson, Sian

    2017-03-01

    poor diet quality is common among older people, but little is known about influences on food choice, including the role of psychosocial factors at this age. to identify psychosocial correlates of diet quality in a community-dwelling population of men and women aged 59-73 years; to describe relationships with change in diet quality over 10 years. Longitudinal cohort, Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS). HCS participants assessed at baseline (1998-2003: 1,048 men, 862 women); 183 men and 189 women re-assessed in 2011. diet was assessed by administered food frequency questionnaire; diet scores were calculated to describe diet quality at baseline and follow-up. A range of psychosocial factors (social support, social network, participation in leisure activities, depression and anxiety, sense of control) were assessed by questionnaire. at baseline, better diet quality was related to a range of social factors, including increased confiding/emotional social support (men and women), practical support (men) and a larger social network (women) (all P diet quality (P diet score over 10 years, in the follow-up sub-group. However, greater participation in leisure activities, especially cognitive activities, at baseline was associated with smaller declines in diet quality over the 10-year follow-up period for both men (P = 0.017) and women (P = 0.014). in community-dwelling older adults, a range of social factors, that includes greater participation in leisure activities, were associated with diets of better quality.

  3. Prevention of post weaning diarrhoea by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived product based on whole yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. H.; Damgaard, B. M.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether yeast derivate (YD) based on whole brewery yeast added to the creep feed of suckling and newly weaned piglets or to the creep feed of the piglets and the sow's diet prevented post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) or affected performance. Thirty sows...... and their litters were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: PSP (1.5 g/kg of YD to the sows’ feed from 1 wk before expected farrowing to weaning; 3 g/kg or 2 g/kg of YD added to the piglets’ creep feed from 2 wk of age until 2 wk post weaning (PW) and from wk 2 to 5 PW, respectively); PP (YD added...... to the piglets’ creep feed as in PSP); or C (control, no YD added). At weaning (4 wk of age) 2 individually housed piglets from all litters were subjected to either experimental Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge or placebo treatment on d 1 to 3 PW, whereas performance was measured on 3 group-housed piglets...

  4. Age- and diet-associated metabolome remodeling characterizes the aging process driven by damage accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanesov, Andrei S; Ma, Siming; Pierce, Kerry A; Yim, Sun Hee; Lee, Byung Cheon; Clish, Clary B; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-04-29

    Aging is thought to be associated with increased molecular damage, but representative markers vary across conditions and organisms, making it difficult to assess properties of cumulative damage throughout lifespan. We used nontargeted metabolite profiling to follow age-associated trajectories of >15,000 metabolites in Drosophila subjected to control and lifespan-extending diets. We find that aging is associated with increased metabolite diversity and low-abundance molecules, suggesting they include cumulative damage. Remarkably, the number of detected compounds leveled-off in late-life, and this pattern associated with survivorship. Fourteen percent of metabolites showed age-associated changes, which decelerated in late-life and long-lived flies. In contrast, known metabolites changed in abundance similarly to nontargeted metabolites and transcripts, but did not increase in diversity. Targeted profiling also revealed slower metabolism and accumulation of lifespan-limiting molecules. Thus, aging is characterized by gradual metabolome remodeling, and condition- and advanced age-associated deceleration of this remodeling is linked to mortality and molecular damage.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02077.001. Copyright © 2014, Avanesov et al.

  5. Perinatal exposure to a diet high in saturated fat, refined sugar and cholesterol affects behaviour, growth, and feed intake in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal

  6. Insulin-stimulating diets during the weaning-to-estrus interval do not improve fetal and placental development and uniformity in high-prolific multiparous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, J.G.M.; Soede, N.M.; Laurenssen, B.F.A.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity are important for piglet survival. Insulin-stimulating sow diets before mating may improve subsequent piglet birth weights and litter uniformity, but the physiological mechanisms involved are not clear. This study evaluated effects of different levels of

  7. The metabolic and neuroinflammatory changes induced by consuming a cafeteria diet are age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Deborah; Cecconello, Ana Lucia; Partata, Wania Aparecida; de Fraga, Luciano Stürmer; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Guedes, Renata Padilha

    2017-09-29

    To compare the effects of a palatable cafeteria diet on serum parameters and neuroinflammatory markers of young and aged female Wistar rats. Three-month-old (young) and 18-month-old (aged) female Wistar rats had access to a cafeteria diet (Caf-Young, Caf-Aged) or a standard chow diet (Std-Young, Std-Aged). The Caf-Young group showed a higher food consumption, weight gain, visceral fat depot, serum insulin and leptin levels, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than the Std-Young group. The Caf-Aged group exhibited an increase in interleukin-1 levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The number of GFAP-positive cells did not differ between the groups, but there was a diet effect in the cerebral cortex and an age effect in the hippocampus. Phospho-tau expression did not differ between the groups. The 3- and 18-month-old rats responded differently to a cafeteria diet. Insulin and leptin levels are elevated in young animals fed a cafeteria diet, whereas aged animals are prone to neuroinflammation (indicated by an increase in interleukin-1β levels). A combination of hypercaloric diet and senescence have detrimental effects on the inflammatory response in the brain, which may predispose to neurological diseases.

  8. Upper palaeolithic and late stone age human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaya, Maria V

    2005-07-01

    Undoubtedly modern mankind is an omnivorous species. Nevertheless, types of diet changed at the time of anthropogenesis. The Upper Palaeolithic period is the crucial time because of the appearance of anatomically modern humans in Europe. The main goal in this period investigation is to find the Neanderthal man-Upper Palaeolithic man diet distinction. A sharp early Holocene rise in humidity and temperature and melting of the permafrost resulted in the complete destruction of traditional migration routes, campsite losses, and the flora and fauna of inland territories changing. All these factors affected nutrition patterns, too. The comparison of the different Mesolithic and Neolithic groups' diet patterns allow us to discuss problems of the influence of cultural and ecological factors. The bone tissue chemical concentrations (Ca, Zn, Sr, Cu) from Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic burials are considered to reconstruct individual and group patterns of nutrition. The results of the atomic absorption method were used.

  9. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transitions from breast milk to other sources of nourishment. When to wean is a personal decision. A ... when you would typically be nursing. For an older child, try a healthy snack, offering a cup, ...

  10. Diet of the Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon elongatus): Differences by age, gender, and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Nancy E. Karraker; Hartwell H. Welsh; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2007-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are integral components of forest ecosystems and the examination of their feeding habits may provide useful information regarding various ecosystem processes. We studied the diet of the Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon elongatus) and assessed diet differences between age classes, genders, and seasons. The stomachs of 309...

  11. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    experimental hen house and the room temperature ranged from 19 to 30 °C throughout the laying cycle. The .... 3 Supplied per kilogram of diet 15 mg BHA, 80 mg ethoxyquin, 180 mg BHT, 60 mg citric acid. .... digestibility of the amino acids rather than on total amino acids concentration when MBM was supplemented.

  12. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg shape index and eggshell weight did not differ among treatments. Eggshell thickness and eggshell breaking strength were higher in hens fed with MBM as compared to control and OSM fed birds. Similar to the tendency in shell quality, MBM inclusion in the diet tended to enhance albumen height and Haugh unit.

  13. The use of phytobiotics in growth stimulation of weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Stamen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytogene feed additives (phytobiotics are plant origin compounds used in animal nutrition in order to improve their productivity by improving the production performance of animals, feed properties and the quality of food of animal origin. These additives stimulate animal growth by using their natural and physiological potentials and mechanisms providing conditions for the realization of the genetically projected production volumes. Data on the use of phytobiotics as growth stimulators are incomplete and often very contradictory, especially those related to their impact on the health and performance of weaned pigs. Given the relevance and importance of these issues the feeding trial was organized by the group-control system. The experiment lasted for 40 days and it was divided into two phases of 20 days each. Trial was conducted on 24 piglets, F1 generation of Swedish Landrace and Pietrain, weaned from sows at the age of 35 days. Tests were carried out on piglets, with an average body weight of 8.61±1.59 kg, which were subjected to one of the two feeding treatments immediately after weaning. The control group was fed with a mixture without growth promoters, while the experimental group received a diet containing preparation of phytobiotic (Enviva EO 101, Danisco Animal Nutrition in the amount recommended by the manufacturer (0.1 kg/t. The mixtures for piglets nutrition were formulated in accordance with the recommendations of the NRC (1998, and AEC (1993 and they met the nutritional requirements completely. During the experiment, there was no disturbance of health and/or the manifestation of clinical signs of disease. The control group, fed with the diet without added growth stimulators, achieved body weight (25.32±6.31 kg, average daily gain (0.42±0.12 kg, consumption (0.89 kg and feed conversion (2.119 normal for a given race, age and housing conditions. The use of preparation of phytobiotics as growth promoters, led to better production

  14. The Effect of Weaning Food on the Body Weight of 6-12 Months Infants in Posyandu Kutoharjo Village, Kaliwungu, Kendal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Nahdloh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Central Java Riskesdas in 2007 the severe malnutrition rate was 4.0%, while the rate in Kendal district was 3.1%. The age of 6-12 months is important because it is transition from liquid to solid foods. A purely breast milk diet is unsufficient to meet the nutritional needs of a fast growing baby growth. Weaning diet for baby is necessary to prevent growth disorder. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of weaning diet on weight gain of 6-12 month infant in posyandu (intergrated health center of Kutoharjo Kaliwungu Kendal. The study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional design. 87 samples were taken from the visits of children aged 6-12 months in the posyandu consisted of 53 boys and 34 girls who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The informations of weaning diet was obtained by questionare and interview. The results classified the baby into two groups namely the appropiate groups and inappropriate groups. The infant’s growth was assessed using the growth chart for the previous two months. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square Test. 51 (58.6% infants fed of the appropriate solid foods, 44 (50.6% had a good weight gain growth and only 7 (8% infants has a bad weight gain. While of 36 (41.4% infants fed inappropriate weaning diet, 30 (34.5% infants had a bad weight gain and only 6 (6.9% infants had a good weight gain. The Chi-Square analysis showed p-value of 0.000 (p<0.05, which means that there was a significant difference between the two groups. The weaning food affect on weight gain of 6-12 month infants in posyandu Kutoharjo village Kaliwungu Kendal.

  15. Nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost in young, middle-aged and older Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Okubo, Hitomi; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Studies in many Western countries have consistently shown that monetary diet cost is positively associated with diet quality, but this may not necessarily be the case in Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost among 3963 young (all 18 years old), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and 2211 older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire for young and middle-aged women and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire for older women. Monetary diet cost was estimated using retail food prices. Total vegetables, fish and shellfish, green and black tea, white rice, meat, fruit and alcoholic beverages contributed most (79-89 %) to inter-individual variation in monetary diet cost. Multiple regression analyses showed that monetary diet cost was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake, but positively with intakes of all other nutrients examined (including not only dietary fibre and key vitamins and minerals but also saturated fat and Na) in all generations. For food group intakes, irrespective of age, monetary diet cost was associated inversely with white rice and bread but positively with pulses, potatoes, fruit, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, green and black tea, fish and shellfish, and meat. In conclusion, in all three generations of Japanese women and contrary to Western populations, monetary diet cost was positively associated with not only healthy dietary components (including fruits, vegetables, fish and shellfish, dietary fibre, and key vitamins and minerals), but also less healthy components (including saturated fat and Na).

  16. Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

  17. Factors Affecting the Weaning from Nasal CPAP in Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age (GA who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW of 1357±392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3±2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (<0.001 that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (<0.01, chorioamnionitis (<0.01, anemia (<0.0001, and GER (<0.02 played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP.

  18. The emergence of dieting among female adolescents: age, body mass index, and seasonal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, G; Lim, J

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this brief report is to document the emergence of dieting in adolescent girls across a 2-year period, and to establish whether the changes in dieting status were related to the girls' age, body mass index, or to seasonal effects. As part of a large-scale longitudinal study concerned with adolescent health and well-being, 478 girls, initially aged 12 to 16 years old, completed Strong and Huon's (Eating Disorders 5:97-104, 1997) dieting status measure on four separate occasions across a 2-year period. A total of 273 girls (57.1%) identified themselves as nondieters when we first visited their school. Of those, approximately 20% indicated that they had begun to diet on one of the subsequent testing occasions. The emergence of dieting was observed to occur more in the 13- and 14-year-olds than in any other age group. Higher body mass index was not associated with the initiation of dieting as some underweight, and even very underweight girls, began to diet. The emergence of dieting occurs in early adolescence and might be triggered by concerns about changes in body shape. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    initiation of the second egg production period, were housed in cages located in a three-deck battery-type cage block. .... 2 Supplied per kilogram of diet: 80 mg manganese, 80 mg iron, 60 mg zinc, 5 mg copper, 0.2 mg cobalt, 0.5 mg iodine, ... preserved in airtight containers and stored at 10 °C in an air-conditioned room.

  20. Effects of Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on the Body Composition and Protein Status of Early-Weaned Mice Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanir S. O. Pires

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk, favors protein anabolism. Early-weaned babies are deprived of this source of glutamine, in a period during which endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress, mainly during infections. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on the body composition and visceral protein status of early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG. Mice were weaned early on their 14th day of life and seperated into two groups, one of which was fed a glutamine-free diet (n = 16 and the other a glutamine-supplemented diet (40 g/kg diet (n = 16. At 21 days of age, some mice were intraperitoneally injected with BCG. Euthanasia was performed at the 28th day of age. BCG inoculation significantly reduced body weight (P < 0.001, lean mass (P = 0.002, water (P = 0.006, protein (P = 0.007 and lipid content (P = 0.001 in the carcass. Dietary glutamine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 (P = 0.019 and albumin (P = 0.025 concentration, muscle protein concentration (P = 0.035 and lipid content (P = 0.002 in the carcass. In conclusion, dietary glutamine supplementation had a positive influence on visceral protein status but did not affect body composition in early-weaned mice inoculated with BCG.

  1. Age and diet affect gene expression profiles in canine liver tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yong Kil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The liver plays a central role in nutrient and xenobiotic metabolism, but its functionality declines with age. Senior dogs suffer from many of the chronic hepatic diseases as elderly humans, with age-related alterations in liver function influenced by diet. However, a large-scale molecular analysis of the liver tissue as affected by age and diet has not been reported in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Liver tissue samples were collected from six senior (12-year old and six young adult (1-year old female beagles fed an animal protein-based diet (APB or a plant protein-based diet (PPB for 12 months. Total RNA in the liver tissue was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip® Canine Genome Arrays. Using a 2.0-fold cutoff and false discovery rate <0.10, our results indicated that expression of 234 genes was altered by age, while 137 genes were differentially expressed by diet. Based on functional classification, genes affected by age and/or diet were involved in cellular development, nutrient metabolism, and signal transduction. In general, gene expression suggested that senior dogs had an increased risk of the progression of liver disease and dysfunction, as observed in aged humans and rodents. In particular for aged liver, genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and glycolysis were up-regulated, whereas genes related to regeneration, xenobiotic metabolism, and cholesterol trafficking were down-regulated. Diet-associated changes in gene expression were more common in young adult dogs (33 genes as compared to senior dogs (3 genes. CONCLUSION: Our results provide molecular insight pertaining to the aged canine liver and its predisposition to disease and abnormalities. Therefore, our data may aid in future research pertaining to age-associated alterations in hepatic function or identification of potential targets for nutritional management as a means to decrease incidence of age-dependent liver dysfunction.

  2. Effects of providing preweaning diets to piglets: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Schultz Marcolla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing a solid diet in addition to sow milk during lactation (creep feed is a management commonly recommended to producers. This practice was introduced as a strategy to minimize the deleterious effects of abrupt and early weaning, as well as to standardize the litters to be weaned, to increase weaning weight, and to accelerate the adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets to solid diets. Creep feeds are formulated to present high levels of digestibility and palatability and to contain high-quality and high-cost ingredients. However, the results of studies indicating that the simple offer of creep feed is efficient in minimizing the deleterious effects of weaning or in facilitating the adaptation of piglets to early diets are still sparse and poorly consolidated. The objective of this study was to review factors that influence the consumption of creep feed and the effects of consumption of these diets on performance during lactation, as well as possible effects on enzyme production, occurrence of diarrhea episodes and postweaning performance of piglets weaned at 21 to 28 days of age. The results indicate that the intestinal maturity of suckling piglets is not sufficient to permit voluntary consumption and adequate digestion of the diets. Even animals ready for consumption did not ingest sufficient amounts to promote enzymatic adaptation or to improve postweaning performance. Contrary to expectations, the consumption of creep feed, especially in low amounts, may be associated with sensitization of the gastrointestinal tract which results in hypersensitivity reactions and postweaning diarrhea. It can be concluded that the simple offer of creep feed is not efficient in promoting growth during lactation and postweaning, nor does it facilitate the early adaptation of weaned piglets to solid diets. Studies in this area are therefore necessary to develop techniques that can effectively minimize losses resulting from the practice of early

  3. Changes in tail length between docking and weaning of lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted with crossbred lambs (n = 109 female and 120 male) to quantify tail length at docking and weaning. Lambs were born in April of one year and weaned at ˜ 125 d of age. Within 24 h after birth, lambs were weighed and ear tagged, and rubber rings were applied to dock tails. R...

  4. Post-weaning body morphology to sexual maturity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on some linear measurements of rabbits at weaning and post weaning ages to sexual maturity were recorded on weekly interval to quantify rabbit conformation and determine their interrelationships and how well they can predict body weight of rabbits. The rabbits were of mixed breeds raised at the University of Benin ...

  5. Interaction between Maternal and Offspring Diet to Impair Vascular Function and Oxidative Balance in High Fat Fed Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Christopher; Ethirajan, Priya; Bruce, Kimberley D.; Cagampang, Felino R. A.; Siow, Richard C. M.; Hanson, Mark A.; Byrne, Christopher D.; Mann, Giovanni E.; Clough, Geraldine F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the impact of maternal and post-weaning consumption of a high fat diet on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and redox regulation in adult male mouse offspring. Methods Female C57BL6J mice were fed an obesogenic high fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat) or standard chow (C, 21% kcal fat) pre-conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, male offspring were continued on the same diet as their mothers or placed on the alternative diet to give 4 dietary groups (C/C, HF/C, C/HF and HF/HF) which were studied at 15 or 30 weeks of age. Results There were significant effects of maternal diet on offspring body weight (pmaternal diet there was also an effect of offspring post-weaning dietary fat to increase systolic blood pressure (pMaternal consumption of a HF diet is associated with changes in vascular function and oxidative balance in the offspring of similar magnitude to those seen with consumption of a high fat diet post-weaning. Further, this disadvantageous vascular phenotype is exacerbated by age to influence the risk of developing obesity, raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in adult life. PMID:23227196

  6. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Mao

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05, and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier

  7. An online survey of knowledge of the weaning guidelines, advice from health visitors and other factors that influence weaning timing in UK mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amanda P; Milligan, Peter; Goff, Louise M

    2014-07-01

    The UK weaning guidelines recommend the introduction of solid food at or around 6 months. The evidence suggests that knowledge of the guidelines is high, although only a small minority of parents wait until 6 months to wean. The aim of this study was to assess understanding of the UK weaning guidelines in a sample of UK parents and investigate the associations of this understanding with weaning timing, and in comparison to other influencing factors. This study conducted an online survey of UK parents. Eligible participants had weaned a child since the introduction of the current guidelines. Of 3607 participants, 86% accurately understood the guidelines. Eighty-seven per cent of health visitors were reported to have advised weaning at or around 6 months. Knowledge of the guidelines was associated with later weaning (independently of demographic factors) (P guidelines. Younger mothers (P guidelines was the most reliable predictor of early weaning (P = 0.021) together with young maternal age (P = 0.014). Following the baby-led weaning approach was the most reliable predictor of those weaning at 26 weeks, together with the Internet being the most influential source of advice. Understanding of the current weaning guidelines is high and is a key independent predictor of weaning age in this population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Transgenerational effects of maternal diet on metabolic and reproductive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    The early-life environment, in particular maternal diet during pregnancy, influences a wide range of organs and systems in adult offspring. Mounting evidence suggests that developmental programming can also influence health and disease in grand-offspring. Transgenerational effects can be defined as those persisting into an F2 generation, where the F0 mother experiences suboptimal diet during her pregnancy. In this review, we critically examine evidence for transgenerational developmental programming effects in human populations, focusing on metabolic and reproductive outcomes. We discuss evidence from historical cohorts suggesting that grandchildren of women exposed to famine and other dietary alterations during pregnancy may experience increased rates of later health complications than their control counterparts. The methodological difficulties with transgenerational studies in human cohorts are explored. In particular, the problems with assessing reproductive outcomes in human populations are discussed. In light of the relative paucity of evidence available from human cohorts, we consider key insights from transgenerational experimental animal models of developmental programming by maternal diet; data are drawn from a range of rodent models, as well as the guinea-pig and the sheep. The evidence for different potential mechanisms of transgenerational inheritance or re-propagation of developmental programming effects is evaluated. Transgenerational effects could be transmitted through methylation of the gametes via the paternal and maternal lineage, as well as other possible mechanisms via the maternal lineage. Finally, future directions for exploring these underlying mechanisms further are proposed, including utilizing large, well-characterized, prospective pregnancy cohorts that include biobanks, which have been established in various populations during the last few decades.

  9. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Endocrine pancreas development at weaning in goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Rosi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen three-day old Saanen goat kids were divided into MILK and WEAN groups. MILK kids received goat milk to age 48 days; WEAN kids were initially fed milk but started weaning at 25 days and were completely weaned by 40 days. Total intake per group was recorded daily. On day 25, 40 and 48, body weights were recorded, and plasma samples were taken and analyzed for glucose, free amino-acids and insulin. On day 48, all animals were slaughtered and pancreas samples were analyzed for total DNA and RNA content. Histological sections of pancreas were examined by light microscope and images analyzed by dedicated software. Seven days after the beginning of the weaning program, dry matter intake in the WEAN group began to decrease compared to the MILK one. Nonetheless, body weight did not differ throughout the study period. Weaning significantly decreased plasma levels of glucose, amino-acids and insulin. No difference was observed in pancreatic DNA and RNA content. Histological analysis of pancreas showed that the size of pancreatic islets was not different, but islet number per section was lower in the pancreas of WEAN animals. In conclusion, weaning affects glucose and amino-acid metabolism and influences endocrine pancreas activity and morphology.

  11. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source of dietary fiber. To evaluate the digestibility of nutrients (Assay 1, the total feces and urine collection method was used. The fiber sources did not affect nutrient digestibility, except for soluble fiber, which increased with the inclusion of citrus (Citrus sinensisL. pulp. To evaluate performance, morphophysiology and microbiology of the digestive tract of weaned piglets, a total of 32 castrated male piglets was used. Slaughter of animals was implemented at 35 and 50 days of age. The use of soybean (Glycine max L. hulls and citrus pulp in diets increased the number of goblet cells and the density of villi in the jejunum. The viscosities of stomach and cecum contents increased due to the addition of citrus pulp. Soybean hulls and the citrus pulp included in diets reduced the occurrence of E. coli in the small intestines of piglets slaughtered at 35 days of age. Among the fiber sources, purified cellulose in piglet diets promotes better performance of animals, due to the modulation of the small intestine microbiota, with lower E. coli occurrence resulting in higher villus density.

  12. Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Asiedu, A; Nyachoti, C M; Baidoo, S K; Marquardt, R R; Yang, X

    2003-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection and resulting scours is a major problem for young pigs, especially when purified plant proteins are fed rather than spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP). The effect of supplementing a pea protein isolate (PPI)-based diet with egg yolk antibodies (EYA) from laying hens immunized with ETEC K88 antigen on piglet performance, incidence of scours, and gut histology was studied in a 14-d trial. Ninety-six 10-d-old weaned pigs were assigned to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to give six replicate pens per treatment. The treatments were PPI without EYA (PPI-EYA), PPI with EYA (PPI+EYA), SDPP without EYA (SDPP-EYA), SDPP with EYA (SDPP+EYA), or a combination of PPI and SDPP (PPI+SDPP). Diets were formulated to similar nutrient levels and provided for ad libitum intake. Blood from all pigs was taken on d 0, 7, and 14 for determining plasma urea N (PUN). On d 7, pigs were orally challenged with 6 mL of 10(10) cfu/ mL ETEC K88. Piglets were weighed on d 7 and 14. On d 7, 8, and 14, four pigs per treatment were sacrificed to study the histology of the small intestine. Weekly feed intake, BW changes, and gain:feed were determined. Fecal swabs from 10 pigs per treatment were taken for a PCR test to detect K88 E. coli. Feed efficiency over the 14-d period was not affected (P > 0.78) by dietary treatment. Mean ADFI on an as-fed basis was lower (P piglets fed PPI-EYA (64.3 g/d) compared with PPI+EYA (94.8 g/d) or SDPP (102 g/d) during wk 1. Piglets fed PPI-EYA tend to have a lower (P piglets fed EYA- or SDPP-containing diets recovered 10 to 72 h postchallenge, whereas those fed PPI-EYA continued to have severe diarrhea, resulting in 33% mortality. The PCR results showed that a greater (P piglets fed PPI-EYA compared with those fed SDPP- or EYA-containing diets continued to shed ETEC K88 at the end of the 14-d study. Piglets fed PPI-EYA had shorter villi (P < 0.01), higher intestinal pH (P < 0.013), and higher PUN (P < 0

  13. Factors influencing eating a varied diet in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influences of resources and food-related goals on the variety of food choice among older people. Design: A questionnaire-based survey in eight European countries: Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Italy and Spain. Subjects: Participants (n...... levels. Food-related goals contributed to variety of food intake that was not accounted for by the amount of material resources possessed or the social and other resources perceived to be possessed. Conclusions: Older people's variety of food intake depended on material resources (e.g. monthly income...... kitchen facilities, access to good service providers and support from friends and neighbours, all contributed to how varied a diet they ate....

