Universality of energy spectrum in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection
Bai, Kunlun; Hoeller, Judith; Brown, Eric
2016-11-01
We present study of energy spectrum in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection, in both cylindrical and cubic containers, tilting and non-tilting conditions, and with Rayleigh number ranging from 0 . 5 ×109 to 1 ×1010 . For these different conditions of geometry, tilt, and Rayleigh number, the temperature spectra measured on the system side walls are significantly different from each other. Even for the same condition, the spectrum varies depending on whether the sensors locate in the path of large-scale circulations. However, quite interestingly, once the signals of large-scale circulations are subtracted from the raw temperature, all spectra display a universal shape, regardless of system geometry, tilt, Rayleigh number, and location of sensors. It suggests that one could model the large-scale circulations and small-scale fluctuations separately in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection.
Heat transport measurements in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Yuanming [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We present experimental heat transport measurements of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection with rotation about a vertical axis. The fluid, water with Prandtl number ({sigma}) about 6, was confined in a cell which had a square cross section of 7.3 cm x 7.3 cm and a height of 9.4 cm. Heat transport was measured for Rayleigh numbers 2 x 10{sup 5} < Ra < 5 x 10{sup 8} and Taylor numbers 0 < Ta < 5 x 10{sup 9}. We show the variation of normalized heat transport, the Nusselt number, at fixed dimensional rotation rate {Omega}{sub D}, at fixed Ra varying Ta, at fixed Ta varying Ra, and at fixed Rossby number Ro. The scaling of heat transport in the range 10{sup 7} to about 10{sup 9} is roughly 0.29 with a Ro dependent coefficient or equivalently is also well fit by a combination of power laws of the form a Ra{sup 1/5} + b Ra{sup 1/3} . The range of Ra is not sufficient to differentiate single power law or combined power law scaling. The overall impact of rotation on heat transport in turbulent convection is assessed.
Boundary layer structure in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection
Shi, Nan; Schumacher, Joerg
2012-01-01
The structure of the boundary layers in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection is studied by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. We consider convection in a cylindrical cell at an aspect ratio one for Rayleigh numbers of Ra=3e+9 and 3e+10 at fixed Prandtl number Pr=0.7. Similar to the experimental results in the same setup and for the same Prandtl number, the structure of the laminar boundary layers of the velocity and temperature fields is found to deviate from the prediction of the Prandtl-Blasius-Pohlhausen theory. Deviations decrease when a dynamical rescaling of the data with an instantaneously defined boundary layer thickness is performed and the analysis plane is aligned with the instantaneous direction of the large-scale circulation in the closed cell. Our numerical results demonstrate that important assumptions which enter existing classical laminar boundary layer theories for forced and natural convection are violated, such as the strict two-dimensionality of the dynamics or the s...
Moist turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection with Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions
Weidauer, Thomas
2012-01-01
Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection with phase changes in an extended layer between two parallel impermeable planes is studied by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations for Rayleigh numbers between 10^4 and 1.5\\times 10^7 and for Prandtl number Pr=0.7. Two different sets of boundary conditions of temperature and total water content are compared: imposed constant amplitudes which translate into Dirichlet boundary conditions for the scalar field fluctuations about the quiescent diffusive equilibrium and constant imposed flux boundary conditions that result in Neumann boundary conditions. Moist turbulent convection is in the conditionally unstable regime throughout this study for which unsaturated air parcels are stably and saturated air parcels unstably stratified. A direct comparison of both sets of boundary conditions with the same parameters requires to start the turbulence simulations out of differently saturated equilibrium states. Similar to dry Rayleigh-Benard convection the differences...
On the origin of intrinsic randomness of Rayleigh-Benard turbulence
Lin, Zhiliang; Liao, Shijun
2016-01-01
It is of broad interest to understand how the evolution of non-equilibrium systems can be triggered and the role played by external perturbations. A famous example is the origin of randomness in the laminar-turbulence transition, which is raised in the pipe flow experiment by Reynolds as a century old unresolved problem. Although there exist different hypotheses, it is widely believed that the randomness is "intrinsic", which, however, remains as an open question to be verified. Simulating the modeled Rayleigh-Benard convection system by means of the so-called clean numerical simulation (CNS) with negligible numerical noises that are smaller even than thermal fluctuation, we verify that turbulence can be self-excited from the inherent thermal fluctuation, without any external disturbances, i.e. out of nothing. This reveals a relationship between microscopic physical uncertainty and macroscopic randomness. It is found that in physics the system nonlinearity functions as a channel for randomness information, an...
Sterl, Sebastian; Zhong, Jin-Qiang
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present results from an experimental study into turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection forced externally by periodically modulated unidirectional rotation rates. We find that the azimuthal rotation velocity $\\dot{\\theta}$(t) and thermal amplitude $\\delta$(t) of the large-scale circulation (LSC) are modulated by the forcing, exhibiting a variety of dynamics including increasing phase delays and a resonant peak in the amplitude of $\\dot{\\theta}$(t). We also focus on the influence of modulated rotation rates on the frequency of occurrence $\\eta$ of stochastic cessation/reorientation events, and on the interplay between such events and the periodically modulated response of $\\dot{\\theta}$(t). Here we identify a mechanism by which $\\eta$ can be amplfied by the modulated response and these normally stochastic events can occur with high regularity. We provide a modeling framework that explains the observed amplitude and phase responses, and extend this approach to make predictions for the occurrence ...
Low-dimensional model of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in a Cartesian cell with square domain
Bailon-Cuba, Jorge
2011-01-01
A low-dimensional model (LDM) for turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in a Cartesian cell with square domain, based on the Galerkin projection of the Boussinesq equations onto a finite set of empirical eigenfunctions, is presented. The empirical eigenfunctions are obtained from a joint Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) of the velocity and temperature fields using the Snapshot Method on the basis of a direct numerical simulation (DNS). The resulting LDM is a quadratic inhomogeneous system of coupled ordinary differential equations which we use to describe the long-time temporal evolution of the large-scale mode amplitudes for a Rayleigh number of 1e5 and a Prandtl number of 0.7. The truncation to a finite number of degrees of freedom, that does not exceed a number of 310 for the present, requires the additional implementation of an eddy viscosity-diffusivity to capture the missing dissipation of the small-scale modes. The magnitude of this additional dissipation mechanism is determined by requiring statis...
Distributed chaos and Rayleigh-Benard turbulence at very high Ra
Bershadskii, A
2016-01-01
It is shown, by the means of distributed chaos approach and using the experimental data, that at very large Rayleigh number $Ra > 10^{14}$ and Prandtl number $Pr \\sim 1$ the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard turbulence can undergo a transition related to spontaneous breaking of the fundamental Lagrangian relabeling symmetry. Due to the Noether's theorem helicity plays central role in this process. After the transition the temperature spectrum has a stretched exponential form $E (k) \\propto \\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta =2/5$ both at the cell midplain and at the near-wall (low boundary) regions. There is a similarity between this phenomenon and the effects of polymer additives.
Remarks on the Rayleigh-Benard Convection on Spherical Shells
Wang, Shouhong
2011-01-01
The main objective of this article is to study the effect of spherical geometry on dynamic transitions and pattern formation for the Rayleigh-Benard convection. The study is mainly motivated by the importance of spherical geometry and convection in geophysical flows. It is shown in particular that the system always undergoes a continuous (Type-I) transition to a $2l_c$-dimensional sphere $S^{2lc}$, where lc is the critical wave length corresponding to the critical Rayleigh number. Furthermore, it has shown in [12] that it is critical to add nonisotropic turbulent friction terms in the momentum equation to capture the large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. We show in particular that the system with turbulent friction terms added undergoes the same type of dynamic transition, and obtain an explicit formula linking the critical wave number (pattern selection), the aspect ratio, and the ratio between the horizontal and vertical turbulent friction coefficients.
Whitehead, Jared P
2011-01-01
Rigorous upper limits on the vertical heat transport in two dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection between stress-free isothermal boundaries are derived from the Boussinesq approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The Nusselt number Nu is bounded in terms of the Rayleigh number Ra according to $Nu \\leq 0.2295 Ra^{5/12}$ uniformly in the Prandtl number Pr. This Nusselt number scaling challenges some theoretical arguments regarding the asymptotic high Rayleigh number heat transport by turbulent convection.
Optimal Prandtl number for heat transfer in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection
Stevens, Richard J A M; Lohse, Detlef
2009-01-01
Numerical data for the heat transfer as a function of the Prandtl (Pr) and Rossby (Ro) numbers in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection are presented for Rayleigh number Ra = 10^8. When Ro is fixed the heat transfer enhancement with respect to the non-rotating value shows a maximum as function of Pr. This maximum is due to the reduced efficiency of Ekman pumping when Pr becomes too small or too large. When Pr becomes small, i.e. for large thermal diffusivity, the heat that is carried by the vertical vortices spreads out in the middle of the cell, and Ekman pumping thus becomes less efficient. For higher Pr the thermal boundary layers (BLs) are thinner than the kinetic BLs and therefore the Ekman vortices do not reach the thermal BL. This means that the fluid that is sucked into the vertical vortices is colder than for lower Pr which limits the efficiency of the upwards heat transfer.
Phenomenological Theory for Spatiotemporal Chaos in Rayleigh-Benard Convection
Li, Xiao-jun; Xi, Hao-wen; Gunton, J. D.
1997-01-01
We present a phenomenological theory for spatiotemporal chaos (STC) in Rayleigh-Benard convection, based on the generalized Swift-Hohenberg model. We apply a random phase approximation to STC and conjecture a scaling form for the structure factor $S(k)$ with respect to the correlation length $\\xi_2$. We hence obtain analytical results for the time-averaged convective current $J$ and the time-averaged vorticity current $\\Omega$. We also define power-law behaviors such as $J \\sim \\epsilon^\\mu$,...
Brauckmann, Hannes; Schumacher, Joerg
2016-01-01
Rayleigh-Benard convection and Taylor-Couette flow are two canonical flows that have many properties in common. We here compare the two flows in detail for parameter values where the Nusselt numbers, i.e. the thermal transport and the angular momentum transport normalized by the corresponding laminar values, coincide. We study turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in air at Rayleigh number Ra=1e7 and Taylor-Couette flow at shear Reynolds number Re_S=2e4 for two different mean rotation rates but the same Nusselt numbers. For individual pairwise related fields and convective currents, we compare the probability density functions normalized by the corresponding root mean square values and taken at different distances from the wall. We find one rotation number for which there is very good agreement between the mean profiles of the two corresponding quantities temperature and angular momentum. Similarly, there is good agreement between the fluctuations in temperature and velocity components. For the heat and angula...
Cloud patterns and mixing properties in shallow moist Rayleigh-Benard convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weidauer, Thomas; Schumacher, Joerg [Institut fuer Thermo- und Fluiddynamik, Postfach 100565, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Pauluis, Olivier, E-mail: thomas.weidauer@tu-ilmenau.d, E-mail: pauluis@cims.nyu.ed, E-mail: joerg.schumacher@tu-ilmenau.d [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY 10012-1185 (United States)
2010-10-15
Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of idealized moist turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection are presented. The thermodynamics of moist air is linearized close to the phase boundary between water vapor and liquid water. This formulation allows for a simplified saturation condition for the cloud formation, but omits supersaturation and rain. The sensitivity of this problem to changes of the Rayleigh number, the aspect ratio of the convection layer and the water vapor concentration is studied. The Rayleigh number is found to impact the behavior of the system in multiple ways. First, the relaxation time toward a well-mixed turbulent state increases with the Rayleigh number. Similarly, the flow exhibits a higher spatial and temporal intermittency at higher Rayleigh number. This is in line with an enhanced intermittency of the upward buoyancy flux, which we quantify by a multifractal analysis. In addition, phase transition introduces an asymmetry in the distribution of the thermodynamic properties of the well-mixed state. This asymmetry is most pronounced in layers where clouds are partially present. Furthermore, the geometrical properties of the cloud formations averaged with respect to the height of the layer are studied. Similar to isocontours in scalar mixing, the boundaries of isolated clouds show no strict (mono-)fractal behavior. The results of the perimeter-area analysis of the largest isolated clouds agree well with those of large eddy simulations of cumulus convection. This perimeter-area scaling is also similar to that of percolation processes in a plane.
Rotating non-Boussinesq Rayleigh-Benard convection
Moroz, Vadim Vladimir
This thesis makes quantitative predictions about the formation and stability of hexagonal and roll patterns in convecting system unbounded in horizontal direction. Starting from the Navier-Stokes, heat and continuity equations, the convection problem is then reduced to normal form equations using equivariant bifurcation theory. The relative stabilities of patterns lying on a hexagonal lattice in Fourier space are then determined using appropriate amplitude equations, with coefficients obtained via asymptotic expansion of the governing partial differential equations, with the conducting state being the base state, and the control parameter and the non-Boussinesq effects being small. The software package Mathematica was used to calculate amplitude coefficients of the appropriate coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations for the rigid-rigid and free-free case. A Galerkin code (initial version of which was written by W. Pesch et al.) is used to determine pattern stability further from onset and for strongly non-Boussinesq fluids. Specific predictions about the stability of hexagon and roll patterns for realistic experimental conditions are made. The dependence of the stability of the convective patterns on the Rayleigh number, planform wavenumber and the rotation rate is studied. Long- and shortwave instabilities, both steady and oscillatory, are identified. For small Prandtl numbers oscillatory sideband instabilities are found already very close to onset. A resonant mode interaction in hexagonal patterns arising in non-Boussinesq Rayleigh-Benard convection is studied using symmetry group methods. The lowest-order coupling terms for interacting patterns are identified. A bifurcation analysis of the resulting system of equations shows that the bifurcation is transcritical. Stability properties of resulting patterns are discussed. It is found that for some fluid properties the traditional hexagon convection solution does not exist. Analytical results are supported by numerical
Critical phenomena employed in hydrodynamic problems A case study of Rayleigh-Benard convection
Assenheimer, M; Assenheimer, Michel; Steinberg, Victor
1996-01-01
By virtue of Rayleigh-Benard convection, we illustrate the advantages of combining a hydrodynamic pattern forming instability with a thermodynamic critical point. This has already lead to many novel unexpected observations and is further shown to possess opportunities for the study of exciting fundamental problems in nonequilibrium systems.
Dynamics and Selection of Giant Spirals in Rayleigh-Benard Convection
Plapp, B B; Bodenschatz, E; Pesch, W; Plapp, Brendan B.; Egolf, David A.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Pesch, Werner
1998-01-01
For Rayleigh-Benard convection of a fluid with Prandtl number \\sigma \\approx 1, we report experimental and theoretical results on a pattern selection mechanism for cell-filling, giant, rotating spirals. We show that the pattern selection in a certain limit can be explained quantitatively by a phase-diffusion mechanism. This mechanism for pattern selection is very different from that for spirals in excitable media.
A mixed finite difference/Galerkin method for three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection
Buell, Jeffrey C.
1988-01-01
A fast and accurate numerical method, for nonlinear conservation equation systems whose solutions are periodic in two of the three spatial dimensions, is presently implemented for the case of Rayleigh-Benard convection between two rigid parallel plates in the parameter region where steady, three-dimensional convection is known to be stable. High-order streamfunctions secure the reduction of the system of five partial differential equations to a system of only three. Numerical experiments are presented which verify both the expected convergence rates and the absolute accuracy of the method.
Large-Scale Flow and Spiral Core Instability in Rayleigh-Benard Convection
Aranson, I S; Steinberg, V; Tsimring, L S; Aranson, Igor; Assenheimer, Michel; Steinberg, Victor; Tsimring, Lev S.
1996-01-01
The spiral core instability, observed in large aspect ratio Rayleigh-Benard convection, is studied numerically in the framework of the Swift-Hohenberg equation coupled to a large-scale flow. It is shown that the instability leads to non-trivial core dynamics and is driven by the self-generated vorticity. Moreover, the recently reported transition from spirals to hexagons near the core is shown to occur only in the presence of a non-variational nonlinearity, and is triggered by the spiral core instability. Qualitative agreement between the simulations and the experiments is demonstrated.
Parallel Finite Element Solution of 3D Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni Flows
Carey, G. F.; McLay, R.; Bicken, G.; Barth, B.; Pehlivanov, A.
1999-01-01
A domain decomposition strategy and parallel gradient-type iterative solution scheme have been developed and implemented for computation of complex 3D viscous flow problems involving heat transfer and surface tension effects. Details of the implementation issues are described together with associated performance and scalability studies. Representative Rayleigh-Benard and microgravity Marangoni flow calculations and performance results on the Cray T3D and T3E are presented. The work is currently being extended to tightly-coupled parallel "Beowulf-type" PC clusters and we present some preliminary performance results on this platform. We also describe progress on related work on hierarchic data extraction for visualization.
Comparison between rough and smooth plates within the same Rayleigh-Benard cell
Rusaouen, Eleonore; Salort, Julien; Seychelles, Fanny; Tisserand, Jean-Christophe; Creyssels, Matthieu; Liot, Olivier; Castaing, Bernard; Chilla, Francesca
2012-11-01
A Rayleigh-Benard cell consist in a tank filled of a fluid on which a temperature difference is imposed thanks to a cold plate at top and a hot at bottom. Movement is induced by the buoyancy force. Considering most of experimental apparatus previously used all around the world, both plates are smooth. Recently, the effect of roughness on thermal transfer had become a subject of interest. The present experiment is an asymetrical rough Rayleigh-Benard cell. Indeed the hot plate is rough whereas the cold plate is still smooth. Previously, tests conducted with 2 mm high roughness showed independence of the two plates and a heat flux enhancement on the rough plate, which appeared to be greater than expected from the surface increase. This regime was caracterized by a Nu ~ Ra 1 / 2 law. New results obtained with a 4mm high roughness also show this flux enhancement and the independent behaviour of the plates. But a transition appears at high Rayleigh from the 1/2 power law regime to a 1/3 one. Former results obtained in the same symetrical smooth/smooth cell also showed a 1/3 law. But the rough 1/3 regime reveals a multiplier coefficient of 1.6 with the smooth one.
Wheeler, A. A.; Mcfadden, G. B.; Murray, B. T.; Coriell, S. R.
1991-01-01
The effect of vertical, sinusoidal, time-dependent gravitational acceleration on the onset of solutal convection during directional solidification is analyzed in the limit of large modulation frequency. When the unmodulated state is unstable, the modulation amplitude required to stabilize the system is determined by the method of averaging. When the unmodulated state is stable, resonant modes of instability occur at large modulation amplitude. These are analyzed using matched asymptotic expansions to elucidate the boundary-layer structure for both the Rayleigh-Benard and directional solidification configurations. Based on these analyses, a thorough examination of the dependence of the stability criteria on the unmodulated Rayleigh number, Schmidt number, and distribution coefficient, is carried out.
The effects of Ekman pumping on quasi-geostrophic Rayleigh-Benard convection
Plumley, Meredith; Marti, Philippe; Stellmach, Stephan
2016-01-01
Numerical simulations of 3D, rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection are performed using an asymptotic quasi-geostrophic model that incorporates the effects of no-slip boundaries through (i) parameterized Ekman pumping boundary conditions, and (ii) a thermal wind boundary layer that regularizes the enhanced thermal fluctuations induced by pumping. The fidelity of the model, obtained by an asymptotic reduction of the Navier-Stokes equations that implicitly enforces a pointwise geostrophic balance, is explored for the first time by comparisons of simulations against the findings of direct numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. Results from these methods have established Ekman pumping as the mechanism responsible for significantly enhancing the vertical heat transport. This asymptotic model demonstrates excellent agreement over a range of thermal forcing for Pr ~1 when compared with results from experiments and DNS at maximal values of their attainable rotation rates, as measured by the Ekman numb...
Borońska, Katarzyna
2009-01-01
A large number of flows with distinctive patterns have been observed in experiments and simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection in a water-filled cylinder whose radius is twice the height. We have adapted a time-dependent pseudospectral code, first, to carry out Newton's method and branch continuation and, second, to carry out the exponential power method and Arnoldi iteration to calculate leading eigenpairs and determine the stability of the steady states. The resulting bifurcation diagram contains 17 branches of stable and unstable steady states. These can be classified geometrically as roll states containing two, three, and four rolls; axisymmetric patterns with one or two tori; three-fold symmetric patterns called mercedes, mitubishi, marigold and cloverleaf; trigonometric patterns called dipole and pizza; and asymmetric patterns called CO and asymmetric three-rolls. The convective branches are connected to the conductive state and to each other by 16 primary and secondary pitchfork bifurcations and tur...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinand, D.
2003-01-15
This analytical study deals with the spatio-temporal evolution of linear thermo-convective instabilities in a horizontal fluid layer heated from below (the Rayleigh--Benard system) and subject to a horizontal pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The novelty consists of a spatially inhomogeneous temperature, in the form of a two-dimensional bump imposed on the lower plate, while the upper plate is kept at a constant temperature. The inhomogeneous boundary temperature and the mean flow of the Rayleigh--Benard--Poiseuille system break the symmetries of the classical Rayleigh--Benard system. The instabilities of interest are therefore spatially localised packets of convection rolls. If a mode of this type is synchronized, it is called a global mode. Assuming that the characteristic scale of the spatial variation of the lower plate temperature is large compared to the wavelength of the rolls, global modes are sought in the form of Eigenmodes in the confined vertical direction, modulated by a two-dimensional WKBJ expansion in the slowly-varying horizontal directions. Such an expansion breaks down at points where the group velocity of the instability vanishes, i.e. at WKBJ turning points. In the neighbourhood of one such point, located at the top of the temperature bump, the boundedness of the solution imposes a selection criterion for the global modes which provides the growth rate (or equivalently the critical threshold), the frequency and the wave vector of the most amplified global mode. This study thus generalizes to two-dimensional cases the methods used and the results obtained for one-dimensional inhomogeneities. The analysis is first applied to a simplified governing equation obtained by an envelope formalism and the analytical results are compared with numerical solutions of the amplitude equation. The formalism is finally applied to the Rayleigh--Benard--Poiseuille system described by the Navier--Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation. (author)
Numerical simulation of 3-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard system by particle method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1997-05-01
As one of representative non-equilibrium thermal fluid system, there is a fluid system maintained at lower and higher temperatures at upper and lower faces, respectively, and Rayleigh-Benard (RB) system. On temperature difference between both faces smaller than a critical value, flow into the system is not developed to realize a thermal conductive state, while on that larger than a critical value, macroscopic convection vortex forms to realize a conventional thermal conductive state. A transition process from thermal conduction to convection is well-known for RB unstability and also the convection state is done for RB convection. In this paper, a transition process from thermal conduction to convection was simulated systematically by changing temperature difference at both faces using DSMC method known for one of statistical methods, to investigate the critical Rayleigh number in response to temperature difference at beginning point of the convection, variations and correlative function at proximity of the critical Rayleigh number, pattern formation of the convection and so forth. (G.K.)
Alboussiere, Thierry
2016-01-01
The linear stability threshold of the Rayleigh-Benard configuration is analyzed with compressible effects taken into account. It is assumed that the fluid obeys a Newtonian rheology and Fourier's law of thermal transport with constant, uniform (dynamic) viscosity and thermal conductivity in a uniform gravity field. Top and bottom boundaries are maintained at different constant temperatures and we consider here boundary conditions of zero tangential stress and impermeable walls. Under these conditions, and with the Boussinesq approximation, Rayleigh (1916) first obtained analytically the critical value 27pi^4/4 for a dimensionless parameter, now known as the Rayleigh number, at the onset of convection. This manuscript describes the changes of the critical Rayleigh number due to the compressibility of the fluid, measured by the dimensionless dissipation parameter D and due to a finite temperature difference between the hot and cold boundaries, measured by a dimensionless temperature gradient a. Different equati...
Gonzalez, C. M.; Sanchez, D. A.; Yuen, D. A.; Wright, G. B.; Barnett, G. A.
2010-12-01
As computational modeling became prolific throughout the physical sciences community, newer and more efficient ways of processing large amounts of data needed to be devised. One particular method for processing such large amounts of data arose in the form of using a graphics processing unit (GPU) for calculations. Computational scientists were attracted to the GPU as a computational tool as the performance, growth, and availability of GPUs over the past decade increased. Scientists began to utilize the GPU as the sole workhorse for their brute force calculations and modeling. The GPUs, however, were not originally designed for this style of use. As a result, difficulty arose when trying to find a use for the GPU from a scientific standpoint. A lack of parallel programming routines was the main culprit behind the difficulty in programming with a GPU, but with time and a rise in popularity, NVIDIA released a proprietary architecture named Fermi. The Fermi architecture, when used in conjunction with development tools such as CUDA, allowed the programmer easier access to routines that made parallel programming with the NVIDIA GPUs an ease. This new architecture enabled the programmer full access to faster memory, double-precision support, and large amounts of global memory at their fingertips. Our model was based on using a second-order, spatially correct finite difference method and a third order Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme for studying the 2D Rayleigh-Benard code. The code extensively used the CUBLAS routines to do the heavy linear algebra calculations. The calculations themselves were completed using a single GPU, the NVDIA C2070 Fermi, which boasts 6 GB of global memory. The overall scientific goal of our work was to apply the Tesla C2070's computing potential to achieve an onset of flow reversals as a function of increasing large Rayleigh numbers. Previous investigations were successful using a smaller grid size of 1000x1999 and a Rayleigh number of 10^9. The
Spectrum of weak magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Boldyrev, Stanislav; Perez, Jean Carlos
2009-11-27
Turbulence of magnetohydrodynamic waves in nature and in the laboratory is generally cross-helical or nonbalanced, in that the energies of Alfvén waves moving in opposite directions along the guide magnetic field are unequal. Based on high-resolution numerical simulations it is proposed that such turbulence spontaneously generates a condensate of the residual energy E(v) - E(b) at small field-parallel wave numbers. As a result, the energy spectra of Alfvén waves are generally not scale invariant in an inertial interval of limited extent. In the limit of an infinite Reynolds number, the universality is asymptotically restored at large wave numbers, and both spectra attain the scaling E(k) proportional to k(perpendicular)(-2). The generation of a condensate is apparently related to the breakdown of mirror symmetry in nonbalanced turbulence.
Anisotropic turbulence in weakly stratified rotating magnetoconvection
Giesecke, A
2010-01-01
Numerical simulations of the 3D MHD-equations that describe rotating magnetoconvection in a Cartesian box have been performed using the code NIRVANA. The characteristics of averaged quantities like the turbulence intensity and the turbulent heat flux that are caused by the combined action of the small-scale fluctuations are computed. The correlation length of the turbulence significantly depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field and the anisotropic behavior of the turbulence intensity induced by Coriolis and Lorentz force is considerably more pronounced for faster rotation. The development of isotropic behavior on the small scales -- as it is observed in pure rotating convection -- vanishes even for a weak magnetic field which results in a turbulent flow that is dominated by the vertical component. In the presence of a horizontal magnetic field the vertical turbulent heat flux slightly increases with increasing field strength, so that cooling of the rotating system is facilitated. Horizont...
Planetary migration in weakly magnetized turbulent discs
Baruteau, C.; Fromang, S.; Nelson, R. P.; Masset, F.
2011-12-01
In laminar viscous disc models, the migration of protoplanets embedded in their nascent protoplanetary discs may be directed inwards or outwards, depending on the relative magnitude of the Lindblad and corotation torques. The long-term evolution of the corotation torque is intimately related to diffusion processes inside the planet's horseshoe region. This communication examines the properties of the corotation torque in discs where magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence develops as a result of the magnetorotational instability (MRI), considering a weak initial toroidal magnetic field. We show that the differential Lindblad torque takes very similar values in MHD turbulent and laminar viscous discs, and there exists an unsaturated corotation torque in MHD turbulent discs.
2015-05-11
providing full fields of temperature and velocity in the tank. The numerical data compared well to the laboratory data and both conformed to the...experiments were performed with the open- source CFD package OpenFOAM using a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. In LES, the larger-scale eddies in the... conformed to the Kolmogorov Fig. 7. Energy spectra (left) and temperature gradient spectra (right) from laboratory and model data. The
Resonance broadening modification of weak plasma turbulence theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanssen, A. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (West Germany))
1991-02-01
The author examines the effects on energy spectra of weak Langmuir turbulence when he includes a nonlinear damping due to the perturbation of electron orbits. The physical mechanism under consideration is usually known as a resonance broadening effect. The calculations show that the inclusion of this additional damping reduces the number of cascades predicted from weak turbulence theory for waves detectable with the EISCAT UHF (933 MHz) radar in Tromso, Norway, during RF modification of the ionospheric plasma.
Renormalization Group Analysis of Weakly Rotating Turbulent Flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王晓宏; 周全
2011-01-01
Dynamic renormalization group (RNG) analysis is applied to the investigation of the behavior of the infrared limits of weakly rotating turbulence. For turbulent How subject to weak rotation, the anisotropic part in the renormalized propagation is considered to be a perturbation of the isotropic part. Then, with a low-order approximation, the coarsening procedure of RNG transformation is performed. After implementing the coarsening and rescaling procedures, the RNG analysis suggests that the spherically averaged energy spectrum has the scaling behavior E(k) ∝ k11/5 for weakly rotating turbulence. It is also shown that the Coriolis force will disturb the stability of the Kolmogorov -5/3 energy spectrum and will change the scaling behavior even in the case of weak rotation.%Dynamic renormalization group(RNG)analysis is applied to the investigation of the behavior of the infrared limits of weakly rotating turbulence.For turbulent flow subject to weak rotation,the anisotropic part in the renormalized propagation is considered to be a perturbation of the isotropic part.Then,with a low-order approximation,the coarsening procedure of RNG transformation is performed.After implementing the coarsening and rescaling procedures,the RNG analysis suggests that the spherically averaged energy spectrum has the scaling behavior E(k)∝ k-11/5 for weakly rotating turbulence.It is also shown that the Coriolis force will disturb the stability of the Kolmogorov-5/3 energy spectrum and will change the scaling behavior even in the case of weak rotation.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Turbulence, Weak and Strong
Cardoso, O
1994-01-01
The present volume comprises the contributions of some of the participants of the NATO Advance Studies Institute "Turbulence, Weak and Strong", held in Cargese, in August 1994. More than 70 scientists, from seniors to young students, have joined to gether to discuss and review new (and not so new) ideas and developments in the study of turbulence. One of the objectives of the School was to incorporate, in the same meeting, two aspects of turbulence, which are obviously linked, and which are often treated sep arately: fully developed turbulence (in two and three dimensions) and weak turbulence (essentially one and two-dimensional systems). The idea of preparing a dictionary rather than ordinary proceedings started from the feeling that the terminology of turbulence includes many long, technical, poorly evocative words, which are usually not understood by people exterior to the field, and which might be worth explaining. Students who start working in the field of turbulence face a sort of curious situation:...
Atmospheric Quantum Channels with Weak and Strong Turbulence
Vasylyev, D.; Semenov, A. A.; Vogel, W.
2016-08-01
The free-space transfer of high-fidelity optical signals between remote locations has many applications, including both classical and quantum communication, precision navigation, clock synchronization, etc. The physical processes that contribute to signal fading and loss need to be carefully analyzed in the theory of light propagation through the atmospheric turbulence. Here we derive the probability distribution for the atmospheric transmittance including beam wandering, beam shape deformation, and beam-broadening effects. Our model, referred to as the elliptic beam approximation, applies to weak, weak-to-moderate, and strong turbulence and hence to the most important regimes in atmospheric communication scenarios.
Freely decaying weak turbulence for sea surface gravity waves.
Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Resio, D; Pushkarev, A; Zakharov, V E; Brandini, C
2002-09-30
We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of [k](-2.5). We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results.
Atmospheric Quantum Channels with Weak and Strong Turbulence
Vasylyev, D; Vogel, W
2016-01-01
The free-space transfer of high-fidelity optical signals between remote locations has many applications, including both classical and quantum communication, precision navigation, clock synchronization, etc. The physical processes that contribute to signal fading and loss need to be carefully analyzed in the theory of light propagation through the atmospheric turbulence. Here we derive the probability distribution for the atmospheric transmittance including beam-wandering, beam shape deformation, and beam broadening effects. Our model, referred to as elliptic beam approximation, applies to both weak and strong turbulence and hence to the most important regimes in atmospheric communication scenarios.
Strange attractors in weakly turbulent Couette-Taylor flow
Brandstater, A.; Swinney, Harry L.
1987-01-01
An experiment is conducted on the transition from quasi-periodic to weakly turbulent flow of a fluid contained between concentric cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating and the outer cylinder at rest. Power spectra, phase-space portraits, and circle maps obtained from velocity time-series data indicate that the nonperiodic behavior observed is deterministic, that is, it is described by strange attractors. Various problems that arise in computing the dimension of strange attractors constructed from experimental data are discussed and it is shown that these problems impose severe requirements on the quantity and accuracy of data necessary for determining dimensions greater than about 5. In the present experiment the attractor dimension increases from 2 at the onset of turbulence to about 4 at a Reynolds number 50-percent above the onset of turbulence.
Numerical Verification of the Weak Turbulent Model for Swell Evolution
Korotkevich, A O; Resio, D; Zakharov, V E
2007-01-01
We performed numerical simulation of an ensemble of nonlinearly interacting free gravity waves (swell) by two different methods: solution of primordial dynamical equations describing potential flow of the ideal fluid with a free surface and, solution of the kinetic Hasselmann equation, describing the wave ensemble in the framework of the theory of weak turbulence. Comparison of the results demonstrates applicability of the weak turbulent approach. In both cases we observed effects predicted by this theory: frequency downshift, angular spreading and formation of Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum $I_{\\omega} \\sim \\omega^{-4}$. One of the results of our article consists in the fact that physical processes in finite size laboratory wave tanks and in the ocean are quite different, and the results of such laboratory experiments can be applied to modeling of the ocean phenomena with extra care. We also present the estimate on the minimum size of the laboratory installation, allowing to model open ocean surface wave dynami...
A comparison of weak-turbulence and PIC simulations of weak electron-beam plasma interaction
Ratcliffe, Heather; Rozenan, Mohammed B Che; Nakariakov, Valery
2014-01-01
Quasilinear theory has long been used to treat the problem of a weak electron beam interacting with plasma and generating Langmuir waves. Its extension to weak-turbulence theory treats resonant interactions of these Langmuir waves with other plasma wave modes, in particular ion-sound waves. These are strongly damped in plasma of equal ion and electron temperatures, as sometimes seen in, for example, the solar corona and wind. Weak turbulence theory is derived in the weak damping limit, with a term describing ion-sound wave damping then added. In this paper we use the EPOCH particle-in-cell code to numerically test weak turbulence theory for a range of electron-ion temperature ratios. We find that in the cold ion limit the results agree well, but increasing ion temperature the three-wave resonance becomes broadened in proportion to the ion-sound wave damping rate. This may be important in, for example, the theory of solar radio bursts, where the spectrum of Langmuir waves is critical. Additionally we establish...
Superstructures in Rayleigh-Benard convection
Stevens, Richard; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2016-11-01
We study the heat transfer and the flow structures in Rayleigh-Bénard convection as function of the Rayleigh number Ra and the aspect ratio. We consider three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) in a laterally periodic geometry with aspect ratios up to Γ =Lx /Lz =Ly /Lz = 64 at Ra =108 , where Lx and Ly indicate the horizontal domain sizes and Lz the height. We find that the heat transport convergences relatively quickly with increasing aspect ratio. In contrast, we find that the large scale flow structures change significantly with increasing aspect ratio due to the formation of superstructures. For example, at Ra =108 we find the formation of basically only one large scale circulation roll in boxes with an aspect ratio up to 8. For larger boxes we find the formation of multiple of these extremely large convection rolls. We illustrate this by movies of horizontal cross-section of the bulk and the boundary layer and analyze them by using spectra in the boundary layer and the bulk. In addition, we study the effect of the large scale flow structures on the mean and higher order temperature and velocity statistics in the boundary layer and the bulk by comparing the simulation results obtained in different aspect ratio boxes. Foundation for fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), Netherlands Center for Multiscale Catalytic Energy Conversion (MCEC), SURFsara, Gauss Large Scale project.
Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Wirth
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts.
The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is, how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow, is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model.
The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.
Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Wirth
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts.
The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model. The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.
Transition from weak to strong cascade in MHD turbulence.
Verdini, Andrea; Grappin, Roland
2012-07-13
The transition from weak to strong turbulence when passing from large to small scales in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with guide field is a cornerstone of anisotropic turbulence theory. We present the first check of this transition, using the Shell-RMHD, which combines a shell model of perpendicular nonlinear coupling and linear propagation along the guide field. This model allows us to reach Reynolds numbers around 10(6). We obtain surprisingly good agreement with the theoretical predictions, with a reduced perpendicular energy spectrum scaling as k(⊥)(-2) at large scales and as k(⊥)(-5/3) at small scales, where critical balance between nonlinear and propagation time is reached. However, even in the strong regime, a high level of excitation is found in the weak coupling region of Fourier space, which is due to the rich frequency spectrum of large eddies. A corollary is that the reduced parallel spectral slope is not a definite test of the spectral anisotropy, contrary to standard belief.
WEAKLY SWIRLING TURBULENT FLOW IN TURBID WATER HYDRAULIC SEPARATION DEVICE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Lin; QIU Xiu-yun; JIN Sheng; XIAO Jun; GONG Shou-yuan
2008-01-01
This article deals with the characteristics of weakly swirling turbulent flow field in a Turbid Water Hydraulic Separation Device (TWHSD) through experimental and numerical researches. The flow field was measured by PIV, which provided streamlines, vortex structure, vorticity and velocity distribution in different test planes in the TWHSD. On the basis of the experimental results, the tangential and radial velocity distributions of the swirling flow field were obtained. Meanwhile, the numerical simulations were conducted with the RNG and RSM turbulence models, respectively. According to the experimental and numerical results, the characteristics of the clear water flow field inside the TWHSD were determined. In view of simulation accuracy and time consumption, it is suggested to apply the RNG model instead of the RSM model, which is more time consuming, to make further study on two-phases flow fields in the device.
From Weakly to Strongly Magnetized Isotropic MHD Turbulence
Alexakis, Alexandros
2012-01-01
High Reynolds number isotropic magneto-hydro-dynamic turbulence in the presence of large scale magnetic fields is investigated as a function of the magnetic field strength. For a variety of flow configurations the energy dissipation rate \\epsilon, follows the Kolmogorov scaling \\epsilon ~ U^3/L even when the large scale magnetic field energy is twenty times larger than the kinetic. Further increase of the magnetic energy showed a transition to the \\epsilon ~ U^2 B / L scaling implying that magnetic shear becomes more efficient at this point at cascading the energy than the velocity fluctuations. Strongly helical configurations form helicity condensates that deviate from these scalings. Weak turbulence scaling was absent from the investigation. Finally, the magnetic energy spectra showed support for the Kolmogorov spectrum k^{-5/3} while kinetic energy spectra are closer to the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan spectrum k^{-3/2}.
Weak versus strong wave turbulence in the MMT model
Chibbaro, Sergio; Onorato, Miguel
2016-01-01
Within the spirit of fluid turbulence, we consider the one-dimensional Majda-McLaughlin-Tabak (MMT) model that describes the interactions of nonlinear dispersive waves. We perform a detailed numerical study of the direct energy cascade in the defocusing regime. In particular, we consider a configuration with large-scale forcing and small scale dissipation, and we introduce three non- dimensional parameters: the ratio between nonlinearity and dispersion, {\\epsilon}, and the analogues of the Reynolds number, Re, i.e. the ratio between the nonlinear and dissipative time-scales, both at large and small scales. Our numerical experiments show that (i) in the limit of small {\\epsilon} the spectral slope observed in the statistical steady regime corresponds to the one predicted by the Weak Wave Turbulence (WWT) theory. (ii) As the nonlinearity is increased, the WWT theory breaks down and deviations from its predictions are observed. (iii) It is shown that such departures from the WWT theoretical predictions are accom...
Weak turbulence theory for rotating magnetohydrodynamics and planetary dynamos
Galtier, Sebastien
2014-01-01
A weak turbulence theory is derived for magnetohydrodynamics under rapid rotation and in the presence of a large-scale magnetic field. The angular velocity $\\Omega_0$ is assumed to be uniform and parallel to the constant Alfv\\'en speed ${\\bf b_0}$. Such a system exhibits left and right circularly polarized waves which can be obtained by introducing the magneto-inertial length $d \\equiv b_0/\\Omega_0$. In the large-scale limit ($kd \\to 0$; $k$ being the wave number), the left- and right-handed waves tend respectively to the inertial and magnetostrophic waves whereas in the small-scale limit ($kd \\to + \\infty$) pure Alfv\\'en waves are recovered. By using a complex helicity decomposition, the asymptotic weak turbulence equations are derived which describe the long-time behavior of weakly dispersive interacting waves {\\it via} three-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the nonlinear dynamics is mainly anisotropic with a stronger transfer perpendicular ($\\perp$) than parallel ($\\parallel$) to the rotating a...
Characterization of zonal flow generation in weak electrostatic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, 13 A.I. Cuza Street, 200585 Craiova (Romania); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)], E-mail: mnegrea@yahoo.com
2008-05-15
The influence of the diamagnetic Kubo number, which is proportional to the diamagnetic drift velocity, on the zonal flow generation by an anisotropic stochastic electrostatic potential is considered from a semi-analytic point of view. The analysis is performed in the weak turbulence limit and as an analytical tool the decorrelation trajectory method is used. It is shown that the fragmentation of the drift wave structures (a signature of the zonal flow generation) is influenced not only by the anisotropy parameter and the electrostatic Kubo number as expected, but also by the diamagnetic Kubo number. Global Lagrangian averages of characteristic quantities are calculated and interpreted.
Is there universal predator-prey dynamics at the laminar-turbulent phase transition?
Shih, Hong-Yan; Goldenfeld, Nigel
2016-11-01
Direct numerical simulation of pipe flow shows that transitional turbulence is dominated by two collective modes: a longitudinal mode for small-scale turbulent fluctuations whose anisotropy induces an emergent large-scale azimuthal mode (so-called zonal flow) that inhibits anisotropic Reynolds stress. This activation-inhibition interaction leads to stochastic predator-prey-like dynamics, from which it follows that the transition to turbulence belongs to the directed percolation universality class. Here we show how predator-prey dynamics arises by deriving phenomenologically an effective field theory of the transition from a coarse-graining of the Reynolds equation. The rigorous mapping between the conserved currents in Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC), Taylor-Couette and pipe flows suggests that the zonal flow-turbulence scenario might occur in these systems, consistent with observations of zonal flows in two-dimensional RBC, and bursts of transitional turbulence in Couette flow that follow the critical scalings of directed percolation.
