Sample records for weakly bound tightly

  1. Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodruff, David P.; Zhang, Qin


    output to a function $f$ computed over the union of the inputs. The goal is to minimize the communication. We show the randomized communication complexity of estimating the number of distinct elements up to a $1+\\eps$ factor is $\\Omega(k/\\eps^2)$, improving the previous $\\Omega(k + 1/\\eps^2)$ bound......} t))$ to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{4/p} t))$, giving the first bound for estimating $F_0$ in $t$ passes of $\\Omega(1/(\\eps^2 t))$ bits of space that does not use the gap-hamming problem, and showing a distribution for the gap-hamming problem with high external information cost or super...

  2. Tight lower bound for percolation threshold on an infinite graph. (United States)

    Hamilton, Kathleen E; Pryadko, Leonid P


    We construct a tight lower bound for the site percolation threshold on an infinite graph, which becomes exact for an infinite tree. The bound is given by the inverse of the maximal eigenvalue of the Hashimoto matrix used to count nonbacktracking walks on the original graph. Our bound always exceeds the inverse spectral radius of the graph's adjacency matrix, and it is also generally tighter than the existing bound in terms of the maximum degree. We give a constructive proof for existence of such an eigenvalue in the case of a connected infinite quasitransitive graph, a graph-theoretic analog of a translationally invariant system.

  3. Tight bounds on accessible information and informational power (United States)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Buscemi, Francesco; Ozawa, Masanao


    The accessible information quantifies the amount of classical information that can be extracted from an ensemble of quantum states. Analogously, the informational power quantifies the amount of classical information that can be extracted by a quantum measurement. For both quantities, we provide upper and lower bounds that depend only on the dimension of the system, and we prove their tightness. In the case of symmetric informationally complete (SIC) ensembles and measurements, stronger bounds are provided and their tightness proved for qubits and qutrits. From our upper bounds, we notice, perhaps surprisingly, that the statistics generated by SIC ensembles or measurements in arbitrary dimension, though optimal for tomographic purposes, in fact never contain more than just one bit of information, the rest being constituted by completely random bits. On the other hand, from our lower bounds, we obtain an explicit strategy beating the so-called pretty-good one for the extraction of mutual information in the case of SIC ensembles and measurements.

  4. Nonequilibrium quantum bounds to Landauer's principle: Tightness and effectiveness (United States)

    Campbell, Steve; Guarnieri, Giacomo; Paternostro, Mauro; Vacchini, Bassano


    We assess two different nonequilibrium quantum Landauer bounds: the traditional approach based on the change in entropy, referred to as the "entropic bound," and one based on the details of the dynamical map, referred to as the "thermodynamic bound." By first restricting to a simple exactly solvable model of a single two-level system coupled to a finite-dimensional thermal environment and by exploiting an excitation-preserving interaction, we establish the dominant role played by the population terms in dictating the tightness of these bounds with respect to the dissipated heat and clearly establish that coherences only affect the entropic bound. Furthermore, we show that sharp boundaries between the relative performance of the two quantities emerge and find that there are clear instances where both approaches return a bound weaker than Clausius' statement of the second law, rendering them ineffective. Finally, we show that our results extend to generic interaction terms.

  5. Tight Temporal Bounds for Dataflow Applications Mapped onto Shared Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh Ara, H.; Geilen, M.; Basten, T.; Behrouzian, A.R.B.; Hendriks, M.; Goswami, D.


    We present an analysis method that provides tight temporal bounds for applications modeled by Synchronous Dataflow Graphs and mapped to shared resources. We consider the resource sharing effects on the temporal behaviour of the application by embedding worst case resource availability curves in the

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of weakly bound molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lisa I-Ching


    The infrared spectra of a series of hydrated hydronium cluster ions and of protonated ethane ion are presented. A tandem mass spectrometer is ideally suited to obtaining the spectra of such weakly bound molecular ions. Traditional absorption spectroscopy is not feasible in these situations, so the techniques described in this thesis make use of some consequence of photon absorption with higher sensitivity than simply attenuation of laser power. That consequence is dissociation. By first mass selecting the parent ion under study and then mass selecting the fragment ion formed from dissociation, the near unit detection efficiency of ion counting methods has been used to full advantage.

  7. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, A.; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal


    We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n)→{0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: 1) if d=2, then w=Θ(n (lgn/lglgn)2); 2) if d=3, then w...... bound gives the largest known lower bound for computing any linear map. The upper bounds imply that a (necessarily dense) generator matrix for our code can be written as the product of two sparse matrices. Using known techniques, we also obtain similar (but not tight) bounds for computing pairwise......-independent hash functions. Our lower bounds are based on a superconcentrator-like condition that the graphs of circuits computing good codes must satisfy. This condition is provably intermediate between superconcentrators and their weakenings considered before...

  8. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature


    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran


    In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  9. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran


    Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  10. Electron Capture Dissociation of Weakly Bound Polypeptide Polycationic Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, Kim F; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Budnik, Bogdan A


    We have previously reported that, in electron capture dissociation (ECD), rupture of strong intramolecular bonds in weakly bound supramolecular aggregates can proceed without dissociation of weak intermolecular bonds. This is now illustrated on a series of non-specific peptide-peptide dimers...

  11. Quantum correlations are tightly bound by the exclusivity principle. (United States)

    Yan, Bin


    It is a fundamental problem in physics of what principle limits the correlations as predicted by our current description of nature, based on quantum mechanics. One possible explanation is the "global exclusivity" principle recently discussed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060402 (2013). In this work we show that this principle actually has a much stronger restriction on the probability distribution. We provide a tight constraint inequality imposed by this principle and prove that this principle singles out quantum correlations in scenarios represented by any graph. Our result implies that the exclusivity principle might be one of the fundamental principles of nature.

  12. Tightly bound soil water introduces isotopic memory effects on mobile and extractable soil water pools. (United States)

    Newberry, Sarah L; Prechsl, Ulrich E; Pace, Matthew; Kahmen, Ansgar


    Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction. Kinetic isotopic fractionation occurring when reference water binds to the soil is likely responsible for the (18)O-depletion of re-extracted reference water, suggesting an enrichment of the tightly bound soil water pool. Further re-wetting of cryogenically extracted soils indicates an isotopic memory effect of tightly bound soil water on water added to the soil. The data suggest tightly bound soil water can influence the isotopic composition of mobile soil water. Findings show that soils influence the isotope composition of soil water by (i) kinetic fractionation when water is bound to the soil and (ii) equilibrium fractionation between different soil water pools. These findings could be relevant for plant water uptake investigations and complicate ecohydrological and paleohydrological studies.

  13. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal


    We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:01(n)01n with minimum distance (n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w=(n(lognloglogn)2) . (2) If d=3 then w=(nlglgn). (3......, our (n(lognloglogn)2) lower bound gives the largest known lower bound for computing any linear map, improving on the (nlg32n) bound of Pudlak and Rodl (Discrete Mathematics '94). We find the upper bounds surprising. They imply that a (necessarily dense) generator matrix for the code can be written...... as the product of two sparse matrices. The upper bounds are non-explicit: we show the existence of circuits (consisting of only XOR gates) computing good codes within the stated bounds. Using a result by Ishai, Kushilevitz, Ostrovsky, and Sahai (STOC '08), we also obtain similar bounds for computing pairwise...

  14. Tight Lower Bounds for Data-Dependent Locality-Sensitive Hashing


    Andoni, Alexandr; Razensteyn, Ilya


    We prove a tight lower bound for the exponent $\\rho$ for data-dependent Locality-Sensitive Hashing schemes, recently used to design efficient solutions for the $c$-approximate nearest neighbor search. In particular, our lower bound matches the bound of $\\rho\\le \\frac{1}{2c-1}+o(1)$ for the $\\ell_1$ space, obtained via the recent algorithm from [Andoni-Razenshteyn, STOC'15]. In recent years it emerged that data-dependent hashing is strictly superior to the classical Locality-Sensitive Hashing,...

  15. Tight bounds on the size of neural networks for classification problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pauw, T. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Dept. de Mathematique


    This paper relies on the entropy of a data-set (i.e., number-of-bits) to prove tight bounds on the size of neural networks solving a classification problem. First, based on a sequence of geometrical steps, the authors constructively compute an upper bound of O(mn) on the number-of-bits for a given data-set - here m is the number of examples and n is the number of dimensions (i.e., R{sup n}). This result is used further in a nonconstructive way to bound the size of neural networks which correctly classify that data-set.

  16. Tight upper bound for the maximal quantum value of the Svetlichny operators (United States)

    Li, Ming; Shen, Shuqian; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing


    It is a challenging task to detect genuine multipartite nonlocality (GMNL). In this paper, the problem is considered via computing the maximal quantum value of Svetlichny operators for three-qubit systems and a tight upper bound is obtained. The constraints on the quantum states for the tightness of the bound are also presented. The approach enables us to give the necessary and sufficient conditions of violating the Svetlichny inequality (SI) for several quantum states, including the white and color noised Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. The relation between the genuine multipartite entanglement concurrence and the maximal quantum value of the Svetlichny operators for mixed GHZ class states is also discussed. As the SI is useful for the investigation of GMNL, our results give an effective and operational method to detect the GMNL for three-qubit mixed states.

  17. Tight Bounds for Beacon-Based Coverage in Simple Rectilinear Polygons

    KAUST Repository

    Bae, Sang Won


    We establish tight bounds for beacon-based coverage problems. In particular, we show that $$\\\\lfloor \\\\frac{n}{6} \\ floor $$⌊n6⌋ beacons are always sufficient and sometimes necessary to cover a simple rectilinear polygon P with n vertices. When P is monotone and rectilinear, we prove that this bound becomes $$\\\\lfloor \\\\frac{n+4}{8} \\ floor $$⌊n+48⌋. We also present an optimal linear-time algorithm for computing the beacon kernel of P.

  18. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal


    We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n) -> {0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w = Θ(n ({log n/ log log n})2). (2) If d...... on a superconcentrator-like condition that the graphs of circuits computing good codes must satisfy. This condition is provably intermediate between superconcentrators and their weakenings considered before....

  19. Insight into the roles of tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances on a granular sludge in ammonium nitrogen removal. (United States)

    Yan, Lilong; Zhang, Xiaolei; Hao, Guoxin; Guo, Yihan; Ren, Yuan; Yu, Liangbin; Bao, Xuefei; Zhang, Ying


    To explicitly understand the function of extracellular polymeric substances in the treatment of ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater using aerobic granular sludge, the three forms of nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen) contained in tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances were analyzed. The three forms of nitrogen were monitored in the tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances in aerobic granular sludge after adsorption. The ammonium nitrogen contained in the extracellular polymeric substances was distributed in both the tightly and loosely bound forms and decreased gradually as the aeration time increased. Ammonium nitrogen remained in the tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances even after aeration was complete. The nitrite and nitrate nitrogen species in the extracellular polymeric substances were mainly present in the loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances. The sources of the three nitrogen forms detected in the extracellular polymeric substances differed relative to the different nitrogen forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Tightness of the Kesten-Stigum Reconstruction Bound of Symmetric Model with Multiple Mutations (United States)

    Liu, Wenjian; Jammalamadaka, Sreenivasa Rao; Ning, Ning


    It is well known that reconstruction problems, as the interdisciplinary subject, have been studied in numerous contexts including statistical physics, information theory and computational biology, to name a few. We consider a 2q-state symmetric model, with two categories of q states in each category, and 3 transition probabilities: the probability to remain in the same state, the probability to change states but remain in the same category, and the probability to change categories. We construct a nonlinear second-order dynamical system based on this model and show that the Kesten-Stigum reconstruction bound is not tight when q ≥ 4.

  1. Inclusive breakup of three-fragment weakly bound nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, B.V.; Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, DCTA, 12.228-900 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Hussein, M.S., E-mail: [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, DCTA, 12.228-900 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Estudos Avançados, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 72012, 05508-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The inclusive breakup of three-fragment projectiles is discussed within a four-body spectator model. Both the elastic breakup and the non-elastic breakup are obtained in a unified framework. Originally developed in the 80's for two-fragment projectiles such as the deuteron, in this paper the theory is successfully generalized to three-fragment projectiles. The expression obtained for the inclusive cross section allows the extraction of the incomplete fusion cross section, and accordingly generalizes the surrogate method to cases such as (t, p) and (t, n) reactions. It is found that two-fragment correlations inside the projectile affect in a conspicuous way the elastic breakup cross section. The inclusive non-elastic breakup cross section is calculated and is found to contain the contribution of a three-body absorption term that is also strongly influenced by the two-fragment correlations. This latter cross section contains the so-called incomplete fusion where more than one compound nuclei are formed. Our theory describes both stable weakly bound three-fragment projectiles and unstable ones such as the Borromean nuclei.

  2. New error bounds for linear complementarity problems of weakly chained diagonally dominant B-matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Deshu


    Full Text Available Some new error bounds for the linear complementarity problems are obtained when the involved matrices are weakly chained diagonally dominant B-matrices. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed bounds.

  3. Intermolecular potential functions from spectroscopic properties of weakly bound complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenter, J.S.


    Goal is to consolidate the information from high resolution spectroscopy of weakly bound cluster molecules through a theoretical model of intermolecular potential energy surfaces. The ability to construct analytic intermolecular potential functions that accurately predict the interaction energy between small molecules will have a major impact in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology. This document presents the evolution and capabilities of a potential function model developed here, and then describes plans for future developments and applications. This potential energy surface (PES) model was first used on (HCCH){sub 2}, (CO{sub 2}){sub 2}, HCCH - CO{sub 2}; it had to be modified to work with HX dimers and CO{sub 2}-HX complexes. Potential functions have been calculated for 15 different molecular complexes containing 7 different monomer molecules. Current questions, logical extensions and new applications of the model are discussed. The questions are those raised by changing the repulsion and dispersion terms. A major extension of the PES model will be the inclusion of induction effects. Projects in progress include PES calculations on (HCCH){sub 3}, CO{sub 2} containing complexes, (HX){sub 2}, HX - CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} - CO, (CO{sub 2}){sub 3}, and (OCS){sub 2}. The first PES calculation for a nonlinear molecule will be for water and ammonia complexes. Possible long-term applications for biological molecules are discussed. Differences between computer programs used for molecular mechanics and dynamics in biological systems are discussed, as is the problem of errors. 12 figs, 74 refs. (DLC)

  4. The roles of loosely-bound and tightly-bound extracellular polymer substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal. (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; Tang, Ran; Fang, Zhendong; Xie, Chaoxin; Li, Yongqin; Xian, Guang


    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have be founded to participate in the process of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), but the exact role of EPS in EBPR process is unclear. In this work, the roles of loosely-bound EPS (LB-EPS), tightly-bound EPS (TB-EPS) and microbial cell in EBPR were explored, taking the activated sludge from 4 lab-scale A/O-SBR reactors with different temperatures and organic substrates as objects. It was founded that the P of EBPR activated sludge was mainly stored in TB-EPS, but the P of non-EBPR activated sludge was primarily located in microbial cell. The P release and uptake of EBPR activated sludge was attributed to the combined action of TB-EPS and microbial cell. Furthermore, TB-EPS played an more important role than microbial cell in EBPR process. With the analysis of (31)P NMR spectroscopy, both polyP and orthoP were the main phosphorus species of TB-EPS in EBPR sludge, but only orthoP was the main phosphorus species of LB-EPS and microbial cell. During the anaerobic-aerobic cycle, the roles of LB-EPS, TB-EPS and microbial cell in transfer and transformation of P in EBPR sludge were obviously different. LB-EPS transported and retained orthoP, and microbial cell directly anaerobically released or aerobically absorbed orthoP. Importantly, TB-EPS not only transported and retained orthoP, but also participated in biological phosphorus accumulation. The EBPR performance of sludge was closely related with the polyp in TB-EPS, which might be synthesized and decomposed by extracellular enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tight Error Bounds for Fourier Methods for Option Pricing for Exponential Levy Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Crocce, Fabian


    Prices of European options whose underlying asset is driven by the L´evy process are solutions to partial integrodifferential Equations (PIDEs) that generalise the Black-Scholes equation by incorporating a non-local integral term to account for the discontinuities in the asset price. The Levy -Khintchine formula provides an explicit representation of the characteristic function of a L´evy process (cf, [6]): One can derive an exact expression for the Fourier transform of the solution of the relevant PIDE. The rapid rate of convergence of the trapezoid quadrature and the speedup provide efficient methods for evaluationg option prices, possibly for a range of parameter configurations simultaneously. A couple of works have been devoted to the error analysis and parameter selection for these transform-based methods. In [5] several payoff functions are considered for a rather general set of models, whose characteristic function is assumed to be known. [4] presents the framework and theoretical approach for the error analysis, and establishes polynomial convergence rates for approximations of the option prices. [1] presents FT-related methods with curved integration contour. The classical flat FT-methods have been, on the other hand, extended for option pricing problems beyond the European framework [3]. We present a methodology for studying and bounding the error committed when using FT methods to compute option prices. We also provide a systematic way of choosing the parameters of the numerical method, minimising the error bound and guaranteeing adherence to a pre-described error tolerance. We focus on exponential L´evy processes that may be of either diffusive or pure jump in type. Our contribution is to derive a tight error bound for a Fourier transform method when pricing options under risk-neutral Levy dynamics. We present a simplified bound that separates the contributions of the payoff and of the process in an easily processed and extensible product form that

  6. Tightly Bound Binary Toxin in the Cell Wall of Bacillus sphaericus (United States)

    Klein, Daniela; Uspensky, Igor; Braun, Sergei


    We have shown that urea-extracted cell wall of entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus 2297 and some other strains is a potent larvicide against Culex pipiens mosquitoes, with 50% lethal concentrations comparable to that of the well-known B. sphaericus binary toxin, with which it acts synergistically. The wall toxicity develops in B. sphaericus 2297 cultures during the late logarithmic stage, earlier than the appearance of the binary toxin crystal. It disappears with sporulation when the binary toxin activity reaches its peak. Disruption of the gene for the 42-kDa protein (P42) of the binary toxin abolishes both cell wall toxicity and crystal formation. However, the cell wall of B. sphaericus 2297, lacking P42, kills C. pipiens larvae when mixed with Escherichia coli cells expressing P42. Thus, the cell wall toxicity in strongly toxic B. sphaericus strains must be attributed to the presence in the cell wall of tightly bound 51-kDa (P51) and P42 binary toxin proteins. The synergism between binary toxin crystals and urea-treated cell wall preparations reflects suboptimal distribution of binary toxin subunits in both compartments. Binary toxin crystal is slightly deficient in P51, while cell wall is lacking in P42. PMID:12089007

  7. Relativistic effects in the study of weakly bound F and Be nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Jan 3, 2018 ... Abstract. Relativistic effects are employed to describe the weakly bound nuclei of 17F and 11Be. In order to calculate the energy levels of the ground state and the excited states of these nuclei, we solved the Dirac equation with pseudospin symmetry in the shell model by using the basic concept of ...

  8. Relativistic effects in the study of weakly bound 17 F and 11 Be nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic effects are employed to describe the weakly bound nuclei of 17 F and 11 B e . In order to calculate the energy levels of the ground state and the excited states of these nuclei, we solved the Dirac equation with pseudospin symmetry in the shell model by using the basic concept of supersymmetric shape ...

  9. Shell-model description of weakly bound and unbound nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, N. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warsaw University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Ploszajczak, M.; Rotureau, J. [CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France)


    A consistent description of weakly bound and unbound nuclei requires an accurate description of the particle continuum properties when carrying out multiconfiguration mixing. This is the domain of the Gamow Shell Model (GSM) which is the multiconfigurational shell model in the complex k-plane formulated using a complete Berggren ensemble representing bound single-particle (s.p.) states, s.p. resonances, and non-resonant complex energy continuum states. We discuss the salient features of effective interactions in weakly bound systems and show selected applications of the GSM formalism to p-shell nuclei. Finally, a development of the new non-perturbative scheme based on Density Matrix Renormalization Group methods to select the most significant continuum configurations in GSM calculations is discussed shortly. (orig.)

  10. Stable Isotope Analysis of Water Indicates that Mixing Occurs between Mobile and Tightly-Bound Soil Water (United States)

    Vargas, A. I.; Schaffer, B.; Yuhong, L.; Sternberg, L. O.


    Stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotope composition of precipitation, soil and plants have been studied over the years to understand the mechanism of soil water movement and the depth of plant water uptake in the soil water profile. Recent studies have suggested that in soil during the wet season, tightly bound water does not mix with mobile water but is retained in the soil until the dry season when it is taken up by plants via the force of transpiration. To test this, we sampled δ18O and δ2H in plant stems as a proxy for wet season mobile water and dry season bound water in two types of soils to determine if mixing occurs between mobile and tightly bound soil water. Plastic pots were filled with clay or very gravelly loam soil and a Persea americana tree was planted in each pot. Soil in each pot was first saturated with tap water to fully label the bound water with the isotopic identity of tap water and then fully saturated with either tap water (T) or isotopically-enriched pool water (P) and covered with white polyethylene to prevent evaporation. After saturating the soil, δ18O and δ2H of water draining from each pot were similar to those of water added to each pot for both the T and P treatments. For each treatment, δ18O and δ2H in plant stems were sampled 2-3 days after soil was initially saturated (simulated wet season; soil tension 80.0 kPa). During the "dry season", there was a significant difference between T and P treatments for δ18O and δ2H in plant stems, indicating that bound water accessed by plants in the P treatment did not retain the tap water label and mixing occurred between mobile and bound water in the soil. Comparing P-T in the wet season with P-T in the dry season indicated that as much as 95% of water freely exchanged between the mobile and bound components of the soil. This is contrary to recent studies suggesting that no mixing occurs.

  11. Tight Bounds on the Optimization Time of a Randomized Search Heuristic on Linear Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Carsten


    The analysis of randomized search heuristics on classes of functions is fundamental to the understanding of the underlying stochastic process and the development of suitable proof techniques. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in bounding the expected optimization time of a simple...

  12. Photoassociation spectra and the validity of the dipole approximation for weakly bound dimers (United States)

    Cocks, Daniel G.; Whittingham, Ian B.


    Photoassociation (PA) of ultracold metastable helium to the 2s2p manifold is theoretically investigated using a nonperturbative close-coupled treatment in which the laser coupling is evaluated without assuming the dipole approximation. The results are compared with our previous study [D. G. Cocks and I. B. Whittingham, Phys. Rev. A 80, 023417 (2009)], which makes use of the dipole approximation. The approximation is found to strongly affect the PA spectra because the photoassociated levels are weakly bound, and a similar impact is predicted to occur in other systems of a weakly bound nature. The inclusion of the approximation does not affect the resonance positions or widths; however, significant differences are observed in the background of the spectra and the maximum laser intensity at which resonances are discernible. Couplings not satisfying the dipole selection rule |J-1|⩽J'⩽|J+1| do not lead to observable resonances.

  13. Structure of the weakly bound triatomic He2Li and He2Na molecules (United States)

    Suno, Hiroya


    We study the structure of triatomic molecules containing two helium atoms and one alkali-metal atom X (X = Li, Na). The three-body Schrödinger equation is solved in hyperspherical coordinates using the He-He and He-X pair van der Waals potentials available in the literature. We calculate the structural properties of the He2Li and He2Na bound states, and analyze one-dimensional pair and angle distribution functions as well as two-dimensional pair-pair and angle-angle distribution functions. These bound states are characterized by so peculiar weakly bound structures that classifying them into particular sizes and geometrical shapes appears to be elusive. Particularly, the JΠ=0+ excited states of He426Li and He427Li are found to constitute giant triatomic molecules with their size amounting to several hundred bohrs.

  14. Bounds on the number of bound states in the transfer matrix spectrum for some weakly correlated lattice models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Carroll, Michael [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada e Estatistica, ICMC-USP, C.P. 668,13560-970 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    We consider the interaction of particles in weakly correlated lattice quantum field theories. In the imaginary time functional integral formulation of these theories there is a relative coordinate lattice Schroedinger operator H which approximately describes the interaction of these particles. Scalar and vector spin, QCD and Gross-Neveu models are included in these theories. In the weakly correlated regime H=H{sub o}+W where H{sub o}=-{gamma}{Delta}{sub l}, 0 < {gamma} Much-Less-Than 1 and {Delta}{sub l} is the d-dimensional lattice Laplacian: {gamma}={beta}, the inverse temperature for spin systems and {gamma}={kappa}{sup 3} where {kappa} is the hopping parameter for QCD. W is a self-adjoint potential operator which may have non-local contributions but obeys the bound Double-Vertical-Line W(x, y) Double-Vertical-Line Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To cexp ( -a( Double-Vertical-Line x Double-Vertical-Line + Double-Vertical-Line y Double-Vertical-Line )), a large: exp-a={beta}/{beta}{sub o}{sup (1/2)}({kappa}/{kappa}{sub o}) for spin (QCD) models. H{sub o}, W, and H act in l{sub 2}(Z{sup d}), d Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1. The spectrum of H below zero is known to be discrete and we obtain bounds on the number of states below zero. This number depends on the short range properties of W, i.e., the long range tail does not increase the number of states.

  15. Functions that Protect Escherichia coli from Tightly Bound DNA-Protein Complexes Created by Mutant EcoRII Methyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan L Henderson

    Full Text Available Expression of mutant EcoRII methyltransferase protein (M.EcoRII-C186A in Escherichia coli leads to tightly bound DNA-protein complexes (TBCs, located sporadically on the chromosome rather than in tandem arrays. The mechanisms behind the lethality induced by such sporadic TBCs are not well studied, nor is it clear whether very tight binding but non-covalent complexes are processed in the same way as covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs. Using 2D gel electrophoresis, we found that TBCs induced by M.EcoRII-C186A block replication forks in vivo. Specific bubble molecules were detected as spots on the 2D gel, only when M.EcoRII-C186A was induced, and a mutation that eliminates a specific EcoRII methylation site led to disappearance of the corresponding spot. We also performed a candidate gene screen for mutants that are hypersensitive to TBCs induced by M.EcoRII-C186A. We found several gene products necessary for protection against these TBCs that are known to also protect against DPCs induced with wild-type M.EcoRII (after 5-azacytidine incorporation: RecA, RecBC, RecG, RuvABC, UvrD, FtsK, XerCD and SsrA (tmRNA. In contrast, the RecFOR pathway and Rep helicase are needed for protection against TBCs but not DPCs induced by M.EcoRII. We propose that stalled fork processing by RecFOR and RecA promotes release of tightly bound (but non-covalent blocking proteins, perhaps by licensing Rep helicase-driven dissociation of the blocking M.EcoRII-C186A. Our studies also argued against the involvement of several proteins that might be expected to protect against TBCs. We took the opportunity to directly compare the sensitivity of all tested mutants to two quinolone antibiotics, which target bacterial type II topoisomerases and induce a unique form of DPC. We uncovered rep, ftsK and xerCD as novel quinolone hypersensitive mutants, and also obtained evidence against the involvement of a number of functions that might be expected to protect against quinolones.

  16. Dynamics of fragment capture for cluster structures of weakly bound 7Li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava A.


    Full Text Available Role of cluster structures of 7Li on reaction dynamics have been studied by performing exclusive measurements of prompt-γ rays from residues with scattered particles at energy, E/Vb = 1.6, with 198Pt target. Yields of the residues resulting after capture of t and 4,5,6He, corresponding to different excitation energies of the composite system were estimated. The results were compared with three body classical-dynamical model for breakup fusion, constrained by the measured fusion, α and t capture cross-sections. The cross-section of residues from capture of α and t agreed well with the prediction of the model showing dominance of the two step process - breakup fusion, while those from tightly bound 6He showed massive transfer to be the dominant mechanism.

  17. Role of nuclear couplings in the inelastic excitation of weakly-bound neutron-rich nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasso, C.H. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lenzi, S.M.; Vitturi, A. [Universita di Padova (Italy)


    Much effort is presently devoted to the study of nuclear systems far from the stability line. Particular emphasis has been placed in light systems such as {sup 11}Li, {sup 8}B and others, where the very small binding energy of the last particles causes their density distribution to extend considerably outside of the remaining nuclear core. Some of the properties associated with this feature are expected to characterize also heavier systems in the vicinity of the proton or neutron drip lines. It is by now well established that low-lying concentrations of multipole strength arise from pure configurations in which a peculiar matching between the wavelength of the continuum wavefunction of the particles and the range of the weakly-bound hole states occurs. To this end the authors consider the break-up of a weakly-bound system in a heavy-ion collision and focus attention in the inelastic excitation of the low-lying part of the continuum. They make use of the fact that previous investigations have shown that the multipole response in this region is not of a collective nature and describe their excited states as pure particle-hole configurations. Since the relevant parameter determining the strength distributions is the binding energy of the last bound orbital they find it most convenient to use single-particle wavefunctions generated by a sperical square-well potential with characteristic nuclear dimensions and whose depth has been adjusted to give rise to a situation in which the last occupied neutron orbital is loosely-bound. Spin-orbit couplings are, for the present purpose, ignored. The results of this investigation clearly indicate that nuclear couplings have the predominant role in causing projectile dissociation in many circumstances, even at bombarding energies remarkably below the Coulomb barrier.