  14. Age, Action Orientation, and Self-Regulation during the Pursuit of a Dieting Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennecke, Marie; Freund, Alexandra M

    2016-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypotheses that (1) action orientation (vs. state orientation) is positively correlated with age across adulthood and (2) action orientation aids the self-regulation of one's feelings, thoughts, and behavior during the pursuit of a dieting goal. Hypotheses were partly confirmed. In Study 1, N = 126 overweight women (age: 19-77 years) intended to lose weight by means of a low-calorie diet. In Study 2, N = 322 adults (age: 18-82 years) reported on their action orientation to replicate the association of age and action orientation found in Study 1. Study 2 corroborated only the expected positive association of age and decision-related action orientation. In Study 1, decision-related action orientation predicted higher affective well-being during the diet as well as less self-reported deviations from the diet; failure-related action orientation predicted lower levels of rumination in response to dieting failures. Action orientation partially mediated the negative effects of age on deviations and rumination (see Hennecke & Freund, ). Weight loss was not predicted by action orientation. We discuss action orientation as one factor of increased motivational competence in older adulthood. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  15. Does overall diet in midlife predict future aging phenotypes? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaraly, Tasnime; Sabia, Séverine; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Tabak, Adam G; Shipley, Martin J; Jokela, Markus; Brunner, Eric J; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G David; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2013-05-01

    The impact of diet on specific age-related diseases has been studied extensively, but few investigations have adopted a more holistic approach to determine the association of diet with overall health at older ages. We examined whether diet, assessed in midlife, using dietary patterns and adherence to the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), is associated with aging phenotypes, identified after a mean 16-year follow-up. Data were drawn from the Whitehall II cohort study of 5350 adults (age 51.3±5.3 years, 29.4% women). Diet was assessed at baseline (1991-1993). Mortality, chronic diseases, and functioning were ascertained from hospital data, register linkage, and screenings every 5 years and were used to create 5 outcomes at follow-up: ideal aging (free of chronic conditions and high performance in physical, mental, and cognitive functioning tests; 4%), nonfatal cardiovascular event (12.7%), cardiovascular death (2.8%), noncardiovascular death (7.3%), [corrected] and normal aging (73.2%). Low adherence to the AHEI was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death. In addition, participants with a "Western-type" diet (characterized by high intakes of fried and sweet food, processed food and red meat, refined grains, and high-fat dairy products) had lower odds of ideal aging (odds ratio for top vs bottom tertile: 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.94; P=.02), independently of other health behaviors. By considering healthy aging as a composite of cardiovascular, metabolic, musculoskeletal, respiratory, mental, and cognitive function, the present study offers a new perspective on the impact of diet on aging phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Herbeth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference.

  17. Diet quality is associated with all-cause mortality in adults aged 65 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Bates, Chris J; Mishra, Gita D

    2012-02-01

    Diet quality indices assess compliance with dietary guidelines and represent a measure of healthy dietary patterns. Few studies have compared different approaches to assessing diet quality in the same cohort. Our analysis was based on 972 participants of the British Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and older in 1994/1995 and who were followed-up for mortality status until 2008. Dietary intake was measured via a 4-d weighed food record. Three measures of diet quality were used: the Healthy Diet Score (HDS), the Recommended Food Score (RFS), and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). HR for all-cause mortality were obtained using Cox regression adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, social class, region, smoking, physical activity, and BMI. After adjustment for confounders, the MDS was significantly associated with mortality [highest vs. lowest quartile; HR = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.62-0.98)]. Similarly, the RFS was also associated with mortality [HR = 0.67 (95 % CI = 0.52-0.86)]; however, there were no significant associations for the HDS [HR = 0.99 (95% CI = 0.79-1.24)]. The HDS was not a predictor of mortality is this population, whereas the RFS and the MDS were both associated with all-cause mortality. Simple measures of diet quality using food-based indicators can be useful predictors of longevity.

  18. Effect of age and diet composition on activity of pancreatic enzymes in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Paweł; Ciminari, M Eugenia; Kohl, Kevin D; Lessner, Krista; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2013-07-01

    Digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas and intestinal epithelium cooperate closely during food hydrolysis. Therefore, activities of pancreatic and intestinal enzymes processing the same substrate can be hypothesized to change together in unison, as well as to be adjusted to the concentration of their substrate in the diet. However, our knowledge of ontogenetic and diet-related changes in the digestive enzymes of birds is limited mainly to intestinal enzymes; it is largely unknown whether they are accompanied by changes in activities of enzymes produced by the pancreas. Here, we analyzed age- and diet-related changes in activities of pancreatic enzymes in five passerine and galloanserine species, and compared them with simultaneous changes in activities of intestinal enzymes. Mass-specific activity of pancreatic amylase increased with age in young house sparrows but not in zebra finches, in agreement with changes in typical dietary starch content and activity of intestinal maltase. However, we found little evidence for the presence of adaptive, diet-related modulation of pancreatic enzymes in both passerine and galloanserine species, even though in several cases the same birds adaptively modulated activities of their intestinal enzymes. In general, diet-related changes in mass-specific activities of pancreatic and intestinal enzymes were not correlated. We conclude that activity of pancreatic enzymes in birds is under strong genetic control, which enables evolutionary adjustment to typical diet composition but is less adept for short term, diet-related flexibility.

  19. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus x Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    .... Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus...

  20. Pre-weaning mortality in pigs - Causes and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar B. P.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS, 2001 indicate that the average number of pigs born per sow is 10.9, of which 10.0 are born alive and only 8.9 are able to survive until weaning. This results in a 11% pre-weaning mortality rate. In comparison, NAHMS data from 1990 and 1995 respectively indicate that the number of pigs born alive was 9.9 and 9.5, with 8.4 and 8.6 piglets weaned per litter. So, although we saw a decrease in pre-weaning mortality between 1990 and 1995, we show a slight increase from 9% to 11% between 1995 and 2000. Because average litter size has slowly increased, we have been able to realize a slow increase in the number weaned from 1990, 1995, and 2000; resulting in 8.4, 8.6, and currently 8.9 pigs weaned per litter. The NAHMS 2000 data indicate that of the 11% pre-weaning mortality, 52.1% die from becoming crushed by the sow, 16.7% die from starvation, 11.5% die from “other known problem”, 9.3% die from scours, 7.4% from “unknown problem”, and 3% from respiratory problems. The majority of pigs are weaned at 17. 2 days of age, with an average of 19.3 days of age. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 236-239

  1. MODERN PRINCIPLES OF DIET ORGANIZATION IN CHILDREN IN DIFFERENT AGE WITH PHENYLKETONURIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Bushuyeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports questions of diet organization in children with phenylketonuria in different age with the use of modern specialized food. Authors give examples of calculation of diet based on new norms of needs in energy and food for different groups of population in Russian Federation, and present recommendations on optimization of nutrition in schoolchildren with phenylketonuria.Key words: children, schoolchildren, phenylketonuria, phenylalanine, dietotherapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:124-129

  2. Mediterranean Diet Score and Its Association with Age-Related Macular Degeneration : The European Eye Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, Ruth E; Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna; Young, Ian S; Vioque, Jesus L; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in countries ranging from Southern to Northern Europe. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study. PARTICIPANTS: Of 5060 randomly sampled people aged

  3. Dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in early weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, F G; Liu, Y L; Yin, Y L; Kong, X F; Huang, R L; Li, T J; Wu, G Y; Hou, Yongqing

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA), and their serum concentrations in early weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, 60 pigs were weaned at 21 days of age (BW 7.35 +/- 0.23 kg) and allocated to three treatments (20 pigs/treatment), representing supplementing 0.0% (control), 0.02% colistin (antibiotic), or 0.1% APS to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed/gain ratio (F/G) were measured weekly. Blood samples were obtained from five pigs selected randomly from each treatment for the measurement of serum free AA concentrations on days 7, 14, and 28. In Exp. 2, 12 pigs were weaned at 21 day of age (BW 7.64 +/- 0.71 kg), assigned to three treatment groups as in Exp. 1, and surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. Ileal digesta samples were obtained for the measurement of AID of AA on days 7, 14 and 28. Dietary APS did not affect ADFI, but enhanced (P digestive and absorptive function and regulate AA metabolism to beneficially increase the entry of dietary AA into the systemic circulation, which provide a mechanism to explain the growth-promoting effect of APS in early weaned piglets.

  4. Weaned piglets display low gastrointestinal digestion of pea (Pisum sativum L.) lectin and pea albumin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, M; Quillien, L; Sève, B; Guéguen, J; Lallès, J P

    2007-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the biochemistry of digestion of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) albumins and globulins in the stomach and along the small intestine of weaned piglets with a particular emphasis on the respective roles of these compartments in pea protein digestion. Twenty-four piglets were weaned at 28 d of age. They were allocated to 2 diets (control and pea) and 3 slaughter times (3, 6, or 9 h after the last meal) in a 2 x3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pea flour provided 30% of total dietary protein in the pea diet. The diets were fed for 2 wk after weaning. After slaughter, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) compartments were weighed, digesta were collected, and pH was measured. Digesta from the stomach and cranial, middle, and caudal small intestine (SI) were extracted for soluble proteins and analyzed for specific pea proteins using SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry. Tissue weight of the whole GIT (P = 0.015), cecum (P digested, whereas legumin was only partly digested. Legumin and vicilin were totally digested in the SI in less than 3 h. A resistant peptide of 15 kDa located at the N-terminus of pea albumin 2 was transiently detected at 3 h. A protein band at 20 kDa was consistently identified as lectin. It was present in high intensity in intestinal digesta of pea-fed piglets at all times after the meal compared with those fed the control diet (P digestion patterns between the control and the pea-fed piglets (Pdigestion between specific pea proteins were observed along the GIT of piglets. They could be partly explained by differences in protein digestion in the stomach.

  5. Dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotide supplementation accelerate carbon turnover (δ13C on stomach of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Assoni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of stable isotope analysis as a tool for characterization of carbon turnover (δ13C in piglet's tissues by tracing its feeding system has drawn attention. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the influence of dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotides supplementation on carbon turnover in fundic-stomach region of weaned piglets at an average age of 21 days. The diets consisted of additive-free diet – control (C; 1% glutamine (G; 1% glutamic acid (GA and 1% nucleotides (Nu. At weaning day (day 0: baseline, 3 piglets were slaughtered to quantify the δ13C of stomach. The remaining 120 piglets were blocked by weight and sex, randomly assigned to pens with 3 piglets slaughtered per treatment at days 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 20, 27 and 49 after weaning in order to verify the fundic-stomach isotopic composition by treatments. Samples were analyzed in terms of 13C/12C ratio by mass spectrometry and converted to relative isotopic enrichment values (δ13C ‰ used to plot the first order exponential curves over time using OriginPro 8.0 software. The inclusion of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides in piglet's diets has accelerated the carbon turnover in stomach during the post-weaning period, demonstrating also that glutamate has guaranteed fastest 13C incorporation rate on fundic-stomach region and pH-lowering. Besides that, stable isotopes technique (δ13C has proved to be an important methodology to determine the time-scales at which piglets shift among diets with different isotopic values, characterizing the trophic effects of additives and the phenotypic flexibility of stomach.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation with epidermal growth factor-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on duodenal development in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujin; Guo, Chunhua; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Zhendong; Zhu, Wuzheng; Huang, Yanling; Zhang, Zhengfan; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Berendschot, Tos T J M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on duodenal development in weaned piglets. In total, forty piglets weaned at 21-26 d of age were assigned to one of the five groups that were provided basic diet (control group) or diet supplemented with S. cerevisiae expressing either empty-vector (INVSc1(EV) group), tagged EGF (T-EGF) (INVSc1-TE(-) group), extracellular EGF (EE-EGF) (INVSc1-EE(+) group) or intracellular EGF (IE-EGF) (INVSc1-IE(+) group). All treatments were delivered as 60·00 μg/kg body weight EGF/d. On 0, 7, 14 and 21 d, eight piglets per treatment were sacrificed to analyse the morphology, activities and mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes, as well as Ig levels (IgA, IgM, IgG) in duodenal mucosa. The results showed significant improvement on 7, 14 and 21 d, with respect to average daily gain (Pcerevisiae to the diet of weaned piglets enhanced duodenal development. Moreover, biological activity (Ig levels, mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes and EGF-receptor) of IE-EGF was better than either EE-EGF or T-EGF.

  7. Impact of bioactive substances on the gastrointestinal tract and performance of weaned piglets: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalles, J.P.; Bosi, P.; Janczyk, P.; Koopmans, S.J.; Torrallardona, D.

    2009-01-01

    The EU ban on in-feed antibiotics has stimulated research on weaning diets as a way of reducing post-weaning gut disorders and growth check in pigs. Many bioactive components have been investigated but only few have shown to be effective. Amongst these, organic acids (OA) have been shown to exert a

  8. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  9. Blood glucose, diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging among dementia-free older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharaman, Shyam; Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2015-04-01

    Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Gene-diet interactions in age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent blinding disease, accounting for roughly 50% of blindness in developed nations. Very significant advances have been made in terms of discovering genetic susceptibilities to AMD as well as dietary risk factors. To date, nutritional supplementation...

  11. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  12. Evaluation of diet and nutritional status in patients aged 45+ with diagnosed, pharmacologically treated arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguła, Julita; Śmidowicz, Angelika; Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    Diet plays a significant role in the prevention and treatment of arterial hypertension. Appropriate diet makes it possible to maintain adequate body weight and improve biochemical blood parameters. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status of arterial hypertension patients in terms of their diet. The study involved 55 patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension aged 45-70 years. Diet was evaluated using a 24-hour 7-day diet recall interview. In the course of the diet recall interview arterial pressure was measured three times at regular times, after a 15-minute rest period, and the recorded values were averaged. Nutritional status was assessed based on anthropometric measurements (height, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference) and the resulting nutrition status indexes, i.e. BMI (body mass index), WHR (waist-hip ratio) as well as values of biochemical blood parameters. It was found that a considerable proportion of patients are overweight or obese, have an inappropriate lipid profile and elevated blood glucose levels. Daily food rations (DFR) were inappropriately balanced. Daily food rations were deficient in energy, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, PUFA and folates. It was found that inadequate diet was correlated with nutritional status, lipid profile parameters and arterial blood pressure.

  13. Diet and Allergic Diseases among Population Aged 0 to 18 Years: Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Raherison

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood.

  14. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CBGS Tanure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  15. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.

  16. Fifteen years of using a second stage protein substitute for weaning in phenylketonuria: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S; Daly, A; MacDonald, J; Pinto, A; MacDonald, A

    2017-09-21

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), during weaning, it is necessary to introduce a second stage phenylalanine (Phe)-free protein substitute (PS) to help meet non-Phe protein requirements. Semi-solid weaning Phe-free PS have been available for >15 years, although no long-term studies have reported their efficacy. Retrospective data from 31 children with PKU who commenced a weaning PS were collected from clinical records from age of weaning to 2 years, on: gender; birth order; weaning age; anthropometry; blood Phe levels; age commenced and dosage of weaning PS and Phe-free infant L-amino acid formula; natural protein intake; and issues with administration of PS or food. Median commencement age for weaning was 17 weeks (range 12-25 weeks) and, for weaning PS, 20 weeks (range 13-37 weeks). Median natural protein was 4 g day(-1) (range 3-11 g day(-1) ) and total protein intake was >2 g kg(-1) day(-1) from weaning to 2 years of age. Children started on 2-4 g day(-1) protein equivalent (5-10 g day(-1) of powder) from weaning PS, increasing by 0.2 g kg(-1) day(-1) (2 g day(-1) ) monthly to 12 months of age. Teething and illness adversely affected the administration of weaning PS and the acceptance of solid foods. Altogether, 32% of children had delayed introduction of more textured foods, associated with birth order (firstborn 80% versus 38%; P = 0.05) and food refusal when teething (80% versus 29%; P = 0.02). Timing of introduction of solid foods and weaning PS, progression onto more textured foods and consistent feeding routines were important in aiding their acceptance. Any negative behaviour with weaning PS was mainly associated with food refusal, teething and illness. Parental approach influenced the acceptance of weaning PS. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John C; Covarrubias, Anthony J; Zhao, Minghao; Yu, Xinxing; Gut, Philipp; Ng, Che-Ping; Huang, Yu; Haldar, Saptarsi; Verdin, Eric

    2017-09-05

    Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality. Cyclic KD improves memory performance in old age, while modestly improving composite healthspan measures. Gene expression analysis identifies downregulation of insulin, protein synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis pathways as mechanisms common to KD and HF. However, upregulation of PPARα target genes is unique to KD, consistent across tissues, and preserved in old age. In all, we show that a non-obesogenic ketogenic diet improves survival, memory, and healthspan in aging mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

  19. Effects of diet and age on oxidative damage products in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Valachovicová, M; Pauková, V; Dusinská, M

    2008-01-01

    Damage of molecules as a consequence of oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related to aging. Diet is a key environmental factor affecting the incidence of many chronic diseases. Antioxidant substances in diet enhance the DNA, lipid and protein protection by increasing the scavenging of free radicals. Products of oxidative damage of DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines or oxidized pyrimidines), lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids) and proteins (carbonyls) in relation to nutrition (vegetarian diet vs. non-vegetarian, traditional mixed diet) were measured in young women aged 20-30 years (46 vegetarians, 48 non-vegetarians) vs. older women aged 60-70 years (33 vegetarians, 34 non-vegetarians). In young subjects, no differences in values of oxidative damage as well as plasma values of antioxidative vitamins (C,beta-carotene) were observed between vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups. In older vegetarian group significantly reduced values of DNA breaks with oxidized purines, DNA breaks with oxidized pyrimidines and lipid peroxidation and on the other hand, significantly increased plasma values of vitamin C and beta-carotene were found compared to the respective non-vegetarian group. Significant age dependences of measured parameters (increase in all oxidative damage products and decrease in plasma vitamin concentrations in older women) were noted only in non-vegetarians. Vegetarian values of older women vs. young women were similar or non-significantly changed. The results suggest that increase of oxidative damage in aging may be prevented by vegetarian nutrition.

  20. Fasting during the suckling-weaning transient period of rats induces inflammatory gene expression in the adipose tissue and peripheral leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kazue; Mawatari, Riko; Iikeda, Misa; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency during developmental stages could be associated with subsequent development of inflammation-related metabolic abnormalities. In this study, we examined the effects of a 3-d fast during the suckling-weaning transient period of rats, and subsequent intake of high-fat-high-sucrose (HF) and low-fat-high-starch (LF) diets in adulthood, on the expression of inflammatory genes in adipose tissue and peripheral leukocytes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were deprived of food for 3 d during the suckling-weaning transient period, and were subsequently fed an HF or LF diet for 14 wk from 17 wk of age. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentration and mRNA levels of inflammatory genes in mesenteric adipose tissues were assessed at 31 wk of age. The mRNA levels of inflammatory genes at 0 h and 2 h after oral glucose load at 30 wk of age in peripheral leukocytes were measured. Fasting induced circulating MCP-1 protein in rats fed an LF diet but not an HF diet. The HF diet induced high mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and S100 proteins in peripheral leukocytes at 2 h after glucose load in fasted rats when compared with controls. Expression of CD11c, an activated macrophage marker, was induced in the fasted group given an HF diet during adulthood. Fasting rats during the suckling-weaning transient period and an HF diet intake during adulthood enhance inflammation by promoting the expression of inflammatory genes in adipose tissue and peripheral leukocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation with freshwater microalgae on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and gut health in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbeyre, H; van Milgen, J; Mener, T; Gloaguen, M; Labussière, E

    2017-02-01

    In pigs, digestive disorders associated with weaning lead to antibiotic use to maintain intestinal health. Microalgae have been studied in humans and rodents for their beneficial effects on health. The nutritional value of microalgae in animal diets has been assessed, but results were not conclusive. Dietary supplementation with microalgae as an alternative to antibiotic use was studied in two trials (72 piglets with initial BW=9.1±1.1 kg in trial 1 and 24 piglets with initial BW=9.1±0.9 kg in trial 2). All piglets were weaned at 28 days of age and then housed in individual cages. Piglets were randomly allocated to one of the four diets during 2 weeks after weaning: a standard diet with no supplementation (NC) or the standard diet supplemented with 1% Spirulina (SP), with 1% Chlorella (CV), or with 0.2% of colistin as positive control (PC). Trial 1 was performed to determine the effect of microalgae supplementation from 28 to 42 days on performance and incidence of diarrhoea. Animals received then a standard diet from 42 to 56 days of age. Trial 2 was performed from 28 to 42 days of age to assess nutrient digestibility of the experimental diets and to determine inflammatory status and intestinal morphology at 42 days of age. In trial 1, 94% of the pigs had diarrhoea in the 1st week after weaning with no beneficial effect of colistin on diarrhoea incidence, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain : feed (G : F) ratio. This suggests that the diarrhoea was due to digestive disorders that did not result from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. Supplementation with either Spirulina or Chlorella did not affect ADFI, ADG and G : F in trials 1 and 2 (P>0.10). Diarrhoea incidence was reduced in CV pigs compared with NC, SP and PC pigs (Pmicroalgae was greater for gross energy (P<0.05), and tended to be greater for dry matter, organic matter and NDF (P<0.10) compared with NC and PC pigs. Villus height at the jejunum was greater in SP

  2. Short Communication Growth of post-weaning abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of five formulated feeds supplemented with fresh wild seaweed on the growth of post-weaning juvenile abalone Haliotis midae (6–20 mm shell length) was investigated by means of a growth trial at a commercial abalone farm over a period of 11 months. The experiment included 10 diet treatments with two ...

  3. Changes in Certain Serum and Faeces Parameters in Weaned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in Certain Serum and Faeces Parameters in Weaned Piglets as a Response to Nutritional Stress. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The authors conclude that providing dietary protein at a particular level (diet 1), while maintaining AAs at normal level, limits faecal nitrogenous content without significantly ...

  4. Haematological profile and serum biochemical indices of weaned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the haematological profile and serum biochemical indices of rabbits fed pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaves as feed supplement to a corn – soybean mealbasal diet. The study involved thirty six (36) cross bred (New Zealand White X Chinchilla) mixed sex weaned rabbits of five - six ...

  5. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Kesby

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old and aged (15 months old mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  6. Effects of sows age on total tract nutrient digestibility in diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Effect of sow age on the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients in the diet. E. Jacyno, A. ..... Influence of dietary fibre on digestive utilization and rate of passage in ... Physiology of small and large intestine of swine -review-.

  7. Improvement in age-related cognitive functions and life expectancy by ketogenic diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2017-01-01

    Rodent studies have indicated that low-carbohydrate diets prevent age-related cognitive decline and extend lifespan due to increased circulating levels of ketone bodies. A possible physiological mechanism for how ketone bodies exert this effect might be by improving central nervous system insulin...