Global and local statistics in turbulent convection at low Prandtl numbers
Scheel, Janet D
2016-01-01
Statistical properties of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection at low Prandtl numbers (Pr), which are typical for liquid metals such as mercury, gallium or liquid sodium, are investigated in high-resolution three-dimensional spectral element simulations in a closed cylindrical cell with an aspect ratio of one and are compared to previous turbulent convection simulations in air. We compare the scaling of global momentum and heat transfer. The scaling exponents are found to be in agreement with experiments. Mean profiles of the root-mean-square velocity as well as the thermal and kinetic energy dissipation rates have growing amplitudes with decreasing Prandtl number which underlies a more vigorous bulk turbulence in the low-Pr regime. The skin-friction coefficient displays a Reynolds-number dependence that is close to that of an isothermal, intermittently turbulent velocity boundary layer. The thermal boundary layer thicknesses are larger as Pr decreases and conversely the velocity boundary layer thicknesses be...
Tsuji, Takuya; Yokomine, Takehiko; Shimizu, Akihiko
2002-11-01
We have been engaged in the development of multi-scale adaptive simulation technique for incompressible turbulent flow. This is designed as that important scale components in the flow field are detected automatically by lifting wavelet and solved selectively. In conventional incompressible scheme, it is very common to solve Poisson equation of pressure to meet the divergence free constraints of incompressible flow. It may be not impossible to solve the Poisson eq. in the adaptive way, but this is very troublesome because it requires generation of control volume at each time step. We gave an eye on weakly compressible model proposed by Bao(2001). This model was derived from zero Mach limit asymptotic analysis of compressible Navier-Stokes eq. and does not need to solve the Poisson eq. at all. But it is relatively new and it requires demonstration study before the combination with the adaptation by wavelet. In present study, 2-D and 3-D Backstep flow were selected as test problems and applicability to turbulent flow is verified in detail. Besides, combination of adaptation by wavelet with weakly compressible model towards the adaptive turbulence simulation is discussed.
Simultaneous temperature and velocity Lagrangian measurements in turbulent thermal convection
Liot, O; Zonta, F; Chibbaro, S; Coudarchet, T; Gasteuil, Y; Pinton, J -F; Salort, J; Chillà, F
2015-01-01
We report joint Lagrangian velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent thermal convection. Measurements are performed using an improved version (extended autonomy) of the neutrally-buoyant instrumented particle that was used by to performed experiments in a parallelepipedic Rayleigh-Benard cell. The temperature signal is obtained from a RFtransmitter. Simultaneously, we determine particle's position and velocity with one camera, which grants access to the Lagrangian heat flux. Due to the extended autonomy of the present particle, we obtain well converged temperature and velocity statistics, as well as pseudo-eulerian maps of velocity and heat flux. Present experimental results have also been compared with the results obtained by a corresponding campaign of Direct Numerical Simulations and Lagrangian Tracking of massless tracers. The comparison between experimental and numerical results show the accuracy and reliability of our experimental measurements. Finally, the analysis of lagrangian velocity and t...
Coexistence of weak and strong wave turbulence in incompressible Hall MHD
Meyrand, Romain; Kiyani, Khurom; Galtier, Sebastien
2016-04-01
We report a numerical investigation of 3D Hall Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a strong mean magnetic field. By using a helicity decomposition and a cross-bicoherence analysis, we observe that the nonlinear 3-wave coupling is substantial among ion cyclotron and whistler waves. By studying in detail the degree of nonlinearity of these two populations we show that ion cyclotron and whistler turbulent fluctuations belong respectively to strong and weak wave turbulence. The non trivial blending of these two regime give rise to anomalous anisotropy and scaling properties. The separation of the weak random wave and strong coherent turbulence component can however be effectively done using simultaneous space and time Fourier transforms. Using this techniques we show that it is possible to recover some statistical prediction of weak turbulent theory.
Turbulence in weakly-ionized proto-planetary disks
Flock, M; Klahr, H
2012-01-01
We investigate the characteristic properties of self-sustained MRI turbulence in low-ionized proto-planetary disks. We study the transition regime between active and dead-zone, performing 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations of stratified disk covering range of magnetic Reynolds number between 2700 5000 with a strength of alpha ~ 0.01. Below Rm < 5000 the MRI starts to decay at the midplane, having Elsasser numbers below one. We find a transition regime between 3300 < Rm < 5000 where the MRI turbulence is still sustained but damped. At around Rm < 3000 the MRI turbulence decays but could reestablished due to the accumulation of toroidal magnetic field or the radial transport of magnetic field from the active region. Below Rm < 3000 the MRI cannot be sustained and is decaying. Here hydro-dynamical motions, like density waves dominate. We observe anti-cyclonic vortices in the transition between dead-zone and active zone.
On developed turbulence in a weak compressibile conductive fluid
Wolchenkov, D Yu
1996-01-01
A method of construction of decomposition of correlation functions of developed turbulence in a compressible fluid on Mach number {\\em Ma} is generalized now for a model of stochastic magnetic hydrodynamics. With the help of the field theory renormalization group method the composite operators of transversal fields are studied. It is shown, that in the case of hydrodynamical interaction of fluid flows is prevalent the compressible effects are essential in inertial range. On the contrary the corrections to developed turbulent spectra due to compressibility are insignificant if the magnetic interaction of flows is more important one.
The dynamics of small inertial particles in weakly stratified turbulence
van Aartrijk, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.
We present an overview of a numerical study on the small-scale dynamics and the large-scale dispersion of small inertial particles in stably stratified turbulence. Three types of particles are examined: fluid particles, light inertial particles (with particle-to-fluid density ratio 1Ͽp/Ͽf25) and
Aperture-averaging effects for weak to strong scintillations in turbulent atmosphere
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yixin Zhang(张逸新); Tuo Zhu(朱拓); Chunkan Tao(陶纯堪)
2004-01-01
Under the approximations of (1) the received irradiance fluctuations of an optical wave caused by small scale turbulent eddies are multiplicatively modulated by the fluctuations caused by large scale turbulent eddies;(2) the scintillations caused by small- and large-scale eddies, respectively, are statistically independent; (3)the Rytov method for optical scintillation collected by the finite-diameter receiving aperture is valid for light wave propagation under weak to saturation fluctuation regime, we develop the applicable apertureaveraging analytic formulas in the week-to-strong-fluctuation for the scintillations of plane and spherical waves, which include the outer- and inner-scale rules of turbulence.
On the theory of weak turbulence for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation
Escobedo, M
2015-01-01
The authors study the Cauchy problem for a kinetic equation arising in the weak turbulence theory for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. They define suitable concepts of weak and mild solutions and prove local and global well posedness results. Several qualitative properties of the solutions, including long time asymptotics, blow up results and condensation in finite time are obtained. The authors also prove the existence of a family of solutions that exhibit pulsating behavior.
Turbulence dependence on winds and stability in a weak-wind canopy sublayer over complex terrain
Russell, Eric S.; Liu, Heping; Gao, Zhongming; Lamb, Brian; Wagenbrenner, Natalie
2016-10-01
The daytime and nighttime turbulence profiles within a weak-wind forest canopy were investigated by using data collected within a temperate mixed conifer canopy in northern Idaho, USA. Turbulence measurements made at three heights on a single tower within a Douglas fir canopy were compared. Data were split between the daytime and nighttime to determine the relationships among the local temperature gradient, wind direction, wind speed, and turbulence levels. The total flow field distributions and vertical statistical profiles were determined for the overnight and daytime periods to observe how the overall flow changed with time of day. During the day, the wind probability distribution function was consistent between heights but depended on the canopy depth overnight. The skewness changed with the dominant wind direction. The kurtosis increased with depth into the canopy and from during the day to overnight. The range of wind speeds observed was higher under unstable conditions than stable conditions. Daytime turbulence had no dependence on wind direction. Overnight, the relationship between turbulence and wind speed changed with wind direction and canopy depth. The highest turbulence values were associated with downslope winds near the canopy top, but the wind direction for the highest turbulence was variable within the trunk space.
Suri, Balachandra; Tithof, Jeffrey; Pallantla, Ravi Kumar; Grigoriev, Roman; Schatz, Michael
2015-11-01
The dynamical systems approach to fluid turbulence relies on understanding the role of unstable, non-chaotic solutions - such as equilibria, traveling waves, and periodic orbits - of the Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions, called Exact Coherent Structures, exist in the same parameter regime as turbulence, but being unstable, are observed in experiments only as short transients. In this talk, we present experimental evidence for the existence and dynamical relevance of unstable equilibria in a weakly turbulent quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) Kolmogorov flow. In the experiment, this Q2D flow is generated in an electromagnetically driven shallow layer of electrolyte. The numerical simulations, however, use a strictly 2D model which incorporates the effects of the finite thickness of the fluid layer in the experiment. During its evolution, there are instances when the dynamics of a weakly turbulent flow slow down, rather dramatically. Using experimental flow fields from such instances, and by means of a Newton-Solver, we numerically compute several unstable equilibria. Additionally, using numerical simulations, we show that the dynamics of a turbulent flow in the neighbourhood of an equilibrium are accurately described by the unstable manifold of the equilibrium. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grants CBET-0900018, and CMMI-1234436.
Direct Evidence of the Transition from Weak to Strong Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence.
Meyrand, Romain; Galtier, Sébastien; Kiyani, Khurom H
2016-03-11
One of the most important predictions in magnetohydrodynamics is that in the presence of a uniform magnetic field b_{0}e[over ^]_{∥} a transition from weak to strong wave turbulence should occur when going from large to small perpendicular scales. This transition is believed to be a universal property of several anisotropic turbulent systems. We present, for the first time, direct evidence of such a transition using a decaying three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of incompressible balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a grid resolution of 3072^{2}×256. From large to small scales, the change of regime is characterized by (i) a change of slope in the energy spectrum going from approximately -2 to -3/2, (ii) an increase of the ratio between the wave and nonlinear times, with a critical ratio of χ_{c}∼1/3, (iii) a modification of the isocontours of energy revealing a transition from a purely perpendicular cascade to a cascade compatible with the critical-balance-type phenomenology, and (iv) an absence followed by a dramatic increase of the communication between Alfvén modes. The changes happen at approximately the same transition scale and can be seen as manifest signatures of the transition from weak to strong wave turbulence. Furthermore, we observe a significant nonlocal three-wave coupling between strongly and weakly nonlinear modes resulting in an inverse transfer of energy from small to large scales.
Ahlers, Guenter; He, Xiaozhou
2014-01-01
We report on experimental determinations of the temperature field in the interior (bulk) of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection for a cylindrical sample with aspect ratio (diameter over height) of 0.50, both in the classical and in the ultimate state. The Prandtl number was close to 0.8. We find a "logarithmic layer" in which the temperature varies as A*ln(z/L) + B with the distance z from the bottom plate of the sample. The amplitude A varies with radial position r. In the classical state these results are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations (DNS); in the ultimate state there are as yet no DNS. A close analogy between the temperature field in the classical state and the "Law of the Wall" for the time-averaged down-stream velocity in shear flow is discussed.
Direct numerical simulation and statistical analysis of turbulent convection in lead-bismuth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otic, I.; Grotzbach, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kern-und Energietechnik (Germany)
2003-07-01
Improved turbulent heat flux models are required to develop and analyze the reactor concept of an lead-bismuth cooled Accelerator-Driven-System. Because of specific properties of many liquid metals we have still no sensors for accurate measurements of the high frequency velocity fluctuations. So, the development of the turbulent heat transfer models which are required in our CFD (computational fluid dynamics) tools needs also data from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows. We use new simulation results for the model problem of Rayleigh-Benard convection to show some peculiarities of the turbulent natural convection in lead-bismuth (Pr = 0.025). Simulations for this flow at sufficiently large turbulence levels became only recently feasible because this flow requires the resolution of very small velocity scales with the need for recording long-wave structures for the slow changes in the convective temperature field. The results are analyzed regarding the principle convection and heat transfer features. They are also used to perform statistical analysis to show that the currently available modeling is indeed not adequate for these fluids. Basing on the knowledge of the details of the statistical features of turbulence in this convection type and using the two-point correlation technique, a proposal for an improved statistical turbulence model is developed which is expected to account better for the peculiarities of the heat transfer in the turbulent convection in low Prandtl number fluids. (authors)
Yi, Xiang; Li, Zan; Liu, Zengji
2015-02-20
In clean ocean water, the performance of a underwater optical communication system is limited mainly by oceanic turbulence, which is defined as the fluctuations in the index of refraction resulting from temperature and salinity fluctuations. In this paper, using the refractive index spectrum of oceanic turbulence under weak turbulence conditions, we carry out, for a horizontally propagating plane wave and spherical wave, analysis of the aperture-averaged scintillation index, the associated probability of fade, mean signal-to-noise ratio, and mean bit error rate. Our theoretical results show that for various values of the rate of dissipation of mean squared temperature and the temperature-salinity balance parameter, the large-aperture receiver leads to a remarkable decrease of scintillation and consequently a significant improvement on the system performance. Such an effect is more noticeable in the plane wave case than in the spherical wave case.
Zhang, Tao; Liu, Yi-Dong; Wang, Jiandong; Liu, Pusheng; Yang, Yuanjie
2016-09-01
It is generally true that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode persistently degenerate when a vortex beam propagates in the atmospheric turbulence. Here, however, we unveil an interesting self-recovery effect of OAM mode of the circular beam (CiB) in weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence. We show that the CiB displays the self-focusing effect and has clear focus in the weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence if we choose proper complex parameters, and the detection probability of the original OAM mode reaches the maximum at the focus. Our study proposes a method to alleviate the turbulent effects on OAM-based communication.
Flat-topped Gaussian laser beam scintillation in weakly turbulent marine atmospheric medium
Gerçekcioğlu, Hamza; Abbas, Ahmed A.; Göktaş, H. Haldun
2017-09-01
In a weakly marine turbulent medium, formulation of the on-axis scintillation index of a flat topped Gaussian beam is derived by using the Rytov method and the intensity has log-normal distribution expressed. The scintillation index and average bit error rate with respect to changes in propagation distance, wavelength, beam size, and average signal to noise ratio are exhibited. Our results indicated that small advantage can be achieved in weak atmospheric marine when focal length equals to propagation distance and when the order of flatness is small value.
Scaling theory of relative diffusion of charged particles in a weakly magneto-turbulent plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haida Wang (University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui. Dept. of Modern Physics); Xiaoming Qui (Southwest Inst. of Physics, Leshan, SC (China))
1989-02-01
Stochastic motion of charged particles in a magneto-turbulent plasma is studied for the whole time region. A set of nonlinear differential equations for describing relative spatial diffusion of charged particles is derived and some explicit results are obtained in the case of a weak magnetic field. It is found that, for the diffusion in the present system there are some new and interesting properties which do not exist in an unmagnetized plasma. The clump effect is also discussed. (author).
Limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. G. Howes
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas are explored using quantitative comparisons to Vlasov-Maxwell kinetic theory over a wide range of parameter space. The validity of Hall MHD in the cold ion limit is shown, but spurious undamped wave modes exist in Hall MHD when the ion temperature is finite. It is argued that turbulence in the dissipation range of the solar wind must be one, or a mixture, of three electromagnetic wave modes: the parallel whistler, oblique whistler, or kinetic Alfvén waves. These modes are generally well described by Hall MHD. Determining the applicability of linear kinetic damping rates in turbulent plasmas requires a suite of fluid and kinetic nonlinear numerical simulations. Contrasting fluid and kinetic simulations will also shed light on whether the presence of spurious wave modes alters the nonlinear couplings inherent in turbulence and will illuminate the turbulent dynamics and energy transfer in the regime of the characteristic ion kinetic scales.
Does Weak Turbulence Impact PMSEs' Strengths Closer To The Northern Pole?
Swarnalingam, N.; Hocking, W. K.; Janches, D.; Nicolls, M. J.
2015-12-01
Existing 51.0 MHz VHF radar at Eureka (80N, 86W) in northern Canada is located closer to both the northern magnetic and geomagnetic poles. A recent calibrated study of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) using this radar supports the previous results by other radars that the absolute signal strength of PMSE in this region is relatively weak compared with the radar observations located at high latitudes. Although very cold temperature and existence of charged ice particles are the most important ingredient required for PMSE to appear, several other factors could potentially influence the absolute signal strengths of these echoes. One of them is neutral air turbulence. Previous studies indicate that upper mesospheric turbulence's strength decreases with latitudes, especially in the very high latitudes [Becker, 2004; Lubken et. al., 2009]. In this study, we investigate long-term mesospheric turbulence strengths at Eureka and study how they could be associated with the weak PMSE signal strengths compared with other high latitude conditions, where PMSE are strong.
Runaway Freeze-out of Volatiles in Weakly Turbulent Protoplanetary disks
Xu, Rui; Oberg, Karin
2016-01-01
Volatiles, especially CO, are important gas tracers of protoplanetary disks (PPDs). Freeze-out and sublimation processes determine their division between gas and solid phases, which affects both which disk regions can be traced by which volatiles, and the formation and composition of planets. Recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest that CO is substantially depleted from the gas in the outer regions of PPDs. In this letter, we show that the gas dynamics in the outer PPDs facilitates volatile depletion through a mechanism which we term "runaway freeze-out". Using a simple 1D model that incorporates dust settling, turbulent diffusion of dust and volatiles, as well as volatile freeze-out/sublimation processes, we show that as long as turbulence in the cold midplane is sufficiently weak to allow majority of the small grains to settle, CO in the warm surface layer can be turbulently mixed into the midplane region and depleted by freeze-out. The level of depletion sensitively depends on the level of disk turbul...
Weak turbulence theory and simulation of the gyro-water-bag model.
Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre; Morel, Pierre; Gravier, Etienne
2008-05-01
The thermal confinement time of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. To achieve the study of turbulent thermal diffusivities, Vlasov gyrokinetic description of the magnetically confined plasmas is now commonly adopted, and offers the advantage over fluid models (MHD, gyrofluid) to take into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions which may impact significantly the predicted turbulent transport. Nevertheless kinetic codes require a huge amount of computer resources and this constitutes the main drawback of this approach. A unifying approach is to consider the water-bag representation of the statistical distribution function because it allows us to keep the underlying kinetic features of the problem, while reducing the Vlasov kinetic model into a set of hydrodynamic equations, resulting in a numerical cost comparable to that needed for solving multifluid models. The present paper addresses the gyro-water-bag model derived as a water-bag-like weak solution of the Vlasov gyrokinetic models. We propose a quasilinear analysis of this model to retrieve transport coefficients allowing us to estimate turbulent thermal diffusivities without computing the full fluctuations. We next derive another self-consistent quasilinear model, suitable for numerical simulation, that we approximate by means of discontinuous Galerkin methods.
Weak Turbulence in the Magnetosphere: Formation of Whistler Wave Cavity by Nonlinear Scattering
Crabtree, C; Ganguli, G; Mithaiwala, M; Galinsky, V; Shevchenko, V
2011-01-01
We consider the weak turbulence of whistler waves in the in low-\\beta\\ inner magnetosphere of the Earth. Whistler waves with frequencies, originating in the ionosphere, propagate radially outward and can trigger nonlinear induced scattering by thermal electrons provided the wave energy density is large enough. Nonlinear scattering can substantially change the direction of the wave vector of whistler waves and hence the direction of energy flux with only a small change in the frequency. A portion of whistler waves return to the ionosphere with a smaller perpendicular wave vector resulting in diminished linear damping and enhanced ability to pitch-angle scatter trapped electrons. In addition, a portion of the scattered wave packets can be reflected near the ionosphere back into the magnetosphere. Through multiple nonlinear scatterings and ionospheric reflections a long-lived wave cavity containing turbulent whistler waves can be formed with the appropriate properties to efficiently pitch-angle scatter trapped e...
Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guo-an
2014-09-01
In order to mitigate atmospheric turbulence, the free space optical (FSO) system model with spatial diversity is analyzed based on intensity detection pulse position modulation (PPM) in the weak turbulence atmosphere. The slot error rate (SER) calculating formula of the system without diversity is derived under pulse position modulation firstly. Then as a benchmark, independent of identical distribution, the average slot error rates of the three linear combining technologies, which are the maximal ratio combining (MRC), equal gain combining (EGC) and selection combining (SelC), are compared. Simulation results show that the performance of system is the best improved by MRC, followed by EGC, and is poor by SelC, but SelC is simpler and more convenient. Spatial diversity is efficient to improve the performance and has strong ability on resistance to atmospheric channel decline. The above scheme is more suitable for optical wireless communication systems.
Energy partition, scale by scale, in magnetic Archimedes Coriolis weak wave turbulence.
Salhi, A; Baklouti, F S; Godeferd, F; Lehner, T; Cambon, C
2017-02-01
Magnetic Archimedes Coriolis (MAC) waves are omnipresent in several geophysical and astrophysical flows such as the solar tachocline. In the present study, we use linear spectral theory (LST) and investigate the energy partition, scale by scale, in MAC weak wave turbulence for a Boussinesq fluid. At the scale k^{-1}, the maximal frequencies of magnetic (Alfvén) waves, gravity (Archimedes) waves, and inertial (Coriolis) waves are, respectively, V_{A}k,N, and f. By using the induction potential scalar, which is a Lagrangian invariant for a diffusionless Boussinesq fluid [Salhi et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 026301 (2012)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.026301], we derive a dispersion relation for the three-dimensional MAC waves, generalizing previous ones including that of f-plane MHD "shallow water" waves [Schecter et al., Astrophys. J. 551, L185 (2001)AJLEEY0004-637X10.1086/320027]. A solution for the Fourier amplitude of perturbation fields (velocity, magnetic field, and density) is derived analytically considering a diffusive fluid for which both the magnetic and thermal Prandtl numbers are one. The radial spectrum of kinetic, S_{κ}(k,t), magnetic, S_{m}(k,t), and potential, S_{p}(k,t), energies is determined considering initial isotropic conditions. For magnetic Coriolis (MC) weak wave turbulence, it is shown that, at large scales such that V_{A}k/f≪1, the Alfvén ratio S_{κ}(k,t)/S_{m}(k,t) behaves like k^{-2} if the rotation axis is aligned with the magnetic field, in agreement with previous direct numerical simulations [Favier et al., Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. (2012)] and like k^{-1} if the rotation axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field. At small scales, such that V_{A}k/f≫1, there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and kinetic components. For magnetic Archimedes weak wave turbulence, it is demonstrated that, at large scales, such that (V_{A}k/N≪1), there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and potential components
Quantum Brownian Motions and Navier-Stokes Weakly Turbulence — a Path Integral Study
Botelho, Luiz C. L.
In this paper, we present a new method to solve exactly the Schrödinger Harmonic oscillator wave equation in the presence of time-dependent parameter. We also apply such technique to solve exactly the problem of random frequency averaged quantum propagator of a harmonic oscillator with white-noise statistics frequency. We still apply our technique to solve exactly the Brownian Quantum Oscillator in the presence of an electric field. Finally, we use these quantum mechanic techniques to solve exactly the Statistical-Turbulence of the Navier-Stokes in a region of fluid random stirring weakly (analytical) coupling through time-dependent Euclidean-Quantum oscillators path-integrals.
Oubei, Hassan M.
2017-06-16
In this Letter, we use laser beam intensity fluctuation measurements to model and describe the statistical properties of weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) channels. UWOC channels with temperature gradients are modeled by the generalized gamma distribution (GGD) with an excellent goodness of fit to the measured data under all channel conditions. Meanwhile, thermally uniform channels are perfectly described by the simple gamma distribution which is a special case of GGD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first model that comprehensively describes both thermally uniform and gradient-based UWOC channels.
Coexistence of Weak and Strong Wave Turbulence in a Swell Propagation
Zakharov, V E; Pushkarev, A; Resio, D
2007-01-01
By performing two parallel numerical experiments -- solving the dynamical Hamiltonian equations and solving the Hasselmann kinetic equation -- we examined the applicability of the theory of weak turbulence to the description of the time evolution of an ensemble of free surface waves (a swell) on deep water. We observed qualitative coincidence of the results. To achieve quantitative coincidence, we augmented the kinetic equation by an empirical dissipation term modelling the strongly nonlinear process of white-capping. Fitting the two experiments, we determined the dissipation function due to wave breaking and found that it depends very sharply on the parameter of nonlinearity (the surface steepness). The onset of white-capping can be compared to a second-order phase transition. This result corroborates with experimental observations by Banner, Babanin, Young.
Tyson, M James Jee And J Anthony
2010-01-01
The weak-lensing science of the LSST project drives the need to carefully model and separate the instrumental artifacts from the intrinsic lensing signal. The dominant source of the systematics for all ground based telescopes is the spatial correlation of the PSF modulated by both atmospheric turbulence and optical aberrations. In this paper, we present a full FOV simulation of the LSST images by modeling both the atmosphere and the telescope optics with the most current data for the telescope specifications and the environment. To simulate the effects of atmospheric turbulence, we generated six-layer phase screens with the parameters estimated from the on-site measurements. For the optics, we combined the ray-tracing tool ZEMAX and our simulated focal plane data to introduce realistic aberrations and focal plane height fluctuations. Although this expected flatness deviation for LSST is small compared with that of other existing cameras, the fast f-ratio of the LSST optics makes this focal plane flatness vari...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-04-23
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulentmotions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-fieldstrength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Dynamics and flow-coupling in two-layer turbulent thermal convection
Xie, Yi-Chao
2015-01-01
We present an experimental investigation of the dynamics and flow-coupling of convective turbulent flows in a cylindrical Rayleigh-Benard convection cell with two immiscible fluids, water and fluorinert FC-77 electronic liquid (FC77). It is found that one large-scale circulation (LSC) roll exists in each of the fluid layers, and that their circulation planes have two preferred azimuthal orientations separated by $\\sim\\pi$. A surprising finding of the study is that cessations/reversals of the LSC in FC77 of the two-layer system occur much more frequently than they do in single-layer turbulent RBC, and that a cessation is most likely to result in a flow reversal of the LSC, which is in sharp contrast with the uniform distribution of the orientational angular change of the LSC before and after cessations in single-layer turbulent RBC. This implies that the dynamics governing cessations and reversals in the two systems are very different. Two coupling modes, thermal coupling (flow directions of the two LSCs are o...
van Haren, H.
2015-01-01
The character of turbulent overturns in a weakly stratified deep-sea is investigated in some detail using 144 high-resolution temperature sensors at 0.7 m intervals, starting 5 m above the bottom. A 9-day, 1 Hz sampled record from the 912 m depth flat-bottom (<0.5% bottom-slope) mooring site in the
van Haren, H.
2015-01-01
The character of turbulent overturns in a weakly stratified deep-sea is investigated in some detail using 144 high-resolution temperature sensors at 0.7 m intervals, starting 5 m above the bottom. A 9-day, 1 Hz sampled record from the 912 m depth flat-bottom (<0.5% bottom-slope) mooring site in the
Spectral evolution of two-layer weak geostrophic turbulence. Part I: Typical scenarios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Soomere
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Long-time evolution of large-scale geophysical flows is considered in a β-plane approximation. Motions in an infinite 2-layer model ocean are treated as a system of weakly nonlinear Rossby waves (weak geostrophic turbulence. The evolution of the energy spectrum of the barotropic and the baroclinic modes is investigated on the basis of numerical experiments with the kinetic equation for baroclinic Rossby waves. The basic features of free (nonforced inviscid spectral evolution of baroclinic flows are similar to those of the barotropic motions. A portion of the energy is transferred to a sharp spectral peak while the rest of it is isotropically distributed. The peak corresponds to an intensive nearly zonal barotropic flow. Typically, this well-defined barotropic zonal anisotropy inhibits the reinforcement of its baroclinic analogy. For a certain set of initial conditions (in particular, if the barotropic zonal flow is not present initially, a zonal anisotropy of both modes is generated. The interplay between the multimodal nearly zonal flow components leads to the excitation of large-scale (several times exceeding the scale of the initial state, mostly meridional, baroclinic motions at the expense of the barotropic nearly zonal flow. The underlying mechanism is explained on the level of elementary mixed-triad interaction. The whole wave field retains its essentially baroclinic as well as spectrally broad nature. It evidently tends towards a thermodynamically equilibrated final state, consisting of the superposition of a (usually barotropic, but occasionally multimodal zonal flow and a wave system with a Raleigh-Jeans spectrum. This evolution takes place as a multi-staged process, with fast convergence of the modal spectra to a local equilibrium followed by a more gradual adjustment of the energy balance between the modes.
Corotation torques experienced by planets embedded in weakly magnetized turbulent discs
Baruteau, C; Nelson, R P; Masset, F
2011-01-01
The migration of low-mass planets is driven by the differential Lindblad torque and the corotation torque in non-magnetic viscous models of protoplanetary discs. The corotation torque has recently received detailed attention as it may slow down, stall, or reverse migration. In laminar viscous disc models, the long-term evolution of the corotation torque is intimately related to viscous and thermal diffusion processes in the planet's horseshoe region. This paper examines the properties of the corotation torque in discs where MHD turbulence develops as a result of the magnetorotational instability, considering a weak initial toroidal magnetic field. We present results of 3D MHD simulations carried out with two different codes. Non-ideal MHD effects and the disc's vertical stratification are neglected, and locally isothermal disc models are considered. The running time-averaged torque exerted by the disc on a fixed planet is evaluated in three disc models. We first present results with an inner disc cavity (plan...
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KEARNEY,SEAN P.; REYES,FELIPE V.
2000-12-13
In this paper, an acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for nonintrusive, temperature imaging is demonstrated in gas-phase (Pr = 0.72) turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection at Rayleigh number, Ra = 1.3 x 10{sup 5}. The PLIF technique provides quantitative, spatially correlated temperature data without the flow intrusion or time lag associated with physical probes and without the significant path averaging that plagues most optical heat-transfer diagnostic tools, such as the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, thus making PLIF an attractive choice for quantitative thermal imaging in easily perturbed, complex three-dimensional flow fields. The instantaneous (20-ns integration time) thermal images presented have a spatial resolution of 176 x 176 x 500 {micro}m and a single-pulse temperature measurement precision of {+-}5.5 K, or 5.4 % of the total temperature difference. These images represent a 2-D slice through a complex, 3-D flow allowing for the thermal structure of the turbulence to be quantified. Statistics such as the horizontally averaged temperature profile, rms temperature fluctuation, two-point spatial correlations, and conditionally averaged plume structures are computed from an ensemble of 100 temperature images. The profiles of the mean temperature and rms temperature fluctuation are in good agreement with previously published data, and the results obtained from the two-point spatial correlations and conditionally averaged temperature fields show the importance of large-scale coherent structures in this turbulent flow.
Weak turbulence theory of collisionless trapped electron driven drift instability in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hahm, T.S.; Tang, W.M.
1990-10-01
The toroidal collisionless trapped electron modes are analyzed in the weak turbulence regime treating both ions and trapped electrons nonlinearly in the presence of ion and electron temperature gradients. The spectral intensity of the density fluctuations in the nonlinearly saturated state is analytically obtained from the steady state solution of the wave-kinetic equation. Distant nonlinear interactions between low-k{sub {theta}} and high-k{sub {theta}} modes of similar frequencies via trapped electron scattering (the resonance between the beat wave and the trapped electron precession drift frequencies) suppress the low-k{sub {theta}} (k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub s} {much lt} (L{sub n}/R){sup 1/2}) modes while close interactions via ion Compton scattering (nonlinear ion Landau damping) produce a monotonically decreasing spectrum from k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub s} {congruent} (L{sub n}/R){sup 1/2} to k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub s} {congruent} 1 according to an approximate power law k{sub {theta}}{sup {minus}3}. Various fluctuation amplitudes at saturation and the fluctuation-induced anomalous particle and heat fluxes are found to be smaller than the mixing length estimates. The plasma confinement is predicted to improve with higher T{sub i}/T{sub e}, more peaked density profile, larger aspect ratio, and higher plasma current. Also, a significant dependence of transport on the electron temperature gradient is found which could contribute to the rigidity of the electron temperature profile often experimentally observed.
Interplay of Darrieus-Landau instability and weak turbulence in premixed flame propagation
Creta, Francesco; Lamioni, Rachele; Lapenna, Pasquale Eduardo; Troiani, Guido
2016-11-01
In this study we investigate, both numerically and experimentally, the interplay between the intrinsic Darrieus-Landau (DL) or hydrodynamic instability of a premixed flame and the moderately turbulent flow field in which the flame propagates. The objective is threefold: to establish, unambiguously, through a suitably defined marker, the presence or absence of DL-induced effects on the turbulent flame, to quantify the DL effects on the flame propagation and morphology and, finally, to asses whether such effects are mitigated or suppressed as the turbulence intensity is increased. The numerical simulations are based on a deficient reactant model which lends itself to a wealth of results from asymptotic theory, such as the determination of stability limits. The skewness of the flame curvature probability density function is identified as an unambiguous morphological marker for the presence or absence of DL effects in a turbulent environment. In addition, the turbulent propagation speed is shown to exhibit a distinct dual behavior whereby it is noticeably enhanced in the presence of DL instability while it is unchanged otherwise. Furthermore, increasing the turbulence intensity is found to be mitigating with respect to DL-induced effects such as the mentioned dual behavior which disappears at higher intensities. Experimental propane and/or air Bunsen flames are also investigated, utilizing two distinct diameters, respectively, above and below the estimated DL cutoff wavelength. Curvature skewness is still clearly observed to act as a marker for DL instability while the turbulent propagation speed is concurrently enhanced in the presence of the instability.
Turbulence energetics in stably stratified geophysical flows: strong and weak mixing regimes
Zilitinkevich, S S; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Esau, I; Mauritsen, T; Miles, M W
2008-01-01
Traditionally, turbulence energetics is characterized by turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and modelled using solely the TKE budget equation. In stable stratification, TKE is generated by the velocity shear and expended through viscous dissipation and work against buoyancy forces. The effect of stratification is characterized by the ratio of the buoyancy gradient to squared shear, called Richardson number, Ri. It is widely believed that at Ri exceeding a critical value, Ric, local shear cannot maintain turbulence, and the flow becomes laminar. We revise this concept by extending the energy analysis to turbulent potential and total energies (TPE and TTE = TKE + TPE), consider their budget equations, and conclude that TTE is a conservative parameter maintained by shear in any stratification. Hence there is no "energetics Ric", in contrast to the hydrodynamic-instability threshold, Ric-instability, whose typical values vary from 0.25 to 1. We demonstrate that this interval, 0.25>1, clarify principal difference betw...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gibert, M
2007-10-15
In this study we investigate the phenomenon of thermal turbulent convection in new and unprecedented ways. The first system we studied experimentally is an infinite vertical channel, where a constant vertical mean gradient of temperature exists. Inside this channel the average mass flux is null. The results obtained from our measurements reveal that the flow is mainly inertial; indeed the dissipative coefficients (here the viscosity) play a role only to define a coherence length L. This length is the distance over which the thermal plumes can be considered as 'free falling' objects. The horizontal transport, of heat and momentum, is entirely due to fluctuations. The associated 'mixing length' is small compared to the channel width. In the other hand, the vertical heat transport is due to coherent structures: the heat plumes. Those objects were also investigated in a Lagrangian study of the flow in the bulk of a Rayleigh-Benard cell. The probe, which has the same density as the fluid used in this experiment, is a sphere of 2 cm in diameter with embarked thermometers and radio-emitter. The heat plumes transport it, which allows a statistical study of such objects. (author)
WEAK TURBULENCE IN THE HD 163296 PROTOPLANETARY DISK REVEALED BY ALMA CO OBSERVATIONS
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Flaherty, Kevin M.; Hughes, A. Meredith [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chiang, Eugene; Kerzner, Skylar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, 307 McCone Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Simon, Jacob B. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)
2015-11-10
Turbulence can transport angular momentum in protoplanetary disks and influence the growth and evolution of planets. With spatially and spectrally resolved molecular emission line measurements provided by (sub)millimeter interferometric observations, it is possible to directly measure non-thermal motions in the disk gas that can be attributed to this turbulence. We report a new constraint on the turbulence in the disk around HD 163296, a nearby young A star, determined from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Science Verification observations of four CO emission lines (the CO(3-2), CO(2-1), {sup 13}CO(2-1), and C{sup 18}O(2-1) transitions). The different optical depths for these lines permit probes of non-thermal line-widths at a range of physical conditions (temperature and density) and depths into the disk interior. We derive stringent limits on the non-thermal motions in the upper layers of the outer disk such that any contribution to the line-widths from turbulence is <3% of the local sound speed. These limits are approximately an order of magnitude lower than theoretical predictions for full-blown magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability, potentially suggesting that this mechanism is less efficient in the outer (R ≳ 30 AU) disk than has been previously considered.
The Efficiency of Second-Order Fermi Acceleration by Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence
Lynn, Jacob W; Chandran, Benjamin D G; Parrish, Ian J
2013-01-01
We investigate the effects of pitch-angle scattering on the efficiency of particle heating and acceleration by MHD turbulence using phenomenological estimates and simulations of non-relativistic test particles interacting with strong, subsonic MHD turbulence. We include an imposed pitch-angle scattering rate, which is meant to approximate the effects of high frequency plasma waves and/or velocity space instabilities. We focus on plasma parameters similar to those found in the near-Earth solar wind, though most of our results are more broadly applicable. An important control parameter is the size of the particle mean free path lambda_{mfp} relative to the scale of the turbulent fluctuations L. For small scattering rates, particles interact quasi-resonantly with turbulent fluctuations in magnetic field strength. Scattering increases the long-term efficiency of this resonant heating by factors of a few-10, but the distribution function does not develop a significant non-thermal power-law tail. For higher scatter...
Fisher, R.; Lamb, D.; Kadanoff, L.; Cattaneo, F.; Constantin, P.; Plewa, T.
2006-11-01
When simulating turbulence with complex or embedded geometries, or which transitions from incompressible to weakly-compressible, it is desirable to have a robust numerical method which is equally capable of handling these regimes without significant loss of accuracy. The FLASH 2006 turbulence simulation is a driven, weakly-compressible, homogeneous, isotropic simulation which explores this concept in detail. It was performed at 1856^3 resolution with 16.7 million Lagrangian tracer particles at a (1D) RMS velocity of 0.17. The simulation was performed by special invitation on the LLNL BG/L machine shortly before it was permanently placed inside their secure network earlier this year. Approximately one week of CPU time on 65,536 processors were used. We will present results including both Eulerian and Lagrangian properties of the simulation, and compare these to previous experiments and theories. We will also discuss a systematic error in the determination of the higher-order structure functions due to finite statistics and address this issue for our dataset.
AN INVESTIGATION OF TURBULENT RECTANGULAR JET DISCHARGED INTO A NARROW CHANNEL WEAK CROSSFLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PATHAK Manabendra; DASS Anoop K; DEWAN Anupam
2008-01-01
A computational investigation of the mean flow field of turbulent rectangular jets issuing into a narrow channel crossflow is presented. The length of the jet slot spans more than 55% of the crossflow channel bed, leaving a small clearance between the jet edge and sidewalls. A finite volume code employing the standard k-e model is used to predict the mean, three-dimensional flow field. The mean flow field is investigated for two velocity ratios (6 and 9). Important flow features, such as the formation of different vortical structures and their characteristics owing to different values of the velocity ratio, are discussed. Some predicted results are compared with the experimental data reported in the literature. The predicted mean and turbulent flow properties are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data.
Intermittency and universality in fully-developed inviscid and weakly-compressible turbulent flows
Benzi, R; Biferale, L Luca; Fisher, RT; Kadanoff, LP; Lamb, DQ; Toschi, F Federico
2008-01-01
We performed high resolution numerical simulations of homogenous and isotropic compressible turbulence, with an average 3D Mach number close to 0.3. We study the statistical properties of intermittency for velocity, density and entropy. For the velocity field, which is the primary quantity that can be compared to the isotropic incompressible case, we find no statistical differences in its behavior in the inertial range due either to the slight compressibility or to the different dissipative m...
Can weak turbulence give high concentrations of carbon dioxide in baby cribs?
Karlsson, Edvard; Sjöstedt, Anders; Håkansson, Stellan
The potential that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is caused by expired air is examined by calculations of the diffusion of CO 2 in a crib, and considerations of the level of turbulence generated by room ventilation and expiration. The calculations indicate a risk of CO 2 accumulation for a baby in prone position, when the diffusion coefficients in the room and the crib are smaller than 10 -3 m 2s -1, and the expired air is spread only over a part of the crib bottom. The calculations also indicate that the turbulence in the room may be below the critical value of 10 -3 m 2 s -1 when there is warmer air at ceiling height compared to the floor, and the area of the ventilation inlet is large, or the ventilation rate is low. There are indications that the turbulence generated by the breathing may be smaller than the critical value when the infant is breathing through an open mouth, if the expired air is cooled to room temperature, and if the expiration rate is limited to about 3 times the normal value.
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Intermittency and universality in fully developed inviscid and weakly compressible turbulent flows.