  18. Universal efficiency bounds of weak-dissipative thermodynamic cycles at the maximum power output. (United States)

    Guo, Juncheng; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jincan


    Based on the assumption of weak dissipation introduced by Esposito et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)], analytic expressions for the efficiency bounds of several classes of typical thermodynamic cycles at the maximum power output are derived. The results obtained are of universal significance. They can be used to conveniently reveal the general characteristics of not only Carnot heat engines, but also isothermal chemical engines, non-Carnot heat engines, flux flow engines, gravitational engines, quantum Carnot heat engines, and two-level quantum Carnot engines at the maximum power output and to directly draw many important conclusions in the literature.

  19. Lecithin-Bound Iodine Prevents Disruption of Tight Junctions of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells under Hypoxic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Sugimoto


    Full Text Available Aim. We investigated whether lecithin-bound iodine (LBI can protect the integrity of tight junctions of retinal pigment epithelial cells from hypoxia. Method. Cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with LBI. To mimic hypoxic conditions, cells were incubated with CoCl2. We compared the integrity of the tight junctions (TJs of control to cells with either LBI alone, CoCl2 alone, or LBI + CoCl2. The levels of cytokines in the conditioned media were also determined. Results. Significant decrease in the zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 intensity in the CoCl2 group compared to the control (5787.7 ± 4126.4 in CoCl2 group versus 29244.6 ± 2981.2 in control; average ± standard deviation. But the decrease was not significant in the LBI + CoCl2 (27189.0 ± 11231.1. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and Chemokine (C-C Motif Ligand 11 (CCL-11 were significantly higher in the CoCl2 than in the control (340.8 ± 43.3 versus 279.7 ± 68.3 pg/mL for MCP-1, and 15.2 ± 12.9 versus 12.5 ± 6.1 pg/mL for CCL-11. With LBI pretreatment, the levels of both cytokines were decreased to 182.6 ± 23.8 (MCP-1 and 5.46 ± 1.9 pg/mL for CCL-11. Blockade of MCP-1 or CCL-11 also shows similar result representing TJ protection from hypoxic stress. Conclusions. LBI results in a protective action from hypoxia.

  20. Tightly bound DNA-protein complexes representing stable attachment sites of large DNA loops to components of the matrix. (United States)

    Patriotis, C; Djondjurov, L


    This study describes tightly bound DNA-protein complexes in DNA of matrices isolated from Friend erythroleukemia cells. When after radio-iodination of the associated proteins, such DNA is electrophoresed on agarose and the gel is subsequently subjected to autoradiography, the protein components of three or four complexes are visualized. Their two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis revealed that each possesses a simple but specific polypeptide composition, including a set of five non-histone proteins, characteristic for the matrix, and the core histones H3 and H4. Since the polypeptides dissociate from DNA by treatment with SDS, it is suggested that the linkage is not covalent. Reassociation and hybridization analysis of the DNA of the complexes indicated that it is enriched in highly repetitive, satellite sequences. The latter were found to be, to a great extent, similar to sequences localized at the base of large, dehistonized DNA loops obtained by high-salt extraction of isolated nuclei. Further experiments emphasized the complete conservation of this type of attachment throughout erythroid differentiation of Friend cells. It is proposed that the complexes represent attachment sites of basic, 30-100-kbp loop units of DNA.

  1. Radioprotection of Human Cell Nuclear DNA by Polyamines: Radiosensitivity of Chromatin is Influenced by Tightly Bound Spermine (United States)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Newton, Gerald L.; Olive, Peggy L.; Fahey, Robert C.


    The polyamines putrescine (PUT) and spermine (SPM) were examined for their ability to protect human cell Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) against the formation of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). As observed previously, under conditions where polyamines were shown to be almost completely absent, association with nuclear matrix protein into a nucleoid, and organization into chromatin structure, protected DNA from induction of DSBs by factors of 4.5 and 95, respectively. At concentrations below 1 mM, PUT or SPM provided equivalent levels of protection to deproteinized nuclear DNA, consistent with their capacity to scavenge radiation-induced radicals. At constant ionic strength, 5 mM SPM protected deproteinized DNA and nucleoid DNA and DNA in nuclear chromatin by factors of 100 and 26, respectively. At 5 mM, SPM provided 15 times greater protection of deproteinized DNA than did PUT. Under physiologically relevant conditions, 5 mM SPM protected DNA in the intact nucleus from the induction of DSBs by a factor of 2 relative to DNA in the absence of SPM. Studies of SPM binding during cellular fractionation revealed that a significant fraction of the cellular SPM is tightly bound in the nucleus but can be removed by extended washing. Thus the association of SPM with nuclear chromatin appears to be a significant contributor to the resistance of the cell's DNA to the induction of DSBs.

  2. Structure Effects in Collisions Induced by Halo and Weakly Bound Nuclei Around the Coulomb Barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Scuderi, V; Torresi, D; Fisichella, M; Borge, M J G; Randisi, G; Milin, M; Figuera, P; Raabe, R; Di Pietro, A; Amorini, F; Fraile, L M; Vidal, A M; Rizzo, F; Zadro, M; Gomez-Camacho, J; Pellegriti, M G; Papa, M; Jeppesen, H; Santonocito, D; Sanchez, E M R; Acosta, L; Tengblad, O; Lattuada, M; Musumarra, A; Scalia, G


    In this contribution, results concerning different reaction channels for the collisions induced by the three Be isotopes, Be-9,Be-10,Be-11, on a Zn-64 target at energies around the Coulomb barrier will be presented. The experiments with the radioactive Be-10,Be-11 beams were performed at REX-ISOLDE (CERN) whereas the experiment with the stable weakly bound Be-9 beam was performed at LNS Catania. Elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured for the three systems Be-9,Be-10,Be-11 + Zn-64 at the same center of mass energy. The angular distributions were analyzed with optical potentials and reaction cross sections were obtained from optical model calculations, performed with the code PTOLEMY. For the Be-11 + Zn-64 reaction, the break-up angular distribution was also measured.

  3. Bounding the Electromagnetic and Weak Dipole Moments of the Tau-Lepton in a Simplest Little Higgs Model (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.

    From the total cross-section for the reaction e+e-→τ+τ-γ at the Z1 pole and in the framework of a simplest little Higgs model (SLHM), we get a limit on the characteristic energy scale of the model f, f ≥ 5.4 TeV, which in turn induces bounds on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton. Our bounds on the electromagnetic moments are consistent with the bounds obtained by the L3 and OPAL collaborations for the reaction e+e-→τ+τ-γ. We also obtained bounds on the tau weak dipole moments which are consistent with the bounds obtained recently by the DELPHI and ALEPH collaborations from the reaction e+e-→τ+τ-.

  4. Recent developments in fusion and direct reactions with weakly bound nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, L.F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea S-N, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, P.R.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea S-N, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Donangelo, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay); Lubian, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea S-N, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Hussein, M.S., E-mail: [Instituto de Estudos Avançados, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 72012, 05508-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, DCTA 12.228-900, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    In this Report we give a balanced account of the experimental and theoretical advances acquired over the last decade in the field of near-barrier fusion reactions induced by weakly bound stable and unstable nuclei. The elastic scattering and breakup reactions of these systems are also extensively reviewed as they play an important role in the fusion process. We review several theoretical tools used in the description of the data. The concepts of Complete Fusion (CF), Incomplete Fusion (ICF) and Total Fusion (TF), which is the sum of CF and ICF, are discussed and recent work on the calculation of these quantities is reviewed. The Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels (CDCC) method and its semiclassical version are described in detail and their limitations are pointed out. More importantly, we describe the salient features of the conclusions reached from the more than 40 measurements made, over a decade, of near-barrier fusion, elastic scattering and breakup reactions, and confront these data with the CDCC or other methods appropriate for these processes at the energy regime in question.

  5. Model-Independent Analysis of $B \\to \\pi K$ Decays and Bounds on the Weak Phase $\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, M


    A general parametrization of the amplitudes for the rare two-body decays B -> pi K is introduced, which makes maximal use of theoretical constraints arising from flavour symmetries of the strong interactions and the structure of the low-energy effective weak Hamiltonian. With the help of this parametrization, a model-independent analysis of the branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries in the various B -> pi K decay modes is performed, and the impact of hadronic uncertainties on bounds on the weak phase gamma = arg(Vub*) is investigated.

  6. Study of breakup and transfer of weakly bound nucleus 6Li to explore the low energy reaction dynamics (United States)

    Zhang, G. L.; Zhang, G. X.; Hu, S. P.; Zhang, H. Q.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Guo, C. L.; Wu, X. G.; Yang, J. C.; Zheng, Y.; Li, C. B.; He, C. Y.; Zhong, J.; Li, G. S.; Yao, Y. J.; Guo, M. F.; Sun, H. B.; Valiente-Dobòn, J. J.; Goasduff, A.; Siciliano, M.; Galtarosa, F.; Francesco, R.; Testov, D.; Mengoni, D.; Bazzacco, D.; John, P. R.; Qu, W. W.; Wang, F.; Zheng, L.; Yu, L.; Chen, Q. M.; Luo, P. W.; Li, H. W.; Wu, Y. H.; Zhou, W. K.; Zhu, B. J.; Li, E. T.; Hao, X.


    Investigation of the breakup and transfer effect of weakly bound nuclei on the fusion process has been an interesting research topic in the past several years. However, owing to the low intensities of the presently available radioactive ion beam (RIB), it is difficult to clearly explore the reaction mechanisms of nuclear systems with unstable nuclei. In comparison with RIB, the beam intensities of stable weakly bound nuclei such as 6,7Li and 9Be, which have significant breakup probability, are orders of magnitude higher. Precise fusion measurements have already been performed with those stable weakly bound nuclei, and the effect of breakup of those nuclei on the fusion process has been extensively studied. Those nuclei indicated large production cross sections for particles other than the α + x breakup. The particles are originated from non-capture breakup (NCBU), incomplete fusion (ICF) and transfer processes. However, the conclusion of reaction dynamics was not clear and has the contradiction. In our previous experiments we have performed 6Li+96Zr and 154Sm at HI-13 Tandem accelerator of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) by using HPGe array. It is shown that there is a small complete fusion (CF) suppression on medium-mass target nucleus 96Zr different from about 35% suppression on heavier target nucleus 154Sm at near-barrier energies. It seems that the CF suppression factor depends on the charge of target nuclei. We also observed one neutron transfer process. However, the experimental data are scarce for medium-mass target nuclei. In order to have a proper understanding of the influence of breakup and transfer of weakly bound projectiles on the fusion process, we performed the 6Li+89Y experiment with incident energies of 22 MeV and 34 MeV on Galileo array in cooperation with Si-ball EUCLIDES at Legnaro National Laboratory (LNL) in Italy. Using particle-particle and particle-γ coincidences, the different reaction mechanisms can be clearly explored.

  7. Gamow shell-model description of weakly bound and unbound nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Ploszajczak, M.; Rotureau, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM- NRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France)


    Recently, the shell model in the complex k-plane (the so-called Gamow Shell Model) has been formulated using a complex Berggren ensemble representing bound single-particle states, single-particle resonances, and non-resonant continuum states. In this framework, we shall discuss binding energies and energy spectra of neutron-rich helium and lithium isotopes. The single-particle basis used is that of the Hartree-Fock potential generated self-consistently by the finite-range residual interaction. (Author) 21 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Weakly diverging to tightly focused Gaussian beams: a single set of analytic expressions: continuation-symmetric beams. (United States)

    Levy, Uri; Silberberg, Yaron


    The always diverging-converging laser beams, more rigorously referred to as Gaussian beams, are part of many physical and electro-optical systems. Obviously, a single set of analytic expressions describing these beams in a large span of divergence-convergence angles at the focal plane, and at any distance away from the focal plane, will prove very handy. We have recently published three such analytic sets, one set for linearly polarized beams and two sets for radially polarized beams. However, our published analytic set for linearly polarized beams describes nonsymmetric electric-magnetic field components. Specifically, the strong transverse magnetic field component does not become elliptic at very large divergence angles as it should be, and the other transverse magnetic component, indeed very weak, is missing altogether. Here we present an analytic set of expressions symmetrically describing linearly polarized Gaussian beams. The symmetry applies to the x-electric y-magnetic components and vice versa and to the two electric-magnetic z-components. An important property of the presented set of expressions is power conservation. That is, the electromagnetic power crossing a plane transverse to the propagation direction in a unit time is conserved. Power conservation assures beam description accuracy at any axial distance. The presented analytic expressions, although not strictly satisfying Maxwell's equations, describe Gaussian beams with very reasonable accuracy from low divergence angles up to divergence angles as large as 0.8 rad in a medium with refractive index of 1.5, i.e., up to a NA of 1.1. These expressions should then readily assist in the design of practically all laser-related systems and in the research of diverse physics and electro-optic fields.

  9. Removal of tightly bound ADP induces distinct structural changes of the two tryptophan-containing regions of the ncd motor domain. (United States)

    Morii, Hisayuki; Shimizu, Takashi; Mizuno, Naoko; Edamatsu, Masaki; Ogawa, Kazuo; Shimizu, Youské; Toyoshima, Yoko Y


    ncd is a molecular motor belonging to the kinesin superfamily. In solution, it is a homo-dimer of a 700 amino acid polypeptide. The C-terminus of each polypeptide forms a globular domain of about 40 kDa, the motor domain with ATPase activity. The ATPase site of the motor domain of kinesin family members, including ncd, binds ADP tightly, the release of which is facilitated by microtubules during the mechanochemical ATPase cycle. Previously, we studied the spectroscopic characteristics of the ncd motor domain, focusing on interactions of the transition-moment-dipoles between ADP and aromatic amino acid side chains using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. In the present study, we generated several ncd motor domain mutants. In each, a tryptophanyl or specific tyrosyl residue was mutated. We found that Trp370 and Tyr442, the latter of which stacks directly with the adenine moiety of bound ADP, caused the bound ADP to exhibit peculiar CD signals. In addition, fluorescence measurements revealed that Trp370, but not Trp473, was responsible for the emission intensity change depending on the presence or absence of bound ADP. This fluorescence result implies that the structural change induced at the ADP-binding site (on the release of the ADP) is transmitted to the region that includes Trp370, which is relatively close to the ADP-binding site but not in direct contact with the ADP-binding region. In contrast, Trp473 in the region that is in contact with the alpha-helical coiled coil stalk did not experience the structural changes caused on removal of ADP. The distinct behavior of these two tryptophanyl residues suggests that the ncd motor domain has a bifacial architecture made up of a relatively deformable side including the nucleotide binding site and a more rigid one.

  10. Path integral Monte Carlo approach for weakly bound van der Waals complexes with rotations: algorithm and benchmark calculations. (United States)

    Blinov, Nicholas; Song, XiaoGeng; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas


    A path integral Monte Carlo technique suitable for the treatment of doped helium clusters with inclusion of the rotational degrees of freedom of the dopant is introduced. The extrapolation of the results to the limit of infinite Trotter number is discussed in detail. Benchmark calculations for small weakly bound (4)He(N)--OCS clusters are presented. The Monte Carlo results are compared with those of basis set calculations for the He--OCS dimer. A technique to analyze the orientational imaginary time correlation function is suggested. It allows one to obtain information regarding the effective rotational constant for a doped helium cluster based on a model for the rotational Hamiltonian. The renormalization of the effective rotational constant for (4)He(N)--OCS clusters derived from the orientational imaginary time correlation function is in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. The predominant circular form of avocado sunblotch viroid accumulates in planta as a free RNA adopting a rod-shaped secondary structure unprotected by tightly bound host proteins. (United States)

    López-Carrasco, Amparo; Flores, Ricardo


    Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd), the type member of the family Avsunviroidae, replicates and accumulates in chloroplasts. Whether this minimal non-protein-coding circular RNA of 246-250 nt exists in vivo as a free nucleic acid or closely associated with host proteins remains unknown. To tackle this issue, the secondary structures of the monomeric circular (mc) (+) and (-) strands of ASBVd have been examined in silico by searching those of minimal free energy, and in vitro at single-nucleotide resolution by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (SHAPE). Both approaches resulted in predominant rod-like secondary structures without tertiary interactions, with the mc (+) RNA being more compact than its (-) counterpart as revealed by non-denaturing polyacryamide gel electrophoresis. Moreover, in vivo SHAPE showed that the mc ASBVd (+) form accumulates in avocado leaves as a free RNA adopting a similar rod-shaped conformation unprotected by tightly bound host proteins. Hence, the mc ASBVd (+) RNA behaves in planta like the previously studied mc (+) RNA of potato spindle tuber viroid, the type member of nuclear viroids (family Pospiviroidae), indicating that two different viroids replicating and accumulating in distinct subcellular compartments, have converged into a common structural solution. Circularity and compact secondary structures confer to these RNAs, and probably to all viroids, the intrinsic stability needed to survive in their natural habitats. However, in vivo SHAPE has not revealed the (possibly transient or loose) interactions of the mc ASBVd (+) RNA with two host proteins observed previously by UV irradiation of infected avocado leaves.

  12. Calculations on the threshold anomaly of weakly bound projectiles with Sao Paulo and Woods-Saxon polarization potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Camacho, A; Aguilera, E F; Martinez-Quiroz, E [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gomes, P R S; Lubian, J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminenese, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, RJ, cep 24210-340 (Brazil); Canto, L F, E-mail: arturo.gomez@inin.gob.m [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, Rio de Janeiro, R.J., cep 21941-972 (Brazil)


    A thorough study of the energy dependence of the nuclear optical potential in reactions involving the weakly bound projectiles {sup 8}B, {sup 7}Be and {sup 6}Li on the target {sup 58}Ni and {sup 9}Be on {sup 27}Al is carried out by performing a {chi}{sup 2}-analysis of recent measurements of elastic scattering cross sections for energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. For this purpose two different potential types are used: the double folding Sao Paulo potential and the Woods-Saxon potential. The calculations performed for the energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the polarization potentials show that these potentials besides satisfying the dispersion relation, for some nuclear systems the uncertainties on the energy dependence of the polarization potentials allow to conclude that these systems present a behavior consistent with the Breakup Theshold Anomaly. In other cases, due to the large uncertainties, it is not possible to make a definitive conclusion about the anomalies.

  13. Chirality of weakly bound complexes: The potential energy surfaces for the hydrogen-peroxide−noble-gas interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncaratti, L. F., E-mail:; Leal, L. A.; Silva, G. M. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Pirani, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210 Salvador (Brazil); Gargano, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Quantum Theory Project, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)


    We consider the analytical representation of the potential energy surfaces of relevance for the intermolecular dynamics of weakly bound complexes of chiral molecules. In this paper we study the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}−Ng (Ng=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) systems providing the radial and the angular dependence of the potential energy surface on the relative position of the Ng atom. We accomplish this by introducing an analytical representation which is able to fit the ab initio energies of these complexes in a wide range of geometries. Our analysis sheds light on the role that the enantiomeric forms and the symmetry of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule play on the resulting barriers and equilibrium geometries. The proposed theoretical framework is useful to study the dynamics of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule, or other systems involving O–O and S–S bonds, interacting by non-covalent forces with atoms or molecules and to understand how the relative orientation of the O–H bonds changes along collisional events that may lead to a hydrogen bond formation or even to selectivity in chemical reactions.

  14. Intermolecular potential functions from spectroscopic properties of weakly bound complexes. Third progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenter, J.S.


    Goal is to consolidate the information from high resolution spectroscopy of weakly bound cluster molecules through a theoretical model of intermolecular potential energy surfaces. The ability to construct analytic intermolecular potential functions that accurately predict the interaction energy between small molecules will have a major impact in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology. This document presents the evolution and capabilities of a potential function model developed here, and then describes plans for future developments and applications. This potential energy surface (PES) model was first used on (HCCH){sub 2}, (CO{sub 2}){sub 2}, HCCH - CO{sub 2}; it had to be modified to work with HX dimers and CO{sub 2}-HX complexes. Potential functions have been calculated for 15 different molecular complexes containing 7 different monomer molecules. Current questions, logical extensions and new applications of the model are discussed. The questions are those raised by changing the repulsion and dispersion terms. A major extension of the PES model will be the inclusion of induction effects. Projects in progress include PES calculations on (HCCH){sub 3}, CO{sub 2} containing complexes, (HX){sub 2}, HX - CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} - CO, (CO{sub 2}){sub 3}, and (OCS){sub 2}. The first PES calculation for a nonlinear molecule will be for water and ammonia complexes. Possible long-term applications for biological molecules are discussed. Differences between computer programs used for molecular mechanics and dynamics in biological systems are discussed, as is the problem of errors. 12 figs, 74 refs. (DLC)

  15. Investigations of the potential functions of weakly bound diatomic molecules and laser-assisted excitive Penning ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goble, J.H. Jr.


    Three variations on the Dunham series expansion function of the potential of a diatomic molecule are compared. The differences among these expansions lie in the choice of the expansion variable, lambda. The functional form of these variables are lambda/sub s/ = l-r/sub e//r for the Simon-Parr-Finlan version, lambda/sub T/ - 1-(r/sub e//r)/sup p/ for that of Thakkar, and lambda/sub H/ = 1-exp(-rho(r/r/sub e/-1) for that of Huffaker. A wide selection of molecular systems are examined. It is found that, for potentials in excess of thirty kcal/mole, the Huffaker expansion provides the best description of the three, extrapolating at large internuclear separation to a value within 10% of the true dissociation energy. For potentials that result from the interaction of excited states, all series expansions show poor behavior away from the equilibrium internuclear separation of the molecule. The series representation of the potentials of weakly bound molecules are examined in more detail. The ground states of BeAr/sup +/, HeNe/sup +/, NaAr, and Ar/sub 2/ and the excited states of HeNe+, NaNe, and NaAr are best described by the Thakkar expansion. Finally, the observation of laser-assisted excitive Penning ionization in a flowing afterglow is reported. The reaction Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) + Ca + h nu ..-->.. Ar + Ca/sup +/(5p /sup 2/P/sub J/) + e/sup -/ occurs when the photon energy, h nu, is approximately equal to the energy difference between the metastable argon and one of the fine structure levels of the ion's doublet. By monitoring the cascade fluorescence of the above reaction and comparing it to the flourescence from the field-free process Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) + Ca ..-->.. Ar + Ca/sup +/(4p /sup 2/P/sub J/) + e/sup -/ a surprisingly large cross section of 6.7 x 10/sup 3/ A/sup 2/ is estimated.

  16. Evidence for weakly bound electrons in non-irradiated alkane crystals: The electrons as a probe of structural differences in crystals. (United States)

    Pietrow, M; Gagoś, M; Misiak, L E; Kornarzyński, K; Szurkowski, J; Rochowski, P; Grzegorczyk, M


    It is generally assumed that weakly bound (trapped) electrons in organic solids come only from radiolytical (or photochemical) processes like ionization caused by an excited positron entering the sample. This paper presents evidence for the presence of these electrons in non-irradiated samples of docosane. This can be due to the triboelectrification process. We argue that these electrons can be located (trapped) either in interlamellar gaps or in spaces made by non-planar conformers. Electrons from the former ones are bound more weakly than electrons from the latter ones. The origin of Vis absorption for the samples is explained. These spectra can be used as a probe indicating differences in the solid structures of hydrocarbons.

  17. Weakly bound states of two- and three-boson systems in the crossover from two to three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamashita, Marcelo; Bellotti, Filipe Furlan; Frederico, Tobias


    The spectrum and properties of quantum bound states is strongly dependent on the dimensionality of space. How this comes about and how one may theoretically and experimentally study the interpolation between different dimensions is a topic of great interest in different fields of physics. In this...

  18. Coupled-channels effects in elastic scattering and near-barrier fusion induced by weakly bound nuclei and exotic halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, C. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, UMR 7178, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite Louis Pasteur (Strasbourg I), 23 rue du Loess - BP28, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Keeley, N. [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Diaz-Torres, A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)


    The influence on fusion of coupling to the breakup process is investigated for reactions where at least one of the colliding nuclei has a sufficiently low binding energy for breakup to become an important process. Elastic scattering, excitation functions for sub-and near-barrier fusion cross sections, and breakup yields are analyzed for {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 59}Co. Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels (CDCC) calculations describe well the data at and above the barrier. Elastic scattering with {sup 6}Li (as compared to {sup 7}Li) indicates the significant role of breakup for weakly bound projectiles. A study of {sup 4,6}He induced fusion reactions with a three-body CDCC method for the {sup 6}He halo nucleus is presented. The relative importance of breakup and bound-state structure effects on total fusion is discussed. (authors)

  19. The Weakness of Tight Ties: Why Scientists Almost Destroyed the Coachella Valley Multispecies Habitat Conservation Plan in Order to Save it (United States)

    Goldstein, Bruce Evan


    Two groups of biologists were responsible for an unprecedented delay in completing a endangered species habitat conservation plan in the Coachella Valley of southern California. While antagonism grew as each group relentlessly promoted their perspective on whether to add a few areas to the habitat preserve, their inability to resolve their differences was not simply a matter of mistrust or poor facilitation. I analyze how these biologists practiced science in a way that supported specific institutional and ecological relationships that in turn provided a setting in which each group’s biological expertise was meaningful, credible, and useful. This tight coupling between scientific practice and society meant that something was more important to these scientists than finishing the plan. For both factions of biologists, ensuring the survival of native species in the valley rested on their ability to catalyze institutional relationships that were compatible with their scientific practice. Understanding this co-production of science and the social order is a first step toward effectively incorporating different experts in negotiation and implementation of technically complex collaborative agreements.

  20. Distance-including rigorous upper bounds and tight estimates for two-electron integrals over long- and short-range operators (United States)

    Thompson, Travis H.; Ochsenfeld, Christian


    We introduce both rigorous and non-rigorous distance-dependent integral estimates for four-center two-electron integrals derived from a distance-including Schwarz-type inequality. The estimates are even easier to implement than our so far most efficient distance-dependent estimates [S. A. Maurer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 144107 (2012)] and, in addition, do not require well-separated charge-distributions. They are also applicable to a wide range of two-electron operators such as those found in explicitly correlated theories and in short-range hybrid density functionals. For two such operators with exponential distance decay [e-r12 and erfc (0.11 ṡr12 ) /r12], the rigorous bound is shown to be much tighter than the standard Schwarz estimate with virtually no error penalty. The non-rigorous estimate gives results very close to an exact screening for these operators and for the long-range 1/r12 operator, with errors that are completely controllable through the integral screening threshold. In addition, we present an alternative form of our non-rigorous bound that is particularly well-suited for improving the PreLinK method [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] in the context of short-range exchange calculations.

  1. Weak radiative decays of the B meson and bounds on M{sub H}± in the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misiak, Mikolaj [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    In a recent publication (Abdesselam et al. arXiv:1608.02344), the Belle collaboration updated their analysis of the inclusive weak radiative B-meson decay, including the full dataset of (772 ± 11) x 10{sup 6} B anti B pairs. Their result for the branching ratio is now below the Standard Model prediction (Misiak et al. Phys Rev Lett 114:221801, 2015, Czakon et al. JHEP 1504:168, 2015), though it remains consistent with it. However, bounds on the charged Higgs boson mass in the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model get affected in a significant manner. In the so-called Model II, the 95% C.L. lower bound on M{sub H}± is now in the 570-800 GeV range, depending quite sensitively on the method applied for its determination. Our present note is devoted to presenting and discussing the updated bounds, as well as to clarifying several ambiguities that one might encounter in evaluating them. One of such ambiguities stems from the photon energy cutoff choice, which deserves re-consideration in view of the improved experimental accuracy. (orig.)

  2. Upper bounds for domination related parameters in graphs on surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Samodivkin


    Full Text Available In this paper we give tight upper bounds on the total domination number, the weakly connected domination number and the connected domination number of a graph in terms of order and Euler characteristic. We also present upper bounds for the restrained bondage number, the total restrained bondage number and the restricted edge connectivity of graphs in terms of the orientable/nonorientable genus and maximum degree.