  8. Mobility and diet in Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age Germany : evidence from multiple isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelze, Viktoria Martha

    2012-01-01

    Prehistoric human diet can be reconstructed by the analysis of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) stable isotopes in bone, whereas ancient mobility and provenance can be studied using the isotopes of strontium (Sr) and oxygen (O) in tooth enamel, and of sulphur in bone. Although thirty years

  9. Aging differently: diet- and sex-dependent late-life mortality patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2014-06-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high) on mortality trajectories in late life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. According to the two theories that are mainly implicated in explaining the deceleration of mortality rate in late life (the heterogeneity/frailty theory and the Hamiltonian theory), we predict, in general, the occurrence of late-life mortality deceleration under most circumstances, independent of sex and dietary regime. However, the heterogeneity theory of late life is more flexible in allowing no mortality deceleration to occur under certain circumstances compared with the Hamiltonian theory. We applied a novel statistical approach based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets suggests that the existence of mortality plateaus in late life is sex and diet dependent and, therefore, not a universal characteristic of large enough cohorts. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Factors influencing ventilator weaning and predictive value of weaning criteria in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyan; He, Yanxia

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the factors that influence the outcome of ventilator weaning and the predictive value of ventilator weaning criteria such as PaO2/FiO2, Vt/kg, Cst, RSBI and the changing trend of RSBI [ΔRSBI = (RSBI2-RSBI1)/RSBI1, RSBI1 and RSBI2 are the start and end of SBT separately] in children. One hundred and thirty-two children who were mechanically ventilated over 24 hours were enrolled from April 2012 to October 2013 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital. SIMV+PSV and SBT ventilator mode were used in ventilator weaning according to clinical experience. Age, gender, weight, critical illness score, duration of mechanical ventilation, PICU stays and the causes to mechanical ventilation were taken into account as the effect on the result of ventilator weaning. Using area under ROC curve of the indexes such as PaO2/FiO2, Vt/kg, Cst, RSBI and the ΔRSBI to evaluate the predictability of children ventilator weaning. One hundred and thirty-two children were enrolled and 109 succeeded in ventilator weaning, while 23 failed. Seventy-nine children using SIMV+PSV mode and 64 succeeded in ventilator weaning among them, while 23 failed. The success rate was 81.0%. The remaining 53 children using SBT mode, 45 among them succeeded and 8 failed in ventilator weaning, which success rate was 84.9%. There was no statistically significant difference in ventilator weaning mode(χ2=0.334, P=0.563). Age, gender, weight, critical illness score between the succeeded group and the failed group did not show statistically significant difference (t=-0.661; χ2=1.271; t=-0.749, -0.020; P>0.05), but duration of mechanical ventilation, PICU stays and the causes for mechanical ventilation showed significant difference (t=3.751, 3.701; χ2=11.273, P0.05). But the area under ROC curve of ΔRSBI in SBT was 0.814, which was significantly different compared to RSBI in SIMV+PSV (Z=2.966, Pover 24 hours, duration of mechanical ventilation, PICU stays and the causes for mechanical ventilation are the main

  11. [Experimental evidence on the role of different types unsaturated fats in the diet on ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrian; Pérez-López, Patricia; Varela-López, Alfonso; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has been largely related to the physiological ageing process. Several nutrients, such as certain types of dietary fat and various antioxidants have been shown to have positive effects on age-related diseases. The type of dietary fat affects mitochondrial structure and function, as well as its susceptibility to oxidative stress, all factors involved in ageing. The present review aims to summarise the studies conducted by our research group in the past 10 years, using virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as a source of unsaturated fat diet relative to a rat model of ageing. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence ...late adolescence . Subsequently, the mice were euthanized to collect the brain samples for transcriptomic analysis. The two mouse populations gained...Batra AK, Fewkes NM, Comstock SM, et al. (2011) Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in

  13. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  14. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  15. β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations in the blood of dairy calves as influenced by age, vaccination stress, weaning, and starter intake including evaluation of BHB and glucose markers of starter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Hu, W; Dennis, T S; Hill, T M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research was to determine how blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose are affected by age, time of day, stress, weaning, forced intake restriction, and voluntary starter intake in calves between 1 and 9 wk of age, and to evaluate if either is an acceptable proxy for starter intake. Holstein calves were fed a 27% crude protein, 17% fat milk replacer at 660 g of dry matter daily along with free-choice starter and water. Calves were weaned on d 42. Jugular blood was sampled at 0800, 1200, and 1600 h, and within 5 min of sampling BHB, and glucose concentrations were estimated using test strips (Nova Max Plus meter, Nova Biomedical Corporation, Waltham, MA). Age effects and time of day were estimated by sampling blood weekly (d 6, 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48). To determine vaccination stress, a Pasteurella vaccine was administered after blood sampling at 0800 h on d 36. Effect of voluntary starter intake was tested by selecting calves for low and high intakes (d 35 to 39) and sampling on d 40, 41, 43, and 44. Starter intake restriction was tested by restricting intake in half of the calves and sampling on d 60 and 61. Data were analyzed with repeated measurements in a mixed model procedure with either within-calf effect (day or week) or within-calf effects (hour, and day or week) included in the model. Time of day did not affect blood BHB and glucose in the first 6 wk. Blood BHB was greater in wk 7 versus wk 1 to 6. Blood glucose was greater in the first 5 wk compared with wk 6 and 7. Blood BHB increased and glucose decreased with increasing starter intake. Blood BHB declined due to vaccination, but glucose was unaffected. Starter intake restriction reduced BHB for 3 d and glucose for 2 d after restriction. Both were affected by time of day. Around weaning (d 40 to 44), BHB and glucose increased with increasing starter intake. In this research, neither blood BHB nor glucose was a good proxy for starter intake. Blood BHB was positively and glucose

  16. Folate treatment partially reverses gestational low-protein diet-induced glucose intolerance and the magnitude of reversal is age and sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S; Schutt, Amy; Mathew, Pretty R; Tanchico, Daren; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-11-13

    Gestational low-protein (LP) programming causes glucose intolerance (GI) and insulin resistance (IR) in adult offspring. Folate supplementation has been shown to rescue the offspring from various programming effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether folate supplementation during pregnancy reverses LP-induced GI and IR. Pregnant rats were fed control (20% protein), isocaloric low-protein (LP, 6%) or LP with 5 mg/kg folate (LPF) diets from gestational day 4 to delivery. The control diet was given during lactation and to pups after weaning. Glucose tolerance test was done at 1, 2, and 3 mo of age followed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp at 4 mo. Rats were sacrificed at 4 mo and their gonadal, renal, inguinal, brown fat, and pancreas were weighed and expressed relative to their body weight. LP- and LPF-fed dams showed similar weight loss during late pregnancy after decreased feed intake. Both LP and LPF pups were smaller at birth but their weights caught up like that of controls by 3 mo. In males, folate supplementation reduced LP-induced GI at 2 mo (glucose area under the curve [AUC]: 1940 mmol/L × 180 min in LP, 1629 mmol/L × 180 min in LPF, and 1653 mmol/L × 180 min in controls; P reverses LP-induced GI and the magnitude of reversal is age and sex dependent. Furthermore, folate treatment does not reverse IR in either sex but makes it worse in males at 4 mo. The present study demonstrated that folate treatment is not sufficient to rescue the LP programming effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Nasr-Eldin M; El-Sebaie, Ali; Hammad, Hammad Zaghloul

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8) weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6) weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned), and buffalo calves (n=4) weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned). Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning). The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW) post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift). There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (pweaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) and growth rate. Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness) is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological characters of growth suggest that IGF-1 is a reliable indicator for assessing metabolic status of individual calves.

  18. Patterns of Sedation Weaning in Critically Ill Children Recovering From Acute Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Kaitlin M; Asaro, Lisa A; Franck, Linda S; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q

    2016-01-01

    To characterize sedation weaning patterns in typical practice settings among children recovering from critical illness. A descriptive secondary analysis of data that were prospectively collected during the prerandomization phase (January to July 2009) of a clinical trial of sedation management. Twenty-two PICUs across the United States. The sample included 145 patients, aged 2 weeks to 17 years, mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure who received at least five consecutive days of opioid exposure. None. Group comparisons were made between patients with an intermittent weaning pattern, defined as a 20% or greater increase in daily opioid dose after the start of weaning, and the remaining patients defined as having a steady weaning pattern. Demographic and clinical characteristics, tolerance to sedatives, and iatrogenic withdrawal symptoms were evaluated. Sixty-six patients (46%) were intermittently weaned; 79 patients were steadily weaned. Prior to weaning, intermittently weaned patients received higher peak and cumulative doses and longer exposures to opioids and benzodiazepines, demonstrated more sedative tolerance (58% vs 41%), and received more chloral hydrate and barbiturates compared with steadily weaned patients. During weaning, intermittently weaned patients assessed for withdrawal had a higher incidence of Withdrawal Assessment Tool-version 1 scores of greater than or equal to 3 (85% vs 46%) and received more sedative classes compared with steadily weaned patients. This study characterizes sedative administration practices for pediatric patients prior to and during weaning from sedation after critical illness. It provides a novel methodology for describing weaning in an at-risk pediatric population that may be helpful in future research on weaning strategies to prevent iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome.

  19. Diet and Age Interactions with Regards to Cholesterol Regulation and Brain Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina M. Uranga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential molecule for brain homeostasis; yet, hypercholesterolemia and its numerous complications are believed to play a role in promoting multiple aspects of brain pathogenesis. An ever increasing number of individuals in modern Western Society are regularly consuming diets high in fat which promote the development of hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, modern societies are becoming increasingly aged, causing a collision between increased hypercholesterolemia and increased aging, which will likely lead to the development of increased pathological conditions due to hypercholesterolemia, thereby promoting deleterious neurochemical and behavioral changes in the brain. Lastly, while beneficial in controlling cholesterol levels, the long-term use of statins itself may potentially promote adverse effects on brain homeostasis, although specifics on this remain largely unknown. This review will focus on linking the current understanding of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia (as well as statin use to the development of oxidative stress, neurochemical alterations, and cognitive disturbances in the aging brain.

  20. The preventive effect of Bacillus subtilus strain DB9011 against experimental infection with enterotoxcemic Escherichia coli in weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Hikita, Chie; Mochizuki, Masami; Nakayama, Keizo

    2013-04-01

    Porcine edema disease (ED) is caused by Shiga toxin 2e-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Post-weaned piglets often suffer from ED as a result of intestinal infection with STEC, which causes impaired growth performance and high mortality. Antimicrobial therapy is a curative treatment for piglets infected with STEC, but the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant STEC has become a serious problem for Japanese pig farmers. Therefore, an alternative strategy other than antimicrobial therapy is needed for the prevention or treatment of ED. In this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of Bacillus subtilis DB9011 (DB9011) to prevent the experimental infection of STEC in weaning piglets. Eight 21-day-old piglets were divided into two groups: STEC challenge with the basal diet, and STEC challenge with DB9011 supplemented diet. The challenge was carried out when the animals were 25, 26 and 27 days old using STEC contained in capsules resistant against gastric digestion. All pigs were euthanized at 36 days of age. DB9011 improved the symptoms of ED and decreased the number of STEC in the ileal digesta and feces. Accordingly, oral administration of DB9011 in weaned piglets prevents ED through the suppression of the growth of STEC in the ileum. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Association between maternal education and diet of children at 9 months is partially explained by mothers' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-10-01

    Infants of mothers of low educational background display consistently poorer outcomes, including suboptimal weaning diets. Less is known about the different causal pathways that relate maternal education to infants' diet. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal education and infants' diet is mediated by mothers' diet. The analyses included 421 mother-infant pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program. Dietary intakes were collected from mothers when infants were aged 3 months, using a validated food frequency questionnaire relating to the past year, and in infants aged 9 months using 3 × 24-h recalls. Principal component analysis was used to derive dietary pattern scores, based on frequencies of 55 food groups in mothers, and intakes of 23 food groups in infants. Associations were assessed with multivariable linear regression. We tested the product 'ab' to address the mediation hypothesis, where 'a' refers to the relationship between the predictor variable (education) and the mediator variable (mothers' diet), and 'b' refers to the association between the mediator variable and the outcome variable (infants' diet), controlling for the predictor variable. Maternal scores on the 'Fruit and vegetables' dietary pattern partially mediated the relationships between maternal education and two infant dietary patterns, namely 'Balanced weaning diet' [ab = 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04; 0.18] and 'Formula' (ab = -0.08; 95%CI: -0.15; -0.02). These findings suggest that targeting pregnant mothers of low education level with the aim of improving their own diet may also promote better weaning diets in their infants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. BDNF increases with behavioural enrichment and an antioxidant diet in the aged dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Margaret; Marchese, Monica; Head, Elizabeth; Pop, Viorela; Michalski, Bernadeta; Milgram, William N.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2010-01-01

    The aged canine (dog) is an excellent model for investigating the neurobiological changes that underlie cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in humans, as canines and humans undergo similar pathological and behavioural changes with aging. Recent evidence indicates that a combination of environmental enrichment and antioxidant-fortified diet can be used to reduce the rate of age-dependent neuropathology and cognitive decline in aged dogs, although the mechanisms underlying these changes have not been established. We examined the hypothesis that an increase in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the factors underlying improvements in learning and memory. Old, cognitively impaired animals that did not receive any treatment showed a significant decrease in BDNF mRNA in the temporal cortex when compared with the young group. Animals receiving either an antioxidant diet or environmental enrichment displayed intermediate levels of BDNF mRNA. However, dogs receiving both an antioxidant diet and environmental enrichment showed increased levels of BDNF mRNA when compared to untreated aged dogs, approaching levels measured in young animals. BDNF receptor TrkB mRNA levels did not differ between groups. BDNF mRNA levels were positively correlated with improved cognitive performance and inversely correlated with cortical Aβ(1–42) and Aβ(1–40) levels. These findings suggest that environmental enrichment and antioxidant diet interact to maintain brain levels of BDNF, which may lead to improved cognitive performance. This is the first demonstration in a higher animal that non-pharmacological changes in lifestyle in advanced age can up-regulate BDNF to levels approaching those in the young brain. PMID:20447733

  3. Whole scrapings of cassava root in diets for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hosmylton Carvalho Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including whole cassava root scrapings (WCS in diets of broilers on performance and the metabolizability of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy and on nitrogenous balance. Four hundred female and 100 male broilers from Ross strain were used in the performance and metabolism studies, respectively. In both studies, broilers were allotted in completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The experimental unit was represented for twenty birds per box for performance study and five birds per metabolic cage for metabolism study. The treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% WCS inclusion. Up to 5.1% WCS can be included in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 without compromising feed conversion and productive efficiency index. Dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of the diets are not influenced by the inclusion of whole cassava root scrapings up to 20% in diets of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.

  4. Effects of ad libitum Low Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Hollingsworth, Angela; Seltmann, Christie L; O'Neal, Eric K

    2017-11-06

    This study examined the effects of a 3-week ad libitum high fat (~70% of calories), low carbohydrate (diet (LCHF) on markers of endurance performance in middle-aged, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) following their normal HC diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed 5, 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological, metabolic variables and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20-min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial (5TT) on a road course. Subjects then consumed a LCHF diet for 3 weeks and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and 7-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (p diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF. Respiratory exchange ratio and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly while fat oxidation increased after LCHF for every pace (p diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  5. Determination of digestible isoleucine: lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 42-58 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty-two Hy-Line W36 laying hens were allotted in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 7 replicates and 6 hens per experimental unit in order to determine the ideal ratio of isoleucine (Ile in relation to lysine (Lys to laying hens aged 42-58 weeks. Experimental diets contained digestible Ile at different levels, resulting in different Ile:Lys ratios (0.73:1; 0.78:1; 0.83:1; 0.88:1; 0.93:1 and 0.98:1. A basal diet was formulated to provide Isoleucine in levels below recommendations. This diet was supplemented with L-isoleucine to make up the 6 diets. Each diet was made isonitrogenous by varying the dietary contents of glutamic acid and isocaloric by adjusting the contents of cornstarch. All essential amino acids were provided proportionally to lysine. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, albumen, yolk and eggshell contents were recorded and compiled at every 28-day period. No differences were observed in the performance over a wide range of dietary isoleucine concentrations from 5.76 to 7.73 g/kg corresponding to 0.73:1 to 0.98:1 Ile:Lys ratios. The lowest Ile:Lys ratio (0.73:1 was sufficient to ensure satisfactory performance of birds, corresponding to the consumption of 534 mg of isoleucine and 731 mg of lysine/day.

  6. Maternal Dietary Vitamin D Does Not Program Systemic Inflammation and Bone Health in Adult Female Mice Fed an Obesogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Christopher R; Chen, Jianmin; Wen, Bijun; Sacco, Sandra M; Taibi, Amel; Ward, Wendy E; Comelli, Elena M

    2016-10-26

    Obesity is associated with systemic inflammation and impaired bone health. Vitamin D regulates bone metabolism, and has anti-inflammatory properties and epigenetic effects. We showed that exposure to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation beneficially programs serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bone structure in male offspring fed an obesogenic diet. Here we assessed if this effect is also apparent in females. C57BL/6J dams were fed AIN93G diet with high (5000 IU/kg diet) or low (25 IU/kg diet) vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, female offspring remained on their respective vitamin D level or were switched and fed a high fat and sucrose diet (44.2% fat, 19.8% sucrose) until age seven months when glucose response, adiposity, serum LPS, and bone mineral, trabecular and cortical structure, and biomechanical strength properties of femur and vertebra were assessed. There was no evidence for a programming effect of vitamin D for any outcomes. However, females exposed to a high vitamin D diet post-weaning had higher bone mineral content ( p = 0.037) and density ( p = 0.015) of lumbar vertebra. This post-weaning benefit suggests that in females, bone mineral accrual but not bone structure is compromised with low vitamin D status in utero until weaning in an obesogenic context.

  7. Maternal Dietary Vitamin D Does Not Program Systemic Inflammation and Bone Health in Adult Female Mice Fed an Obesogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Villa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with systemic inflammation and impaired bone health. Vitamin D regulates bone metabolism, and has anti-inflammatory properties and epigenetic effects. We showed that exposure to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation beneficially programs serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and bone structure in male offspring fed an obesogenic diet. Here we assessed if this effect is also apparent in females. C57BL/6J dams were fed AIN93G diet with high (5000 IU/kg diet or low (25 IU/kg diet vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, female offspring remained on their respective vitamin D level or were switched and fed a high fat and sucrose diet (44.2% fat, 19.8% sucrose until age seven months when glucose response, adiposity, serum LPS, and bone mineral, trabecular and cortical structure, and biomechanical strength properties of femur and vertebra were assessed. There was no evidence for a programming effect of vitamin D for any outcomes. However, females exposed to a high vitamin D diet post-weaning had higher bone mineral content (p = 0.037 and density (p = 0.015 of lumbar vertebra. This post-weaning benefit suggests that in females, bone mineral accrual but not bone structure is compromised with low vitamin D status in utero until weaning in an obesogenic context.

  8. Fasting and Fast Food Diet Play an Opposite Role in Mice Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrogiovanni, Paola; Li Volti, Giovanni; Sanfilippo, Cristina; Tibullo, Daniele; Galvano, Fabio; Vecchio, Michele; Avola, Roberto; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Castorina, Sergio; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Imbesi, Rosa; Di Rosa, Michelino

    2018-01-20

    Fasting may be exploited as a possible strategy for prevention and treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and aging. On the other hand, high-fat diet (HFD) represents a risk factor for several diseases and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of fasting on mouse brain aging transcriptome and how HFD regulates such pathways. We used the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, in order to identify suitable microarray datasets comparing mouse brain transcriptome under fasting or HFD vs aged mouse brain transcriptome. Three microarray datasets were selected for this study, GSE24504, GSE6285, and GSE8150, and the principal molecular mechanisms involved in this process were evaluated. This analysis showed that, regardless of fasting duration, mouse brain significantly expressed 21 and 30 upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. The involved biological processes were related to cell cycle arrest, cell death inhibition, and regulation of cellular metabolism. Comparing mouse brain transcriptome under fasting and aged conditions, we found out that the number of genes in common increased with the duration of fasting (222 genes), peaking at 72 h. In addition, mouse brain transcriptome under HFD resembles for the 30% the one of the aged mice. Furthermore, several molecular processes were found to be shared between HFD and aging. In conclusion, we suggest that fasting and HFD play an opposite role in brain transcriptome of aged mice. Therefore, an intermittent diet could represent a possible clinical strategy to counteract aging, loss of memory, and neuroinflammation. Furthermore, low-fat diet leads to the inactivation of brain degenerative processes triggered by aging.

  9. Mediterranean Diet and Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Corella, Dolores; de la Torre, Rafael; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Fitó, Montserrat; Pérez-Heras, Ana; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress and vascular impairment are believed to partly mediate age-related cognitive decline, a strong risk factor for development of dementia. Epidemiologic studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet, an antioxidant-rich cardioprotective dietary pattern, delays cognitive decline, but clinical trial evidence is lacking. To investigate whether a Mediterranean diet supplemented with antioxidant-rich foods influences cognitive function compared with a control diet. Parallel-group randomized clinical trial of 447 cognitively healthy volunteers from Barcelona, Spain (233 women [52.1%]; mean age, 66.9 years), at high cardiovascular risk were enrolled into the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea nutrition intervention trial from October 1, 2003, through December 31, 2009. All patients underwent neuropsychological assessment at inclusion and were offered retesting at the end of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (1 L/wk), a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts (30 g/d), or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Rates of cognitive change over time based on a neuropsychological test battery: Mini-Mental State Examination, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Animals Semantic Fluency, Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Verbal Paired Associates from the Wechsler Memory Scale, and the Color Trail Test. We used mean z scores of change in each test to construct 3 cognitive composites: memory, frontal (attention and executive function), and global. Follow-up cognitive tests were available in 334 participants after intervention (median, 4.1 years). In multivariate analyses adjusted for confounders, participants allocated to a Mediterranean diet plus olive oil scored better on the RAVLT (P = .049) and Color Trail Test part 2 (P = .04) compared with controls; no between-group differences were observed for the other cognitive tests

  10. Performance, intestinal microorganisms and organs weight of piglets in the initial phase receiving diets with simbiotic and probiotic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozza, Paulo Cesar; dos Santos Pozza, Magali Soares; Nunes, Ricardo Vianna; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Venturi, Iderson; Busanello, Marli

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing probiotic and simbiotic on the performance of piglets from 21 to 49 days, intestinal microorganisms and weight of organs. In this study there were used 120 crossbred piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, alloted in randomized

  11. Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects: implications for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D B; Jeffery, I B; Cusack, S; O'Connor, E M; O'Toole, P W

    2015-01-01

    With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The microbiota composition and function, acting in concert with direct and indirect effects of habitual diet, is of great importance in remaining healthy and active. This is not a new concept, but until now the scale of the potential microbiota contribution was not appreciated. There are an estimated ten times more bacteria in an individual than human cells. The bacterial population is relatively stable in adults, but the age-related changes that occur later in life can have a negative impact on host health. This loss of the adult-associated microbiota correlates with measures of markers of inflammation, frailty, co-morbidity and nutritional status. This effect may be greater than that of diet or in some cases genetics alone. Collectively, the recent studies show the importance of the microbiota and associated metabolites in healthy aging and the importance of diet in its modulation. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effect of age, diet, and tissue type on PCr response to creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Otaduy, Maria Concepción García; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Arruda, Walquiria; Veiga, Raquel Ramos; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Creatine/phosphorylcreatine (PCr) responses to creatine supplementation may be modulated by age, diet, and tissue, but studies assessing this possibility are lacking. Therefore we aimed to determine whether PCr responses vary as a function of age, diet, and tissue. Fifteen children, 17 omnivorous and 14 vegetarian adults, and 18 elderly individuals ("elderly") participated in this study. Participants were given placebo and subsequently creatine (0.3 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 7 days in a single-blind fashion. PCr was measured through phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in muscle and brain. Creatine supplementation increased muscle PCr in children (P children and omnivores (P children experienced greater PCr increases than omnivores (P = 0.0022). In relation to diet, vegetarians (P diet, and tissue. Whereas creatine supplementation was able to increase muscle PCr in all groups, although to different extents, brain PCr was shown to be unresponsive overall. These findings demonstrate the need to tailor creatine protocols to optimize creatine/PCr accumulation both in muscle and in brain, enabling a better appreciation of the pleiotropic properties of creatine.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A standardized creatine supplementation protocol (0.3 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 7 days) effectively increased muscle, but not brain, phosphorylcreatine. Older participants responded better than younger participants whereas vegetarians responded better than omnivores. Responses to supplementation are thus dependent on age, tissue, and diet. This suggests that a single "universal" protocol, originally designed for increasing muscle creatine in young individuals, may lead to heterogeneous muscle responses in different populations or even no responses in tissues other than skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Effects of KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC, basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC and basal diet supplemented with 2×109 (L, 4×109 (M and 20×109 (H CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05, and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05. The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05, and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05. These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets.

  14. The Maturing Development of Gut Microbiota in Commercial Piglets during the Weaning Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Limei; Xu, Yuesong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Fang, Chao; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Early weaned piglets are vulnerable to diarrhea because of weaning stress and immaturity of intestinal tract. Compelling evidence suggests that gut microbiota is vital to host health. However, it is not well understood on the composition and succession of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. In our two trials, total 17 commercial piglets were studied in a pig farm in Jiangxi Province, China. Fresh feces were collected for four times (10 days before weaned, weaned day, 10 days after weaned, 21 days after weaned) by rectal massage. Fecal bacterial composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 regions sequencing by Illumina Miseq platform. The results showed that the gut microbiota of piglets shifted quickly after weaned and reached relatively stable level in 10 days after weaned. The alpha diversity increased significantly with the age of piglets. The microbiota of suckling piglets was mainly represented by Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, and Megasphaera. This pattern contrasted with that of Clostridium sensu stricto, Roseburia, Paraprevotella, Clostridium XIVa, and Blautia, which were major representative genera after weaned. In summary, we delineated the development of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. This study helps us understand the maturing development of gut microbiota in commercial piglets.

  15. The Maturing Development of Gut Microbiota in Commercial Piglets during the Weaning Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early weaned piglets are vulnerable to diarrhea because of weaning stress and immaturity of intestinal tract. Compelling evidence suggests that gut microbiota is vital to host health. However, it is not well understood on the composition and succession of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. In our two trials, total 17 commercial piglets were studied in a pig farm in Jiangxi Province, China. Fresh feces were collected for four times (10 days before weaned, weaned day, 10 days after weaned, 21 days after weaned by rectal massage. Fecal bacterial composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 regions sequencing by Illumina Miseq platform. The results showed that the gut microbiota of piglets shifted quickly after weaned and reached relatively stable level in 10 days after weaned. The alpha diversity increased significantly with the age of piglets. The microbiota of suckling piglets was mainly represented by Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, and Megasphaera. This pattern contrasted with that of Clostridium sensu stricto, Roseburia, Paraprevotella, Clostridium XIVa, and Blautia, which were major representative genera after weaned. In summary, we delineated the development of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. This study helps us understand the maturing development of gut microbiota in commercial piglets.

  16. Genetic relationship between weaning weight and milk yield in Nguni cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesengani, L T; Nephawe, K A; Sebei, J; Norris, D; Maiwashe, A

    2017-07-11

    A study was conducted to estimate the genetic relationship between weaning weight and milk yield in Nguni cattle. Milk yield data (n=125) were collected from 116 Nguni cows from Mara Research Station located in Limpopo Province and Loskop South Farm located in Mpumalanga Province using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. Weaning weight data (n=19 065) were obtained from stud Nguni cattle from 146 herds distributed throughout South Africa. Estimates of (co)variance components for milk yield and weaning weight were calculated using PEST and VCE softwares. The average weaning weight, age of the calf at weaning and 24-h milk yield was 158.94 kg, 210 days and 5.25 kg/day, respectively. Heritability estimates for milk yield, direct and maternal weaning weight were 0.22±0.238, 0.47±0.039 and 0.25±0.029, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations for milk yield and maternal weaning weight, milk yield and direct weaning weight, direct and maternal weaning weight were 0.97±0.063, -0.71±0.416 and -0.56±0.247, respectively. The results indicate that maternal weaning weight is genetically highly predictive of milk yield in Nguni cattle. Maternal breeding values for weaning weight could therefore be used as a selection criterion to improve milk yield in Nguni cattle.