Benzi, Roberto; Biferale, Luca; Fisher, Robert T; Kadanoff, Leo P; Lamb, Donald Q; Toschi, Federico
2008-06-13
We perform high-resolution numerical simulations of homogenous and isotropic compressible turbulence, with an average 3D Mach number close to 0.3. We study the statistical properties of intermittency for velocity, density, and entropy. For the velocity field, which is the only quantity that can be compared to the isotropic incompressible case, we find no statistical differences in its behavior in the inertial range due either to the slight compressibility or to the different dissipative mechanism. For the density field, we find evidence of "frontlike" structures, although no shocks are produced by the simulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theodore D. Katsilieris
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The terrestrial optical wireless communication links have attracted significant research and commercial worldwide interest over the last few years due to the fact that they offer very high and secure data rate transmission with relatively low installation and operational costs, and without need of licensing. However, since the propagation path of the information signal, i.e., the laser beam, is the atmosphere, their effectivity affects the atmospheric conditions strongly in the specific area. Thus, system performance depends significantly on the rain, the fog, the hail, the atmospheric turbulence, etc. Due to the influence of these effects, it is necessary to study, theoretically and numerically, very carefully before the installation of such a communication system. In this work, we present exactly and accurately approximate mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average capacity and the outage probability performance metrics, as functions of the link’s parameters, the transmitted power, the attenuation due to the fog, the ambient noise and the atmospheric turbulence phenomenon. The latter causes the scintillation effect, which results in random and fast fluctuations of the irradiance at the receiver’s end. These fluctuations can be studied accurately with statistical methods. Thus, in this work, we use either the lognormal or the gamma–gamma distribution for weak or moderate to strong turbulence conditions, respectively. Moreover, using the derived mathematical expressions, we design, accomplish and present a computational tool for the estimation of these systems’ performances, while also taking into account the parameter of the link and the atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, in order to increase the accuracy of the presented tool, for the cases where the obtained analytical mathematical expressions are complex, the performance results are verified with the numerical estimation of the appropriate integrals. Finally, using
He, Xiaozhou; Ahlers, Guenter
2016-01-01
We present measurements of the orientation $\\theta_0$ and temperature amplitude $\\delta$ of the large-scale circulation in a cylindrical sample of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC) with aspect ratio $\\Gamma \\equiv D/L = 1.00$ ($D$ and $L$ are the diameter and height respectively) and for the Prandtl number $Pr \\simeq 0.8$. Results for $\\theta_0$ revealed a preferred orientation with upflow in the West, consistent with a broken azimuthal invariance due to Earth's Coriolis force [see \\cite{BA06b}]. They yielded the azimuthal diffusivity $D_\\theta$ and a corresponding Reynolds number $Re_{\\theta}$ for Rayleigh numbers over the range $2\\times 10^{12} < Ra < 1.5\\times 10^{14}$. In the classical state ($Ra < 2\\times 10^{13}$) the results were consistent with the measurements by \\cite{BA06a} for $Ra < 10^{11}$ and $Pr = 4.38$ which gave $Re_{\\theta} \\propto Ra^{0.28}$, and with the Prandtl-number dependence $Re_{\\theta} \\propto Pr^{-1.2}$ as found previously also for the velocity-fluctuation Rey...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Z. Lin; R.E. Waltz
2007-01-01
@@ Turbulent transport driven by plasma pressure gradients [Tangl978] is one of the most important scientific challenges in burning plasma experiments since the balance between turbulent transport and the self-heating by the fusion products (a-particles) determines the performance of a fusion reactor like ITER.
Faridzadeh, Monire; Gholami, Asghar; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Rajbhandari, Sujan
2012-08-01
In this paper a hybrid modulation scheme based on pulse position modulation (PPM) and binary phase shift keying subcarrier intensity modulation (BPSK-SIM) schemes for free-space optical communications is proposed. The analytical bit error rate (BER) performance is investigated in weak and saturated turbulence channels and results are verified with the simulation data. Results show that performance of PPM-BPSK-SIM is superior to BPSK-SIM in all turbulence regimes; however, it outperforms 2-PPM for the turbulence variance σ(1)(2)>0.2. PPM-BPSK-SIM offers a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain of 50 dB in the saturation regime compared to BPSK at a BER of 10(-6). The SNR gain in comparison to PPM improves as the strength of the turbulence level increases.
Blackbourn, Luke A K; Tran, Chuong V
2014-08-01
We study inertial-range dynamics and scaling laws in unforced two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the regime of moderately small and small initial magnetic-to-kinetic-energy ratio r(0), with an emphasis on the latter. The regime of small r(0) corresponds to a relatively weak field and strong magnetic stretching, whereby the turbulence is characterized by an intense conversion of kinetic into magnetic energy (dynamo action in the three-dimensional context). This conversion is an inertial-range phenomenon and, upon becoming quasisaturated, deposits the converted energy within the inertial range rather than transferring it to the small scales. As a result, the magnetic-energy spectrum E(b)(k) in the inertial range can become quite shallow and may not be adequately explained or understood in terms of conventional cascade theories. It is demonstrated by numerical simulations at high Reynolds numbers (and unity magnetic Prandtl number) that the energetics and inertial-range scaling depend strongly on r(0). In particular, for fully developed turbulence with r(0) in the range [1/4,1/4096], E(b)(k) is found to scale as k(α), where α≳-1, including α>0. The extent of such a shallow spectrum is limited, becoming broader as r(0) is decreased. The slope α increases as r(0) is decreased, appearing to tend to +1 in the limit of small r(0). This implies equipartition of magnetic energy among the Fourier modes of the inertial range and the scaling k(-1) of the magnetic potential variance, whose flux is direct rather than inverse. This behavior of the potential resembles that of a passive scalar. However, unlike a passive scalar whose variance dissipation rate slowly vanishes in the diffusionless limit, the dissipation rate of the magnetic potential variance scales linearly with the diffusivity in that limit. Meanwhile, the kinetic-energy spectrum is relatively steep, followed by a much shallower tail due to strong antidynamo excitation. This gives rise to a total
Kierkels, A. H. M.; Velázquez, J. J. L.
2016-06-01
We construct a family of self-similar solutions with fat tails to a quadratic kinetic equation. This equation describes the long time behaviour of weak solutions with finite mass to the weak turbulence equation associated to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The solutions that we construct have finite mass, but infinite energy. In Kierkels and Velázquez (J Stat Phys 159:668-712, 2015) self-similar solutions with finite mass and energy were constructed. Here we prove upper and lower exponential bounds on the tails of these solutions.
Absolute scaling law for temperature data in Rayleigh-Benard convection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Qiang
2009-01-01
In addition to the hierarchical-structure (H-S) model, this paper further explores the most intensive in-With respect to the discovery and by means of the scale, both of Bolgiano, there are two regions of the structure holding the absolute scaling law given by Ching's paper. Through theoretic analysis of data, this paper indicates that the regions act as two local intensive intermittent structures, by which the statistical absolute scaling performance of region is induced, rather than the statistical result of the entire time series in belief since 1941. In terms of statistical theory, the local structure in fluid, therefore, is the essence governing the absolute scaling performance of region, especially in high intensity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Wavelet transform is used to analyze the scaling rule convection flow from two aspects. By utilizing the method of extended self similarity (ESS), one can find the obtained scaling exponent agrees well with the one obtained from the temperature data in a experiment of wind tunnel. And then we propose a newly defined formula based on wavelet transform, and can determine the scaling exponent ξ(q) of temperature data. The obtained results demonstrate that we can correctly extract ξ(q) by using the method which is named as wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM).``
Spiral defect chaos in a model of Rayleigh-Benard convection
Xi, H; Viñals, J; Xi, Hao-wen; Vinals., Jorge
1993-01-01
A numerical solution of a generalized Swift-Hohenberg equation in two dimensions reveals the existence of a spatio-temporal chaotic state comprised of a large number of rotating spirals. This state is observed for a reduced Rayleigh number $\\epsilon=0.25$. The power spectrum of the state is isotropic, and the spatial correlation function decays exponentially, with an estimated decay length $\\xi \\approx 2.5 \\lambda_{c}$, where $\\lambda_{c}$ is the critical wavelength near the onset of convection. Our study suggests that this spiral defect state occurs for low Prandtl numbers and large aspect ratios.
Absolute scaling law for temperature data in Rayleigh-Benard convection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In addition to the hierarchical-structure (H-S) model, this paper further explores the most intensive intermittent structure of Rayleigh-Bénard convection at the high Ra numbers proportional to temperature. With respect to the discovery and by means of the scale, both of Bolgiano, there are two regions of the structure holding the absolute scaling law given by Ching’s paper. Through theoretic analysis of data, this paper indicates that the regions act as two local intensive intermittent structures, by which the statistical absolute scaling performance of region is induced, rather than the statistical result of the entire time series in belief since 1941. In terms of statistical theory, the local structure in fluid, therefore, is the essence governing the absolute scaling performance of region, especially in high intensity.
Instability onset and mixing by diffusive Rayleigh-Benard Convection in a Hele-Shaw Cell
Ehyaei, Dana; Kiger, Ken
2012-11-01
The injection and eventual dissolution of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers has suggested as an effective means of carbon sequestration. Typical injection conditions produce a buoyantly stable source of CO2 layered on top of the brine, whose dissolution is greatly accelerated by the onset of dissolution-driven, negatively buoyant, convective plumes that develop at the interface. The current work is a study conducted within a Hele-shaw cell, as an analogue for porous media, using working fluids that are mixtures of methanol and ethylene glycol diffusing in water, imitating the convective behavior of CO2 in the brine. The underlying physics of the flow are examined by measuring the velocity field directly via PIV, using appropriate methods to allow quantitative measurement in this thin-gap flow. This technique allows for detailed measurement of the entire evolution of the velocity and vorticity field during onset, growth and saturation of the instabilities. Features of the flow, the mechanisms that govern it and accurate time scales form onset time to later time mixings would be discussed for different Rayleigh numbers ranging from 2000 to 15000.
OAM mode of the Hankel-Bessel vortex beam in weak to strong turbulent link of marine-atmosphere
Li, Ye; Zhang, Yixin
2017-04-01
We study the turbulent effects of maritime atmosphere on the propagation of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes of a vortex beam. Based on the modified Rytov approximation, we model the effective marine-atmospheric spectrum and the normalized energy weight of the vortex modes of Hankel-Bessel beams in a paraxial marine turbulent channel. Our results show that the intensity of the signal vortex modes of Hankel-Bessel beams in a non-turbulence channel increases with increasing the quantum number of the OAM of vortex modes from one to higher. We can utilize OAM eigenstates of the Hankel-Bessel vortex beam to increase the channel capacity in optical communication of the remote link. The normalized energy weight of signal OAM modes increases and that of crosstalk OAM modes decreases from the worst to the best turbulent maritime climate. The normalized energy weight of signal OAM modes reduces with the increasing of the turbulent outer scale from 0.1 \\text{m} to 0.5 \\text{m} and the receiving diameter, but it increases with increasing the turbulent outer scale when the outer scale is greater than 0.5 \\text{m} . The effects of the inner scale on the normalized energy weight of OAM modes can be ignored. We can mitigate the effects of turbulence by the choice of the longer wavelength and smaller receiver aperture.
Yermolaev, Yu. G.; Yatskih, A. A.; Kosinov, A. D.; Semionov, N. V.; Kolosov, G. L.; Panina, A. V.
2016-10-01
An experiment on a swept cylinder with 68°-sweep angle at Mach number M = 2.5 is described. The flow attachment line was disturbed by two weak shock waves. Shock waves were generated by a two-dimensional surface inhomogeneity on the wall of the test section of wind tunnel. It was found that the laminar-turbulent transition on the attachment-line of the cylinder is accompanied by an uneven growth of pulsations. Influence of Mach waves on the transition when their fall on the cylinder far away from domain of measuring is not observed. The laminar-turbulent transition occurs at a much lower unit Reynolds numbers in the case when a pair of waves falling on the attachment-line near the measurement field.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ling Li; Ming-Shun Yuan
2011-01-01
In this paper the effects of hydrophobic wall on skin-friction drag in the channel flow are investigated through large eddy simulation on the basis of weaklycompressible flow equations with the MacCormack's scheme on collocated mesh in the FVM framework. The slip length model is adopted to describe the behavior of the slip velocities in the streamwise and spanwise directions at the interface between the hydrophobic wall and turbulent channel flow. Simulation results are presented by analyzing flow behaviors over hydrophobic wall with the Smagorinky subgrid-scale model and a dynamic model on computational meshes of different resolutions. Comparison and analysis are made on the distributions of timeaveraged velocity, velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stress as well as the skin-friction drag. Excellent agreement between the present study and previous results demonstrates the accuracy of the simple classical second-order scheme in representing turbulent vertox near hydrophobic wall. In addition, the relation of drag reduction efficiency versus time-averaged slip velocity is established. It is also found that the decrease of velocity gradient in the close wall region is responsible for the drag reduction. Considering its advantages of high calculation precision and efficiency, the present method has good prospect in its application to practical projects.
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids
Gibson, Carl H
2010-01-01
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begins with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretion on a spinning pair releases 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscosity and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, creating mass-energy and space-time from the vacuum. Turbulence mixes cooling temperatures until a quark-gluon strong-force SF freeze-out. Gluon-viscosity anti-gravity ({\\Lambda}SF) exponentially inflates the fireball to preserve big bang turbulence information at scales larger than ct as the first fossil turbulence. Cosmic microwave background CMB temperature anisotropies show big bang turbulence fossils along with fossils of weak plasma turbulence triggered (10^12 s) as plasma viscous forces permit gravitational fragmentation on supercluster to galaxy mass scales (10^13 s). Turbulent morphologies and viscous-turbulent lengths a...
Guala, M.
2013-12-01
Reproducing the different thermal stability regimes of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in wind tunnel experiments requires accurate control of the free stream air and wall temperatures and a test section long enough to ensure the establishment of fully developed conditions. Such requirements are met in the SAFL atmospheric wind tunnel, with some limitations on the achievable range of z/L, confined between the weakly stratified and weakly convective boundary layers. A number of statistical checks based on Reynolds, Monin-Obukhov similarities, Kolmogorov small scale universality, temperature and velocity variance balance equations, are available to assess the quality of the measurements, flow and estimate of the scaling parameters. However, limited work has been devoted to the comparison of the spatio-temporal structure of turbulent flows from the laboratory to the field scale. Specifically, the vertical extent, scaling and statistical relevance of different structural types pose some scalability issues and deserve further investigation. PIV and triple wire measurements from the SAFL Wind Tunnel will be presented and compared with measurements in the atmospheric surface layer. Particular care is devoted to the contributions of large and very-large scale motions to the momentum and heat fluxes, and to their role in near-surface processes and wind energy.
Cantrell, W. H., II; Chang, K.; Ciochetto, D.; Niedermeier, D.; Bench, J.; Shaw, R. A.
2014-12-01
A detailed understanding of gas-aerosol-cloud interaction within the turbulent atmosphere is of prime importance for an accurate understanding of Earth's climate system. As one example: While every cloud droplet began as an aerosol particle, not every aerosol particle becomes a cloud droplet. The particle to droplet transformation requires that the particle be exposed to some critical concentration of water vapor, which differs for different combinations of particle size and chemical composition. Similarly, the formation of ice particles in mixed phase clouds is also catalyzed by aerosol particles. Even in the simplest scenarios it is challenging to gain a full understanding of the aerosol activation and ice nucleation processes. At least two other factors contribute significantly to the complexity observed in the atmosphere. First, aerosols and cloud particles are not static entities, but are continuously interacting with their chemical environment, and therefore changing in their properties. Second, clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, so thermodynamic and compositional variables, such as water vapor or other trace gas concentrations, fluctuate in space and time. Indeed, the coupling between turbulence and microphysical processes is one of the major research challenges in cloud physics. We have developed a multiphase, turbulent reaction chamber, (dubbed the Π Chamber, after the internal volume of 3.14 cubic meters) designed to address the problems outlined above. It is capable of pressures ranging from sea level to ~ 100 mbar, and can sustain temperatures of +40 to -55 ºC. We can independently control the temperatures on the surfaces of three heat transfer zones. This allows us to establish a temperature gradient between the floor and ceiling inducing Rayleigh-Benard convection and inducing a turbulent environment. Interior surfaces are electropolished stainless steel to facilitate cleaning before and after chemistry experiments. At present, supporting
Evidence of low-dimensional chaos in magnetized plasma turbulence
Zivkovic, Tatjana
2008-01-01
We analyze probe data obtained from a toroidal magnetized plasma configuration suitable for studies of low-frequency gradient-driven instabilities. These instabilities give rise to field-aligned convection rolls analogous to Rayleigh-Benard cells in neutral fluids, and may theoretically develop similar routes to chaos. When using mean-field dimension analysis, we observe low dimensionality, but this could originate from either low-dimensional chaos, periodicity or quasi-periodicity. Therefore, we apply recurrence plot analysis as well as estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. These analyses provide evidence of low-dimensional chaos, in agreement with theoretical predictions.
Ridouane, El Hassan; Hasnaoui, Mohammed; Campo, Antonio
2006-01-01
Coupled laminar natural convection with radiation in air-filled square enclosure heated from below and cooled from above is studied numerically for a wide variety of radiative boundary conditions at the sidewalls. A numerical model based on the finite difference method was used for the solution of mass, momentum and energy equations. The surface-to-surface method was used to calculate the radiative heat transfer. Simulations were performed for two values of the emissivities of the active and insulated walls (ɛ1=0.05 or 0.85, ɛ2=0.05 or 0.85) and Rayleigh numbers ranging from 103 to 2.3×106 . The influence of those parameters on the flow and temperature patterns and heat transfer rates are analyzed and discussed for different steady-state solutions. The existing ranges of these solutions are reported for the four different cases considered. It is founded that, for a fixed Ra, the global heat transfer across the enclosure depends only on the magnitude of the emissivity of the active walls. The oscillatory behavior, characterizing the unsteady-state solutions during the transitions from bicellular flows to the unicellular flow are observed and discussed.
Magnetic field generation by intermittent convection
Chertovskih, R; Chimanski, E V
2016-01-01
Magnetic field generation by convective flows in transition to weak turbulence is studied numerically. By fixing the Prandtl number at P=0.3 and varying the Rayleigh number (Ra) as a control parameter in three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection of an electrically conducting fluid, a recently reported route to hyperchaos involving quasiperiodic regimes, crises and chaotic intermittent attractors is followed, and the critical magnetic Prandtl number ($P_m^c$) for dynamo action is determined as a function of Ra. A mechanism for the onset of on-off intermittency in the magnetic energy is described, the most beneficial convective regimes for dynamo action are identified, and how intermittency affects the dependence of $P_m^c$ on Ra is discussed.
Mugundhan, V.; Ramesh, R.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Kathiravan, C.; Gireesh, G. V. S.; Kharb, P.; Misra, Apurva
2016-11-01
We report on the first long baseline interferometer (length ≈8 km) observations of the solar corona at 37 MHz that were carried out recently with an angular resolution of ≈ {1}\\prime . The results indicate that, (1) discrete radio sources of the aforesaid angular size or even lesser are present in the solar corona from where radiation at the above frequency originates. This constrains the angular broadening of radio sources at low frequencies due to scattering by density turbulence in the solar corona; and (2) the observed sources in the present case correspond to the weakest energy releases in the solar atmosphere reported so far.
Numerical Studies of Quantum Turbulence
Tsubota, Makoto; Fujimoto, Kazuya; Yui, Satoshi
2017-09-01
We review numerical studies of quantum turbulence. Quantum turbulence is currently one of the most important problems in low temperature physics and is actively studied for superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. A key aspect of quantum turbulence is the dynamics of condensates and quantized vortices. The dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid helium are described by the vortex filament model, while the dynamics of condensates are described by the Gross-Pitaevskii model. Both of these models are nonlinear, and the quantum turbulent states of interest are far from equilibrium. Hence, numerical studies have been indispensable for studying quantum turbulence. In fact, numerical studies have contributed to revealing the various problems of quantum turbulence. This article reviews the recent developments in numerical studies of quantum turbulence. We start with the motivation and the basics of quantum turbulence and invite readers to the frontier of this research. Though there are many important topics in the quantum turbulence of superfluid helium, this article focuses on inhomogeneous quantum turbulence in a channel, which has been motivated by recent visualization experiments. Atomic Bose-Einstein condensates are a modern issue in quantum turbulence, and this article reviews a variety of topics in the quantum turbulence of condensates, e.g., two-dimensional quantum turbulence, weak wave turbulence, turbulence in a spinor condensate, some of which have not been addressed in superfluid helium and paves the novel way for quantum turbulence researches. Finally, we discuss open problems.
Boundary condition may change chaos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., RIAM, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawai, Yoshinobu [Kyushu Univ., Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)
2001-07-01
Role of boundary condition for the appearance of chaos is examined. Imposition of the boundary condition is interpreted as the reduction of the system size L. For a demonstration, Rayleigh-Benard instability is considered and the shell model analysis is applied. It is shown that the reduction of L reduces the number of positive Lyapunov exponent of the system, hence opens the route from the turbulence, to the chaos and to the limit cycle/fixed point. (author)
Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narita Keiko
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.
Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods
Wu, Xiaohua
2017-01-01
Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes–LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.
Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...
Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.
2014-11-01
The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.
Nagata, Kouji; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Komori, Satoru
2011-01-01
Effects of weak, small-scale freestream turbulence on turbulent boundary layers with and without thermal convection are experimentally investigated using a wind tunnel. Two experiments are carried out: the first is isothermal boundary layers with and without grid turbulence, and the second is non-isothermal boundary layers with and without grid turbulence. Both boundary layers develop under a small favorable pressure gradient. For the latter case, the bottom wall of the test section is heated...
Selleri, Franco
2015-01-01
Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.
Turbulence and diffusion fossil turbulence
Gibson, C H
2000-01-01
Fossil turbulence processes are central to turbulence, turbulent mixing, and turbulent diffusion in the ocean and atmosphere, in astrophysics and cosmology, and in most other natural flows. George Gamov suggested in 1954 that galaxies might be fossils of primordial turbulence produced by the Big Bang. John Woods showed that breaking internal waves on horizontal dye sheets in the interior of the stratified ocean form highly persistent remnants of these turbulent events, which he called fossil turbulence. The dark mixing paradox of the ocean refers to undetected mixing that must exist somewhere to explain why oceanic scalar fields like temperature and salinity are so well mixed, just as the dark matter paradox of galaxies refers to undetected matter that must exist to explain why rotating galaxies don't fly apart by centrifugal forces. Both paradoxes result from sampling techniques that fail to account for the extreme intermittency of random variables involved in self-similar, nonlinear, cascades over a wide ra...
Turbulent complex (dusty) plasma
Zhdanov, Sergey; Schwabe, Mierk
2017-04-01
As a paradigm of complex system dynamics, solid particles immersed into a weakly ionized plasma, so called complex (dusty) plasmas, were (and continue to be) a subject of many detailed studies. Special types of dynamical activity have been registered, in particular, spontaneous pairing, entanglement and cooperative action of a great number of particles resulting in formation of vortices, self-propelling, tunneling, and turbulent movements. In the size domain of 1-10 mkm normally used in experiments with complex plasmas, the characteristic dynamic time-scale is of the order of 0.01-0.1 s, and these particles can be visualized individually in real time, providing an atomistic (kinetic) level of investigations. The low-R turbulent flow induced either by the instability in a complex plasma cloud or formed behind a projectile passing through the cloud is a typical scenario. Our simulations showed formation of a fully developed system of vortices and demonstrated that the velocity structure functions scale very close to the theoretical predictions. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative and turbulent particle motions are present in many physical, astrophysical, and biological systems. Therefore, experiments with turbulent wakes and turbulent complex plasma oscillations are a promising mean to observe and study in detail the anomalous transport on the level of individual particles.
Wave turbulence buildup in a vibrating plate
Auliel, Maria Ines; Mordant, Nicolas
2015-01-01
We report experimental and numerical results on the buildup of the energy spectrum in wave turbulence of a vibrating thin elastic plate. Three steps are observed: first a short linear stage, then the turbulent spectrum is constructed by the propagation of a front in wave number space and finally a long time saturation due to the action of dissipation. The propagation of a front at the second step is compatible with scaling predictions from the Weak Turbulence Theory.
Leprovost, Nicolas; Kim, Eun-Jin
2009-08-01
We investigate three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics turbulence in the presence of velocity and magnetic shear (i.e., with both a large-scale shear flow and a nonuniform magnetic field). By assuming a turbulence driven by an external forcing with both helical and nonhelical spectra, we investigate the combined effect of these two shears on turbulence intensity and turbulent transport represented by turbulent diffusivities (turbulent viscosity, alpha and beta effect) in Reynolds-averaged equations. We show that turbulent transport (turbulent viscosity and diffusivity) is quenched by a strong flow shear and a strong magnetic field. For a weak flow shear, we further show that the magnetic shear increases the turbulence intensity while decreasing the turbulent transport. In the presence of a strong flow shear, the effect of the magnetic shear is found to oppose the effect of flow shear (which reduces turbulence due to shear stabilization) by enhancing turbulence and transport, thereby weakening the strong quenching by flow shear stabilization. In the case of a strong magnetic field (compared to flow shear), magnetic shear increases turbulence intensity and quenches turbulent transport.
Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit
2017-01-01
Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
Turbulent General Magnetic Reconnection
Eyink, Gregory L
2014-01-01
Plasma flows with an MHD-like turbulent inertial range, such as the solar wind, require a generalization of General Magnetic Reconnection (GMR) theory. We introduce the slip-velocity source vector, which gives the rate of development of slip velocity per unit arc length of field line. The slip source vector is the ratio of the curl of the non ideal electric field in the Generalized Ohm's Law and the magnetic field strength. It diverges at magnetic nulls, unifying GMR with magnetic null-point reconnection. Only under restrictive assumptions is the slip velocity related to the gradient of the quasi potential (integral of parallel electric field along field lines). In a turbulent inertial range the curl becomes extremely large while the parallel component is tiny, so that line slippage occurs even while ideal MHD becomes accurate. The resolution of this paradox is that ideal MHD is valid for a turbulent inertial-range only in a weak sense which does not imply magnetic line freezing. The notion of weak solution i...
Diffusion in anisotropic fully developed turbulence: Turbulent Prandtl number
Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.
2016-10-01
Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique in the leading order of approximation of a perturbation theory the influence of the uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the turbulent Prandtl number in the framework of the model of a passively advected scalar field by the turbulent velocity field driven by the Navier-Stokes equation is investigated for spatial dimensions d >2 . The influence of the presence of the uniaxial small-scale anisotropy in the model on the stability of the Kolmogorov scaling regime is briefly discussed. It is shown that with increasing of the value of the spatial dimension the region of stability of the scaling regime also increases. The regions of stability of the scaling regime are studied as functions of the anisotropy parameters for spatial dimensions d =3 ,4 , and 5. The dependence of the turbulent Prandtl number on the anisotropy parameters is studied in detail for the most interesting three-dimensional case. It is shown that the anisotropy of turbulent systems can have a rather significant impact on the value of the turbulent Prandtl number, i.e., on the rate of the corresponding diffusion processes. In addition, the relevance of the so-called weak anisotropy limit results are briefly discussed, and it is shown that there exists a relatively large region of small absolute values of the anisotropy parameters where the results obtained in the framework of the weak anisotropy approximation are in very good agreement with results obtained in the framework of the model without any approximation. The dependence of the turbulent Prandtl number on the anisotropy parameters is also briefly investigated for spatial dimensions d =4 and 5. It is shown that the dependence of the turbulent Prandtl number on the anisotropy parameters is very similar for all studied cases (d =3 ,4 , and 5), although the numerical values of the corresponding turbulent Prandtl numbers are different.
Energy transfer in compressible turbulence
Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre
1995-01-01
This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Falceta-Gonçalves
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The Interstellar Medium (ISM is a complex, multi-phase system, where the history of the stars occurs. The processes of birth and death of stars are strongly coupled to the dynamics of the ISM. The observed chaotic and diffusive motions of the gas characterize its turbulent nature. Understanding turbulence is crucial for understanding the star-formation process and the energy-mass feedback from evolved stars. Magnetic fields, threading the ISM, are also observed, making this effort even more difficult. In this work, I briefly review the main observations and the characterization of turbulence from these observable quantities. Following on, I provide a review of the physics of magnetized turbulence. Finally, I will show the main results from theoretical and numerical simulations, which can be used to reconstruct observable quantities, and compare these predictions to the observations.
Hanratty, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this article we have investigated the solutions of Maxwell's equations, Navier-Stokes equations and the Schrödinger associated with the solutions of Einstein's equations for empty space. It is shown that in some cases the geometric instability leading to turbulence on the mechanism of alternating viscosity, which offered by N.N. Yanenko. The mechanism of generation of matter from dark energy due to the geometric turbulence in the Big Bang has been discussed
Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.
Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S
2015-08-01
The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.
Hot and turbulent gas in clusters
Schmidt, W.; Engels, J. F.; Niemeyer, J. C.; Almgren, A. S.
2016-06-01
The gas in galaxy clusters is heated by shock compression through accretion (outer shocks) and mergers (inner shocks). These processes additionally produce turbulence. To analyse the relation between the thermal and turbulent energies of the gas under the influence of non-adiabatic processes, we performed numerical simulations of cosmic structure formation in a box of 152 Mpc comoving size with radiative cooling, UV background, and a subgrid scale model for numerically unresolved turbulence. By smoothing the gas velocities with an adaptive Kalman filter, we are able to estimate bulk flows towards cluster cores. This enables us to infer the velocity dispersion associated with the turbulent fluctuation relative to the bulk flow. For haloes with masses above 1013 M⊙, we find that the turbulent velocity dispersions averaged over the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) and the intracluster medium (ICM) are approximately given by powers of the mean gas temperatures with exponents around 0.5, corresponding to a roughly linear relation between turbulent and thermal energies and transonic Mach numbers. However, turbulence is only weakly correlated with the halo mass. Since the power-law relation is stiffer for the WHIM, the turbulent Mach number tends to increase with the mean temperature of the WHIM. This can be attributed to enhanced turbulence production relative to dissipation in particularly hot and turbulent clusters.
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids
2010-01-01
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begins with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretions on a spinning pair releases 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscous stresses and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, extracting mass-energy and space-time from the vacuum. Turbulence mixes cooling temperatures until str...
Weak Galois and Weak Cocleft Coextensions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.N. Alonso (A)lvarez; J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; A.B. Rodríguez Raposo
2007-01-01
For a weak entwining structure (A, C,ψ) living in a braided monoidal category with equalizers and coequalizers, we formulate the notion of weak A-Galois coextension with normal basis and we show that these Galois coextensions are equivalent to the weak A-cocleft coextensions introduced by the authors.
1991-10-01
and complexity of thermochemistry . Accordingly a practical viewpoint is required to meet near-term work required for use in advanced CFD codes...teachers the opportunity to learn/explore/ teach turbulence issues. While such a product could be an invaluable eductaional tool (university), it also
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bec, Jeremie [Laboratoire Cassiopee UMR6202, CNRS, OCA, BP4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: jeremie.bec@obs-nice.fr; Khanin, Konstantin [Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., M5S 3G3 (Canada)]. E-mail: khanin@math.toronto.edu
2007-08-15
The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions or random forcing. Such work was frequently motivated by new emerging applications of Burgers model to statistical physics, cosmology, and fluid dynamics. Also Burgers turbulence appeared as one of the simplest instances of a nonlinear system out of equilibrium. The study of random Lagrangian systems, of stochastic partial differential equations and their invariant measures, the theory of dynamical systems, the applications of field theory to the understanding of dissipative anomalies and of multiscaling in hydrodynamic turbulence have benefited significantly from progress in Burgers turbulence. The aim of this review is to give a unified view of selected work stemming from these rather diverse disciplines.
Simulation of weak and strong Langmuir collapse regimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadzievski, L.R.; Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Kono, M.; Sato, T.
1998-01-01
In order to check the validity of the self-similar solutions and the existence of weak and strong collapse regimes, direct two dimensional simulation of the time evolution of a Langmuir soliton instability is performed. Simulation is based on the Zakharov model of strong Langmuir turbulence in a weakly magnetized plasma accounting for the full ion dynamics. For parameters considered, agreement with self-similar dynamics of the weak collapse type is found with no evidence of the strong Langmuir collapse. (author)
Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Turbulence Simulation
Collis, S. Scott
2002-01-01
A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is formulated, implemented, and tested for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The method is applied to turbulent channel flow at low Reynolds number, where it is found to successfully predict low-order statistics with fewer degrees of freedom than traditional numerical methods. This reduction is achieved by utilizing local hp-refinement such that the computational grid is refined simultaneously in all three spatial coordinates with decreasing distance from the wall. Another advantage of DG is that Dirichlet boundary conditions can be enforced weakly through integrals of the numerical fluxes. Both for a model advection-diffusion problem and for turbulent channel flow, weak enforcement of wall boundaries is found to improve results at low resolution. Such weak boundary conditions may play a pivotal role in wall modeling for large-eddy simulation.
Recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terry, P.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1997-09-22
This report contains viewgraphs of recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport. Localized nonlinear structures occur under a variety of circumstances in turbulent, magnetically confined plasmas, arising in both kinetic and fluid descriptions, i.e., in either wave-particle or three-wave coupling interactions. These structures are non wavelike. They cannot be incorporated in the collective wave response, but interact with collective modes through their shielding by the plasma dielectric. These structures are predicted to modify turbulence-driven transport in a way that in consistent with, or in some cases are confirmed by recent experimental observations. In kinetic theory, non wavelike structures are localized perturbations of phase space density. There are two types of structures. Holes are self-trapped, while clumps have a self-potential that is too weak to resist deformation and mixing by ambient potential fluctuations. Clumps remain correlated in turbulence if their spatial extent is smaller than the correlation length of the scattering fields. In magnetic turbulence, clumps travel along stochastic magnetic fields, shielded by the plasma dielectric. A drag on the clump macro-particle is exerted by the shielding, inducing emission into the collective response. The emission in turn damps back on the particle distribution via Landau dampling. The exchange of energy between clumps and particles, as mediated by the collective mode, imposes constraints on transport. For a turbulent spectrum whose mean wavenumber along the equilibrium magnetic field is nonzero, the electron thermal flux is proportional to the ion thermal velocity. Conventional predictions (which account only for collective modes) are larger by the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Recent measurements are consistent with the small flux. In fluid plasma,s localized coherent structures can occur as intense vortices.
Grid refinement for entropic lattice Boltzmann models
Dorschner, B; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V
2016-01-01
We propose a novel multi-domain grid refinement technique with extensions to entropic incompressible, thermal and compressible lattice Boltzmann models. Its validity and accuracy are accessed by comparison to available direct numerical simulation and experiment for the simulation of isothermal, thermal and viscous supersonic flow. In particular, we investigate the advantages of grid refinement for the set-ups of turbulent channel flow, flow past a sphere, Rayleigh-Benard convection as well as the supersonic flow around an airfoil. Special attention is payed to analyzing the adaptive features of entropic lattice Boltzmann models for multi-grid simulations.
Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1999-01-01
An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.
Nagata, Kouji; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Komori, Satoru
2011-06-01
Effects of weak, small-scale freestream turbulence on turbulent boundary layers with and without thermal convection are experimentally investigated using a wind tunnel. Two experiments are carried out: the first is isothermal boundary layers with and without grid turbulence, and the second is non-isothermal boundary layers with and without grid turbulence. Both boundary layers develop under a small favorable pressure gradient. For the latter case, the bottom wall of the test section is heated at a constant wall temperature to investigate the effects of thermal convection under the effects of freestream turbulence. For both cases, the turbulence intensity in the freestream is Tu = 1.3% ˜ 2.4%, and the integral length scale of freestream turbulence, L∞, is much smaller than the boundary layer thickness δ, i.e., L∞/δ ≪1. The Reynolds numbers Reθ based on the momentum thickness and freestream speed U∞ are Reθ = 560, 1100, 1310, and 2330 in isothermal boundary layers without grid turbulence. Instantaneous velocities, U and V, and instantaneous temperature T are simultaneously measured using a hot-wire anemometry and a constant-current resistance thermometer. The results show that the rms velocities and Reynolds shear stress normalized by the friction velocity are strongly suppressed by the freestream turbulence throughout the boundary layer in both isothermal and non-isothermal boundary layers. In the non-isothermal boundary layers, the normalized rms temperature and vertical turbulent heat flux are also strongly suppressed by the freestream turbulence. Turbulent momentum and heat transfer at the wall are enhanced by the freestream turbulence and the enhancement is notable in unstable stratification. The power spectra of u, v, and θ and their cospectra show that motions of almost all scales are suppressed by the freestream turbulence in both the isothermal and non-isothermal boundary layers.
Universal turbulence on branes in holography
Hashimoto, Koji; Sonoda, Akihiko
2015-01-01
At a meson melting transition in holographic QCD, a weak turbulence of mesons was found with critical embeddings of probe D-branes in gravity duals. The turbulent mesons have a power-law energy distribution $\\varepsilon_n \\propto (\\omega_n)^\\alpha$ where $\\omega_n$ is the mass of the $n$-th excited resonance of the meson tower. In this paper, we find that the turbulence power $\\alpha$ is universal, irrespective of how the transition is driven, by numerically calculating the power in various static brane setups at criticality. We also find that the power $\\alpha$ depends only on the cone dimensions of the probe D-branes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence....... The model is in a virgin state, but a number of numerical tests have been carried out with good results. It is published to encourage other researchers to study the model in order to find its merits and possible limitations....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU
2004-01-01
In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.
Light propagation through anisotropic turbulence.
Toselli, Italo; Agrawal, Brij; Restaino, Sergio
2011-03-01
A wealth of experimental data has shown that atmospheric turbulence can be anisotropic; in this case, a Kolmogorov spectrum does not describe well the atmospheric turbulence statistics. In this paper, we show a quantitative analysis of anisotropic turbulence by using a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum with an anisotropic coefficient. The spectrum we use does not include the inner and outer scales, it is valid only inside the inertial subrange, and it has a power-law slope that can be different from a Kolmogorov one. Using this power spectrum, in the weak turbulence condition, we analyze the impact of the power-law variations α on the long-term beam spread and scintillation index for several anisotropic coefficient values ς. We consider only horizontal propagation across the turbulence cells, assuming circular symmetry is maintained on the orthogonal plane to the propagation direction. We conclude that the anisotropic coefficient influences both the long-term beam spread and the scintillation index by the factor ς(2-α).
Kühnen, Jakob; Hof, Björn
2015-11-01
We show that a simple modification of the velocity profile in a pipe can lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and the flow fully relaminarises. The annihilation of turbulence is achieved by a steady manipulation of the streamwise velocity component alone, greatly reducing control efforts. Several different control techniques are presented: one with a local modification of the flow profile by means of a stationary obstacle, one employing a nozzle injecting fluid through a small gap at the pipe wall and one with a moving wall, where a part of the pipe is shifted in the streamwise direction. All control techniques act on the flow such that the streamwise velocity profile becomes more flat and turbulence gradually grows faint and disappears. In a smooth straight pipe the flow remains laminar downstream of the control. Hence a reduction in skin friction by a factor of 8 and more can be accomplished. Stereoscopic PIV-measurements and movies of the development of the flow during relaminarisation are presented.
Numerical Tests of Fast Reconnection in Weakly Stochastic Magnetic Fields
Kowal, G; Vishniac, E T; Otmianowska-Mazur, K
2009-01-01
We study the effects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection using 3D numerical simulations. This is the first attempt to test a model of fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of weak turbulence proposed by Lazarian & Vishniac (1999). This model predicts that weak turbulence, generically present in most of astrophysical systems, enhances the rate of reconnection by reducing the transverse scale for reconnection events and by allowing many independent flux reconnection events to occur simultaneously. As a result the reconnection speed becomes independent of Ohmic resistivity and is determined by the magnetic field wandering induced by turbulence. To quantify the reconnection speed we use both an intuitive definition, i.e. the speed of the reconnected flux inflow, as well as a more sophisticated definition based on a formally derived analytical expression. Our results confirm the predictions of the Lazarian & Vishniac model. In particular, we find that Vrec Pinj^(1/2), as predicted by the model. The...
Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence
Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E
1998-01-01
The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Scaling laws in magnetized plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boldyrev, Stanislav [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2015-06-28
Interactions of plasma motion with magnetic fields occur in nature and in the laboratory in an impressively broad range of scales, from megaparsecs in astrophysical systems to centimeters in fusion devices. The fact that such an enormous array of phenomena can be effectively studied lies in the existence of fundamental scaling laws in plasma turbulence, which allow one to scale the results of analytic and numerical modeling to the sized of galaxies, velocities of supernovae explosions, or magnetic fields in fusion devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides the simplest framework for describing magnetic plasma turbulence. Recently, a number of new features of MHD turbulence have been discovered and an impressive array of thought-provoking phenomenological theories have been put forward. However, these theories have conflicting predictions, and the currently available numerical simulations are not able to resolve the contradictions. MHD turbulence exhibits a variety of regimes unusual in regular hydrodynamic turbulence. Depending on the strength of the guide magnetic field it can be dominated by weakly interacting Alfv\\'en waves or strongly interacting wave packets. At small scales such turbulence is locally anisotropic and imbalanced (cross-helical). In a stark contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, which tends to ``forget'' global constrains and become uniform and isotropic at small scales, MHD turbulence becomes progressively more anisotropic and unbalanced at small scales. Magnetic field plays a fundamental role in turbulent dynamics. Even when such a field is not imposed by external sources, it is self-consistently generated by the magnetic dynamo action. This project aims at a comprehensive study of universal regimes of magnetic plasma turbulence, combining the modern analytic approaches with the state of the art numerical simulations. The proposed study focuses on the three topics: weak MHD turbulence, which is relevant for laboratory devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Struminskii, V.V. (Sektor Mekhaniki Neodnorodnykh Sred, Moscow (USSR))
1989-01-01
Two essentially different forms of turbulence are identified in liquids and gases: (1) turbulent flow in the vicinity of solid or liquid boundaries and (2) turbulent flows evolving far from the walls. The generation mechanisms and principal characteristics of the two types of turbulent flows are discussed. It is emphasized that the two types of turbulent flows are caused by different physical mechanisms and should be considered separately in turbulence studies. 14 refs.
Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.
Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M
2013-06-21
We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.
Scattering of sonic booms by anisotropic turbulence in the atmosphere
Kelly; Raspet; Bass
2000-06-01
An earlier paper [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3412-3417 (1995)] reported on the comparison of rise times and overpressures of sonic booms calculated with a scattering center model of turbulence to measurements of sonic boom propagation through a well-characterized turbulent layer under moderately turbulent conditions. This detailed simulation used spherically symmetric scatterers to calculate the percentage of occurrence histograms of received overpressures and rise times. In this paper the calculation is extended to include distorted ellipsoidal turbules as scatterers and more accurately incorporates the meteorological data into a determination of the number of scatterers per unit volume. The scattering center calculation overpredicts the shifts in rise times for weak turbulence, and still underpredicts the shift under more turbulent conditions. This indicates that a single-scatter center-based model cannot completely describe sonic boom propagation through atmospheric turbulence.
Electron magnetohydrodynamics: dynamics and turbulence.