  3. Characterization and reactivity of the weakly bound complexes of the [H, N, S]{sup −} anionic system with astrophysical and biological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabelsi, T.; Ajili, Y.; Ben Yaghlane, S.; Jaidane, N.-E. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Atomique, Moléculaire et Applications–LSAMA, Université de Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Mogren Al-Mogren, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Francisco, J. S. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: [Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Université Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Blvd. Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France)


    We investigate the lowest electronic states of doublet and quartet spin multiplicity states of HNS{sup −} and HSN{sup −} together with their parent neutral triatomic molecules. Computations were performed using highly accurate ab initio methods with a large basis set. One-dimensional cuts of the full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) along the interatomic distances and bending angle are presented for each isomer. Results show that the ground anionic states are stable with respect to the electron detachment process and that the long range parts of the PESs correlating to the SH{sup −} + N, SN{sup −} + H, SN + H{sup −}, NH + S{sup −}, and NH{sup −} + S are bound. In addition, we predict the existence of long-lived weakly bound anionic complexes that can be formed after cold collisions between SN{sup −} and H or SH{sup −} and N. The implications for the reactivity of these species are discussed; specifically, it is shown that the reactions involving SH{sup −}, SN{sup −}, and NH{sup −} lead either to the formation of HNS{sup −} or HSN{sup −} in their electronic ground states or to autodetachment processes. Thus, providing an explanation for why the anions, SH{sup −}, SN{sup −}, and NH{sup −}, have limiting detectability in astrophysical media despite the observation of their corresponding neutral species. In a biological context, we suggest that HSN{sup −} and HNS{sup −} should be incorporated into H{sub 2}S-assisted heme-catalyzed reduction mechanism of nitrites in vivo.

  4. Tight turns

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    The Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) has successfully tested the first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet. This is great news for CERN, which sees the advance as holding potential for the future of the SPS.   The first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet being prepared for cryogenic testing at the LASA laboratory (INFN Milano, Italy). On 16 July INFN introduced an innovative dipole magnet. With a length of some 4 metres, it can produce a 4.5 Tesla magnetic field and achieve a tighter bend than ever before (the bending radius has been squeezed to a remarkable 66.7 metres). This new magnet was designed in the first instance for GSI’s SIS300 synchrotron (in Germany), which will require 60 dipoles of this type. "Achieving such a tight bend demanded a major R&D effort," stressed Pasquale Fabbricatore, the spokesman of the INFN collaboration responsible for the magnet’s development. "We had to not o...

  5. Tight bounds for top tree compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Fernstrøm, Finn; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We consider compressing labeled, ordered and rooted trees using DAG compression and top tree compression. We show that there exists a family of trees such that the size of the DAG compression is always a logarithmic factor smaller than the size of the top tree compression (even for an alphabet...

  6. Long clinostation influence on the localization of free and weakly bound calcium in cell walls of Funaria hygrometrica moss protonema cells (United States)

    Nedukha, E. M.

    The pyroantimonate method was used to study the localization of free and weakly bound calcium in cells of moss protonema of Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. cultivated on a clinostat (2 rev/min). Electroncytochemical study of control cells cultivated at 1 g revealed that granular precipitate marked chloroplasts, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lipid drops, nucleoplasma, nucleolus, nucleus membranes, cell walls and endoplasmic reticulum. In mitochondria the precipitate was revealed in stroma, in chloroplast it was found on thylakoids and envelope membranes. The cultivation of protonema on clinostat led to the intensification in cytochemical reaction product deposit. A considerable intensification of the reaction was noted in endomembranes, vacuoles, periplasmic space and cell walls. At the same time analysis of pectinase localization was made using the electroncytochemical method. A high reaction intensity in walls in comparison to that in control was found out to be a distinctive pecularity of the cells cultivated on clinostat. It testifies to the fact that increasing of freee calcium concentrations under conditions of clinostation is connected with pectinic substances hydrolysis and breaking of methoxy groups of pectins. Data obtained are discussed in relation to problems of possible mechanisms of disturbance in calcium balance of plant cells and the role of cell walls in gomeostasis of cell grown under conditions of simulated weighlessness.

  7. Tight Turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer Sutherland


    Full Text Available The plain text was task-oriented in a roundabout way, providing detailed instructions for how NOT to build an elaborate sequence of bridges, each one bound to produce, according to chapters one through twenty-three, disastrous results. Graphic novels disguised as illuminated letters twisted the tent-dwelling decipherer into painful self-recognition. The flashlight followed the phases of the moon. Meanwhile one strand of marginalia, written in anxious back-slant, pleaded for some kind of adjustable form for managing the confluence, especially during flood season. I like what we came up with. 'We' is a little big word. In fact the tent turns out to be one of those Borgesian core-tech structures allowing for astonishing internal expansion. There's not much we didn't get in there and not much in there that didn't get us. So I suppose that's it. This tent. This confluence. These children who found me here, turned text into life and made life home.

  8. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.


    We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...... to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two....

  9. Breakdown of a space charge limited regime of a sheath in a weakly collisional plasma bounded by walls with secondary electron emission. (United States)

    Sydorenko, D; Kaganovich, I; Raitses, Y; Smolyakov, A


    A new regime of plasma-wall interaction is identified in particle-in-cell simulations of a hot plasma bounded by walls with secondary electron emission. Such a plasma has a strongly non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function and consists of bulk plasma electrons and beams of secondary electrons. In the new regime, the plasma sheath is not in a steady space charge limited state even though the secondary electron emission produced by the plasma bulk electrons is so intense that the corresponding partial emission coefficient exceeds unity. Instead, the plasma-sheath system performs relaxation oscillations by switching quasiperiodically between the space charge limited and non-space-charge limited states.

  10. Formation of the weakly bound muonic molecule (4Heμt) 01 2 + in the three-body (tμ) 1 s +4He +4He collision (United States)

    Czapliński, Wilhelm; Rybski, Michał


    Formation of the weakly bound muonic molecule (4He μt)012+ in the excited rotational-vibrational state (J , ν) = (0 , 1) due to the three-body collision (tμ)1 s +4He +4He is considered for the first time. It is assumed that the process occurs in T-4He gaseous mixture in thermal equilibrium containing thermalized muonic tritium atoms. The corresponding reaction rate is calculated in the frame of the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method using the dipole approximation for the interaction of tμ +4He system with the incoming helium atom. The obtained formation rate (normalized to helium density equal to the liquid hydrogen density) increases with temperature from 7.8 ṡ106 s-1 for 1000 K to 4.8 ṡ107 s-1 for 3000 K.

  11. Tight Diabetes Control (United States)

    ... A A A Listen En Español Tight Diabetes Control Managing blood glucose can prevent or slow the ... prevents or slows some complications. For the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), researchers followed 1,441 ...

  12. Disorder effect on the anisotropic resistivity of phosphorene determined by a tight-binding model (United States)

    Paez, Carlos; Delello, Kursti; Le, Duy; Pereira, Ana; Mucciolo, Eduardo

    In this work we develop a compact multi-orbital tight-binding model for phosphorene that accurately describes states near the main band gap. The model parameters are adjusted using as reference the band structure obtained by a density-functional theory calculation with the hybrid HSE06 functional. We use the optimized tight-binding model to study the effects of disorder on the anisotropic transport properties of phosphorene. In particular, we evaluate how the longitudinal resistivity depends on the lattice orientation for two typical disorder models: dilute scatterers with high potential fluctuation amplitudes, mimicking screened charges in the substrate, and dense scatterers with lower amplitudes, simulating weakly bounded adsorbates. We show that the intrinsic anisotropy associated to the band structure of this material, although sensitive to the type and intensity of the disorder, is robust.

  13. Differences between tight and loose cultures : A 33-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Raver, R.L.; Nishii, L.; Leslie, L.M.; Lun, J.; Lim, B.C.; Van de Vliert, E.


    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated

  14. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp


    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Torres-Flores


    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells.

  16. Bounded Rationality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballester Pla, Coralio; Hernández, Penélope


    The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models...

  17. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, E.S.


    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe

  18. Bounding the $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A


    A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).

  19. Anderson localisation in tight-binding models with flat bands


    Chalker, J. T.; Pickles, T. S.; Shukla, Pragya


    We consider the effect of weak disorder on eigenstates in a special class of tight-binding models. Models in this class have short-range hopping on periodic lattices; their defining feature is that the clean systems have some energy bands that are dispersionless throughout the Brillouin zone. We show that states derived from these flat bands are generically critical in the presence of weak disorder, being neither Anderson localised nor spatially extended. Further, we establish a mapping betwe...

  20. Search for weakly decaying $\\overline{\\Lambda\\mathrm{n}}$ and $\\Lambda\\Lambda $ exotic bound states in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; 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Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; 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Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; 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Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym


    We present results of a search for two hypothetical strange dibaryon states, i.e. the H-dibaryon and the possible $\\overline{\\Lambda\\mathrm{n}}$ bound state. The search is performed with the ALICE detector in central (0-10%) Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV, by invariant mass analysis in the decay modes $\\overline{\\Lambda\\mathrm{n}} \\rightarrow \\overline{\\mathrm{d}} \\pi^{+} $ and H-dibaryon $\\rightarrow \\Lambda \\mathrm{p} \\pi^{-}$. No evidence for these bound states is observed. Upper limits are determined at 99% confidence level for a wide range of lifetimes and for the full range of branching ratios. The results are compared to thermal, coalescence and hybrid UrQMD model expectations, which describe correctly the production of other loosely bound states, like the deuteron and the hypertriton.

  1. Search for weakly decaying Λn‾ and ΛΛ exotic bound states in central Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam


    Full Text Available We present results of a search for two hypothetical strange dibaryon states, i.e. the H-dibaryon and the possible Λn‾ bound state. The search is performed with the ALICE detector in central (0–10% Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV, by invariant mass analysis in the decay modes Λn‾→d‾π+ and H-dibaryon →Λpπ−. No evidence for these bound states is observed. Upper limits are determined at 99% confidence level for a wide range of lifetimes and for the full range of branching ratios. The results are compared to thermal, coalescence and hybrid UrQMD model expectations, which describe correctly the production of other loosely bound states, like the deuteron and the hypertriton.

  2. On bounds for symmetric divergence measures (United States)

    Furuichi, S.; Yanagi, K.; Kuriyama, K.


    In the paper [1], tight bounds for symmetric divergence measures applying the results established by G.L.Gilardoni. In this article, we report on two kinds of extensions for the Sason's results, namely a classical q-extension and a non-commutative(quantum) extension. Especially, we improve Sason's bound of the summation of the absolute value for the difference between two probability distributions, applying the parameter q of Tsallis entropy, under a certain assumption.

  3. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco


    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  4. Physics with loosely bound nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nuclear physics changed drastically as the new generation of accelerators started providing more and more rare isotopes, which are away from the line of stability. These weakly bound nuclei are found to exhibit new forms of nuclear matter and unprecedented exotic behaviour. The low breakup thresholds of these rare ...

  5. Regularity of Tor for weakly stable ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Ansaldi


    Full Text Available It is proved that if I and J are weakly stable ideals in a polynomial ring R = k[x_1, . . ., x_n], with k a field, then the regularity of Tor^R_i (R/I, R/J has the expected upper bound. We also give a bound for the regularity of Ext^i_R (R/I, R for I a weakly stable ideal.

  6. Bound Exciton Complexes (United States)

    Meyer, B. K.

    In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

  7. Muscle Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi MD, MSc


    Full Text Available Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome. And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations.

  8. Bounded Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester Pla, Coralio


    Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.

    La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.

  9. Classical simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions and weakly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This model is extended to simulate heavy-ion reactions such as 6Li + 209Bi involving the weakly-bound projectile considered as a weakly-bound cluster of deuteron and 4He nuclei, thus, simulating a 3-body system in 3S-CMD model. All the essential features of breakup reactions, such as complete fusion, incomplete fusion ...

  10. Quasi-bounded sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucera


    Full Text Available It is proved in [1] & [2] that a set bounded in an inductive limit E=indlim En of Fréchet spaces is also bounded in some En iff E is fast complete. In the case of arbitrary locally convex spaces En every bounded set in a fast complete indlim En is quasi-bounded in some En, though it may not be bounded or even contained in any En. Every bounded set is quasi-bounded. In a Fréchet space every quasi-bounded set is also bounded.

  11. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server



    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  12. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study. (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa; Leslie, Lisa M; Lun, Janetta; Lim, Beng Chong; Duan, Lili; Almaliach, Assaf; Ang, Soon; Arnadottir, Jakobina; Aycan, Zeynep; Boehnke, Klaus; Boski, Pawel; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chan, Darius; Chhokar, Jagdeep; D'Amato, Alessia; Ferrer, Montse; Fischlmayr, Iris C; Fischer, Ronald; Fülöp, Marta; Georgas, James; Kashima, Emiko S; Kashima, Yoshishima; Kim, Kibum; Lempereur, Alain; Marquez, Patricia; Othman, Rozhan; Overlaet, Bert; Panagiotopoulou, Penny; Peltzer, Karl; Perez-Florizno, Lorena R; Ponomarenko, Larisa; Realo, Anu; Schei, Vidar; Schmitt, Manfred; Smith, Peter B; Soomro, Nazar; Szabo, Erna; Taveesin, Nalinee; Toyama, Midori; Van de Vliert, Evert; Vohra, Naharika; Ward, Colleen; Yamaguchi, Susumu


    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change.

  13. Fibered Transverse Knots and the Bennequin Bound


    Etnyre, John B.; Van Horn-Morris, Jeremy


    We prove that a nicely fibered link (by which we mean the binding of an open book) in a tight contact manifold $(M,\\xi)$ with zero Giroux torsion has a transverse representative realizing the Bennequin bound if and only if the contact structure it supports (since it is also the binding of an open book) is $\\xi.$ This gives a geometric reason for the non-sharpness of the Bennequin bound for fibered links. We also note that this allows the classification, up to contactomorphism, of maximal self...

  14. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Weakly Bound Hydrated Cluster Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas

    -sized molecular clusters with water by means of far-infrared and terahertz neon matrix isolation spectroscopy. The embedding of non-covalent cluster molecules in solid cryogenic neon matrices at 2.8 K ensures a high sensitivity for direct spectroscopic observations of the large-amplitude intermolecular...

  15. On weakly D-differentiable operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik


    Let DD be a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space HH and aa a bounded operator on HH. We say that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, if for any pair of vectors ξ,ηξ,η from HH the function 〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉 is differentiable. We give an elementary example of a bounded operator aa...

  16. Nuclear structure of weakly bound radioactive nuclei through elastic and and inelastic scattering on proton. Impacts of the couplings induced by these exotic nuclei on direct reactions; Structure de noyaux radioactifs faiblement lies par diffusions elastiques et inelastiques sur proton. Effets des couplages induits par ces noyaux exotiques sur les reactions directes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapoux, V


    Information on the structure, spectroscopy and target interaction potentials of exotic nuclei can be inferred by interpreting measured data from direct reactions on proton such as elastic or inelastic scattering of proton (p,p') or one-nucleon transfer reaction (p,d). A series of experimental results has been obtained at the GANIL facilities on the setting composed of the MUST telescope array used for the detection of light charged-particles and of CATS beam detectors. This setting aims at measuring reactions on light proton or deuteron targets through reverse kinematics. Particularly, results on C{sup 10}, C{sup 11} and on direct reactions with the He{sup 8} beam of Spiral are presented. The first chapter is dedicated to the description of the most important theories concerning the nucleus. The experimental tools used to probe the nucleus are reported in the second chapter. The third and fourth chapters present the framework that has allowed us to analyse results from (p,p') and (p,d) reactions on weakly bound exotic nuclei. The last chapter is dedicated to the description of future experimental programs. (A.C.)

  17. Sound velocity bound and neutron stars. (United States)

    Bedaque, Paulo; Steiner, Andrew W


    It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by sqrt[3]. Simple arguments support this bound in nonrelativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound.

  18. Correlation Distance and Bounds for Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. W. Hall


    Full Text Available The correlation distance quantifies the statistical independence of two classical or quantum systems, via the distance from their joint state to the product of the marginal states. Tight lower bounds are given for the mutual information between pairs of two-valued classical variables and quantum qubits, in terms of the corresponding classical and quantum correlation distances. These bounds are stronger than the Pinsker inequality (and refinements thereof for relative entropy. The classical lower bound may be used to quantify properties of statistical models that violate Bell inequalities. Partially entangled qubits can have lower mutual information than can any two-valued classical variables having the same correlation distance. The qubit correlation distance also provides a direct entanglement criterion, related to the spin covariance matrix. Connections of results with classically-correlated quantum states are briefly discussed.

  19. Bound states and the Bekenstein bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael


    We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

  20. Properties of Water Bound in Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Gun’ko


    Full Text Available In this review, the importance of water in hydrogel (HG properties and structure is analyzed. A variety of methods such as 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, XRD (X-ray powder diffraction, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, thermally stimulated depolarization current, quasi-elastic neutron scattering, rheometry, diffusion, adsorption, infrared spectroscopy are used to study water in HG. The state of HG water is rather non-uniform. According to thermodynamic features of water in HG, some of it is non-freezing and strongly bound, another fraction is freezing and weakly bound, and the third fraction is non-bound, free water freezing at 0 °C. According to structural features of water in HG, it can be divided into two fractions with strongly associated and weakly associated waters. The properties of the water in HG depend also on the amounts and types of solutes, pH, salinity, structural features of HG functionalities.

  1. Adaptive tight frame based multiplicative noise removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weifeng Zhou; Shuguo Yang; Caiming Zhang; Shujun Fu


    .... However, it is impossible for a fixed system to be always optimal for all the images. In this paper, we present an adaptive wavelet tight frame technology for sparse representation of an image with multiplicative noise...

  2. Adaptive tight frame based multiplicative noise removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allikalt, Anni; Zhou, Weifeng; Rinken, Ago; Yang, Shuguo; Zhang, Caiming; Fu, Shujun

    .... However, it is impossible for a fixed system to be always optimal for all the images. In this paper, we present an adaptive wavelet tight frame technology for sparse representation of an image with multiplicative noise...

  3. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control (United States)

    Intensive insulin therapy: Tight blood sugar control Intensive insulin therapy can help prevent long-term diabetes complications. Consider the benefits — and understand the commitment. By Mayo Clinic ...

  4. Sharp Bounds on Causal Effects under Sample Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni


    In many empirical problems, the evaluation of treatment effects is complicated by sample selection so that the outcome is only observed for a non-random subpopulation. In the absence of instruments and/or tight parametric assumptions, treatment effects are not point identified, but can be bounded...

  5. Approximate equiangular tight frames for compressed sensing and CDMA applications (United States)

    Tsiligianni, Evaggelia; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.


    Performance guarantees for recovery algorithms employed in sparse representations, and compressed sensing highlights the importance of incoherence. Optimal bounds of incoherence are attained by equiangular unit norm tight frames (ETFs). Although ETFs are important in many applications, they do not exist for all dimensions, while their construction has been proven extremely difficult. In this paper, we construct frames that are close to ETFs. According to results from frame and graph theory, the existence of an ETF depends on the existence of its signature matrix, that is, a symmetric matrix with certain structure and spectrum consisting of two distinct eigenvalues. We view the construction of a signature matrix as an inverse eigenvalue problem and propose a method that produces frames of any dimensions that are close to ETFs. Due to the achieved equiangularity property, the so obtained frames can be employed as spreading sequences in synchronous code-division multiple access (s-CDMA) systems, besides compressed sensing.

  6. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  7. Space group constraints on weak indices in topological insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varjas, D.; De Juan, Fernando; Lu, Yuan Ming

    Lattice translation symmetry gives rise to a large class of "weak" topological insulators (TIs), characterized by translation-protected gapless surface states and dislocation bound states. In this work we show that space group symmetries lead to constraints on the weak topological indices that

  8. The DMM Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias


    In this paper we derive aggregate separation bounds, named after Davenport-Mahler-Mignotte (DMM), on the isolated roots of polynomial systems, specifically on the minimum distance between any two such roots. The bounds exploit the structure of the system and the height of the sparse (or toric) re...... bound on the number of steps that subdivision-based algorithms perform in order to isolate all real roots of a polynomial system. This leads to the first complexity bound of Milne's algorithm [22] in 2D....

  9. An introduction to finite tight frames

    CERN Document Server

    Waldron, Shayne F D


    This textbook is an introduction to the theory and applications of finite tight frames, an area that has developed rapidly in the last decade. Stimulating much of this growth are the applications of finite frames to diverse fields such as signal processing, quantum information theory, multivariate orthogonal polynomials, and remote sensing. Key features and topics: * First book entirely devoted to finite frames * Extensive exercises and MATLAB examples for classroom use * Important examples, such as harmonic and Heisenberg frames, are presented in preliminary chapters, encouraging readers to explore and develop an intuitive feeling for tight frames * Later chapters delve into general theory details and recent research results * Many illustrations showing the special aspects of the geometry of finite frames * Provides an overview of the field of finite tight frames * Discusses future research directions in the field Featuring exercises and MATLAB examples in each chapter, the book is well suited as a textbook ...

  10. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions (United States)

    Baker, Olga J.


    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  11. The Cost Implications of Less Tight Versus Tight Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy (CHIPS Trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Rashid J.; Gafni, Amiram; Hutton, Eileen K.; Hu, Zheng Jing; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; von Dadelszen, Peter; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E.; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, J. Johanna; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Helewa, Michael; Lee, Shoo K.; Lee, Terry; Logan, Alexander G.; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Singer, Joel; Thornton, Jim G.; Welch, Ross; Magee, Laura A.


    The CHIPS randomized controlled trial (Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study) found no difference in the primary perinatal or secondary maternal outcomes between planned "less tight" (target diastolic 100 mm Hg) and "tight" (target diastolic 85 mm Hg) blood pressure management strategies among

  12. Bounded Parikh Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Cadilhac


    Full Text Available The Parikh finite word automaton model (PA was introduced and studied by Klaedtke and Ruess in 2003. Here, by means of related models, it is shown that the bounded languages recognized by PA are the same as those recognized by deterministic PA. Moreover, this class of languages is the class of bounded languages whose set of iterations is semilinear.

  13. Bounded Gaussian process regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan


    We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...

  14. Bounding Species Distribution Models (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.


    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  15. Gossip and Distributed Kalman Filtering: Weak Consensus Under Weak Detectability (United States)

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.


    The paper presents the gossip interactive Kalman filter (GIKF) for distributed Kalman filtering for networked systems and sensor networks, where inter-sensor communication and observations occur at the same time-scale. The communication among sensors is random; each sensor occasionally exchanges its filtering state information with a neighbor depending on the availability of the appropriate network link. We show that under a weak distributed detectability condition: 1. the GIKF error process remains stochastically bounded, irrespective of the instability properties of the random process dynamics; and 2. the network achieves \\emph{weak consensus}, i.e., the conditional estimation error covariance at a (uniformly) randomly selected sensor converges in distribution to a unique invariant measure on the space of positive semi-definite matrices (independent of the initial state.) To prove these results, we interpret the filtered states (estimates and error covariances) at each node in the GIKF as stochastic particles with local interactions. We analyze the asymptotic properties of the error process by studying as a random dynamical system the associated switched (random) Riccati equation, the switching being dictated by a non-stationary Markov chain on the network graph.

  16. Tightly bound indirect exciton in single-layer hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductor (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Tao; Liew, Timothy C. H.


    We theoretically study the direct and indirect excitons (IXs) in a single-layer hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) semiconductor. Due to the 2D nature, the single-layer HOIP supports the large binding energy of IXs and direct excitons over a wide range of applied electric fields, which exceed the thermal energy of room temperature. Moreover, the ground-state IX has a lower energy than that of direct exciton, which will extend the coherence and relaxation time of IXs. This is beneficial to optoelectronic applications and excitonic information processing devices of IXs.

  17. Classifying tight Weyl-Heisenberg frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazsazza, P.; Janssen, A. J. E. M.; Christensen, Ole


    A Weyl-Heisenberg frame for L^2(R) is a frame consisting of translates and modulates of a fixed function. In this paper we give necessary and sufficient conditions for this family to form a tight WH-frame. This allows us to write down explicitly all functions g for which all translates and modula...

  18. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goyeneche, D.; Turek, Ondřej


    Roč. 50, č. 24 (2017), č. článku 245304. ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : equiangular tight frames * unistochastic matrices * SIC POVM Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2016


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Much of the earth's pollution involves compounds of the metallic elements, including actinides, strontium, cesium, technetium, and RCRA metals. Metal ions bind to molecules called ligands, which are the molecular tools that can manipulate the metal ions under most conditions. This DOE-EMSP sponsored program strives (1) to provide the foundations for using the most powerful ligands in transformational separations technologies and (2) to produce seminal examples of their applications to separations appropriate to the DOE EM mission. These ultra tight-binding ligands can capture metal ions in the most competitive of circumstances (from mineralized sites, lesser ligands, and even extremely dilute solutions), but they react so slowly that they are useless in traditional separations methodologies. Two attacks on this problem are underway. The first accommodates to the challenging molecular lethargy by developing a seminal slow separations methodology termed the soil poultice. The second designs ligands that are only tight-binding while wrapped around the targeted metal ion, but can be put in place by switch-binding and removed by switch-release. We envision a kind of molecular switching process to accelerate the union between metal ion and tight-binding ligand. Molecular switching processes are suggested for overcoming the slow natural equilibration rate with which ultra tight-binding ligands combine with metal ions. Ligands that bind relatively weakly combine with metal ions rapidly, so the trick is to convert a ligand from a weak, rapidly binding species to a powerful, slow releasing ligand--during the binding of the ligand to the metal ion. Such switch-binding ligands must react with themselves, and the reaction must take place under the influence of the metal ion. For example, our generation 1 ligands showed that a well-designed linear ligand with ends that readily combine, forms a cyclic molecule when it wraps around a metal ion. Our generation 2 ligands are

  20. Multipole-bound molecular negative ions

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul-Karim, H; Desfrançois, C


    Within the framework of a simple electrostatic model, as compared to recent experimental results, we here discuss the stability of very weakly bound molecular negative ions. In contrast with the case of conventional valence anions, the excess electron is then located in a very diffuse orbital and is mainly bound by electrostatic dipolar, quadrupolar, and polarization forces, at large distances from the neutral molecular core. By fitting a single repulsion parameter of the model to the available experimental data, it is possible to make quantitative predictions of the excess-electron binding energies in these species. Critical values of the dipole moment, quadrupole moment or polarizability required for the observation of stable multipole-bound negative ions are predicted and compared to available experimental data and ab initio calculations. Refs. 26 (author)



    Bennis, Driss


    In this paper, we investigate the weak Gorenstein global dimensions. We are mainly interested in studying the problem when the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions coincide. We first show, for GF-closed rings, that the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions are equal when they are finite. Then, we prove that the same equality holds for any two-sided coherent ring. We conclude the paper with some examples and a brief discussion of the scope and limits of our results.

  2. Virial Expansion Bounds (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James


    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  3. Tight-binding treatment of conjugated polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Thomas Bastholm

    This PhD thesis concerns conjugated polymers which constitute a constantly growing research area. Today, among other things, conjugated polymers play a role in plastic based solar cells, photodetectors and light emitting diodes, and even today such plastic-based components constitute an alternative...... of tomorrow. This thesis specifically treats the three conjugated polymers trans-polyacetylene (tPA), poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) and poly(para-phe\\-nylene vinylene) (PPV). The present results, which are derived within the tight-binding model, are divided into two parts. In one part, analytic results...... are derived for the optical properties of the polymers expressed in terms of the optical susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of a static electric field. In the other part, the cumputationally efficient Density Functional-based Tight-Binding (DFTB) model is applied to the description...

  4. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During this quarter, work began on the regional structural and geologic analysis of the greater Green River basin (GGRB) in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. The ultimate objective of the regional analysis is to apply the techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project to sweet-spot delineation in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-type Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the GGRB. The primary goal of this work is to partition and high-grade the greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Cretaceous tight gas play. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1998--March 31, 1998 consisted of three tasks: (1) Acquire necessary data and develop base map of study area; (2) Process data for analysis; and (3) Initiate structural study. The first task and second tasks were completed during this reporting period. The third task was initiated and work continues.

  5. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  6. History of Weak Interactions (United States)

    Lee, T. D.