  17. Fasting-mimicking diet and markers/risk factors for aging, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Shelehchi, Mahshid; Mirzaei, Hamed; Cheng, Chia Wei; Budniak, Julia; Groshen, Susan; Mack, Wendy J; Guen, Esra; Di Biase, Stefano; Cohen, Pinchas; Morgan, Todd E; Dorff, Tanya; Hong, Kurt; Michalsen, Andreas; Laviano, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D

    2017-02-15

    Calorie restriction or changes in dietary composition can enhance healthy aging, but the inability of most subjects to adhere to chronic and extreme diets, as well as potentially adverse effects, limits their application. We randomized 100 generally healthy participants from the United States into two study arms and tested the effects of a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)-low in calories, sugars, and protein but high in unsaturated fats-on markers/risk factors associated with aging and age-related diseases. We compared subjects who followed 3 months of an unrestricted diet to subjects who consumed the FMD for 5 consecutive days per month for 3 months. Three FMD cycles reduced body weight, trunk, and total body fat; lowered blood pressure; and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). No serious adverse effects were reported. After 3 months, control diet subjects were crossed over to the FMD program, resulting in a total of 71 subjects completing three FMD cycles. A post hoc analysis of subjects from both FMD arms showed that body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, IGF-1, triglycerides, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were more beneficially affected in participants at risk for disease than in subjects who were not at risk. Thus, cycles of a 5-day FMD are safe, feasible, and effective in reducing markers/risk factors for aging and age-related diseases. Larger studies in patients with diagnosed diseases or selected on the basis of risk factors are warranted to confirm the effect of the FMD on disease prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying lifespan and age-related effects of dietary restriction and the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Cesar L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2017-11-05

    Aging constitutes the central risk factor for major diseases including many forms of cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular diseases. The aging process is characterized by both global and tissue-specific changes in gene expression across taxonomically diverse species. While aging has historically been thought to entail cell-autonomous, even stochastic changes, recent evidence suggests that modulation of this process can be hierarchal, wherein manipulations of nutrient-sensing neurons (e.g., in the hypothalamus) produce peripheral effects that may modulate the aging process itself. The most robust intervention extending lifespan, plausibly impinging on the aging process, involves different modalities of dietary restriction (DR). Lifespan extension by DR is associated with broad protection against diseases (natural and engineered). Here we review potential epigenetic processes that may link lifespan to age-related diseases, particularly in the context of DR and (other) ketogenic diets, focusing on brain and hypothalamic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effect of Dietary Zinc Oxide on Morphological Characteristics, Mucin Composition and Gene Expression in the Colon of Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1β, 8, 10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

  20. Effects of sows age on total tract nutrient digestibility in diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v46i3.2. Effect of sow age on the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients in the diet. E. Jacyno, A. Pietruszka#, W. Biel, A. Kołodziej-Skalska, B. Matysiak,. M. Kawęcka & A. Sosnowska. Department of Pig Breeding, Animal Nutrition and Food, West Pomeranian University of ...

  1. Lifestyle Modulators of Neuroplasticity: How Physical Activity, Mental Engagement, and Diet Promote Cognitive Health during Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cristy

    2017-01-01

    The number of the elderly across the globe will approximate 2.1 billion by 2050. Juxtaposed against this burgeoning segment of the population is evidence that nonpathological aging is associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline in a variety of domains, changes that can cause mild disability even before the onset of dementia. Given that pharmacological treatments that mitigate dementia are still outstanding, alternative therapeutic options are being investigated increasingly. The results from translational studies have shown that modifiable lifestyle factors-including physical activity, cognitive engagement, and diet-are a key strategy for maintaining brain health during aging. Indeed, a multiplicity of studies has demonstrated relationships between lifestyle factors, brain structure and function, and cognitive function in aging adults. For example, physical activity and diet modulate common neuroplasticity substrates (neurotrophic signaling, neurogenesis, inflammation, stress response, and antioxidant defense) in the brain whereas cognitive engagement enhances brain and cognitive reserve. The aims of this review are to evaluate the relationship between modifiable lifestyle factors, neuroplasticity, and optimal brain health during aging; to identify putative mechanisms that contribute positive brain aging; and to highlight future directions for scientists and clinicians. Undoubtedly, the translation of cutting-edge knowledge derived from the field of cognitive neuroscience will advance our understanding and enhance clinical treatment interventions as we endeavor to promote brain health during aging.

  2. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  3. Effects of a Japan Diet Intake Program on Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Nakano, Rena; Shima, Mitsuha; Mae, Asumi; Shijo, Yuri; Nakamura, Eri; Okabe, Yuuna; Park, Sunmi; Kameyama, Noriko; Hirai, Satomi; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Uchida, Kagehiro; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-03

    We conducted a pilot study to clarify the effects of the Japan Diet nutritional education program on metabolic risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men who were brought up in the westernized dietary environment of modern Japan. Thirty-three men, 30-49 years of age, attended a nutrition education class to learn food items and recommended volumes comprising the Japan Diet (more fish, soybeans and soy products, vegetables, seaweed, mushrooms and unrefined cereals, and less animal fat, meat and poultry with fat, sweets, desserts and snacks, and alcoholic drinks), and were encouraged to consume the Japan Diet for 6 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured and 3-day weighted dietary records were kept before and at completion of the intervention. Ninety-one percent of participants showed improvements in more than one cardiovascular risk factor after 6 weeks. Body weight, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, malondialdehyde modified (MDA)-LDL and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly, while high density lipoprotein cholesterol was unchanged. Fish, soy, and sum of seaweed, mushrooms and konjak intakes doubled, and green and yellow vegetable intakes also increased as compared to baseline. Meanwhile, intakes of refined cereals, meat and poultry, sweets, desserts and snacks, and margarine and shortening decreased. Total energy, lipid, and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes decreased, while n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, dietary fiber, beta-carotene, vitamins D and K, potassium, and magnesium increased, with no change in sodium intake. The Japan Diet is suggested to improve atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Japanese men.The clinical trial registration number: UMIN000020639.

  4. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on performance, iron status and immune function of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junmei; Li, Defa; Piao, Xiangshu; Yang, Wenjun; Wang, Fenglai

    2002-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation on performance, iron status and immune function of pigs during the 21-day post-weaning period. In experiment one, 48 crossbred pigs (Chester White x Large White x Yorkshire), weaned at 30 days of age and weighing 7.7 +/- 0.9 kg, were allotted to diets containing either 0 or 300 mg/kg vitamin C. In experiment two, 96 crossbred pigs (Chester White x Large White x Yorkshire), weaned at 20 +/- 2 days and weighing 7.1 +/- 0.5 kg, were allotted to diets containing 0.75 or 300 mg/kg vitamin C. Six replicate pens were assigned to each treatment in experiment one while experiment two had eight replicates. All pens housed two barrows and two gilts. In both experiments, no improvement (P > 0.05) in growth rate, feed intake or feed conversion was observed as a result of vitamin C supplementation. Plasma iron concentration increased (P immunity (P > 0.05). In trial 2, the plasma levels of the immunoglobulin IgG showed a linear (P = 0.07) increase with increasing levels of vitamin C and the same trend was noted in trial 1. Antibody titers to bovine serum albumin also tended to increase in both trials but the increases were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the overall results of these experiments indicate that weanling pig performance is not improved as a result of vitamin C supplementation. Whether or not vitamin C plays a role in stimulating humoral immune function in pigs requires further study since the results of our experiments do not completely rule out the possibility that such a role exists.

  5. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal; Maria Cristina Thomaz; Pedro Henrique Watanabe; Urbano dos Santos Ruiz; Alessandro Borges Amorim; Everton Daniel; Susana Zaneti da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source...

  6. Effect of Season, Birth Weight and Weaning Weight on the onset of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of season, birth weight and weaning weight on the onset of puberty of 31 crossbred (Friesian & Bunaji) calves born from 1999 to 2005. The parameters considered were season of birth, birth weight, weaning weight body weight from 12-27 month of age and age and weight at ...

  7. Aging and walnut-rich diet supplementation affects the expression of immediate-early genes in critical brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence indicates a direct link between age-associated changes in epigenetic mechanisms and onset of neurodegenerative diseases, and that these genomic modulations are directly affected by diet. Diets deficient in folate, choline and methionine, or the trace elements zinc and selenium, are...

  8. Effects of aging and walnut diet on DNA methylation and expression of immediate-early genes in critical brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence indicates a direct link between age-associated changes in epigenetic mechanisms and onset of neurodegenerative diseases, and that these genomic modulations are directly affected by the diet. Diets deficient in folate, choline and methionine, or the trace elements zinc and selenium,...

  9. Effect of feeding three lysine to energy diets on growth, body composition and age at puberty in replacement gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J A Calderón; Vallet, J L; Boyd, R D; Lents, C A; Prince, T J; DeDecker, A E; Phillips, C E; Foxcroft, G; Stalder, K J

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine on lysine intake, growth rate, body composition and age at puberty on maternal line gilts. Crossbred Large White×Landrace gilts (n=641) were fed corn-soybean diets differing in SID lysine concentration (%, g SID lysine:Mcal ME); diets were not isocaloric. Gilts received three grower, finisher diet combinations: low (0.68% lysine grower, 0.52% lysine finisher), medium (0.79% lysine grower, 0.60% lysine finisher) or high (0.90% lysine grower, 0.68% lysine finisher). Grower diets were fed from 100 until 142days of age, and finisher diets were fed until they reached 220days of age. Body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF), and loin depth (LD) were recorded every 28days. From 160-220days of age, gilts were exposed daily to vasectomized boars and observed for behavioral estrus. Gilts fed the low lysine diet had lower average daily gain and BW (Pgilts that displayed natural estrus by 220days of age was low but not different among dietary treatments (low 27.7%, medium 31.0% and high 37.7%, respectively; P=0.1201). Gilts fed the high and medium diets reached puberty 10 and 6days earlier, however, than gilts fed the low lysine diet (Pgilts contracted porcine epidemic diarrhea (PEDv) just as boar exposure was to begin for the first group of gilts. Results from the present study indicate that growth rate and age at puberty can be altered by ad libitum fed diets that differ in SID lysine concentration. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Dieting patterns and related lifestyles of school-aged children in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Nolan, Geraldine; Kelleher, Cecily; Friel, Sharon

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in food habits and lifestyle behaviours by dieting status among young people in Ireland. Cross-sectional survey. Participants responded to a self-completion questionnaire designed by researchers on the World Health Organization's collaborative study - Health Behaviour in School Aged Children. Pupils were selected by school and classroom and the sample was stratified to be representative of the geographical distribution of school students in Ireland. Data were collected by teachers from school pupils in their classrooms. Data were collected from 187 schools which included 8497 pupils (51% girls) aged 9-17 years. While a minority of pupils (12% of girls, 4% of boys) reported that they were on a diet to lose weight, a substantial proportion (28% of girls, 18% of boys) said that they should be on a diet. Dieters reported consuming unhealthy foods less frequently than non-dieters, but did not report an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Rather, some categories of dieters reported higher levels of coffee and tobacco use and lower exercise levels than non-dieters. The results could indicate substitution of unhealthy foods by other unhealthy behaviours as opposed to an increased consumption of healthier foodstuffs, and suggest that both smoking and exercise need to be addressed alongside nutrition in youth health promotion.

  11. Digestible threonine to lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 24-40 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cristina da Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-hundred sixteen white laying hens were used to assess the ideal ratio of digestible threonine:lysine in diets for laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age. Birds were assigned to a randomized block design, with six treatments, six replicates per treatment and six birds per experimental unit. The cage was used as the blocking criterion. Experimental diets contained different digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratios (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90% with 142 g/kg of crude protein. Experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric with different contents of L-glutamic acid. Feed intake (g/hen/d, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/hen/d, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen and kg/kg egg, eggshell weight (g, albumen weight (g, yolk weight (g and body weight gain (g were assessed. The maximum egg production was observed at 78% digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio, while the best values of feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and feed conversion ratio (kg/kg of egg were observed at 77.6% and 75%, respectively. Feed intake, egg mass and egg contents (yolk, albumen and eggshell were not affected by treatments. The estimated digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of Hy-Line W36 laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age is 78%, corresponding to 5.70 g/kg of dietary digestible threonine.

  12. THE PROBIOTIC Enterococcus faecium MODIFIES THE INTESTINAL MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN WEANING PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Andrea Ciro Galeano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global trends for animal production have seen a decrease in the use of antimicrobial compounds in feed, generating the need to implement new nutritional strategies that stimulate growth and promote intestinal health. This study aimed to determine whether the addition of E. faecium in drinking water improves intestinal morphometric parameters in post- weaning pigs compared with the probiotics strains L. acidophilus and L. casei on days 1 (21 days of age, 15 and 30 postweaning. The small intestine was completely removed to evaluate the morphometric parameters (length and width of villi and crypts in the different intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. They were fed for 30 days with two diets: commercial diet with or without antibiotics. The different probiotics, L. acidophillus, L. casei and E. faecium, were administered in the drinking water of the animals that consumed the commercial diet without antibiotics. A randomized block design in split-plot arrangement was used. There was a significant increase (P<0.01 in the width and length of villi, and a decrease (P<0.01 in the values obtained for the width and depth of crypts in the animals that consumed E .faecium, as compared to those that consumed the diet with addition of antibiotics. The use of probiotics, especially E. faecium, is a nutritional treatment strategy when antimicrobial compound are used, improving the intestinal morphometric parameters and, at the same time, the digestive and productive parameters of the animals. Work is in progress to investigate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the mofication of gut microbiota of post-weaning piglets

  13. [Effect of preterm infant position on weaning from mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Letícia C O; Rugolo, Lígia M S S; Crocci, Adalberto J

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effects of prone positioning on cardiorespiratory stability and weaning outcome of preterm infants during weaning from mechanical ventilation. From January to December 1999, a sample of 42 preterm infants, with birthweight position: supine position (n = 21) or prone position (n = 21). Heart rate, respiratory rate, transcutaneous oxygen saturation and ventilatory parameters were recorded every one hour. Length of the weaning process and complications were also assessed. In both groups the mean gestational age was 29 weeks, most of the patients presented very low birthweight and respiratory distress syndrome. The mean length of the weaning process was 2 days. There were no differences between the groups regarding respiratory rate, heart rate and transcutaneous oxygen saturation, however, oxygen desaturation episodes were more frequent in supine position (p = 0.009). Ventilatory parameters decreased faster and reintubation was less frequent in the prone group (4% versus 33%). No adverse effects of prone positioning were observed. These results suggest that prone position is a safe and beneficial procedure during weaning from mechanical ventilation and may contribute to weaning success in preterm infants.

  14. Factors associated with weaning practices in term infants: a prospective observational study in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-11-01

    The WHO (2001) recommends exclusive breast-feeding and delaying the introduction of solid foods to an infant\\'s diet until 6 months postpartum. However, in many countries, this recommendation is followed by few mothers, and earlier weaning onto solids is a commonly reported global practice. Therefore, this prospective, observational study aimed to assess compliance with the WHO recommendation and examine weaning practices, including the timing of weaning of infants, and to investigate the factors that predict weaning at ≤ 12 weeks. From an initial sample of 539 pregnant women recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, 401 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Quantitative data were obtained on mothers\\' weaning practices using semi-structured questionnaires and a short dietary history of the infant\\'s usual diet at 6 months. Only one mother (0.2%) complied with the WHO recommendation to exclusively breastfeed up to 6 months. Ninety-one (22.6%) infants were prematurely weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks with predictive factors after adjustment, including mothers\\' antenatal reporting that infants should be weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks, formula feeding at 12 weeks and mothers\\' reporting of the maternal grandmother as the principal source of advice on infant feeding. Mothers who weaned their infants at ≤ 12 weeks were more likely to engage in other sub-optimal weaning practices, including the addition of non-recommended condiments to their infants\\' foods. Provision of professional advice and exploring antenatal maternal misperceptions are potential areas for targeted interventions to improve compliance with the recommended weaning practices.

  15. Appropriate Weaning Practice and Associated Factors among Infants and Young Children in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liknaw Bewket Zeleke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The right nutrition from the start of a pregnancy to the child’s second birthday has a profound impact on the future health, wellbeing, and success of a child. This can be achieved through proper maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and appropriate weaning practice. Objective. This study was aimed at assessing appropriate weaning practice and associated factors among infants and young children aged 6–23 months in Feres Bet Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 351 children aged 6–23 months. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with appropriate weaning practice. Results. Nearly quarter (23.9% of mothers have practiced appropriate weaning. Proportion of children who started consumption of weaning food timely and met the recommended dietary diversity was 61.5% and 43.9%, respectively. Child age [AOR (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 7.04], husband’s occupation [AOR: 6.85], and maternal weaning advice [AOR: 4.38] were positively associated with appropriate weaning practice, while family size [AOR: 0.28] showed negative association. Conclusion. Appropriate weaning practice was found to be low. Health education at community level and one-on-one advice for mothers in health institutions are highly recommended to improve appropriate weaning.

  16. Aged garlic extract enhances exercise-mediated improvement of metabolic parameters in high fat diet-induced obese rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dae Yun Seo; SungRyul Lee; Arturo Figueroa; Yi Sub Kwak; Nari Kim; Byoung Doo Rhee; Kyung Soo Ko; Hyun Seok Bang; Yeong Ho Baek; Jin Han

    2012-01-01

    .... We examined the effects of exercise with and without aged garlic extract administration on body weight, lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress marker in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats...

  17. Ketogenic diets: an historical antiepileptic therapy with promising potentialities for the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Marta; Casoli, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Giorgetti, Belinda; Aicardi, Giorgio; Fattoretti, Patrizia

    2010-07-01

    Ketogenic diets (KDs), successfully used in the therapy of paediatric epilepsy for nearly a century, have recently shown beneficial effects also in cancer, obesity, diabetes, GLUT 1 deficiencies, hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injuries, and neurodegeneration. The latter achievement designates aged individuals as optimal recipients, but concerns derive from possible age-dependent differences in KDs effectiveness. Indeed, the main factors influencing ketone bodies utilization by the brain (blood levels, transport mechanisms, catabolic enzymes) undergo developmental changes, although several reports indicate that KDs maintain some efficacy during adulthood and even during advanced aging. Encouraging results obtained in patients affected by age-related neurodegenerative diseases have prompted new interest on KDs' effect on the aging brain, also considering the poor efficacy of therapies currently used. However, recent morphological evidence in synapses of late-adult rats indicates that KDs consequences may be even opposite in different brain regions, likely depending on neuronal vulnerability to age. Thus, further studies are needed to design KDs specifically indicated for single neurodegenerative diseases, and to ameliorate the balance between beneficial and adverse effects in aged subjects. Here we review clinical and experimental data on KDs treatments, focusing on their possible use during pathological aging. Proposed mechanisms of action are also reported and discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance, carcass traits and costs of Suffolk lambs finishing systems with early weaning and controlled suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance, carcass traits and finishing costs of Suffolk lambs were evaluated in three systems: (1 lambs weaned with 22 kg of body weight (BW and supplemented with concentrate on pasture until slaughter; (2 lambs weaned with 22 kg BW and fed in feedlot until slaughter; (3 lambs maintained in controlled nursing after 22 kg BW and creep fed in feedlot until slaughter. Average daily gain (ADG was 224 g/d for lambs weaned and supplemented with concentrate on pasture, 386 g/d for lambs weaned in feedlot and 481 g/d for lambs under controlled nursing. Empty body weight and visceral fat deposition were highest in lambs from feedlot systems. Carcass weights and carcass yields were highest for lambs in controlled nursing. Finishing total costs were highest in controlled nursing and lowest in the system with weaning in feedlot. High concentrate diet associated with controlled nursing in feedlot allowed lambs to reach the growth potential and carcasses with higher weights, higher yields and higher fat content. After weaning, lambs in feedlot fed with high concentrate diet had higher weight gain than lambs supplemented with concentrate on pasture. Carcasses produced under these two systems presented the same characteristics. The system with weaning in feedlot showed the lowest cost per kg carcass.

  19. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  20. Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among young children: weaning education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A; Feachem, R G

    1985-01-01

    A review of data from 12 developing countries suggests that it is possible, even in poor communities, to improve substantially the nutritional status of infants and young children by weaning education. Face-to-face communication by locally recruited workers, reinforced by radio and other mass media, may be the most effective channels for weaning education. It is estimated that, through its effect on nutritional status, weaning education may reduce the diarrhea mortality rate among children under 5 years of age by 2-12%. The possible impacts of weaning education on food hygiene and on feeding during and after diarrheal illness are not considered in this paper. Preliminary estimates of cost-effectiveness suggest that weaning education may be an economically attractive intervention for reducing diarrhea mortality in some countries. Several important aspects of weaning education and its relation to diarrhea need to be clarified by research. (author's)

  1. High fat diet aggravates atrial and ventricular remodeling of hypertensive heart disease in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiou, Yi-Lin; Huang, I-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Ting; Lee, Hsiang-Chun

    2017-09-06

    Left ventricular hypertrophy is a major cause of heart failure in aging population. This study is to determine whether an excess dietary fat is lipotoxic or lipoprotein to the hypertrophic aging heart. At 44-week-old, a normal chow (12% fat) was replaced a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) for randomly selective spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR + HFD, n = 6) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY + HFD, n = 6, normotensive control). Others (SHR, n = 11; WKY, n = 10) were continuously fed with normal diets. After 27 weeks, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and femoral arterial catheterization were performed before rats being sacrificed for molecular biology analyses. HFD aggravated cardiac atrial, ventricular dilation and hypertrophy in SHR (LV mass: SHR + HFD 2026.0 ± 424.9 vs SHR 1449 ± 461.1 mg, unpaired t test P heart disease in aging rats was aggravated by HFD with worse atrial, ventricular remodeling and associated with left ventricular systolic function impairment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Adaptive capacity of faecal microbiota from piglets receiving diets with different types of inulin-type fructans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, W.F.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Shim, S.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to assess the microbial activity of faeces from unweaned and weaned piglets. Diets of weaned piglets were supplemented with various fructans. Weaned piglets received a corn¿soy based basal diet supplemented with either corn starch (control; CON), oligofructose

  3. Diet quality and cognition among older adults from the NuAge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine; Belleville, Sylvie; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, José; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène; Greenwood, Carol

    2012-05-01

    A healthy diet may prevent cognitive decline either directly, or by decreasing risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases associated with cognitive decline. This study examined the relationships between diet quality (DQ) and cognition for over 3 years among 1488 older adults (52.6% female) from the NuAge study, aged 67 to 84 years at recruitment. Cognition was assessed at four annual visits using the modified mini-mental status examination (3MS); rate of cognitive decline was computed for each participant over the 3 years of follow-up using mixed model analyses and the individual-specific number of months between 3MS assessments. Dietary data were collected at recruitment using a validated 78-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). DQ was characterized as the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI), a 9-component global DQ index (maximum score=100) computed from the FFQ output. Other variables were collected by questionnaire or direct measurement. Multivariate analyses were carried out to assess the association of DQ controlled for confounders on cognition. Total C-HEI was better in females (78.7±9.1 vs 75.7±9.4, pdiet that could contribute to chronic diseases associated with cognition. Along with functional autonomy, most of these variables emerged as covariates of baseline 3MS and predictors of cognitive decline. While certain C-HEI subscores and total C-HEI were positive univariate correlates of 3MS at recruitment, total DQ was not associated with cognition in multivariate analyses, either at baseline or over 3 years of follow-up. DQ was not independently associated with cognition. However, the study demonstrates relationships between diet quality and risk factors for chronic diseases associated with cognition. Consequently, older adults might benefit from a healthy diet to decrease risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases established as risk factors for cognitive decline. Further work in diverse older populations, use of dietary data

  4. Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khimara Naidoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR, pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing.

  5. Effect of age and diet on total and paracellular glucose absorption in nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Paweł; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Hoefer, Keeshia; Karasov, William H

    2010-01-01

    Size and hydrolytic activity of the gastrointestinal tracts of altricial birds undergo large and rapid changes during ontogeny. However, nothing is known about the development of the capacity of absorption of products of digestion, a factor that can limit total digestive performance. Using pharmacokinetic methods applied to wild-collected and laboratory-raised altricial nestlings of house sparrows (Passer domesticus), we addressed several questions of general significance about absorption in young birds. We found that both rate and efficiency of absorption of radiolabeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMD-glucose; absorbed by both transporter-mediated and nonmediated mechanisms) increased significantly between days 3 and 12 posthatch. We hypothesize that these changes can explain improvements in whole-diet digestion rate and efficiency observed in the young of house sparrows and of many other avian species, even after intestinal growth has ceased. We also tested the hypothesis that a high level of nonmediated, paracellular glucose absorption, as is typical in adult house sparrows, would already be observed in nestlings, and that their glucose absorption efficiency would not depend on glucose load because absorption rate is nonsaturable and is matched to substrate concentration. Using l-glucose (which is absorbed by nonmediated mechanism[s]), we found that, as predicted, paracellular absorption accounted for the majority of total absorption in nestlings of all ages, and starch content (0% vs. 25%) in the diet of laboratory-raised nestlings had no effect on efficiency of absorption of 3-OMD-glucose. Presumably, reliance on nonmediated absorption in young sparrows can save energy for growth. Also, during the transition from an almost starch-free, insect-based diet during the first days posthatch to the starch-rich, seed-based diet that is typical of adults, reliance on passive absorption is advantageous because the rate of absorption can easily match the current

  6. Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δ(13)C) in Organs of Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Alessandro Borges; Berto, Dirlei Antonio; Saleh, Mayra Anton Dib; Telles, Filipe Garcia; Denadai, Juliana Célia; Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira; Luiggi, Fabiana Golin; Santos, Luan Sousa; Ducatti, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Morphological and physiological alterations occur in the digestive system of weanling piglets, compromising the performance in subsequent phases. This experiment aimed at verifying the influence of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides on the carbon turnover in the pancreas and liver of piglets weaned at 21 days of age. Four diets were evaluated: glutamine, glutamic acid or nucleotides-free diet (CD); containing 1% glutamine (GD); containing 1% glutamic acid (GAD) and containing 1% nucleotides (ND). One hundred and twenty-three piglets were utilized with three pigs slaughtered at day zero (weaning day) and three at each one of the experimental days (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 20, 27, and 49 post-weaning), in order to collect organ samples, which were analyzed for the δ(13)C isotopic composition and compared by means of time. No differences were found (p>0.05) among treatments for the turnover of the (13)C in the pancreas (T50% = 13.91, 14.37, 11.07, and 9.34 days; T95% = 46.22, 47.73, 36.79, and 31.04 days for CD, GD, GAD, and ND, respectively). In the liver, the ND presented accelerated values of carbon turnover (T50% = 7.36 and T95% = 24.47 days) in relation to the values obtained for the GD (T50% = 10.15 and T95% = 33.74 days). However, the values obtained for the CD (T50% = 9.12 and T95% = 30.31 days) and GAD (T50% = 7.83 and T95% = 26.03 days) had no differences (p>0.05) among other diets. The technique of (13)C isotopic dilution demonstrated trophic action of nucleotides in the liver.