Lyutikov, Maxim
2013-11-01
We consider dynamics and turbulent interaction of whistler modes within the framework of inertialess electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD). We argue that there is no energy principle in EMHD: any stationary closed configuration is neutrally stable. On the other hand, the relaxation principle, the long term evolution of a weakly dissipative system towards Taylor-Beltrami state, remains valid in EMHD. We consider the turbulent cascade of whistler modes. We show that (i) harmonic whistlers are exact nonlinear solutions; (ii) collinear whistlers do not interact (including counterpropagating); (iii) waves with the same value of the wave vector k(1)=k(2) do not interact; (iv) whistler modes have a dispersion that allows a three-wave decay, including into a zero frequency mode; (v) the three-wave interaction effectively couples modes with highly different wave numbers and propagation angles. In addition, linear interaction of a whistler with a single zero mode can lead to spatially divergent structures via parametric instability. All these properties are drastically different from MHD, so that the qualitative properties of the Alfvén turbulence can not be transferred to the EMHD turbulence. We derive the Hamiltonian formulation of EMHD, and using Bogoliubov transformation reduce it to the canonical form; we calculate the matrix elements for the three-wave interaction of whistlers. We solve numerically the kinetic equation and show that, generally, the EMHD cascade develops within a broad range of angles, while transiently it may show anisotropic, nearly two-dimensional structures. Development of a cascade depends on the forcing (nonuniversal) and often fails to reach a steady state. Analytical estimates predict the spectrum of magnetic fluctuations for the quasi-isotropic cascade [proportionality]k(-2). The cascade remains weak (not critically balanced). The cascade is UV local, while the infrared locality is weakly (logarithmically) violated.
Cofinitely weak supplemented modules
Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin
2003-01-01
We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.
Venaille, Antoine; Vallis, Geoffrey K
2014-01-01
We investigate the non-linear equilibration of a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow in a channel forced by an imposed unstable zonal mean flow, paying particular attention to the role of bottom friction. In the limit of low bottom friction, classical theory of geostrophic turbulence predicts an inverse cascade of kinetic energy in the horizontal with condensation at the domain scale and barotropization on the vertical. By contrast, in the limit of large bottom friction, the flow is dominated by ribbons of high kinetic energy in the upper layer. These ribbons correspond to meandering jets separating regions of homogenized potential vorticity. We interpret these result by taking advantage of the peculiar conservation laws satisfied by this system: the dynamics can be recast in such a way that the imposed mean flow appears as an initial source of potential vorticity levels in the upper layer. The initial baroclinic instability leads to a turbulent flow that stirs this potential vorticity field while conserving the...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁夏畦; 罗佩珠
2004-01-01
In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.
Structure of nonlocality of plasma turbulence
Gürcan, Ö. D.; Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Berionni, V.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; McDevitt, C. J.; Morel, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Storelli, A.; Bourdelle, C.; the Tore Supra Team
2013-07-01
Various indications on the weakly nonlocal character of turbulent plasma transport both from experimental fluctuation measurements from Tore Supra and observations from the full-f, flux-driven gyrokinetic code GYSELA are reported. A simple Fisher equation model of this weakly nonlocal dynamics can be formulated in terms of an evolution equation for the turbulent entropy density, which contains the basic phenomenon of radial turbulence spreading in addition to avalanche-like dynamics via coupling to profile modulations. A derivation of this model, which contains the so-called beach effect, a diffusive and convective flux components for the flux of turbulence intensity, in addition to linear group propagation is given, starting from the drift-kinetic equation. The proposed model has the form of a transport equation for turbulence intensity, and may be considered as an addition to transport modelling. The kinetic fluxes given, can be computed using model closures, or local gyrokinetics. The model is also used in a particular setup that represents the near edge region as a relatively stable zone between the core and edge region where the energy injection is locally more substantial. It is observed that with constant, physical coefficients, the model gives a convincing qualitative profile of fluctuation intensity when the turbulence is coming from the core region with either a group velocity or a convective flux.
Noise and dynamical pattern selection
Kurtze, D A
1995-01-01
In pattern forming systems such as Rayleigh-Benard convection or directional solidification, a large number of linearly stable, patterned steady states exist when the basic, simple steady state is unstable. Which of these steady states will be realized in a given experiment appears to depend on unobservable details of the system's initial conditions. We show, however, that weak, Gaussian white noise drives such a system toward a preferred wave number which depends only on the system parameters and is independent of initial conditions. We give a prescription for calculating this wave number, analytically near the onset of instability and numerically otherwise.
Effects of long-wavelength dissipation on beam-driven Langmuir turbulence
Robinson, P. A.; Newman, D. L.; Rubenchik, A. M.
1992-01-01
The effects of long-wavelength dissipation on beam-driven Langmuir turbulence are investigated using numerical simulations that include both weak and strong turbulence effects. Strong-turbulence wave collapses occur concurrently with weak-turbulence energy cascades if the long-wavelength damping is sufficiently small relative to the growth rate of the beam-unstable waves. Above a threshold damping level, only the weak-turbulence backscatter cascade is observed, and it becomes increasingly truncated as the damping increases, eventually consisting of only a single backscatter. A simple Lotka-Volterra model gives an excellent description of the periodic evolution observed in the weak-turbulence regime. Suppression of the usual backscatter cascade by long-wavelength damping enables intense beam-aligned density troughs to form, which trap and duct Langmuir waves.
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
Electromagnetically driven dwarf tornados in turbulent convection
Kenjeres, S.
2011-01-01
Motivated by the concept of interdependency of turbulent flow and electromagnetic fields inside the spiraling galaxies, we explored the possibilities of generating a localized Lorentz force that will produce a three-dimensional swirling flow in weakly conductive fluids. Multiple vortical flow patter
Charge transport scaling in turbulent electroconvection
Tsai, Peichun; Daya, Zahir A.; Morris, Stephen W.
2005-01-01
We describe a local-power-law scaling theory for the mean dimensionless electric current Nu in turbulent electroconvection. The experimental system consists of a weakly conducting, submicron-thick liquid-crystal film supported in the annulus between concentric circular electrodes. It is driven into
Electromagnetically driven dwarf tornados in turbulent convection
Kenjeres, S.
2011-01-01
Motivated by the concept of interdependency of turbulent flow and electromagnetic fields inside the spiraling galaxies, we explored the possibilities of generating a localized Lorentz force that will produce a three-dimensional swirling flow in weakly conductive fluids. Multiple vortical flow patter
Optical Turbulence above the Internal Antarctic Plateau
Masciadri, E; Hagelin, S; Moigne, P Le; Noilhan, J
2010-01-01
The internal antarctic plateau revealed in the last years to be a site with interesting potentialities for the astronomical applications due to the extreme dryness and low temperatures, the typical high altitude of the plateau, the weak level of turbulence in the free atmosphere down to a just few tens of meters from the ground and the thin optical turbulence layer developed at the ground. The main goal of a site testing assessment above the internal antarctic plateau is to characterize the site (optical turbulence and classical meteorological parameters) and to quantify which is the gain we might obtain with respect to equivalent astronomical observations done above mid-latitude sites to support plans for future astronomical facilities. Our group is involved, since a few years, in studies related to the assessment of this site for astronomical applications that include the characterization of the meteorological parameters and optical turbulence provided by general circulation models as well as mesoscale atmo...
NUMERICAL STUDIES OF WEAKLY STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Kowal
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study the e ects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection using three-dimensional numerical simulations.This is the rst attempt to test the model of fast magnetic reconnection proposed by Lazarian & Vishniac (1999, which assumes the presence of weak, small-scale magnetic eld structure near the current sheet. This a ects the rate of reconnection by reducing the transverse scale for reconnection ows and by allowing many independent ux reconnection events to occur simultaneously. We performed a number of simulations to test the dependencies of the reconnection speed, de ned as the ratio of the in ow velocity to the Alfv n speed, on the turbulence power, the injection scale and resistivity. Our results show that turbulence signi cantly a ects the topology of magnetic eld near the di usion region and increases the thickness of the out ow region. We con rm the predictions of the Lazarian & Vishniac model. In particular, we report the growth of the reconnection speed proportional to V 2 l , where Vl is the amplitude of velocity at the injection scale. It depends on the injection scale linj as (linj=L2=3, where L is the size of the system, which is somewhat faster but still roughly consistent with the theoretical expectations. We also show that for 3D reconnection the Ohmic resistivity is important in the local reconnection events only, and the global reconnection rate in the presence of turbulence does not depend on it.
Consistent Initial Conditions for the DNS of Compressible Turbulence
Ristorcelli, J. R.; Blaisdell, G. A.
1996-01-01
Relationships between diverse thermodynamic quantities appropriate to weakly compressible turbulence are derived. It is shown that for turbulence of a finite turbulent Mach number there is a finite element of compressibility. A methodology for generating initial conditions for the fluctuating pressure, density and dilatational velocity is given which is consistent with finite Mach number effects. Use of these initial conditions gives rise to a smooth development of the flow, in contrast to cases in which these fields are specified arbitrarily or set to zero. Comparisons of the effect of different types of initial conditions are made using direct numerical simulation of decaying isotropic turbulence.
Modelling turbulence in the outer heliosphere
Macek, Wieslaw
2016-07-01
Turbulence is complex behaviour that is ubiquitous both in laboratory and astrophysical magnetized plasmas. Notwithstanding the progress in simulation of turbulence in various continuous media, its mechanism is still not sufficiently clear. Therefore, following the basic idea of Kolmogorov, some phenomenological models of scaling behaviour have been proposed, including fractal and multifractal modelling, that can reveal the intermittent character of turbulence. Based on wealth of data provided by deep spacecraft missions including Voyager 1 and 2, these models show that the turbulence in the entire heliosphere is intermittent and multifractal. Moreover, the degree of multifractality decreases with the heliocentric distance and is modulated by the phases of the solar cycles, also beyond the heliospheric termination shock, i. e. in the heliosheath. However, in the very local interstellar medium beyond the heliopause turbulence becomes rather weak and less intermittent, as shown by recent measurements from Voyager 1. This suggests that the heliosphere is immersed in a relatively quiet environment. Hence these studies of turbulence, especially at the heliospheric boundaries, demonstrate that the outer heliosphere provides an interesting possibility to look into turbulence in various media.
Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection
Higashimori, Katsuaki; Yokoi, Nobumitsu; Hoshino, Masahiro
2013-01-01
We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse
of resolved inflow turbulence on airfoil simulations in CFD. The detached-eddy simulation technique is used because it can resolve the inflow turbulence without becoming too computationally expensive due to its limited requirements for mesh resolution in the boundary layer. It cannot resolve the turbulence...... synthetic turbulence in arbitrary domains. The purpose is to generate a synthetic turbulence field corresponding to the field encountered by a rotating blade....
Speed and structure of turbulent fronts in pipe flow
Song, Baofang; Hof, Björn; Avila, Marc
2016-01-01
The dynamics of laminar-turbulent fronts in pipe flow is investigated for Reynolds numbers between Re=1900 and Re=5500 using extensive direct numerical simulations. In this range the flow undergoes a continuous transition from localised puffs to weakly expanding and ultimately to strongly expanding turbulent slugs (Barkley et al. 2015). We here investigate the physical distinction between these two types of slug by analysing time-resolved statistics of their downstream fronts in the frame moving at the bulk turbulent advection speed. While weak fronts travel slower than the bulk turbulent advection speed, implying local relaminarisation, strong fronts travel faster and so feed on the laminar flow ahead. At Re$\\approx$2900 the downstream front speed becomes faster than the advection speed, marking the onset of strong fronts. We argue that large temporal fluctuations of production and dissipation at the laminar-turbulent interface drive the dynamical switches between the two types of front observed up to Re$\\si...
Toward the Theory of Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boldyrev, Stanislav [University of Wisconsin - Madison
2013-07-26
The goal of the project was to develop a theory of turbulence in magnetized plasmas at large scales, that is, scales larger than the characteristic plasma microscales (ion gyroscale, ion inertial scale, etc.). Collisions of counter-propagating Alfven packets govern the turbulent cascade of energy toward small scales. It has been established that such an energy cascade is intrinsically anisotropic, in that it predominantly supplies energy to the modes with mostly field-perpendicular wave numbers. The resulting energy spectrum of MHD turbulence, and the structure of the fluctuations were studied both analytically and numerically. A new parallel numerical code was developed for simulating reduced MHD equations driven by an external force. The numerical setting was proposed, where the spectral properties of the force could be varied in order to simulate either strong or weak turbulent regimes. It has been found both analytically and numerically that weak MHD turbulence spontaneously generates a “condensate”, that is, concentration of magnetic and kinetic energy at small k{sub {parallel}}. A related topic that was addressed in the project is turbulent dynamo action, that is, generation of magnetic field in a turbulent flow. We were specifically concentrated on the generation of large-scale magnetic field compared to the scales of the turbulent velocity field. We investigate magnetic field amplification in a turbulent velocity field with nonzero helicity, in the framework of the kinematic Kazantsev-Kraichnan model.
On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING
2011-01-01
A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 （←→） aα(b) ＝ 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.
Gibson, C H
1999-01-01
A theory of fossil turbulence presented in the 11th Liege Colloquium on Marine turbulence is "revisited" in the 29th Liege Colloquium "Marine Turbulence Revisited". The Gibson (1980) theory applied universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as it is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Towed oceanic microstructure measurements of Schedvin (1979) confirmed the predicted universal constants. Universal constants, spectra, hydrodynamic phase diagrams (HPDs) and other predictions of the theory have been reconfirmed by a wide variety of field and laboratory observations. Fossil turbulence theory has many applications; for example, in marine biology, laboratory and field measurements suggest phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies differently by pattern recognition of several days of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times above thres...
Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Ion Instabilities
Alexandrova, Olga; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Horbury, Timothy S; Bale, Stuart D
2013-01-01
Solar wind is probably the best laboratory to study turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. In addition to the presence of magnetic field, the differences with neutral fluid isotropic turbulence are: weakness of collisional dissipation and presence of several characteristic space and time scales. In this paper we discuss observational properties of solar wind turbulence in a large range from the MHD to the electron scales. At MHD scales, within the inertial range, turbulence cascade of magnetic fluctuations develops mostly in the plane perpendicular to the mean field. Solar wind turbulence is compressible in nature. The spectrum of velocity fluctuations do not follow magnetic field one. Probability distribution functions of different plasma parameters are not Gaussian, indicating presence of intermittency. At the moment there is no global model taking into account all these observed properties of the inertial range. At ion scales, turbulent spectra have a break, compressibility increases and the density fluctuat...
Universal Critical Behavior at a Phase Transition to Quantum Turbulence
Takahashi, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Kazumasa A
2016-01-01
Turbulence is one of the most prototypical phenomena of systems driven out of equilibrium. While turbulence has been studied mainly with classical fluids like water, considerable attention is now drawn to quantum turbulence (QT), observed in quantum fluids such as superfluid helium and Bose-Einstein condensates. A distinct feature of QT is that it consists of quantum vortices, by which turbulent circulation is quantized. Yet, under strong forcing, characteristic properties of developed classical turbulence such as Kolmogorov's law have also been identified in QT. Here, we study the opposite limit of weak forcing, i.e., the onset of QT, numerically, and find another set of universal scaling laws known for classical non-equilibrium systems. Specifically, we show that the transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class, known to arise generically in transitions into an absorbing state, including transitions to classical shear-flow turbulence after very recent studies. We argue that quantum vort...
Turbulence in dilute polymer solutions
Liberzon, A.; Guala, M.; Lüthi, B.; Kinzelbach, W.; Tsinober, A.
2005-03-01
The work reported below is a comparative study of the properties of turbulence with weak mean flow in a Newtonian fluid and in a dilute polymer solution with an emphasis on the small scale phenomena. The main tool used is a three-dimensional particle tracking system allowing to measure and follow in a Lagrangian manner the field of velocities, as well as velocity derivatives, and thus vorticity, strain, and a variety of related and dynamically significant quantities. The comparison of data from the two flows allows to directly observe the influence of polymers on these quantities as well as the evolution of material elements in the presence of polymers.
Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness
MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A
2012-01-01
Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997
General optical scintillation in turbulent atmosphere
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ruizhong Rao
2008-01-01
A general expression of the scintillation index is proposed for optical wave propagating in turbulent atmosphere under arbitrary fluctuation conditions. The expression depends on extreme behaviors of the scintillation indices under both weak and strong fluctuations. The maximum scintillation index in the onset region and the corresponding Rytov index can be evaluated from the general expression. Plane and spherical waves in the cases of zero and non-zero turbulence inner scale are given as examples for illustration of the general behaviors of scintillation indices.
Robust entangled qutrit states in atmospheric turbulence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Brunner, T
2013-06-01
Full Text Available ) = |ψ〉〈ψ|, where |ψ〉 is given in (1), using the coefficients defined in (3). Although, we assume that the initial state (1) is a pure state, the scintillation process causes it to become mixed during propagation, which necessitates a density matrix... turbulence (a) and weak turbulence (b). To find the most robust states we optimize the tangle at a particular point t = t0, for the general initial pure state, using the parameterization from (3). This optimization process is similarly to [8]. From...
Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wojcicki, S.
1978-11-01
Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references
Weakly asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds
Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov
2015-01-01
We introduce a class of "weakly asymptotically hyperbolic" geometries whose sectional curvatures tend to $-1$ and are $C^0$, but are not necessarily $C^1$, conformally compact. We subsequently investigate the rate at which curvature invariants decay at infinity, identifying a conformally invariant tensor which serves as an obstruction to "higher order decay" of the Riemann curvature operator. Finally, we establish Fredholm results for geometric elliptic operators, extending the work of Rafe Mazzeo and John M. Lee to this setting. As an application, we show that any weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric is conformally related to a weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric of constant negative curvature.
Laser beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence
Murty, S. S. R.
1979-01-01
The optical effects of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of low power laser beams are reviewed in this paper. The optical effects are produced by the temperature fluctuations which result in fluctuations of the refractive index of air. The commonly-used models of index-of-refraction fluctuations are presented. Laser beams experience fluctuations of beam size, beam position, and intensity distribution within the beam due to refractive turbulence. Some of the observed effects are qualitatively explained by treating the turbulent atmosphere as a collection of moving gaseous lenses of various sizes. Analytical results and experimental verifications of the variance, covariance and probability distribution of intensity fluctuations in weak turbulence are presented. For stronger turbulence, a saturation of the optical scintillations is observed. The saturation of scintillations involves a progressive break-up of the beam into multiple patches; the beam loses some of its lateral coherence. Heterodyne systems operating in a turbulent atmosphere experience a loss of heterodyne signal due to the destruction of coherence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob
2011-01-01
The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....
MHD Turbulence, Turbulent Dynamo and Applications
Beresnyak, Andrey
2014-01-01
MHD Turbulence is common in many space physics and astrophysics environments. We first discuss the properties of incompressible MHD turbulence. A well-conductive fluid amplifies initial magnetic fields in a process called small-scale dynamo. Below equipartition scale for kinetic and magnetic energies the spectrum is steep (Kolmogorov -5/3) and is represented by critically balanced strong MHD turbulence. In this paper we report the basic reasoning behind universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo and the inertial range of MHD turbulence. We measured the efficiency of the small-scale dynamo $C_E=0.05$, Kolmogorov constant $C_K=4.2$ and anisotropy constant $C_A=0.63$ for MHD turbulence in high-resolution direct numerical simulations. We also discuss so-called imbalanced or cross-helical MHD turbulence which is relevant for in many objects, most prominently in the solar wind. We show that properties of incompressible MHD turbulence are similar to the properties of Alfv\\'enic part of MHD cascade in compressible turbul...
A dynamical model of plasma turbulence in the solar wind.
Howes, G G
2015-05-13
A dynamical approach, rather than the usual statistical approach, is taken to explore the physical mechanisms underlying the nonlinear transfer of energy, the damping of the turbulent fluctuations, and the development of coherent structures in kinetic plasma turbulence. It is argued that the linear and nonlinear dynamics of Alfvén waves are responsible, at a very fundamental level, for some of the key qualitative features of plasma turbulence that distinguish it from hydrodynamic turbulence, including the anisotropic cascade of energy and the development of current sheets at small scales. The first dynamical model of kinetic turbulence in the weakly collisional solar wind plasma that combines self-consistently the physics of Alfvén waves with the development of small-scale current sheets is presented and its physical implications are discussed. This model leads to a simplified perspective on the nature of turbulence in a weakly collisional plasma: the nonlinear interactions responsible for the turbulent cascade of energy and the formation of current sheets are essentially fluid in nature, while the collisionless damping of the turbulent fluctuations and the energy injection by kinetic instabilities are essentially kinetic in nature.
Hosoya, Akio
2010-01-01
We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.
Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence
Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the
Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Rogachevskii, Igor
2016-01-01
We show, by direct numerical simulations, that heavy inertial particles (with Stokes number ${\\rm St}$) in inhomogeneously forced statistically stationary turbulent flows cluster at the minima of turbulent kinetic energy. We further show that two turbulent transport processes, turbophoresis and turbulent diffusion together determine the spatial distribution of the particles. The ratio of the corresponding transport coefficient -- the turbulent Soret coefficient -- increases with ${\\rm St}$ for small ${\\rm St}$, reaches a maxima for ${\\rm St}\\approx 10$ and decreases as $\\sim {\\rm St}^{-0.33}$ for large ${\\rm St}$.
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
Turbulent drag in a rotating frame
Campagne, Antoine; Gallet, Basile; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Moisy, Frédéric
2016-01-01
What is the turbulent drag force experienced by an object moving in a rotating fluid? This open and fundamental question can be addressed by measuring the torque needed to drive an impeller at constant angular velocity $\\omega$ in a water tank mounted on a platform rotating at a rate $\\Omega$. We report a dramatic reduction in drag as $\\Omega$ increases, down to values as low as $12$\\% of the non-rotating drag. At small Rossby number $Ro = \\omega/\\Omega$, the decrease in drag coefficient $K$ follows the approximate scaling law $K \\sim Ro$, which is predicted in the framework of nonlinear inertial wave interactions and weak-turbulence theory. However, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements indicate that this drag reduction rather originates from a weakening of the turbulence intensity in line with the two-dimensionalization of the large-scale flow.
Buoyancy driven turbulence and distributed chaos
Bershadskii, A
2016-01-01
It is shown, using results of recent direct numerical simulations, laboratory experiments and atmospheric measurements, that buoyancy driven turbulence exhibits a broad diversity of the types of distributed chaos with its stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$. The distributed chaos with $\\beta = 1/3$ (determined by the helicity correlation integral) is the most common feature of the stably stratified turbulence (due to the strong helical waves presence). These waves mostly dominate spectral properties of the vertical component of velocity field, while the horizontal component is dominated by the diffusive processes both for the weak and strong stable stratification ($\\beta =2/3$). For the last case influence of the low boundary can overcome the wave effects and result in $\\beta =1/2$ for the vertical component of the velocity field (the spontaneous breaking of the space translational symmetry - homogeneity). For the unstably stratified turbulence in the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing zone the di...
Joyal, André
2009-01-01
We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.
Effects of light propagation in middle intensity atmospheric turbulence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiubua YUAN; Dexiu HUANG; Bangxu LI
2009-01-01
The purpose of this report is to present an experimental study of the effects of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence.Free space optical communication is a line-of-sight technology that transmits a modulated beam of visible light through the atmosphere for broadband communication.The fundamental limitations of free space optical communications arise from the environment through which it propagates.However these systems are vulnerable to atmospheric turbulence, such as attenuation and scintillation, Scintillation is due to the air index variation under the temperature effects.These factors cause an attenuated receiver signal and lead to higher bit error rate (BER).An experiment of laser propagation was carried out to characterize the light intensity through turbulent air in the laboratory environment.The experimental results agree with the calculation based on Rytov for the case of weak to intermediate turbulence.Also, we show the characteristics of irradiance scintillation, intensity distribution and atmospheric turbulence strength.By means of laboratory simulated turbulence, the turbulence box is constructed with the following measurements: 0.5 m wide, 2m long and 0.5m high.The simulation box consists of three electric heaters and is well described for understanding the experimental set up.The fans and heaters are used to increase the homogeneity of turbulence and to create different scintillation indices.The received intensity scintillation and atmosphere turbulence strength were obtained and the variation of refractive index, with its corresponding structure parameter, is calculated from the experimental results.
Effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in atmospheric turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Xiaoling, E-mail: jiXL100@163.com; Deng, Jinping
2014-07-18
The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in weak, moderate and strong turbulence is studied using numerical simulation method. It is found that the effect of the negative spherical aberration on the on-axis scintillation index is quite different from that of the positive spherical aberration. In weak turbulence, the positive spherical aberration results in a decrease of the on-axis scintillation index on propagation, but the negative spherical aberration results in an increase of the on-axis scintillation index when the propagation distance is not large. In particular, in weak turbulence the negative spherical aberration may cause peaks of the on-axis scintillation index, and the peaks disappear in moderate and strong turbulence, which is explained in physics. The strong turbulence leads to less discrepancy among scintillations of Gaussian beams with and without spherical aberration. - Highlights: • In weak turbulence scintillations can be suppressed using positive spherical aberration. • In weak turbulence scintillations may be very large due to negative spherical aberration. • The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations is less with increasing of turbulence.
Clustering of floating particles in stratified turbulence
Boffetta, Guido; de Lillo, Filippo; Musacchio, Stefano; Sozza, Alessandro
2016-11-01
We study the dynamics of small floating particles transported by stratified turbulence in presence of a mean linear density profile as a simple model for the confinement and the accumulation of plankton in the ocean. By means of extensive direct numerical simulations we investigate the statistical distribution of floaters as a function of the two dimensionless parameters of the problem. We find that vertical confinement of particles is mainly ruled by the degree of stratification, with a weak dependency on the particle properties. Conversely, small scale fractal clustering, typical of non-neutral particles in turbulence, depends on the particle relaxation time and is only weakly dependent on the flow stratification. The implications of our findings for the formation of thin phytoplankton layers are discussed.
Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Nonlinear Anisotropic Dynamical Turbulence
Heusen, Martin
2016-01-01
We investigate test-particle diffusion in dynamical turbulence based on a numerical approach presented before. For the turbulence we employ the nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence model which takes into account wave propagation effects as well as damping effects. We compute numerically diffusion coefficients of energetic particles along and across the mean magnetic field. We focus on turbulence and particle parameters which should be relevant for the solar system and compare our findings with different interplanetary observations. We vary different parameters such as the dissipation range spectral index, the ratio of the turbulence bendover scales, and the magnetic field strength in order to explore the relevance of the different parameters. We show that the bendover scales as well as the magnetic field ratio have a strong influence on diffusion coefficients whereas the influence of the dissipation range spectral index is weak. The best agreement with solar wind observations can be found for equal bend...
Lagrangian frequency spectrum as a diagnostic for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence dynamics.
Busse, Angela; Müller, Wolf-Christian; Gogoberidze, Grigol
2010-12-01
For the phenomenological description of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence competing models exist, e.g., Boldyrev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 115002 (2006)] and Gogoberidze [Phys. Plasmas 14, 022304 (2007)], which predict the same Eulerian inertial-range scaling of the turbulent energy spectrum although they employ fundamentally different basic interaction mechanisms. A relation is found that links the Lagrangian frequency spectrum with the autocorrelation time scale of the turbulent fluctuations τ(ac) and the associated cascade time scale τ(cas). Thus, the Lagrangian energy spectrum can serve to identify weak (τ(ac) ≪ τ(cas)) and strong (τ(ac) ∼ τ(cas)) interaction mechanisms providing insight into the turbulent energy cascade. The new approach is illustrated by results from direct numerical simulations of two- and three-dimensional incompressible MHD turbulence.
Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.
2006-01-01
A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1989-01-01
A multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method is presented. In the model, the effect of the ratio of the production rate to the dissipation rate on eddy viscosity is modeled by use of the multiple-time-scales and a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. The concept of a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and the rest of the model details are based on the previously reported algebraic stress turbulence model. Example problems considered include: a fully developed channel flow, a plane jet exhausting into a moving stream, a wall jet flow, and a weakly coupled wake-boundary layer interaction flow. The computational results compared favorably with those obtained by using the algebraic stress turbulence model as well as experimental data. The present turbulence model, as well as the algebraic stress turbulence model, yielded significantly improved computational results for the complex turbulent boundary layer flows, such as the wall jet flow and the wake boundary layer interaction flow, compared with available computational results obtained by using the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model.
WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.
Scintillations of higher order laser beams in anisotropic atmospheric turbulence.
Baykal, Yahya; Luo, Yujuan; Ji, Xiaoling
2016-11-20
The scintillation index of higher order laser beams is examined when such beams propagate in anisotropic atmospheric turbulence. Anisotropy is introduced through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. The scintillation index results are obtained by employing the Rytov method solution; thus the results are valid for weak anisotropic atmospheric turbulence and for horizontal links. Variations in the scintillations are shown for various higher order laser modes against the changes in the optical source size, power law exponent of anisotropic non-Kolmogorov spectrum, anisotropic factors, and link length. Our results can be used in the design of optical wireless communication systems used between airplanes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm
2002-01-01
We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...
Some Results Relevant to Statistical Closures for Compressible Turbulence
Ristorcelli, J. R.
1998-01-01
For weakly compressible turbulent fluctuations there exists a small parameter, the square of the fluctuating Mach number, that allows an investigation using a perturbative treatment. The consequences of such a perturbative analysis in three different subject areas are described: 1) initial conditions in direct numerical simulations, 2) an explanation for the oscillations seen in the compressible pressure in the direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear, and 3) for turbulence closures accounting for the compressibility of velocity fluctuations. Initial conditions consistent with small turbulent Mach number asymptotics are constructed. The importance of consistent initial conditions in the direct numerical simulation of compressible turbulence is dramatically illustrated: spurious oscillations associated with inconsistent initial conditions are avoided, and the fluctuating dilatational field is some two orders of magnitude smaller for a compressible isotropic turbulence. For the isotropic decay it is shown that the choice of initial conditions can change the scaling law for the compressible dissipation. A two-time expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations is used to distinguish compressible acoustic and compressible advective modes. A simple conceptual model for weakly compressible turbulence - a forced linear oscillator is described. It is shown that the evolution equations for the compressible portions of turbulence can be understood as a forced wave equation with refraction. Acoustic modes of the flow can be amplified by refraction and are able to manifest themselves in large fluctuations of the compressible pressure.
On closed weak supplemented modules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua
2006-01-01
A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N＜＜M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.
The first turbulent combustion
Gibson, C H
2005-01-01
The first turbulent combustion arises in a hot big bang cosmological model Gibson (2004) where nonlinear exothermic turbulence permitted by quantum mechanics, general relativity, multidimensional superstring theory, and fluid mechanics cascades from Planck to strong force freeze out scales with gravity balancing turbulent inertial-vortex forces. Interactions between Planck scale spinning and non-spinning black holes produce high Reynolds number turbulence and temperature mixing with huge Reynolds stresses driving the rapid inflation of space. Kolmogorovian turbulent temperature patterns are fossilized as strong-force exponential inflation stretches them beyond the scale of causal connection ct where c is light speed and t is time. Fossil temperature turbulence patterns seed nucleosynthesis, and then hydro-gravitational structure formation in the plasma epoch, Gibson (1996, 2000). Evidence about formation mechanisms is preserved by cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. CMB spectra indicate hydr...
Gibson, C H
2003-01-01
A quantum gravitational instability is identified at Planck scales between non-spinning extreme Schwarzschild black holes and spinning extreme Kerr black holes, which produces a turbulent Planck particle gas. Planck inertial vortex forces balance gravitational forces as the Planck turbulence cascades to larger scales and the universe expands and cools. Turbulent mixing of temperature fluctuations and viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy provide irreversibilities necessary to sustain the process to the strong force freeze out temperature where inflation begins. Turbulent temperature fluctuations are fossilized when they are stretched by inflation beyond the horizon scale of causal connection. As the horizon of the expanding universe grows, the fluctuations seed patterns of nucleosynthesis, and these seed the formation of structure in the plasma epoch. Fossil big bang turbulence is supported by extended self similarity coefficients computed for cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies tha...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerstein, A.R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.
Turbulence generation by waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.
Triggering filamentation using turbulence
Eeltink, D; Marchiando, N; Hermelin, S; Gateau, J; Brunetti, M; Wolf, J P; Kasparian, J
2016-01-01
We study the triggering of single filaments due to turbulence in the beam path for a laser of power below the filamenting threshold. Turbulence can act as a switch between the beam not filamenting and producing single filaments. This 'positive' effect of turbulence on the filament probability, combined with our observation of off-axis filaments suggests the underlying mechanism is modulation instability caused by transverse perturbations. We hereby experimentally explore the interaction of modulation instability and turbulence, commonly associated with multiple-filaments, in the single-filament regime.
Weak Polarized Electron Scattering
Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A
2014-01-01
Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, M.
1988-04-01
Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.
Cheng, Mingjian; Zhang, Yixin; Gao, Jie; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Fengsheng
2014-06-20
We model the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems for cases of weak to strong turbulence channels, using the exponentiation Weibull distribution model. The joint effects of the beam wander and spread, pointing errors, atmospheric attenuation, and the spectral index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on system performance are included. Our results show that the average capacity decreases steeply as the propagation length L changes from 0 to 200 m and decreases slowly down or tends to a stable value as the propagation length L is greater than 200 m. In the weak turbulence region, by increasing the detection aperture, we can improve the average channel capacity and the atmospheric visibility as an important issue affecting the average channel capacity. In the strong turbulence region, the increase of the radius of the detection aperture cannot reduce the effects of the atmospheric turbulence on the average channel capacity, and the effect of atmospheric visibility on the channel information capacity can be ignored. The effect of the spectral power exponent on the average channel capacity in the strong turbulence region is higher than weak turbulence region. Irrespective of the details determining the turbulent channel, we can say that pointing errors have a significant effect on the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems in turbulence channels.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren
2015-01-01
The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....
Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous
Gibson, Carl H
2012-01-01
Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbulence patterns and fossil turbulence waves preserve and propagate energy and information about previous turbulence. Ignorance of fossil turbulence properties can be dangerous. Examples include the Osama bin Laden helicopter crash and the Air France 447 Airbus crash, both unfairly blamed on the pilots. Observations support the proposed definitions, and suggest even direct numerical simulations of turbulence require caution.
Weak martingale Hardy spaces and weak atomic decompositions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU; Youliang; REN; Yanbo
2006-01-01
In this paper we define some weak martingale Hardy spaces and three kinds of weak atoms. They are the counterparts of martingale Hardy spaces and atoms in the classical martingale Hp-theory. And then three atomic decomposition theorems for martingales in weak martingale Hardy spaces are proved. With the help of the weak atomic decompositions of martingale, a sufficient condition for a sublinear operator defined on the weak martingale Hardy spaces to be bounded is given. Using the sufficient condition, we obtain a series of martingale inequalities with respect to the weak Lp-norm, the inequalities of weak (p ,p)-type and some continuous imbedding relationships between various weak martingale Hardy spaces. These inequalities are the weak versions of the basic inequalities in the classical martingale Hp-theory.
Turbulence modelling; Modelisation de la turbulence isotherme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laurence, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)
1997-12-31
This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-{epsilon} two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the `standard` (R{sub ij}-{epsilon}) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called `feasible`. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author). 37 refs.
Kolmogorov Dissipation scales in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
Krishan, V
2009-01-01
In a weakly ionized plasma, the evolution of the magnetic field is described by a "generalized Ohm's law" that includes the Hall effect and the ambipolar diffusion terms. These terms introduce additional spatial and time scales which play a decisive role in the cascading and the dissipation mechanisms in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We determine the Kolmogorov dissipation scales for the viscous, the resistive and the ambipolar dissipation mechanisms. The plasma, depending on its properties and the energy injection rate, may preferentially select one of the these dissipation scales. thus determining the shortest spatial scale of the supposedly self-similar spectral distribution of the magnetic field. The results are illustrated taking the partially ionized part of the solar atmosphere as an example. Thus the shortest spatial scale of the supposedly self-similar spectral distribution of the solar magnetic field is determined by any of the four dissipation scales given by the viscosity, the Spizer resistivity...
Turbulence and dynamo interlinks
de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Santos-Lima, R.; Kowal, G.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.
2013-07-01
The role of turbulence in astrophysical environments and its interplay with magnetic fields is still highly debated. In this lecture, we will discuss this issue in the framework of dynamo processes. We will first present a very brief summary of turbulent dynamo theories, then will focus on small scale turbulent dynamos and their particular relevance on the origin and maintenance of magnetic fields in the intra-cluster media (ICM) of galaxies. In these environments, the very low density of the flow requires a collisionless-MHD treatment. We will show the implications of this approach in the turbulent amplification of the magnetic fields in these environments. To finalize, we will also briefly address the connection between MHD turbulence and fast magnetic reconnection and its possible implications in the diffusion of magnetic flux in the dynamo process.
Turbulence and Dynamo Interlinks
Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal
2013-01-01
The role of turbulence in astrophysical environments and its interplay with magnetic fields is still highly debated. In this lecture, we will discuss this issue in the framework of dynamo processes. We will first present a very brief summary of turbulent dynamo theories, then will focus on small scale turbulent dynamos and their particular relevance on the origin and maintenance of magnetic fields in the intra-cluster media (ICM) of galaxies. In these environments, the very low density of the flow requires a collisionless-MHD treatment. We will show the implications of this approach in the turbulent amplification of the magnetic fields in these environments. To finalize, we will also briefly address the connection between MHD turbulence and fast magnetic reconnection and its possible implications in the diffusion of magnetic flux in the dynamo process.
Inversion assuming weak scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus
2013-01-01
The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...
Erler, Jens
2013-01-01
This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.
Measurement of weak radioactivity
Theodorsson , P
1996-01-01
This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.
Weakly broken galileon symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)
2015-09-01
Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.
Anomalously Weak Solar Convection
Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2012-01-01
Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical- harmonic degree l..Within the wavenumber band l convective velocities are 20-100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers l convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient.
PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert
2008-10-01
presentations were published in the Book of Abstracts, International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', August 18-26, 2007, Copyright 2007 Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, ISBN 92-95003-36-5. This Topical Issue consists of nearly 60 articles accepted for publication in the Conference Proceedings and reflects a substantial part of the Conference contributions. The articles cover a broad variety of TMB-2007 themes and are sorted alphabetically by the last name of the first author within each of the following topics: Canonical Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing (invariant, scaling, spectral properties, scalar transports) Wall-bounded Flows (structure and fundamentals, unsteady boundary layers, super-sonic flows, shock - boundary layer interaction) Interfacial Dynamics (Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities) Unsteady Turbulent Processes (turbulence and turbulent mixing in unsteady, multiphase and anisotropic flows) High Energy Density Physics (laser-material interaction, Z-pinches, laser-driven, heavy-ion and magnetic fusion) Astrophysics (supernovae, interstellar medium, star formation, stellar interiors, early Universe, cosmic micro-wave background) Magneto-hydrodynamics (magneto-convection, magneto-rotational instability, accretion disks, dynamo) Plasmas in Ionosphere (coupled plasmas, anomalous resistance, ionosphere) Physics of Atmosphere (environmental fluid dynamics, forecasting, data analysis, error estimate) Geophysics (turbulent convection in stratified, rotating and active flows) Combustion (dynamics of flames, fires, blast waves and explosions) Mathematical Aspects of Multi-Scale Dynamics (vortex dynamics, singularities, discontinuities, asymptotic dynamics, weak solutions, well- and ill-posedness) Statistical Approaches, Stochastic Processes and Probabilistic Description (uncertainty quantification, anomalous diffusion, long-tail distributions, wavelets) Advanced Numerical Simulations
Alberico, W M
2004-01-01
The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...
Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L
2016-11-01
Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, R I; Li, P S; McKee, C F; Fisher, R
2008-04-10
Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256{sup 3} and 512{sup 3} simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li et al. (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectra compared to the ideal MHD case. Changes in the density PDF, total magnetic energy, and ionization fraction are determined as a function of the AD Reynolds number. The power spectra for the neutral gas properties of a strongly magnetized medium with a low AD Reynolds number are similar to those for a weakly magnetized medium; in particular, the power spectrum of the neutral velocity is close to that for Burgers turbulence.
Turbulent thermal diffusion in strongly stratified turbulence: theory and experiments
Amir, G; Eidelman, A; Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I
2016-01-01
Turbulent thermal diffusion is a combined effect of the temperature stratified turbulence and inertia of small particles. It causes the appearance of a non-diffusive turbulent flux of particles in the direction of the turbulent heat flux. This non-diffusive turbulent flux of particles is proportional to the product of the mean particle number density and the effective velocity of inertial particles. The theory of this effect has been previously developed only for small temperature gradients and small Stokes numbers (Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 76}, 224, 1996). In this study a generalized theory of turbulent thermal diffusion for arbitrary temperature gradients and Stokes numbers has been developed. The laboratory experiments in the oscillating grid turbulence and in the multi-fan produced turbulence have been performed to validate the theory of turbulent thermal diffusion in strongly stratified turbulent flows. It has been shown that the ratio of the effective velocity of inertial particles to the characteristic ve...
Nedospasov, A. V.
1992-12-01
Edge turbulence is of decisive importance for the distribution of particle and energy fluxes to the walls of tokamaks. Despite the availability of extensive experimental data on the turbulence properties, its nature still remains a subject for discussion. This paper contains a review of the most recent theoretical and experimental studies in the field, including mainly the studies to which Wootton (A.J. Wooton, J. Nucl. Mater. 176 & 177 (1990) 77) referred to most in his review at PSI-9 and those published later. The available theoretical models of edge turbulence with volume dissipation due to collisions fail to fully interpret the entire combination of experimental facts. In the scrape-off layer of a tokamak the dissipation prevails due to the flow of current through potential shifts near the surface of limiters of divertor plates. The different origins of turbulence at the edge and in the core plasma due to such dissipation are discussed in this paper. Recent data on the electron temperature fluctuations enabled one to evaluate the electric probe measurements of turbulent flows of particles and heat critically. The latest data on the suppression of turbulence in the case of L-H transitions are given. In doing so, the possibility of exciting current instabilities in biasing experiments (rather than only to the suppression of existing turbulence) is given some attention. Possible objectives of further studies are also discussed.
CHARACTERIZATION OF TURBULENCE FROM SUBMILLIMETER DUST EMISSION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chitsazzadeh, Shadi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Hildebrand, Roger H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vaillancourt, John [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States)
2012-04-10
In this paper, we use our recent technique for estimating the turbulent component of the magnetic field to derive the structure functions of the unpolarized emission as well as that of the Stokes Q and U parameters of the polarized emission. The solutions for the structure functions to 350 {mu}m SHARP polarization data of OMC-1 allow the determination of the corresponding turbulent correlation length scales. The estimated values for these length scales are 9.''4 {+-} 0.''1, 7.''3 {+-} 0.''1, 12.''6 {+-} 0.''2 (or 20.5 {+-} 0.2, 16.0 {+-} 0.2, and 27.5 {+-} 0.4 mpc at 450 pc, the adopted distance for OMC-1) for the Stokes Q and U parameters, and for the unpolarized emission N, respectively. Our current results for Q and U are consistent with previous results obtained through other methods and may indicate presence of anisotropy in magnetized turbulence. We infer a weak coupling between the dust component responsible for the unpolarized emission N and the magnetic field B from the significant difference between their turbulent correlation length scales.