    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  7. Sparsity-aware tight frame learning with adaptive subspace recognition for multiple fault diagnosis (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Xuefeng; Du, Zhaohui; Yang, Boyuan


    It is a challenging problem to design excellent dictionaries to sparsely represent diverse fault information and simultaneously discriminate different fault sources. Therefore, this paper describes and analyzes a novel multiple feature recognition framework which incorporates the tight frame learning technique with an adaptive subspace recognition strategy. The proposed framework consists of four stages. Firstly, by introducing the tight frame constraint into the popular dictionary learning model, the proposed tight frame learning model could be formulated as a nonconvex optimization problem which can be solved by alternatively implementing hard thresholding operation and singular value decomposition. Secondly, the noises are effectively eliminated through transform sparse coding techniques. Thirdly, the denoised signal is decoupled into discriminative feature subspaces by each tight frame filter. Finally, in guidance of elaborately designed fault related sensitive indexes, latent fault feature subspaces can be adaptively recognized and multiple faults are diagnosed simultaneously. Extensive numerical experiments are sequently implemented to investigate the sparsifying capability of the learned tight frame as well as its comprehensive denoising performance. Most importantly, the feasibility and superiority of the proposed framework is verified through performing multiple fault diagnosis of motor bearings. Compared with the state-of-the-art fault detection techniques, some important advantages have been observed: firstly, the proposed framework incorporates the physical prior with the data-driven strategy and naturally multiple fault feature with similar oscillation morphology can be adaptively decoupled. Secondly, the tight frame dictionary directly learned from the noisy observation can significantly promote the sparsity of fault features compared to analytical tight frames. Thirdly, a satisfactory complete signal space description property is guaranteed and thus

  8. Non-perturbative aspects in a weakly interacting Higgs sector

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Axel


    Just like the weakly interacting QED can support non-perturbative phenomena, like atoms, so can the weak and Higgs interactions. Especially, there are strong field-theoretical arguments that only bound states can be the (quasi-)asymptotic physical degrees of freedom of this sector. After a brief review of these arguments, the 2-point, 3-point and 4-point correlation functions of the Higgs-W system are determined using lattice gauge theory. The results support a conjectured duality between elementary states and bound states for weak Higgs self-interactions. This leads to relations between the bound states and the experimentally observed particles. Interestingly, these may yield pseudo-scalar admixtures at the Higgs energy, and possibly a faint standard-model signal in the channel where a Kaluza-Klein graviton would be expected.

  9. Validation of EMP bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  10. Weak bond screening system (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  11. Bounded Tamper Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay


    a bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem based on the DDH assumption. We first define a weaker CPA-like security notion that we can instantiate based on DDH, and then we give a general compiler that yields CCA-security with tamper and leakage resilience. This requires...... a public tamper-proof common reference string. Finally, we explain how to boost bounded tampering and leakage resilience (as in 1. and 2. above) to continuous tampering and leakage resilience, in the so-called floppy model where each user has a personal hardware token (containing leak- and tamper...

  12. Tight Reference Frame–Independent Quantum Teleportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Verdon


    Full Text Available We give a tight scheme for teleporting a quantum state between two parties whose reference frames are misaligned by an action of a finite symmetry group. Unlike previously proposed schemes, ours requires no additional tokens or data to be passed between the participants; the same amount of classical information is transferred as for ordinary quantum teleportation, and the Hilbert space of the entangled resource is of the same size. In the terminology of Peres and Scudo, our protocol relies on classical communication of unspeakable information.

  13. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor...... variables. The predictor is based on a test for finitesample predictive ability. Our predictor shrinks the OLS estimate not to zero, but towards the null of the test which equates squared bias with estimation variance. We derive the asymptotic distribution and show that the predictor can substantially lower...

  14. Weak gravity conjecture and effective field theory (United States)

    Saraswat, Prashant


    The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff Λ . If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true, then parametric violation of the WGC at low energy comes at the cost of nonminimal field content in the UV. I propose that only a very weak constraint is applicable to EFTs, Λ ≲(log 1/g )-1 /2Mpl , where g is the gauge coupling, motivated by entropy bounds. Remarkably, EFTs produced by Higgsing a theory that satisfies the WGC can saturate but not violate this bound.

  15. Bounded variation and around

    CERN Document Server

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José


    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  16. Born Level Bound States (United States)

    Hoyer, Paul


    Bound state poles in the S-matrix of perturbative QED are generated by the divergence of the expansion in α . The perturbative corrections are necessarily singular when expanding around free, {O}( α ^0 ) in and out states that have no overlap with finite-sized atomic wave functions. Nevertheless, measurables such as binding energies do have well-behaved expansions in powers of α (and log α ). It is desirable to formulate the concept of "lowest order" for gauge theory bound states such that higher order corrections vanish in the α → 0 limit. This may allow to determine a lowest order term for QCD hadrons which incorporates essential features such as confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, and thus can serve as the starting point of a useful perturbative expansion. I discuss a "Born" (no loop, lowest order in \\hbar ) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. Gauss' law determines a distinct field A^0({\\varvec{x}}) for each instantaneous position of the charges. A Poincaré covariant boundary condition for the gluon field leads to a confining potential for q\\bar{q} and qqq states. In frames where the bound state is in motion the classical gauge field is obtained by a Lorentz boost of the rest frame field.

  17. Tight gas reservoirs: A visual depiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Future gas supplies in the US will depend on an increasing contribution from unconventional sources such as overpressured and tight gas reservoirs. Exploitation of these resources and their conversion to economically producible gas reserves represents a major challenge. Meeting this challenge will require not only the continuing development and application of new technologies, but also a detailed understanding of the complex nature of the reservoirs themselves. This report seeks to promote understanding of these reservoirs by providing examples. Examples of gas productive overpressured tight reservoirs in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming are presented. These examples show log data (raw and interpreted), well completion and stimulation information, and production decline curves. A sampling of wells from the Lewis and Mesaverde formations are included. Both poor and good wells have been chosen to illustrate the range of productivity that is observed. The second section of this document displays decline curves and completion details for 30 of the best wells in the Greater Green River Basin. These are included to illustrate the potential that is present when wells are fortuitously located with respect to local stratigraphy and natural fracturing, and are successfully hydraulically fractured.

  18. Charged weak currents

    CERN Document Server

    Turlay, René


    In this review of charged weak currents the author concentrates on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. The authors discusses the general structure of charged currents, new results on total cross- sections, the Callan-Gross relation, antiquark distributions, scaling violations and tests of QCD. A very short summary on multilepton physics is given. (44 refs).

  19. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm


    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...

  20. Finite element method for neutron transport - VI. Upper and lower bounds for local characteristics of solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackroyd, R.T. (UKAEA Risley Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Technical Services and Planning Directorate); Splawski, B.A. (Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)


    It is shown that the finite element method also shares with Monte Carlo the capability to bracket local characteristics of a solution, such as the reaction rate for a small locality. The bracketing bounds for the Monte Carlo method have a statistical error, whereas these bounds are rigorous for the finite element method. The latter bounds for a locality of a system are obtained by a bi-variational method with the aid of an associated system. For cell problems very tight bounds can be computed, but in deep-penetration problems for shields there are some difficulties to be overcome. Reasons are advanced for the difficulties.

  1. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  2. Weak lensing with GEST (United States)

    Rhodes, J. D.; Bennett, D. P.; Kaiser, N.


    Weak lensing by large-scale structure (cosmic shear) provides an opportunity to directly observe the dark matter in the universe. Current ground-based and space-based surveys have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique in determining the mass distribution and thus placing constraints on cosmological parameters such as Ω m, σ 8, and the bias parameter b. Current surveys have been hampered by the comparatively low resolution of ground-based telescopes and the small field of view of HST. To make significant progress in this field, wide field space-based surveys are needed. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) will be able to provide 500- 1000 sqare degrees with a resolution of better than 0.2 arcseconds in multiple filters. This will make it an ideal instrument for a weak lensing survey.

  3. Evaluation of tight-pitch PWR cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, F.; Driscoll, M.J.; Lanning, D.D.


    The impact of tight pinch cores on the consumption of natural uranium ore has been evaluated for two systems of coupled PWR's namely one particular type of thorium system - /sup 235/U/UO/sub 2/ : Pu/ThO/sub 2/ : /sup 233/U/ThO/sub 2/ - and the conventional recycle-mode uranium system - /sup 235/U/UO/sub 2/ : Pu/UO/sub 2/. The basic parameter varied was the fuel-to-moderator volume ratio (F/M) of the (uniform) lattice for the last core in each sequence. Although methods and data verification in the range of present interest, 0.5 (current lattices) < F/M < 4.0 are limited by the scarcity of experiments with F/M > 1.0, the EPRI-LEOPARD and LASER programs used for the thorium and uranium calculations, respectively, were successfully benchmarked against several of the more pertinent experiments.

  4. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices (United States)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Turek, Ondřej


    We demonstrate that a complex equiangular tight frame composed of N vectors in dimension d, denoted ETF (d, N), exists if and only if a certain bistochastic matrix, univocally determined by N and d, belongs to a special class of unistochastic matrices. This connection allows us to find new complex ETFs in infinitely many dimensions and to derive a method to introduce non-trivial free parameters in ETFs. We present an explicit six-parametric family of complex ETF(6,16), which defines a family of symmetric POVMs. Minimal and maximal possible average entanglement of the vectors within this qubit-qutrit family are described. Furthermore, we propose an efficient numerical procedure to compute the unitary matrix underlying a unistochastic matrix, which we apply to find all existing classes of complex ETFs containing up to 20 vectors.

  5. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.


    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  6. Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rio, Emmanuel


    Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...

  7. On the bound state of the antiproton-deuterium-tritium ion

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Alexei M


    It is shown that the ground state in the Coulomb three-body $\\bar{p}dt$ ion is bound. This ion consists of the positevely charged deuterium $d$ and tritum $t$ nuclei and one negatively charged antirpoton $\\bar{p}$. The $\\bar{p}dt$ ion has only one bound $S(L = 0)-$state which is weakly-bound. The properties of this weakly-bound state are investigated with the use of the results of recent highly accurate computations. Very likely, the actual proparties of the $\\bar{p}dt$ ion will be different from the results of our predictions due to additional contributions from strong interactions between particles.

  8. The Weak Haagerup Property II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren


    The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....

  9. A linear programming approach to characterizing norm bounded uncertainty from experimental data (United States)

    Scheid, R. E.; Bayard, D. S.; Yam, Y.


    The linear programming spectral overbounding and factorization (LPSOF) algorithm, an algorithm for finding a minimum phase transfer function of specified order whose magnitude tightly overbounds a specified nonparametric function of frequency, is introduced. This method has direct application to transforming nonparametric uncertainty bounds (available from system identification experiments) into parametric representations required for modern robust control design software (i.e., a minimum-phase transfer function multiplied by a norm-bounded perturbation).

  10. Tight-binding analysis of the electronic states in AlAs with N isoelectronic impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, M., E-mail: [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mano, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Sakoda, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)


    Incorporation of nitrogen (N) atoms into III–V semiconductors significantly changes their electronic structures. The aim of this study was to assess the electronic states in AlAs that contained N impurities. An sp{sup 3}s{sup *} tight-binding model along with valence-force-field strain calculations were used to obtain the energy levels in N-doped AlAs. The calculations showed that an isolated N atom formed a resonant state above the conduction band edge in AlAs. In contrast, NN{sub 1}[110] and NN{sub 4}[220] pairs formed bound states inside the band gap. The formation of two bound states was consistent with the photoluminescence spectrum of N δ-doped AlAs.

  11. Dromions bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, Attilio


    The asymptotic perturbation (AP) method is applied to the study of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in 3+1 dimensions with harmonic potential and external periodic excitation supposed to be in primary resonance with the frequency of a generic mode. The AP method uses two different procedures for the solutions: introducing an asymptotic temporal rescaling and balancing of the harmonic terms with a simple iteration. Standard quantum mechanics can be used to derive the lowest order approximate solution and amplitude and phase modulation equations are obtained. External force-response and frequency-response curves are found and the existence of dromions trapped in bound states is demonstrated.

  12. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P


    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  13. Generalized bounds for convex multistage stochastic programs

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, H; Fandel, G; Trockel, W; Basile, A; Drexl, A; Dawid, H; Inderfurth, K; Kürsten, W; Schittko, U


    This work was completed during my tenure as a scientific assistant and d- toral student at the Institute for Operations Research at the University of St. Gallen. During that time, I was involved in several industry projects in the field of power management, on the occasion of which I was repeatedly c- fronted with complex decision problems under uncertainty. Although usually hard to solve, I quickly learned to appreciate the benefit of stochastic progr- ming models and developed a strong interest in their theoretical properties. Motivated both by practical questions and theoretical concerns, I became p- ticularly interested in the art of finding tight bounds on the optimal value of a given model. The present work attempts to make a contribution to this important branch of stochastic optimization theory. In particular, it aims at extending some classical bounding methods to broader problem classes of practical relevance. This book was accepted as a doctoral thesis by the University of St. Gallen in June 2004.1...

  14. ICU-Acquired Weakness. (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L


    Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Refining Multivariate Value Set Bounds (United States)

    Smith, Luke Alexander

    Over finite fields, if the image of a polynomial map is not the entire field, then its cardinality can be bounded above by a significantly smaller value. Earlier results bound the cardinality of the value set using the degree of the polynomial, but more recent results make use of the powers of all monomials. In this paper, we explore the geometric properties of the Newton polytope and show how they allow for tighter upper bounds on the cardinality of the multivariate value set. We then explore a method which allows for even stronger upper bounds, regardless of whether one uses the multivariate degree or the Newton polytope to bound the value set. Effectively, this provides an alternate proof of Kosters' degree bound, an improved Newton polytope-based bound, and an improvement of a degree matrix-based result given by Zan and Cao.

  16. Weak Quantum Ergodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L


    We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.

  17. Digital Rock Studies of Tight Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This technical report summarizes some recently developed approaches to studies of rock properties at a pore scale. Digital rock approach is complementary to laboratory and field studies. It can be especially helpful in situations where experimental data are uncertain, or are difficult or impossible to obtain. Digitized binary images of the pore geometries of natural rocks obtained by different imaging techniques are the input data. Computer-generated models of natural rocks can be used instead of images in a case where microtomography data are unavailable, or the resolution of the tools is insufficient to adequately characterize the features of interest. Simulations of creeping viscous flow in pores produce estimates of Darcy permeability. Maximal Inscribed Spheres calculations estimate two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. A combination of both produce relative permeability curves. Computer-generated rock models were employed to study two-phase properties of fractured rocks, or tight sands with slit-like pores, too narrow to be characterized with micro-tomography. Various scenarios can simulate different fluid displacement mechanisms, from piston-like drainage to liquid dropout at the dew point. A finite differences discretization of Stokes equation is developed to simulate flow in the pore space of natural rocks. The numerical schemes are capable to handle both no-slip and slippage flows. An upscaling procedure estimates the permeability by subsampling a large data set. Capillary equilibrium and capillary pressure curves are efficiently estimated with the method of maximal inscribed spheres both an arbitrary contact angle. The algorithms can handle gigobytes of data on a desktop workstation. Customized QuickHull algorithms model natural rocks. Capillary pressure curves evaluated from computer-generated images mimic those obtained for microtomography data.

  18. Anomalously Weak Solar Convection (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.


    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical- harmonic degree l..Within the wavenumber band l convective velocities are 20-100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers l convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient.

  19. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece. (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J


    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Extended Lagrangian formulation of charge-constrained tight-binding molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Cawkwell, M J; Coe, J D; Yadav, S K; Liu, X-Y; Niklasson, A M N


    The extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics formalism [Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008, 100, 123004] has been applied to a tight-binding model under the constraint of local charge neutrality to yield microcanonical trajectories with both precise, long-term energy conservation and a reduced number of self-consistent field optimizations at each time step. The extended Lagrangian molecular dynamics formalism restores time reversal symmetry in the propagation of the electronic degrees of freedom, and it enables the efficient and accurate self-consistent optimization of the chemical potential and atomwise potential energy shifts in the on-site elements of the tight-binding Hamiltonian that are required when enforcing local charge neutrality. These capabilities are illustrated with microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations of a small metallic cluster using an sd-valent tight-binding model for titanium. The effects of weak dissipation on the propagation of the auxiliary degrees of freedom for the chemical potential and on-site Hamiltonian matrix elements that is used to counteract the accumulation of numerical noise during trajectories was also investigated.

  1. How technology and price affect US tight gas potential. Part 1. Technology of tight gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veatch, R.W. Jr.; Baker, O.


    The tight gas resource in the US currently is estimated at 900 tcf, of which 600 tcf is considered technically recoverable. This gas is found in basins that cover a prospective area of one million square miles (one million sections). Of these, ca 120,000 sections are potentially productive. The tight gas picture is composed of many different and often complex reservoirs, ranging from the shallow horizons of the Northern Great Plains to the deep formations of the Rocky Mountains. These reservoirs range from the blanket-like formations that cover wide geographical areas to the highly lenticular zones such as those common to the Mesa Verde. The one thing they have in common is microdarcy permeabilities. A good perspective of the challenge is obvious when such permeability values are realized to be similar to that of cement normally used for oil and gas well casing strings. The advanced technology presumes improved exploration knowledge, longer fractures, higher fracture conductivity, and a higher density of well development. Advanced technology is particularly necessary for lenticular reservoirs which contain ca 40% of the recoverable gas.

  2. Bounding approaches to system identification

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric


    In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

  3. with Bounded Failure Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Wanti Srivastava


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Bayes prediction of the future failures of a deteriorating repairable mechanical system subject to minimal repairs and periodic overhauls. To model the effect of overhauls on the reliability of the system a proportional age reduction model is assumed and the 2-parameter Engelhardt-Bain process (2-EBP is used to model the failure process between two successive overhauls. 2-EBP has an advantage over Power Law Process (PLP models. It is found that the failure intensity of deteriorating repairable systems attains a finite bound when repeated minimal repair actions are combined with some overhauls. If such a data is analyzed through models with unbounded increasing failure intensity, such as the PLP, then pessimistic estimates of the system reliability will arise and incorrect preventive maintenance policy may be defined. On the basis of the observed data and of a number of suitable prior densities reflecting varied degrees of belief on the failure/repair process and effectiveness of overhauls, the prediction of the future failure times and the number of failures in a future time interval is found. Finally, a numerical application is used to illustrate the advantages from overhauls and sensitivity analysis of the improvement parameter carried out.

  4. Space group constraints on weak indices in topological insulators (United States)

    Varjas, Dániel; de Juan, Fernando; Lu, Yuan-Ming


    Lattice translation symmetry gives rise to a large class of "weak" topological insulators (TIs), characterized by translation-protected gapless surface states and dislocation bound states. In this work we show that space group symmetries lead to constraints on the weak topological indices that define these phases. In particular, we show that screw rotation symmetry enforces the Hall conductivity in planes perpendicular to the screw axis to be quantized in multiples of the screw rank, which generally applies to interacting systems. We further show that certain 3D weak indices associated with quantum spin Hall effects (class AII) are forbidden by the Bravais lattice and by glide or even-fold screw symmetries. These results put strong constraints on weak TI candidates in the experimental and numerical search for topological materials, based on the crystal structure alone.

  5. ExtremeBounds: Extreme Bounds Analysis in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hlavac


    Full Text Available This article introduces the R package ExtremeBounds to perform extreme bounds analysis (EBA, a sensitivity test that examines how robustly the dependent variable of a regression model is related to a variety of possible determinants. ExtremeBounds supports Leamer's EBA that focuses on the upper and lower extreme bounds of regression coefficients, as well as Sala-i-Martin's EBA which considers their entire distribution. In contrast to existing alternatives, it can estimate models of a variety of user-defined sizes, use regression models other than ordinary least squares, incorporate non-linearities in the model specification, and apply custom weights and standard errors. To alleviate concerns about the multicollinearity and conceptual overlap of examined variables, ExtremeBounds allows users to specify sets of mutually exclusive variables, and can restrict the analysis to coefficients from regression models that yield a variance inflation factor within a prespecified limit.

  6. Generic assessment of tight-fitting annulus spacer mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J. [Nuclear Safety Solutions Limited, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail:; Micuda, L. [Bruce Power, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail:; Van Den Brekel, N. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail:


    This paper provides a generic assessment of the mobility of tight-fitting fuel channel annulus spacers in OPG and Bruce Power nuclear units. This assessment is applicable to all tight-fitting annulus spacers, including those used in the original fuel channel installation (Darlington Units 1-4, retubed Pickering Units 1-4, and Bruce Unit 8) and as a result of single fuel channel replacements (SFCR) (Pickering Units 5-8, Bruce Units 3-7). Tight-fitting annulus spacers were designed not to move. Pressure tube to calandria tube contact analyses, and the associated blister susceptibility assessments, have assumed that these tight-fitting spacers remain at the pre-service installed locations. Given the importance of this assumption, the technical basis for the expectation that tight-fitting annulus spacers do not move significantly from their pre-service locations, relative to the pressure tube, was reviewed in detail. The review also assessed the inspection data, comparing spacer locations from in-service and pre-service inspections. The review has concluded that tight-fitting spacers do not move sufficiently to necessitate a postulated spacer movement in fuel channel contact analyses. The paper describes the background of this issue, briefly reviews the experimental programs used to qualify the positional stability of the tight-fitting spacer design, and evaluates the current database of in-service spacer location inspection information to demonstrate that no significant movement relative to the pressure tube has been observed. (author)

  7. Evolution of permeability and microstructure of tight carbonates due to numerical simulation of calcite dissolution (United States)

    Miller, Kevin; Vanorio, Tiziana; Keehm, Youngseuk


    The current study concerns fundamental controls on fluid flow in tight carbonate rocks undergoing CO2 injection. Tight carbonates exposed to weak carbonic acid exhibit order of magnitude changes in permeability while maintaining a nearly constant porosity with respect to the porosity of the unreacted sample. This study aims to determine—if not porosity—what are the microstructural changes that control permeability evolution in these rocks? Given the pore-scale nature of chemical reactions, we took a digital rock physics approach. Tight carbonate mudstone was imaged using X-ray microcomputed tomography. We simulated calcite dissolution using a phenomenological numerical model that stands from experimental and microstructural observations under transport-limited reaction conditions. Fluid flow was simulated using the lattice-Boltzmann method, and the pore wall was adaptively eroded at a rate determined by the local surface area and velocity magnitude, which we use in place of solvent flux. We identified preexisting, high-conductivity fluid pathways imprinted in the initial microstructure. Though these pathways comprise a subset of the total connected porosity, they accommodated 80 to 99% of the volumetric flux through the digital sample and localized dissolution. Porosity-permeability evolution exhibited two stages: selective widening of narrow pore throats that comprised preferential pathways and development and widening of channels. We quantitatively monitored attributes of the pore geometry, namely, porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity, and average hydraulic diameter, which we qualitatively linked to permeability. This study gives a pore-scale perspective on the microstructural origins of laboratory permeability-porosity trends of tight carbonates undergoing transport-limited reaction with CO2-rich fluid.

  8. Bounds for Asian basket options (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle


    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  9. Weak-Values Metrological Techniques for Parameter Estimation (United States)

    Martinez-Rincon, Julian Rodrigo

    Precision measurements are bounded by the Standard Quantum Limit, and preparing non-classical states is often used to circumvent such a limit. In all cases, it is common to improve the precision in a parameter estimation procedure by averaging measurements of a large ensemble of identically prepared systems. However, such a task cannot be performed indefinitely due to sources of technical noise setting an experimental bound. Weak-Value Amplification (WVA) allows one to overcome some of these issues by amplifying a signal of interest above the technical-noise floor. This built-in robustness to external sources of noise relies on a weak coupling to a meter and postselection. In this document we evaluate, theoretically and experimentally, under what circumstances the technique is superior to non-postselected standard techniques. We also present a novel protocol where a WVA-like response is induced in an optical homodyne-type detection technique. We dub this technique Almost-Balanced Weak Values (ABWV) and present three experimental measurements of different physical velocities to evaluate the practical advantages over the well-known technique of WVA. In addition, we point out the existence of a third postselected-weak-measurements technique for metrology, Inverse Weak Value (IWV), that has been ignored by the scientific community. We use this protocol to measure ultra small tilts of a mirror in a Sagnac interferometer. We report all three techniques as complementary to each other, and show their robustness for low-frequency signals.

  10. Bound on local unambiguous discrimination between multipartite quantum states (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Hui; Gao, Fei; Tian, Guo-Jing; Cao, Tian-Qing; Zuo, Hui-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan


    We investigate the upper bound on unambiguous discrimination by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate that any set of linearly independent multipartite pure quantum states can be locally unambiguously discriminated if the number of states in the set is no more than , where the space spanned by the set can be expressed in the irreducible form and is the optimal local dimension of the party. That is, is an upper bound. We also show that it is tight, namely there exists a set of states, in which at least one of the states cannot be locally unambiguously discriminated. Our result gives the reason why the multiqubit system is the only exception when any three quantum states are locally unambiguously distinguished.

  11. Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati

    The concept of the weak measurements, for the first time, was introduced by Aharonov et al.1. Quantum state is preselected in |ψi〉 and allowed to interact weakly with apparatus. Measurement strength can be tuned and for “small g(t)” it is called 'weak measurement'. With postselection in |ψf 〉, apparatus state is shifted by an ...

  12. A Weak Comparison Principle for Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valero


    Full Text Available We prove a weak comparison principle for a reaction-diffusion system without uniqueness of solutions. We apply the abstract results to the Lotka-Volterra system with diffusion, a generalized logistic equation, and to a model of fractional-order chemical autocatalysis with decay. Moreover, in the case of the Lotka-Volterra system a weak maximum principle is given, and a suitable estimate in the space of essentially bounded functions L∞ is proved for at least one solution of the problem.

  13. Hadron-nucleus bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, T


    A new type of nuclear spectroscopy to study hadron-nucleus bound states is described. The first successful experiment was to search for deeply bound pi sup - states in heavy nuclei using the sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb(d, sup 3 He) reaction at GSI, in which a narrow peak arising from the 2p pi sup - orbital coupled with the neutron-hole states was observed at 135 MeV excitation energy. An improved experiment has just been carried out to separately identify the 1s and 2p pi sup - states. These experiments provide important information on the local potential strength, from which the effective mass of pi sup - is deduced to be 20 MeV. This method will be extended to search for eta and omega bound states as well as for K sup - bound states. The advantage of the bound-state spectroscopy versus invariant mass spectroscopy is emphasized.

  14. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...

  15. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal


    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm...

  16. Weak-value Metrology and Shot-Noise Limited Measurements (United States)

    Viza, Gerardo Ivan

    This thesis contains a subset of the research in which I have participated in during my studies at the University of Rochester. It contains three projects and one overarching theme of weak-value metrology. We start with chapter 1 where we cover the historical background leading up to quantum optics, which we use for precision metrology. We also introduce the weak-value formulation and give examples of metrological implementations for parameter estimation. Chapter 2 introduces two experiments to measure a longitudinal velocity and a transverse momentum kick. We show that weak-value based techniques are shot-noise limited because we saturate the Cramer-Rao bound for the estimator used, and efficient because we experimentally demonstrate there is virtually no loss of Fisher information of the parameter of interest from the discarded events. In Chapter 3 we present a comparison of two experiments that measure a beam deflection. One experiment is a weak-value based technique, while the other is the standard focusing technique. We set up the two experiments in the presence of simulated technical noise sources and show how the weak-value based technique out performs the standard technique in both visibility and in deviation of the transverse momentum kick. Chapter 4 contains work of the exploration of concatenated postselection for weak-value amplification. We demonstrate an optimization and conditions where postselecting on two degrees of freedom can be beneficial to enhance the weak-value amplification.

  17. Undersampled MR Image Reconstruction with Data-Driven Tight Frame

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Jianbo; Wang, Shanshan; Peng, Xi; Liang, Dong


    .... With the aim of further improving image reconstruction accuracy without introducing too much computation, this paper proposes a data-driven tight frame magnetic image reconstruction (DDTF-MRI) method...

  18. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.


    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  19. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses


    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.


    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight jun...

  20. Contraption and Prediction of Exhalation Tight Brownstone in Exhalation Cistern


    XhingZhiwang, -; Xuchao, -


    The reservoir connate water saturation is high and gas wells generally produce water which seriously affects the productivity of gas wells in Xujiahe tight sandstone gas reservoirs in Sichuan Basin. Take the sixth formation for example, there are 39 wells producing water unequally in the 42 commissioning wells, and the excessive water production leads to the production of the gas well declining rapidly. Studying of the mechanism of water production in tight sandstone gas reservoirs and predic...

  1. Key management and encryption under the bounded storage model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, Timothy John; Neumann, William Douglas; Lanzone, Andrew J.; Anderson, William Erik


    There are several engineering obstacles that need to be solved before key management and encryption under the bounded storage model can be realized. One of the critical obstacles hindering its adoption is the construction of a scheme that achieves reliable communication in the event that timing synchronization errors occur. One of the main accomplishments of this project was the development of a new scheme that solves this problem. We show in general that there exist message encoding techniques under the bounded storage model that provide an arbitrarily small probability of transmission error. We compute the maximum capacity of this channel using the unsynchronized key-expansion as side-channel information at the decoder and provide tight lower bounds for a particular class of key-expansion functions that are pseudo-invariant to timing errors. Using our results in combination with Dziembowski et al. [11] encryption scheme we can construct a scheme that solves the timing synchronization error problem. In addition to this work we conducted a detailed case study of current and future storage technologies. We analyzed the cost, capacity, and storage data rate of various technologies, so that precise security parameters can be developed for bounded storage encryption schemes. This will provide an invaluable tool for developing these schemes in practice.