  7. Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δC in Organs of Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borges Amorim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and physiological alterations occur in the digestive system of weanling piglets, compromising the performance in subsequent phases. This experiment aimed at verifying the influence of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides on the carbon turnover in the pancreas and liver of piglets weaned at 21 days of age. Four diets were evaluated: glutamine, glutamic acid or nucleotides-free diet (CD; containing 1% glutamine (GD; containing 1% glutamic acid (GAD and containing 1% nucleotides (ND. One hundred and twenty-three piglets were utilized with three pigs slaughtered at day zero (weaning day and three at each one of the experimental days (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 20, 27, and 49 post-weaning, in order to collect organ samples, which were analyzed for the δ13C isotopic composition and compared by means of time. No differences were found (p>0.05 among treatments for the turnover of the 13C in the pancreas (T50% = 13.91, 14.37, 11.07, and 9.34 days; T95% = 46.22, 47.73, 36.79, and 31.04 days for CD, GD, GAD, and ND, respectively. In the liver, the ND presented accelerated values of carbon turnover (T50% = 7.36 and T95% = 24.47 days in relation to the values obtained for the GD (T50% = 10.15 and T95% = 33.74 days. However, the values obtained for the CD (T50% = 9.12 and T95% = 30.31 days and GAD (T50% = 7.83 and T95% = 26.03 days had no differences (p>0.05 among other diets. The technique of 13C isotopic dilution demonstrated trophic action of nucleotides in the liver.

  8. Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δ13C) in Organs of Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Alessandro Borges; Berto, Dirlei Antonio; Saleh, Mayra Anton Dib; Telles, Filipe Garcia; Denadai, Juliana Célia; Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira; Luiggi, Fabiana Golin; Santos, Luan Sousa; Ducatti, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and physiological alterations occur in the digestive system of weanling piglets, compromising the performance in subsequent phases. This experiment aimed at verifying the influence of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides on the carbon turnover in the pancreas and liver of piglets weaned at 21 days of age. Four diets were evaluated: glutamine, glutamic acid or nucleotides-free diet (CD); containing 1% glutamine (GD); containing 1% glutamic acid (GAD) and containing 1% nucleotides (ND). One hundred and twenty-three piglets were utilized with three pigs slaughtered at day zero (weaning day) and three at each one of the experimental days (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 20, 27, and 49 post-weaning), in order to collect organ samples, which were analyzed for the δ13C isotopic composition and compared by means of time. No differences were found (p>0.05) among treatments for the turnover of the 13C in the pancreas (T50% = 13.91, 14.37, 11.07, and 9.34 days; T95% = 46.22, 47.73, 36.79, and 31.04 days for CD, GD, GAD, and ND, respectively). In the liver, the ND presented accelerated values of carbon turnover (T50% = 7.36 and T95% = 24.47 days) in relation to the values obtained for the GD (T50% = 10.15 and T95% = 33.74 days). However, the values obtained for the CD (T50% = 9.12 and T95% = 30.31 days) and GAD (T50% = 7.83 and T95% = 26.03 days) had no differences (p>0.05) among other diets. The technique of 13C isotopic dilution demonstrated trophic action of nucleotides in the liver. PMID:26954179

  9. Neutral detergent-soluble fiber improves gut barrier function in twenty-five-day-old weaned rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, M S; García, J; Chamorro, S; Eiras, P; Rebollar, P G; Pérez de Rozas, A; Badiola, I; de Blas, C; Carabaño, R

    2007-12-01

    The effect of neutral detergent-soluble fiber level on gut barrier function and intestinal microbiota was examined in weaned rabbits. A control diet (AH) containing 103 g of neutral detergent-soluble fiber/ kg of DM included alfalfa hay as main source of fiber. Another diet (B-AP) was formulated by replacing half of the alfalfa hay with a mixture of beet and apple pulp resulting in 131 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM. A third diet (OH) was obtained by substituting half of the alfalfa hay with a mix of oat hulls and a soybean protein concentrate and contained 79 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM. Rabbits weaned at 25 d and slaughtered at 35 d were used to determine ileal digestibility, jejunal morphology, sucrase activity, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intestinal microbiota. Suckling 35-d-old rabbits were used to assess mucosa morphology. Mortality (from weaning to 63 d of age) was also determined. Villous height of the jejunal mucosa increased with soluble fiber (P = 0.001). Rabbits fed with the greatest level of soluble fiber (BA-P diet) showed the highest villous height/ crypt depth ratio (8.14; P = 0.001), sucrase specific activity (8,671 mumol of glucose/g of protein; P = 0.019), and the greatest ileal starch digestibility (96.8%; P = 0.002). The opposite effects were observed in rabbits fed decreased levels of soluble fiber (AH and OH diets; 4.70, 5,848 mumol of glucose/g of protein, as average, respectively). The lowest ileal starch digestibility was detected for animals fed OH diet (93.2%). Suckling rabbits of the same age showed a lower villous height/crypt depth ratio (6.70) compared with the B-AP diet group, but this ratio was higher than the AH or OH diet groups. Lower levels of soluble fiber tended (P = 0.074) to increase the cellular immune response (CD8+ lymphocytes). Diet affected IL-2 production (CD25+, P = 0.029; CD5+CD25+, P = 0.057), with no clear relationship between soluble fiber and IL-2. The intestinal microbiota biodiversity was not affected by

  10. Cardiac dysfunction and peri-weaning mortality in malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) knockout mice as a consequence of restricting substrate plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentijević, Dunja; McAndrew, Debra J; Karlstädt, Anja; Zervou, Sevasti; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Cross, Rebecca; Douglas, Gillian; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A

    2014-10-01

    Inhibition of malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) shifts metabolism from fatty acid towards glucose oxidation, which has therapeutic potential for obesity and myocardial ischemic injury. However, ~40% of patients with MCD deficiency are diagnosed with cardiomyopathy during infancy. To clarify the link between MCD deficiency and cardiac dysfunction in early life and to determine the contributing systemic and cardiac metabolic perturbations. MCD knockout mice ((-/-)) exhibited non-Mendelian genotype ratios (31% fewer MCD(-/-)) with deaths clustered around weaning. Immediately prior to weaning (18days) MCD(-/-) mice had lower body weights, elevated body fat, hepatic steatosis and glycogen depletion compared to wild-type littermates. MCD(-/-) plasma was hyperketonemic, hyperlipidemic, had 60% lower lactate levels and markers of cellular damage were elevated. MCD(-/-) hearts exhibited hypertrophy, impaired ejection fraction and were energetically compromised (32% lower total adenine nucleotide pool). However differences between WT and MCD(-/-) converged with age, suggesting that, in surviving MCD(-/-) mice, early cardiac dysfunction resolves over time. These observations were corroborated by in silico modelling of cardiomyocyte metabolism, which indicated improvement of the MCD(-/-) metabolic phenotype and improved cardiac efficiency when switched from a high-fat diet (representative of suckling) to a standard post-weaning diet, independent of any developmental changes. MCD(-/-) mice consistently exhibited cardiac dysfunction and severe metabolic perturbations while on a high-fat, low carbohydrate diet of maternal milk and these gradually resolved post-weaning. This suggests that dysfunction is a common feature of MCD deficiency during early development, but that severity is dependent on composition of dietary substrates. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Diet and age affect intestinal morphology and large bowel fermentative end-product concentrations in senior and young adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmuk, Kristy N; Swanson, Kelly S; Tappenden, Kelly A; Schook, Lawrence B; Fahey, George C

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of age and diet on intestinal morphology and large bowel fermentative end-product concentrations in healthy dogs. Small intestinal villus width, height, and area, and small intestinal and colonic crypt depth were measured. Large bowel digesta samples were analyzed for ammonia, SCFAs, and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs). SCFAs are considered to be beneficial fermentative end-products in the intestine because they exert trophic effects on intestinal cells. Twelve senior (age = 11.1 y +/- 0.6 at baseline; 6 male, 6 female) and 12 young adult (age = 8 wk old at baseline; 6 male, 6 female) beagles were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments, an animal product-based diet (APB) and a plant product-based diet (PPB). Diets were fed for 12 mo. Jejunal (P = 0.03) and ileal (P = 0.02) villus height, and duodenal (P = 0.04) villus width were greater for dogs consuming the PPB diet. Young dogs had greater (P = 0.04) jejunal villus height, whereas senior dogs had greater (P dogs consuming APB (P = 0.03). Age and treatment affected butyrate concentrations, with senior dogs (P = 0.04) and dogs consuming APB (P = 0.04) having higher concentrations. Both diet and age affected small and large intestinal morphology, and colonic fermentative end-product concentrations in dogs.

  12. Body composition and behaviour in adult rats are influenced by maternal diet, maternal age and high-fat feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, S; Voigt, J-P; Langley-Evans, S C

    2015-01-01

    Fetal exposure to maternal undernutrition has lifelong consequences for physiological and metabolic function. Maternal low-protein diet is associated with an age-related phenotype in rats, characterised by a period of resistance to development of obesity in early adulthood, giving way to an obesity-prone, insulin-resistant state in later adulthood. Offspring of rats fed a control (18 % casein) or low-protein (9 % casein; LP) diet in pregnancy were challenged with a high-fat diet at 9 months of age. To assess whether other maternal factors modulated the programming effects of nutrition, offspring were studied from young (2-4 months old) and older (6-9 months old) mothers. Weight gain with a high-fat diet was attenuated in male offspring of older mothers fed LP (interaction of maternal age and diet; P = 0·011) and adipose tissue deposition was lower with LP feeding in both males and females (P maternal diet and age. Assessment of locomotor activity indicated that energy expenditure associated with physical activity was unlikely to explain resistance to weight gain, but showed that offspring of older mothers were more anxious than those of younger mothers, with more rearing observed in a novel environment and on the elevated plus-maze. The data showed that in addition to maternal undernutrition, greater maternal age may influence development and long-term body composition in the rat.

  13. Long-term characterization of the diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah Juel

    2010-01-01

    The availability of useful animal models reflecting the human obesity syndrome is crucial in the search for novel compounds for the pharmacological treatment of obesity. In the current study, we have performed an extensive characterization of the obesity syndrome in a polygenetic animal model......, namely the selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) and diet-resistant (DR) rat strains. We show that they constitute useful models of the human obesity syndrome. DIO and DR rats were fed either a high-energy (HE) or a standard chow (Chow) diet from weaning to 9 months of age. Metabolic characterization...... including blood biochemistry and glucose homeostasis was examined at 2, 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Furthermore, in 6-month-old HE-fed DIO rats, the anti-obesity effects of liraglutide and sibutramine were examined in a 28-day study. Only HE-fed DIO rats developed visceral obesity, hyperleptinemia...

  14. Ideal digestible isoleucine: digestible lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 24-40 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cristina da Rocha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred fifty-two Hy-Line W36 laying hens were allotted in a randomized block design with 6 treatments, 7 replicates and 6 hens per experimental unit in order to determine the ideal digestible isoleucine: digestible lysine (Ile:Lys ratio for laying hens aged 24-40 weeks. Experimental diets contained 5.92, 6.33, 6.73, 7.14, 7.54 and 7.95 g/kg of digestible isoleucine, resulting in different Ile:Lys ratios (0.73:1, 0.78:1, 0.83:1, 0.88:1, 0.93:1 and 0.98:1. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous, with different dietary contents of glutamic acid, and made isocaloric by adjusting the levels of cornstarch. All essential amino acids were provided proportionally to digestible lysine. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, albumen, yolk and eggshell content were assessed. Feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were influenced by Ile: Lys ratios quadratically. The egg weight was not affected by Ile: Lys ratio. No differences were observed in the egg quality according to Ile: Lys ratios. The data indicates that the optimum digestible isoleucine: digestible lysine ratio for laying hens aged 24-40 week is 0.84:1, corresponding to the consumption of 681 mg of isoleucine and 811 mg of lysine/hen day-1.

  15. Performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed corn silage and oat hay/ Desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias alimentados com silagem de milho e feno de aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pereira da Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives to evaluate the performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed with different roughage sources in confinement. Thirty animals out of Corriedale ewes mated to Hampshire Down, Ile de France and Suffolk rams, were used. After weaning the animals were fedlot and distributed in one of the following treatments: T1 – Corn silage + concentrate; T2 – Corn silage and oat hay (50% each + concentrate; and T3 – Oat hay + concentrate. It was used a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio, dry matter basis. At the beginning of the experiment the animals weighed 11.51, 12.46 and 12.33 kg (P>0.05, and after nine weeks of feedlot the weights were 17.53, 19.34 and 19.35 kg (P>0.05, respectively, for T1, T2 e T3. Average daily weight gain was similar (P>0.05 among treatments. It was not observed differences (P>0.05 in weights and weight gains among the genetic groups. However, male lambs presented greater average daily weight gain than female lambs (0.120 x 0.091 kg. There were no differences in feed conversion among the treatments, however, animals from the T2 had greater dry matter intake. It can be concluded that either corn silage or oat hay can be used for feeding weaned lambs.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias e alimentados com diferentes fontes de volumosos em confinamento. Foram utilizados 30 animais oriundos de cruzamentos entre ovelhas Corriedale e carneiros Hampshire Down, Ile de France e Suffolk. Logo após o desmame os animais foram confinados, sendo distribuídos para receberem um dos tratamentos: T1 – Silagem de milho mais concentrado; T2 – Silagem de milho e feno de aveia (50% do volumoso cada mais concentrado; e T3 – Feno de aveia mais concentrado. A proporção volumoso:concentrado utilizada foi de 60:40, base seca. Os pesos médios dos animais no início do experimento foram de 11,51; 12,46 e 12,33 kg (P>0,05 e os pesos finais, após nove semanas de

  16. Cholesterol-enriched diet causes age-related macular degeneration-like pathology in rabbit retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Brij B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD and age-related macular degeneration (AMD share several pathological hallmarks including β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. The causes of AD and AMD are likely multi-factorial with several factors such as diet, environment, and genetic susceptibility participating in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Epidemiological studies correlated high plasma cholesterol levels with high incidence of AD, and feeding rabbits with a diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to induce AD-like pathology in rabbit brain. High intake of cholesterol and saturated fat were also long been suspected to increase the risk for AMD. However, the extent to which cholesterol-enriched diet may also cause AMD-like features in rabbit retinas is not well known. Methods Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed normal chow or a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet for 12 weeks. At necropsy, animals were perfused with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline and the eyes were promptly removed. One eye of each animal was used for immunohistochemistry and retina dissected from the other eye was used for Western blot, ELISA assays, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry analyses. Results Increased levels of Aβ, decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, increased levels of the pro-apoptotic Bax and gadd153 proteins, emergence of TUNEL-positive cells, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species were found in retinas from cholesterol-fed compared to normal chow-fed rabbits. Additionally, astrogliosis, drusen-like debris and cholesterol accumulations in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits were observed. As several lines of evidence suggest that oxidized cholesterol metabolites (oxysterols may be the link by which cholesterol contributes to the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined levels of oxysterols and found a dramatic increase in levels of oxysterols in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits

  17. Decreased ovarian reserve, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased lipid peroxidation in female mouse offspring exposed to an obesogenic maternal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Penfold, Naomi C; Dearden, Laura; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy influences the later life reproductive potential of female offspring. We investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the depletion of ovarian follicular reserve in young adult females following exposure to obesogenic diet in early life. Furthermore, we explore the interaction between adverse maternal diet and postweaning diet in generating reduced ovarian reserve. Female mice were exposed to either maternal obesogenic (high fat/high sugar) or maternal control dietin uteroand during lactation, then weaned onto either obesogenic or control diet. At 12 wk of age, the offspring ovarian reserve was depleted following exposure to maternal obesogenic diet (Pobesogenic diet. Maternal obesogenic diet was associated with increased mitochondrial DNA biogenesis (copy numberPobesogenic maternal diet. © The Author(s).

  18. Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Bakker, G.C.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and on small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets. In total, 108 piglets were used, without access to creep feed during the suckling period. Piglets were weaned at 27 days of age. They were fed ad

  19. Stabilized rice bran improves weaning pig performance via a prebiotic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfel, T; Jacobi, S; Lin, X; van Heugten, E; Fellner, V; Odle, J

    2013-02-01

    Stabilized rice bran (SRB) is classified as a "functional food" because of its prebiotic characteristics. With increasing grain prices and the pressure to remove antibiotics from swine diets because of concern over antibiotic resistance, SRB was investigated as a nursery diet ingredient with and without the addition of antibiotics (ANT). Two hundred pigs were weaned at 21 d of age, blocked by BW, and allotted to diets containing 0 or 10% SRB ± ANT according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Five animals were housed per pen throughout a 28-d growth period. At the end of the trial, 1 pig from each pen was euthanized for measurement of intestinal morphology. Antibiotic supplementation improved ADG by 6.4% during Phase 2 (d 14 to 28; P = 0.02), but other production variables were unaffected by ANT. During Phase 2 and cumulatively (d 0 to 28), the supplementation of SRB improved G:F by 10% in ANT-free pigs but not in pigs fed ANT (ANT × SRB, P SRB and corresponding decreases in villi:crypt associated with both ANT and SRB supplementation (P SRB without ANT, but were unaffected by SRB in pigs fed ANT (ANT x SRB, P = 0.003). Colonic bifidobacteria tended to increase with SRB supplementation (P SRB improved the efficiency of nutrient utilization in nursery diets lacking antibiotics and tended to increase intestinal bifidobacteria concentrations, indicating that SRB may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in weanling pigs.

  20. Adolescent Diet Quality and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Middle-Aged Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina C; Chomistek, Andrea K; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2016-01-01

    completed a food frequency questionnaire about their high school diet and adult diet (mean age 42 years), 27 406 women free of clinical risk factors and 42 112 women free of CVD in 1998 were followed to June 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were adjusted for potential confounders in high school...... in women with a low, medium, and high AHEI score during adulthood (HR high HS-AHEI/high adult AHEI versus low/low 0.79 [95% CI, 0.74-0.85]), but was not statistically significantly associated with incident CVD. CONCLUSIONS: A healthy diet during adolescence is associated with lower risk of developing CVD...... risk factors. As diet tracks throughout life, and adult diet prevents CVD, healthy dietary habits that begin early are important for primordial prevention of CVD....

  1. Breastfeeding and weaning in renaissance Italy: the Medici children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffra, Valentina; Fornaciari, Gino

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Exploration of the Medici Chapels in the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence, Italy, revealed the burials of nine infantile members of the Medici family. Eight children were found in the intact tomb of the last Grand Duke GianGastone (1671-1737), and another child was exhumed from the Chapel of Grand Duke Ferdinando I (1549-1609). Skeletal ages ranged from newborn to 5 years, suggesting an identification with infantile members of the family. A paleonutritional study has been performed on the bone samples of all members of the Medici family exhumed so far. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of bone collagen was used to detect the timing of the weaning process in this population. The (15)N values of the Medici children are significantly higher than those of adults, indicating that these infants were breastfed for a long time period. In particular, the levels of (15)N are high before the second year but decrease in older children, evidently after weaning, reaching the levels of adults. During the Renaissance, it was the common opinion that children should not be weaned before the second year of life. Archival documents suggest that the Medici children were never weaned before that age and, in most cases, even some months later. Combination of paleonutritional data and historical sources allowed reconstruction of the breastfeeding and weaning patterns of this aristocratic Renaissance class.

  2. Transcriptional regulators transforming growth factor-β1 and estrogen-related receptor-α identified as putative mediators of calf rumen epithelial tissue development and function during weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Baldwin, R L; Walker, M P; Ellis, S E; Li, C; Kahl, S; Chung, H; Li, R W

    2014-07-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating rumen epithelial development remain largely unknown. To identify gene networks and regulatory factors controlling rumen development, Holstein bull calves (n=18) were fed milk replacer only (MRO) until 42 d of age. Three calves each were euthanized at 14 and 42 d of age for tissue collection to represent preweaning, and the remaining calves were provided diets of either milk replacer + orchard grass hay (MH; n=6) to initiate weaning without development of rumen papillae, or milk replacer + calf starter (MG; n=6) to initiate weaning and development of rumen papillae. At 56 and 70 d of age, 3 calves from the MH and MG groups were euthanized for collection of rumen epithelium. Total RNA and protein were extracted for microarray analysis and to validate detected changes in selected protein expression, respectively. As expected, calves fed MRO had no rumen papillae and development of papillae was greater in MG versus MH calves. Differentially expressed genes between the MRO diet at d 42 (preweaning) versus the MG or MH diets at d 56 (during weaning) were identified using permutation analysis of differential expression. Expression of 345 and 519 transcripts was uniquely responsive to MG and MH feeding, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Qiagen, Redwood City, CA) indicated that the top-ranked biological function affected by the MG diet was the cell cycle, and TFGB1, FBOX01, and PPARA were identified as key transcriptional regulators of genes responsive to the MG diet and associated with development of rumen papillae. Increased expressions of TGFB1 mRNA and protein in response to the MG diet were confirmed by subsequent analyses. The top-ranking biological function affected by the MH diet was energy production. Receptors for IGF-1 and insulin, ESRRA, and PPARD were identified by ingenuity pathway analysis as transcriptional regulators of genes responsive to the MH diet. Further analysis of TGFB1 and ESRRA mRNA expression in rumen

  3. Would carnosine or a carnivorous diet help suppress aging and associated pathologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2006-05-01

    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is found exclusively in animal tissues. Carnosine has the potential to suppress many of the biochemical changes (e.g., protein oxidation, glycation, AGE formation, and cross-linking) that accompany aging and associated pathologies. Glycation, generation of advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs), and formation of protein carbonyl groups play important roles in aging, diabetes, its secondary complications, and neurodegenerative conditions. Due to carnosine's antiglycating activity, reactivity toward deleterious carbonyls, zinc- and copper-chelating activity and low toxicity, carnosine and related structures could be effective against age-related protein carbonyl stress. It is suggested that carnivorous diets could be beneficial because of their carnosine content, as the dipeptide has been shown to suppress some diabetic complications in mice. It is also suggested that carnosine's therapeutic potential should be explored with respect to neurodegeneration. Olfactory tissue is normally enriched in carnosine, but olfactory dysfunction is frequently associated with neurodegeneration. Olfactory administration of carnosine could provide a direct route to compromised tissue, avoiding serum carnosinases.

  4. Opioid and Benzodiazepine Weaning in Pediatric Patients: Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Norman E; Plake, Kimberly S

    2017-11-01

    Pediatric opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal are avoidable complications of pain and sedation management that is well described in the literature. To prevent withdrawal from occurring, practitioners regularly use a steady decrease of pain and sedation medications, also known as a weaning or tapering schedule. The weaning schedule is highly variable based on clinician preference and is usually dependent on the clinician. The purposes of this review are to evaluate the current literature on the process of opioid and benzodiazepine weaning in pediatric patients and to assess the various standardized protocols used to decrease withdrawal occurrences. We conducted a search of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Academic Search Premier, and PsycInfo databases. Studies were included if they described a wean or taper in pediatric patients aged 18 years or younger. Studies describing neonatal abstinence syndrome were excluded from the review. A total of 97 studies published between 2000 and 2014 were retrieved; of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated for selection of withdrawal assessment tool, wean protocol summary, preferred weaning agents, benzodiazepine withdrawal, and wean-at-home regimen. The most common opioid-weaning protocol approaches described a 10-20% dose decrease per day. Benzodiazepine weaning was not regularly standardized or described. The use of a standardized opioid-weaning protocol reduced withdrawal rates compared with nonstandardized weaning plans. Benzodiazepine weaning was inconsistently evaluated and may have affected study outcomes. Identified areas of improvement include the use of newer withdrawal assessment tools validated in the older pediatric population and standardized withdrawal assessment and reporting. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  5. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...