Measurement of Phase Coherence in Space Turbulence
Belmont, G.; Panis, J.; Rezeau, L.; Sahraoui, F.
2008-12-01
In many space plasmas such as Magnetosheath, intense magnetic fluctuations are permanently observed, with power law spectra. Assuming these fluctuations belong to some kind of turbulence, which can legitimately be suspected, spectra are clearly not sufficient to characterize it. Is this turbulence made of non linear "phase-coherent" structures, like in the classical Kolmogorov image, or is it made of incoherent waves as in weak turbulence? Is it homogeneous in space and scales or is it intermittent? " Many methods allow analyzing the statistical properties of turbulence, and the results obtained by tools such as structure functions or wavelets are of course influenced by all these properties, such providing indirect information about them. But few of them are specifically dedicated to the study of phase coherence so that the consequences that can be inferred from them are generally not univocal for this point of view. We will review those few tools existing in the literature that allow measuring more directly the phase coherence and present a new method, called "phase gradient analysis", which we are presently developing for this analysis. Preliminary results of this new tool will be presented.
Kaplan, L
1998-01-01
We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.
Interaction between mean flow and turbulence in two dimensions
Falkovich, Gregory
2016-07-01
This short note is written to call attention to an analytic approach to the interaction of developed turbulence with mean flows of simple geometry (jets and vortices). It is instructive to compare cases in two and three dimensions and see why the former are solvable and the latter are not (yet). We present the analytical solutions for two-dimensional mean flows generated by an inverse turbulent cascade on a sphere and in planar domains of different aspect ratios. These solutions are obtained in the limit of small friction when the flow is strong while turbulence can be considered weak and treated perturbatively. I then discuss when these simple solutions can be realized and when more complicated flows may appear instead. The next step of describing turbulence statistics inside a flow and directions of possible future progress are briefly discussed at the end.
Phoresis-induced clustering of particles in turbulence
Schmidt, Lukas; Fouxon, Itzhak; Krug, Dominik; van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Holzner, Markus
2015-11-01
We demonstrate phoresis-induced clustering of non-inertial particles in turbulent flows. Phoretic mechanisms such as thermophoresis, chemotaxis or diffusiophroesis are known to create a particle drift with respect to the fluid. Theory, based on the framework of weakly compressible flow, predicts that particles in turbulence streaked by salinity gradients experience a diffusiophoretic drift and will thus form particle cluster. An inclined gravity current setup is used to analyse clustering due to the diffusiophoretic effect in turbulent flow experimentally. Simultaneous 3D particle tracking velocimetry and laser induced fluorescent measurements provide the full Lagrangian velocity field and the local salt concentration in the observed 3D domain. Two independent methods show consistent evidence of the theoretically predicted particle clustering in turbulence. This clustering mechanism can provide the key to the understanding of spontaneous clustering phenomena such as the formation of marine snow in the ocean.
Belotserkovskii, OM; Chechetkin, VM
2005-01-01
The authors present the results of numerical experiments carried out to examine the problem of development of turbulence and convection. On the basis of the results, they propose a physical model of the development of turbulence. Numerical algorithms and difference schema for carrying out numerical experiments in hydrodynamics, are proposed. Original algorithms, suitable for calculation of the development of the processes of turbulence and convection in different conditions, even on astrophysical objects, are presented. The results of numerical modelling of several important phenomena having both fundamental and applied importance are described.
Turbulent current drive mechanisms
McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua
2017-08-01
Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K.S. [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B.J. [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bershadskii, A.G.
1985-06-01
An exact solution for the nonlinear problem of the spectral energy function of a homogeneous turbulence is derived under the assumption that energy transfer under the effect of inertial forces is determined mainly by the interactions among vortices whose wavenumbers are only slightly different from each other. The results are experimentally verified for turbulence behind grids. Similar problems are solved for MHD turbulence and for a nonstationary spectral energy function. It is shown that at the initial stage of degeneration, the spectral energy function is little influenced by the Stewart number; this agrees with experimental data for the damping of longitudinal velocity pulsations behind a grid in a longitudinal magnetic field. 15 references.
Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction
Lane, Todd
2016-01-01
Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
Vorticity, Shocks and Magnetic Fields in Subsonic, ICM-like Turbulence
Porter, David H; Ryu, Dongsu
2015-01-01
We analyze high resolution simulations of compressible, MHD turbulence with properties resembling conditions in galaxy clusters. The flow is driven to turbulence Mach number $\\mathcal{M}_t \\sim 1/2$ in an isothermal medium with an initially very weak, uniform seed magnetic field ($\\beta = P_g/P_B = 10^6$). Since cluster turbulence is likely to result from a mix of sheared (solenoidal) and compressive forcing processes, we examine the distinct turbulence properties for both cases. In one set of simulations velocity forcing is entirely solenoidal ($\
Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga
2015-06-01
We generalize a recently introduced model for nonclassic turbulent spatial power spectrum involving anisotropy along two mutually orthogonal axes transverse to the direction of beam propagation by including two scale-dependent weighting factors for these directions. Such a turbulent model may be pertinent to atmospheric fluctuations in the refractive index in stratified regions well above the boundary layer and employed for air-air communication channels. When restricting ourselves to an unpolarized, coherent Gaussian beam and a weak turbulence regime, we examine the effects of such a turbulence type on the OOK FSO link performance by including the results on scintillation flux, probability of fade, SNR, and BERs.
Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes
Rodi, Wolfgang
The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami
Reconnection studies under different types of turbulence driving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Kowal
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We study a model of fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of weak turbulence proposed by Lazarian and Vishniac (1999 using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The model has been already successfully tested in Kowal et al. (2009 confirming the dependencies of the reconnection speed V_{rec} on the turbulence injection power P_{inj} and the injection scale l_{inj} expressed by a constraint V_{rec} ~ P_{inj}^{1/2}l_{inj}^{3/4}and no observed dependency on Ohmic resistivity. In Kowal et al. (2009, in order to drive turbulence, we injected velocity fluctuations in Fourier space with frequencies concentrated around k_{inj} = 1/l_{inj}, as described in Alvelius (1999. In this paper, we extend our previous studies by comparing fast magnetic reconnection under different mechanisms of turbulence injection by introducing a new way of turbulence driving. The new method injects velocity or magnetic eddies with a specified amplitude and scale in random locations directly in real space. We provide exact relations between the eddy parameters and turbulent power and injection scale. We performed simulations with new forcing in order to study turbulent power and injection scale dependencies. The results show no discrepancy between models with two different methods of turbulence driving exposing the same scalings in both cases. This is in agreement with the Lazarian and Vishniac (1999 predictions. In addition, we performed a series of models with varying viscosity ν. Although Lazarian and Vishniac (1999 do not provide any prediction for this dependence, we report a weak relation between the reconnection speed with viscosity, V_{rec} ~ ν^{−1/4}.
Kinetic intermittency in magnetized plasma turbulence
Teaca, Bogdan; Told, Daniel; Jenko, Frank
2016-01-01
We employ magnetized plasma turbulence, described by a gyrokinetic formalism in an interval ranging from the end of the fluid scales to the electron gyroradius, to introduce the first study of kinetic intermittency, in which nonlinear structures formed directly in the distribution functions are analyzed by accounting for velocity space correlations generated by linear (Landau resonance) and nonlinear phase mixing. Electron structures are found to be strongly intermittent and dominated by linear phase mixing, while nonlinear phase mixing dominates the weakly intermittent ions. This is the first time spatial intermittency and linear phase mixing are shown to be self-consistently linked for the electrons and, as the magnetic field follows the intermittency of the electrons at small scales, explain why magnetic islands are places dominated by Landau damping in steady state turbulence.
MHD Turbulence in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers
Chan, Chi-kwan
2012-01-01
The physical modeling of the accretion disk boundary layer, the region where the disk meets the surface of the accreting star, usually relies on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity, widely adopted in astrophysics, satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability is inefficient in this inner disk region. I will discuss the results of a recent study on the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in the boundary layer around a weakly magnetized star. Our findings suggest that although magnetic energy density can be significantly amplified in this region, angular momentum transport is rather inefficient. This seems consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations...
Development of renormalization group analysis of turbulence
Smith, L. M.
1990-01-01
The renormalization group (RG) procedure for nonlinear, dissipative systems is now quite standard, and its applications to the problem of hydrodynamic turbulence are becoming well known. In summary, the RG method isolates self similar behavior and provides a systematic procedure to describe scale invariant dynamics in terms of large scale variables only. The parameterization of the small scales in a self consistent manner has important implications for sub-grid modeling. This paper develops the homogeneous, isotropic turbulence and addresses the meaning and consequence of epsilon-expansion. The theory is then extended to include a weak mean flow and application of the RG method to a sequence of models is shown to converge to the Navier-Stokes equations.
Development of renormalization group analysis of turbulence
Smith, L. M.
1990-01-01
The renormalization group (RG) procedure for nonlinear, dissipative systems is now quite standard, and its applications to the problem of hydrodynamic turbulence are becoming well known. In summary, the RG method isolates self similar behavior and provides a systematic procedure to describe scale invariant dynamics in terms of large scale variables only. The parameterization of the small scales in a self consistent manner has important implications for sub-grid modeling. This paper develops the homogeneous, isotropic turbulence and addresses the meaning and consequence of epsilon-expansion. The theory is then extended to include a weak mean flow and application of the RG method to a sequence of models is shown to converge to the Navier-Stokes equations.
Scrambled and Unscrambled Turbulence
Ramaprabhu, P; Lawrie, A G W
2013-01-01
The linked fluid dynamics videos depict Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence when driven by a complex acceleration profile involving two stages of acceleration interspersed with a stage of stabilizing deceleration. Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability occurs at the interface separating two fluids of different densities, when the lighter fluid is accelerated in to the heavier fluid. The turbulent mixing arising from the development of the miscible RT instability is of key importance in the design of Inertial Confinement Fusion capsules, and to the understanding of astrophysical events, such as Type Ia supernovae. By driving this flow with an accel-decel-accel profile, we have investigated how structures in RT turbulence are affected by a sudden change in the direction of the acceleration first from destabilizing acceleration to deceleration, and followed by a restoration of the unstable acceleration. By studying turbulence under such highly non-equilibrium conditions, we hope to develop an understanding of the response and ...
Stochastic modelling of turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse
This thesis addresses stochastic modelling of turbulence with applications to wind energy in mind. The primary tool is ambit processes, a recently developed class of computationally tractable stochastic processes based on integration with respect to Lévy bases. The subject of ambit processes...... stochastic turbulence model based on ambit processes is proposed. It is shown how a prescribed isotropic covariance structure can be reproduced. Non-Gaussian turbulence models are obtained through non-Gaussian Lévy bases or through volatility modulation of Lévy bases. As opposed to spectral models operating...... is dissipated into heat due to the internal friction caused by viscosity. An existing stochastic model, also expressed in terms of ambit processes, is extended and shown to give a universal and parsimonious description of the turbulent energy dissipation. The volatility modulation, referred to above, has...
Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa L.; Plouraboué, Franck
2015-09-01
Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small-scale turbulence arising where viscous effects are dominant. We report the first observation of universal enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of a velocity field power spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in 2D turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures of a size that provides an integral scale of turbulence. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-2D turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interactions and alignment, a state of active matter that we call "swarming liquid crystal." We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation.
Zare, Armin; Georgiou, Tryphon T
2016-01-01
Second-order statistics of turbulent flows can be obtained either experimentally or via direct numerical simulations. Statistics reflect fundamentals of flow physics and can be used to develop low-complexity turbulence models. Due to experimental or numerical limitations it is often the case that only partial flow statistics can be reliably known, i.e., only certain correlations between a limited number of flow field components are available. Thus, it is of interest to complete the statistical signature of the flow field in a way that is consistent with the known dynamics. This is an inverse problem and our approach utilizes stochastically-forced linearization around turbulent mean velocity profile. In general, white-in-time stochastic forcing is not sufficient to explain turbulent flow statistics. In contrast, colored-in-time forcing of the linearized equations allows for exact matching of available correlations. To accomplish this, we develop dynamical models that generate the required stochastic excitation...
Dissipation in unsteady turbulence
Bos, Wouter
2016-01-01
Recent experiments and simulations have shown that unsteady turbulent flows, before reaching a dynamic equilibrium state, display a universal behaviour. We show that the observed universal non-equilibrium scaling can be explained using a non-equilibrium correction of Kolmogorov's energy spectrum. Given the universality of the experimental and numerical observations, the ideas presented here lay the foundation for the modeling of a wide class of unsteady turbulent flows.
Stochastic tools in turbulence
Lumey, John L
2012-01-01
Stochastic Tools in Turbulence discusses the available mathematical tools to describe stochastic vector fields to solve problems related to these fields. The book deals with the needs of turbulence in relation to stochastic vector fields, particularly, on three-dimensional aspects, linear problems, and stochastic model building. The text describes probability distributions and densities, including Lebesgue integration, conditional probabilities, conditional expectations, statistical independence, lack of correlation. The book also explains the significance of the moments, the properties of the
Turbulent Plasmoid Reconnection
Widmer, Fabien; Yokoi, Nobumitsu
2016-01-01
The plasmoid instability may lead to fast magnetic reconnection through long current sheets(CS). It is well known that large-Reynolds-number plasmas easily become turbulent. We address the question whether turbulence enhances the energy conversion rate of plasmoid-unstable current sheets. We carry out appropriate numerical MHD simulations, but resolving simultaneously the relevant large-scale (mean-) fields and the corresponding small-scale, turbulent, quantities by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS) is not possible. Hence we investigate the influence of small scale turbulence on large scale MHD processes by utilizing a subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model. We verify the applicability of our SGS model and then use it to investigate the influence of turbulence on the plasmoid instability. We start the simulations with Harris-type and force-free CS equilibria in the presence of a finite guide field in the direction perpendicular to the reconnection plane. We use the DNS results to investigate the growt...
Dosen, K
2010-01-01
An operad (this paper deals with non-symmetric operads) may be conceived as a partial algebra with a family of insertion operations, Gerstenhaber's circle-i products, which satisfy two kinds of associativity, one of them involving commutativity. A Cat-operad is an operad enriched over the category Cat of small categories, as a 2-category with small hom-categories is a category enriched over Cat. The notion of weak Cat-operad is to the notion of Cat-operad what the notion of bicategory is to the notion of 2-category. The equations of operads like associativity of insertions are replaced by isomorphisms in a category. The goal of this paper is to formulate conditions concerning these isomorphisms that ensure coherence, in the sense that all diagrams of canonical arrows commute. This is the sense in which the notions of monoidal category and bicategory are coherent. The coherence proof in the paper is much simplified by indexing the insertion operations in a context-independent way, and not in the usual manner. ...
On the accuracy of analytical methods for turbulent flows near smooth walls
Absi, Rafik; Di Nucci, Carmine
2012-09-01
This Note presents two methods for mean streamwise velocity profiles of fully-developed turbulent pipe and channel flows near smooth walls. The first is the classical approach where the mean streamwise velocity is obtained by solving the momentum equation with an eddy viscosity formulation [R. Absi, A simple eddy viscosity formulation for turbulent boundary layers near smooth walls, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009) 158-165]. The second approach presents a formulation of the velocity profile based on an analogy with an electric field distribution [C. Di Nucci, E. Fiorucci, Mean velocity profiles of fully-developed turbulent flows near smooth walls, C. R. Mecanique 339 (2011) 388-395] and a formulation for the turbulent shear stress. However, this formulation for the turbulent shear stress shows a weakness. A corrected formulation is presented. Comparisons with DNS data show that the classical approach with the eddy viscosity formulation provides more accurate profiles for both turbulent shear stress and velocity gradient.
The Mechanical Greenhouse: Burial of Heat by Turbulence in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres
Youdin, Andrew N
2010-01-01
The intense irradiation received by hot Jupiters suppresses convection in the outer layers of their atmospheres and lowers their cooling rates. "Inflated" hot Jupiters, i.e., those with anomalously large transit radii, require additional sources of heat or suppressed cooling. We consider the effect of forced turbulent mixing in the radiative layer, which could be driven by atmospheric circulation or by another mechanism. Due to stable stratification in the atmosphere, forced turbulence drives a downward flux of heat. Weak turbulent mixing slows the cooling rate by this process, as if the planet was irradiated more intensely. Stronger turbulent mixing buries heat into the convective interior, provided the turbulence extends to the radiative-convective boundary. This inflates the planet until a balance is reached between the heat buried into and radiated from the interior. We also include the direct injection of heat due to the dissipation of turbulence or other effects. Such heating is already known to slow pl...
Turbulent relaxation and meta-stable equilibrium states of an electron plasma
Rodgers, Douglas J.
A Malmberg-Penning electron trap allows for the experimental study of nearly ideal, two-dimensional (2D) inviscid (Euler) hydrodynamics. This is perhaps the simplest case of self organizing nonlinear turbulence, and is therefore a paradigm for dynamo theory, Taylor relaxation, selective decay and other nonlinear fluid processes. The dynamical relaxation of a pure electron plasma in the guiding-center-drift approximation is studied, comparing experiments, numerical simulations and statistical theories of weakly-dissipative 2D turbulence. The nonuniform metastable equilibrium states resulting from turbulent evolution are examined, and are well-described by a maximum entropy principle for constrained circulation, energy, and angular momentum. The turbulent decay of the system is also examined, and a similarity decay law is proposed which incorporates the substantial enstrophy trapped in the metastable equilibrium. This law approaches Batchelor's t-2 self-similar decay in the limit of strong turbulence, and is verified in turbulent evolution in the electron plasma experiment.
Weak Total Resolvability In Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Casel Katrin
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A vertex v ∈ V (G is said to distinguish two vertices x, y ∈ V (G of a graph G if the distance from v to x is di erent from the distance from v to y. A set W ⊆ V (G is a total resolving set for a graph G if for every pair of vertices x, y ∈ V (G, there exists some vertex w ∈ W − {x, y} which distinguishes x and y, while W is a weak total resolving set if for every x ∈ V (G−W and y ∈ W, there exists some w ∈ W −{y} which distinguishes x and y. A weak total resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a weak total metric basis of G and its cardinality the weak total metric dimension of G. Our main contributions are the following ones: (a Graphs with small and large weak total metric bases are characterised. (b We explore the (tight relation to independent 2-domination. (c We introduce a new graph parameter, called weak total adjacency dimension and present results that are analogous to those presented for weak total dimension. (d For trees, we derive a characterisation of the weak total (adjacency metric dimension. Also, exact figures for our parameters are presented for (generalised fans and wheels. (e We show that for Cartesian product graphs, the weak total (adjacency metric dimension is usually pretty small. (f The weak total (adjacency dimension is studied for lexicographic products of graphs.
Model of strong stationary vortex turbulence in space plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. D. Aburjania
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the macroscopic consequences of nonlinear solitary vortex structures in magnetized space plasmas by developing theoretical model of plasma turbulence. Strongly localized vortex patterns contain trapped particles and, propagating in a medium, excite substantial density fluctuations and thus, intensify the energy, heat and mass transport processes, i.e., such vortices can form strong vortex turbulence. Turbulence is represented as an ensemble of strongly localized (and therefore weakly interacting vortices. Vortices with various amplitudes are randomly distributed in space (due to collisions. For their description, a statistical approach is applied. It is supposed that a stationary turbulent state is formed by balancing competing effects: spontaneous development of vortices due to nonlinear twisting of the perturbations' fronts, cascading of perturbations into short scales (direct spectral cascade and collisional or collisionless damping of the perturbations in the short-wave domain. In the inertial range, direct spectral cascade occurs through merging structures via collisions. It is shown that in the magneto-active plasmas, strong turbulence is generally anisotropic Turbulent modes mainly develop in the direction perpendicular to the local magnetic field. It is found that it is the compressibility of the local medium which primarily determines the character of the turbulent spectra: the strong vortex turbulence forms a power spectrum in wave number space. For example, a new spectrum of turbulent fluctuations in k^{−8/3} is derived which agrees with available experimental data. Within the framework of the developed model particle diffusion processes are also investigated. It is found that the interaction of structures with each other and particles causes anomalous diffusion in the medium. The effective coefficient of diffusion has a square root dependence on the stationary level of noise.
Turbulence and Fossil Turbulence in Oceans and Lakes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pak-Tao Leung; Carl H. Gibson
2004-01-01
Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any of the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Energy cascades of irrotational flows from large scales to small are non-turbulent, even if they supply energy to turbulence. Turbulent flows are rotational and cascade from small scales to large, with feedback. Viscous forces limit the smallest turbulent eddy size to the Kolmogorov scale. In stratified fluids, buoyancy forces limit large vertical overturns to the Ozmidov scale and convert the largest turbulent eddies into a unique class of saturated, non-propagating, internal waves, termed fossil-vorticity-turbulence. These waves have the same energy but different properties and spectral forms than the original turbulence patch. The Gibson (1980, 1986) theory of fossil turbulence applies universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as its growth is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Quantitative hydrodynamic-phase-diagrams (HPDs) from the theory are used to classify microstructure patches according to their hydrodynamic states. When analyzed in HPD space, previously published oceanic datasets showed their dominant microstructure patches are fossilized at large scales in all layers. Laboratory and field measurements suggested phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies by pattern recognition of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times that predict survival-relevant surface layer sea changes. New data collected near a Honolulu waste-water outfall showed the small-to-large evolution of oceanic turbulence microstructure from active to fossil states, and revealed the ability of fossil-density-turbulence patches to absorb, and vertically radiate, internal wave energy, information, and enhanced turbulent
Anisotropic electrostatic turbulence and zonal flow generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balescu, R [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, 13 A.I.Cuza Str., 200585 Craiova (Romania); Negrea, M [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, 13 A.I.Cuza Str., 200585 Craiova (Romania)
2005-12-15
In this paper we analyse the running and asymptotic diffusion coefficients of a plasma in the case of zonal flow generation by an anisotropic stochastic electrostatic potential. Both the weak and relatively strong turbulence regimes were analysed. The analysis of the diffusion coefficients in wave vector space provides an illustration of the fragmentation of drift wave structures in the radial direction and the generation of long-wavelength structures in the poloidal direction that are identified as zonal flows. We have shown that the fragmentation of drift wave structures is strongly influenced by the anisotropy parameter, the electrostatic Kubo number and by the initial values of the wave vector.
Turbulence in laminar premixed V-flames
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG; Xiaoqian(张孝谦); LEI; Yu(雷宇); WANG; Baorui(王宝瑞); WANG; Yue(王岳); WEI; Minggang(韦明罡)
2003-01-01
Strong velocity fluctuations had been found in the laminar premixed V-flames. These velocity fluctuations are closely related to the chemical reaction. But the effects of the upstream combustible mixture velocity on the velocity fluctuations inside the flame are quite weak. The probability distribution function (PDF) of the velocity in the centre region of the flame appears "flat top" shaped. By analyzing the experiment results the flame-flow interactions are found to affect the flame not only at large scale in the flow field but also at small scale inside the flame. These effects will give rise to flame generated small scale turbulences.
Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J. C.
2016-11-01
We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5 /3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935), 10.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.
Weak compactness of biharmonic maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shenzhou Zheng
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This article shows that if a sequence of weak solutions of a perturbed biharmonic map satisfies $Phi_ko 0$ in $(W^{2,2}^*$ and $u_kightharpoonup u$ weakly in $W^{2,2}$, then $u$ is a biharmonic map. In particular, we show that the space of biharmonic maps is sequentially compact under the weak-$W^{2,2}$ topology.
Turbulence in Natural Environments
Banerjee, Tirtha
Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be
Turbulence and Stochastic Processes
Celani, Antonio; Mazzino, Andrea; Pumir, Alain
sec:08-1In 1931 the monograph Analytical Methods in Probability Theory appeared, in which A.N. Kolmogorov laid the foundations for the modern theory of Markov processes [1]. According to Gnedenko: "In the history of probability theory it is difficult to find other works that changed the established points of view and basic trends in research work in such a decisive way". Ten years later, his article on fully developed turbulence provided the framework within which most, if not all, of the subsequent theoretical investigations have been conducted [2] (see e.g. the review by Biferale et al. in this volume [3]. Remarkably, the greatest advances made in the last few years towards a thorough understanding of turbulence developed from the successful marriage between the theory of stochastic processes and the phenomenology of turbulent transport of scalar fields. In this article we will summarize these recent developments which expose the direct link between the intermittency of transported fields and the statistical properties of particle trajectories advected by the turbulent flow (see also [4], and, for a more thorough review, [5]. We also discuss the perspectives of the Lagrangian approach beyond passive scalars, especially for the modeling of hydrodynamic turbulence.
Multifluid magnetohydrodynamic turbulent decay
Downes, Turlough P
2011-01-01
It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation which occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512-cubed resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power-law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingl...
Turbulence introduction to theory and applications of turbulent flows
Westerweel, Jerry; Nieuwstadt, Frans T M
2016-01-01
This book provides a general introduction to the topic of turbulent flows. Apart from classical topics in turbulence, attention is also paid to modern topics. After studying this work, the reader will have the basic knowledge to follow current topics on turbulence in scientific literature. The theory is illustrated with a number of examples of applications, such as closure models, numerical simulations and turbulent diffusion, and experimental findings. The work also contains a number of illustrative exercises.
Analytical Interaction of the Acoustic Wave and Turbulent Flame
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TENG Hong-Hui; JIANG Zong-Lin
2007-01-01
A modified resonance model of a weakly turbulent flame in a high-frequency acoustic wave is derived analytically.Under the mechanism of Darrieus-Landau instability, the amplitude of flame wrinkles, which is as functions of turbulence. The high perturbation wave number makes the resonance easier to be triggered but weakened with respect to the extra acoustic wave. In a closed burning chamber with the acoustic wave induced by the flame itself, the high perturbation wave number is to restrain the resonance for a realistic flame.
Scintillation index of optical wave propagating in turbulent atmosphere
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rao Rui-Zhong
2009-01-01
A concise expression of the scintillation index is proposed for a plane optical wave and a spherical optical wave both propagating in a turbulent atmosphere with a zero inner scale and a finite inner scale under an arbitrary fluc- tuation condition. The expression is based on both the results in the Rytov approximation under a weak fluctuation condition and the numerical results in a strong fluctuation regime. The maximum value of the scintillation index and its corresponding Rytov index axe evaluated. These quantities are affected by the ratio of the turbulence inner scale to the Frcsnel size.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium
Falceta-Goncalves, D; Falgarone, E; Chian, A C -L
2014-01-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in the insterstellar medium and plays a major role in several processes such as the formation of dense structures and stars, the stability of molecular clouds, the amplification of magnetic fields, and the re-acceleration and diffusion of cosmic rays. Despite its importance, interstellar turbulence, alike turbulence in general, is far from being fully understood. In this review we present the basics of turbulence physics, focusing on the statistics of its structure and energy cascade. We explore the physics of compressible and incompressible turbulent flows, as well as magnetized cases. The most relevant observational techniques that provide quantitative insights of interstellar turbulence are also presented. We also discuss the main difficulties in developing a three-dimensional view of interstellar turbulence from these observations. Finally, we briefly present what could be the the main sources of turbulence in the interstellar medium.
Intrinsic Axial Flows in CSDX and Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in ITG Turbulence
Li, Jiacong; Diamond, P. H.; Hong, R.; Thakur, S. C.; Xu, X. Q.; Tynan, G. R.
2016-10-01
Toroidal plasma rotation can enhance confinement when combined with weak magnetic shear. Also, external rotation drive in future fusion devices (e.g. ITER) will be weak. Together, these two considerations drive us to study intrinsic rotations with weak magnetic shear. In particular, a global transition is triggered in CSDX when magnetic field B exceeds a critical strength threshold. At the transition an ion feature emerges in the core turbulence. Recent studies show that a dynamical symmetry breaking mechanism in drift wave turbulence can drive intrinsic axial flows in CSDX, as well as enhance intrinsic rotations in tokamaks. Here, we focus on what happens when ion features emerge in CSDX, and how ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence drives intrinsic rotations with weak magnetic shear. The effect of dynamical symmetry breaking in ITG turbulence depends on the stability regime. In a marginally stable regime, dynamical symmetry breaking results in an augmented turbulence viscosity (chi-phi). However, when ITG is far from the stability boundary, a negative increment in turbulent viscosity is induced. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award No. DE-FG02-04ER54738.
Magnetic discontinuities in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and in the solar wind.
Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Mason, Joanne; Perez, Jean Carlos
2012-04-27
Recent measurements of solar wind turbulence report the presence of intermittent, exponentially distributed angular discontinuities in the magnetic field. In this Letter, we study whether such discontinuities can be produced by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We detect the discontinuities by measuring the fluctuations of the magnetic field direction, Δθ, across fixed spatial increments Δx in direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence with an imposed uniform guide field B(0). A large region of the probability density function (pdf) for Δθ is found to follow an exponential decay, proportional to exp(-Δθ/θ(*)), with characteristic angle θ(*)≈(14°)(b(rms)/B(0))(0.65) for a broad range of guide-field strengths. We find that discontinuities observed in the solar wind can be reproduced by MHD turbulence with reasonable ratios of b(rms)/B(0). We also observe an excess of small angular discontinuities when Δx becomes small, possibly indicating an increasing statistical significance of dissipation-scale structures. The structure of the pdf in this case closely resembles the two-population pdf seen in the solar wind. We thus propose that strong discontinuities are associated with inertial-range MHD turbulence, while weak discontinuities emerge from dissipation-range turbulence. In addition, we find that the structure functions of the magnetic field direction exhibit anomalous scaling exponents, which indicates the existence of intermittent structures.
Limits on the ions temperature anisotropy in turbulent intracluster medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos-Lima, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik und Astronomie; Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas; Yan, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik und Astronomie; Gouveia Dal Pino, E.M. de [Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas; Lazarian, A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
2016-05-15
Turbulence in the weakly collisional intracluster medium of galaxies (ICM) is able to generate strong thermal velocity anisotropies in the ions (with respect to the local magnetic field direction), if the magnetic moment of the particles is conserved in the absence of Coulomb collisions. In this scenario, the anisotropic pressure magnetohydrodynamic (AMHD) turbulence shows a very different statistical behaviour from the standard MHD one and is unable to amplify seed magnetic fields, in disagreement with previous cosmological MHD simulations which are successful to explain the observed magnetic fields in the ICM. On the other hand, temperature anisotropies can also drive plasma instabilities which can relax the anisotropy. This work aims to compare the relaxation rate with the growth rate of the anisotropies driven by the turbulence. We employ quasilinear theory to estimate the ions scattering rate due to the parallel firehose, mirror, and ion-cyclotron instabilities, for a set of plasma parameters resulting from AMHD simulations of the turbulent ICM. We show that the ICM turbulence can sustain only anisotropy levels very close to the instabilities thresholds. We argue that the AMHD model which bounds the anisotropies at the marginal stability levels can describe the Alfvenic turbulence cascade in the ICM.
A Model for the Saturation of the Turbulent Dynamo
Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S
2015-01-01
The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e. on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e. the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present the first scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover timescale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales...
Turbulence Measurements in Swirling Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Domkundwar
1981-10-01
Full Text Available Investigation have been conducted to find out the region of high turbulent intensities in a swirling jet passing through a divergent passage. A hot wire anemometer is used to measure the turbulence intensity using a four position method. It has been concluded that the jet spreads with increasing diffuser angle and the region of high turbulent intensity also spreads. The high turbulence intensity region lies around the recirculation zone and it decays rapidly along the main flow direction.
Joint Agency Turbulence Experiment.
1985-01-21
Time Series of Aircraft Longitudinal Gust Data For Penetration 1 on 1 July 1981 63 C5. Time Series of Turbulence Severity Estimates Derived From 400 m...spectral analysis of aircraft longitudinal gust data is shown in Figure B1. Figure B2 shows a modeled turbulence field. The model displays the expected...centered about Location C o %-. -. °,4 0- S E - oo -12 -4 - to 20 so O so s 7D -U. TIME (sec) Figure C4. Time Series of Aircraft Longitudinal Gust Data
Li, Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.; Miyato, N.; Matsumoto, T.
2004-11-01
We investigate how the magnetic shear governs the dynamics of large-scale structures, such as zonal flows and streamers, in electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence. Based on the well-known 2D Hasegawa-Mima turbulence modeling, which is the inviscid version of fluid (or gyrofluid) ETG turbulence [1], we derive a general dispersion relation of secondary fluctuations through modulation instability analysis. The results show that the formation of different large-scale structures including zonal flow, streamer and so-called generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (GKH) mode in ETG turbulence depends on the spectral anisotropy of turbulent fluctuation. In a slab geometry, the magnetic shear closely relates to the ETG mode structures so that it may determine the pattern selection in the quasi-steady ETG turbulence. 3D gyrofluid slab ETG simulations show that turbulent ETG fluctuation energy condenses to the zonal flows in the weak shear plasmas and to the streamer component for the high shears. 2D ETG simulations with rather high resolution not only exhibits the global spectral distribution of zonal flows, but also further confirm a mechanism: enhanced zonal flow in weak shear ETG turbulence is limited by exciting a KH mode [1]. Furthermore, in toroidal ETG simulations, streamer structures are observed at around good curvature region along the flux tube in the quasisteady state in some medium shear regime. Related streamer dynamics are also investigated. [1] Jiquan Li and Y. Kishimoto, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1493(2004)
[Systemic lupus erythematosus and weakness].
Vinagre, Filipe; Santos, Maria José; da Silva, José Canas
2006-01-01
We report a case of a 13-year old young girl, with Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and recent onset of muscle weakness. Investigations lead to the diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis. The most important causes of muscle weakness in lupus patients are discussed.
Characterization of Turbulence from Submillimeter Dust Emission
Chitsazzadeh, Shadi; Hildebrand, Roger H; Vaillancourt, John
2012-01-01
In this paper we use our recent technique for estimating the turbulent component of the magnetic field to derive the structure functions of the unpolarized emission as well as that of the Stokes Q and U parameters of the polarized emission. The solutions for the structure functions to 350-um SHARP polarization data of OMC-1 allow the determination of the corresponding turbulent correlation length scales. The estimated values for these length scales are 9.4" +/- 0.1", 7.3" +/- 0.1", 12.6" +/- 0.2" (or 20.5 +/- 0.2, 16.0 +/- 0.2, and 27.5 +/- 0.4 mpc at 450 pc, the adopted distance for OMC-1) for the Stokes Q and U parameters, and for the unpolarized emission N, respectively. Our current results for Q and U are consistent with previous results obtained through other methods, and may indicate presence of anisotropy in magnetized turbulence. We infer a weak coupling between the dust component responsible for the unpolarized emission N and the magnetic field B from the significant difference between their turbulen...
Localized turbulence in pipe flow
Kuik, D.J.
2011-01-01
In this thesis the transition to turbulence in pipe flow is investigated. At low Reynolds numbers, the flow returns to the laminar state spontaneously. At high Reynolds number a small perturbation causes the flow to suddenly become turbulent. In the intermediate regime localized turbulence is observ
Turbulent diffusion and galactic magnetism
Brandenburg, Axel
2009-01-01
Using the test-field method for nearly irrotational turbulence driven by spherical expansion waves it is shown that the turbulent magnetic diffusivity increases with magnetic Reynolds numbers. Its value levels off at several times the rms velocity of the turbulence multiplied by the typical radius of the expansion waves. This result is discussed in the context of the galactic mean-field dynamo.
Transitions in turbulent rotating convection
Rajaei, Hadi; Alards, Kim; Kunnen, Rudie; Toschi, Federico; Clercx, Herman; Fluid Dynamics Lab Team
2015-11-01
This study aims to explore the flow transition from one state to the other in rotating Rayleigh-Bènard convection using Lagrangian acceleration statistics. 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) is employed in a water-filled cylindrical tank of equal height and diameter. The measurements are performed at the center and close to the top plate at a Rayleigh number Ra = 1.28e9 and Prandtl number Pr = 6.7 for different rotation rates. In parallel, direct numerical simulation (DNS) has been performed to provide detailed information on the boundary layers. We report the acceleration pdfs for different rotation rates and show how the transition from weakly to strongly rotating Rayleigh-Bènard affects the acceleration pdfs in the bulk and boundary layers. We observe that the shapes of the acceleration PDFs as well as the isotropy in the cell center are largely unaffected while crossing the transition point. However, acceleration pdfs at the top show a clear change at the transition point. Using acceleration pdfs and DNS data, we show that the transition between turbulent states is actually a boundary layer transition between Prandtl-Blasius type (typical of non-rotating convection) and Ekman type.
Veen, van der Roeland Cornelis Adriaan
2016-01-01
In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study t
Multilevel turbulence simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tziperman, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
1994-12-31
The authors propose a novel method for the simulation of turbulent flows, that is motivated by and based on the Multigrid (MG) formalism. The method, called Multilevel Turbulence Simulations (MTS), is potentially more efficient and more accurate than LES. In many physical problems one is interested in the effects of the small scales on the larger ones, or in a typical realization of the flow, and not in the detailed time history of each small scale feature. MTS takes advantage of the fact that the detailed simulation of small scales is not needed at all times, in order to make the calculation significantly more efficient, while accurately accounting for the effects of the small scales on the larger scale of interest. In MTS, models of several resolutions are used to represent the turbulent flow. The model equations in each coarse level incorporate a closure term roughly corresponding to the tau correction in the MG formalism that accounts for the effects of the unresolvable scales on that grid. The finer resolution grids are used only a small portion of the simulation time in order to evaluate the closure terms for the coarser grids, while the coarse resolution grids are then used to accurately and efficiently calculate the evolution of the larger scales. The methods efficiency relative to direct simulations is of the order of the ratio of required integration time to the smallest eddies turnover time, potentially resulting in orders of magnitude improvement for a large class of turbulence problems.
Spirituality in Turbulent Times.
Wheatley, Margaret J.
2002-01-01
Discusses the importance of spiritual leadership in turbulent, uncertain times. Describes several spiritual principles--for example, life is cyclical; all life is interconnected. Offers six suggestions for personal health: Start day peacefully, learn to be mindful, slow things down, create own measures, expect surprise, practice gratefulness. (PKP)
Chemically Reacting Turbulent Flow.
1987-04-14
two stages of gen I tubes equipped with P-47 phosphor screens The detector chosen for the camera was a Reticon RL128S* line detectoI- .,hich consists...the Stud’, of Turbulent Mixing," William M. Pitts, Nuclear Engineering Seminar of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of
Incremental Similarity and Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen
This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Højstrup, Jørgen; Hansen, Kurt S.; Pedersen, Bo Juul;
1999-01-01
The pdf's of atmosperic turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour has been investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-gaussianity. Models for non-...
Cygankiewicz, Iwona
2013-01-01
Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. © 2013.
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
Theoretical and experimental research on nonlinear hydrodynamic stability and transition is presented. Bifurcations, amplitude equations, pattern in experiments, and shear flows are considered. Particular attention is given to bifurcations of plane viscous fluid flow and transition to turbulence, chaotic traveling wave covection, chaotic behavior of parametrically excited surface waves in square geometry, amplitude analysis of the Swift-Hohenberg equation, traveling wave convection in finite containers, focus instability in axisymmetric Rayleigh-Benard convection, scaling and pattern formation in flowing sand, dynamical behavior of instabilities in spherical gap flows, and nonlinear short-wavelength Taylor vortices. Also discussed are stability of a flow past a two-dimensional grid, inertia wave breakdown in a precessing fluid, flow-induced instabilities in directional solidification, structure and dynamical properties of convection in binary fluid mixtures, and instability competition for convecting superfluid mixtures.
Fast Reconnection of Weak Magnetic Fields
Zweibel, Ellen G.
1998-01-01
Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids.
Static magnetic fields enhance turbulence
Pothérat, Alban
2015-01-01
More often than not, turbulence occurs under the influence of external fields, mostly rotation and magnetic fields generated either by planets, stellar objects or by an industrial environment. Their effect on the anisotropy and the dissipative behaviour of turbulence is recognised but complex, and it is still difficult to even tell whether they enhance or dampen turbulence. For example, externally imposed magnetic fields suppress free turbulence in electrically conducting fluids (Moffatt 1967), and make it two-dimensional (2D) (Sommeria & Moreau 1982); but their effect on the intensity of forced turbulence, as in pipes, convective flows or otherwise, is not clear. We shall prove that since two-dimensionalisation preferentially affects larger scales, these undergo much less dissipation and sustain intense turbulent fluctuations. When higher magnetic fields are imposed, quasi-2D structures retain more kinetic energy, so that rather than suppressing forced turbulence, external magnetic fields indirectly enha...
Emergence of a Turbulent Cascade in a Quantum Gas
Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert P; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2016-01-01
In the modern understanding of turbulence, a central concept is the existence of cascades of excitations from large to small lengthscales, or vice-versa. This concept was introduced in 1941 by Kolmogorov and Obukhov, and the phenomenon has since been observed in a variety of systems, including interplanetary plasmas, supernovae, ocean waves, and financial markets. Despite a lot of progress, quantitative understanding of turbulence remains a challenge due to the interplay of many lengthscales that usually thwarts theoretical simulations of realistic experimental conditions. Here we observe the emergence of a turbulent cascade in a weakly interacting homogeneous Bose gas, a quantum fluid that is amenable to a theoretical description on all relevant lengthscales. We prepare a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in an optical box, drive it out of equilibrium with an oscillating force that pumps energy into the system at the largest lengthscale, study the BEC's nonlinear response to the periodic drive, and observe a gr...
Energy transfer and dual cascade in kinetic magnetized plasma turbulence.
Plunk, G G; Tatsuno, T
2011-04-22
The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.
Particle transport in density gradient driven TE mode turbulence
Skyman, Andreas; Strand, P I
2011-01-01
The turbulent transport of main ion and trace impurities in a tokamak device in the presence of steep electron density gradients has been studied. The parameters are chosen for trapped electron (TE) mode turbulence, driven primarily by steep electron density gradients relevant to H-mode physics, but with a transition to temperature gradient driven turbulence as the density gradient flattens. Results obtained through non-linear (NL) and quasilinear (QL) gyrokinetic simulations using the GENE code are compared with results obtained from a fluid model. Main ion and impurity transport is studied by examining the balance of convective and diffusive transport, as quantified by the density gradient corresponding to zero particle flux (peaking factor). Scalings are obtained for the impurity peaking with the background electron density gradient and the impurity charge number. It is shown that the impurity peaking factor is weakly dependent on impurity charge and significantly smaller than the driving electron density ...