  2. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze


    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  3. Effects of tight versus non tight control of metabolic acidosis on early renal function after kidney transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Etezadi, Farhad; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Mojtahedzade, Mojtaba; Najafi, Atabak; Moharari, Reza Shariat; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza


    ... (lactate, gluconate, acetate)that indirectly convert into it within the liver, We hypothesized tight control of metabolic acidosis by infusion of sodium bicarbonate may improve early post-operative renal function in renal transplant recipients...

  4. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization - Languages, Turing Machines and Complexity Classes. M V Panduranga Rao. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 682-690 ...

  5. Physics Colloquium - Tight-binding in a new light: Photons in optical lattices

    CERN Multimedia

    Ecole de Physique - Université de Genève


    Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4   Lundi 21 mars 2011, 17h00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Tight-binding in a new light: Photons in optical lattices Dr. Niels Madsen Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, United Kingdom   Antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, has been produced at low energies at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) since 2002. Antihydrogen is of interest for use in a precision test of nature's fundamental symmetries. The charge conjugation/parity/time reversal (CPT) theorem, a crucial part of the foundation of the standard model of elementary particles and interactions, demands that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Given the current experimental precision of measurements on the hydrogen atom, subjecting antihydrogen to rigorous spectroscopic examination would constitute a compelling, model-independent test of CPT. Antihydrogen co...

  6. Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg


    perspective may affect the commonly employed explanatory factors of administrative capacities, misfit and the heterogeneity of preferences among veto players. To prevent retrospective rationalisation of the transposition process, this paper traces this process as it unfolded in Denmark and the Netherlands....... As bounded rationality is apparent in the transposition processes in these relatively well-organised countries, future transposition studies should devote greater consideration to the bounded rationality perspective....

  7. Bounds on dark matter interactions with electroweak gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotta, R. C.; Hewett, J. L.; Le, M. -P.; Rizzo, T. G.


    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter interacts with the Standard Model primarily through electroweak gauge bosons. We employ an effective field theory framework wherein the Standard Model and the dark matter particle are the only light states in order to derive model-independent bounds. Bounds on such interactions are derived from dark matter production by weak boson fusion at the LHC, indirect detection searches for the products of dark matter annihilation and from the measured invisible width of the Z 0 . We find that limits on the UV scale, Λ , reach weak scale values for most operators and values of the dark matter mass, thus probing the most natural scenarios in the weakly interacting massive particle dark matter paradigm. Our bounds suggest that light dark matter ( m χ ≲ m Z / 2 or m χ ≲ 100 – 200 GeV , depending on the operator) cannot interact only with the electroweak gauge bosons of the Standard Model, but rather requires additional operator contributions or dark sector structure to avoid overclosing the Universe.

  8. Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel


    be erroneous. From the perspective of the present method, the topic of major interest is the performance of the communication system as quantified in the word-error rate and the undetected-error rate as functions of the SNRs and the total latency of the interleaver and inner code. The method is embodied in equations that describe bounds on these functions. Throughout the derivation of the equations that embody the method, it is assumed that the decoder for the outer code corrects any error pattern of t or fewer errors, detects any error pattern of s or fewer errors, may detect some error patterns of more than s errors, and does not correct any patterns of more than t errors. Because a mathematically complete description of the equations that embody the method and of the derivation of the equations would greatly exceed the space available for this article, it must suffice to summarize by reporting that the derivation includes consideration of several complex issues, including relationships between latency and memory requirements for block and convolutional codes, burst error statistics, enumeration of error-event intersections, and effects of different interleaving depths. In a demonstration, the method was used to calculate bounds on the performances of several communication systems, each based on serial concatenation of a (63,56) expurgated Hamming code with a convolutional inner code through a convolutional interleaver. The bounds calculated by use of the method were compared with results of numerical simulations of performances of the systems to show the regions where the bounds are tight (see figure).

  9. Resisting Weakness of the Will. (United States)

    Levy, Neil


    I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology.

  10. Evaluation of muscle hyperactivity of the grimacing muscles by unilateral tight eyelid closure and stapedius muscle tone. (United States)

    Shiba, Masato; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Nagai, Fumio


    Muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles, including the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles that cause crow's feet and a glabellar frown line with ageing, cannot be accurately evaluated by surface observation. In 71 subjects, this study investigated the extent to which grimacing muscles are innervated by the bilateral motor cortices, whether the corticofacial projection to the grimacing muscles affects the facially innervated stapedius muscle tone by measuring static compliance of the tympanic membrane, and whether unilateral tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles changes static compliance. Unilateral tight eyelid closure and its subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position revealed that motor neurons of the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles were innervated by the bilateral motor cortices with weak-to-strong contralateral dominance. The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and stapedius muscles innervated by the bilateral motor cortices had increased muscle hyperactivity, which lowered the vertical medial eyebrow position and decreased the static compliance of the tympanic membrane more than those innervated by the unilateral motor cortex. Unilateral enhanced tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles in certain subjects ipsilaterally decreased the static compliance with increased contraction of the stapedius muscle, which probably occurs to immobilise the tympanic membrane and protect the inner ear from loud sound. Evaluation of unilateral tight eyelid closure and the subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position as well as a measurement of the static compliance for the stapedius muscle tone has revealed muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles.

  11. Limits on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton in a 331 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A. [Facultad de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas Apartado, Postal C-580, 98060 Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Hernández-Ruíz, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas Apartado, Postal 585, 98060 Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Castañeda-Almanza, C.P.; Espinoza-Garrido, A.; Chubykalo, A. [Facultad de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas Apartado, Postal C-580, 98060 Zacatecas, México (Mexico)


    Using as an input the data obtained by the L3 and OPAL Collaborations for the reaction e{sup +}e{sup −}→τ{sup +}τ{sup −}γ at the Z{sub 1}-pole, we obtained bounds on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton in the context of a 331 model. Our bounds on the electromagnetic moments are consistent with the bounds obtained by the L3 and OPAL Collaborations for the reaction e{sup +}e{sup −}→τ{sup +}τ{sup −}γ. We also obtained bounds on the tau weak dipole moments which are consistent with the bounds obtained recently by the DELPHI, ALEPH and BELLE Collaborations from the reaction e{sup +}e{sup −}→τ{sup +}τ{sup −}. Our work complements other studies on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton.

  12. Limits on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton in a 331 model (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.; Hernández-Ruíz, M. A.; Castañeda-Almanza, C. P.; Espinoza-Garrido, A.; Chubykalo, A.


    Using as an input the data obtained by the L3 and OPAL Collaborations for the reaction e+e- →τ+τ- γ at the Z1-pole, we obtained bounds on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton in the context of a 331 model. Our bounds on the electromagnetic moments are consistent with the bounds obtained by the L3 and OPAL Collaborations for the reaction e+e- →τ+τ- γ. We also obtained bounds on the tau weak dipole moments which are consistent with the bounds obtained recently by the DELPHI, ALEPH and BELLE Collaborations from the reaction e+e- →τ+τ-. Our work complements other studies on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton.

  13. Mucosal vaccine delivery of antigens tightly bound to an adjuvant particle made from food-grade bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roosmalen, ML; Kanninga, R; El Khattabi, M; Neef, J; Audouy, S; Bosma, T; Kuipers, A; Post, E; Steen, A; Kok, J; Buist, G; Kuipers, OP; Robillard, G; Leenhouts, K

    Mucosal immunization with subunit vaccines requires new types of antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants for optimal immune responses. We have developed a non-living and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial delivery particle (GEM) that has built-in adjuvant activity and a high loading

  14. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.


    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an auto-immune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology. PMID:21761342

  15. The media of sociology: tight or loose translations? (United States)

    Guggenheim, Michael


    Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  16. Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function (United States)

    Rao, R.K.; Samak, G.


    Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions. PMID:24665411

  17. Weak Coupling Phases future directions

    CERN Document Server

    Rosner, Jonathan L.


    Recent results obtained from B decays on the phases of weak couplings described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are discussed, with particular emphasis on $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma = \\pi - \\beta - \\alpha$.

  18. Weakly compact operators and interpolation


    Maligranda, Lech


    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  19. Weak interactions of elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich


    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 5: Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of elementary particles and high energies. The book first discusses elementary particles. Concerns include isotopic invariance in the Sakata model; conservation of fundamental particles; scheme of isomultiplets in the Sakata model; universal, unitary-symmetric strong interaction; and universal weak interaction. The text also focuses on spinors, amplitudes, and currents. Wave function, calculation of traces, five bilinear covariants,

  20. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  1. Precision metrology using weak measurements. (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A


    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  2. Undersampled MR Image Reconstruction with Data-Driven Tight Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Liu


    Full Text Available Undersampled magnetic resonance image reconstruction employing sparsity regularization has fascinated many researchers in recent years under the support of compressed sensing theory. Nevertheless, most existing sparsity-regularized reconstruction methods either lack adaptability to capture the structure information or suffer from high computational load. With the aim of further improving image reconstruction accuracy without introducing too much computation, this paper proposes a data-driven tight frame magnetic image reconstruction (DDTF-MRI method. By taking advantage of the efficiency and effectiveness of data-driven tight frame, DDTF-MRI trains an adaptive tight frame to sparsify the to-be-reconstructed MR image. Furthermore, a two-level Bregman iteration algorithm has been developed to solve the proposed model. The proposed method has been compared to two state-of-the-art methods on four datasets and encouraging performances have been achieved by DDTF-MRI.

  3. Undersampled MR Image Reconstruction with Data-Driven Tight Frame. (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Wang, Shanshan; Peng, Xi; Liang, Dong


    Undersampled magnetic resonance image reconstruction employing sparsity regularization has fascinated many researchers in recent years under the support of compressed sensing theory. Nevertheless, most existing sparsity-regularized reconstruction methods either lack adaptability to capture the structure information or suffer from high computational load. With the aim of further improving image reconstruction accuracy without introducing too much computation, this paper proposes a data-driven tight frame magnetic image reconstruction (DDTF-MRI) method. By taking advantage of the efficiency and effectiveness of data-driven tight frame, DDTF-MRI trains an adaptive tight frame to sparsify the to-be-reconstructed MR image. Furthermore, a two-level Bregman iteration algorithm has been developed to solve the proposed model. The proposed method has been compared to two state-of-the-art methods on four datasets and encouraging performances have been achieved by DDTF-MRI.

  4. Conductance of Graphene Nanoribbon Junctions and the Tight Binding Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Y


    Full Text Available Abstract Planar carbon-based electronic devices, including metal/semiconductor junctions, transistors and interconnects, can now be formed from patterned sheets of graphene. Most simulations of charge transport within graphene-based electronic devices assume an energy band structure based on a nearest-neighbour tight binding analysis. In this paper, the energy band structure and conductance of graphene nanoribbons and metal/semiconductor junctions are obtained using a third nearest-neighbour tight binding analysis in conjunction with an efficient nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. We find significant differences in both the energy band structure and conductance obtained with the two approximations.

  5. Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS for small UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Knudsen, Per


    This paper describes an ultra-tight integration of a Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System ( INS) for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAVs). The system is based on a low-cost and low-weight GNSS Intermediate Frequency ( IF) sampler which has been...... fitted onto a small UAV. The storage of IF samples together with measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit ( IMU) has allowed the authors to process an Ultra-Tightly Coupled ( U.T.C.) GNSS/INS solution from real data collected with a small UAV. The focus of this paper has been to investigate...

  6. Tight coupling expansion and fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The tight coupling expansion, appropriately generalized to include large-scale magnetic fields, allows the estimate of the brightness perturbations of CMB anisotropies for typical wavelengths that are larger than the Hubble radius after matter-radiation equality. After discussing the basic features of the the pre-decoupling initial conditions in the presence of fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the tight coupling expansion is studied both analytically and numerically. From the requirement that the amplitudes and phases of Sakharov oscillations are (predominantly) adiabatic and from the inferred value of the plateau in the temperature autocorrelation, the effects of the magnetized contribution can be systematically investigated and constrained.

  7. Bounding the space of holographic CFTs with chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlmutter, Eric [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    Thermal states of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom are subject to a bound on the rate of onset of chaos, including a bound on the Lyapunov exponent, λ{sub L}≤2π/β. We harness this bound to constrain the space of putative holographic CFTs and their would-be dual theories of AdS gravity. First, by studying out-of-time-order four-point functions, we discuss how λ{sub L}=2π/β in ordinary two-dimensional holographic CFTs is related to properties of the OPE at strong coupling. We then rule out the existence of unitary, sparse two-dimensional CFTs with large central charge and a set of higher spin currents of bounded spin; this implies the inconsistency of weakly coupled AdS{sub 3} higher spin gravities without infinite towers of gauge fields, such as the SL(N) theories. This fits naturally with the structure of higher-dimensional gravity, where finite towers of higher spin fields lead to acausality. On the other hand, unitary CFTs with classical W{sub ∞}[λ] symmetry, dual to 3D Vasiliev or hs[λ] higher spin gravities, do not violate the chaos bound, instead exhibiting no chaos: λ{sub L}=0. Independently, we show that such theories violate unitarity for |λ|>2. These results encourage a tensionless string theory interpretation of the 3D Vasiliev theory.

  8. Space-bounded communication complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.


    -obliviousness shows up. For this model we also introduce new techniques through which certain limitations of space-bounded computation are revealed. One of the main motivations of this work is in understanding the difference in the use of space when computing the following functions: Equality (EQ), Inner Product (IP......In the past thirty years, Communication Complexity has emerged as a foundational tool to proving lower bounds in many areas of computer science. Its power comes from its generality, but this generality comes at a price---no superlinear communication lower bound is possible, since a player may...... communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory...

  9. Molecular physiology and pathophysiology of tight junctions I. Tight junction structure and function: lessons from mutant animals and proteins. (United States)

    Mitic, L L; Van Itallie, C M; Anderson, J M


    Tight junctions form the major paracellular barrier in epithelial tissues. Barrier-sealing properties are quite variable among cell types in terms of electrical resistance, solute and water flux, and charge selectivity. A molecular explanation for this variability appears closer following identification of the transmembrane proteins occludin and members of the claudin multigene family. For example, the human phenotype of mutations in claudin-16 suggests that it creates a channel that allows magnesium to diffuse through renal tight junctions. Similarly, a mouse knockout of claudin-11 reveals its role in formation of tight junctions in myelin and between Sertoli cells in testis. The study of other claudins is expected to elucidate their contributions to creating junction structure and physiology in all epithelial tissues.

  10. Quantum discord with weak measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Uttam, E-mail:; Pati, Arun Kumar, E-mail:


    Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.

  11. Weak-type (1,1 bounds for a class of operators with discrete kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duván Cardona


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigará el tipo débil (1,1 de una cier ta clase de operadores con núcleo definido sobre Z × Z . Se estudiará la continuidad débil de operadores que son análogos discretos de los ahora c onocidos, oper- adores singulares integrales de Calderón-Zygmund. Los ope radores considera- dos surgen desde el estudio de operadores pseudo diferencia les de tipo discreto y versiones discretas de integrales singulares.

  12. Suppression of the weakly-bound excited Υ states in HI collisions

    CERN Multimedia


      CMS was able to observe for the first time this phenomenon by comparing last year’s HI collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon with the pp collisions that took place at the same energy earlier this year. For more, visit:  

  13. Weakly bound few-cluster structures with many-body correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis


    in nature, the focus of the method is on applications within nuclear physics. As such this method is applied to $^{26}$O, $^{72}$Ca, and $^{70}$Kr, all of which are topical, nuclear systems, each demonstrating particular applications of the method. The application to $^{26}\\text{O}$ demonstrates the ability...

  14. Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karta Kooner


    Full Text Available The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.

  15. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Barlat, F; Moon, Y.H.; Lee, M.G.


    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a

  16. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina. (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Ahn, Kyuyoun; Park, Kwangsung


    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication.

  17. The role of hamstring tightness in plantar fasciitis. (United States)

    Labovitz, Jonathan M; Yu, Jenny; Kim, Chul


    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if hamstring tightness was an increased risk in plantar fasciitis. It was thought that there is an increased risk of plantar fasciitis when hamstring tightness is present. A total of 105 patients (68 women, 37 men) were included in the study, 79 of whom were diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and the presence of plantar fasciitis, equinus, and calcaneal spurs were assessed. The popliteal angle was measured using standard diagnostic techniques. Without controlling for covariates, BMI, the presence of a calcaneal spur, tightness in the gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius-soleus, and hamstring all had statistically significant association with plantar fasciitis. After controlling for covariates, patients with hamstring tightness were about 8.7 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis (P 35 were approximately 2.4 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis compared with those with BMI plantar fasciitis and should be addressed along with equinus and obesity when providing treatment to patients with this diagnosis.

  18. Sit-Tight Syndrome and Tenure Elongation in African Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-independence politics of African countries has been dominated by the phenomenon of sit-tight African heads of state and government who had acceeded to office by election or coup d'etat. This paper examines this recurring problem in post-independence African politics by examining its general and specific ...

  19. Dielectric constant of graphene-on-polarized substrate: A tight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sivabrata Sahu

    Corresponding author. E-mail: Published online 24 June 2017. Abstract. We report here a microscopic tight-binding theoretical study of the dynamic dielectric response of graphene-on-polarizable substrate with impurity. The Hamiltonian consists of first, second and third nearest- neighbour electron hopping ...

  20. Dielectric constant of graphene-on-polarized substrate: A tight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jun 24, 2017 ... We report here a microscopic tight-binding theoretical study of the dynamic dielectric response of graphene-on-polarizable substrate with impurity. The Hamiltonian consists of first, second and third nearest neighbour electron hopping interactions besides doping and substrate-induced effects on graphene.

  1. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))


    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E


    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  3. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.


    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...

  4. Distance bounds on quantum dynamics (United States)

    Lidar, Daniel A.; Zanardi, Paolo; Khodjasteh, Kaveh


    We derive rigorous upper bounds on the distance between quantum states in an open-system setting in terms of the operator norm between Hamiltonians describing their evolution. We illustrate our results with an example taken from protection against decoherence using dynamical decoupling.

  5. Moderate deviations for bounded subsequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stoica


    Full Text Available We study Davis' series of moderate deviations probabilities for Lp-bounded sequences of random variables (p>2. A certain subseries therein is convergent for the same range of parameters as in the case of martingale difference or i.i.d. sequences.

  6. Hepatocyte growth factor modulates Sertoli-Sertoli tight junction dynamics. (United States)

    Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Galdieri, M


    In mammalian testes Sertoli cells form tight junctions whose function is fundamental for the maintenance of a normal spermatogenesis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a cytokine influencing the cellular tight junctions either in normal or in tumor cells. We have previously demonstrated that HGF is expressed in the rat testis and influences many functional activities of somatic and germ cells. We now report that HGF decreases the levels of testicular occludin and influences the position of the molecule in the tight junctions as demonstrated by confocal microscopy analysis. In fact in the presence of the factor occludin was mainly localized in the suprabasal region of the tubules whereas in its absence occludin was prevalently localized in the basal region. Occludin production is known to be regulated by different cytokines including TGFbeta. We have investigated the role of HGF in the regulation of the levels of TGFbeta and we report that HGF significantly increases the amount of the active fraction of the factor without affecting the amount of the total TGFbeta. Urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) is closely related with the tight junctions and is one of the molecules able to activate the inactive TGF-beta. We found that HGF significantly increases the amount of uPA present in the testis suggesting that HGF regulates the amount of active TGFbeta via uPA levels. In conclusion we report that in the testis HGF regulates Sertoli-Sertoli tight junctions inducing a reduction and redistribution of occludin possibly modulating the levels of uPA and active TGFbeta. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 119, No. 3, June 2009, pp. 297–318. © Printed in India. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. A CARRIAZO, L M FERN ´ANDEZ and A RODRÍGUEZ-HIDALGO. Department of Geometry and Topology, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Sevilla,. Apartado de Correos 1160, 41080-Sevilla, Spain.

  8. Beam splitting on weak illumination. (United States)

    Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J


    We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.

  9. On Weak-BCC-Algebras (United States)

    Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong


    We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983

  10. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.


    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  11. Weak solutions for nonlocal evolution variational inequalities involving gradient constraints and variable exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Xiang


    Full Text Available In this article, we study a class of nonlocal quasilinear parabolic variational inequality involving $p(x$-Laplacian operator and gradient constraint on a bounded domain. Choosing a special penalty functional according to the gradient constraint, we transform the variational inequality to a parabolic equation. By means of Galerkin's approximation method, we obtain the existence of weak solutions for this equation, and then through a priori estimates, we obtain the weak solutions of variational inequality.

  12. Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators. (United States)

    Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L


    We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.

  13. Atomic and electronic structures of a-SiC:H from tight-binding molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchenko, V I; Shevchenko, V I; Ivashchenko, L A; Rusakov, G V


    The atomic and electronic properties of amorphous unhydrogenated (a-SiC) and hydrogenated (a-SiC:H) silicon carbides are studied using an sp sup 3 s sup * tight-binding force model with molecular dynamics simulations. The parameters of a repulsive pairwise potential are determined from ab initio pseudopotential calculations. Both carbides are generated from dilute vapours condensed from high temperature, with post-annealing at low temperature for a-SiC:H. A plausible model for the inter-atomic correlations and electronic states in a-SiC:H is suggested. According to this model, the formation of the amorphous network is weakly sensitive to the presence of hydrogen. Hydrogen passivates effectively only the weak bonds of threefold-coordinated atoms. Chemical ordering is very much affected by the cooling rate and the structure of the high-temperature vapour. The as-computed characteristics are in rather good agreement with the results for a-SiC and a-Si:H from ab initio calculations.

  14. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu


    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  15. Generation of a few femtosecond keV x-ray pulse via interaction of a tightly focused laser copropagating with a relativistic electron bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Young Chung


    Full Text Available It is demonstrated in a numerical simulation that an intense fs keV x-ray pulse can be generated by the interaction of a tightly focused femtosecond laser copropagating with an electron bunch. In general, the interaction of a loosely focused (focal spot ∼100  μm in diameter laser with a copropagating electron is rather weak so that the radiation is not only weak but also produced in the vicinity of laser wavelength. However, in the case of tight focus (focal spot on the order of wavelength, the radiation characteristics turn out to be drastically different so that a keV x-ray pulse can be produced at high flux. This is due to the nonparaxial fields induced in a tight-focus regime. The radiation characteristics are discussed for different beam waists and electron beam energies. This simulation suggests that the interaction of a tightly focused laser with a copropagating electron bunch can be a unique source for an x-ray pulse of the photon energy from 10 to 100 keV that lasts a few femtoseconds.

  16. Robust zero-energy bound states in a helical lattice (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Sau, Jay D.; Appelbaum, Ian


    Atomic-scale helices exist as motifs for several material lattices. We examine a tight-binding model for a single one-dimensional monatomic chain with a p -orbital basis coiled into a helix. A topologically nontrivial phase emerging from this model supports a chiral symmetry-protected zero-energy mode localized to a boundary, always embedded within a continuum band, regardless of termination site. We identify a topological invariant for this phase that is related to the number of zero energy end modes by means of the bulk-boundary correspondence, and give strict conditions for the existence of the bound state. An additional class of gapped edge modes in the model spectrum has practical consequences for surface states in, e.g., trigonal tellurium and selenium and other van der Waals-bonded one-dimensional semiconductors.

  17. Eötvös bounds on couplings of fundamental parameters to gravity. (United States)

    Dent, Thomas


    The possible dependence of fundamental couplings and mass ratios on the gravitational potential has been bounded by comparing atomic clock frequencies over Earth's elliptical orbit. Here we evaluate bounds on such a dependence from Eötvös-type experiments that test the weak equivalence principle, including previously neglected contributions from nuclear binding energy. We find that variations of fundamental parameters correlated with the gravitational potential are limited at 10(-8)-10(-9), an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude over atomic clock bounds.

  18. Bounding solutions for cerebral aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhal, Julia Olegivna; Geurts, Bernardus J.


    Cerebral aneurysms are weak spots in the vessel structure of the brain, which present a serious problem to the patient. Julia Mikhal and Bernard Geurts present the application of an Immersed Boundary (IB) method to the simulation of blood flow through such aneurysms. The goal is to understand the

  19. Lower bounds in differential privacy


    De, Anindya


    This is a paper about private data analysis, in which a trusted curator holding a confidential database responds to real vector-valued queries. A common approach to ensuring privacy for the database elements is to add appropriately generated random noise to the answers, releasing only these {\\em noisy} responses. In this paper, we investigate various lower bounds on the noise required to maintain different kind of privacy guarantees.

  20. Geometry of Homogeneous Bounded Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Vesentini, E


    This title includes: S.G. Gindikin, I.I. Pjateckii-Sapiro, E.B. Vinberg: Homogeneous Kahler manifolds; S.G. Greenfield: Extendibility properties of real submanifolds of Cn; W. Kaup: Holomorphische Abbildungen in Hyperbolische Raume; A. Koranyi: Holomorphic and harmonic functions on bounded symmetric domains; J.L. Koszul: Formes harmoniques vectorielles sur les espaces localement symetriques; S. Murakami: Plongements holomorphes de domaines symetriques; and E.M. Stein: The analogues of Fatous' theorem and estimates for maximal functions.

  1. Wronskian method for bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Francisco M, E-mail: [INIFTA (UNLP, CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Boulevard 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider an exactly solvable model, the Gaussian potential well, and a two-well potential proposed earlier for the interpretation of the infrared spectrum of ammonia.

  2. Neutron bound beta-decay: BOB (United States)

    McAndrew, Josephine; Paul, Stephan; Emmerich, Ralf; Engels, Ralf; Fierlinger, Peter; Gabriel, Mirko; Gutsmiedl, Erwin; Mellenthin, Johannes; Schön, Johannes; Schott, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Andreas; Grüenauer, Florian; Röhrmoser, Anton


    An experiment to observe the bound beta-decay (BOB) of the free neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. The hyperfine spin state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atom yields the neutrino left-handedness or possible right-handed admixture as well as possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. The BOB H(2s) hyperfine states can be separated with a Lamb-Shift Spin Filter. These monoenergetic H(2s) atoms are ionised into H- by charge exchanging within an argon cell. These ions are then separated using an adaptation of a MAC-E Filter. A first experiment is proposed at the FRMII high thermal-neutron flux beam reactor SR6 through-going beam tube, where we will seek to observe this rare neutron decay-mode for the first time and determine the branching ratio. After successful completion, the hyperfine spin state population will be determined, possibly at the ILL high-flux beam reactor through-going beam tube H6-H7, where the thermal neutron flux is a factor of four larger.

  3. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.


    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  4. Air quality in tightly sealed and passive homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, L.A.


    Indoor air quality has attracted increasing attention during the past few yars. Pollutants generated from combustion, building materials, and human activities may reach significant levels in the indoor environment to produce adverse health effects. This report deals with the classes of pollutants and their sources, and the significance of reported levels, possible health effects, and control strategies in relation to tightly sealed and passive solar construction techniques. In tightly sealed homes, residential air-to-air heat exchangers, whose design and performance are discussed, offer one method of improving air quality at reasonable cost. It is recommended that further research be implemented to identify hazardous concentrations of pollutants and set standards to minimize health impacts in the search for new energy innovations.

  5. Preconditioning Filter Bank Decomposition Using Structured Normalized Tight Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ehler


    Full Text Available We turn a given filter bank into a filtering scheme that provides perfect reconstruction, synthesis is the adjoint of the analysis part (so-called unitary filter banks, all filters have equal norm, and the essential features of the original filter bank are preserved. Unitary filter banks providing perfect reconstruction are induced by tight generalized frames, which enable signal decomposition using a set of linear operators. If, in addition, frame elements have equal norm, then the signal energy is spread through the various filter bank channels in some uniform fashion, which is often more suitable for further signal processing. We start with a given generalized frame whose elements allow for fast matrix vector multiplication, as, for instance, convolution operators, and compute a normalized tight frame, for which signal analysis and synthesis still preserve those fast algorithmic schemes.

  6. The mycotoxin patulin, modulates tight junctions in caco-2 cells. (United States)

    McLaughlin, John; Lambert, Daniel; Padfield, Philip J; Burt, Julian P H; O'Neill, Catherine A


    The mycotoxin patulin is a common contaminant of fruit. Here, we demonstrate that patulin reduces the barrier properties of the intestinal cell line, caco-2 by specific effects on tight junction components. Within 5h of exposure to 100 microM toxin, the transepithelial electrical resistance of caco-2 monolayers was reduced by approximately 95% and the monolayer became more permeable to FITC-labelled dextrans of 4-40 kDa. Immunoblotting revealed occludin proteolysis and a significant reduction in ZO-1 levels. Patulin had no influence on claudin levels but marked changes in their distribution were observed. These data indicate that patulin decreases the barrier properties of caco-2 monolayers by modulation of the tight junction.