  6. Food-based diet quality score in relation to depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroka; Murakami, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Only a few studies have focused on the association between overall diet, rather than intakes of individual nutrients or foods, and depressive symptoms in Japanese. This cross-sectional study examined associations between a diet quality score and depressive symptoms in 3963 young (age 18 years) and 3833 middle-aged (mean age 47·9 (sd 4·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary information was collected using a diet history questionnaire. A previously developed diet quality score was computed mainly based on the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22·0 % for young women and 16·8 % for middle-aged women, assessed as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score ≥23 and ≥19, respectively. As expected, the diet quality score was associated positively with intakes of 'grain dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'milk' and 'fruits' and inversely with intakes of energy from 'snacks, confection and beverages' and Na from seasonings. After adjustment for potential confounders, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest v. lowest quintiles of the diet quality score was 0·65 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·84) in young women (P for trend=0·0005). In middle-aged women, the corresponding value was 0·59 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·78) (P for trenddiet quality and CES-D scores were treated as continuous variables also showed inverse associations. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that a higher diet quality score was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women. Prospective studies are needed to confirm a public health relevance of this finding.

  7. Components of a Mediterranean diet and their impact on cognitive functions in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eHuhn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhering to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi is known to be beneficial with regard to age-associated diseases including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies also suggest an impact on cognition and brain structure, and increasing effort is made to track effects down to single nutrients.Aims: To review whether two MeDi components, i.e. long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA derived from sea-fish, and plant polyphenols including resveratrol (RSV, exert positive effects on brain health in aging. Content: We summarized health benefits associated with the MeDi and evaluated available studies on the effect of (1 fish-consumption and LC-n3-FA supplementation as well as (2 diet-derived or supplementary polyphenols such as RSV, on cognitive performance and brain structure in animal models and human studies. Also, we discussed possible underlying mechanisms.Conclusion: A majority of available studies suggest that consumption of LC-n3-FA with fish or fishoil-supplements exerts positive effects on brain health and cognition in older humans. However, more large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to draw definite recommendations. Considering polyphenols and RSV, only a few controlled studies are available to date, yet the evidence based on animal research and first interventional human trials is promising and warrants further investigation. In addition, the concept of food synergy within the MeDi encourages future trials that evaluate the impact of comprehensive lifestyle patterns to help maintaining cognitive functions into old age.

  8. Baseline determinants of global diet quality in older men and women from the NuAge cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatenstein, B; Gauvin, L; Keller, H; Richard, L; Gaudreau, P; Giroux, F; Gray-Donald, K; Jabbour, M; Morais, J A; Payette, H

    2013-01-01

    Judicious food choices are of prime importance during aging. This study was conducted to identify individual and collective attributes determining global diet quality (DQ). Participants were 1,793 adults (52% women) from the NuAge study on nutrition and successful aging. Subjects aged 67 to 84 years in relatively good health were recruited from the Québec Medicare Database. Sociodemographic, affective, and cognitive data, health conditions, perceived physical health and functional status, dietary habits and dietary attributes and community resources were obtained using questionnaires. Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Three non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls were collected at recruitment. DQ, assessed using the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI, /100), was computed on the mean intakes from the diet recalls. Analyses were stratified by gender. Variables significantly related to DQ in bivariate analyses (prestaurants (β=-1.65, p=.03) were negative determinants of DQ (adjusted R2 = 13.7%). Among women, higher education (β=0.29, p=.002), diet knowledge (β=0.54, p=.002), number of daily meals (β=3.61, psustainable interventions are needed to ensure good diet quality as people age.

  9. Short-term long chain omega3 diet protects from neuroinflammatory processes and memory impairment in aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie F Labrousse

    Full Text Available Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are the most likely active components of ω3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old and aged (22-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ω3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects.

  10. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-02-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; Pdiet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of dietary additives (potassium diformate/organic acids) as well as influences of grinding intensity (coarse/fine) of diets for weaned piglets experimentally infected with Salmonella Derby or Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, V A; Neu, M E; Hassan, Y; Verspohl, J; Beyerbach, M; Kamphues, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether and to what extent the addition of potassium diformate (pdf) or free organic acids (fpa) to the diet and the grinding intensity might affect the course of infection and the passage of orally applied Salmonella and Escherichia coli in pigs. Experiments were carried out using 80 reared piglets allotted to four groups. Pigs were fed pelleted diets ad libitum (except during a 15 h feed-withholding-period before infection). The control diet contained finely ground cereals (2 mm screen). To two test diets (also finely ground) 1.2% pdf, 0.9% organic acids (75% formic and 25% propionic acid, fpa) respectively were added. The fourth diet (without acids) was based on coarsely ground cereals (6-mm screen). After experimental infection alternately with S. Derby or E. coli, the course of infection was examined (rectal swab technique). Pigs were sacrificed 4-5 h after a further oral application of approximately 10(9)-10(10) CFU S. Derby or E. coli to determine the counts of Salmonella or E. coli in chyme (classical culture methods). Adding pdf or fpa to the diet led to reduced Salmonella shedding and resulted in significantly lower counts of Salmonella and E. coli in the stomach content indicating an improved efficacy of the stomach barrier. In the distal parts of the digestive tract, the effect was less obvious concerning counts of E. coli, whereas counts of Salmonella were reduced markedly as well. The diet based on coarsely ground cereals failed to demonstrate positive effects concerning infection and passage of orally applied bacteria as well, but this diet was also pelleted and showed unintentionally, comparable amounts of fine particles. Results obtained in this study allow the recommendation of using pdf or organic acids as additives when dietary measures against Salmonella or E. coli in pigs are required.

  12. Diet, physical activity, and obesity in school-aged indigenous youths in northern australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valery, Patricia C; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K; Garvey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake ("short nutrition questionnaire") were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had food ("fast food") at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43-4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.

  13. Oxygen weaning after hospital discharge in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jennifer; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Collaco, Joseph M

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, approximately 12,000 preterm infants are diagnosed with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and many of these infants require supplemental oxygen after initial hospital discharge. In children with BPD we sought to identify factors associated with supplemental oxygen use after initial hospital discharge, factors associated with duration of supplemental oxygen use, and methods used to wean off supplemental oxygen in the home environment. All subjects (n = 420) with the diagnosis of BPD were recruited from a single center Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Subject information was obtained from patient history records, patient demographics, and caregiver questionnaires. Younger gestational age and having a Nissen fundoplication were associated with home supplemental oxygen use in subjects with BPD. Of the 154 subjects who received supplemental oxygen at home, 38% received flows ≤1/8 LPM, 30% received flows >1/8 LPM and ≤1/4 LPM, 21% received flows >1/4 LPM and ≤1/2 LPM, and 11% received flows >1/2 LPM. Among subjects receiving ≤1/8 LPM of oxygen, the median age of weaning off oxygen was 10.1 months, but increased depending on level of oxygen flow at initial outpatient visit. Of the 137 subjects weaned off of oxygen during the study period, weaning was not supervised by a physician in 32.1% of subjects. Home supplemental oxygen use is common in infants diagnosed with BPD. In this study, the median age of weaning off supplemental oxygen was 10.1 months after initial hospital discharge. Unsupervised weaning of supplemental oxygen occurred in 32.1% of subjects with BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:1206-1211. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-Eldin M. Aref

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to: (1 Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2 Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8 weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6 weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned, and buffalo calves (n=4 weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned. Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning. Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift. There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05 in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  15. A lifelong exposure to a Western-style diet, but not aging, alters global DNA methylation in mouse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Woon; Tammen, Stephanie A; Liu, Zhenhua; Friso, Simonetta

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that when compared to young mice, old mice have lower global DNA methylation and higher p16 promoter methylation in colonic mucosa, which is a common finding in colon cancer. It is also known that a Western-style diet (WSD) high in fat and calories, and low in calcium, vitamin D, fiber, methionine and choline (based on the AIN 76A diet) is tumorigenic in colons of mice. Because DNA methylation is modifiable by diet, we investigate whether a WSD disrupts DNA methylation patterns, creating a tumorigenic environment. We investigated the effects of a WSD and aging on global and p16 promoter DNA methylation in the colon. Two month old male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a WSD or a control diet (AIN76A) for 6, 12 or 17 months. Global DNA methylation, p16 promoter methylation and p16 expression were determined by LC/MS, methyl-specific PCR and real time RT-PCR, respectively. The WSD group demonstrated significantly decreased global DNA methylation compared with the control at 17 months (4.05 vs 4.31%, P = 0.019). While both diets did not change global DNA methylation over time, mice fed the WSD had lower global methylation relative to controls when comparing all animals (4.13 vs 4.30%, P = 0.0005). There was an increase in p16 promoter methylation from 6 to 17 months in both diet groups (P age in both control and WSD groups. In this model a WSD reduces global DNA methylation, whereas aging itself has no affect. Although the epigenetic effect of aging was not strong enough to alter global DNA methylation, changes in promoter-specific methylation and gene expression occurred with aging regardless of diet, demonstrating the complexity of epigenetic patterns.

  16. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in

  17. Synchrotron infrared imaging of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in cardiac tissue from mice fed high glycemic diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birarda, Giovanni; Holman, Elizabeth A.; Fu, Shang; Weikel, Karen; Hu, Ping; Blankenberg, Francis G.; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Taylor, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Recent research findings correlate an increased risk for dieases such as diabetes, macular degeneration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with diets that rapidly raise the blood sugar levels; these diets are known as high glycemic index (GI) diets which include white breads, sodas and sweet deserts. Lower glycemia diets are usually rich in fruits, non-starchy vegetables and whole grain products. The goal of our study was to compare and contrast the effects of a low vs. high glycemic diet using the biochemical composition and microstructure of the heart. The improved spatial resolution and signal-to-noise for SR-FTIR obtained through the coupling of the bright synchrotron infrared photon source to an infrared spectral microscope enabled the molecular-level observation of diet-related changes within unfixed fresh frozen histologic sections of mouse cardiac tissue. High and low glycemic index (GI) diets were started at the age of five-months and continued for one year, with the diets only differing in their starch distribution (high GI diet = 100% amylopectin versus low GI diet = 30% amylopectin/70% amylose). Serial cryosections of cardiac tissue for SR-FTIR imaging alternated with adjacent hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections allowed not only fine-scale chemical analyses of glycogen and glycolipid accumulation along a vein as well as protein glycation hotspots co-localizing with collagen cold spots but also the tracking of morphological differences occurring in tandem with these chemical changes. As a result of the bright synchrotron infrared photon source coupling, we were able to provide significant molecular evidence for a positive correlation between protein glycation and collagen degradation in our mouse model. Our results bring a new insight not only to the effects of long-term GI dietary practices of the public but also to the molecular and chemical foundation behind the cardiovascular disease pathogenesis commonly seen in diabetic patients. PMID

  18. Biological diversity of yeasts in the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets kept under different farm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urubschurov, Vladimir; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Souffrant, Wolfgang B

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine yeasts present in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of piglets kept under experimental farm (EF) and commercial farm (CF) conditions. Ninety five German Landrace full- and half-sibling piglets were sacrificed at 39 days of age. Sixty eight piglets were weaned at 28th day of life, when they were offered one diet ad libitum. Twenty seven piglets remained unweaned by their dams. None of the piglets received any creep feed before weaning. Digesta samples were collected from 1/3 distal small intestine (SI), caecum and proximal colon. One hundred seventy three colonies of isolated yeasts were characterized by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene with following alignment of the recovered sequences to GenBank entries. From the 17 phylotypes found, isolates most closely related to Galactomyces geotrichum, Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida catenulata dominated in the GIT of CF piglets. Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida glabrata dominated in GIT of EF piglets. Sørenson and Morisita-Horn similarity indices between farms were low (0.44 and 0.54 respectively) and the Simpson diversity index was higher for EF (7.58) than for CF (4.34). The study brings new data on yeasts composition in the pig GIT and shows differences in yeasts biodiversity between farms operated at different hygiene conditions.

  19. Age-Associated Decline in Dendritic Cell Function and the Impact of Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Clements

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAging is accompanied by increased susceptibility to infection and age-associated chronic diseases. It is also associated with reduced vaccine responses, which is often attributed to immunosenescence and the functional decline of the immune system. Immunosenescence is characterized by a chronic, low-grade, inflammatory state termed inflammaging. Habitants of Mediterranean (MED regions maintain good health into old age; often attributed to MED diets.HypothesisAdoption of a MED-diet by elderly subjects, in Norfolk (UK, may improve immune responses of these individuals and in particular, dendritic cell (DC function.Experimental approachA total of 120 elderly subjects (65–79 years old recruited onto the Nu-AGE study, a multicenter European dietary study specifically addressing the needs of the elderly, across five countries, and were randomized to the control or MED-diet groups, for one year. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-intervention for DC analysis and were compared with each other, and to samples obtained from 45 young (18–40 years old subjects. MED-diet compliance was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography-with tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urine samples. Immune cell and DC subset numbers and concentrations of secreted proteins were determined by flow cytometric analysis.ResultsAs expected, reduced myeloid DC numbers were observed in blood samples from elderly subjects compared with young. The elevated secretion of the adipokine, resistin, after ex vivo stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects, was significantly reduced after MED-diet intervention.ConclusionThis study provides further evidence of numerical and functional effects of aging on DCs. The MED-diet showed potential to impact on the aging immune cells investigated and could provide an economical approach to address problems associated with our aging population.

  20. Identification of a sustainable two-plant diet that effectively prevents age-related metabolic syndrome and extends lifespan in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Liu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Chih-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Man; Kang, Jing X

    2018-01-01

    The current system of food production is linked to both the increasing prevalence of chronic disease and the deterioration of the environment, and thereby calls for novel ways of producing nutritious foods in a sustainable manner. In the "longevity village" of Bama, China, we have identified two plant foods, hemp seed and bitter vegetable (Sonchus oleraceus), that are commonly consumed by its residents and grow abundantly in unfarmed land without fertilizers or pesticides. Here, we show that a diet composed of these two foods (the "HB diet") provides a sufficient variety of nutrients and confers significant health benefits. Aged mice allowed ad libitum access to the HB diet not only had longer life spans and improved cognitive function but were also protected against age-related metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation compared to aged mice fed a control Western diet. Furthermore, longevity-related genes (including 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and forkhead box O3) were significantly up-regulated, while aging-related genes (including mammalian target of rapamycin and nuclear factor kappa B) were down-regulated. These results demonstrate that the HB diet is capable of promoting health and longevity, and present a sustainable source of healthy foods that can help control the prevalence of chronic diseases and reduce agricultural impact on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diet has independent effects on the pace and shape of aging in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth Archer, C; Basellini, Ugofilippo; Hunt, John; Simpson, Stephen J; Lee, Kwang Pum; Baudisch, Annette

    2018-02-01

    Studies examining how diet affects mortality risk over age typically characterise mortality using parameters such as aging rates, which condense how much and how quickly the risk of dying changes over time into a single measure. Demographers have suggested that decoupling the tempo and the magnitude of changing mortality risk may facilitate comparative analyses of mortality trajectories, but it is unclear what biologically meaningful information this approach offers. Here, we determine how the amount and ratio of protein and carbohydrate ingested by female Drosophila melanogaster affects how much mortality risk increases over a time-standardised life-course (the shape of aging) and the tempo at which animals live and die (the pace of aging). We find that pace values increased as flies consumed more carbohydrate but declined with increasing protein consumption. Shape values were independent of protein intake but were lowest in flies consuming ~90 μg of carbohydrate daily. As protein intake only affected the pace of aging, varying protein intake rescaled mortality trajectories (i.e. stretched or compressed survival curves), while varying carbohydrate consumption caused deviation from temporal rescaling (i.e. changed the topography of time-standardised survival curves), by affecting pace and shape. Clearly, the pace and shape of aging may vary independently in response to dietary manipulation. This suggests that there is the potential for pace and shape to evolve independently of one another and respond to different physiological processes. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for independent variation in pace and shape, may offer insight into the factors underlying diverse mortality trajectories.

  2. Effects of dietary seaweed extract supplementation in sows and post-weaned pigs on performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora and immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of a seaweed extract (SWE) to sows and weaned pigs on post-weaning growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of pigs at days 11 and 117 post-weaning. Gestating sows (n 20) were supplemented with a SWE (0 v. 10·0 g/d) from day 107 of gestation until weaning (day 26). At weaning, pigs (four pigs per sow) were divided into two groups based on sow diet during lactation and supplemented with a SWE (0 v. 2·8 g/kg diet), resulting in four treatment groups: (1) BB (basal sows-basal pigs); (2) BS (basal sows-treated pigs); (3) SB (treated sows-basal pigs); (4) SS (treated sows-treated pigs). Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had a higher average daily gain (ADG) between days 0 and 21 (P pigs weaned from non-SWE-supplemented sows. Pigs offered post-weaning diets (PW) containing SWE had decreased colonic Escherichia coli populations on day 11 (P Pigs offered PW containing SWE had a greater mRNA abundance of MUC2 in the colon at day 11 post-weaning (P pigs offered unsupplemented diets. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE supplementation post-weaning provides a dietary means to improve gut health and to enhance growth performance in starter pigs. Dietary SWE supplementation increased ADG during the grower-finisher (GF) phases. However, there was no growth response to SWE inclusion in GF diets when pigs were weaned from SWE-supplemented sows.

  3. Children's height, health and appetite influence mothers' weaning decisions in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, K B; Costes, R; Delaunay, V; Diallo, A; Simondon, F

    2001-06-01

    In many developing countries, breastfed children have a lower nutritional status than those weaned from 12 months of age. Reverse causality, that is, earlier weaning of healthy and well-nourished children, is a possible explanation. Maternal reasons for early and late weaning were investigated in a cohort of 485 rural Senegalese children using structured interviews during two rounds at the ages of 18--28 and 23--33 months, respectively. Length, weight and height were assessed, and dates of weaning were monitored. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 24.1 months (quartiles 21.9 and 26.3). Two-thirds of mothers of breastfed children under 2 stated that they would wean at the age of 2, while for breastfed children aged 2 years, a 'tall and strong' child was the most prevalent criterion. The main reasons for weaning prior to 2 years (N = 244) were that the child ate well from the family plate (60%), that the child was 'tall and strong' (46%) and maternal pregnancy (35%). The main reasons for weaning later than the age of 2 were: a 'little, weak' child (33%), food shortage (25%), illness of the child (24%) and refusal of family food (14%, N = 120). Children breastfed above the age of 2 because they were 'small and weak' had lower mean height-for-age and a greater prevalence of stunting than children breastfed late for other reasons (P < 0.0001). The habit of postponing weaning of stunted children very likely explains why breastfed children have lower height-for-age than weaned children in this setting.

  4. Comparison of PRRSV Nucleic Acid and Antibody Detection in Pen-Based Oral Fluid and Individual Serum Samples in Three Different Age Categories of Post-Weaning Pigs from Endemically Infected Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Regge, Nick; Cay, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions. Methodology Pen-based oral fluid samples and serum samples from all individual pigs in the corresponding pens were collected from post-weaning pigs of three different age categories in eight endemically PRRSV infected farms and one PRRSV free farm in Belgium. All samples were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA to detect PRRSV RNA and PRRSV specific antibodies, respectively. Results While the relative specificity of PRRSV detection by qRT-PCR in pen-based oral fluid compared to serum collected from individual pigs was high in all age categories (>90%), the relative sensitivity decreased with the age of the pigs (89, 93 and 10% in 8-12w, 16-20w and 24-28w old pigs, respectively). The latter correlated with a lower percentage of PRRSV positive pigs in serum/pen in the different age categories (55, 29 and 6%, respectively). Irrespective of the age category, pen-based oral fluid samples were always found PCR positive when at least 30% of the individual pigs were positive in serum. PRRSV specific antibody detection in oral fluid by ELISA showed a 100% relative sensitivity to detection in serum since oral fluid samples were always positive as soon as one pig in the pen was positive in serum. On the other hand, two false positive oral fluid samples in 11 pens without serum positive pigs were found, resulting in a relative specificity of 82%. Indications are however present that the oral fluid

  5. Age Maturity of Female Japanese Quails Fed Diets Containing Katuk Leave Meal (Sauropus androgynus L.Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wiradimadja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of katuk leave meal on sexual maturity in Japanese quail. Three hundred female Japanese quails, with 4 weeks age, were assigned into a completely randomized design with 4 treatments i.e., R1 (diet with neither katuk leave meal nor cholesterin, R2 (diet without katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin, R3 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal without cholesterin, and R4 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin. The parameters measured were estradiol hormone in plasma, and age maturity (five percent henday production. Estradiol hormone was measured with Radioimmunoassay. The data were collected and analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results showed that the addition of 15% katuk leave meal in the diet significantly decreased the estrogen concentration (P<0.05, so that slow down on the age maturity of female Japanese quail. (Animal Production 9(2: 67-72 (2007Key Words : Katuk leave meal, estradiol hormone, age maturity, quail

  6. Age-dependent leiomuscular atrophy in vertebral arteries of individuals under low fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiser, R; Albrecht-Bellingrath, W; Schaefer, H E

    2000-01-01

    The volumetric density of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in the proximal vertebral artery was investigated. In order to identify VSMC, paraffin-embedded sections of the proximal vertebral artery, obtained from autopsy specimens, were immunostained for smooth muscle alpha-actin by a modified ABC-technique. The 63 autopsy specimens, including 35 males and 28 females, covered the entire range from 2 months to 85 years. The volumetric density of alpha-actin positive VSMC in the tunica media was morphometrically assayed by the point-counting method. It is important to note that the morphometrical evaluation was performed on arteries obtained from autopsy specimens of the years 1953/54, a post-war time characterized in Germany by low fat diet as compared to the present-day nutrition of most industrial nations. Probably due to their origin, the vertebral arteries showed almost no atheroma. As the main purpose of this study was to find out about the atherosclerosis-independent process of aging, these arteries seemed particularly suitable. The evaluation showed a strictly age-dependent leiomuscular atrophy which became morphometrically evident in early adulthood. The average degree of regression was measured at 0.62% per year. These results may justify the conclusion that the leiomuscular atrophy of the media represents a primary age-related process and does not in any way result as a secondary event from an atheromatous transformation of the intima.

  7. Growth Rate and Health Status of Weaned Rabbits Fed Ensiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 6 week feeding experiment, twenty five New Zealand white breed of weaned rabbits, with an average age of 8-10 weeks were used to assess the effect of ensiled water hyacinth (WH) with different additives on growth rate and blood parameters of the animals. The animals were randomly allotted to five dietary groups, ...

  8. Dieting in children : a population-based study in children aged between 9 and 12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dousma, Mieke; Wierdsma, Nienke; van Ede, Jaap; van Buuren, Stef; Heijmans, Hugo S. A.; de Vries, Tjalling W.

    Aim: Dieting can be a burden for the child and can have side effects. Insight into dieting is therefore important. A recent study showed that 13.7% (95% CI 11.5-15.9%) of the children referred to a general paediatric outpatient clinic were or had been on a diet. However, it is unknown how many

  9. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. full text

  10. Age and Diet Affect Genetically Separable Secondary Injuries that Cause Acute Mortality Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeccah J. Katzenberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing mortality percentage within 24 hr of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries. Here, we show that secondary injuries peaked in activity 1–8 hr after primary injuries. Additionally, we demonstrate that age and diet activated distinct secondary injuries in a genotype-specific manner, and that concurrent activation of age- and diet-regulated secondary injuries synergistically increased mortality. To identify genes involved in secondary injuries that cause mortality, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of uninjured and injured flies under age and diet conditions that had different mortalities. During the peak period of secondary injuries, innate immune response genes were the predominant class of genes that changed expression. Furthermore, age and diet affected the magnitude of the change in expression of some innate immune response genes, suggesting roles for these genes in inhibiting secondary injuries that cause mortality. Our results indicate that the complexity of TBI outcomes is due in part to distinct, genetically controlled, age- and diet-regulated mechanisms that promote secondary injuries and that involve a subset of innate immune response genes.

  11. Age and Diet Affect Genetically Separable Secondary Injuries that Cause Acute Mortality Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J; Ganetzky, Barry; Wassarman, David A

    2016-12-07

    Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing mortality percentage within 24 hr of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries. Here, we show that secondary injuries peaked in activity 1-8 hr after primary injuries. Additionally, we demonstrate that age and diet activated distinct secondary injuries in a genotype-specific manner, and that concurrent activation of age- and diet-regulated secondary injuries synergistically increased mortality. To identify genes involved in secondary injuries that cause mortality, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of uninjured and injured flies under age and diet conditions that had different mortalities. During the peak period of secondary injuries, innate immune response genes were the predominant class of genes that changed expression. Furthermore, age and diet affected the magnitude of the change in expression of some innate immune response genes, suggesting roles for these genes in inhibiting secondary injuries that cause mortality. Our results indicate that the complexity of TBI outcomes is due in part to distinct, genetically controlled, age- and diet-regulated mechanisms that promote secondary injuries and that involve a subset of innate immune response genes. Copyright © 2016 Katzenberger et al.