Limits on the ions temperature anisotropy in turbulent intracluster medium
Santo-Lima, R; Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal; Lazarian, A
2016-01-01
Turbulence in the weakly collisional intracluster medium of galaxies (ICM) is able to generate strong thermal velocity anisotropies in the ions (with respect to the local magnetic field direction), if the magnetic moment of the particles is conserved in the absence of Coulomb collisions. In this scenario, the anisotropic MHD turbulence shows a very different statistical behaviour from the isotropic (standard) one and is unable to amplify seed magnetic fields, in disagreement with previous cosmological MHD simulations which are able to explain the observed magnetic fields in the ICM. On the other hand, temperature anisotropy can also drive kinetic instabilities which grow faster near the ions kinetic scales. Observations from the solar wind suggest that these micro- instabilities scatter the ions, thus relaxing the anisotropy. This work aims to compare this relaxation rate with the growth rate of the anisotropies driven by the turbulence. We employ quasilinear theory to estimate the scattering rate provided by...
Turbulent statistics and flow structures in spanwise-rotating turbulent plane Couette flows
Gai, Jie; Xia, Zhenhua; Cai, Qingdong; Chen, Shiyi
2016-09-01
A series of direct numerical simulations of spanwise-rotating turbulent plane Couette flows at a Reynolds number of 1300 with rotation numbers Ro between 0 and 0.9 is carried out to investigate the effects of anticyclonic rotation on turbulent statistics and flow structures. Several typical turbulent statistics are presented, including the mean shear rate at the centerline, the wall-friction Reynolds number, and volume-averaged kinetic energies with respect to the secondary flow field, turbulent field, and total fluctuation field. Our results show that the rotation changes these quantities in different manners. Volume-averaged balance equations for kinetic energy are analyzed and it turns out that the interaction term acts as a kinetic energy bridge that transfers energy from the secondary flow to the turbulent fluctuations. Several typical flow regimes are identified based on the correlation functions across the whole channel and flow visualizations. The two-dimensional roll cells are observed at weak rotation Ro=0.01 , where alternant clustering of vortices appears. Three-dimensional roll cells emerge around Ro≈0.02 , where the clustering of vortices shows the meandering and bifurcating behavior. For moderate rotation 0.07 ≲Ro≲0.36 , well-organized structures are observed, where the herringbonelike vortices are clustered between streaks from the top view of three-dimensional flow visualization and form annuluses. More importantly, the vortices are rather confined to one side of the walls when Ro≤0.02 and are inclined from the bottom to upper walls when Ro≥0.07 .
Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seitzman, Jerry [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lieuwen, Timothy [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
2014-09-30
This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These
Expressing oceanic turbulence parameters by atmospheric turbulence structure constant.
Baykal, Yahya
2016-02-20
The parameters composing oceanic turbulence are the wavelength, link length, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature, Kolmogorov microscale, and the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum. The required physical entities such as the average intensity and the scintillation index in the oceanic medium are formulated by using the power spectrum of oceanic turbulence, which is described by oceanic turbulence parameters. On the other hand, there exists a rich archive of formulations and results for the above-mentioned physical entities in atmospheric turbulence, where the parameters describing the turbulence are the wavelength, the link length, and the structure constant. In this paper, by equating the spherical wave scintillation index solutions in the oceanic and atmospheric turbulences, we have expressed the oceanic turbulence parameters by an equivalent structure constant used in turbulent atmosphere. Such equivalent structure constant will help ease reaching solutions of similar entities in an oceanic turbulent medium by employing the corresponding existing solutions, which are valid in an atmospheric turbulent medium.
Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements
Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.
2015-05-01
Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.
Precision metrology using weak measurements.
Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A
2015-05-29
Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.
Acute muscular weakness in children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.
Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Esau, I.
2013-03-01
Here we advance the physical background of the energy- and flux-budget turbulence closures based on the budget equations for the turbulent kinetic and potential energies and turbulent fluxes of momentum and buoyancy, and a new relaxation equation for the turbulent dissipation time scale. The closure is designed for stratified geophysical flows from neutral to very stable and accounts for the Earth's rotation. In accordance with modern experimental evidence, the closure implies the maintaining of turbulence by the velocity shear at any gradient Richardson number Ri, and distinguishes between the two principally different regimes: "strong turbulence" at {Ri ≪ 1} typical of boundary-layer flows and characterized by the practically constant turbulent Prandtl number Pr T; and "weak turbulence" at Ri > 1 typical of the free atmosphere or deep ocean, where Pr T asymptotically linearly increases with increasing Ri (which implies very strong suppression of the heat transfer compared to the momentum transfer). For use in different applications, the closure is formulated at different levels of complexity, from the local algebraic model relevant to the steady-state regime of turbulence to a hierarchy of non-local closures including simpler down-gradient models, presented in terms of the eddy viscosity and eddy conductivity, and a general non-gradient model based on prognostic equations for all the basic parameters of turbulence including turbulent fluxes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, P.H.; Biglari, H.; Gang, F.Y.; Kim, Y.B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Wang, X.H.; Xu, X.Q. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Dominguez, N.; Carreras, B.A.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lynch, V.E.; Charlton, L.A.; Garcia, L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Terry, P.W.; Newman, D.E. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Physics); Koniges, A.E.; Crotinger, J.; Dannevik, W. (Lawre
1990-12-01
Recent advances in the theory of trapped particle pressure gradient driven turbulence are summarized. A novel theory of trapped ion convective cell turbulence is presented. It is shown that nonlinear transfer to small scales occurs, and that saturation levels are not unphysically large, as previously thought. As the virulent saturation mechanism of ion Compton scattering is shown to result in weak turbulence at higher frequencies, it is thus likely that trapped ion convective cells are the major agent of tokamak transport. Fluid-like trapped electron modes at short wavelengths (k{sub {theta}} {rho}{sub i} > 1) are shown to drive an inward particle pinch. The characteristics of convective cell turbulence in flat density discharges are described, as is the stability of dissipative trapped electron modes in stellarators, with flexible magnetic field structure. The role of cross-correlations in the dynamics of multi-field models of drift wave turbulence is discussed. 32 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
MHD-kinetic transition in imbalanced Alfv$\\'{e}$nic turbulence
Voitenko, Yuriy
2016-01-01
Alfvenic turbulence in space is usually imbalanced: amplitudes of waves propagating parallel and anti-parallel to the mean magnetic field $B_0$ are unequal. It is commonly accepted that the turbulence is driven by (counter-) collisions between these counter-propagating wave fractions. Contrary to this, we found a new ion-scale dynamical range of the turbulence established by (co-) collisions among waves co-propagating in the same direction along $B_0$. The turbulent cascade is accelerated there and power spectra are steep and non-universal. The spectral indexes vary around -3 (-4) in the strong (weak) turbulence, such that steeper spectra follow larger imbalances. Intermittency steepens spectra further, up to -3.7 (-4.5). Our theoretical predictions are compatible with steep variable spectra observed in the solar wind at ion kinetic scales.
Correlation functions in isotropic and anisotropic turbulence the role of the symmetry group
Arad, I; Procaccia, I; Arad, Itai; L'vov, Victor S.; Procaccia, Itamar
1998-01-01
The theory of fully developed turbulence is usually considered in an idealized homogeneous and isotropic state. Real turbulent flows exhibit the effects of anisotropic forcing. The analysis of correlation functions and structure functions in isotropic and anisotropic situations is facilitated and made rational when performed in terms of the irreducible representations of the relevant symmetry group which is the group of all rotations SO(3). In this paper we firstly consider the needed general theory and explain why we expect different (universal) scaling exponents in the different sectors of the symmetry group. We exemplify the theory context of isotropic turbulence (for third order tensorial structure functions) and in weakly anisotropic turbulence (for the second order structure function). The utility of the resulting expressions for the analysis of experimental data is demonstrated in the context of high Reynolds number measurements of turbulence in the atmosphere.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yi-Xin; CANG Ji
2009-01-01
Effects of atmospheric turbulence tilt, defocus, astigmatism and coma aberrations on the orbital angular mo-mentum measurement probability of photons propagating in weak turbulent regime are modeled with Rytov approximation. By considering the resulting wave as a superposition of angular momentum eigenstates, the or-bital angular momentum measurement probabilities of the transmitted digit axe presented. Our results show that the effect of turbulent tilt aberration on the orbital angular momentum measurement probabilities of photons is the maximum among these four kinds of aberrations. As the aberration order increases, the effects of turbulence aberrations on the measurement probabilities of orbital angular momentum generally decrease, whereas the effect of turbulence defoens can be ignored. For tilt aberration, as the difference between the measured orbital angular momentum and the original orbital angular momentum increases, the orbital angular momentum measurement probabifity decreases.
Cold HI in Turbulent Eddies and Galactic Spiral Shocks
Steven J Gibson; Taylor, A. Russell; Stil, Jeroen M.; Brunt, Christopher M.; Kavars, Dain W.; Dickey, John M.
2007-01-01
HI 21cm-line self-absorption (HISA) reveals the shape and distribution of cold atomic clouds in the Galactic disk. Many of these clouds lack corresponding CO emission, despite being colder than purely atomic gas in equilibrium models. HISA requires background line emission at the same velocity, hence mechanisms that can produce such backgrounds. Weak, small-scale, and widespread absorption is likely to arise from turbulent eddies, while strong, large-scale absorption appears organized in clou...
Predicted Impacts of Proton Temperature Anisotropy on Solar Wind Turbulence
Klein, Kristopher G; Howes, Gregory G.
2015-01-01
Particle velocity distributions measured in the weakly collisional solar wind are frequently found to be non-Maxwellian, but how these non-Maxwellian distributions impact the physics of plasma turbulence in the solar wind remains unanswered. Using numerical solutions of the linear dispersion relation for a collisionless plasma with a bi-Maxwellian proton velocity distribution, we present a unified framework for the four proton temperature anisotropy instabilities, identifying the associated s...
Oscillating grids turbulence generator for turbulent transport studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Eidelman
2002-01-01
Full Text Available An oscillating grids turbulence generator was constructed for studies of two new effects associated with turbulent transport of particles, turbulent thermal diffusion and clustering instability. These effects result in formation of large-scale and small-scale inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of particles. The advantage of this experimental set-up is the feasibility to study turbulent transport in mixtures with controllable composition and unlimited observation time. For flow measurements we used Particle Image Velocimetry with the adaptive multi-pass algorithm to determine a turbulent velocity field and its statistical characteristics. Instantaneous velocity vector maps, flow streamlines and probability density function of velocity field demonstrate properties of turbulence generated in the device.
A turbulent premixed flame on fractal-grid generated turbulence
Soulopoulos, Nikos; Beyrau, Frank; Hardalupas, Yannis; Taylor, A M K P; Vassilicos, J Christos
2010-01-01
A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent combustion experiment. In contrast to the power law decay of a standard turbulence grid, the downstream turbulence intensity of the fractal grid increases until it reaches a peak at some distance from the grid before it finally decays. The effective mesh size and the solidity are the same as those of a standard square mesh grid with which it is compared. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry, the fractal generated turbulence enhances the burning rate and causes the flame to further increase its area. Using a flame fractal model, an attempt is made to highlight differences between the flames established at the two different turbulent fields.
PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.
2010-12-01
confined plasmas, magneto-convection, magneto-rotational instability, dynamo; Canonical plasmas: coupled plasmas, anomalous resistance, ionosphere; Physics of atmosphere: environmental fluid dynamics, weather forecasting, turbulent flows in stratified media and atmosphere, non-Boussinesq convection; Geophysics and Earth science: mantle-lithosphere tectonics, oceanography, turbulent convection under rotation, planetary interiors; Combustion: dynamics of flames and fires, deflagration-to-detonation transition, blast waves and explosions, flows with chemical reactions, flows in jet engines; Mathematical aspects of non-equilibrium dynamics: vortex dynamics, singularities, discontinuities, asymptotic dynamics, weak solutions, well- and ill-posedness, continuous transports out of thermodynamic equilibrium; Stochastic processes and probabilistic description: long-tail distributions and anomalous diffusion, data assimilation and processing methodologies, error estimate and uncertainty quantification, statistically unsteady processes; Advanced numerical simulations: continuous DNS/LES/RANS, molecular dynamics, Monte-Carlo, predictive modeling, validation and verification of numerical models; Experimental diagnostics: model experiments in high energy density and low energy density regimes, plasma diagnostics, fluid flow visualizations and control, opto-fluidics, novel optical methods, holography, advanced technologies. TMB-2009 was organized by the following members of the Organizing Committee: Snezhana I Abarzhi (chairperson, Chicago, USA) Malcolm J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) Sergei I Anisimov (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) Hiroshi Azechi (Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) Serge Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) Christopher J Keane (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) Robert Rosner (Argonne National Laboratory, USA) Katepalli R Sreenivasan (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy) Alexander
Anaïs Schaeffer
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed. The last day of data collection, tired but satisfied after seven intense days of measurements. Around the cryostat, from left to right: Philippe-E. Roche, Éléonore Rusaouen (CNRS), Olivier Pirotte, Jean-Marc Quetsch (CERN), Nicolas Friedlin (CERN), Vladislav Benda (CERN). Not in the photo: Laurent Le Mao (CERN), Jean-Marc Debernard (CERN), Jean-Paul Lamboy (CERN), Nicolas Guillotin (CERN), Benoit Chabaud (Grenoble Uni), and Gregory Garde (CNRS). CERN has a unique cryogenic facility in hall SM18, consisting of 21 liquid-helium-cooled test stations. While this equipment was, of course, designed for testing parts of CERN's acce...
Controlled-Turbulence Bioreactors
Wolf, David A.; Schwartz, Ray; Trinh, Tinh
1989-01-01
Two versions of bioreactor vessel provide steady supplies of oxygen and nutrients with little turbulence. Suspends cells in environment needed for sustenance and growth, while inflicting less damage from agitation and bubbling than do propeller-stirred reactors. Gentle environments in new reactors well suited to delicate mammalian cells. One reactor kept human kidney cells alive for as long as 11 days. Cells grow on carrier beads suspended in liquid culture medium that fills cylindrical housing. Rotating vanes - inside vessel but outside filter - gently circulates nutrient medium. Vessel stationary; magnetic clutch drives filter cylinder and vanes. Another reactor creates even less turbulence. Oxygen-permeable tubing wrapped around rod extending along central axis. Small external pump feeds oxygen to tubing through rotary coupling, and oxygen diffuses into liquid medium.
... stroke After injury to a nerve During a flare-up of multiple sclerosis (MS) You may feel ... Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) Shellfish poisoning OTHER Not enough healthy red blood ...
Polymer Stretching by Turbulence
Chertkov, M
2000-01-01
The stretching of a polymer chain by a large scale chaotic flow is considered. The steady state which emerges as a balance of the turbulent stretching and anharmonic resistance of the chain is quantitatively described, i.e. the dependency on the flow parameters (Lyapunov exponent statistics) and the chain characteristics (the number of beads and the inter-bead elastic potential) is made explicit. Implications for the drag reduction theory are discussed.
Random functions and turbulence
Panchev, S
1971-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random
Large scale dynamics in flux driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Abiteboul, J.; Allfrey, S.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Latu, G.; Strugarek, A.; Dif-Pradalier, G.
2010-05-01
The turbulent transport governed by the toroidal ion temperature gradient driven instability is analysed with the full-f global gyrokinetic code GYSELA (Grandgirard et al 2007 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49 B173) when the system is driven by a prescribed heat source. Weak, yet finite, collisionality governs a neoclassical ion heat flux that can compete with the turbulent driven transport. In turn, the ratio of turbulent to neoclassical transport increases with the source magnitude, resulting in the degradation of confinement with additional power. The turbulent flux exhibits avalanche-like events, characterized by intermittent outbursts which propagate ballistically roughly at the diamagnetic velocity. Locally, the temperature gradient can drop well below the linear stability threshold. Large outbursts are found to correlate with streamer-like structures of the convection cells albeit their Fourier spectrum departs significantly from that of the most unstable linear modes. Last, the poloidal rotation of turbulent eddies is essentially governed by the radial electric field at moderate density gradient.
Emergence of a turbulent cascade in a quantum gas
Navon, Nir; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2016-11-01
A central concept in the modern understanding of turbulence is the existence of cascades of excitations from large to small length scales, or vice versa. This concept was introduced in 1941 by Kolmogorov and Obukhov, and such cascades have since been observed in various systems, including interplanetary plasmas, supernovae, ocean waves and financial markets. Despite much progress, a quantitative understanding of turbulence remains a challenge, owing to the interplay between many length scales that makes theoretical simulations of realistic experimental conditions difficult. Here we observe the emergence of a turbulent cascade in a weakly interacting homogeneous Bose gas—a quantum fluid that can be theoretically described on all relevant length scales. We prepare a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical box, drive it out of equilibrium with an oscillating force that pumps energy into the system at the largest length scale, study its nonlinear response to the periodic drive, and observe a gradual development of a cascade characterized by an isotropic power-law distribution in momentum space. We numerically model our experiments using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and find excellent agreement with the measurements. Our experiments establish the uniform Bose gas as a promising new medium for investigating many aspects of turbulence, including the interplay between vortex and wave turbulence, and the relative importance of quantum and classical effects.
Controllability of flow turbulence.
Guan, Shuguang; Wei, G W; Lai, C-H
2004-06-01
In this paper, we study the controllability of real-world flow turbulence governed by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, using strategies developed in chaos control. A case of control/synchronization of turbulent dynamics is observed when only one component of the velocity field vector is unidirectionally coupled to a target state, while the other component is uncoupled. Unlike previous results, it is shown that the dynamics of the whole velocity field cannot be completely controlled/synchronized to the target, even in the limit of long time and strong coupling strength. It is further revealed that the controlled component of the velocity field can be fully controlled/synchronized to the target, but the other component, which is not directly coupled to the target, can only be partially controlled/synchronized to the target. By extending an auxiliary method to distributed dynamic systems, the partial synchronization of two turbulent orbits in the present study can be categorized in the domain of generalized synchronization of spatiotemporal dynamics.
Statistical Properties of Turbulence: An Overview
Pandit, Rahul; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar
2009-01-01
We present an introductory overview of several challenging problems in the statistical characterisation of turbulence. We provide examples from fluid turbulence in three and two dimensions, from the turbulent advection of passive scalars, turbulence in the one-dimensional Burgers equation, and fluid turbulence in the presence of polymer additives.
Statistical properties of turbulence: An overview
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rahul Pandit; Prasad Perlekar; Samriddhi Sankar Ray
2009-07-01
We present an introductory overview of several challenging problems in the statistical characterization of turbulence. We provide examples from fluid turbulence in three and two dimensions, from the turbulent advection of passive scalars, turbulence in the one-dimensional Burgers equation, and fluid turbulence in the presence of polymer additives.
Turbulence and fossil turbulence lead to life in the universe
Gibson, Carl H
2012-01-01
Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than all the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Fossil turbulence is a perturbation produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid ceases to be turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Because vorticity is produced at small scales, turbulence must cascade from small scales to large, providing a consistent physical basis for Kolmogorovian universal similarity laws. Oceanic and astrophysical mixing and diffusion are dominated by fossil turbulence and fossil turbulent waves. Observations from space telescopes show turbulence and vorticity existed in the beginning of the universe and that their fossils persist. Fossils of big bang turbulence include spin and the dark matter of galaxies: clumps of ~ 10^12 frozen hydrogen planets that make globular star clusters as seen by infrared and microwave space telescopes. When the planets were hot gas, they hosted the formation of life i...
Modeling the turbulent kinetic energy equation for compressible, homogeneous turbulence
Aupoix, B.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Reynolds, William C.; Zeman, Otto
1990-01-01
The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, which is the basis of turbulence models, is investigated for homogeneous, compressible turbulence using direct numerical simulations performed at CTR. It is shown that the partition between dilatational and solenoidal modes is very sensitive to initial conditions for isotropic decaying turbulence but not for sheared flows. The importance of the dilatational dissipation and of the pressure-dilatation term is evidenced from simulations and a transport equation is proposed to evaluate the pressure-dilatation term evolution. This transport equation seems to work well for sheared flows but does not account for initial condition sensitivity in isotropic decay. An improved model is proposed.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Si, Jiahe, E-mail: jsi@nmt.edu; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2015-07-15
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Towards quantum turbulence in cold atomic fermionic superfluids
Bulgac, Aurel; McNeil Forbes, Michael; Wlazłowski, Gabriel
2017-01-01
Fermionic superfluids provide a new realization of quantum turbulence, accessible to both experiment and theory, yet relevant to phenomena from both cold atoms to nuclear astrophysics. In particular, the strongly interacting Fermi gas realized in cold-atom experiments is closely related to dilute neutron matter in neutron star crusts. Unlike the liquid superfluids 4He (bosons) and 3He (fermions), where quantum turbulence has been studied in laboratory for decades, superfluid Fermi gases stand apart for a number of reasons. They admit a rather reliable theoretical description based on density functional theory called the time-dependent superfluid local density approximation that describes both static and dynamic phenomena. Cold atom experiments demonstrate exquisite control over particle number, spin polarization, density, temperature, and interaction strength. Topological defects such as domain walls and quantized vortices, which lie at the heart of quantum turbulence, can be created and manipulated with time-dependent external potentials, and agree with the time-dependent theoretical techniques. While similar experimental and theoretical control exists for weakly interacting Bose gases, the unitary Fermi gas is strongly interacting. The resulting vortex line density is extremely high, and quantum turbulence may thus be realized in small systems where classical turbulence is suppressed. Fermi gases also permit the study of exotic superfluid phenomena such as the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell pairing mechanism for polarized superfluids which may give rise to 3D supersolids, and a pseudo-gap at finite temperatures that might affect the regime of classical turbulence. The dynamics associated with these phenomena has only started to be explored. Finally, superfluid mixtures have recently been realized, providing experimental access to phenomena like Andreev-Bashkin entrainment predicted decades ago. Superfluid Fermi gases thus provide a rich forum for addressing
Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).
Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida
2013-06-01
Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.
Bruno, Roberto
2016-01-01
This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...
Transition to turbulence in ferrofluids
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed bifurcation analysis and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A striking finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, the onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence can be greatly facilitated by using ferrofluids, opening up...
Turbulence measurements in fusion plasmas
Conway, G. D.
2008-12-01
Turbulence measurements in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas have a long history and relevance due to the detrimental role of turbulence induced transport on particle, energy, impurity and momentum confinement. The turbulence—the microscopic random fluctuations in particle density, temperature, potential and magnetic field—is generally driven by radial gradients in the plasma density and temperature. The correlation between the turbulence properties and global confinement, via enhanced diffusion, convection and direct conduction, is now well documented. Theory, together with recent measurements, also indicates that non-linear interactions within the turbulence generate large scale zonal flows and geodesic oscillations, which can feed back onto the turbulence and equilibrium profiles creating a complex interdependence. An overview of the current status and understanding of plasma turbulence measurements in the closed flux surface region of magnetic confinement fusion devices is presented, highlighting some recent developments and outstanding problems.
Helicopter response to atmospheric turbulence
Riaz, J.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Schrage, D. P.; Gaonkar, G. H.
1992-01-01
A new time-domain method for simulating cyclostationary turbulence as seen by a translating and rotating blade element has recently been developed for the case of one-dimensional spectral distribution. This paper extends the simulation method to the cases of two- and three-dimensional spectral distributions and presents validation results for the two-dimensional case. The statistics of an isolated rigid blade flapping response to turbulence are computed using a two-dimensional spectral representation of the von Karman turbulence model, and the results are compared with those obtained using the conventional space-fixed turbulence analysis. The new turbulence simulation method is used for predicting the Black Hawk helicopter response to atmospheric turbulence.
4th European Turbulence Conference
1993-01-01
The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...
2016-06-23
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0277 Experimental Investigation of Turbulence- Chemistry Interaction in High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Partially Premixed...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE [U] Experimental investigation of turbulence- chemistry interaction in high-Reynolds-number 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER turbulent...flames. Mixture fraction is an important variable in understanding and modeling turbulent mixing and turbulence- chemistry interaction, two key
Yamaguchi, T; Kikkawa, S; Yoshikawa, T; Tanishita, K; Sugawara, M
1983-05-01
The blood flow velocity near the central axis of the canine ascending aorta was measured with a hot-film anemometer. The cardiac output and the heart rate were controlled at will by means of an extracorporeal circulation and by atrial pacing. The turbulent component of the blood flow velocity was calculated using an ensemble average technique. Ensemble average turbulent intensity was also calculated to show the time course of turbulence in the aorta. The ratio of the mean turbulence intensity to the time mean sectional average velocity in the aorta was constant in most animals regardless of the changes in fluid mechanical parameters. The correlation between the frequency parameter and the relative mean turbulence intensity was weakly positive. The power spectrum of the turbulence was also calculated.
Turbulent drag reduction by polymers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonn, Daniel [Van der Waals-Zeeman Instituut, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65 1018, XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Amarouchene, Yacine [CPMOH, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence cedex (France); Wagner, Christian [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany); Douady, Stephane [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique de l' ENS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Cadot, Olivier [ENSTA, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau cedex (France)
2005-04-13
The reduction of turbulent energy dissipation by addition of polymers is studied experimentally. We first address the question of where the action of the polymers is taking place. Subsequently, we show that there is a direct correlation of drag reduction with the elongational viscosity of the polymers. For this, the reduction of turbulent energy dissipation by addition of the biopolymer DNA is studied. These results open the way for a direct visualization study of the polymer conformation in a turbulent boundary layer.
Galactic turbulence and paleoclimate variability
Bershadskii, A
2010-01-01
The wavelet regression detrended fluctuations of the reconstructed temperature for the past three ice ages: approximately 340000 years (Antarctic ice cores isotopic data), exhibit clear evidences of the galactic turbulence modulation up to 2500 years time-scales. The observed strictly Kolmogorov turbulence features indicates the Kolmogorov nature of galactic turbulence, and provide explanation to random-like fluctuations of the global temperature on the millennial time scales.
Quantum Ghost Imaging through Turbulence
Dixon, P Ben; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; O'Sullivan-Hale, Colin; Rodenburg, Brandon; Hardy, Nicholas D; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Simon, D S; Sergienko, A V; Boyd, R W; Howell, John C
2011-01-01
We investigate the effect of turbulence on quantum ghost imaging. We use entangled photons and demonstrate that for a novel experimental configuration the effect of turbulence can be greatly diminished. By decoupling the entangled photon source from the ghost imaging central image plane, we are able to dramatically increase the ghost image quality. When imaging a test pattern through turbulence, this method increased the imaged pattern visibility from V = 0.14 +/- 0.04 to V = 0.29 +/- 0.04.
Turbulent wakes of fractal objects.
Staicu, Adrian; Mazzi, Biagio; Vassilicos, J C; van de Water, Willem
2003-06-01
Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are studied within inertial and dissipative range scales in an attempt to relate changes in their self-similar behavior to the scaling of the fractal objects.
Dynamic multiscaling in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Pandit, Rahul
2016-01-01
We present the first study of the multiscaling of time-dependent velocity and magnetic-field structure functions in homogeneous, isotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in three dimensions. We generalize the formalism that has been developed for analogous studies of time-dependent structure functions in fluid turbulence to MHD. By carrying out detailed numerical studies of such time-dependent structure functions in a shell model for three-dimensional MHD turbulence, we obtain both equal-time and dynamic scaling exponents.
Dynamic multiscaling in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Sahoo, Ganapati; Pandit, Rahul
2016-11-01
We present a study of the multiscaling of time-dependent velocity and magnetic-field structure functions in homogeneous, isotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in three dimensions. We generalize the formalism that has been developed for analogous studies of time-dependent structure functions in fluid turbulence to MHD. By carrying out detailed numerical studies of such time-dependent structure functions in a shell model for three-dimensional MHD turbulence, we obtain both equal-time and dynamic scaling exponents.
Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karta Kooner
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.
Interpolation for weak Orlicz spaces with condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIAO Yong; PENG LiHua; LIU PeiDe
2008-01-01
An interpolation theorem for weak Orlicz spaces generalized by N-functions satisfying M△ condition is given.It is proved to be true for weak Orlicz martingale spaces by weak atomic decomposition of weak Hardy martingale spaces.And applying the interpolation theorem,we obtain some embedding relationships among weak Orlicz martingale spaces.
Electromagnetism in nonleptonic weak interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ecker, G. E-mail: ecker@doppler.thp.univie.ac.at; Isidori, G.; Mueller, G.; Neufeld, H.; Pich, A
2000-12-18
We construct a low-energy effective field theory that permits the complete treatment of isospin-breaking effects in nonleptonic weak interactions to next-to-leading order. To this end, we enlarge the chiral Lagrangian describing strong and {delta}S=1 weak interactions by including electromagnetic terms with the photon as additional dynamical degree of freedom. The complete and minimal list of local terms at next-to-leading order is given. We perform the one-loop renormalization at the level of the generating functional and specialize to K{yields}{pi}{pi} decays.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))
1989-12-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Weak disorder in Fibonacci sequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Naim, E [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Department of Physics and Center for Molecular Cybernetics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)
2006-05-19
We study how weak disorder affects the growth of the Fibonacci series. We introduce a family of stochastic sequences that grow by the normal Fibonacci recursion with probability 1 - {epsilon}, but follow a different recursion rule with a small probability {epsilon}. We focus on the weak disorder limit and obtain the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the typical growth of the sequence elements, using perturbation theory. The limiting distribution for the ratio of consecutive sequence elements is obtained as well. A number of variations to the basic Fibonacci recursion including shift, doubling and copying are considered. (letter to the editor)
Turbulent Dynamos and Magnetic Helicity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Hantao
1999-04-01
It is shown that the turbulent dynamo alpha-effect converts magnetic helicity from the turbulent field to the mean field when the turbulence is electromagnetic while the magnetic helicity of the mean-field is transported across space when the turbulence is elcetrostatic or due to the elcetron diamagnetic effect. In all cases, however, the dynamo effect strictly conserves the total helicity expect for a battery effect which vanishes in the limit of magnetohydrodynamics. Implications for astrophysical situations, especially for the solar dynamo, are discussed.
Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Galtier
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.
The Calern atmospheric turbulence station
Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed
2016-07-01
From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.
A stability condition for turbulence model: From EMMS model to EMMS-based turbulence model
Zhang, Lin; Wang, Limin; Li, Jinghai
2013-01-01
The closure problem of turbulence is still a challenging issue in turbulence modeling. In this work, a stability condition is used to close turbulence. Specifically, we regard single-phase flow as a mixture of turbulent and non-turbulent fluids, separating the structure of turbulence. Subsequently, according to the picture of the turbulent eddy cascade, the energy contained in turbulent flow is decomposed into different parts and then quantified. A turbulence stability condition, similar to the principle of the energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) model for gas-solid systems, is formulated to close the dynamic constraint equations of turbulence, allowing the heterogeneous structural parameters of turbulence to be optimized. We call this model the `EMMS-based turbulence model', and use it to construct the corresponding turbulent viscosity coefficient. To validate the EMMS-based turbulence model, it is used to simulate two classical benchmark problems, lid-driven cavity flow and turbulent flow with forced con...
Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics
Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I; Fisher, Robert T
2008-01-01
Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256^3 and 512^3 simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li, McKee, & Klein (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectr...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Z. Baumert
2009-03-01
Full Text Available This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from internal waves to turbulence. This energy source is in addition to the traditional shear production. The second variable of the new two-equation model is the turbulent enstrophy (Ω. Compared to the traditional shear-only case, the Ω-equation is modified to account for the effect of the waves on the turbulence time and space scales. This modification is based on the assumption of a non-zero constant flux Richardson number in the limit of vanishing mean shear when turbulence is produced exclusively by internal waves. This paper is part 1 of a continuing theoretical development. It accounts for mean shear- and internal wave-driven mixing only in the two limits of mean shear and no waves and waves but no mean shear, respectively.
The new model reproduces the wave-turbulence transition analyzed by D'Asaro and Lien (2000b. At small energy density E of the internal wave field, the turbulent dissipation rate (ε scales like ε~E^{2}. This is what is observed in the deep sea. With increasing E, after the wave-turbulence transition has been passed, the scaling changes to ε~E^{1}. This is observed, for example, in the highly energetic tidal flow near a sill in Knight Inlet. The new model further exhibits a turbulent length scale proportional to the Ozmidov scale, as observed in the ocean, and predicts the ratio between the turbulent Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales well within the range observed in the ocean.
The cohomology group of weak entwining structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
In this paper, we reveal that a weak entwining structure admits a rich cohomology theory. As an application we compute the cohomology of a weak entwining structure associated to a weak coalgebra-Galois extension.
Second threshold in weak interactions
Veltman, M.J.G.
1977-01-01
The point of view that weak interactions must have a second threshold below 300 – 600 GeV is developed. Above this threshold new physics must come in. This new physics may be the Higgs system, or some other nonperturbative system possibly having some similarities to the Higgs system. The limit of la
Beam splitting on weak illumination.
Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J
1998-01-01
We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.
Weak measurements and supraluminal communication
Belinsky, A V
2016-01-01
There is suggested a version of the experiment with a correlated pair of particles in the entangled state. The experiment demonstrates that, in the case of weak and/or non-demolition measurements of one of the particles, it is possible to transmit information with a speed not limited by velocity of light.
Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong
2013-01-01
We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983
Eldercare at Home: Bone Weakness
... socialize. This can make exercising fun. If you don't exercise, your bones and muscles will become weak and your chances of falling will increase. Let’s exercise together. I will pick you up and we will go to the mall and walk for a little ...
Submanifolds Weakly Associated with Graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Carriazo; L M Fernández; A Rodríguez-Hidalgo
2009-06-01
We establish an interesting link between differential geometry and graph theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low dimensions or belonging to some special families.
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2013-01-01
Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and
Global simulations of magnetorotational turbulence II: turbulent energetics
Parkin, E R
2013-01-01
Magnetorotational turbulence draws its energy from gravity and ultimately releases it via dissipation. However, the quantitative details of this energy flow have not been assessed for global disk models. In this work we examine the energetics of a well-resolved, three-dimensional, global magnetohydrodynamic accretion disk simulation by evaluating statistically-averaged mean-field equations for magnetic, kinetic, and internal energy using simulation data. The results reveal that turbulent magnetic (kinetic) energy is primarily injected by the correlation between Maxwell (Reynolds) stresses and shear in the (almost Keplerian) mean flow, and removed by dissipation. This finding differs from previous work using local (shearing-box) models, which indicated that turbulent kinetic energy was primarily sourced from the magnetic energy reservoir. Lorentz forces provide the bridge between the magnetic and kinetic energy reservoirs, converting ~ 1/5 of the total turbulent magnetic power input into turbulent kinetic ener...
On the weak project construction cost management
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲
2013-01-01
the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.
4-wave dynamics in kinetic wave turbulence
Chibbaro, Sergio; Rondoni, Lamberto
2016-01-01
A general Hamiltonian wave system with quartic resonances is considered, in the standard kinetic limit of a continuum of weakly interacting dispersive waves with random phases. The evolution equation for the multimode characteristic function $Z$ is obtained within an "interaction representation" and a perturbation expansion in the small nonlinearity parameter. A frequency renormalization is performed to remove linear terms that do not appear in the 3-wave case. Feynman-Wyld diagrams are used to average over phases, leading to a first order differential evolution equation for $Z$. A hierarchy of equations, analogous to the Boltzmann hierarchy for low density gases is derived, which preserves in time the property of random phases and amplitudes. This amounts to a general formalism for both the $N$-mode and the 1-mode PDF equations for 4-wave turbulent systems, suitable for numerical simulations and for investigating intermittency.
Evolution of OAM entanglement in turbulence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2015-08-01
Full Text Available = 0 ; l = 3 [ S P S ] C = 0 ; l = 5 [ S P S ] C = 0 ; l = 7 [ S P S ] Strong scintillation Weak scintillation aA. Hamadou Ibrahim, et al., Phys. Rev. A, 90, 052115 (2014) – p. 7/22 Infinitesimal propagation (MPS approach) Multiple phase... screen (MPS) approach: Turbulent atmosphere dz ρ(z+dz)ρ(z) Infinitesimal propagation: ρ(z)→ ρ(z + δz) Using paraxial wave equation in an inhomogenous medium: ∇2T g(x)− i2k∂zg(x) + 2k2n˜(x)g(x) = 0 In the (2D transverse spatial) Fourier domain: G(a, z + δz...
Anisotropy in Quasi-Static Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Verma, Mahendra K.
2017-08-01
In this review we summarise the current status of the quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The energy spectrum is steeper than Kolmogorov’s k -5/3 spectrum due to the decrease of the kinetic energy flux with wavenumber k as a result of Joule dissipation. The spectral index decreases with the increase of interaction parameter. The flow is quasi two-dimensional with strong {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} at small k and weak {{U}\\parallel} at large k, where {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} and {{U}\\parallel} are the perpendicular and parallel components of velocity relative to the external magnetic field. For small k, the energy flux of {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} is negative, but for large k, the energy flux of {{U}\\parallel} is positive. Pressure mediates the energy transfer from {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} to {{U}\\parallel} .
Anisotropy in solar wind plasma turbulence.
Oughton, S; Matthaeus, W H; Wan, M; Osman, K T
2015-05-13
A review of spectral anisotropy and variance anisotropy for solar wind fluctuations is given, with the discussion covering inertial range and dissipation range scales. For the inertial range, theory, simulations and observations are more or less in accord, in that fluctuation energy is found to be primarily in modes with quasi-perpendicular wavevectors (relative to a suitably defined mean magnetic field), and also that most of the fluctuation energy is in the vector components transverse to the mean field. Energy transfer in the parallel direction and the energy levels in the parallel components are both relatively weak. In the dissipation range, observations indicate that variance anisotropy tends to decrease towards isotropic levels as the electron gyroradius is approached; spectral anisotropy results are mixed. Evidence for and against wave interpretations and turbulence interpretations of these features will be discussed. We also present new simulation results concerning evolution of variance anisotropy for different classes of initial conditions, each with typical background solar wind parameters.
Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.
1999-01-01
The effects of ambient turbulence on decay and descent of aircraft wake vortices are studied using a validated, three-dimensional: large-eddy simulation model. Numerical simulations are performed in order to isolate the effect of ambient turbulence on the wake vortex decay rate within a neutrally-stratified atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a range of turbulence intensities, by injecting wake vortex pairs into an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence field. The decay rate of the vortex circulation increases clearly with increasing ambient turbulence level, which is consistent with field observations. Based on the results from the numerical simulations, simple decay models are proposed as functions of dimensionless ambient turbulence intensity (eta) and dimensionless time (T) for the circulation averaged over a range of radial distances. With good agreement with the numerical results, a Gaussian type of vortex decay model is proposed for weak turbulence: while an exponential type of Tortex decay model can be applied for strong turbulence. A relationship for the vortex descent based on above vortex decay model is also proposed. Although the proposed models are based on simulations assuming neutral stratification, the model predictions are compared to Lidar vortex measurements observed during stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric conditions. In the neutral and unstable atmosphere, the model predictions appear to be in reasonable agreement with the observational data, while in the stably-stratified atmosphere, they largely underestimate the observed circulation decay with consistent overestimation of the observed vortex descent. The underestimation of vortex decay during stably-stratified conditions suggests that stratification has an important influence on vortex decay when ambient levels of turbulence are weak.
Turbulence Measurements in a Tropical Zoo Hall
Eugster, Werner; Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian
2017-04-01
The Masoala rainforest hall of the Zurich Zoo, Switzerland, covers a ground surface area of 10,856 m2 and reaches 30 m in height. With its transparent ETFE foiled roof it provides a tropical climate for a large diversity of plants and animals. In combination with an effort to estimate dry deposition of elemental mercury, we made an attempt to measure turbulent transfer velocity with an ultrasonic anemometer inside the hall. Not surprising, the largest turbulence elements were on the order of the hall dimension. Although the dimensions of the hall seem to be small (200,000 m3) for eddy covariance flux measurements and the air circulation inside the hall was extremely weak, the spectra of wind velocity components and virtual (sonic) temperature obeyed the general statistical description expected under unconstrained outdoor measurement conditions. We will present results from a two-week measurement campaign in the Masoala rainforest hall and make a suggestion for the deposition velocity to be used to estimate dry deposition of atmospheric components to the tropical vegetation surface.
Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence.
Kumar, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Anando G; Verma, Mahendra K
2014-08-01
Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Π(u), we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum E(u)(k)∼k(-11/5), the potential energy spectrum E(θ)(k)∼k(-7/5), and Π(u)(k)∼k(-4/5) are consistent with the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling. This scaling arises due to the conversion of kinetic energy to the potential energy by buoyancy. For weaker buoyancy, this conversion is weak, hence E(u)(k) follows Kolmogorov's spectrum with a constant energy flux. For Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we show that the energy supply rate by buoyancy is positive, which leads to an increasing Π(u)(k) with k, thus ruling out Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling for the convective turbulence. Our numerical results show that convective turbulence for unit Prandt number exhibits a constant Π(u)(k) and E(u)(k)∼k(-5/3) for a narrow band of wave numbers.
Turbulent dynamo in a collisionless plasma.
Rincon, François; Califano, Francesco; Schekochihin, Alexander A; Valentini, Francesco
2016-04-12
Magnetic fields pervade the entire universe and affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. The generation and dynamical amplification of extragalactic magnetic fields through cosmic times (up to microgauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions, and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs) are major puzzles largely unconstrained by observations. A dynamo effect converting kinetic flow energy into magnetic energy is often invoked in that context; however, extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic field growth and sustainment through an efficient turbulent dynamo instability are possible in such plasmas is not established. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a 6D-phase space necessary to answer this question have, until recently, remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic field amplification by dynamo instability does occur in a stochastically driven, nonrelativistic subsonic flow of initially unmagnetized collisionless plasma. We also find that the dynamo self-accelerates and becomes entangled with kinetic instabilities as magnetization increases. The results suggest that such a plasma dynamo may be realizable in laboratory experiments, support the idea that intracluster medium turbulence may have significantly contributed to the amplification of cluster magnetic fields up to near-equipartition levels on a timescale shorter than the Hubble time, and emphasize the crucial role of multiscale kinetic physics in high-energy astrophysical plasmas.
Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence
Kumar, Abhishek
2014-08-25
Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Πu, we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum Eu(k)∼k-11/5, the potential energy spectrum Eθ(k)∼k-7/5, and Πu(k)∼k-4/5 are consistent with the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling. This scaling arises due to the conversion of kinetic energy to the potential energy by buoyancy. For weaker buoyancy, this conversion is weak, hence Eu(k) follows Kolmogorov\\'s spectrum with a constant energy flux. For Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we show that the energy supply rate by buoyancy is positive, which leads to an increasing Πu(k) with k, thus ruling out Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling for the convective turbulence. Our numerical results show that convective turbulence for unit Prandt number exhibits a constant Πu(k) and Eu(k)∼k-5/3 for a narrow band of wave numbers. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.