  7. Air tightness measurements in older Danish single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Bergsøe, Niels Christian


    of the building envelope of older buildings despite the fact that the air tightness has a major influence on the energy use. In connection with renovation of the Danish building stock, the coming years will see increased focus on the air tightness of the building envelope like in other countries. This paper...... supply ranging from 0.09 to 0.28 l/(s·m²) per heated floor area, which is below the requirement stipulated in the Danish Building Regulations of 0.3 l/(s·m²). Typically, leaks are observed in connection with penetrations of the envelope, e.g. for electrical installations, exhaust ducts and chimneys...

  8. Bounds on collapse models from cold-atom experiments (United States)

    Bilardello, Marco; Donadi, Sandro; Vinante, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo


    The spontaneous localization mechanism of collapse models induces a Brownian motion in all physical systems. This effect is very weak, but experimental progress in creating ultracold atomic systems can be used to detect it. In this paper, we considered a recent experiment (Kovachy et al., 2015), where an atomic ensemble was cooled down to picokelvins. Any Brownian motion induces an extra increase of the position variance of the gas. We study this effect by solving the dynamical equations for the Continuous Spontaneous Localizations (CSL) model, as well as for its non-Markovian and dissipative extensions. The resulting bounds, with a 95 % of confidence level, are beaten only by measurements of spontaneous X-ray emission and by experiments with cantilever (in the latter case, only for rC ≥ 10-7 m, where rC is one of the two collapse parameters of the CSL model). We show that, contrary to the bounds given by X-ray measurements, non-Markovian effects do not change the bounds, for any reasonable choice of a frequency cutoff in the spectrum of the collapse noise. Therefore the bounds here considered are more robust. We also show that dissipative effects are unimportant for a large spectrum of temperatures of the noise, while for low temperatures the excluded region in the parameter space is the more reduced, the lower the temperature.

  9. Tight-binding modelling of ferromagnetic metals and alloys (United States)

    Sansa, M.; Dhouib, A.; Ribeiro, F.; Legrand, B.; Tréglia, G.; Goyhenex, C.


    Atomistic tight-binding based simulations are widely used to study transition metal alloys properties. However, they still require to be improved if one aims at modelling segregation and ordering phenomena in the case of magnetic materials, since they generally rely on local charge neutrality rules per site, valence orbital and element, but not per spin! We propose here a strategy to overcome this difficulty, that we illustrate in two magnetic systems of particular interest: CoPt and FeNi alloys.

  10. Automatic Generation of Matrix Element Derivatives for Tight Binding Models


    Alin M. Elena; Meister, Matthias


    Tight binding (TB) models are one approach to the quantum mechanical many particle problem. An important role in TB models is played by hopping and overlap matrix elements between the orbitals on two atoms, which of course depend on the relative positions of the atoms involved. This dependence can be expressed with the help of Slater-Koster parameters, which are usually taken from tables. Recently, a way to generate these tables automatically was published. If TB approaches are applied to sim...

  11. Observation of Beam Instabilities with very tight Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H; Pieloni, T


    We report about the observation of instabilities in the LHC in special runs with high beta* and very tight collimation down to 2 sigma which increases the transverse impedance significantly. The losses appeared primarily on the highest intensity, non-colliding bunches which can be interpreted as evidence for insufficient Landau damping. We describe the beam conditions, observations and possible explanations for the observed effects.

  12. Optimal Weak Lensing Skewness Measurements


    Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John


    Weak lensing measurements are entering a precision era to statistically map the distribution of matter in the universe. The most common measurement has been of the variance of the projected surface density of matter, which corresponds to the induced correlation in alignments of background galaxies. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content, like using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. But when the depth is shallow as happens near a beach, waves beco...

  13. Weak neutral-current interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, R.M.


    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z/sup 0/ boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references. (JFP)

  14. Rare weak decays of η'→K π (United States)

    Gao, Dao-Neng


    Rare weak decays of η'→K π have been investigated in the framework of the U (3 ) chiral perturbation theory at the leading order. Our study shows that the branching ratio B (η'→K π ) is of the order of 10-11, which is far below the present experimental upper bound given by the BESIII Collaboration. By further analysis of η'→K+π- and η'→K0π0, the ratio of isospin amplitudes is found, |A1 /2/A3 /2|≃35 , which supports that the Δ I =1 /2 transition enhancement, namely, the Δ I =1 /2 rule, could be functional in η' weak decays.

  15. Some Properties of Solutions to Weakly Hypoelliptic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bär


    Full Text Available A linear different operator L is called weakly hypoelliptic if any local solution u of Lu=0 is smooth. We allow for systems, that is, the coefficients may be matrices, not necessarily of square size. This is a huge class of important operators which coverall elliptic, overdetermined elliptic, subelliptic, and parabolic equations. We extend several classical theorems from complex analysis to solutions of any weakly hypoelliptic equation: the Montel theorem providing convergent subsequences, the Vitali theorem ensuring convergence of a given sequence, and Riemann's first removable singularity theorem. In the case of constant coefficients, we show that Liouville's theorem holds, any bounded solution must be constant, and any Lp-solution must vanish.

  16. A weakly constrained $W'$ at the early LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe; Torre, Riccardo


    We study, within an effective approach, the phenomenology of a charged W' vector which transforms as an isosinglet under the Standard Model gauge group. We discuss bounds from present data, finding that these are quite weak for suitable choices of the right-handed quark mixing matrix. Then we study the resonant production at the early LHC of such a weakly constrained W'. We start discussing the reach in the dijet final state, which is one of the channels where the first W' signal would most likely appear, and then we analyse prospects for the more challenging discovery of W' decays into W{\\gamma} and WZ. We show in particular that the former can be used to gain insight on the possibly composite nature of the resonance.

  17. [Muscle weakness in cerebral palsy]. (United States)

    Givon, Uri


    Over the last two decades, muscle weakness has been shown to be a major component of cerebral palsy (CP) pathology. Caused by multiple etiologies including variations in the muscle fiber type, pathologic motor unit function, co-contraction of agonists and antagonists, and muscle size and rigidity, weakness interferes with function and leads to limited function and participation. Muscle strength was found to be associated with walking ability and with functional scales. Children with CP were found to be weaker than typically developing children, and differences were found with respect to muscle groups in children with CP. Muscle weakness should be evaluated as objectively as possible to improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment. Manual muscle testing is not sufficient for evaluation, and instrumented muscle testing is validated in CP. Muscle strengthening is an important part of treatment of CP. Several methods of strengthening have been described. Muscle lengthening and other spasticity-modifying therapies have been shown to have a positive effect on muscle strength. Children who participated in muscle strengthening programs had a better quality of life and improved function.

  18. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if the operator ρa of right multiplication by a is compact (weakly compact, respectively). An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) if any element a ∈ A is right completely continuous (right weakly completely con- tinuous, respectively). Left completely continuous (left weakly ...

  19. Bounding the Failure Probability Range of Polynomial Systems Subject to P-box Uncertainties (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.


    This paper proposes a reliability analysis framework for systems subject to multiple design requirements that depend polynomially on the uncertainty. Uncertainty is prescribed by probability boxes, also known as p-boxes, whose distribution functions have free or fixed functional forms. An approach based on the Bernstein expansion of polynomials and optimization is proposed. In particular, we search for the elements of a multi-dimensional p-box that minimize (i.e., the best-case) and maximize (i.e., the worst-case) the probability of inner and outer bounding sets of the failure domain. This technique yields intervals that bound the range of failure probabilities. The offset between this bounding interval and the actual failure probability range can be made arbitrarily tight with additional computational effort.

  20. Upper and lower bounds for the ergodic capacity of MIMO Jacobi fading channels (United States)

    Nafkha, Amor; Bonnefoi, Rémi


    In multi-(core/mode) optical fiber communication, the transmission channel can be modeled as a complex sub-matrix of the Haar-distributed unitary matrix (complex Jacobi unitary ensemble). In this letter, we present new analytical expressions of the upper and lower bounds for the ergodic capacity of multiple-input multiple-output Jacobi-fading channels. Recent results on the determinant of the Jacobi unitary ensemble are employed to derive a tight lower bound on the ergodic capacity. We use Jensen's inequality to provide an analytical closed-form upper bound to the ergodic capacity at any signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Closed-form expressions of the ergodic capacity, at low and high SNR regimes, are also derived. Simulation results are presented to validate the accuracy of the derived expressions.

  1. Beyond the Cut Set Bound: Uncertainty Computations in Network Coding with Correlated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Gohari, Amin Aminzadeh; Jaggi, Sidharth


    Cut-set bounds on achievable rates for network communication protocols are not in general tight. In this paper we introduce a new technique for proving converses for the problem of transmission of correlated sources in networks, that results in bounds that are tighter than the corresponding cut-set bounds. The technique works as follows: on one hand we show that if the communication problem is solvable, the uncertainty of certain random variables in the network with respect to imaginary parties that have partial knowledge of the sources must satisfy some constraints that depend on the network architecture. On the other hand, the same uncertainties have to satisfy constraints that only depend on the joint distribution of the sources. Matching these two leads to restrictions on the statistical joint distribution of the sources in communication problems that are solvable over a given network architecture.

  2. Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization (United States)

    Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R.; Gordon, Daniel F.; Landsman, Alexandra S.


    Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process.

  3. Weak convergence of Jacobian determinants under asymmetric assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Alberico


    Full Text Available Let $\\Om$ be a bounded open set in $\\R^2$ sufficiently smooth and $f_k=(u_k,v_k$ and $f=(u,v$ mappings belong to the Sobolev space $W^{1,2}(\\Om,\\R^2$. We prove that if the sequence of Jacobians $J_{f_k}$ converges to a measure $\\mu$ in sense of measures andif one allows different assumptions on the two components of $f_k$ and $f$, e.g.$$u_k \\rightharpoonup u \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,2}(\\Om \\qquad \\, v_k \\rightharpoonup v \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,q}(\\Om$$for some $q\\in(1,2$, then\\begin{equation}\\label{0}d\\mu=J_f\\,dz.\\end{equation}Moreover, we show that this result is optimal in the sense that conclusion fails for $q=1$.On the other hand, we prove that \\eqref{0} remains valid also if one considers the case $q=1$, but it is necessary to require that $u_k$ weakly converges to $u$ in a Zygmund-Sobolev space with a slightly higher degree of regularity than $W^{1,2}(\\Om$ and precisely$$ u_k \\rightharpoonup u \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,L^2 \\log^\\alpha L}(\\Om$$for some $\\alpha >1$.    

  4. On the Weak Computability of Continuous Real Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Bauer


    Full Text Available In computable analysis, sequences of rational numbers which effectively converge to a real number x are used as the (rho- names of x. A real number x is computable if it has a computable name, and a real function f is computable if there is a Turing machine M which computes f in the sense that, M accepts any rho-name of x as input and outputs a rho-name of f(x for any x in the domain of f. By weakening the effectiveness requirement of the convergence and classifying the converging speeds of rational sequences, several interesting classes of real numbers of weak computability have been introduced in literature, e.g., in addition to the class of computable real numbers (EC, we have the classes of semi-computable (SC, weakly computable (WC, divergence bounded computable (DBC and computably approximable real numbers (CA. In this paper, we are interested in the weak computability of continuous real functions and try to introduce an analogous classification of weakly computable real functions. We present definitions of these functions by Turing machines as well as by sequences of rational polygons and prove these two definitions are not equivalent. Furthermore, we explore the properties of these functions, and among others, show their closure properties under arithmetic operations and composition.

  5. Lower bounds for randomized Exclusive Write PRAMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, P.D.


    In this paper we study the question: How useful is randomization in speeding up Exclusive Write PRAM computations? Our results give further evidence that randomization is of limited use in these types of computations. First we examine a compaction problem on both the CREW and EREW PRAM models, and we present randomized lower bounds which match the best deterministic lower bounds known. (For the CREW PRAM model, the lower bound is asymptotically optimal.) These are the first non-trivial randomized lower bounds known for the compaction problem on these models. We show that our lower bounds also apply to the problem of approximate compaction. Next we examine the problem of computing boolean functions on the CREW PRAM model, and we present a randomized lower bound, which improves on the previous best randomized lower bound for many boolean functions, including the OR function. (The previous lower bounds for these functions were asymptotically optimal, but we improve the constant multiplicative factor.) We also give an alternate proof for the randomized lower bound on PARITY, which was already optimal to within a constant additive factor. Lastly, we give a randomized lower bound for integer merging on an EREW PRAM which matches the best deterministic lower bound known. In all our proofs, we use the Random Adversary method, which has previously only been used for proving lower bounds on models with Concurrent Write capabilities. Thus this paper also serves to illustrate the power and generality of this method for proving parallel randomized lower bounds.

  6. Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors


    Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.


    In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution, and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe u...

  7. Relationships between air-tightness and its influencing factors of post-2006 new-build dwellings in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [School of Architecture, Design and Environment, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)


    Addressing air leakage of dwellings is important to improving energy efficiency and thermal comfort. This paper reports on the air permeability test results of 287 post-2006 new-build dwellings in the UK. The paper explores the relationships between air-tightness and its influencing factors including build method, dwelling type, management context, design target, season, number of significant penetrations, and envelope and floor area. One-way ANOVA analysis was utilised to compare means of air permeability in relation to the individual factors, and two- and three-way ANOVA analyses were applied for examining the interactions between them. The air-tightness of the dwellings averaged 5.97 m{sup 3}/(h m{sup 2}) at 50 Pa, which has improved from UK historic data. Dwellings built using precast concrete panels were significantly air-tighter than those built using timber frame, whilst those masonry and reinforced concrete frame dwellings were most leaky. Greater extent of innovative practice and 'self-build' procurement led to achieving superior air-tightness. Interaction was observed between 'build method' and 'dwelling type' and between 'dwelling type' and 'management context'. A modest positive correlation was noticed between air permeability and design target, which became weak in relation to the number of significant penetrations and envelope area. Applying the linear regression technique a predictive model is developed for estimating air permeability of dwellings. This model integrates the influencing factors and their significant interactions. The findings should contribute to future research in predicting impacts of controlling the influencing factors on achieving air-tightness of dwellings more consistently. (author)

  8. Development of tight-binding based GW algorithm and its computational implementation for graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Muhammad Aziz [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); NUSNNI-NanoCore, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore (NUS), 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Naradipa, Muhammad Avicenna, E-mail:; Phan, Wileam Yonatan; Syahroni, Ahmad [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Rusydi, Andrivo [NUSNNI-NanoCore, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore (NUS), 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore)


    Graphene has been a hot subject of research in the last decade as it holds a promise for various applications. One interesting issue is whether or not graphene should be classified into a strongly or weakly correlated system, as the optical properties may change upon several factors, such as the substrate, voltage bias, adatoms, etc. As the Coulomb repulsive interactions among electrons can generate the correlation effects that may modify the single-particle spectra (density of states) and the two-particle spectra (optical conductivity) of graphene, we aim to explore such interactions in this study. The understanding of such correlation effects is important because eventually they play an important role in inducing the effective attractive interactions between electrons and holes that bind them into excitons. We do this study theoretically by developing a GW method implemented on the basis of the tight-binding (TB) model Hamiltonian. Unlike the well-known GW method developed within density functional theory (DFT) framework, our TB-based GW implementation may serve as an alternative technique suitable for systems which Hamiltonian is to be constructed through a tight-binding based or similar models. This study includes theoretical formulation of the Green’s function G, the renormalized interaction function W from random phase approximation (RPA), and the corresponding self energy derived from Feynman diagrams, as well as the development of the algorithm to compute those quantities. As an evaluation of the method, we perform calculations of the density of states and the optical conductivity of graphene, and analyze the results.

  9. Towards Automatic Resource Bound Analysis for OCaml


    Hoffmann, Jan; Das, Ankush; Weng, Shu-Chun


    This article presents a resource analysis system for OCaml programs. This system automatically derives worst-case resource bounds for higher-order polymorphic programs with user-defined inductive types. The technique is parametric in the resource and can derive bounds for time, memory allocations and energy usage. The derived bounds are multivariate resource polynomials which are functions of different size parameters that depend on the standard OCaml types. Bound inference is fully automatic...

  10. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols


    Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan


    Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define and analyze a fourth main type of attack on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to this type of attack, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. We further show that verifying distance bounding protocols using exist...

  11. Purity- and Gaussianity-bounded uncertainty relations (United States)

    Mandilara, A.; Karpov, E.; Cerf, N. J.


    Bounded uncertainty relations provide the minimum value of the uncertainty assuming some additional information on the state. We derive analytically an uncertainty relation bounded by a pair of constraints, those of purity and Gaussianity. In a limiting case this uncertainty relation reproduces the purity-bounded derived by Man’ko and Dodonov and the Gaussianity-bounded one (Mandilara and Cerf 2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 030102R).

  12. Weak polyelectrolytes in Confined Geometries (United States)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Rathee, Vikramjit S.; Sikora, Benjamin

    Crucial to the behavior of recently designed charge-rejection and mosaic membranes are the conformations of polyelectrolyte brushes and oligomeric grafts used to control the membranes' surface charge. The use of pH-tunable weak polyelectrolytes with associative interactions enables fine tuning of material transport properties. Here, we apply constant-pH molecular dynamics along with free energy sampling algorithms to understand the subtle tug-of-war between pH, salt concentrations, and solvation forces in confined systems, and determine how each of these effects alters transport within the system. We further discuss the implications of our findings for the design of electrolyte separation membranes.

  13. The effect of parents' schooling on child's schooling: a nonparametric bounds analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.


    A positive relation between parents’ schooling and child’s schooling does not necessarily reflect a causal relation. This article uses a new approach to identify intergenerational schooling effects: a nonparametric bounds analysis. By relying on relatively weak and in part testable assumptions, this

  14. Upper Bounds on Performance Measures of Heterogeneous // Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Q. Alves


    Full Text Available In many real-life queueing systems, the servers are often heterogeneous, namely they work at different rates. This paper provides a simple method to compute tight upper bounds on two important performance measures of single-class heterogeneous multi-server Markovian queueing systems, namely the average number in queue and the average waiting time in queue. This method is based on an expansion of the state space that is followed by an approximate reduction of the state space, only considering the most probable states. In most cases tested, we were able to approximate the actual behavior of the system with smaller errors than those obtained from traditional homogeneous multiserver Markovian queues, as shown by GPSS simulations. In addition, we have correlated the quality of the approximation with the degree of heterogeneity of the system, which was evaluated using its Gini index. Finally, we have shown that the bounds are robust and still useful, even considering quite different allocation strategies. A large number of simulation results show the accuracy of the proposed method that is better than that of classical homogeneous multiserver Markovian formulae in many situations.

  15. Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massaro, D.


    This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of

  16. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil


    graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  17. Upper bound on quantum stabilizer codes (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Xing, Li-Juan


    By studying sets of operators having constant weight, we present an analytical upper bound on the pure quantum stabilizer codes whose underlying quantum system can be of arbitrary dimension, which outperforms the well-known quantum Hamming bound, the optimal analytical upper bound so far for small code length.

  18. Tight-Binding simulations of InAs/GaAs quantum dots; Tight-Binding Simulationen von InAs/GaAs Quantenpunkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinsorge, Alexander


    For several years, the technological potential of self-organized grown quantum dots (QD) has been known. Their usage as an effective light source or memory requires the precise prediction of their electronic properties. Hence, this report will study InAs quantum dots at GaAs substrate. After relaxing the atomic positions with a many body potential of Abell-Tersoff type, I calculated the electronic structure using the Tight-Binding method which is reasonable for large systems. During the investigation of wavefunctions depend on the shape, size and temperature, the impact of strain showed up as the main reason for the p-splitting. Typically flat QDs (relative to lateral dimensions) are grown, therefore the energy of bound states depends mostly on their height. The crystal's orientation had a strong impact on the wavefunctions. Moreover, the understanding of STS experiments, which inspected the connection between shape and wavefunction, is better now. Because of the possible simultaneous occupation of semiconductor quantum dots with an electron and a hole, there is a dipole moment of the exciton (due to their different behaviour inside the QD). This is a further experimental access to inner details of the QD. I ascertained the interplay of composition profile and dipole moment. The force caused by additional potentials (piezoelectricity, outer homogeneous and inhomogeneous electrical fields) was also an subject of my inquiries. To conclude, I executed kMC simulations, to better apprehend the annealing experiments. I was able to explain the narrowing of the PL peak width better. Furthermore I showed a ramification of the strain field to the diffusion development (and the following electronic properties). (orig.)

  19. Planckian axions and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.; Long, Cody; McAllister, Liam [Department of Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)


    Several recent works,, have claimed that the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) excludes super-Planckian displacements of axion fields, and hence large-field axion inflation, in the absence of monodromy. We argue that in theories with N≫1 axions, super-Planckian axion diameters D are readily allowed by the WGC. We clarify the nontrivial relationship between the kinetic matrix K — unambiguously defined by its form in a Minkowski-reduced basis — and the diameter of the axion fundamental domain, emphasizing that in general the diameter is not solely determined by the eigenvalues f{sub 1}{sup 2}≤…≤f{sub N}{sup 2} of K: the orientations of the eigenvectors with respect to the identifications imposed by instantons must be incorporated. In particular, even if one were to impose the condition f{sub N}bounded from below by S≥SM{sub pl}/f{sub N}, with S a fixed constant, but in the universal limit S≳S√NM{sub pl}/f{sub N}. Thus, having f{sub N}>M{sub pl} does not immediately imply the existence of unsuppressed higher harmonic contributions to the potential. Finally, we argue that in effective axion-gravity theories, the zero-form version of the WGC can be satisfied by gravitational instantons that make negligible contributions to the potential.

  20. Flow and Transport in Tight and Shale Formations: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad


    A review on the recent advances of the flow and transport phenomena in tight and shale formations is presented in this work. Exploration of oil and gas in resources that were once considered inaccessible opened the door to highlight interesting phenomena that require attention and understanding. The length scales associated with transport phenomena in tight and shale formations are rich. From nanoscale phenomena to field-scale applications, a unified frame that is able to encounter the varieties of phenomena associated with each scale may not be possible. Each scale has its own tools and limitations that may not, probably, be suitable at other scales. Multiscale algorithms that effectively couple simulations among various scales of porous media are therefore important. In this article, a review of the different length scales and the tools associated with each scale is introduced. Highlights on the different phenomena pertinent to each scale are summarized. Furthermore, the governing equations describing flow and transport phenomena at different scales are investigated. In addition, methods to solve these equations using numerical techniques are introduced. Cross-scale analysis and derivation of linear and nonlinear Darcy\\'s scale laws from pore-scale governing equations are described. Phenomena occurring at molecular scales and their thermodynamics are discussed. Flow slippage at the nanosize pores and its upscaling to Darcy\\'s scale are highlighted. Pore network models are discussed as a viable tool to estimate macroscopic parameters that are otherwise difficult to measure. Then, the environmental aspects associated with the different technologies used in stimulating the gas stored in tight and shale formations are briefly discussed.

  1. Flow and Transport in Tight and Shale Formations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgad Salama


    Full Text Available A review on the recent advances of the flow and transport phenomena in tight and shale formations is presented in this work. Exploration of oil and gas in resources that were once considered inaccessible opened the door to highlight interesting phenomena that require attention and understanding. The length scales associated with transport phenomena in tight and shale formations are rich. From nanoscale phenomena to field-scale applications, a unified frame that is able to encounter the varieties of phenomena associated with each scale may not be possible. Each scale has its own tools and limitations that may not, probably, be suitable at other scales. Multiscale algorithms that effectively couple simulations among various scales of porous media are therefore important. In this article, a review of the different length scales and the tools associated with each scale is introduced. Highlights on the different phenomena pertinent to each scale are summarized. Furthermore, the governing equations describing flow and transport phenomena at different scales are investigated. In addition, methods to solve these equations using numerical techniques are introduced. Cross-scale analysis and derivation of linear and nonlinear Darcy’s scale laws from pore-scale governing equations are described. Phenomena occurring at molecular scales and their thermodynamics are discussed. Flow slippage at the nanosize pores and its upscaling to Darcy’s scale are highlighted. Pore network models are discussed as a viable tool to estimate macroscopic parameters that are otherwise difficult to measure. Then, the environmental aspects associated with the different technologies used in stimulating the gas stored in tight and shale formations are briefly discussed.

  2. Particle dynamics and pair production in tightly focused standing wave (United States)

    Jirka, M.; Klimo, O.; Vranić, M.; Weber, S.; Korn, G.


    With the advent of 10 PW laser facilities, new regimes of laser-matter interaction are opening since effects of quantum electrodynamics, such as electron-positron pair production and cascade development, start to be important. The dynamics of light charged particles, such as electrons and positrons, is affected by the radiation reaction force. This effect can strongly influence the interaction of intense laser pulses with matter since it lowers the energy of emitting particles and transforms their energy to the gamma radiation. Consequently, electron-positron pairs can be generated via Breit-Wheeler process. To study this new regime of interaction, numerical simulations are required. With their help it is possible to predict and study quantum effects which may occur in future experiments at modern laser facilities. In this work we present results of electron interaction with an intense standing wave formed by two colliding laser pulses. Due to the necessity to achieve ultra intense laser field, the laser beam has to be focused to a μm-diameter spot. Since the paraxial approximation is not valid for tight focusing, the appropriate model describing the tightly focused laser beam has to be employed. In tightly focused laser beam the longitudinal component of the electromagnetic field becomes significant and together with the ponderomotive force they affect the dynamics of interacting electrons and also newly generated Breit-Wheeler electron-positron pairs. Using the Particle-In-Cell code we study electron dynamics, gamma radiation and pair production in such a configuration for linear polarization and different types of targets.

  3. Weak lensing and cosmological investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, V


    In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...

  4. Time—periodic weak solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Henriques de Brito


    Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.

  5. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Zoran


    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  6. Competing bounds on the present-day time variation of fundamental constants (United States)

    Dent, Thomas; Stern, Steffen; Wetterich, Christof


    We compare the sensitivity of a recent bound on time variation of the fine structure constant from optical clocks with bounds on time-varying fundamental constants from atomic clocks sensitive to the electron-to-proton mass ratio, from radioactive decay rates in meteorites, and from the Oklo natural reactor. Tests of the weak equivalence principle also lead to comparable bounds on present variations of constants. The “winner in sensitivity” depends on what relations exist between the variations of different couplings in the standard model of particle physics, which may arise from the unification of gauge interactions. Weak equivalence principle tests are currently the most sensitive within unified scenarios. A detection of time variation in atomic clocks would favor dynamical dark energy and put strong constraints on the dynamics of a cosmological scalar field.

  7. Tight glycemic control in the ICU - is the earth flat? (United States)

    Steil, Garry M; Agus, Michael S D


    Tight glycemic control in the ICU has been shown to reduce mortality in some but not all prospective randomized control trials. Confounding the interpretation of these studies are differences in how the control was achieved and underlying incidence of hypoglycemia, which can be expected to be affected by the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this issue of Critical Care, a consensus panel provides a list of the research priorities they believe are needed for CGM to become routine practice in the ICU. We reflect on these recommendations and consider the implications for using CGM today.

  8. Effects of gastrocnemius tightness on forefoot during gait. (United States)

    Cazeau, Cyrille; Stiglitz, Yves


    The gastrocnemius is the main muscle of the posterior compartment of the leg. As a biarticular muscle it has specific biomechanical propertiess. This article discusses these properties combining the major biomechanical topics of anatomy, dynamics, kinetics, and electromyography. This muscle is remarkable in that it has very low energy consumption and very high mechanical efficacy. In addition to the biomechanical features, the consequences of its tightness are discussed. The dysfunction also appears in all the biomechanical topics and clarifies the reasons of the location of symptoms in the midfoot and on the plantar aspect of the forefoot. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. First results of the CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search (CROWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, M; Gasior, M; Thumm, M; Rieger, S W


    The CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search probes the existence of weakly interacting sub-eV particles like axions or hidden sector photons. It is based on the principle of an optical light shining through the wall experiment, adapted to microwaves. Critical aspects of the experiment are electromagnetic shielding, design and operation of low loss cavity resonators, and the detection of weak sinusoidal microwave signals. Lower bounds are set on the coupling constant g=4.5 x 10$^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$ for axionlike particles with a mass of m$_a$=7.2 $\\mu$eV. For hidden sector photons, lower bounds are set for the coupling constant $\\chi$=4.1 x 10$^{^-9}$ at a mass of m$\\gamma$=10.8 $\\mu$eV. For the latter we are probing a previously unexplored region in the parameter space.

  10. Tight-Binding Description of Impurity States in Semiconductors (United States)

    Dominguez-Adame, F.