  12. Weaning of inhaled nitric oxide: is there a best strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Ware

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO has been used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in neonates for many years. iNO was approved by the FDA in 1999 for hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF in term and near term infants, defined as > 34 weeks gestational age (GA. iNO is used for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN, secondary pulmonary hypertension caused by congenital heart disease (CHD, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS, pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, and other pathologies. iNO has its effect locally on the pulmonary vasculature and has been studied extensively regarding its effect on morbidities such as: need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, oxygen requirements, and mechanical ventilatory support. However, protocols for weaning iNO and for the duration of iNO weaning have not been studied extensively. It has been shown that an abrupt discontinuation leads to rebound pulmonary hypertension.Methods: Electronic literature search and review of published articles on the use of iNO in the neonate.Results: Electronic databases including Medline and PubMed were searched from the years 1995-2015, using the keywords "iNO", "nitric oxide", "neonate", and "weaning nitric oxide." This search revealed 2,124 articles. Articles were determined to be eligible for review if they included a specific protocol for weaning iNO, and were published in English. 16 articles with specific protocols for iNO weaning have been identified and reviewed. The studies had enrolled a total of 1,735 neonates either at term either preterm and with a mean birth weight of 3.3 kg (± 2 kg. Main diagnoses included MAS, CHD (total anomalous pulmonary venous return [TAPVR], d-transposition of the great vessels [DTGV], atrial septal defect [ASD], pulmonary atresia [PA], hypoplastic left heart syndrome [HLH], pneumonia, RDS, hyaline membrane disease (HMD, PPHN, CDH, sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia

  13. An arterio-venous bridge for gradual weaning from adult veno-arterial extracorporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z U D; Sharma, A S; Ganushchak, Y M; Delnoij, T S R; Donker, D W; Maessen, J G; Weerwind, P W

    2015-11-01

    Weaning from extracorporeal life support (ELS) is particularly challenging when cardiac recovery is slow, largely incomplete and hard to predict. Therefore, we describe an individualized gradual weaning strategy using an arterio-venous (AV) bridge incorporated into the circuit to facilitate weaning. Thirty adult patients weaned from veno-arterial ELS using an AV bridge were retrospectively analyzed. Serial echocardiography and hemodynamic monitoring were used to assess cardiac recovery and load responsiveness. Upon early signs of myocardial recovery, an AV bridge with an Hoffman clamp was added to the circuit and weaning was initiated. Support flow was reduced stepwise by 10-15% every 2 to 8 hours while the circuit flow was maintained at 3.5-4.5 L/min. The AV bridge facilitated gradual weaning in all 30 patients (median age: 66 [53-71] years; 21 males) over a median period of 25 [8-32] hours, with a median support duration of 96 [31-181] hours. During weaning, the median left ventricular ejection fraction was 25% [15-32] and the median velocity time integral of the aortic valve was 16 cm [10-23]. Through the weaning period, the mean arterial blood pressure was maintained at 70 mmHg and the activated partial thromboplastin time was 60 ± 10 seconds without additional systemic heparinization. Neither macroscopic thrombus formation in the ELS circuit during and after weaning nor clinically relevant thromboembolism was observed. Incorporation of an AV bridge for weaning from veno-arterial ELS is safe and feasible to gradually wean patients with functional cardiac recovery without compromising the circuit integrity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Eilish M; Earley, Bernadette; McGee, Mark; Doyle, Sean

    2010-07-20

    Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i) abrupt weaning and ii) subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d) 0, mean age of calf (s.d.) 212 (24.5) d), cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed in a slatted floor shed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus a mineral-vitamin supplement daily. Rectal body temperature was recorded and blood samples were obtained on i) d 0 (weaning), 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and subsequently on ii) d 0 (housing), 2, 7, 14 and 21 for physiological, haematological and immunological measurements. Post-weaning, concentration of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were unchanged (P > 0.05). Rectal body temperature, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-weaning baseline. Lymphocyte and neutrophil number decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. Interferon-gamma production decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. An increase (P pre-weaning baseline. Concentration of glucose increased on d 2 to 28, whereas non-esterified fatty acid decreased on d 2 to 35 compared with pre-weaning baseline. Post-housing, concentrations of cortisol, rectal body temperature, total leukocyte number, and glucose were unchanged (P > 0.05). On d 2 post-housing, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-housing baseline. Concentration of haptoglobin increased (P post-housing. A transitory increase in neutrophil number and decrease in lymphocyte number, increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio coupled with decreased interferon-gamma production, and increased concentration of acute phase proteins indicate a stress response in cows post-weaning, whereas post-housing, changes were less marked.

  15. Neonatal Citrulline Supplementation and Later Exposure to a High Fructose Diet in Rats Born with a Low Birth Weight: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhat-Thang; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Pagniez, Anthony; Ouguerram, Khadija; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Winer, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2017-04-11

    A low birth weight (LBW) leads to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Literature suggests that citrulline supplementation in adulthood prevents the effect of a high fructose diet on energy metabolism. Whether neonatal citrulline supplementation would alter early growth or energy metabolism in the long-term in rats with LBW is unknown. LBW pups born from dams fed a low (4%) protein diet, were nursed by normally-fed dams and received isonitrogenous supplements of either l-citrulline or l-alanine by gavage from the sixth day of life until weaning, and were subsequently exposed to 10%-fructose in drinking water from weaning to 90 days of age. The oral glucose tolerance was tested (OGTT) at 70 days of age, and rats were sacrificed at 90 days of age. Pre-weaning citrulline supplementation failed to alter the growth trajectory, OGTT, plasma triglycerides, or fat mass accretion in adulthood; yet, it was associated with increased liver triglycerides, decreased liver total cholesterol, and a distinct liver lipidomic profile that may result in a predisposition to liver disease. We conclude that pre-weaning supplementation with citrulline does not impact early growth, but might impact liver fat metabolism in adulthood upon exposure to a high fructose diet.

  16. Effect of pre-weaning solid feed and milk intake on caecal content characteristics and performance of rabbits around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to know the effect of different solid feed and milk intake during suckling on performance around weaning and on caecal content characteristics at weaning. In order to obtain different intakes of milk and solid feed, 13 litters of pregnant females (PF inseminated the day after delivery and 14 litters of non-pregnant females (NPF were compared. At birth the litters were equalized at eight pups and during lactation dead pups were replaced by pups of the same age from nursing does. Compared to the PF group, rabbits in the NPF group had a higher milk intake (26.0 versus 21.4 g/day; P < 0.01 and lower solid feed intake (9.1 versus 11.5 g/day; P < 0.01 between 20 and 28 days of age. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in weight gain before and post-weaning (28-49 days. At weaning, the rabbits in group PF showed higher values in caecal content (g 26.3 versus 22.6; P < 0.05 and volatile fatty acids (mmol/l 52.2 versus 43.6; P < 0.01 and lower values in empty caecal weight (g 7.18 versus 7.78; P < 0.05, C3 (6.4 versus 9.3%; P < 0.01 and C3/C4 ratio (0.39 versus 0.63; P < 0.01 than the group NPF. On the basis of the above results, it may be concluded that the quantity of solid feed and milk intake before weaning influenced the charac- teristics of the caecal content, but not the performance of rabbits around weaning.

  17. Shifting diet, shifting culture? A bioarchaeological approach to island dietary development on Iron-Age Öland, Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmson, Helene

    2017-06-01

    The diet and subsistence in Iron-Age Öland is debated as earlier studies and different archaeological sources seemingly provide conflicting interpretations. The objectives of this study are therefore to: (i) add new insights on diet and (ii) investigate the chronological variation in detail. It is common in studies of diet to investigate differences between datasets defined by archaeological periods (determined by artefact typology), but it is rare to explore whether these dietary changes are, in fact, well correlated with these temporal categories or not. Stable isotope analysis of 108 individuals and 25 animals was used to interpret diet in comparison with data from earlier studies. Different values of TLE (Trophic Level Effect) for δ15 N were compared for interpretations of diet. Of the 108 individuals, 42 were subjected to 14 C analysis in this study. The isotopes from Iron-Age animals on Öland indicate that the local, contemporary ecology is specific. The human isotope values show chronological development both when pooled in chronological groups by typology and by more specific 14 C chronology. The new samples of animals as well as the use of 5‰ TLE for δ15 N values results in the diet reinterpreted as mainly domesticate-based, with at least two shifts in diet occurring in the Iron Age. The use of 14 C dates in connection with the stable isotope results indicates a dietary transition occurring between 200 BC and AD 200, a date range that spans two typologically determined time periods. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  19. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Nie, Yangfan; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhichang; Fan, Qiwen; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia) significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of two genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium) significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida) significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  20. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Nie, Yangfan; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhichang; Fan, Qiwen; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia) significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of two genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium) significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida) significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants. PMID:27853453

  1. Diet, Physical Activity, and Obesity in School-Aged Indigenous Youths in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Valery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire” were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food” at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40, though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P<0.001. Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35 more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.

  2. Age and time trends in the diet of young children: results of the DONALD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foterek, Kristina; Hilbig, Annett; Kersting, Mathilde; Alexy, Ute

    2016-03-01

    To describe age and time trends of energy and macronutrient intake during infancy and toddlerhood and to set a special focus on dietary practices with respect to milk, complementary food, and family food intake. Three-day dietary records (n = 2241) collected at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months (480 subjects) between 2004 and 2013 from the ongoing open cohort DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study were evaluated using repeated-measures regression analyses for trend analysis. Significant age trends were found for macronutrients with a decrease in fat intake (% of energy intake, %E) and an increase in carbohydrates (%E) and protein (%E). Exclusive and partial breastfeeding rates at 3 and 6 months did not differ between 2004 and 2008 and 2009 and 2013 (p > 0.05). Macronutrient pattern was virtually stable over time, whereas food group intake (% of total food intake excluding beverages, % TFI) changed significantly during the study period. Breast/bottle milk (% TFI) intake increased over time in the toddler subgroup, whereas family food (% TFI) decreased. Our data demonstrate a period of stagnation in the last 10 years with respect to breastfeeding duration in infancy. Further breastfeeding promotion in Germany is needed to continue the favourable progress of the previous decades. In toddlerhood, breast/bottle milk remains a substantial part of the diet and has increased during the last 10 years. Parents should be encouraged to implement healthy eating habits during early toddlerhood and to facilitate their child's participation in appropriate family meals.

  3. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Hye-Ja; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Ju Yeon; Kang, Jae-Heon; Park, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jihyun

    2011-11-16

    We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  4. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  5. Post-Weaning Protein Malnutrition Increases Blood Pressure and Induces Endothelial Dysfunctions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman, Fabiana D. M.; Silveira, Edna A.; Meira, Eduardo F.; da Costa, Carlos P.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Padilha, Alessandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10−10–3.10−4 M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10−4 M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001–300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10−10–10−3 M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model. PMID:22529948

  6. Efficacy of traditional rice-lentil-yogurt diet, lactose free milk protein-based formula and soy protein formula in management of secondary lactose intolerance with acute childhood diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, S Q; Bhutta, Z A; Molla, A M

    1996-06-01

    Secondary lactose intolerance is often a cause of prolongation of diarrhoeal episodes. As appropriate management of lactose intolerance is elimination of lactose from diet, expansive lactose free formulae are often prescribed in acute childhood diarrhoea without establishing diagnosis of lactose intolerance. Since cheap weaning diets made from locally available cereals have been found effective in management of persistent diarrhoea, we postulated that same weaning diet made of rice lentil and yogurt (K-Y diet) could be effectively used in management of acute childhood diarrhoea associated with secondary lactose intolerance. We compared this K-Y diet with milk protein-based lactose free and soy-protein formula. Thirty children between 3-18 months of age completed dietary trial for 72 h. Of these nine children received K-Y diet (Group A), four children received milk protein-based formula (Group B) and 11 children received soy protein formula (Group C). Stool frequency was significantly reduced in children in Group A (13 +/- 6 on day 1 to 6 +/- 5 on day 3) and in Group B (13 +/- 5 on day 1 to 7 +/- 4 on day 3), but not in Group C (13 +/- 4 on day 1 to 10 +/- 8 on day 3). No significant difference was observed in intake of diet, total calories intake, and fluid intake among the three groups. It is concluded that cheap weaning diet made of locally available cereals and yogurt can be used effectively in management of secondary lactose intolerance associated with acute childhood diarrhoea.

  7. Dietary changes during weaning shape the gut microbiota of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Candace L; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Sparks, Darrell L; Kouba, Andrew J; Willard, Scott T; Suen, Garret; Brown, Ashli E

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian herbivores have developed numerous adaptations to utilize their plant-based diets including a modified gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and symbiosis with a GIT microbiota that plays a major role in digestion and the maintenance of host health. The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is a herbivorous carnivore that lacks the specialized GIT common to other herbivores but still relies on microorganisms for survival on its almost entirely bamboo diet. The GIT microbiota is of further importance in young red pandas, as high cub mortality is problematic and has been attributed to failure to meet nutritional requirements. To gain insight into the establishment of the GIT microbiota of red pandas, we examined microbial communities in two individuals following dietary changes associated with weaning using next-generation 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing of faecal samples. Across all four stages (pre-weaning, during weaning, post-weaning and adult), the GIT microbial community displayed low diversity and was dominated by bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes with lesser contributions from the Proteobacteria. A core community was found consistently across all weaning stages and included species within the taxa Escherichia-Shigella, Streptococcus , Clostridium and an unclassified Clostridiaceae. Analysis of the overall community composition and structure showed that although the GIT microbiota is established early in red pandas, dietary changes during weaning further shape the community and are correlated with the presence of new bacterial species. This work is the first analysis of the GIT microbiota for red panda cubs during weaning and provides a framework for understanding how diet and host microbiota impact the development of these threatened animals.

  8. Weaning children with accommodative esotropia out of spectacles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, K A; Ellish, N J; Lambert, S R

    2003-01-01

    Background/aim: Many children with accommodative esotropia must continue spectacle use throughout life. This study was undertaken to determine which factors are predictive of successfully weaning children with accommodative esotropia out of spectacles. Methods: A retrospective review of 10 children with accommodative esotropia, who were gradually weaned from their hyperopic correction, and three age matched controls was performed. The main outcome measure was resolution or non-resolution of esotropia following weaning and eventual discontinuation of spectacles. Secondary outcome measures were final refractive error and the final esotropic or esophoric angle without correction. Results: Six patients were successfully weaned from spectacles. At the completion of the weaning period one child was orthophoric and the other five children had well controlled esophorias. The other four patients remained spectacle dependent because of persistent esotropia or decreased vision without spectacles. The baseline and final refractive errors were significantly lower in the children successfully weaned from spectacles (p = 0.014). While the children who were successfully weaned from spectacles were older when initially diagnosed with accommodative esotropia (4.6 v 2.5 years), this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Some children with accommodative esotropia may be weaned out of spectacles during the grade school years with resolution of their esotropia. It is likely that gradual reduction of the hyperopic correction increases divergence amplitudes, but it is unclear whether this facilitates emmetropisation. PMID:12488252

  9. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocheng; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d), 1 d (w1d), 3 d (w3d), 5 d (w5d), and 7 d (w7d) after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets. PMID:27022727

  10. Postweaning low-calcium diet promotes later-life obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Han; Li, Song-Tao; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Guan; He, Ying; Liao, Xi-Lu; Sun, Chang-Hao; Li, Ying

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a postweaning low-calcium diet on later obesity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Ninety-six male rats were weaned at 3 weeks of age, fed standard (STD: 0.50% calcium, n=48) and low-calcium (LC: 0.15% calcium, n=48) diets for 3 weeks, and then fed the standard diet for a 3-week washout period successively. Finally, the STD rats were divided into STD control and high-fat diet (HFD) groups, and the LC ones into LC control and LC+HFD (LCHF) groups. The STD and LC rats were fed the standard diet, while the HFD control and LCFD ones were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. During the three feeding periods, adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its responsive proteins phospho-acetyl-coA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and uncoupling protein 3 were persistently down-regulated in the LC group (decreased by 18%, 24%, 18% and 20%, respectively) versus the STD group, and these effects were significantly more pronounced in the LCHFD group (decreased by 21%, 30%, 23% and 25%, respectively) than the HFD group by a later high-fat stimuli, causing more fat and body weight in adulthood. However, lipolysis enzymes, serum leptin, insulin and lipids were not significantly affected until the body weight and fat content changed at 15 weeks of age. The results suggest that the low-calcium diet after weaning promotes rat adult-onset obesity induced by high-fat diet, which might be achieved by programming expressions of genes involved in AMPK pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Delirium during Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Aparecida Leite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We compare the incidence of delirium before and after extubation and identify the risk factors and possible predictors for the occurrence of delirium in this group of patients. Methods. Patients weaned from mechanical ventilation (MV and extubated were included. The assessment of delirium was conducted using the confusion assessment method for the ICU and completed twice per day until discharge from the intensive care unit. Results. Sixty-four patients were included in the study, 53.1% of whom presented with delirium. The risk factors of delirium were age (P=0.01, SOFA score (P=0.03, APACHE score (P=0.01, and a neurological cause of admission (P=0.01. The majority of the patients began with delirium before or on the day of extubation. Hypoactive delirium was the most common form. Conclusion. Acute (traumatic or medical neurological injuries were important risk factors in the development of delirium. During the weaning process, delirium developed predominantly before or on the same day of extubation and was generally hypoactive (more difficult to detect. Therefore, while planning early prevention strategies, attention must be focused on neurological patients who are receiving MV and possibly even on patients who are still under sedation.

  12. High fat diet-induced animal model of age-associated obesity and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halade, Ganesh V; Rahman, Md M; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    Osteoporosis and obesity remain a major public health concern through its associated fragility and fractures. Several animal models for the study of osteoporotic bone loss, such as ovariectomy (OVX) and denervation, require unique surgical skills and expensive set up. The challenging aspect of these age-associated diseases is that no single animal model exactly mimics the progression of these human-specific chronic conditions. Accordingly, to develop a simple and novel model of post menopausal bone loss with obesity, we fed either a high fat diet containing 10% corn oil (CO) or standard rodent lab chow (LC) to 12-month-old female C57Bl/6J mice for 6 months. As a result, CO fed mice exhibited increased body weight, total body fat mass, abdominal fat mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in different skeletal sites measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We also observed that decreased BMD with age in CO fed obese mice was accompanied by increased bone marrow adiposity, up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, cathepsin k and increased proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α) in bone marrow and splenocytes, when compared to that of LC fed mice. Therefore, this appears to be a simple, novel and convenient age-associated model of post menopausal bone loss, in conjunction with obesity, which can be used in pre-clinical drug discovery to screen new therapeutic drugs or dietary interventions for the treatment of obesity and osteoporosis in the human population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pregnancy Diet High in Refined Grains Could Increase Child Obesity Risk By Age 7, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy diet high in refined grains could increase child obesity risk by age 7, NIH study suggests danishc/ ... in refined grains — such as white rice — to obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. The researchers compared records from 918 mother-child pairs who took part in the Danish National ...

  14. Prevalence of dieting and fear of weight gain across ages: a community sample from adolescents to the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita C T; van Furth, Eric F; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Bartels, Meike; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-11-01

    The current study aimed to define the prevalence of dieting and fear of weight gain among men and women across the entire lifespan and identify factors associated with them. Data were available for 31,636 participants (60.2% women; age 13-98 years) from the Netherlands Twin Register. Dieting and fear of weight gain were described by age and sex. Associations with BMI, exercise behavior, urbanization and educational attainment were examined by regression analyses in 19,294 participants. Dieting was most frequently reported by 35- to 65-year-old women (56.6-63%), and 45- to 65-year-old men (31.7-31.9%). Fear of weight gain was most prevalent in women between 16 and 25 (73.2-74.3%), and in 25- to 55-year-old men (43.2-46.1%). In addition to sex and BMI, dieting and fear of weight gain were associated with each other. Furthermore, fear was associated with the age × sex interaction and educational attainment. Dieting and fear of weight gain is common during the entire lifespan for women, but is also endorsed by a substantial number of men. Given the low rate of overweight in young women, the high levels of fear of weight gain are striking.

  15. Echocardiographic evaluation during weaning from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Medianeira Schifelbain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables can change during weaning from mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To analyze changes in cardiac function, using Doppler echocardiogram, in critical patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation, using two different weaning methods: pressure support ventilation and T-tube; and comparing patient subgroups: success vs. failure in weaning. METHODS: Randomized crossover clinical trial including patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h and considered ready for weaning. Cardiorespiratory variables, oxygenation, electrocardiogram and Doppler echocardiogram findings were analyzed at baseline and after 30 min in pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Pressure support ventilation vs. T-tube and weaning success vs. failure were compared using ANOVA and Student's t-test. The level of significance was p<0.05. RESULTS: Twenty-four adult patients were evaluated. Seven patients failed at the first weaning attempt. No echocardiographic or electrocardiographic differences were observed between pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Weaning failure patients presented increases in left atrium, intraventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness and diameter of left ventricle and shorter isovolumetric relaxation time. Successfully weaned patients had higher levels of oxygenation. CONCLUSION: No differences were observed between Doppler echocardiographic variables and electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables during pressure support ventilation and T-tube. However cardiac structures were smaller, isovolumetric relaxation time was larger, and oxygenation level was greater in successfully weaned patients

  16. Inter-individual variation in weaning among rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): Serum stable isotope indicators of suckling duration and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J; Partrick, Katherine A; Muir, Andrew B

    2016-10-01

    Weaning is a transition in early development with major implications for infant survival and well-being, and for maternal lifetime reproductive success. The particular strategy a primate mother adopts in rearing her offspring represents a negotiation between her ability to invest and her need to invest, and can be considered adaptive and influenced by biological and social factors. Any investigation into how and why maternal weaning strategies differ among non-human primates is limited by the precision of the measurement tool used to assess infants' weaning ages. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of soft tissues (e.g., hair, nails, feces, urine, blood) offers an objective means of monitoring the weaning status of infants. In this study, we assess stable isotope ratios in blood serum from 14 captive rhesus macaque dyads (Macaca mulatta) at infant ages 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 months to estimate the timing of weaning events. Male infants wean earlier than female infants. Infants with the lowest birth weights wean latest. Most infants wean upon reaching 2.5 times their birth weights, sooner than when weaning elsewhere has been predicted for captive cercopithecine primates. The longest weaning periods (ca. 10 months) are observed among infants of small mothers. The shortest weaning period, between 2 and 5 months, was among the lowest ranking dyad. Parity and mothers' ages had no discernible effect on the timing of weaning events. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of dams during lactation are significantly different than those of a non-lactating adult female outgroup, raising questions about the suitability and selection of adult comparative baselines in studies where lactating mothers cannot be sampled longitudinally (e.g., bioarchaeology; paleontology). Am. J. Primatol. 78:1113-1134, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Neuromodulation by soy diets or equol: Anti-depressive & anti-obesity-like influences, age- & hormone-dependent effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Trent D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soy-derived isoflavones potentially protect against obesity and depression. In five different studies we examined the influence of soy-containing diets or equol injections on depression, serotonin levels, body weight gain (BW and white adipose tissue (WAT deposition in female Long-Evans rats at various stages of life [rats were intact, ovariectomized or experienced natural ovarian failure (NOF]. Results In general, animals fed a soy-rich diet (Phyto-600 and/or administered equol (@ 5 mg/kg/day displayed significant decreases in BW and WAT compared to a low-soy diet. When equol was injected alone (5 mg/kg/day, experiments 1, 4, and 5 demonstrated that body weight was significantly decreased. Equol has body weight control effects in females that are dependent on ovarian status and/or age of diet initiation. Experiments 1-4 all displayed no significant differences in depressive-related behavior as measured by the Prosolt forced swim test (PFST when soy-rich (Phyto-600 or low-soy diets (Phyto-low or equol treatments (5 mg/kg/day were tested in female rats at various ages or hormonal status. Results of all the experiments are not presented here due to space limitations, but data from experiment 5 are presented. From conception female rats were exposed to either: a a soy-rich (Phyto-600 or b low-soy diet (Phyto-low. After 290 days all rats experienced NOF. At 330 days-old the animals were examined in the Porsolt forced swim test (PFST. One month later a second PFST was performed [after Phyto-low fed animals were injected with equol (5 mg/kg/day for one week prior to the second PFST]. At the first PFST, serotonin and mobility levels were significantly decreased in the Phyto-low fed animals compared to animals that consumed the Phyto-600 diet. After equol injections at the second PFST, mobility and serotonin levels significantly increased in aged NOF rats fed the Phyto-low diet (to levels comparable to Phyto-600 fed animals

  18. A Maternal Low-Fiber Diet Predisposes Offspring to Improved Metabolic Phenotypes in Adulthood in an Herbivorous Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Wang, De-Hua

    The maternal or paternal dietary composition can have important effects on various aspects of their offspring's physiology. Studies from animal models and humans showed that a maternal high-fiber diet protected offspring against fat accumulation. However, little is known about how a maternal low-fiber diet modifies the metabolism of offspring in herbivorous rodents. We hypothesized that a maternal low-fiber diet would confer long-lasting beneficial effects on offspring metabolic phenotypes in herbivorous Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Female voles were fed either a control (12.4% fiber) or a low-fiber (3.5% fiber) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation, and all offspring were fed the control diet after weaning till 14 wk old. Offspring were sampled from each litter at 18 d and 14 wk of age. Another subset of adult offspring at 15 wk of age was fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk. We found that there was no difference in litter size, litter mass, or pup mass before weaning between the two maternal diet groups. Offspring from the maternal low-fiber diet increased energy intake, body mass, and lean mass; suppressed fat accumulation; and improved glucose tolerance compared with those from the control diet. Moreover, the maternal low-fiber diet alleviated high-fat diet-induced obesity in the adult offspring. Serum leptin concentration and uncoupling protein 1 content in brown adipose tissue of offspring were not affected by a maternal low-fiber diet. We demonstrate that herbivorous females fed a low-fiber diet during pregnancy and lactation may predispose their offspring to accelerated growth of lean tissue, which may increase the opportunity for survival and reproduction in offspring.