Quantitative evaluation of turbulence compensation
Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Schutte, K.; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.
2013-01-01
A well-known phenomena that diminishes the recognition range in infrared imagery is atmospheric turbulence. In literature many methods are described that try to compensate for the distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. Most of these methods use a global processing approach in which they assum
Energy spectra in bubbly turbulence
Prakash, Vivek N; Ramos, Fabio Ernesto Mancilla; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2013-01-01
We conduct experiments in a turbulent bubbly flow to study the unknown nature of the transition between the classical -5/3 energy spectrum scaling for a single-phase turbulent flow and the -3 scaling for a swarm of bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid and of bubble-dominated turbulence. The bubblance parameter, b, which measures the ratio of the bubble-induced kinetic energy to the kinetic energy induced by the turbulent liquid fluctuations before bubble injection, is used to characterise the bubbly flow. We vary b from $b = \\infty$ (pseudo-turbulence) to b = 0 (single-phase flow) over 2-3 orders of magnitude: ~O(0.01, 0.1, 5) to study its effect on the turbulent energy spectrum and liquid velocity fluctuations. The experiments are conducted in a multi-phase turbulent water tunnel with air bubbles of diameters 2-4 mm and 3-5 mm. An active-grid is used to generate nearly homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in the liquid flow. The liquid speeds and gas void fractions are varied to achieve the above mentioned b...
Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Helene; Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.
1986-01-01
Conditional structures, or eddies, in turbulent flows are discussed with special attention to electrostatic turbulence in plasmas. The potential variation of these eddies is obtained by sampling the fluctuations only when a certain condition is satisfied in a reference point. The resulting...
Stochastic Subspace Modelling of Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Pedersen, B. J.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2009-01-01
Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount importance to the dynamic response of civil engineering structures. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and structural safety analysis. In the paper...
Evaluation of turbulence mitigation methods
Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Huebner, C.S.; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.; Schwering, P.B.W.
2014-01-01
Atmospheric turbulence is a well-known phenomenon that diminishes the recognition range in visual and infrared image sequences. There exist many different methods to compensate for the effects of turbulence. This paper focuses on the performance of two software-based methods to mitigate the effects
MHD turbulence and distributed chaos
Bershadskii, A
2016-01-01
It is shown, using results of recent direct numerical simulations, that spectral properties of distributed chaos in MHD turbulence with zero mean magnetic field are similar to those of hydrodynamic turbulence. An exception is MHD spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry, when the stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ has $\\beta=4/7$.
Angular momentum transport in accretion disk boundary layers around weakly magnetized stars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, M.E.; Chan, C.-K.
2013-01-01
The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity in accretion disks is based on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. This implies that the turbulent stress must be negative and thus transport angular momentum inwards......, in the boundary layer where the accretion disk meets the surface of a weakly magnetized star. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI......) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. Motivated by the need of a deeper understanding of the behavior of an MHD fluid in a differentially rotating background that deviates from a Keplerian profile, we study the dynamics of MHD waves...
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and the Geodynamo
Shebalin, John V.
2016-01-01
Recent research results concerning forced, dissipative, rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence will be discussed. In particular, we present new results from long-time Fourier method (periodic box) simulations in which forcing contains varying amounts of magnetic and kinetic helicity. Numerical results indicate that if MHD turbulence is forced so as to produce a state of relatively constant energy, then the largest-scale components are dominant and quasistationary, and in fact, have an effective dipole moment vector that aligns closely with the rotation axis. The relationship of this work to established results in ideal MHD turbulence, as well as to models of MHD turbulence in a spherical shell will also be presented. These results appear to be very pertinent to understanding the Geodynamo and the origin of its dominant dipole component. Our conclusion is that MHD turbulence, per se, may well contain the origin of the Earth's dipole magnetic field.
Shell Models of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Plunian, Franck; Frick, Peter
2012-01-01
Shell models of hydrodynamic turbulence originated in the seventies. Their main aim was to describe the statistics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in spectral space, using a simple set of ordinary differential equations. In the eighties, shell models of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence emerged based on the same principles as their hydrodynamic counter-part but also incorporating interactions between magnetic and velocity fields. In recent years, significant improvements have been made such as the inclusion of non-local interactions and appropriate definitions for helicities. Though shell models cannot account for the spatial complexity of MHD turbulence, their dynamics are not over simplified and do reflect those of real MHD turbulence including intermittency or chaotic reversals of large-scale modes. Furthermore, these models use realistic values for dimensionless parameters (high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers, low or high magnetic Prandtl number) allowing extended inertial range and accu...
Mixing in Supersonic Turbulence
Pan, Liubin
2010-01-01
In many astrophysical environments, mixing of heavy elements occurs in the presence of a supersonic turbulent velocity field. Here we carry out the first systematic numerical study of such passive scalar mixing in isothermal supersonic turbulence. Our simulations show that the ratio of the scalar mixing timescale, $\\tau_{\\rm c}$, to the flow dynamical time, $\\tau_{\\rm dyn}$ (defined as the flow driving scale divided by the rms velocity), increases with the Mach number, $M$, for $M \\lsim3$, and becomes essentially constant for $M \\gsim3.$ This trend suggests that compressible modes are less efficient in enhancing mixing than solenoidal modes. However, since the majority of kinetic energy is contained in solenoidal modes at all Mach numbers, the overall change in $\\tau_{\\rm c}/\\tau_{\\rm dyn}$ is less than 20\\% over the range $1 \\lsim M \\lsim 6$. At all Mach numbers, if pollutants are injected at around the flow driving scale, $\\tau_{\\rm c}$ is close to $\\tau_{\\rm dyn}.$ This suggests that scalar mixing is drive...
Dark Matter as Fossil Turbulence---Primordial Fog Particles and WIMPs
Gibson, Carl H.
1996-11-01
Most of the matter of the universe is ``dark''. Based on the Schwarz viscous and turbulence self-gravitational condensation scales, most dark matter has two forms: ``primordial fog particles'' (PFPs---now moon-mass black dwarfs in galaxy halos) which condensed when the plasma universe neutralized to an inviscid, weakly-turbulent gas about 0.3 By (billion years after the big bang); plus WIMP fluids whose weakly-interacting-massive-particles may still be condensing slowly at large scales to form halos about galaxy clusters. Recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photos show evidence of PFPs as cometary globules in planetary nebulae (see http:www-acs.ucsd.edu ir118 for illustrations). Recent HST deep field photos show red galaxies existed at only 0.75 By, also suggesting a gentle, weak-turbulence, PFP condensation scenario for the first (small red) stars, within preexisting galaxy mass PFP ``fog patches''. The generally accepted Jeans criterion permits no such condensations of protogalaxies in the plasma epoch, and requires a strongly turbulent (big blue star) initial gas condensation scenario that is inconsistent with fossil non-turbulence evidence such as ancient globular star clusters and the extreme temperature uniformity observed in the cosmic microwave background radiation.
An experimental study of wave coupling in gravity surface wave turbulence
Aubourg, Quentin; Sommeria, Joel; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas
2016-11-01
Weak turbulence is a theoretical framework aimed at describing wave turbulence (in the weakly nonlinear limit) i.e. a statistical state involving a large number of nonlinearly coupled waves. For gravity waves at the surface of water, it provides a phenomenology that may describe the formation of the spectrum of the ocean surface. Analytical predictions of the spectra are made based on the fact that energy transfer occurs through 4-wave coupling. By using an advanced stereoscopic imaging technique, we measure in time the deformation of the water surface. We obtain a state of wave turbulence by using two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wavetank. We then use high order correlator (bi- and tri-coherence) in order to get evidence of the active wave coupling present in our system as used successfully for gravity-capillary wave turbulence. At odds with the weak turbulence theory we observe 3-wave interaction involving 2 quasi linear wave and a bound wave whose frequency lies on the first harmonics of the linear dispersion relation. We do not observe 4-wave coupling within the accuracy of our measurement. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 647018-WATU).
Hall, Lawrence J; Ruderman, Joshua T
2014-01-01
The measured values of the weak scale, $v$, and the first generation masses, $m_{u,d,e}$, are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of $(m_u,m_d,m_e,v)$, catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of $(1.4,1.3,2.5,\\sim5)$, respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as $v$ is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of $m_{u,d,e}$ that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability. For very large values of $v$ a new regime is entered where weak in...
A new probability distribution model of turbulent irradiance based on Born perturbation theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The subject of the PDF (Probability Density Function) of the irradiance fluctuations in a turbulent atmosphere is still unsettled.Theory reliably describes the behavior in the weak turbulence regime,but theoretical description in the strong and whole turbulence regimes are still controversial.Based on Born perturbation theory,the physical manifestations and correlations of three typical PDF models (Rice-Nakagami,exponential-Bessel and negative-exponential distribution) were theoretically analyzed.It is shown that these models can be derived by separately making circular-Gaussian,strong-turbulence and strong-turbulence-circular-Gaussian approximations in Born perturbation theory,which denies the viewpoint that the Rice-Nakagami model is only applicable in the extremely weak turbulence regime and provides theoretical arguments for choosing rational models in practical applications.In addition,a common shortcoming of the three models is that they are all approximations.A new model,called the Maclaurin-spread distribution,is proposed without any approximation except for assuming the correlation coefficient to be zero.So,it is considered that the new model can exactly reflect the Born perturbation theory.Simulated results prove the accuracy of this new model.
Turbulent transitions in the stable boundary layer: Couette and Poiseuille flow
Holdsworth, Amber M.; Monahan, Adam H.
2016-11-01
The stable boundary layer (SBL) can be classified into two distinct regimes. The weakly stable regime (WSBL) which occurs in the presence of moderate to strong pressure gradients or cloudy skies and is characterized by continuous turbulent mixing, and the very stable regime (VSBL) which occurs in the presence of weak pressure gradients or clear skies and turbulence weakens to the point of collapse. Modelling and observational results indicate that transitions from the WSBL to the VSBL occur when the maximum sustainable heat flux (MSHF), or shear capacity, is exceeded. The collapse of turbulence in the SBL is investigated using a one dimensional model of Couette flow with a constant heat flux. We show that the MSHF framework for predicting turbulent collapse is qualitatively robust to the choice of turbulence parameterization and extend these earlier stability analyses by numerically determining the unstable modes along the unstable branch. To explore transitions between the VSBL and the WSBL we extend the model to include a horizontal pressure gradient and a surface radiation scheme. Analysis of the Poiseuille flow demonstrates how the idealized energy/momentum budget model with parameterized turbulence can reproduce the regime transitions present in atmospheric data. We acknowledge support from NSERC and the computing facilities of Westgrid and Compute Canada.
Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective
Levich, Eugene
2009-07-01
It is claimed that turbulence in fluids is inherently coherent phenomenon. The coherence shows up clearly as strongly correlated helicity fluctuations of opposite sign. The helicity fluctuations have cellular structure forming clusters that are actually observed as vorticity bands and coherent structures in laboratory turbulence, direct numerical simulations and most obviously in atmospheric turbulence. The clusters are named BCC - Beltrami Cellular Clusters - because of the observed nearly total alignment of the velocity and vorticity fields in each particular cell, and hence nearly maximal possible helicity in each cell; although when averaged over all the cells the residual mean helicity in general is small and does not play active dynamical role. The Beltrami like fluctuations are short-lived and stabilize only in small and generally contiguous sub-domains that are tending to a (multi)fractal in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers, Re → ∞. For the model of homogeneous isotropic turbulence the theory predicts the leading fractal dimension of BCC to be: DF = 2.5. This particular BCC is responsible for generating the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law energy spectrum. The most obvious role that BCC play dynamically is that the nonlinear interactions in them are relatively reduced, due to strong spatial alignment between the velocity field v(r, t) and the vorticity field ω(r, t) = curlv(r, t), while the physical quantities typically best characterizing turbulence intermittency, such as entrophy, vorticity stretching and generation, and energy dissipation are maximized in and near them. The theory quantitatively relates the reduction of nonlinear inter-actions to the BCC fractal dimension DF and subsequent turbulence intermittency. It is further asserted that BCC is a fundamental feature of all turbulent flows, e.g., wall bounded turbulent flows, atmospheric and oceanic flows, and their leading fractal dimension remains invariant and universal in these flows
Wang, Zhankun; DiMarco, Steven F.; Socolofsky, Scott A.
2016-03-01
An integrated observational field effort that makes simultaneous and collocated measurements of turbulence and fine-scale parameters has been conducted near the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Full water column profiles are collected across the continental slope in July 2013. The observational results suggest that strong turbulence is patchy and mostly measured in the thermocline and deepwater when using the buoyancy Reynolds number, Reb=200 criterion, the boundary between weak and strong turbulence. Bottom enhanced turbulence is often seen on the continental slope. Using the ratio of the turbulent velocity scale and the oil droplets rising velocity, we develop criteria for when turbulence will dominate the movement of oil droplets and when turbulence can be ignored. Based on the data collected, for oil droplets with rising velocity greater than 6×10-3 m s-1, the turbulence effect can be ignored on the continental slope of the northern GOM. For oil droplets with rising speed less than 10-4 m s-1, their motions will be affected by the turbulent flow at all depths. For oil droplets with rising speed between 10-4 and 6×10-3 m s-1, the role of turbulence will depend on the strength of the local turbulence and water stratification. We also relate turbulent velocity to the size and density of oil droplets by estimating the rising velocity of different size oil droplets due to balance between buoyancy and drag force. Droplet size and density difference are the two critical parameters in determining the role of turbulence.
Tanaka, Kento; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Nagata, Koji; Sasoh, Akihiro; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Nagoya Univ Collaboration
2016-11-01
The interaction between homogeneous isotropic turbulence and normal shock wave is investigated by direct numerical simulations (DNSs). In the DNSs, a normal shock wave with a shock Mach number 1.1 passes through homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a low turbulent Mach number and a moderate turbulent Reynolds number. The statistics are calculated conditioned on the distance from the shock wave. The results showed that the shock wave makes length scales related to turbulence small. This effect is significant for the Taylor microscale defined with the velocity derivative orthogonal to the shock wave. The decrease in the Kolmogorov scale is also found. Statistics of velocity derivative are found to be changed by the shock wave propagation. The shock wave causes enstrophy amplification due to the dilatation/vorticity interaction. By this interaction, the vorticity components parallel to the shock wave is more amplified than the normal component. The strain rate is also amplified by the shock wave.
Characteristic Lengths of Magnetic Field in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Cho, Jungyeon
2009-01-01
In the framework of turbulence dynamo, flow motions amplify a weak seed magnetic field through the stretching of field lines. Although the amplification process has been a topic of active research, less attention has been paid to the length scales of magnetic field. In this paper, we described a numerical study on characteristic lengths of magnetic field in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We considered the case of very weak or zero mean magnetic field, which is applicable to the turbulence in the intergalactic space. Our findings are as follows. (1) At saturation, the peak of magnetic field spectrum occurs at $\\sim L_0/2$, where $L_0$ is the energy injection scale, while the most energy containing scale is $\\sim L_0/5$. The peak scale of spectrum of projected, two-dimensional field is $\\sim L_0$. (2) During the stage of magnetic field amplification, the energy equipartition scale shows a power-law increase of $\\sim t^{1.5}$, while the integral and curvature scales show a linear increase. The equipartition, in...
A study on turbulence modulation via an analysis of turbulence anisotropy-invariants
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Michael; MANHART
2010-01-01
We investigate the turbulence modulation by particles in a turbulent two-phase channel flow via an analysis of turbulence anisotropy-invariants. The fluid turbulence is calculated by a large eddy simulation with a point-force two-way coupling model and particles are tracked by the Lagrangian trajectory method. The channel turbulence follows the two-component turbulence state within the viscous sub-layer region and outside the region the turbulence tends to follow the right curve of the anisotropy-invariant. The channel turbulence, interacting with heavy particles, is modulated to the two-component turbulence limit state near the wall and is separate from the axisymmetric turbulence state in the turbulence anisotropy-invariants map. The fluctuations of streamwise component are transferred to the other two components and hence the anisotropy decreases due to particle modulation. The study has deepened the understanding of the turbulence modulation mechanism in two-phase turbulent flows.
Vercauteren, N.; Klein, R.
2014-12-01
Atmospheric boundary layers with stable stratification include a variety of small-scale non-turbulent motions such as waves, microfronts and other complex structures. When the thermal stratification becomes strong, the presence of such submeso motions could affect the turbulent mixing to a large extent and common similarity theory that is used to describe weakly stable conditions may become unreliable. The scientific community clearly lacks understanding of what these motions are and of the extent to which they affect turbulent mixing in the stable boundary layer. We use a data-based approach to isolate regimes in which small-scale, non-turbulent motions are a main influencing parameter of turbulent mixing. We apply a clustering methodology derived for multidimensional nonstationary timeseries. The technique is based on a bounded variation, finite element method (FEM-BV) and we use it to characterize the interaction between small-scale non-turbulent motions and turbulence. Turbulence data are approximated by an optimal sequence of locally stationary multivariate autoregressive factor models (VARX) processes and some slow hidden process switching between them (FEM-BV-VARX (Horenko 2010, JAS)). The VARX processes that approximate the data include influence from external forcing. We perform prefiltering of the turbulence data to isolate submeso motions and use them as external forcing in the clustering strategy. Thus the strategy separates periods for which the influence of the external factors, i.e. non-turbulent motions on the turbulence differs. We use this strategy to derive a stochastic representation of the interactions between non-turbulent motions and turbulence under stable stratification. Our results show that submeso motions are a main forcing of turbulence in the most stable cases and not for the weakly stable cases. As these different influence regimes are isolated by the FEM-BV-VARX technique, a Markov transition matrix describes the probability of
Numerical methods for turbulent flow
Turner, James C., Jr.
1988-01-01
It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.
Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Sridhar
2011-07-01
Early work on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the 1960s due, independently, to Iroshnikov and Kraichnan (IK) considered isotropic inertial-range spectra. Whereas laboratory experiments were not in a position to measure the spectral index, they showed that the turbulence was strongly anisotropic. Theoretical horizons correspondingly expanded in the 1980s, to accommodate both the isotropy of the IK theory and the anisotropy suggested by the experiments. Since the discovery of pulsars in 1967, many years of work on interstellar scintillation suggested that small-scale interstellar turbulence must have a hydromagnetic origin; but the IK spectrum was too ﬂat and the ideas on anisotropic spectra too qualitative to explain the observations. In response, new theories of balanced MHD turbulence were proposed in the 1990s, which argued that the IK theory was incorrect, and made quantitative predictions of anisotropic inertial-range spectra; these theories have since found applications in many areas of astrophysics. Spacecraft measurements of solar-wind turbulence show that there is more power in Alfvén waves that travel away from the Sun than towards it. Theories of imbalanced MHD turbulence have now been proposed to address interplanetary turbulence. This very active area of research continues to be driven by astronomy.
Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms
Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric
2017-07-01
When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.
Turbulent deflagrations, autoignitions, and detonations
Bradley, Derek
2012-09-01
Measurements of turbulent burning velocities in fan-stirred explosion bombs show an initial linear increase with the fan speed and RMS turbulent velocity. The line then bends over to form a plateau of high values around the maximum attainable burning velocity. A further increase in fan speed leads to the eventual complete quenching of the flame due to increasing localised extinctions because of the flame stretch rate. The greater the Markstein number, the more readily does flame quenching occur. Flame propagation along a duct closed at one end, with and without baffles to increase the turbulence, is subjected to a one-dimensional analysis. The flame, initiated at the closed end of the long duct, accelerates by the turbulent feedback mechanism, creating a shock wave ahead of it, until the maximum turbulent burning velocity for the mixture is attained. With the confining walls, the mixture is compressed between the flame and the shock plane up to the point where it might autoignite. This can be followed by a deflagration to detonation transition. The maximum shock intensity occurs with the maximum attainable turbulent burning velocity, and this defines the limit for autoignition of the mixture. For more reactive mixtures, autoignition can occur at turbulent burning velocities that are less than the maximum attainable one. Autoignition can be followed by quasi-detonation or fully developed detonation. The stability of ensuing detonations is discussed, along with the conditions that may lead to their extinction. © 2012 by Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Efimov, Anatoly
2015-03-01
A partially coherent beam generated by coupling the output of a superluminescent diode to a multimode optical fiber is propagated through a stationary laboratory turbulence. Statistical quantities are measured as a function of propagation distance and coherence radius of the beam and are compared to existing theories in the regime of weak fluctuations.
On the Nonlinear Conductivity Tensor for an Unmagnetized Relativistic Turbulent Plasma.
1982-02-01
New York (1977). (10) L. M. Al’tshul’ and V. I. Karpman , The Kinetics of Waves in a Weakly Turbulent Plasma, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., 47 (1964), 1552...LONTZ DEFENSE FOR RESEARCH & ENGINEERING ATTN B. D. GUENTHER DIR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY OFFICE ATTN TECH LIBRARY ATTN J. R. AIREY RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NC
Investigation of the strong turbulence in the geospace environment
Kharshiladze, O.; Chargazia, K.
2015-11-01
Plasma vortices are often detected by spacecraft in the geospace (atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere) environment, for instance in the magnetosheath and in the magnetotail region. Large scale vortices may correspond to the injection scale of turbulence, so that understanding their origin is important for understanding the energy transfer processes in the geospace environment. In a recent work, turbulent state of plasma medium (especially, ionosphere) is overviewed. Experimental observation data from THEMIS mission (Keiling et al., 2009) is investigated and numerical simulations are carried out. By analyzing the THEMIS data for that event, we find that several vortices in the magnetotail are detected together with the main one and these vortices constitute a vortex chain. Such vortices can cause the strong turbulent state in the different media. The strong magnetic turbulence is investigated in the ionsophere as an ensemble of such strongly localized (weakly interacting) vortices. Characteristics of power spectral densities are estimated for the observed and analytical stationary dipole structures. These characteristics give good description of the vortex structures.
Initial Conditions and Modeling for Shock Driven Turbulence
Grinstein, Fernando
2016-11-01
We focus on the simulation of shock-driven material mixing driven by flow instabilities and initial conditions. Beyond complex multi-scale resolution of shocks and variable density turbulence, me must address the equally difficult problem of predicting flow transition promoted by energy deposited at the material interfacial layer during the shock interface interactions. Transition involves unsteady large-scale coherent-structure dynamics which can be captured by LES, but not by URANS based on equilibrium turbulence assumptions and single-point-closure modeling. Such URANS is frequently preferred on the engineering end of computation capabilities for full-scale configurations - and with reduced 1D/2D dimensionality being also a common aspect. With suitable initialization around each transition - e.g., reshock, URANS can be used to simulate the subsequent near-equilibrium weakly turbulent flow. We demonstrate 3D state-of-the-art URANS performance in one such flow regime. We simulate the CEA planar shock-tube experiments by Poggi et al. (1998) with an ILES strategy. Laboratory turbulence and mixing data are used to benchmark ILES. In turn, the ILES generated data is used to initialize and as reference to assess state-of-the-art 3D URANS. We find that by prescribing physics-based 3D initial conditions and allowing for 3D flow convection with just enough resolution, the additionally computed dissipation in 3D URANS effectively blends with the modeled dissipation to yield significantly improved statistical predictions.
Is Navier-Stokes turbulence chaotic?
Deissler, R. G.
1986-01-01
Whether turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are chaotic is considered. Initially neighboring solutions for a low-Reynolds-number fully developed turbulence are compared. The turbulence is sustained by a nonrandom time-independent external force. The solutions separate exponentially with time, having a positive Liapunov characteristic exponent. Thus the turbulence is characterized as chaotic.
Study of Nonlinear Interaction and Turbulence of Alfven Waves in LAPD Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boldyrev, Stanislav; Perez, Jean Carlos
2013-11-29
The complete project had two major goals — investigate MHD turbulence generated by counterpropagating Alfven modes, and study such processes in the LAPD device. In order to study MHD turbulence in numerical simulations, two codes have been used: full MHD, and reduced MHD developed specialy for this project. Quantitative numerical results are obtained through high-resolution simulations of strong MHD turbulence, performed through the 2010 DOE INCITE allocation. We addressed the questions of the spectrum of turbulence, its universality, and the value of the so-called Kolmogorov constant (the normalization coefficient of the spectrum). In these simulations we measured with unprecedented accuracy the energy spectra of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. We also studied the so-called residual energy, that is, the difference between kinetic and magnetic energies in turbulent fluctuations. In our analytic work we explained generation of residual energy in weak MHD turbulence, in the process of random collisions of counterpropagating Alfven waves. We then generalized these results for the case of strong MHD turbulence. The developed model explained generation of residual energy is strong MHD turbulence, and verified the results in numerical simulations. We then analyzed the imbalanced case, where more Alfven waves propagate in one direction. We found that spectral properties of the residual energy are similar for both balanced and imbalanced cases. We then compared strong MHD turbulence observed in the solar wind with turbulence generated in numerical simulations. Nonlinear interaction of Alfv´en waves has been studied in the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD). We have simulated the collision of the Alfven modes in the settings close to the experiment. We have created a train of wave packets with the apltitudes closed to those observed n the experiment, and allowed them to collide. We then saw the generation of the second harmonic, resembling that observed in the
Unsteady turbulent buoyant plumes
Woodhouse, Mark J; Hogg, Andrew J
2015-01-01
We model the unsteady evolution of turbulent buoyant plumes following temporal changes to the source conditions. The integral model is derived from radial integration of the governing equations expressing the conservation of mass, axial momentum and buoyancy. The non-uniform radial profiles of the axial velocity and density deficit in the plume are explicitly described by shape factors in the integral equations; the commonly-assumed top-hat profiles lead to shape factors equal to unity. The resultant model is hyperbolic when the momentum shape factor, determined from the radial profile of the mean axial velocity, differs from unity. The solutions of the model when source conditions are maintained at constant values retain the form of the well-established steady plume solutions. We demonstrate that the inclusion of a momentum shape factor that differs from unity leads to a well-posed integral model. Therefore, our model does not exhibit the mathematical pathologies that appear in previously proposed unsteady i...
Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence.
Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M; Gula, Jonathan
2015-04-21
Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1-100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air-sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1-10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below.
Validity of the Taylor hypothesis for linear kinetic waves in the weakly collisional solar wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); TenBarge, J. M. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2014-07-10
The interpretation of single-point spacecraft measurements of solar wind turbulence is complicated by the fact that the measurements are made in a frame of reference in relative motion with respect to the turbulent plasma. The Taylor hypothesis—that temporal fluctuations measured by a stationary probe in a rapidly flowing fluid are dominated by the advection of spatial structures in the fluid rest frame—is often assumed to simplify the analysis. But measurements of turbulence in upcoming missions, such as Solar Probe Plus, threaten to violate the Taylor hypothesis, either due to slow flow of the plasma with respect to the spacecraft or to the dispersive nature of the plasma fluctuations at small scales. Assuming that the frequency of the turbulent fluctuations is characterized by the frequency of the linear waves supported by the plasma, we evaluate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis for the linear kinetic wave modes in the weakly collisional solar wind. The analysis predicts that a dissipation range of solar wind turbulence supported by whistler waves is likely to violate the Taylor hypothesis, while one supported by kinetic Alfvén waves is not.
Drake, D J; Howes, G G; Kletzing, C A; Skiff, F; Carter, T A; Auerbach, D W
2013-01-01
Turbulence is a phenomenon found throughout space and astrophysical plasmas. It plays an important role in solar coronal heating, acceleration of the solar wind, and heating of the interstellar medium. Turbulence in these regimes is dominated by Alfven waves. Most turbulence theories have been established using ideal plasma models, such as incompressible MHD. However, there has been no experimental evidence to support the use of such models for weakly to moderately collisional plasmas which are relevant to various space and astrophysical plasma environments. We present the first experiment to measure the nonlinear interaction between two counterpropagating Alfven waves, which is the building block for astrophysical turbulence theories. We present here four distinct tests that demonstrate conclusively that we have indeed measured the daughter Alfven wave generated nonlinearly by a collision between counterpropagating Alfven waves.
Wavelet analysis of the slow non-linear dynamics of wave turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miquel, Benjamin; Mordant, Nicolas, E-mail: benjamin.miquel@lps.ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure (France)
2011-12-22
In wave turbulence, the derivation of solutions in the frame of the Weak Turbulence Theory relies on the existence of a double time-scale separation: first, between the period of the waves and characteristic nonlinear time t{sub NL} corresponding to energy exchange among waves; and secondly, between t{sub NL} and the characteristic dissipation time t{sub d}. Due to the lack of space and time resolved measurement, this hypothesis have remained unverified so far. We study the turbulence of flexion waves in thin elastic plates. t{sub d} is measured using the decline stage of the turbulence whereas a wavelet analysis is performed to measure the characteristic non-linear time t{sub NL}.
Decoupling of mass flux and turbulent wind fluctuations in drifting snow
Paterna, E.; Crivelli, P.; Lehning, M.
2016-05-01
The wind-driven redistribution of snow has a significant impact on the climate and mass balance of polar and mountainous regions. Locally, it shapes the snow surface, producing dunes and sastrugi. Sediment transport has been mainly represented as a function of the wind strength, and the two processes assumed to be stationary and in equilibrium. The wind flow in the atmospheric boundary layer is unsteady and turbulent, and drifting snow may never reach equilibrium. Our question is therefore: what role do turbulent eddies play in initiating and maintaining drifting snow? To investigate the interaction between drifting snow and turbulence experimentally, we conducted several wind tunnel measurements of drifting snow over naturally deposited snow covers. We observed a coupling between snow transport and turbulent flow only in a weak saltation regime. In stronger regimes it self-organizes developing its own length scales and efficiently decoupling from the wind forcing.
A Full Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell Study of Turbulent Dynamics and Dissipation
TenBarge, J. M.; Juno, J.; Hakim, A.
2016-12-01
The development of a detailed understanding of turbulence in magnetized plasmas has been a long standing goal of the broader scientific community, both as a fundamental physics process and because of its applicability to a wide variety of phenomena. Turbulence in a magnetized plasma is the primary mechanism responsible for transforming energy at large injection scales into small-scale motions, which are ultimately dissipated as heat in systems such as the solar corona and wind. At large scales, the turbulence is well described by fluid models of the plasma; however, understanding the processes responsible for heating a weakly collisional plasma such as the solar wind requires a kinetic description. We present the first fully kinetic Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell study of turbulence using the Gkeyll simulation code. We focus on the pristine distribution function dynamics that are possible with the Eulerian approach. We also present the signatures and form of dissipation as diagnosed via field-particle correlation functions.
Sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional turbulence and the energy spectrum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsov, E.A.; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry;
2010-01-01
Formation of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence and their influence on the turbulent spectra are considered. The analog of the vortex line representation as a transformation to the curvilinear system of coordinates moving together with the di-vorticity lines...... is developed and compressibility of this mapping appears as the main reason for the formation of the sharp vorticity gradients at high Reynolds numbers. In the case of strong anisotropy the sharp vorticity gradients can generate spectra which fall off as k −3 at large k, which appear to take the same form...... as the Kraichnan spectrum for the enstrophy cascade. For turbulence with weak anisotropy the k dependence of the spectrum due to the sharp gradients coincides with the Saffman spectrum: E(k) ~ k −4. Numerical investigations of decaying turbulence reveal exponential growth of di-vorticity with a spatial distributed...
Study on Duality of Wave and Particle of Turbulence Using CML Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhao-Cun
2009-01-01
A family of coupled map lattice (CML) models has been developed to simulate the evolutional mechanism of interactions of convection, diffusion, and dispersion in both weakly and strongly coupled cases. Not only coherent and turbulent properties as well as their relations, but also the transitional states between convection dominating, diffusion dominating and dispersion dominating are analyzed to demonstrate the essential characteristics of any state. Numerical results show that the models are capable of simulating both layered coupling and stochastic mechanism, and lead us to understand whether or not turbulence coherent structure is formed by modulation of wave packet. The duality of wave and particle characters of turbulence is illustrated in the numerical simulation; a sketch picture is given to explain the questions associated with the turbulent inverse cascade, which is the result of the mutual interactions among the physical factors of nonlinearity, dissipation and dispersion.
Influence of turbulent atmosphere on the far-field coherent combined beam quality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pu Zhou; Zejin Liu; Xiaojun Xu; Xiaolin Wang; Xiao Li; Zilun Chen
2008-01-01
Propagation of coherent combined laser beams in turbulent atmosphere is numerically studied based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. By choosing beam propagation factor (BPF) and beam quality factor (BQ) to characterize the far-field irradiance distribution properties, the influence of turbulence on far-field coherent combined beam quality is studied in detail. The investigation reveals that with the coherence length decreasing, the irradiance distribution pattern evolves from typical non-Gaussian shape with multiple side-lobes into Gaussian shape which is seen in the incoherent combining case. In weak turbulent atmosphere, the far-field beam quality suffers less when the 1aser array gets more compact and operates at a longer wavelength. In strong turbulent atmosphere, the far-field beam quality degrades into the incoherent combining case without any relationship with the fill factor and laser wavelength.
Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter
Mavliev, Rashid
The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.
Bumblebee flight in heavy turbulence
Engels, T; Schneider, K; Lehmann, F -O; Sesterhenn, J
2016-01-01
High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.
Wind energy impact of turbulence
Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan
2014-01-01
This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application
On Lean Turbulent Combustion Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constantin LEVENTIU
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates a lean methane-air flame with different chemical reaction mechanisms, for laminar and turbulent combustion, approached as one and bi-dimensional problem. The numerical results obtained with Cantera and Ansys Fluent software are compared with experimental data obtained at CORIA Institute, France. First, for laminar combustion, the burn temperature is very well approximated for all chemical mechanisms, however major differences appear in the evaluation of the flame front thickness. Next, the analysis of turbulence-combustion interaction shows that the numerical predictions are suficiently accurate for small and moderate turbulence intensity.
Subcritical excitation of plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.
1996-01-01
Theory of current-diffusive interchange mode turbulence in plasmas is developed in the presence of collisional transport. Double-valued amplitude of stationary fluctuations is expressed in terms of the pressure gradient. The backward bifurcation is shown to appear near the linear stability boundary. The subcritical nature of the turbulence is explicitly illustrated. Critical pressure gradient at which the transition from collisional transport to the turbulent one is to occur is predicted. This provides a prototype of the transport theory for nonlinear-non-equilibrium systems. (author).
Fundamentals of premixed turbulent combustion
Lipatnikov, Andrei
2012-01-01
Lean burning of premixed gases is considered to be a promising combustion technology for future clean and highly efficient gas turbine engines. This book highlights the phenomenology of premixed turbulent flames. The text provides experimental data on the general appearance of premixed turbulent flames, physical mechanisms that could affect flame behavior, and physical and numerical models aimed at predicting the key features of premixed turbulent combustion. The author aims to provide a simple introduction to the field for advanced graduate and postgraduate students. Topics covered include La
Turbulent reconnection and its implications
Lazarian, A.; Eyink, G.; Vishniac, E.; Kowal, G.
2015-01-01
Magnetic reconnection is a process of magnetic field topology change, which is one of the most fundamental processes happening in magnetized plasmas. In most astrophysical environments, the Reynolds numbers corresponding to plasma flows are large and therefore the transition to turbulence is inevitable. This turbulence, which can be pre-existing or driven by magnetic reconnection itself, must be taken into account for any theory of magnetic reconnection that attempts to describe the process in the aforementioned environments. This necessity is obvious as three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations show the transition to the turbulence state of initially laminar reconnecting magnetic fields. We discuss ideas of how turbulence can modify reconnection with the focus on the Lazarian & Vishniac (Lazarian & Vishniac 1999 Astrophys. J. 517, 700–718 ()) reconnection model. We present numerical evidence supporting the model and demonstrate that it is closely connected to the experimentally proven concept of Richardson dispersion/diffusion as well as to more recent advances in understanding of the Lagrangian dynamics of magnetized fluids. We point out that the generalized Ohm's law that accounts for turbulent motion predicts the subdominance of the microphysical plasma effects for reconnection for realistically turbulent media. We show that one of the most dramatic consequences of turbulence is the violation of the generally accepted notion of magnetic flux freezing. This notion is a cornerstone of most theories dealing with magnetized plasmas, and therefore its change induces fundamental shifts in accepted paradigms, for instance, turbulent reconnection entails reconnection diffusion process that is essential for understanding star formation. We argue that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the process of tearing reconnection should transfer to turbulent reconnection. We discuss flares that are predicted by turbulent reconnection and relate this process to
Turbulence evolution in MHD plasmas
Wisniewski, M; Spanier, F
2013-01-01
Turbulence in the interstellar medium has been an active field of research in the last decade. Numerical simulations are the tool of choice in most cases. But while there are a number of simulations on the market some questions have not been answered finally. In this paper we are going to examine the influence of compressible and incompressible driving on the evolution of turbulent spectra in a number of possible interstellar medium scenarios. We conclude that the driving not only has an influence on the ratio of compressible to incompressible component but also on the anisotropy of turbulence.
Subcritical excitation of plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Sanae; Yagi, Masatoshi; Fukuyama, Atsushi
1996-09-01
Theory of current-diffusive interchange mode turbulence in plasmas in the presence of collisional transport is developed. Amplitude of stationary fluctuations is expressed in terms of the double-valued function of the pressure gradient. The backward bifurcation is shown to appear near the linear stability boundary. The subcritical nature of the turbulence is explicitly illustrated. The critical pressure gradient at which the transition from collisional transport to the turbulent one is to occur is predicted. This work provides a prototype of the transport theory for nonlinear-nonequilibrium systems. (author)
Manufactured Turbulence with Langevin equations
Mishra, Aashwin
2016-01-01
By definition, Manufactured turbulence(MT) is purported to mimic physical turbulence rather than model it. The MT equations are constrained to be simple to solve and provide an inexpensive surrogate to Navier-Stokes based Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for use in engineering applications or theoretical analyses. In this article, we investigate one approach in which the linear inviscid aspects of MT are derived from a linear approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations while the non-linear and viscous physics are approximated via stochastic modeling. The ensuing Langevin MT equations are used to compute planar, quadratic turbulent flows. While much work needs to be done, the preliminary results appear promising.
Quantum Turbulence ---Another da Vinci Code---
Tsubota, M.
Quantum turbulence comprises a tangle of quantized vorticeswhich are stable topological defects created by Bose-Einstein condensation, being realized in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In recent years there has been a growing interest in quantum turbulence. One of the important motivations is to understand the relation between quantum and classical turbulence. Quantum turbulence is expected to be much simpler than usual classical turbulence and give a prototype of turbulence. This article reviews shortly the recent research developments on quantum turbulence.
Modelling the dynamics of turbulent floods
Mei, Z; Li, Z; Li, Zhenquan
1999-01-01
Consider the dynamics of turbulent flow in rivers, estuaries and floods. Based on the widely used k-epsilon model for turbulence, we use the techniques of centre manifold theory to derive dynamical models for the evolution of the water depth and of vertically averaged flow velocity and turbulent parameters. This new model for the shallow water dynamics of turbulent flow: resolves the vertical structure of the flow and the turbulence; includes interaction between turbulence and long waves; and gives a rational alternative to classical models for turbulent environmental flows.
Can weakly nonlinear theory explain Faraday wave patterns near onset?
Skeldon, A C
2015-01-01
The Faraday problem is an important pattern-forming system that provides some middle ground between systems where the initial instability involves just a single mode and in which complexity then results from mode interactions or secondary bifurcations, and cases where a system is highly turbulent and many spatial and temporal modes are excited. It has been a rich source of novel patterns and of theoretical work aimed at understanding how and why such patterns occur. Yet it is particularly challenging to tie theory to experiment: the experiments are difficult to perform; the parameter regime of interest (large box, moderate viscosity) along with the technical difficulties of solving the free boundary Navier--Stokes equations make numerical solution of the problem hard; and the fact that the instabilities result in an entire circle of unstable wavevectors presents considerable theoretical difficulties. In principle, weakly nonlinear theory should be able to predict which patterns are stable near pattern onset. ...
New subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Dabbagh, F.; Trias, F. X.; Gorobets, A.; Oliva, A.
2016-09-01
At the crossroad between flow topology analysis and the theory of turbulence, a new eddy-viscosity model for Large-eddy simulation has been recently proposed by Trias et al.[PoF, 27, 065103 (2015)]. The S3PQR-model has the proper cubic near-wall behaviour and no intrinsic limitations for statistically inhomogeneous flows. In this work, the new model has been tested for an air turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in a rectangular cell of aspect ratio unity and n span-wise open-ended distance. To do so, direct numerical simulation has been carried out at two Rayleigh numbers Ra = 108 and 1010, to assess the model performance and investigate a priori the effect of the turbulent Prandtl number. Using an approximate formula based on the Taylor series expansion, the turbulent Prandtl number has been calculated and revealed a constant and Ra-independent value across the bulk region equals to 0.55. It is found that the turbulent components of eddy-viscosity and eddy-diffusivity are positively prevalent to maintain a turbulent wind essentially driven by the mean buoyant force at the sidewalls. On the other hand, the new eddy-viscosity model is preliminary tested for the case of Ra = 108 and showed overestimation of heat flux within the boundary layer but fairly good prediction of turbulent kinetics at this moderate turbulent flow.
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bull, J. W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.;
2016-01-01
environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...... facilitate interdisciplinary research, ensuring decision-making that supports sustainable development........ Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...
Weak Precedence Story Parsing Grammar
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张松懋
1995-01-01
Story understanding is one of the important branches of natural language understanding research in AI techniques.The story understanding approach based on Story Parsing Grammar (SPG) involves that SPG is used to represent different abstracting processes of stories with different levels in story understanding and that the story understanding process is converted to the recognition process of stories using the syntactic parser of SPG.This kind of story understanding is called story parsing.In this paper,firstly a subclass of SPG,called Weak Precedence SPG(WPSPG),is defined.Afterwards the syntactic parsing algorithm of WPSPG is studied.An example of story parsing is also given.