    Introductory textbooks in solid state physics usually present the hydrogenic impurity model to calculate the energy of carriers bound to donors or acceptors in semiconductors. This model treats the pure semiconductor as a homogeneous medium and the impurity is represented as a fixed point charge. This approach is only valid for shallow impurities…

  11. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a slow tight binding inhibitor of E. coli pyridoxal kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini S Ghatge

    Full Text Available Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP is a cofactor for dozens of B(6 requiring enzymes. PLP reacts with apo-B(6 enzymes by forming an aldimine linkage with the ε-amino group of an active site lysine residue, thus yielding the catalytically active holo-B(6 enzyme. During protein turnover, the PLP is salvaged by first converting it to pyridoxal by a phosphatase and then back to PLP by pyridoxal kinase. Nonetheless, PLP poses a potential toxicity problem for the cell since its reactive 4'-aldehyde moiety forms covalent adducts with other compounds and non-B(6 proteins containing thiol or amino groups. The regulation of PLP homeostasis in the cell is thus an important, yet unresolved issue. In this report, using site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic, spectroscopic and chromatographic studies we show that pyridoxal kinase from E. coli forms a complex with the product PLP to form an inactive enzyme complex. Evidence is presented that, in the inhibited complex, PLP has formed an aldimine bond with an active site lysine residue during catalytic turnover. The rate of dissociation of PLP from the complex is very slow, being only partially released after a 2-hour incubation with PLP phosphatase. Interestingly, the inactive pyridoxal kinase•PLP complex can be partially reactivated by transferring the tightly bound PLP to an apo-B(6 enzyme. These results open new perspectives on the mechanism of regulation and role of pyridoxal kinase in the Escherichia coli cell.

  12. A general intermolecular force field based on tight-binding quantum chemical calculations (United States)

    Grimme, Stefan; Bannwarth, Christoph; Caldeweyher, Eike; Pisarek, Jana; Hansen, Andreas


    A black-box type procedure is presented for the generation of a molecule-specific, intermolecular potential energy function. The method uses quantum chemical (QC) information from our recently published extended tight-binding semi-empirical scheme (GFN-xTB) and can treat non-covalently bound complexes and aggregates with almost arbitrary chemical structure. The necessary QC information consists of the equilibrium structure, Mulliken atomic charges, charge centers of localized molecular orbitals, and also of frontier orbitals and orbital energies. The molecular pair potential includes model density dependent Pauli repulsion, penetration, as well as point charge electrostatics, the newly developed D4 dispersion energy model, Drude oscillators for polarization, and a charge-transfer term. Only one element-specific and about 20 global empirical parameters are needed to cover systems with nuclear charges up to radon (Z = 86). The method is tested for standard small molecule interaction energy benchmark sets where it provides accurate intermolecular energies and equilibrium distances. Examples for structures with a few hundred atoms including charged systems demonstrate the versatility of the approach. The method is implemented in a stand-alone computer code which enables rigid-body, global minimum energy searches for molecular aggregation or alignment.

  13. Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas


    A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.

  14. Imaginary-frequency polarizability and van der Waals force constants of two-electron atoms, with rigorous bounds (United States)

    Glover, R. M.; Weinhold, F.


    Variational functionals of Braunn and Rebane (1972) for the imagery-frequency polarizability (IFP) have been generalized by the method of Gramian inequalities to give rigorous upper and lower bounds, valid even when the true (but unknown) unperturbed wavefunction must be represented by a variational approximation. Using these formulas in conjunction with flexible variational trial functions, tight error bounds are computed for the IFP and the associated two- and three-body van der Waals interaction constants of the ground 1(1S) and metastable 2(1,3S) states of He and Li(+). These bounds generally establish the ground-state properties to within a fraction of a per cent and metastable properties to within a few per cent, permitting a comparative assessment of competing theoretical methods at this level of accuracy. Unlike previous 'error bounds' for these properties, the present results have a completely a priori theoretical character, with no empirical input data.

  15. Tight-binding tunneling amplitude of an optical lattice (United States)

    Arzamasovs, Maksims; Liu, Bo


    The particle in a periodic potential is an important topic in an undergraduate quantum mechanics curriculum and a stepping stone on the way to more advanced topics, such as courses on interacting electrons in crystalline solids, and graduate-level research in solid-state and condensed matter physics. The interacting many-body phenomena are usually described in terms of the second quantized lattice Hamiltonians which treat single-particle physics on the level of tight-binding approximation and add interactions on top of it. The aim of this paper is to show how the tight-binding tunneling amplitude can be related to the strength of the periodic potential for the case of a cosine potential used in the burgeoning field of ultracold atoms. We show how to approach the problem of computing the tunneling amplitude of a deep lattice using the JWKB (Jeffreys–Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin, also known as semiclassical) approximation. We also point out that care should be taken when applying the method of the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) in an optical lattice context. A summary of the exact solution in terms of Mathieu functions is also given.

  16. Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators. (United States)

    Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P


    The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed.

  17. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan


    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  18. Weak transitions in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, G.


    Some techniques to calculate the effects of the strong interactions on the matrix elements of weak processes are described. The lattice formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics is used to account for the low energy gluons, and the corresponding numerical methods are explained. The high energy contributions are included in effective lagrangians and the problem of matching the different scales related to the renormalization of the operators and wavefunctions is also discussed. The = 1/2 enhancement rule and the K/sup 0/-anti-K/sup 0/ are used to illustrate these techniques and the results of a numerical calculation is reported. The values obtained are very encouraging and they certainly show good qualitative agreement with the experimental values. The emphasis is on general techniques, and in particular, several improvements to this particular calculation are proposed.

  19. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.


    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess......The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake....... Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...

  20. On order bounded subsets of locally solid Riesz spaces | Hong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a topological Riesz space there are two types of bounded subsets: order bounded subsets and topologically bounded subsets. It is natural to ask (1) whether an order bounded subset is topologically bounded and (2) whether a topologically bounded subset is order bounded. A classical result gives a partial answer to (1) ...

  1. Tight Fits for Americas Next Moon Rocket, Ares V (United States)

    Jaap, John; Fisher, Wyatt; Richardson, Lea


    America has begun the development of a new heavy lift rocket which will enable humans to return to the moon and reach even farther destinations. Five decades ago, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration designed a system (called Saturn/Apollo) to carry men to the moon and back; the rocket which boosted them to the moon was the Saturn V. Saturn V was huge relative to contemporary rockets and is still the largest rocket ever launched. The new moon rocket is called Ares V. It will insert 40% more payload into low earth orbit than Saturn V; and after docking with the crew spacecraft, it will insert 50% more payload onto the translunar trajectory than Saturn V. The current design of Ares V calls for two liquid-fueled stages and 2 "strap-on" solid rockets. The solid rockets are extended-length versions of the solid rockets used on the Shuttle. The diameter of the liquid stages is at least as large as the first stage of the Saturn V; the height of the lower liquid stage (called the core stage) is longer than the external tank of the Shuttle. Huge rockets require huge infrastructure and, during the Saturn/Apollo era, America invested significantly in manufacturing, assembly and launch facilities which are still in use today. Since the Saturn/Apollo era, America has invested in additional infrastructure for the Shuttle program. Ares V must utilize this existing infrastructure, with reasonable modifications. Building a rocket with 50% more capability in the same buildings, testing it in the same test stands, shipping on the same canals under the same bridges, assembling it in the same building, rolling it to the pad on the same crawler, and launching it from the same launch pad is an engineering and logistics challenge which goes hand-in-hand with designing the structure, tanks, turbines, engines, software, etc. necessary to carry such a large payload to earth orbit and to the moon. This paper quantitatively discusses the significant "tight fits" that are

  2. Fault zone fabric and fault weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collettini, C.; Niemeijer, A.; Viti, C.; Marone, C.


    Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak1–6 compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength7. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals4, high fluid pressures within the fault core8,9 and dynamic processes such as

  3. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  4. Using tolerance bounds in scientific investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, J.R.


    Assessment of the variability in population values plays an important role in the analysis of scientific data. Analysis of scientific data often involves developing a bound on a proportion of a population. Sometimes simple probability bounds are obtained using formulas involving known mean and variance parameters and replacing the parameters by sample estimates. The resulting bounds are only approximate and fail to account for the variability in the estimated parameters. Tolerance bounds provide bounds on population proportions which account for the variation resulting from the estimated mean and variance parameters. A beta content, gamma confidence tolerance interval is constructed so that a proportion beta of the population lies within the region bounded by the interval with confidence gamma. An application involving corrosion measurements is used to illustrate the use of tolerance bounds for different situations. Extensions of standard tolerance intervals are applied to generate regression tolerance bounds, tolerance bounds for more general models of measurements collected over time, and tolerance intervals for varying precision data. Tolerance bounds also provide useful information for designing the collection of future data.

  5. Tightness relative to some (co)reflections in topology | Ball ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a stronger result than the classical one, but not because of an increase in scope; after all, assuming weak choice principles, every compact regular locale is the topology of a compact Hausdorff space. The increased strength derives from the conclusion, for in general a space has many more sublocales than ...

  6. Search for anomalous weak dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton

    CERN Document Server

    Heister, A; Barate, R; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, R W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Mato, P; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schneider, O; Sguazzoni, G; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, I; Ward, J; Badaud, F; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bossi, F; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Thompson, A S; Wasserbaech, S R; Cavanaugh, R J; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, P J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Ragusa, F; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, Ronald; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Lefrançois, J; Veillet, J J; Yuan, C; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Schuller, J P; Vallage, B; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Giannini, G; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Berkelman, K; Cranmer, K; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; Gonzáles, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y B; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G; Dissertori, G


    The anomalous weak dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton are measured in a data sample collected by ALEPH from 1990 to 1995 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 155~pb$^{-1}$. Tau leptons produced in the reaction $e^+ e^- \\rightarrow \\tau^+ \\tau^-$ at energies close to the ${\\rm Z}$ mass are studied using their semileptonic decays to $\\pi$, $\\rho$, $a_1 \\rightarrow \\pi 2\\pi^0$ or $a_1 \\rightarrow 3 \\pi$. The real and imaginary components of both the anomalous weak magnetic dipole moment and the CP-violating anomalous weak electric dipole moment, $ {\\rm Re}\\,\\mu_{\\tau}$, ${\\rm Im}\\,\\mu_{\\tau}$, ${\\rm Re}\\,d_{\\tau}$ and ${\\rm Im}\\,d_{\\tau}$, are measured simultaneously by means of a likelihood fit built from the full differential cross section. No evidence of new physics is found. The following bounds are obtained (95\\% CL): $|{\\rm Re}\\, \\mu_{\\tau} | < 1.14 \\times 10^{-3}$, $|{\\rm Im}\\, \\mu_{\\tau} | < 2.65 \\times 10^{-3}$, $|{\\rm Re}\\, d_{\\tau} | < 0.91 \\times 10^{-3}$, and $|{\\rm Im}\\, d_{\\tau} ...

  7. When Amplification with Weak Values Fails to Suppress Technical Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Knee


    Full Text Available The application of postselection to a weak quantum measurement leads to the phenomenon of weak values. Expressed in units of the measurement strength, the displacement of a quantum coherent measuring device is ordinarily bounded by the eigenspectrum of the measured observable. Postselection can enable an interference effect that moves the average displacement far outside this range, bringing practical benefits in certain situations. Employing the Fisher-information metric, we argue that the amplified displacement offers no fundamental metrological advantage, due to the necessarily reduced probability of success. Our understanding of metrological advantage is the possibility of a lower uncertainty in the estimate of an unknown parameter with a large number of trials. We analyze a situation in which the detector is pixelated with a finite resolution and in which the detector is afflicted by random displacements: imperfections that degrade the fundamental limits of parameter estimation. Surprisingly, weak-value amplification is no more robust to them than a technique making no use of the amplification effect brought about by a final, postselected measurement.

  8. Revenue Risk of U.S. Tight-Oil Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mª Abadie


    Full Text Available American U.S. crude oil prices have dropped significantly of late down to a low of less than $30 a barrel in early 2016. At the same time price volatility has increased and crude in storage has reached record amounts in the U.S. America. Low oil prices in particular pose quite a challenge for the survival of U.S. America’s tight-oil industry. In this paper we assess the current profitability and future prospects of this industry. The question could be broadly stated as: should producers stop operation immediately or continue in the hope that prices will rise in the medium term? Our assessment is based on a stochastic volatility model with three risk factors, namely the oil spot price, the long-term oil price, and the spot price volatility; we allow for these sources of risk to be correlated and display mean reversion. We then use information from spot and futures West Texas Intermediate (WTI oil prices to estimate this model. Our aim is to show how the development of the oil price in the future may affect the prospective revenues of firms and hence their operation decisions at present. With the numerical estimates of the model’s parameters we can compute the value of an operating tight-oil field over a certain time horizon. Thus, the present value (PV of the prospective revenues up to ten years from now is $37.07/bbl in the base case. Consequently, provided that the cost of producing a barrel of oil is less than $37.07 production from an operating field would make economic sense. Obviously this is just a point estimate. We further perform a Monte Carlo (MC simulation to derive the risk profile of this activity and calculate two standard measures of risk, namely the value at risk (VaR and the expected shortfall (ES (for a given confidence level. In this sense, the PV of the prospective revenues will fall below $22.22/bbl in the worst 5% of the cases; and the average value across these worst scenarios is $19.77/bbl. Last we undertake two

  9. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhao [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Jin, Zhu-Qiu, E-mail: [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood-heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC

  10. Stability of Fluorosurfactant Adsorption on Mineral Surface for Water Removal in Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun You


    Full Text Available Long-term effectiveness of rock wettability alteration for water removal during gas production from tight reservoir depends on the surfactant adsorption on the pore surface of a reservoir. This paper selected typical cationic fluorosurfactant FW-134 as an example and took advantage of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and atomic force microscope (AFM to investigate its adsorption stability on the rock mineral surface under the oscillation condition at high temperature for a long time. The experimental results indicate that the F element content on the sample surface increases obviously, the surface structure of fluorine-carbonization also undergoes a significant change, and the fluorine surfactant exhibits a good interfacial modification and wettability alteration ability due to its adsorption on the pore surface transforming the chemical structure of the original surface. The adsorption increases indistinctly with the concentration of over 0.05% due to a single layer adsorption structure and is mainly electrostatic adsorption because the chemical bonding between the fluorosurfactant and the rock mineral surface, the hydrogen bonding, is weak and inconspicuous.

  11. A tight and explicit representation of Q in sparse QR factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, E.G.; Peyton, B.W.


    In QR factorization of a sparse m{times}n matrix A (m {ge} n) the orthogonal factor Q is often stored implicitly as a lower trapezoidal matrix H known as the Householder matrix. This paper presents a simple characterization of the row structure of Q, which could be used as the basis for a sparse data structure that can store Q explicitly. The new characterization is a simple extension of a well known row-oriented characterization of the structure of H. Hare, Johnson, Olesky, and van den Driessche have recently provided a complete sparsity analysis of the QR factorization. Let U be the matrix consisting of the first n columns of Q. Using results from, we show that the data structures for H and U resulting from our characterizations are tight when A is a strong Hall matrix. We also show that H and the lower trapezoidal part of U have the same sparsity characterization when A is strong Hall. We then show that this characterization can be extended to any weak Hall matrix that has been permuted into block upper triangular form. Finally, we show that permuting to block triangular form never increases the fill incurred during the factorization.

  12. Bound anionic states of adenine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H


    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic

  13. The lower bound on complexity of parallel branch-and-bound algorithm for subset sum problem (United States)

    Kolpakov, Roman; Posypkin, Mikhail


    The subset sum problem is a particular case of the Boolean knapsack problem where each item has the price equal to its weight. This problem can be informally stated as searching for most dense packing of a set of items into a box with limited capacity. Recently, coarse-grain parallelization approaches to Branch-and-Bound (B&B) method attracted some attention due to the growing popularity of weakly-connected distributed computing platforms. In this paper we consider one of such approaches for solving the subset sum problem. One of the processors (manager) performs some number of B&B steps on the first stage with generating some subproblems. On the second stage, the generated subproblems are sent to other processors, one subproblem per processor. The processors solve completely the received subproblems, the manager collects all the obtained solutions and chooses the optimal one. For this algorithm we formally define the parallel execution model (frontal scheme of parallelization) and the notion of the frontal scheme complexity. We study the frontal scheme complexity for a series of subset sum problems.

  14. Instanton bound states in ABJM theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics


    The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.

  15. Modifications and extensions to Harrison's tight-binding theory (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios A.


    Harrison’s tight-binding theory provides an excellent qualitative description of the electronic structure of the elements across the periodic table. However, the resulting band structures are in significant disagreement with those found by standard methods, particularly for the transition metals. For these systems we developed a procedure to generate both the prefactors of Harrison’s hopping parameters and the onsite energies. Our approach gives an impressive improvement and puts Harrison’s theory on a quantitative basis. Our method retains the most attractive aspect of the theory, in using a revised set of universal prefactors for the hopping integrals. In addition, a new form of onsite parameters allows us to describe the lattice constant dependence of the bands and the total energy, predicting the correct ground state for all transition, alkaline earth, and noble metals. This work represents not only a useful computational tool but also an important pedagogical enhancement for Harrison’s books.

  16. Tight junction proteins contribute to barrier properties in human pleura. (United States)

    Markov, Alexander G; Voronkova, Maria A; Volgin, George N; Yablonsky, Piotr K; Fromm, Michael; Amasheh, Salah


    The permeability of pleural mesothelium helps to control the volume and composition of the liquid lubricating pleural surfaces. Information on pleural barrier function in health and disease, however, is scarce. Tissue specimens of human pleura were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of transmesothelial resistance. Expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins was studied by Western blots and immune fluorescence confocal microscopy. Both visceral and parietal pleura showed barrier properties represented by transmesothelial resistance. Occludin, claudin-1, -3, -5, and -7, were detected in visceral pleura. In parietal pleura, the same TJ proteins were detected, except claudin-7. In tissues from patients with pleural inflammation these tightening claudins were decreased and in visceral pleura claudin-2, a paracellular channel former, became apparent. We report that barrier function in human pleura coincides with expression of claudins known to be key determinants of epithelial barrier properties. In inflamed tissue, claudin expression indicates a reduced barrier function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Qutrit Magic State Distillation Tight in Some Directions (United States)

    Dawkins, Hillary; Howard, Mark


    Magic state distillation is a crucial component in the leading approaches to implementing universal fault-tolerant quantum computation, with existing protocols for both qubit and higher dimensional systems. Early work focused on determining the region of distillable states for qubit protocols; yet comparatively little is known about which states can be distilled and with what distillable region for d >2 . Here we focus on d =3 and present new four-qutrit distillation schemes that improve upon the known distillable region, and achieve distillation tight to the boundary of undistillable states for some classes of state. As a consequence of recent results, this implies that there is a family of quantum states that enable universality if and only if they exhibit contextuality with respect to stabilizer measurements. We also identify a new routine whose fixed point is a magic state with maximal sum negativity; i.e., it is maximally nonstablizer in a specific sense.

  18. S0 Tight Loop Studies on ICHIRO 9-Cell Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Fumio [KEK; Konomi, T. [KEK; Saito, Kenji [KEK; Bice, Damon [Fermilab; Crawford, Anthony C. [JLAB; Geng, Rongli [JLAB


    We have continued high gradient R&D of ICHIRO 9-cell cavities at KEK. ICHIRO 9-cell cavity #5 (I9#5) that has no end groups on beam tube to focus on high gradient sent to Jlab as S0 tight loop study. Surface treatments and vertical test were repeated 3 times at Jlab, and then I9#5 sent back to KEK. We also repeated surface treatments and test at KEK. Maximum gradients were 36.5MV/m at Jlab, and 33.7MV/m at KEK so far. Now we are struggling with the puzzle why the results of singles do not work well on 9-cell cavities.

  19. Panspermia in tightly-packed habitable multi-planet systems (United States)

    Veras, D.; Armstrong, D. J.; Schaefer, H.; Gutierrez-Marcos, J. F.; Hollands, M.


    The discovery of multiple planets in the habitable zone of the TRAPPIST-1 system is a watershed in exoplanetary science. As missions such as PLATO extend habitable zone sensitivity out to 1 au, we can expect an increasing number of similarly exciting systems. Consequently, developing analytical techniques to quantify extrasolar intra-system panspermia will become increasingly important. Here, we apply an impulse formalism from Jackson et al. (2014) to determine the asteroid impact characteristics which would be necessary to transport life both inwards and outwards within tightly-packed multi-planet habitable systems. We provide estimates for the dissemination of life within those systems, and assess the prospects for eukaryotic and microbial survival at both impact and in space.

  20. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures (United States)

    Modera, Mark P.; Sherman, Max H.


    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values.

  1. Editorial: 3Rs tightly intertwined to maintain genome stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Mortensen, Uffe H.


    , replication of damaged DNA results in stalled replication forks that await DNA damage repair before replication can be resumed. In turn, the repair of most lesions depends on processes involving DNA synthesis. At the same time, the stalled forks may engage in recombination, either as part of a controlled......DNA recombination, repair and replication are three large and vibrant research fields where each ‘R’ could deserve a series of reviews in its own right. However, as the 3Rs are tightly interwoven processes, one R can often not be fully understood without including the others. For example...... repair process or by accident, just because it can, with the risk of producing genome rearrangements and loss of heterozygosity. The set of reviews presented in this thematic issue ( of FEMSYR has been selected...

  2. Weak matrix elements of kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))


    We present results from the Wilson fermion part of the Grand Challenge'' weak matrix element project. A new procedure for correcting the chiral behavior of {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd}, the K{sup 0}-{bar K}{sup 0} {Beta} parameter,'' is proposed and applied. On our largest lattice (24{sup 3} {times} 40 at {beta} = 6.0), we get {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} = .86 {plus minus} .11 {plus minus} .05, where the first error is statistical and the second is a measure of the systematic errors due to the procedure and to related finite-size effects. Results for the direct K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} amplitude are also presented. There is some evidence for higher order chiral effects which may make these results compatible both with experiment and with the {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} computation. The status of the direct K{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {pi} {sup +} {pi}{sup {minus}} {Delta}I = 1/2 amplitude is then discussed. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad


    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  4. Critical Power in 7-Rod Tight Lattice Bundle (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has recently becomes of great concern. The RMWR is expected to promote the effective utilization of uranium recourse. The RMWR is based on water-cooled reactor technology, with achieved under lower core water volume and water flow rate. In comparison with the current light water reactors whose water-to-fuel volume ratio is about 2-3, in the RMWR, this value is reduced to less than 0.5. Thereby, there is a need to research its cooling characteristics. Experimental research on critical power in tight lattice bundle that simulates the RMWR has been carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The bundle consists one center rod and six peripheral rods. The 7 rods are arranged on a 14.3mm equilateral triangular pitch. Each rod is 13mm in outside diameter. An axial 12-step power distribution is employed to simulate the complicate heating condition in RMWR. Experiments are carried out under G=100-1400kg/m2s, Pex=2-8.5MPa. Effects of mass velocity, inlet temperature, pressure, radial peaking factor and axial peaking factor on critical power and critical quality are discussed. Compared with axial uniform heating condition, the axial non-uniform heating condition causes an obvious decrease in critical quality. Arai correlation, which is the only correlation that has been optimized for tight lattice condition, is verified with the present experimental data. The correlation is found to be able to give reasonable prediction only around RMWR nominal operating condition.

  5. Experiments on Exhaust Noise of Tightly Integrated Propulsion Systems (United States)

    Bridges, James E.; Brown, Clifford A.; Bozak, Richard F.


    A wide-ranging series of tests have been completed that seek to map the effects of installation, including jet by jet interaction effects, on exhaust noise from various nozzles in forward flight. The primary data was far-field acoustic spectral directivity. The goals of the test series were (i) to generate enough data for empirical models of the different effects, and (ii) to provide data for advanced computational noise predictions methods applied to simplified yet realistic configurations. Data is presented that demonstrate several checks on data quality and that provide an overview of trends observed to date. Among the findings presented here: (i) Data was repeatable between jet rigs for single nozzles with and without surfaces to within +/- 0.5 dB. (ii) The presence of a second jet caused a strong reduction of the summed noise in the plane of the two plumes and an increase over the expected source doubling in most other azimuthal planes. (iii) The impact of the second jet was reduced when the jets were unheated. (iv) The impact of adding a second isolated rectangular jet was relatively independent of the nozzle aspect ratio up to aspect ratio 8:1. (v) Forward flight had similar impact on a high aspect ratio (8:1) jet as on an axisymmetric jet, except at the peak noise angle where the impact was less. (vi) The effect of adding a second round jet to a tightly integrated nozzle where the nozzle lip was less than a diameter from the surface was very dependent upon the length of the surface downstream of the nozzle. (vii) When the nozzles were rectangular and tightly integrated with the airframe surface the impact of a second jet was very dependent upon how close together the two jets were. This paper serves as an overview of the test; other papers presented in the same conference will give more detailed analysis of the results.

  6. Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors (United States)

    Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.


    In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe undergoes decoherence can be significantly lower than that of a standard weak measurement. This indicates another advantage of weak-value amplification in improving the performance of parameter estimation. We illustrate the results by an exact numerical simulation of decoherence arising from a bosonic mode and compare it to the first-order analytical result we obtain.

  7. Wigner's quantum phase-space current in weakly-anharmonic weakly-excited two-state systems (United States)

    Kakofengitis, Dimitris; Steuernagel, Ole


    There are no phase-space trajectories for anharmonic quantum systems, but Wigner's phase-space representation of quantum mechanics features Wigner current J . This current reveals fine details of quantum dynamics —finer than is ordinarily thought accessible according to quantum folklore invoking Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Here, we focus on the simplest, most intuitive, and analytically accessible aspects of J. We investigate features of J for bound states of time-reversible, weakly-anharmonic one-dimensional quantum-mechanical systems which are weakly-excited. We establish that weakly-anharmonic potentials can be grouped into three distinct classes: hard, soft, and odd potentials. We stress connections between each other and the harmonic case. We show that their Wigner current fieldline patterns can be characterised by J's discrete stagnation points, how these arise and how a quantum system's dynamics is constrained by the stagnation points' topological charge conservation. We additionally show that quantum dynamics in phase space, in the case of vanishing Planck constant ℏ or vanishing anharmonicity, does not pointwise converge to classical dynamics.

  8. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols


    Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan


    Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define a fourth main type of attacks on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking attacks. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to these attacks, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. Additionally, we generalize Distance Hijacking to Location Hijacking, to which ...

  9. Boundedly UC spaces: characterisations and preservation | Jain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A metric space (X, d) is called a boundedly UC space if every closed and bounded subset of X is a UC space. A metric space (X, d) is called a UC space if each real-valued continuous function on (X, d) is uniformly continuous. In this paper, we study twenty-two equivalent conditions for a metric space to be a boundedly UC ...

  10. Bounded cohomology of discrete groups

    CERN Document Server

    Frigerio, Roberto


    The author manages a near perfect equilibrium between necessary technicalities (always well motivated) and geometric intuition, leading the readers from the first simple definition to the most striking applications of the theory in 13 very pleasant chapters. This book can serve as an ideal textbook for a graduate topics course on the subject and become the much-needed standard reference on Gromov's beautiful theory. -Michelle Bucher The theory of bounded cohomology, introduced by Gromov in the late 1980s, has had powerful applications in geometric group theory and the geometry and topology of manifolds, and has been the topic of active research continuing to this day. This monograph provides a unified, self-contained introduction to the theory and its applications, making it accessible to a student who has completed a first course in algebraic topology and manifold theory. The book can be used as a source for research projects for master's students, as a thorough introduction to the field for graduate student...

  11. Bounded sets in fast complete inductive limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucera


    Full Text Available Let E1⊂E2⊂… be a sequence of locally convex spaces with all identity maps: En→En+1 continuous and E=indlim En fast complete. Then each set bounded in E is also bounded in some En iff for any Banach disk B bounded in E and n∈N, the closure of B⋂En in B is bounded in some Em. This holds, in particular, if all spaces En are webbed.

  12. Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi


    This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according...

  13. Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)


    We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.

  14. A strongly quasiconvex PAC-Bayesian bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiemann, Niklas; Igel, Christian; Wintenberger, Olivier

    We propose a new PAC-Bayesian bound and a way of constructing a hypothesis space, so that the bound is convex in the posterior distribution and also convex in a trade-off parameter between empirical performance of the posterior distribution and its complexity. The complexity is measured by the Ku......We propose a new PAC-Bayesian bound and a way of constructing a hypothesis space, so that the bound is convex in the posterior distribution and also convex in a trade-off parameter between empirical performance of the posterior distribution and its complexity. The complexity is measured...

  15. Pair Interaction Energy Decomposition Analysis for Density Functional Theory and Density-Functional Tight-Binding with an Evaluation of Energy Fluctuations in Molecular Dynamics. (United States)

    Fedorov, Dmitri G; Kitaura, Kazuo


    Pair interaction energy decomposition analysis in the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method is extended to treat density functional theory (DFT) and density-functional tight-binding (DFTB). Fluctuations of energy contributions are obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Interactions at the DFT and DFTB levels are compared to the values obtained with Hartree-Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2), and coupled cluster methods. Hydrogen bonding in water clusters is analyzed. 200 ps NVT molecular dynamics simulations are performed with FMO for two ligands bound to the Trp-cage miniprotein (PDB 1L2Y ); the fluctuations of fragment energies and interactions are analyzed.