  19. Age and size at maturity: a quantitative review of diet-induced reaction norms in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Tiit; Vellau, Helen; Tammaru, Toomas

    2014-11-01

    Optimality models predict that diet-induced bivariate reaction norms for age and size at maturity can have diverse shapes, with the slope varying from negative to positive. To evaluate these predictions, we perform a quantitative review of relevant data, using a literature-derived database of body sizes and development times for over 200 insect species. We show that bivariate reaction norms with a negative slope prevail in nearly all taxonomic and ecological categories of insects as well as in some other ectotherm taxa with comparable life histories (arachnids and amphibians). In insects, positive slopes are largely limited to species, which feed on discrete resource items, parasitoids in particular. By contrast, with virtually no meaningful exceptions, herbivorous and predatory insects display reaction norms with a negative slope. This is consistent with the idea that predictable resource depletion, a scenario selecting for positively sloped reaction norms, is not frequent for these insects. Another source of such selection-a positive correlation between resource levels and juvenile mortality rates-should similarly be rare among insects. Positive slopes can also be predicted by models which integrate life-history evolution and population dynamics. As bottom-up regulation is not common in most insect groups, such models may not be most appropriate for insects. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Avaliação de dietas fornecidas dos 14 aos 42 dias de idade sobre o desempenho e a composição de carcaça de leitões Evaluation of diets fed from 14 to 42 days of age on piglets performance and carcass composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gimenez Mascarenhas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dietas fornecidas dos 14 aos 42 dias de idade sobre o desempenho e a composição de carcaça de leitões. Vinte e oito leitegadas mestiças (Landrace × Large White foram alimentadas à vontade com quatro tipos de dietas: duas simples e duas complexas. No desmame, aos 21 dias de idade, quatro animais (dois machos castrados e duas fêmeas, foram transferidos para creches e alojados em gaiolas metálicas, onde continuaram a ser alimentados com rações à vontade. Oitenta e quatro animais, 21 para cada tratamento (sete animais aos 14 dias e 14 animais aos 42 dias de idade, foram abatidos para determinar as taxas de deposição de proteína e gordura na carcaça. Foi usado delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e sete repetições por tratamento. Dos 14 aos 21 dias de idade, o consumo diário de ração (CDR foi insignificante. Após o desmame, os maiores CDR e ganho diário de peso (GDP foram observados em leitões alimentados com as dietas complexa e simples, que tinham maior nível de proteína bruta e lisina (19 e 1,25%, que os alimentados com dietas simples contendo 16 e 0,80% de proteína bruta e lisina, respectivamente. As dietas simples e complexas com os mesmos níveis de proteína bruta, lisina e energia digestível proporcionaram resultados semelhantes de desempenho. A redução do nível de proteína bruta dietético piorou o desempenho dos leitões desmamados aos 21 dias.The objective of this work was to evaluate diets fed from 14 to 42 days of age on piglets performance and carcass composition. Twenty-eight crossbred litters (Landrace x Large White were full fed four types of diets: two simple and two complex. In the weaning time, at 21 days of age, four animals (two barrows and two gilts were transferred to a nursery and allotted to metallic cages, where they continued to be full fed with diets. Eight-four animals, 21 animals from each treatment (seven animals at 14

  1. Effects of high-fat diet on somatic growth, metabolic parameters and function of peritoneal macrophages of young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alheiros-Lira, Maria Cláudia; Jurema-Santos, Gabriela Carvalho; da-Silva, Helyson Tomaz; da-Silva, Amanda Cabral; Moreno Senna, Sueli; Ferreira E Silva, Wylla Tatiana; Ferraz, José Candido; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein-high fat (LP-HF)). Somatic growth, food and energy intake, fat depots, serum glucose, cholesterol and leptin concentrations were evaluated. Phagocytic rate and NO production were analysed in peritoneal macrophages under stimulation of zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+interferon γ (IFN-γ), respectively. The maternal LP diet altered the somatic parameters of growth and development of pups. LP and LP-HF pups showed a higher body weight gain and food intake than C pups. HF and LP-HF pups showed increased retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots, serum level of TAG and total cholesterol compared with C and LP pups. After LPS+IFN-γ stimulation, LP and LP-HF pups showed reduced NO production when compared with their pairs. Increased phagocytic activity and NO production were seen in LP but not LP-HF peritoneal macrophages. However, peritoneal macrophages of LP pups were hyporesponsive to LPS+IFN-γ induced NO release, even after a post-weaning HF diet. Our data demonstrated that there was an immunomodulation related to dietary fatty acids after the maternal LP diet-induced metabolic programming.

  2. Agro-pastoral diets in southern Italy from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arena, Fabiola; Mannino, Marcello; Philippsen, Bente

    . In particular, this method of palaeodietary reconstruction allows us to establish the ecosystem of origin of foods (terrestrial, freshwater and/or marine) and the type of diet (vegetarian, omnivorous or carnivorous). Our analyses on 33 human and 12 faunal bone collagen extracts attest that the diets...

  3. A maternal 'junk food' diet in pregnancy and lactation promotes an exacerbated taste for 'junk food' and a greater propensity for obesity in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayol, Stéphanie A; Farrington, Samantha J; Stickland, Neil C

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is generally associated with high intake of junk foods rich in energy, fat, sugar and salt combined with a dysfunctional control of appetite and lack of exercise. There is some evidence to suggest that appetite and body mass can be influenced by maternal food intake during the fetal and suckling life of an individual. However, the influence of a maternal junk food diet during pregnancy and lactation on the feeding behaviour and weight gain of the offspring remains largely uncharacterised. In this study, six groups of rats were fed either rodent chow alone or with a junk food diet during gestation, lactation and/or post-weaning. The daily food intakes and body mass were measured in forty-two pregnant and lactating mothers as well as in 216 offspring from weaning up to 10 weeks of age. Results showed that 10 week-old rats born to mothers fed the junk food diet during gestation and lactation developed an exacerbated preference for fatty, sugary and salty foods at the expense of protein-rich foods when compared with offspring fed a balanced chow diet prior to weaning or during lactation alone. Male and female offspring exposed to the junk food diet throughout the study also exhibited increased body weight and BMI compared with all other offspring. This study shows that a maternal junk food diet during pregnancy and lactation may be an important contributing factor in the development of obesity.

  4. Microbial diversity studies of the porcine gastrointestinal ecosystem during weaning transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinov, S.R.; Favier, C.F.; Zhu Wei-Yun,; Williams, B.A.; Kluss, J.; Souffrant, W.B.; Vos, de W.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Smidt, H.

    2004-01-01

    At the time of weaning, major quantitative and qualitative changes occur in the composition of the intestinal microbiota of piglets, influenced by diet, environmental factors, and the host. Within a short period of time, the intestinal microbiota must ultimately develop from a simple, unstable

  5. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  6. The effects of a low-calorie diet or an isocaloric diet combined with metformin on sex hormones In obese women of child-bearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swora-Cwynar, Ewelina; Kujawska-Łuczak, Magdalena; Suliburska, Joanna; Reguła, Julita; Kargulewicz, Angelika; Kręgielska-Narożna, Matylda; Marcinkowska, Emilia; Kanikowska, Alina; Bielas, Marzena; Grzymisławski, Marian; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years) were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC) and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM), for 12 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and serum concentrations of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S) sulfate were evaluated at baseline and after the study. Reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and body fat content with an increase  in lean body percent were significant and comparable between the LC and IM group after the trial. The concentrations of serum FSH, LH, E2, DHEA and T did not change in either group after treatment. A tendency towards an increase in the E2 concentration in both groups and a decrease in the T level in the LC group  was observed. The correlations between a change in BMI, fat content, waist-hip ratio and a change in T were documented in the LC group. A 12-week low-calorie diet and an isocaloric diet combined with metformin produced comparable and significant weight loss with improvements in body composition. Both interventions did not significantly affect FSH, LH and DHEA sulfate serum concentrations, only a trend towards an E2 increase and a T decrease was observed, stronger in LC group. The significant correlations shown between the changes in anthropometric and body composition parameters and T serum levels in women treated with a low-calorie diet alone show the beneficial effect of a lifestyle intervention on the sex hormone in obese premenopausal women.

  7. Special diets are common among preschool children aged one to five years in south-east Sweden according to a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Caroline; Hellerfelt, Sofia; Botvid, Christina; Ekström, Magnus

    2017-04-01

    Information about the prevalence of special diets in preschool children is limited. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of all special diets among preschool children in a Swedish municipality. This was a population-based cross-sectional survey of all 3276 preschool children aged one to five years in the municipality of Karlskrona, Sweden. The questionnaire assessed the number of children at each preschool, how many were on special diets, their dietary requirements, age, sex, whether they had a medical certificate and whether the special diet had a perceived medical cause. We obtained data for 3221 (98%) of the children, and 19% had special diets, including 12% on nonmedical diets and 6.3% on medical diets. The five most common diets were avoiding pork (7.8%), a vegetarian diet (4.8%), and avoiding cows' milk (3.5%), hens' eggs (1.2%) and lactose (1.1%). Gluten avoidance was more common in girls than boys (0.8% versus 0.2%, p = 0.032). Half (47%) of the children on special medical diets lacked a medical certificate. Special diets were common in preschool children in south-east Sweden, and the causes were mainly nonmedical. Mandatory medical certificates for medically based special diets might reduce unnecessary dietary restrictions. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Offspring from rat mothers fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet during gestation and lactation accumulate free fatty acids in the liver when exposed to high fat diet as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Ingvorsen, Camilla

    Introduction: Maternal diet during gestation and lactation has been implicated as a factor that modifies the risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life. Hepatic lipid accumulation is strongly linked to development of metabolic diseases. Free fatty acids induce ER stress, mitochondrial...... in adult life. In this poster, we report data on hepatic lipid content. Methods: Rat dams were fed a 60 E% fat diet and given 15% sucrose (HFHS) in the drinking water or chow and pure water (C) six weeks before mating as well as during gestation and lactation. After birth, male pups was cross......-fostered by the dams, so that half of the pups born by HFHS mothers was lactated by C dams and vice versa, generating four groups; CC, CH, HC and HH (first letter maternal diet during pregnancy and the second diet during lactation). At weaning all pups were transferred to chow-diet and kept on this diet until the age...

  9. Effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fatty acid composition of milk and offspring red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithayathil, M A; Gugusheff, J R; Gibson, R A; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during the lactation period alone produces detrimental effects to offspring metabolic health comparable to exposure during the entire perinatal period. The present study used a rodent model to assess the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dams' milk, and to determine the degree to which this was related to the fatty acid status of offspring on postnatal day 1 (PND1), weaning and 3 weeks post-weaning onto a standard rodent diet. As expected, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) content of both the milk and pup red blood cells (RBCs) was lower in the cafeteria (CAF) group on PND1. At 2 weeks post-partum, milk produced by CAF dams had a higher total fat, saturated fat and n-6 PUFA content, however these differences were modest in comparison with the differences in maternal intake between groups. Offspring suckled by CAF dams had a lower n-3 LCPUFA and n-6 PUFA status at weaning and higher trans fatty acid levels at both weaning and 6 weeks of age. These findings indicate that the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dam's milk is altered by exposure to a cafeteria diet. While it appears that the dam has a significant capacity to buffer the transfer of most dietary lipids into the milk, the trans fatty acids in particular appear to be readily transferred, resulting in persistent increases in trans fatty acid status of the offspring after weaning. The potential physiological implications of this warrants further examination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trends in Weaning Practices among Infants and Toddlers in a Hilly Terrain of a Newly Formed State of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Shaili; Kandpal, S D; Semwal, Jayanti; Chauhan, Sandhya; Nautiyal, Vipul

    2014-06-01

    Weaning plays a major role in determining the nutritional status of a child. Poor weaning practices during infancy and early childhood, resulting in malnutrition, contribute to impairment of cognitive and social development, poor school performance and reduced productivity in later life. The objective of this study is to know weaning practices of mothers of difficult terrain. Cross-sectional study was conducted in all villages under Rural Health Training Center, the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine. A total of 500 mothers with children within 3 years of age were included in the study. Pre-tested pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on weaning practices. Majority of children (51.57%) were weaned at >6 months and were observed to be more under nourished (79.34%) as compared with those between 4 months and 6 months (61.50%). Majority of boys were weaned earlier than girls irrespective of the age of the weaning. Malnutrition was found in majority of those children who were weaned inadequately in terms of both frequency and amount. The present study revealed suboptimal weaning practices among the mothers of hilly region. Thus, appropriate educational strategies should be directed particularly on counteracting various myths related to infant feeding Moreover, promotion of appropriate feeding should target not only on maternal caregivers, but also on other family members, particularly husbands and grandmothers, taking into account the social and cultural situation of the area.

  11. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing weight- and YG-related penalties improved profitability. Opportunities may exist with existing and new technology to uniformly allocate cattle into feeding and marketing groups, decrease overfeeding, and increase carcass value and profitability.

  12. Culture and Diet Among Chinese American Children Aged 9-13 Years: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Leung, Randall; Thompson, Debbe I; Gor, Beverly J; Baranowski, Tom

    2017-04-01

    To examine Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews using constructs from the proposed model of dietary acculturation. Community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX. Twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years. Diet, favorite restaurants, and parents' cooking and grocery shopping habits. Content analysis and thematic data analysis to identify code categories and themes. Coders also identified patterns based on demographic and acculturation factors. Overall, participants described their diets and associated behaviors as Asian and non-Asian. Key themes included preference for Asian and non-Asian foods; consumption of non-Asian foods for breakfast and lunch, but Asian foods for dinner; infrequent dining at restaurants; grocery shopping at Asian and non-Asian stores; and familial influences on diet. Acculturated children and children of higher socioeconomic status appeared to prefer and consume a more Westernized/non-Asian diet. Results illustrate that Chinese American children in this study practiced both Asian and non-Asian dietary behaviors. Findings corroborated existing acculturation research with parents and caregivers; supported constructs in the model of dietary acculturation; and provide guidance for research and programs related to dietary behaviors, determinants, and culture among this population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  13. PEDIATRICIANS' REPRESENTATIONS ON DAIRY ALTERNATIVES WHEN WEANING IS UNAVOIDABLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarubbi, Vicente; Muylaert, Camila Junqueira; Bastos, Isabella Teixeira; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Leone, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    To analyze pediatricians' representations on the nutritional alternatives that are adopted when weaning becomes inevitable. This is a mixed cross-sectional analytical study with probabilistic sampling. Fifty-seven randomly selected pediatricians were interviewed with the use of a semi-structured script for thematic analysis. The technique of free evocations was used, and the terms were processed using software EVOC 2005. The thematic categories were established on software NVivo10, and their co-occurrence matrix was exported and analyzed in terms of their simple similarity hierarchy on software CHIC. In the pediatricians' representations, whole milk was cited as a foodstuff with high allergenic risk (35.1%) and nutritionally inappropriate, and they did not recommend its use if weaning occurred before 1 year of age. The infant formula, referred by 98.3% of the pediatricians as the best alternative at the moment of weaning, was cited by 38.1% of them owing to its nutritional adequacy. The points quoted as unfavorable to the use of the formula were the price, the possibility of causing allergy and the risk of the inadequate use of such a highly industrialized product. The pediatricians' representations show that they are sensitive to the importance of breast-feeding and at the same time, to the sociocultural difficulties inherent in the practice. Generally speaking, the interviewed pediatricians recommend the use of milk formulas, and not of whole cow's milk, if weaning occurs before the end of the first year of life.

  14. Herdabilidades para ganho de peso da desmama ao sobreano e perímetro escrotal ao sobreano e tendências genética e fenotípica para ganho de peso da desmama ao sobreano em bovinos Nelore-Angus Heritabilities for post-weaning daily gain and scrotal circumference at yearling age and genetic and phenotypic trends for post-weaning daily gain in Nellore-Angus crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione Augusti Boligon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar herdabilidades para ganho de peso médio diário da desmama ao sobreano (GMDDS e para perímetro escrotal ao sobreano (PES e tendências genética e fenotípica para GMDDS, foram utilizados 47.668 registros de peso e de ganho de peso de uma população multirracial Nelore-Angus, coletados entre 1991 e 2001 em diversas regiões do Brasil. Os dados foram analisados pelo método REML e as estimativas das (covariâncias foram obtidas por meio de um modelo animal, no qual foram considerados fixos os efeitos da composição racial do animal (obtida pela concatenação do percentual da raça Nelore do próprio animal, de seu pai e de sua mãe e do grupo de contemporâneos pós-desmama (animais nascidos no mesmo rebanho, ano, época e pertencentes ao mesmo sexo e grupo de manejo e, como aleatórios, os efeitos genético aditivo direto e residual. A herdabilidade para PES foi estimada utlizando-se o mesmo modelo, acrescido dos efeitos fixos do peso e da idade do animal ao sobreano (covariáveis. As médias para idade nas pesagens foram 215 e 528 dias para a desmama e o sobreano, respectivamente. A herdabilidade estimada para GMDDS foi 0,44 ± 0,02 e para PES, 0,22 ± 0,08. A tendência genética anual predita para GMDDS foi decrescente até 1996 e crescente a partir desse período. A tendência fenotípica anual foi de 9,4 g/dia/ano.Data consisting of 47.668 records of a Nellore-Angus crossbred population, raised in several regions of Brazil, from 1991 to 2001, were used to estimate heritability for post-weaning daily gain (ADG and for scrotal circumference at yearling age (SCY using REML. Genetic and phenotypic trends for ADG were also estimated. The model used to estimate heritability and breeding values (BVs for ADG included the fixed effects of breed composition (defined by the percentage of contribution of the Nellore breed of the animal and his parents and the contemporary group after weaning (herd, year/season of birth

  15. Digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio in diets for laying hens from 24 to 40 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arele Arlindo Calderano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ideal digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio in diets for laying hens from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Two hundred and forty Hy-Line W-36 laying hens at 24 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, eight replicates and six birds per experimental unit. The digestible tryptophan levels in the experimental diets were 1.57; 1.68; 1.79; 1.90 and 2.01 g/kg, providing ratios of digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine of 0.215; 0.230; 0.245; 0.260 and 0.275. The increase in the levels of digestible tryptophan in the diet linearly improved the feed intake, digestible tryptophan intake, digestible lysine intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass and utilization efficiency of digestible lysine for eggs mass. There were quadratic effects from the digestible tryptophan levels on egg weight. For the efficiency of utilization of digestible lysine for egg mass, there was better adjustment of the data to the LRP model. The level of digestible tryptophan in the diet from which the plateau occurred was 0.184%. This level corresponded to the intake of 142 mg/bird/day of digestible tryptophan and digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio of 0.252. The ideal digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio recommended in diets for laying hens from 24 to 40 weeks of age is 0.252 (25.2%.

  16. Effects of providing preweaning diets to piglets: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Schultz Marcolla; Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Providing a solid diet in addition to sow milk during lactation (creep feed) is a management commonly recommended to producers. This practice was introduced as a strategy to minimize the deleterious effects of abrupt and early weaning, as well as to standardize the litters to be weaned, to increase weaning weight, and to accelerate the adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets to solid diets. Creep feeds are formulated to present high levels of digestibility and palatability and to ...

  17. Effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Yuan Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae. Theories predict that females of parasitoid wasps would adjust the offspring sex ratio to environmental conditions in the oviposition patch, but the diet and age of females would also affect the sex ratio adjustment. Our focus was to test the effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid wasp, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875. Our results showed that females fed with honey had significantly less female biased offspring sex ratio than those fed only with water. Offspring sex ratio (male percentage decreased with female age or female longevity at the beginning of oviposition but increased at the end. There should be a sperm limitation in P. vindemmiae females at the end of oviposition, and a higher frequency of unfertilized eggs were laid then. Females also laid more unfertilized eggs at the beginning of oviposition, which would be necessary to insure the mating among offspring. Male offspring developed faster and emerged earlier, which would also reduce the risk of virginity in offspring with female-biased sex ratio.

  18. Características de carcaça de bezerros de rebanhos leiteiros desmamados precocemente e alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas Effect of feeding different liquid diets on carcass characteristics of early weaned dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o rendimento de carcaça e o desenvolvimento dos órgãos e vísceras de 40 bezerros mestiços F1 Holandês x Gir alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas, à base de leite integral ou colostro fermentado, associados ou não com óleo de soja (45 mL, com ou sem a aplicação do promotor de crescimento Zeranol. Cada animal recebeu dieta composta por ração concentrada (23% de proteína bruta, feno de capim-tifton à vontade e três litros de leite ou colostro fermentado por dia. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 57,38 kg e aproximadamente 60 dias de idade. Não houve efeito das dietas fornecidas aos animais sobre o peso dos órgãos e dos componentes não-integrantes da carcaça. Entretanto, os bezerros tratados com leite e Zeranol apresentaram maiores pesos de carne industrial. A área de olho de lombo dos bezerros não foi influenciada pela associação dos diferentes tipos de dietas com o Zeranol, apresentando um valor médio de 15,27 cm². O colostro fermentado sem a adição de Zeranol e apresentou pesos, para rúmen-retículo, intestino delgado e mesentério, de 954, 2.076 e 619 g, respectivamente. A presença do óleo de soja na dieta líquida elevou a porcentagem de gordura interna dos bezerros. A utilização do Zeranol acarretou comprimento de carcaça 5% superior nos animais tratados com leite e 5,5% inferior nos animais tratados com colostro, enquanto o uso do colostro fermentado sem Zeranol resultou em carcaças 5% mais pesadas que o de leite integral sem Zeranol. Desempenho (peso de carcaça quente e fria semelhante aos dos animais tratados com leite e promotor de crescimento foi obtido com o tratamento Zeranol + colostro fermentado. Animais tratados com leite apresentaram maiores proporções de osso e de gordura na carcaça.Carcass yield and growth of organs and innards of 40 crossbreed F1 Holstein X Gir calves fed different liquid diets (whole milk or fermented colostrum-based diets, supplemented or

  19. Nutritional composition and micronutrient status of home made and commercial weaning foods consumed in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha TCE; Laswai, H S; Tetens, I

    2000-01-01

    About 50% of young children in Tanzania suffer from protein-energy undernutrition (PEU) while more than 45% of children under the age of five suffer from various micronutrient deficiency disorders. The immediate cause of these conditions is inadequate intake and poor utilization of nutrients, which begins in the weaning period and amplifies in the subsequent years. This study was conducted to assess the potential of some home made and commercial weaning foods commonly consumed in Tanzania to supply adequate amounts of both macro- and micronutrients as recommended in the Tanzania and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Standards for cereal/milk-based weaning foods. Six types of home made weaning foods, maize, cassava, millet, sorghum and millet-sardine-peanut composite gruels and plantain pap, and four types of commercial weaning foods, Cerelac- 1, Cerelac-2, Lactogen-1 and Lactogen-2, popularly consumed in Tanzania, were chemically assayed for proximate composition, energy and mineral density. Results of the study indicated that, both the home made and commercial weaning foods were good sources of macro- and micronutrients. When compared with the Codex Alimentarius and Tanzania Bureau of Standards specifications for weaning foods, both home made and commercial weaning foods had some shortcomings in terms of nutrient composition and energy balance. Many of the foods were low in fat. Fe, Ca, Zn and P but high in crude fiber, carbohydrate and magnesium. Ca, Fe and Zn were the most common deficient macro/micronutrients in the home made weaning foods. In spite of these shortcomings, most of the home made and commercial weaning foods were nutritionally sound since they could provide reasonable percentages of the recommended daily allowances for macro/micronutrients and energy. It is suggested that, more efforts must be directed towards increasing the concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in the home made weaning foods through supplementation of the starchy staples with mineral rich

  20. Association between Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Hip Fracture in Postmenopausal Women and Men Aged 50 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Meyer, Haakon E; Willett, Walter C; Feskanich, Diane

    2018-02-01

    Although a number of studies showed a lower risk of hip fractures with high-quality diets, few of them were conducted in the United States. This prospective analysis examined the association between several diet quality indexes and risk of hip fractures in US men and women. This is a prospective cohort study. The participants were 74,446 postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study and 36,602 men aged 50 years and older from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study in the United States. Hip fractures were self-reported on biennial questionnaires between 1980-2012 in women, and between 1986-2012 in men. Diet was assessed every 4 years with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks were computed for hip fracture by quintiles of the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMed), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Two thousand one hundred forty-three incident hip fractures in women and 603 in men were reported during follow-up. A significant inverse trend was observed with the cumulative AHEI-2010 score in women (relative risk comparing extreme quintiles 0.87, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.00; P for trend=0.02). There was also a suggestion of an inverse association with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score (P for trend=0.03). In addition, significant inverse trends were observed between all three diet quality scores and hip fractures in women younger than age 75 years but not older women. There was no clear association between diet quality indexes and hip fracture in men. Higher AHEI-2010 scores were associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in US women. The inverse associations with diet quality may be more apparent among those younger than age 75 years. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene expression profiling analysis reveals weaning-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the small intestine of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L H; Xu, J X; Zhu, S W; Cai, X; Yang, S F; Chen, X L; Guo, Q

    2014-03-01

    In swine production, weaning is a critical event for porcine weaning-associated disease, such as postweaning stress syndrome, which involves intestinal dysfunction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of intestinal dysfunction in pigs during weaning. To gain new insight into the interaction between weaning stress and intestinal function, 4 pigs at 25 d of age for each of the weaning and the suckling groups for a total of 40 pigs were used to analyze changes in the genomic expression in the intestines of weaned pigs by microarray analysis. Four hundred forty-five genes showed altered expression after weaning treatment (286 upregulated and 159 downregulated) at the cutoff criteria of the fold change ≥1.5 or 0.05) were observed when compared with the suckling pigs. These selected genes likely indicate that weaning induced cell cycle arrest, enhanced apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation. The results of this study provide a basis for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of weaning treatment.

  2. Patients' experience during weaning of invasive mechanical ventilation: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán-Tahvanainen, M E; Romero-Belmonte, C; Cundín-Laguna, M; Basterra-Brun, P; San Miguel-Aguirre, A; Regaira-Martínez, E

    Weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is influenced by p