Weakly distributive domains(Ⅱ)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Ying; ZHANG Guo-Qiang
2007-01-01
In our previous work(Inform.and Comput.,2005,202:87-103),we have shown that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D,if all higher-order stable function spaces built from D are ω-algebraic,then D is finitary.This accomplishes the first of a possible,two-step process in solving the problem raised(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Domainsand lambda-calculi,Cambridge Univ.Press,1998)whetherthe category of stable bifinite domains of Amadio-Droste-G(o)bel(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Theor.Comput.Sci.,1993,111:89-101)is the largest cartesian closed full subcategory within the category of ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions.This paper presents the results of the second step,which is to show that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D satisfying axioms M and I to be contained in a cartesian closed full sub-category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions,it must not violate M I∞.We introduce a new class of domains called weakly distributive domains and show that for these domains to be in a cartesian closed category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos,property M I must not be violated.Further,we demonstrate that principally distributive domains(those for which each principle ideal is distributive)form a proper subclass of weakly distributive domains,and Birkhoff's M3 and N5(Introduction to Lattices and order,Cambridge Univ.Press,2002)are weakly distributive(but non-distributive).Then,we establish characterization results for weakly distributive domains.We also introduce the notion of meet-generators in constructing stable functions and show that if an ω-algebraic meet-cpo D contains an infinite number of meet-generators,then[D→D]fails I.However,the original problem of Amadio and Curien remains open.
A weak-scattering model for turbine-tone haystacking
McAlpine, A.; Powles, C. J.; Tester, B. J.
2013-08-01
Noise and emissions are critical technical issues in the development of aircraft engines. This necessitates the development of accurate models to predict the noise radiated from aero-engines. Turbine tones radiated from the exhaust nozzle of a turbofan engine propagate through turbulent jet shear layers which causes scattering of sound. In the far-field, measurements of the tones may exhibit spectral broadening, where owing to scattering, the tones are no longer narrow band peaks in the spectrum. This effect is known colloquially as 'haystacking'. In this article a comprehensive analytical model to predict spectral broadening for a tone radiated through a circular jet, for an observer in the far field, is presented. This model extends previous work by the authors which considered the prediction of spectral broadening at far-field observer locations outside the cone of silence. The modelling uses high-frequency asymptotic methods and a weak-scattering assumption. A realistic shear layer velocity profile and turbulence characteristics are included in the model. The mathematical formulation which details the spectral broadening, or haystacking, of a single-frequency, single azimuthal order turbine tone is outlined. In order to validate the model, predictions are compared with experimental results, albeit only at polar angle equal to 90°. A range of source frequencies from 4 to 20kHz, and jet velocities from 20 to 60ms-1, are examined for validation purposes. The model correctly predicts how the spectral broadening is affected when the source frequency and jet velocity are varied.
Instabilités et sources locales de turbulence dans les disques d'accrétion
Lesur, Geoffroy
2007-01-01
Version 1.2 - 13 Juin 2007; Angular momentum transport in accretion disks has been a highly controversialdebate for 30 years now. We present here a study of this transport, consideringsome instabilities that can leads to developed turbulence in disks. The firstinstability considered is the subcritical hydrodynamic instability. Ournumerical study shows that, although not directly observed in simulations, thisinstability should lead to a very weak turbulent transport, and is probably notrelevan...
Scaling of velocity and scalar structure functions in ac electrokinetic turbulence
Zhao, Wei; Wang, Guiren
2017-02-01
Electrokinetic (EK) turbulence or electrohydrodynamic (EHD) turbulence has been recently achieved in different fluids under both ac [G. Wang et al., Lab Chip 14, 1452 (2014), 10.1039/C3LC51403J; Phys. Rev. E 93, 013106 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.013106] and dc electric fields [A. Varshney et al., Soft Matter 12, 1759 (2016), 10.1039/C5SM02316E]. Here, through dimensional analysis, scaling laws of both velocity and electric conductivity structure functions in the forced cascade region of ac EK turbulence can be predicated (similar to Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling law in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection), in either macroscale or microscale flows. In the forced cascade region, EK force, which relies on the direct cascade of conductivity structures, injects energy directly into a wide spectral region to sustain the flow disturbance. The scaling exponents of the second-order velocity and conductivity structures are 2/5 and 4/5, respectively. In addition to the scaling regions, two characteristic small length scales are derived for both weak and strong electric body forces, respectively. This theoretical investigation can significantly enhance our understanding of EK or EHD turbulence while forced by an ac electric field. It can further broaden our understanding of the forced cascade region of forced turbulence and make the manipulation of the turbulent cascade process more flexible and controllable.
Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn
2008-01-01
Several observations in space plasmas have reported the presence of coherent structures at different plasma scales. Structure formation is believed to be a direct consequence of nonlinear interactions between the plasma modes, which depend strongly on phase synchronization of those modes. Despite this important role of the phases in turbulence, very limited work has been however devoted to study the phases as a potential tracers of nonlinearities in comparison with the wealth of literature on power spectra of turbulence where phases are totally missed. We present a method based on surrogate data to systematically detect coherent structures in turbulent signals. The new method has been applied successfully to magnetosheath turbulence (Sahraoui, Phys. Rev. E, 2008, in press), where the relationship between the identified phase coherence and intermittency (classically identified as non Gaussian tails of the PDFs) as well as the energy cascade has been studied. Here we review the main results obtained in that study and show further applications to small scale solar wind turbulence. Implications of the results on theoretical modelling of space turbulence (applicability of weak/wave turbulence, its validity limits and its connection to intermittency) will be discussed.
Cloud Simulations in Response to Turbulence Parameterizations in the GISS Model E GCM
Yao, Mao-Sung; Cheng, Ye
2013-01-01
The response of cloud simulations to turbulence parameterizations is studied systematically using the GISS general circulation model (GCM) E2 employed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5).Without the turbulence parameterization, the relative humidity (RH) and the low cloud cover peak unrealistically close to the surface; with the dry convection or with only the local turbulence parameterization, these two quantities improve their vertical structures, but the vertical transport of water vapor is still weak in the planetary boundary layers (PBLs); with both local and nonlocal turbulence parameterizations, the RH and low cloud cover have better vertical structures in all latitudes due to more significant vertical transport of water vapor in the PBL. The study also compares the cloud and radiation climatologies obtained from an experiment using a newer version of turbulence parameterization being developed at GISS with those obtained from the AR5 version. This newer scheme differs from the AR5 version in computing nonlocal transports, turbulent length scale, and PBL height and shows significant improvements in cloud and radiation simulations, especially over the subtropical eastern oceans and the southern oceans. The diagnosed PBL heights appear to correlate well with the low cloud distribution over oceans. This suggests that a cloud-producing scheme needs to be constructed in a framework that also takes the turbulence into consideration.
The role of bulk viscosity on the decay of compressible, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence
Johnsen, Eric; Pan, Shaowu
2016-11-01
The practice of neglecting bulk viscosity in studies of compressible turbulence is widespread. While exact for monatomic gases and unlikely to strongly affect the dynamics of fluids whose bulk-to-shear viscosity ratio is small and/or of weakly compressible turbulence, this assumption is not justifiable for compressible, turbulent flows of gases whose bulk viscosity is orders of magnitude larger than their shear viscosities (e.g., CO2). To understand the mechanisms by which bulk viscosity and the associated phenomena affect compressible turbulence, we conduct DNS of freely decaying compressible, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence for ratios of bulk-to-shear viscosity ranging from 0-1000. Our simulations demonstrate that bulk viscosity increases the decay rate of turbulent kinetic energy; while enstrophy exhibits little sensitivity to bulk viscosity, dilatation is reduced by an order of magnitude within the two eddy turnover time. Via a Helmholtz decomposition of the flow, we determined that bulk viscosity damps the dilatational velocity and reduces dilatational-solenoidal exchanges, as well as pressure-dilatation coupling. In short, bulk viscosity renders compressible turbulence incompressible by reducing energy transfer between translational and internal modes.
Turbulent mixing of a passive scalar in grid turbulence
Ito, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Nagata, K.; Sakai, Y.
2016-07-01
Fractal grids have attracted attention as a new-type of turbulence-generating grid due to their unique characteristics. Recent studies have revealed that such uniqueness appears in the near field of regular grid-generated turbulence. Scalar transport in those flows is also of great interest as it is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigate the scalar mixing in the near field of regular grid-generated turbulence with various grid configurations. Experiments have been carried out in liquid mixing layers with a Reynolds number of 5000 based on the mesh size of the grid and uniform velocity. Simultaneous measurements of two-component velocities and concentration have been performed by particle image velocimetry and a planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, respectively. The results show that the scaling law using the wake-interaction length scale is applicable for the turbulence intensity in the grid turbulence with different mesh sizes and the same thickness of the grid bar. The turbulence intensity increases as the thickness of the grid bar increases; thus, consequently increasing the scalar diffusion. The streamwise development of the scalar mixing layer thickness collapses onto a single curve by normalization based on the thickness of the grid bar.
Stochastic differential equations and turbulent dispersion
Durbin, P. A.
1983-01-01
Aspects of the theory of continuous stochastic processes that seem to contribute to an understanding of turbulent dispersion are introduced and the theory and philosophy of modelling turbulent transport is emphasized. Examples of eddy diffusion examined include shear dispersion, the surface layer, and channel flow. Modeling dispersion with finite-time scale is considered including the Langevin model for homogeneous turbulence, dispersion in nonhomogeneous turbulence, and the asymptotic behavior of the Langevin model for nonhomogeneous turbulence.
Experimental study on oscillating grid turbulence and free surface fluctuation
Chiapponi, Luca; Longo, Sandro; Tonelli, Mara
2012-11-01
This paper analyses the interaction between the turbulence and free surface. The phenomenon takes place in many natural flows and industrial processes. In the present experiments, turbulence is generated by a vertically oscillating grid moving beneath the free surface. Fluid velocity has been measured through a hot-film anemometer, and the free surface elevation has been measured by an ultrasonic sensor. Integral length scales and several turbulence estimators have been computed. In order to detect the generation of turbulence near the free surface, the correlation between free surface elevation and the underneath flow velocity has been studied, as well as the time lag between turbulence and free surface. The free surface dynamics has been characterized by a velocity scale and a length scale. The kinetic energy associated with the free surface fluctuations increases with the Reynolds number at a rate depending on the frequency of the grid movement. For Reynolds number larger than ≈1000, however, the relationships collapse to a single curve characterized by a lower rate. The present experiments do not achieve the inertial sub-range in the vertical velocity fluctuations, and the estimated spectrum decays with an exponent smaller than -3, which is the typical value for the two-dimensional turbulence in the inertial sub-range. The macro length scale, estimated by using the Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, experiences a decay away from the grid, which follows reasonably well the profile of Thompson and Turner (J Fluid Mechanics 67: 349-368, 1975). The micro length scale reduces immediately beneath the free surface, which can be interpreted by the increase of dissipation rate in the subsurface layer. The classification diagram by Brocchini and Peregrine (J Fluid Mech 449: 225-254, 2001) indicates that most tests fall in the weak turbulence domain, but some tests fall in the wavy domain. The vertical velocity fluctuations and the free surface level show a
Weakly circadian cells improve resynchrony.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexis B Webb
Full Text Available The mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN contain thousands of neurons capable of generating near 24-h rhythms. When isolated from their network, SCN neurons exhibit a range of oscillatory phenotypes: sustained or damping oscillations, or arrhythmic patterns. The implications of this variability are unknown. Experimentally, we found that cells within SCN explants recover from pharmacologically-induced desynchrony by re-establishing rhythmicity and synchrony in waves, independent of their intrinsic circadian period We therefore hypothesized that a cell's location within the network may also critically determine its resynchronization. To test this, we employed a deterministic, mechanistic model of circadian oscillators where we could independently control cell-intrinsic and network-connectivity parameters. We found that small changes in key parameters produced the full range of oscillatory phenotypes seen in biological cells, including similar distributions of period, amplitude and ability to cycle. The model also predicted that weaker oscillators could adjust their phase more readily than stronger oscillators. Using these model cells we explored potential biological consequences of their number and placement within the network. We found that the population synchronized to a higher degree when weak oscillators were at highly connected nodes within the network. A mathematically independent phase-amplitude model reproduced these findings. Thus, small differences in cell-intrinsic parameters contribute to large changes in the oscillatory ability of a cell, but the location of weak oscillators within the network also critically shapes the degree of synchronization for the population.
Optimal Weak Lensing Skewness Measurements
Zhang, T J; Zhang, P; Dubinski, J; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John
2003-01-01
Weak lensing measurements are entering a precision era to statistically map the distribution of matter in the universe. The most common measurement has been of the variance of the projected surface density of matter, which corresponds to the induced correlation in alignments of background galaxies. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content, like using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. But when the depth is shallow as happens near a beach, waves become skewed. Similarly, a measurement of skewness in the projected matter distribution directly measures the total matter content of the universe. While skewness has already been convincingly detected, its constraint on cosmology is still weak. We address optimal analyses for the CFHT Legacy Survey in the presence of noise. We show that a compensated Gaussian filter with a width of 2.5 arc minutes optimizes the cosmological constraint, yielding $\\Delta \\Omega_m/\\Omega_m\\sim 10%$. This is significantly better than other filt...
Hall, Lawrence J.; Pinner, David; Ruderman, Joshua T.
2014-12-01
The measured values of the weak scale, v, and the first generation masses, m u, d, e , are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of ( m u , m d , m e , v), catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of (1.4, 1.3, 2.5, ˜ 5), respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as v is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of m u, d, e that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability.
Weak Quasielastic Production of Hyperons
Athar, M Sajjad; Alam, M Rafi; Chauhan, S; Singh, S K
2016-01-01
We present the results for antineutrino induced quasielastic hyperon production from nucleon and nuclear targets \\cite{Alam:2014bya,Singh:2006xp}. The inputs are the nucleon-hyperon(N--Y) transition form factors determined from the analysis of neutrino-nucleon scattering and semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry. The calculations for the nuclear targets are done in local density approximation. The nuclear medium effects(NME) like Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and final state interaction(FSI) effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have been taken into account. The hyperons giving rise to pions through weak decays also contribute to the weak pion production in addition to the $\\Delta$ excitation mechanism which dominates in the energy region of $<$ 0.7 GeV. We also present the results of longitudinal and perpendicular components of polarization of final hyperon \\cite{Akbar:2016awk}. These measurements in the future accelerator experiments with antineutrinos may give some informat...
Weak lensing and cosmological investigation
Acquaviva, V
2005-01-01
In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...
Political corruption and weak state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stojiljković Zoran
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anticorruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliana Henriques de Brito
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.
Scale locality and the inertial range in compressible turbulence
Aluie, Hussein
2011-01-01
We use a coarse-graining approach to prove that inter-scale transfer of kinetic energy in compressible turbulence is dominated by local interactions. Locality here means that interactions between disparate scales decay at least as fast as a power-law function of the scale-disparity ratio. In particular, our results preclude transfer of kinetic energy from large-scales directly to dissipation scales, such as into shocks, in the limit of high Reynolds number turbulence as is commonly believed. The results hold in broad generality, at any Mach number, for any equation of state, and without the requirement of homogeneity or isotropy. The assumptions we make in our proofs on the scaling of velocity, pressure, and density structure functions are weak and enjoy compelling empirical support. Under a stronger assumption on pressure dilatation co-spectrum, we show that \\emph{mean} kinetic and internal energy budgets statistically decouple beyond a transitional "conversion" range. Our analysis demonstrates the existence...
Role of the basin boundary conditions in gravity wave turbulence
Deike, Luc; Gutiérrez-Matus, Pablo; Jamin, Timothée; Semin, Benoit; Aumaitre, Sébastien; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric; BONNEFOY, Félicien
2014-01-01
Gravity wave turbulence is studied experimentally in a large wave basin where irregular waves are generated unidirectionally. The role of the basin boundary conditions (absorbing or reflecting) and of the forcing properties are investigated. To that purpose, an absorbing sloping beach opposite to the wavemaker can be replaced by a reflecting vertical wall. We observe that the wave field properties depend strongly on these boundary conditions. Quasi-one dimensional field of nonlinear waves propagate before to be damped by the beach whereas a more multidirectional wave field is observed with the wall. In both cases, the wave spectrum scales as a frequency-power law with an exponent that increases continuously with the forcing amplitude up to a value close to -4, which is the value predicted by the weak turbulence theory. The physical mechanisms involved are probably different according to the boundary condition used, but cannot be easily discriminated with only temporal measurements. We have also studied freely...
Magnetorotational Turbulence and Dynamo in a Collisionless Plasma
Kunz, Matthew W; Quataert, Eliot
2016-01-01
We present results from the first 3D kinetic numerical simulation of magnetorotational turbulence and dynamo, using the local shearing-box model of a collisionless accretion disc. The kinetic magnetorotational instability grows from a subthermal magnetic field having zero net flux over the computational domain to generate self-sustained turbulence and outward angular-momentum transport. Significant Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are accompanied by comparable viscous stresses produced by field-aligned ion pressure anisotropy, which is regulated primarily by the mirror and ion-cyclotron instabilities through particle trapping and pitch-angle scattering. The latter endow the plasma with an effective viscosity that is biased with respect to the magnetic-field direction and spatio-temporally variable. Energy spectra suggest an Alfv\\'en-wave cascade at large scales and a kinetic-Alfv\\'en-wave cascade at small scales, with strong small-scale density fluctuations and weak non-axisymmetric density waves. Ions undergo n...
Quasi-isotropic cascade in MHD turbulence with mean field
Grappin, Roland; Gürcan, Özgür
2012-01-01
We propose a phenomenological theory of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the presence of a strong large-scale magnetic field, which establishes a link between the known anisotropic models of strong and weak MHD turbulence We argue that the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan isotropic cascade develops naturally within the plane perpendicular to the mean field, while oblique-parallel cascades with weaker amplitudes can develop, triggered by the perpendicular cascade, with a reduced flux resulting from a quasi-resonance condition. The resulting energy spectrum $E(k_\\parallel,k_\\bot)$ has the same slope in all directions. The ratio between the extents of the inertial range in the parallel and perpendicular directions is equal to $b_{rms}/B_0$. These properties match those found in recent 3D MHD simulations with isotropic forcing reported in [R. Grappin and W.-C. M\\"uller, Phys. Rev. E \\textbf{82}, 26406 (2010)].
Turbulence-induced magnetic fields in shock precursors
del Valle, Maria Victoria; Santos-Lima, Reinaldo
2016-01-01
Galactic cosmic rays are believed to be mostly accelerated at supernova shocks. However, the interstellar magnetic field is too weak to efficiently accelerate galactic cosmic rays up to the highest energies, i.e. $10^{15}$ eV. A stronger magnetic field in the pre-shock region could provide the efficiency required. Bell's cosmic-ray nonresonant streaming instability has been claimed to be responsible for the amplification of precursor magnetic fields. However, an alternative mechanism has been proposed in which the cosmic-ray pressure gradient forms the shock precursor and drives turbulence, amplifying the magnetic field via the small-scale dynamo. A key ingredient for the mechanism to operate are the inhomogeneities present in the interstellar medium (ISM). These inhomogeneities are the consequence of turbulence. In this work we explore the magnetic field amplification in different ISM conditions through 3D MHD numerical simulations.
Statistical description of turbulent dispersion
Brouwers, J. J. H.
2012-12-01
We derive a comprehensive statistical model for dispersion of passive or almost passive admixture particles such as fine particulate matter, aerosols, smoke, and fumes in turbulent flow. The model rests on the Markov limit for particle velocity. It is in accordance with the asymptotic structure of turbulence at large Reynolds number as described by Kolmogorov. The model consists of Langevin and diffusion equations in which the damping and diffusivity are expressed by expansions in powers of the reciprocal Kolmogorov constant C0. We derive solutions of O(C00) and O(C0-1). We truncate at O(C0-2) which is shown to result in an error of a few percentages in predicted dispersion statistics for representative cases of turbulent flow. We reveal analogies and remarkable differences between the solutions of classical statistical mechanics and those of statistical turbulence.
Singularities in fully developed turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K., E-mail: bhimsen.shivamoggi@ucf.edu
2015-09-18
Phenomenological arguments are used to explore finite-time singularity (FTS) development in different physical fully-developed turbulence (FDT) situations. Effects of spatial intermittency and fluid compressibility in three-dimensional (3D) FDT and the role of the divorticity amplification mechanism in two-dimensional (2D) FDT and quasi-geostrophic FDT and the advection–diffusion mechanism in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are considered to provide physical insights into the FTS development in variant cascade physics situations. The quasi-geostrophic FDT results connect with the 2D FDT results in the barotropic limit while they connect with 3D FDT results in the baroclinic limit and hence apparently provide a bridge between 2D and 3D. - Highlights: • Finite-time singularity development in turbulence situations is phenomenologically explored. • Spatial intermittency and compressibility effects are investigated. • Quasi-geostrophic turbulence is shown to provide a bridge between two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.
Generalized Heisenberg theory of turbulence
Uberoi, M. S.; Narain, J. P.
1974-01-01
Solutions of the generalized theory are obtained which are consistent with the previous work on energy transfer measurements. They also agree with the measurements of turbulent energy spectrum for wave numbers in the universal equilibrium range.
Light Propagation in Turbulent Media
Pérez, D G
2003-01-01
First, we make a revision of the up-to-date Passive Scalar Fields properties: also, the refractive index is among them. Afterwards, we formulated the properties that make the family of `isotropic' fractional Brownian motion (with parameter H) a good candidate to simulate the turbulent refractive index. Moreover, we obtained its fractal dimension which matches the estimated by Constantin for passive scalar, and thus the parameter H determines the state of the turbulence. Next, using a path integral velocity representation, with the Markovian model, to calculate the effects of the turbulence over a system of grids. Finally, with the tools of Stochastic Calculus for fractional Brownian motions we studied the ray-equation coming from the Geometric Optics in the turbulent case. Our analysis covers those cases where average temperature gradients are relevant.
Rotating Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence
Boffetta, G.; Mazzino, A.; Musacchio, S.
2016-09-01
The turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor system in a rotating reference frame is investigated by direct numerical simulations within the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. On the basis of theoretical arguments, supported by our simulations, we show that the Rossby number decreases in time, and therefore the Coriolis force becomes more important as the system evolves and produces many effects on Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence. We find that rotation reduces the intensity of turbulent velocity fluctuations and therefore the growth rate of the temperature mixing layer. Moreover, in the presence of rotation the conversion of potential energy into turbulent kinetic energy is found to be less effective, and the efficiency of the heat transfer is reduced. Finally, during the evolution of the mixing layer we observe the development of a cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry.
TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators
Proll, J H E; Xanthopoulos, P; Lazerson, S A; Faber, B J
2015-01-01
With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is adressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X [C.D. Beidler $\\textit{et al}$ Fusion Technology $\\bf{17}$, 148 (1990)] and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT [D.A. Spong $\\textit{et al}$ Nucl. Fusion $\\bf{41}$, 711 (2001)] code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stella...
Structure and modeling of turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novikov, E.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The {open_quotes}vortex strings{close_quotes} scale l{sub s} {approximately} LRe{sup -3/10} (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES).
Turbulence optimisation in stellarator experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proll, Josefine H.E. [Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Faber, Benjamin J. [HSX Plasma Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Helander, Per; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos [Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics (Germany); Lazerson, Samuel A.; Mynick, Harry E. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451 Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)
2015-05-01
Stellarators, the twisted siblings of the axisymmetric fusion experiments called tokamaks, have historically suffered from confining the heat of the plasma insufficiently compared with tokamaks and were therefore considered to be less promising candidates for a fusion reactor. This has changed, however, with the advent of stellarators in which the laminar transport is reduced to levels below that of tokamaks by shaping the magnetic field accordingly. As in tokamaks, the turbulent transport remains as the now dominant transport channel. Recent analytical theory suggests that the large configuration space of stellarators allows for an additional optimisation of the magnetic field to also reduce the turbulent transport. In this talk, the idea behind the turbulence optimisation is explained. We also present how an optimised equilibrium is obtained and how it might differ from the equilibrium field of an already existing device, and we compare experimental turbulence measurements in different configurations of the HSX stellarator in order to test the optimisation procedure.
Scalar transport across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in jets: Schmidt number effects
Silva, Tiago S.; B. da Silva, Carlos; Idmec Team
2016-11-01
The dynamics of a passive scalar field near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) is analysed through direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent planar jets, with Reynolds numbers ranging from 142 URL http://www.lca.uc.pt.
What is turbulence, what is fossil turbulence, and which ways do they cascade?
Gibson, Carl H
2012-01-01
Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales (where the vorticity is created) to larger scales (where other forces dominate and the turbulence fossilizes). Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbulence patterns and fossil turbulence waves preserve and propagate information about previous turbulence to larger and smaller length scales. Big bang fossil turbulence patterns are identified in anisotropies of temperature detected by space telescopes in the cosmic microwave background. Direct numerical simulations of stratified shear flows and wakes show that turbulence and fossil turbulence interactions are recognizable and persistent.
Turbulent transport in hydromagnetic flows
Brandenburg, A; Del Sordo, F; Hubbard, A; Käpylä, P J; Rheinhardt, M
2010-01-01
The predictive power of mean-field theory is emphasized by comparing theory with simulations under controlled conditions. The recently developed test-field method is used to extract turbulent transport coefficients both in kinematic as well as nonlinear and quasi-kinematic cases. A striking example of the quasi-kinematic method is provided by magnetic buoyancy-driven flows that produce an alpha effect and turbulent diffusion.
Variable density turbulence tunnel facility
Bodenschatz, E.; Bewley, G. P.; Nobach, H.; Sinhuber, M.; Xu, H.
2014-09-01
The Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen, Germany, produces very high turbulence levels at moderate flow velocities, low power consumption, and adjustable kinematic viscosity between 10-4 m2/s and 10-7 m2/s. The Reynolds number can be varied by changing the pressure or flow rate of the gas or by using different non-flammable gases including air. The highest kinematic viscosities, and hence lowest Reynolds numbers, are reached with air or nitrogen at 0.1 bar. To reach the highest Reynolds numbers the tunnel is pressurized to 15 bars with the dense gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Turbulence is generated at the upstream ends of two measurement sections with grids, and the evolution of this turbulence is observed as it moves down the length of the sections. We describe the instrumentation presently in operation, which consists of the tunnel itself, classical grid turbulence generators, and state-of-the-art nano-fabricated hot-wire anemometers provided by Princeton University [M. Vallikivi, M. Hultmark, S. C. C. Bailey, and A. J. Smits, Exp. Fluids 51, 1521 (2011)]. We report measurements of the characteristic scales of the flow and of turbulent spectra up to Taylor Reynolds number Rλ ≈ 1600, higher than any other grid-turbulence experiment. We also describe instrumentation under development, which includes an active grid and a Lagrangian particle tracking system that moves down the length of the tunnel with the mean flow. In this configuration, the properties of the turbulence are adjustable and its structure is resolvable up to Rλ ≈ 8000.
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1988-01-01
The paper presents a multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method. Consideration is given to a class of turbulent boundary layer flows and of separated and/or swirling elliptic turbulent flows. For the separated and/or swirling turbulent flows, the present turbulence model yielded significantly improved computational results over those obtained with the standard k-epsilon turbulence model.
Casimir torque in weak coupling
Milton, Kimball A; Long, William
2013-01-01
In this paper, dedicated to Johan H{\\o}ye on the occasion of his 70th birthday, we examine manifestations of Casimir torque in the weak-coupling approximation, which allows exact calculations so that comparison with the universally applicable, but generally uncontrolled, proximity force approximation may be made. In particular, we examine Casimir energies between planar objects characterized by $\\delta$-function potentials, and consider the torque that arises when angles between the objects are changed. The results agree very well with the proximity force approximation when the separation distance between the objects is small compared with their sizes. In the opposite limit, where the size of one object is comparable to the separation distance, the shape dependence starts becoming irrelevant. These calculations are illustrative of what to expect for the torques between, for example, conducting planar objects, which eventually should be amenable to both improved theoretical calculation and experimental verific...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Baocang; LIU Shuanggen; HU Yupu
2006-01-01
The security of the RSA system with the prime pairs of some special form is investigated. A new special-purpose algorithm for factoring RSA numbers is proposed. The basic idea of the method is to factor RSA numbers by factoring a well-chosen quadratic polynomial with integral coefficients. When viewed as a general-purpose algorithm, the new algorithm has a high computational complexity. It is shown that the RSA number n=pq can be easily factored if p and q have the special form of p=as+b, q=cs+d, where a, b, c, d are relatively small numbers. Such prime pairs (p, q) are the weak keys of RSA, so when we generate RSA modulus, we should avoid using such prime pairs (p, q).
Microscale capillary wave turbulence excited by high frequency vibration.
Blamey, Jeremy; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R
2013-03-19
Low frequency (O(10 Hz-10 kHz)) vibration excitation of capillary waves has been extensively studied for nearly two centuries. Such waves appear at the excitation frequency or at rational multiples of the excitation frequency through nonlinear coupling as a result of the finite displacement of the wave, most often at one-half the excitation frequency in so-called Faraday waves and twice this frequency in superharmonic waves. Less understood, however, are the dynamics of capillary waves driven by high-frequency vibration (>O(100 kHz)) and small interface length scales, an arrangement ideal for a broad variety of applications, from nebulizers for pulmonary drug delivery to complex nanoparticle synthesis. In the few studies conducted to date, a marked departure from the predictions of classical Faraday wave theory has been shown, with the appearance of broadband capillary wave generation from 100 Hz to the excitation frequency and beyond, without a clear explanation. We show that weak wave turbulence is the dominant mechanism in the behavior of the system, as evident from wave height frequency spectra that closely follow the Rayleigh-Jeans spectral response η ≈ ω(-17/12) as a consequence of a period-halving, weakly turbulent cascade that appears within a 1 mm water drop whether driven by thickness-mode or surface acoustic Rayleigh wave excitation. However, such a cascade is one-way, from low to high frequencies. The mechanism of exciting the cascade with high-frequency acoustic waves is an acoustic streaming-driven turbulent jet in the fluid bulk, driving the fundamental capillary wave resonance through the well-known coupling between bulk flow and surface waves. Unlike capillary waves, turbulent acoustic streaming can exhibit subharmonic cascades from high to low frequencies; here it appears from the excitation frequency all the way to the fundamental modes of the capillary wave at some four orders of magnitude in frequency less than the excitation frequency
Fundamental Statistical Descriptions of Plasma Turbulence in Magnetic Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John A. Krommes
2001-02-16
A pedagogical review of the historical development and current status (as of early 2000) of systematic statistical theories of plasma turbulence is undertaken. Emphasis is on conceptual foundations and methodology, not practical applications. Particular attention is paid to equations and formalism appropriate to strongly magnetized, fully ionized plasmas. Extensive reference to the literature on neutral-fluid turbulence is made, but the unique properties and problems of plasmas are emphasized throughout. Discussions are given of quasilinear theory, weak-turbulence theory, resonance-broadening theory, and the clump algorithm. Those are developed independently, then shown to be special cases of the direct-interaction approximation (DIA), which provides a central focus for the article. Various methods of renormalized perturbation theory are described, then unified with the aid of the generating-functional formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose. A general expression for the renormalized dielectric function is deduced and discussed in detail. Modern approaches such as decimation and PDF methods are described. Derivations of DIA-based Markovian closures are discussed. The eddy-damped quasinormal Markovian closure is shown to be nonrealizable in the presence of waves, and a new realizable Markovian closure is presented. The test-field model and a realizable modification thereof are also summarized. Numerical solutions of various closures for some plasma-physics paradigms are reviewed. The variational approach to bounds on transport is developed. Miscellaneous topics include Onsager symmetries for turbulence, the interpretation of entropy balances for both kinetic and fluid descriptions, self-organized criticality, statistical interactions between disparate scales, and the roles of both mean and random shear. Appendices are provided on Fourier transform conventions, dimensional and scaling analysis, the derivations of nonlinear gyrokinetic and gyrofluid equations
Interstellar Turbulence II: Implications and Effects
Scalo, J
2004-01-01
Interstellar turbulence has implications for the dispersal and mixing of the elements, cloud chemistry, cosmic ray scattering, and radio wave propagation through the ionized medium. This review discusses the observations and theory of these effects. Metallicity fluctuations are summarized, and the theory of turbulent transport of passive tracers is reviewed. Modeling methods, turbulent concentration of dust grains, and the turbulent washout of radial abundance gradients are discussed. Interstellar chemistry is affected by turbulent transport of various species between environments with different physical properties and by turbulent heating in shocks, vortical dissipation regions, and local regions of enhanced ambipolar diffusion. Cosmic rays are scattered and accelerated in turbulent magnetic waves and shocks, and they generate turbulence on the scale of their gyroradii. Radio wave scintillation is an important diagnostic for small scale turbulence in the ionized medium, giving information about the power spe...
Are there two regimes in strongly rotating turbulence?
Baqui, Yasir Bin; Davidson, P. A.; Ranjan, Avishek
2016-04-01
We describe numerical experiments of freely decaying, rapidly rotating turbulence in which the Rossby number varies from Ro = O(1) down to Ro ˜ 0.02. Our central premise is that there exists two distinct dynamical regimes; one for Ro > 0.3 → 0.4, which is typical of most laboratory experiments, and another corresponding to Ro 0.3 → 0.4 is reported in Baqui and Davidson ["A phenomenological theory of rotating turbulence," Phys. Fluids 27, 025107 (2015)] and is characterised by: (i) a growth of the parallel integral scale according to l|| ˜ l⊥Ωt; (ii) a dissipation law which is quite different from that predicted by weak-turbulence theories, specifically ɛ = βu3/l|| where the pre-factor β is a constant of order unity; and (iii) an inertial-range energy spectrum for both the parallel and perpendicular wavenumbers which scales as k-5/3, a scaling that has nothing to do with Kolmogorov's law in non-rotating turbulence. (Here, l|| is the integral length-scale parallel to the rotation vector Ω, l⊥ the integral length-scale perpendicular to Ω, u the integral scale velocity, and ɛ the viscous dissipation rate per unit mass.) By contrast, in the low-Ro regime, we find that l|| ˜ l⊥Ωt is replaced by l|| ˜ ut and there is no power-law scaling of the inertial range energy spectrum. While the dissipation law ɛ = βu3/l|| continues to hold at low Ro, at least approximately, the value of β now depends on Ro. It appears, therefore, that the dynamics of these two regimes are very different, and this may help explain why experimentalists and theoreticians sometimes present rather different interpretations of rotating turbulence.
Dissipation of Molecular Cloud Turbulence by Magnetohydrodynamic Shockwaves
Lehmann, Andrew; Wardle, Mark
2015-08-01
The character of star formation is intimately related to the supersonic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent dynamics of the giant molecular clouds in which stars form. A significant amount of the turbulent energy dissipates in low velocity shock waves. These shocks cause molecular line cooling of the compressed and heated gas, and so their radiative signatures probe the nature of the turbulence. In MHD fluids the three distinct families of shocks—fast, intermediate and slow—differ in how they compress and heat the molecular gas, and so observational differences between them may also distinguish driving modes of turbulent regions.Here we use a two-fluid model to compare the characteristics of one-dimensional fast and slow MHD shocks. Fast MHD shocks are magnetically driven, forcing ion species to stream through the neutral gas ahead of the shock front. This magnetic precursor heats the gas sufficiently to create a large, warm transition zone where all the fluid variables only weakly change in the shock front. In contrast, slow MHD shocks are driven by gas pressure where neutral species collide with ion species in a thin hot slab that closely resembles an ordinary gas dynamic shock.We computed observational diagnostics for fast and slow shocks at velocities vs = 2-4 km/s and preshock Hydrogen nuclei densities n(H) = 102-4 cm-3. We followed the abundances of molecules relevant for a simple oxygen chemistry and include cooling by CO, H2 and H2O. Estimates of intensities of CO rotational lines show that high-J lines, above J = 6→5, are more strongly excited in slow MHD shocks. We discuss how these shocks could help interpret recently observed anomalously strong mid- and high-J CO lines emitted by warm gas in the Milky Way and external galaxies, and implications for simulations of MHD turbulence.
Multidimensional Potential Burgers Turbulence
Boritchev, Alexandre
2016-03-01
We consider the multidimensional generalised stochastic Burgers equation in the space-periodic setting: partial {u}/partial t+(nabla f({u}) \\cdot nabla) {u}-ν Δ {u}= nabla η, quad t ≥ 0, {x} in{T}^d=({R}/ {Z})^d, under the assumption that u is a gradient. Here f is strongly convex and satisfies a growth condition, ν is small and positive, while η is a random forcing term, smooth in space and white in time. For solutions u of this equation, we study Sobolev norms of u averaged in time and in ensemble: each of these norms behaves as a given negative power of ν. These results yield sharp upper and lower bounds for natural analogues of quantities characterising the hydrodynamical turbulence, namely the averages of the increments and of the energy spectrum. These quantities behave as a power of the norm of the relevant parameter, which is respectively the separation ℓ in the physical space and the wavenumber k in the Fourier space. Our bounds do not depend on the initial condition and hold uniformly in {ν}. We generalise the results obtained for the one-dimensional case in [10], confirming the physical predictions in [4, 30]. Note that the form of the estimates does not depend on the dimension: the powers of {ν, |{{k}}|, ℓ} are the same in the one- and the multi-dimensional setting.
Capillary freak waves in He-II as a manifestation of discrete wave turbulent regime
Kartashova, Elena
2010-05-01
Two fundamental findings of the modern theory of wave turbulence are • existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov power energy spectra (KZ-spectra) in k-space, [1], and • existence of 'gaps" in KZ-spectra corresponding to the resonance clustering, [2]. Accordingly, three wave turbulent regimes can be singled out: kinetic (described by wave kinetic equations and KZ-spectra, in random phase approximation, [3]); discrete (described by a few dynamical systems, with coherent phases corresponding to resonance conditions, [4]); mesoscopic (where kinetic and discrete evolution of the wave field coexist, [5]). We present an explanation of freak waves appearance in capillary waves in He-II, [6], as a manifestation of discrete wave turbulent regime. Implications of these results for other wave systems are briefly discussed. References [1] V. E. Zakharov and N. N. Filonenko. Weak turbulence of capillary waves. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 4 (1967), 500-15. [2] E. Kartashova. A model of laminated turbulence. JETP Lett., 83 (2006), 341-45. [3] V. E. Zakharov, V. S. L'vov and G. Falkovich. Kolmogorov Spectra of Turbulence (Series in Nonlinear Dynamics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992). [4] E. Kartashova. Discrete wave turbulence. EPL 87 (2009), 44001-1-5. [5] V. E. Zakharov, A. O. Korotkevich, A. N. Pushkarev and A. I. Dyachenko. Mesoscopic wave turbulence. JETP Lett. 82 (2005), 487-91. [6] L. V. Abdurakhimov, Y. M. Brazhnikov, G. V. Kolmakov and A. A. Levchenko. Study of high-frequency edge of turbulent cascade on the surface of He-II. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 150 (2009) (3): 032001.
Mahanta, J.; P. K. Das
2012-01-01
A new class of fuzzy closed sets, namely fuzzy weakly closed set in a fuzzy topological space is introduced and it is established that this class of fuzzy closed sets lies between fuzzy closed sets and fuzzy generalized closed sets. Alongwith the study of fundamental results of such closed sets, we define and characterize fuzzy weakly compact space and fuzzy weakly closed space.
Twisting theory for weak Hopf algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ju-zhen; ZHANG Yan; WANG Shuan-hong
2008-01-01
The main aim of this paper is to study the twisting theory of weak Hopf algebras and give an equivalence between the (braided) monoidal categories of weak Hopf bimodules over the original and the twisted weak Hopf algebra to generalize the result from Oeckl (2000).
Reconstruction of weak quasi-Hopf algebras
Häring, Reto Andreas
1995-01-01
All rational semisimple braided tensor categories are representation categories of weak quasi Hopf algebras. To proof this result we construct for any given category of this kind a weak quasi tensor functor to the category of finite dimensional vector spaces. This allows to reconstruct a weak quasi Hopf algebra with the given category as its representation category.
Refractive Turbulence, Transient Propagation Disturbances, and Space Situational Awareness
Cote, O.; Wroblewski, D.; Hacker, J.
interest in net-centric communications, airborne networks, and joint space and airborne networks all can have critical Space Situational Awareness aspects under disturbed propagation conditions. Two- aircraft combined propagation measurements at 10 GHz and refractive and clear air turbulence measurements are planned jointly with DSTO in Australia in their winter season in 2008 and 2009. These two-aircraft measurements are fundamental to developing a PSA analysis scheme and supporting progress in propagation modeling through strong and weak turbulence. It will also be interesting to apply the results of these measurements to the assessment of the role that Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov scaling play in interpreting interstellar scintillation and the power law behavior at scales between what astronomers call refractive and diffractive scintillation and its ultimate relevance for ionospheric scintillation.
Turbulent collision statistics of cloud droplets at low dissipation rates
Banerjee, Sandipan
Collisions of sedimenting droplets in a turbulent flow is of great importance in cloud physics. Collision efficiency and collision enhancement over gravitational collision by air turbulence govern the growth of the cloud droplets leading to warm rain initiation and precipitation dynamics. In this thesis we present direct numerical simulation (DNS) results for collision statistics of droplets in turbulent flows of low dissipation rates (in the range of 3 cm2/s3-100 cm2/s3) relevant to strato-cumulus clouds. First, we revisit the case of gravitational collision in still fluid to validate the details of the collision detection algorithm used in our code. We compare the collision statistics with either new analytical predictions regarding the percentages of different collision types, or results from published papers. The effect of initial conditions on the collision statistics and statistical uncertainties are analyzed both analytically and through the simulation data. Second, we consider the case of weak turbulence (as in strato-cumulus clouds). In this case the particle motion is mainly driven by gravity. The standard deviation (or the uncertainty) of the average collision statistics is examined analytically in terms of time correlation function of the data. We then report new DNS results of collision statistics in a turbulent flow, showing how air turbulence increases the geometric colli- sion statistics and the collision efficiency. We find that the collision-rate enhancement due to turbulence depends nonlinearly on the flow dissipation rate. This result calls for a more careful parameterization of the collision statistics in strato-cumulus clouds. Due to the low flow dissipation rate in stratocumulus clouds, a related challenge is low droplet Stokes number. Here the Stokes number is the ratio of droplet inertial response time to the flow Kolmogorov time. A very low Stokes number implies that the numerical integration time step is now governed by the droplet
Weakly Distributive Modules. Applications to Supplement Submodules
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Engin Büyükaşik; Yilmaz M Demirci
2010-11-01
In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of Ganesan and Vanaja. We prove that -projective duo modules, in particular commutative rings, are weakly distributive. Using this result we obtain that in a commutative ring supplements are unique. This generalizes a result of Camillo and Lima. We also prove that any weakly distributive $\\oplus$-supplemented module is quasi-discrete.