  16. sup 2 D NMR study of the dynamics of bound water molecules in dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine-D sub 2 O system at a low water content

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, A; Takizawa, T


    We found two doublet signals A and B in sup 2 D-NMR of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine-D sub 2 O system at a low water content below the temperature of the onset of the main phase transition, i.e. in the beta'-crystalline (L subbeta sub ') phase. The splitting of each doublet becomes minimum at the onset of the transition. The signal A decreases in intensity with a slight increase of its splitting as the temperature increases further, accompanying the marked growth of the signal B in its intensity and splitting. These features of two doublets in the L subbeta sub ' phase and at higher temperatures have never been noticed. The signals A and B were ascribed to the tightly bound water and the loosely bound water, respectively. These assignments were confirmed by the theoretical calculations of the splitting of the doublet A for all possible number of the tightly bound water molecules. (author)

  17. New lower bound for the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne


    We present a new lower bound, the Multiple Cuts Node Duplication Lower Bound, for the undirected Capacitated Arc Routing Problem.We prove that this new bound dominates the existing bounds for the problem. Computational results are also provided.......We present a new lower bound, the Multiple Cuts Node Duplication Lower Bound, for the undirected Capacitated Arc Routing Problem.We prove that this new bound dominates the existing bounds for the problem. Computational results are also provided....

  18. Cyclic homology, tight crossed products, and small stabilizations


    Cortiñas, Guillermo


    In \\verb|arXiv:1212.5901| we associated an algebra $\\Gami(\\fA)$ to every bornological algebra $\\fA$ and an ideal $I_{S(\\fA)}\\triqui\\Gami(\\fA)$ to every symmetric ideal $S\\triqui\\elli$. We showed that $I_{S(\\fA)}$ has $K$-theoretical properties which are similar to those of the usual stabilization with respect to the ideal $J_S\\triqui\\cB$ of the algebra $\\cB$ of bounded operators in Hilbert space which corresponds to $S$ under Calkin's correspondence. In the current article we compute the rela...

  19. Atmospheric inverse modeling with known physical bounds: an example from trace gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Miller


    the relative merits of each. This paper investigates the applicability of several approaches to bounded inverse problems. A common method of data transformations is found to unrealistically skew estimates for the examined example application. The method of Lagrange multipliers and two Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods yield more realistic and accurate results. In general, the examined MCMC approaches produce the most realistic result but can require substantial computational time. Lagrange multipliers offer an appealing option for large, computationally intensive problems when exact uncertainty bounds are less central to the analysis. A synthetic data inversion of US anthropogenic methane emissions illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.

  20. Bounded rationality and learning in complex markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.H.; Barkely Rosser Jr, J.


    This chapter reviews some work on bounded rationality, expectation formation and learning in complex markets, using the familiar demand-supply cobweb model. We emphasize two stories of bounded rationality, one story of adaptive learning and another story of evolutionary selection. According to the

  1. Bounded rationality and learning in complex markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.H.


    This chapter reviews some work on bounded rationality, expectation formation and learning in complex markets, using the familiar demand-supply cobweb model. We emphasize two stories of bounded rationality, one story of adaptive learning and another story of evolutionary selection. According to the

  2. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate


    Bailleul, Ismael


    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  3. Schroedinger upper bounds to semirelativistic eigenvalues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Richard L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lucha, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)


    Problems posed by semirelativistic Hamiltonians of the form H = {radical}(m{sup 2} + p{sup 2}) + V(r) are studied. It is shown that energy upper bounds can be constructed in terms of certain related Schroedinger operators; these bounds include free parameters which can be chosen optimally.

  4. No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex


    We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities...

  5. Nonatomic dual bakery algorithm with bounded tokens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravind, Alex A.; Hesselink, Wim H.

    A simple mutual exclusion algorithm is presented that only uses nonatomic shared variables of bounded size, and that satisfies bounded overtaking. When the shared variables behave atomically, it has the first-come-first-served property (FCFS). Nonatomic access makes information vulnerable. The

  6. Polynomially Bounded Sequences and Polynomial Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okazaki Hiroyuki


    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize polynomially bounded sequences that plays an important role in computational complexity theory. Class P is a fundamental computational complexity class that contains all polynomial-time decision problems [11], [12]. It takes polynomially bounded amount of computation time to solve polynomial-time decision problems by the deterministic Turing machine. Moreover we formalize polynomial sequences [5].

  7. Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Peter


    This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...

  8. On the range of completely bounded maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. Loebl


    Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.

  9. A polynomial lower bound for testing monotonicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Belovs (Aleksandr); Blais, E. (Eric)


    textabstractWe show that every algorithm for testing n-variate Boolean functions for monotonicity has query complexity Ω(n1/4). All previous lower bounds for this problem were designed for nonadaptive algorithms and, as a result, the best previous lower bound for general (possibly adaptive)

  10. Differential Privacy for Relational Algebra: Improving the Sensitivity Bounds via Constraint Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catuscia Palamidessi


    Full Text Available Differential privacy is a modern approach in privacy-preserving data analysis to control the amount of information that can be inferred about an individual by querying a database. The most common techniques are based on the introduction of probabilistic noise, often defined as a Laplacian parametric on the sensitivity of the query. In order to maximize the utility of the query, it is crucial to estimate the sensitivity as precisely as possible. In this paper we consider relational algebra, the classical language for queries in relational databases, and we propose a method for computing a bound on the sensitivity of queries in an intuitive and compositional way. We use constraint-based techniques to accumulate the information on the possible values for attributes provided by the various components of the query, thus making it possible to compute tight bounds on the sensitivity.

  11. Bound states and perfect transmission scattering states in P T -symmetric open quantum systems (United States)

    Garmon, Savannah; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna; Hatano, Naomichi


    We study the point spectrum and transmission scattering spectrum in P T -symmetric open quantum systems containing balanced regions of energy amplification and attenuation, using tight-binding chains with matching sink and source sites as prototype models. For a given system geometry, we write the boundary conditions that permit scattering state and bound state solutions with wave functions that likewise satisfy P T symmetry; we further demonstrate the P T -symmetric scattering states give rise to perfect transmission through the scattering region. We also discuss bound states in continuum and other spectral effects that may be discovered in P T -symmetric open quantum systems. Finally we discuss the potential for experimental realization of our models in systems containing whispering gallery mode resonators with balanced loss and gain. S. G. acknowledges support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  12. From structure to spectra. Tight-binding theory of InGaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, Elias


    Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots have raised considerable interest in the last decades due to a multitude of possible applications ranging from carrier storage to light emitters, lasers and future quantum communication devices. Quantum dots offer unique electronic and photonic properties due to the three-dimensional confinement of charge carriers and the coupling to a quasi-continuum of wetting layer and barrier states. In this work we investigate the electronic structure of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As quantum dots embedded in GaAs, considering realistic quantum dot geometries and Indium concentrations. We utilize a next-neighbour sp{sup 3}s{sup *} tight-binding model for the calculation of electronic single-particle energies and wave functions bound in the nanostructure and account for strain arising from lattice mismatch of the constituent materials atomistically. With the calculated single-particle wave functions we derive Coulomb matrix elements and include them into a configuration interaction treatment, yielding many-particle states and energies of the interacting many-carrier system. Also from the tight-binding single-particle wave functions we derive dipole transition strengths to obtain optical quantum dot emission and absorption spectra with Fermi's golden rule. Excitonic fine-structure splittings are obtained, which play an important role for future quantum cryptography and quantum communication devices for entanglement swapping or quantum repeating. For light emission suited for long-range quantum-crypted fiber communication InAs quantum dots are embedded in an In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As strain-reducing layer, shifting the emission wavelength into telecom low-absorption windows. We investigate the influence of the strain-reducing layer Indium concentration on the excitonic finestructure splitting. The fine-structure splitting is found to saturate and, in some cases, even reduce with strain-reducing layer Indium concentration, a result being

  13. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)


    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  14. Weak isometries of the Boolean cube


    Winter, S De; Korb, M


    Consider the metric space $\\mathcal{C}$ consisting of the $n$-dimensional Boolean cube equipped with the Hamming distance. A weak isometry of $\\mathcal{C}$ is a permutation of $\\mathcal{C}$ preserving a given subset of Hamming distances. In \\cite{Krasin} Krasin showed that in most cases preserving a single Hamming distance forces a weak isometry to be an isometry. In this article we study those weak isometries that are not automatically an isometry, providing a complete classification of weak...

  15. Pseudo-Weak-R0 Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Lin Liu


    Full Text Available A positive answer to the open problem of Iorgulescu on extending weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras to the noncommutative forms is given. We show that pseudo-weak-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-IMTL algebras and that pseudo-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-NM algebras. Some properties, the noncommutative forms of the properties in weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras, are investigated. The simplified axiom systems of pseudo-weak-R0 algebras and pseudo-R0 algebras are obtained.

  16. Development of tight junctions between odontoblasts in early dentinogenesis as revealed by freeze-fracture


    Arana-Chavez, V.E.; Katchburian, Eduardo


    Background: Mature odontoblasts possess junctional structures constituted by adherens, gap, and tight junctions. Although adherens and gap junctions appear early between odontoblasts, there is no information on the appearance and development of tight junctions between odontoblasts. in this study, we have examined freeze-fracture replicas of early dentinogenesis to study the development of tight junctions between odontoblasts and to determine whether these junctions are of zonular or macular t...

  17. Larazotide acetate promotes tight junction assembly in epithelial cells. (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shobha; Tripathi, Amit; Tamiz, Amir P; Alkan, Sefik S; Pandey, Niranjan B


    Tight junctions (TJ) control paracellular permeability and apical-basolateral polarity of epithelial cells. Dysregulated permeability is associated with pathological conditions, such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. TJ formation is dependent on E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and actin rearrangement, and is regulated by the Rho family GTPase and aPKC signaling pathways. Larazotide acetate, an 8-mer peptide and TJ modulator, inhibits TJ disassembly and dysfunction caused by endogenous and exogenous stimuli in intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we examined the effect of larazotide acetate on de novo TJ assembly using 2 different model systems. In MDCK cells, larazotide acetate promoted TJ assembly in a calcium switch assay. Larazotide acetate also promoted actin rearrangement, and junctional distribution of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudins, and E-cadherin. Larazotide acetate promoted TJ maturation and decreased paracellular permeability in "leaky" Caco-2 cells. Taken together, our data indicate that larazotide acetate enhances TJ assembly and barrier function by promoting actin rearrangement and redistribution of TJ and AJ proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Claudin-21 Has a Paracellular Channel Role at Tight Junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Tanaka, Hiroo


    Claudin protein family members, of which there are at least 27 in humans and mice, polymerize to form tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells, in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. Claudins have a paracellular barrier function. In addition, certain claudins function as paracellular channels for small ions and/or solutes by forming selective pores at the TJs, although the specific claudins involved and their functional mechanisms are still in question. Here we show for the first time that claudin-21, which is more highly expressed in the embryonic than the postnatal stages, acts as a paracellular channel for small cations, such as Na+, similar to the typical channel-type claudins claudin-2 and -15. Claudin-21 also allows the paracellular passage of larger solutes. Our findings suggest that claudin-21-based TJs allow the passage of small and larger solutes by both paracellular channel-based and some additional mechanisms. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. The role of tight junctions in mammary gland function. (United States)

    Stelwagen, Kerst; Singh, Kuljeet


    Tight junctions (TJ) are cellular structures that facilitate cell-cell communication and are important in maintaining the three-dimensional structure of epithelia. It is only during the last two decades that the molecular make-up of TJ is becoming unravelled, with two major transmembrane-spanning structural protein families, called occludin and claudins, being the true constituents of the TJ. These TJ proteins are linked via specific scaffolding proteins to the cell's cytoskeleton. In the mammary gland TJ between adjacent secretory epithelial cells are formed during lactogenesis and are instrumental in establishing and maintaining milk synthesis and secretion, whereas TJ integrity is compromised during mammary involution and also as result of mastitis and periods of mammary inflamation (including mastitis). They prevent the paracellular transport of ions and small molecules between the blood and milk compartments. Formation of intact TJ at the start of lactation is important for the establishment of the lactation. Conversely, loss of TJ integrity has been linked to reduced milk secretion and mammary function and increased paracellular transport of blood components into the milk and vice versa. In addition to acting as a paracellular barrier, the TJ is increasingly linked to playing an active role in intracellular signalling. This review focusses on the role of TJ in mammary function of the normal, non-malignant mammary gland, predominantly in ruminants, the major dairy producing species.

  20. Tight-binding model for materials at mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    TBM3 is an open source package for computational simulations of quantum materials at multiple scales in length and time. The project originated to investigate the multiferroic behavior in transition-metal oxide heterostructures. The framework has also been designed to study emergent phemona in other quantum materials like 2-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, graphene, topological insulators, and skyrmion in materials, etc. In the long term, we will enable the package for transport and time-resolved phenomena. TBM3 is currently a C++ based numerical tool package and framework for the design and construction of any kind of lattice structures with multi-orbital and spin degrees of freedom. The fortran based portion of the package will be added in the near future. The design of TBM3 is in a highly flexible and reusable framework and the tight-binding parameters can be modeled or informed by DFT calculations. It is currently GPU enabled and feature of CPU enabled MPI will be added in the future.

  1. Tight junction proteins and perineurial cells in neurofibromas. (United States)

    Pummi, Kati P; Aho, Heikki J; Laato, Matti K; Peltonen, Juha T K; Peltonen, Sirkku A


    Cutaneous neurofibromas consist of axonal processes, Schwann cells, fibroblasts, perineurial cells, mast cells, and abundant extracellular matrix. The distribution and role of perineurial cells in neurofibromas has been uncertain, partly because there has not been a specific immunohistochemical marker for perineurial cells. In this study, tight junctions (TJs) of 16 neurofibromas from 12 patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) were analyzed using electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western transfer analysis. Cell-cell contacts with typical ultrastructural morphology of TJs were seen between adjacent perineurial cells surrounding the small nerves and between contacting perineurial cell processes embedded in tumor stroma. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of claudin-1, claudin-3, and ZO-1 in the intercellular junctions of a subpopulation of tumor cells. Occludin was present mainly in perineurium and claudin-5 localized to the blood vessels. Double immunolabelings were used to identify the cell types expressing claudin-1. The results showed that claudin-1 positive cells were also positive for type IV collagen and epithelial membrane antigen but not for S-100 protein. This labeling pattern is consistent with perineurial cell phenotype. Using claudin-1 as a marker, our results showed that clusters of perineurial cells are distributed around the rudimentary nerves within cutaneous neurofibromas and at the periphery of some neurofibromas.

  2. A tight-binding study of single-atom transistors. (United States)

    Ryu, Hoon; Lee, Sunhee; Fuechsle, Martin; Miwa, Jill A; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Simmons, Michelle Y; Klimeck, Gerhard


    A detailed theoretical study of the electronic and transport properties of a single atom transistor, where a single phosphorus atom is embedded within a single crystal transistor architecture, is presented. Using a recently reported deterministic single-atom transistor as a reference, the electronic structure of the device is represented atomistically with a tight-binding model, and the channel modulation is simulated self-consistently with a Thomas-Fermi method. The multi-scale modeling approach used allows confirmation of the charging energy of the one-electron donor charge state and explains how the electrostatic environments of the device electrodes affects the donor confinement potential and hence extent in gate voltage of the two-electron charge state. Importantly, whilst devices are relatively insensitive to dopant ordering in the highly doped leads, a ∼1% variation of the charging energy is observed when a dopant is moved just one lattice spacing within the device. The multi-scale modeling method presented here lays a strong foundation for the understanding of single-atom device structures: essential for both classical and quantum information processing. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Continuity Results and Error Bounds on Pseudomonotone Vector Variational Inequalities via Scalarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zuo


    Full Text Available Continuity (both lower and upper semicontinuities results of the Pareto/efficient solution mapping for a parametric vector variational inequality with a polyhedral constraint set are established via scalarization approaches, within the framework of strict pseudomonotonicity assumptions. As a direct application, the continuity of the solution mapping to a parametric weak Minty vector variational inequality is also discussed. Furthermore, error bounds for the weak vector variational inequality in terms of two known regularized gap functions are also obtained, under strong pseudomonotonicity assumptions.

  4. Wedge-Local Fields in Integrable Models with Bound States II: Diagonal S-Matrix (United States)

    Cadamuro, Daniela; Tanimoto, Yoh


    We construct candidates for observables in wedge-shaped regions for a class of 1+1-dimensional integrable quantum field theories with bound states whose S-matrix is diagonal, by extending our previous methods for scalar S-matrices. Examples include the Z(N)-Ising models, the A_N-affine Toda field theories and some S-matrices with CDD factors. We show that these candidate operators which are associated with elementary particles commute weakly on a dense domain. For the models with two species of particles, we can take a larger domain of weak commutativity and give an argument for the Reeh-Schlieder property.

  5. Appearance of three dimensionality in wall-bounded MHD flows. (United States)

    Klein, R; Pothérat, A


    We characterize experimentally how three dimensionality appears in wall-bounded magnetohydrodynamic flows. Our analysis of the breakdown of a square array of vortices in a cubic container singles out two mechanisms: first, a form of three dimensionality we call weak appears through differential rotation in individual 2D vortices. Second, strong three dimensionality characterized by vortex disruption leads on the one hand to a remarkable vortex array that is both steady and 3D, and, on the other hand, to scale-selective breakdown of two dimensionality in chaotic flows. Most importantly, these phenomena are entirely driven by inertia, so they are relevant to other flows with a tendency to two dimensionality, such as rotating, or stratified flows in geophysics and astrophysics.

  6. Positive blowup solutions for some fractional systems in bounded domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Alsaedi


    Full Text Available Using some potential theory tools and the Schauder fixed point theorem, we prove the existence of a positive continuous weak solution for the fractional system $$ ( -Delta ^{alpha/2}u+ p(xu^{sigma }v^{r}=0,quad (-Delta^{alpha/2}v+q(xu^{s}v^{eta }=0 $$ in a bounded $ C^{1,1}$-domain D in $mathbb{R}^{n}$ $(ngeq 3$, subject to Dirichlet conditions, where $0

  7. Weak Gravitational Lensing by Galaxies - Implications for Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Brainerd, T. G.; Blandford, R. D.; Smail, I.


    A detection of weak, tangential distortion of the images of cosmologically distant, faint galaxies caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies is reported. The imaging data consist of a 24 ksec integration in Gunn-r of a single blank field obtained with the COSMIC imaging spectrograph on the Hale 5-m telescope. The orientations of faint (23 right > = 0.011 +/- 0.006 (95% confidence bounds) is found for the faint galaxies. The variation of right > with both differential lens-source separation and the maximum radius of the annulus is investigated. From Monte Carlo simulations of galaxy-galaxy lensing that incorporate measured properties of local galaxies and modest extrapolations of the observed redshift distribution of faint galaxies, formal best-fit parameters for the dark matter halos associated with the lens galaxies are obtained. For L(*) galaxies a characteristic circular velocity of V(*) ~ 220+/- 80 km/s and outer scale radius of s(*) >= 100h(-1) kpc is found. These parameters imply a typical mass for the lens galaxies within 100 h(-1) kpc of order 1.0(+1.2}_{-0.5) x 10(12) h(-1) M_sun (90% confidence bounds), in good agreement with recent dynamical estimates of the masses of local spiral galaxies

  8. Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniel, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  9. Match-bounded String Rewriting Systems (United States)

    Geser, Alfons; Hofbauer, Dieter; Waldmann, Johannes


    We introduce a new class of automated proof methods for the termination of rewriting systems on strings. The basis of all these methods is to show that rewriting preserves regular languages. To this end, letters are annotated with natural numbers, called match heights. If the minimal height of all positions in a redex is h+1 then every position in the reduct will get height h+1. In a match-bounded system, match heights are globally bounded. Using recent results on deleting systems, we prove that rewriting by a match-bounded system preserves regular languages. Hence it is decidable whether a given rewriting system has a given match bound. We also provide a sufficient criterion for the abence of a match-bound. The problem of existence of a match-bound is still open. Match-boundedness for all strings can be used as an automated criterion for termination, for match-bounded systems are terminating. This criterion can be strengthened by requiring match-boundedness only for a restricted set of strings, for instance the set of right hand sides of forward closures.

  10. Improved bounds on the epidemic threshold of exact SIS models on complex networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ruhi, Navid Azizan


    The SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic model on an arbitrary network, without making approximations, is a 2n-state Markov chain with a unique absorbing state (the all-healthy state). This makes analysis of the SIS model and, in particular, determining the threshold of epidemic spread quite challenging. It has been shown that the exact marginal probabilities of infection can be upper bounded by an n-dimensional linear time-invariant system, a consequence of which is that the Markov chain is “fast-mixing” when the LTI system is stable, i.e. when equation (where β is the infection rate per link, δ is the recovery rate, and λmax(A) is the largest eigenvalue of the network\\'s adjacency matrix). This well-known threshold has been recently shown not to be tight in several cases, such as in a star network. In this paper, we provide tighter upper bounds on the exact marginal probabilities of infection, by also taking pairwise infection probabilities into account. Based on this improved bound, we derive tighter eigenvalue conditions that guarantee fast mixing (i.e., logarithmic mixing time) of the chain. We demonstrate the improvement of the threshold condition by comparing the new bound with the known one on various networks with various epidemic parameters.

  11. Weak solutions to the 3D steady flow of a compressible reactive mixture (United States)

    Guo, Boling; Xie, Binqiang; Xi, Xiaoyu


    The existence of weak solutions to the steady compressible, multicomponent, chemically reacting gas is established without any restriction on the size of the data in the bounded 3D domain with slip boundary conditions. We extend the result in Zatorska (2011 Nonlinearity 24 3267–78) for the adiabatic ratio γ>\\frac{7}{3} to γ>2 . Our proof relies upon the weighted estimates of pressure and kinetic energy.

  12. A classification of weakly acyclic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apt, K.R.; Simon, S.


    Weakly acyclic games form a natural generalization of the class of games that have the finite improvement property (FIP). In such games one stipulates that from any initial joint strategy some finite improvement path exists. We classify weakly acyclic games using the concept of a scheduler recently

  13. Revisiting Weak Simulation for Substochastic Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, David N.; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun


    The spectrum of branching-time relations for probabilistic systems has been investigated thoroughly by Baier, Hermanns, Katoen and Wolf (2003, 2005), including weak simulation for systems involving substochastic distributions. Weak simulation was proven to be sound w.r.t. the liveness fragment...

  14. A note on Weak Stability Boundaries


    García González, Fernando; Gómez Muntané, Gerard


    This paper is devoted to clarify the algorithmic definition of the weak stability boundary in the framework of the planar Restricted Three Body Problem. The role of the invariant hyperbolic manifolds associated to the central manifolds of the libration points L1 and L2, as boundary of the weak stability region, is shown Peer Reviewed

  15. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence (United States)

    Fitch, V. L.


    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  16. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.


    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  17. Spin Seebeck effect in a weak ferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arboleda, Juan David, E-mail:; Arnache Olmos, Oscar [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Aguirre, Myriam Haydee; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Ramos, Rafael [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Anadon, Alberto [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)


    We report the observation of room temperature spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a weak ferromagnetic normal spinel Zinc Ferrite (ZFO). Despite the weak ferromagnetic behavior, the measurements of the SSE in ZFO show a thermoelectric voltage response comparable with the reported values for other ferromagnetic materials. Our results suggest that SSE might possibly originate from the surface magnetization of the ZFO.

  18. On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel B.; Haitjema, Henk; Kauffman, Leon J.


    Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.

  19. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, J.; Hermans, G.


    When critically ill, a severe weakness of the limbs and respiratory muscles often develops with a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), a condition vaguely termed intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). Many of these patients have serious nerve and muscle injury. This syndrome is

  20. NES consensus redefined by structures of PKI-type and Rev-type nuclear export signals bound to CRM1. (United States)

    Güttler, Thomas; Madl, Tobias; Neumann, Piotr; Deichsel, Danilo; Corsini, Lorenzo; Monecke, Thomas; Ficner, Ralf; Sattler, Michael; Görlich, Dirk


    Classic nuclear export signals (NESs) confer CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Here we present crystal structures of the RanGTP-CRM1 complex alone and bound to the prototypic PKI or HIV-1 Rev NESs. These NESs differ markedly in the spacing of their key hydrophobic (Φ) residues, yet CRM1 recognizes them with the same rigid set of five Φ pockets. The different Φ spacings are compensated for by different conformations of the bound NESs: in the case of PKI, an α-helical conformation, and in the case of Rev, an extended conformation with a critical proline docking into a Φ pocket. NMR analyses of CRM1-bound and CRM1-free PKI NES suggest that CRM1 selects NES conformers that pre-exist in solution. Our data lead to a new structure-based NES consensus, and explain why NESs differ in their affinities for CRM1 and why supraphysiological NESs bind the exportin so tightly.

  1. Lability of copper bound to humic acid


    Mao, Lingchen; Young, Scott D.; Bailey, Liz


    Geochemical speciation models generally include the assumption that all metal bound to humic acid and fulvic acid (HA, FA) is labile. However, in the current study, we determined the presence of a soluble ‘non-labile’ Cu fraction bound to HA extracted from grassland and peat soils. This was quantified by determining isotopically-exchangeable Cu (E-value) and EDTA-extraction of HA-bound Cu, separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and assayed by coupled ICP-MS. Evidence of time-depend...

  2. Positivity bounds on double parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas


    Double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is described in terms of double parton distributions. We derive bounds on these distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. These bounds constrain the size of the polarized distributions and can for instance be used to set upper limits on the effects of spin correlations in double hard scattering. We show that the bounds are stable under leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales.

  3. Lower bound for the nuclear kinetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehesa, J.S. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Galvez, F.J. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica)


    We argue that the kinetic energy of a many-fermion system is bounded from below by Kqsup(-2/3)A sup(5/3) / , with K = 0.565 where q is the number of spin states available to each particle and sup(1/2) is the root mean square radius of the single-particle density. A simple lower bound for the nuclear kinetic energy is found. Numerical values of the bound for several nuclei are shown, and a comparison with some self-consistent calculations and some pseudo-empirical values is made.

  4. Continuous bounded cohomology of locally compact groups

    CERN Document Server


    Recent research has repeatedly led to connections between important rigidity questions and bounded cohomology. However, the latter has remained by and large intractable. This monograph introduces the functorial study of the continuous bounded cohomology for topological groups, with coefficients in Banach modules. The powerful techniques of this more general theory have successfully solved a number of the original problems in bounded cohomology. As applications, one obtains, in particular, rigidity results for actions on the circle, for representations on complex hyperbolic spaces and on Teichmüller spaces. A special effort has been made to provide detailed proofs or references in quite some generality.

  5. Factorization of weakly compact operators between Banach spaces and Fréchet or (LB)-spaces


    Bonet Solves, José Antonio; Wright, J. D. Maitland


    In this note we show that weakly compact operators from a Banach space X into a complete (LB)-space E need not factorize through a reflexive Banach space. If E is a Fréchet space, then weakly compact operators from a Banach space X into E factorize through a reflexive Banach space. The factorization of operators from a Fréchet or a complete (LB)-space into a Banach space mapping bounded sets into relatively weakly compact sets is also investigated. MEC and FEDER Project MTM2010-15200 ...

  6. Persisting weakness after withdrawal of a statin. (United States)

    Mygland, Åse; Ljøstad, Unn; Krossnes, Bård Kronen


    An 81-year-old woman treated with simvastatin for several years followed by atorvastatin for about 1 year presented with fatigue, weakness and unsteady gait. The finding of elevated creatine kinase (CK) and symmetric muscle weakness around shoulders and hips led to suspicion of a toxic statin-associated myopathy. Atorvastatin was withdrawn, but her weakness persisted. Owing to persisting weakness, an autoimmune myopathy (myositis) was suspected, but initially disregarded since a muscle biopsy showed necrotic muscle fibres without inflammatory cell infiltrates and myositis-specific autoantibodies were absent. After 18 months with slowly progressive weakness and increasing CK values, awareness of new knowledge about autoimmunity as a cause of necrotic myopathy, led to a successful treatment trial with intravenous immunoglobulines, followed by steroids and metothrexate. Antibodies to the target enzyme of statins (HMGCR (3-hydroksy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase)) were detected in her serum, and she was diagnosed with autoimmune necrotic myositis probably triggered by atorvastatin.

  7. NY-ESO-1 expression is tightly linked to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer. (United States)

    Grupp, Katharina; Ospina-Klinck, Daniel; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Koop, Christina; Wilczak, Waldemar; Adam, Meike; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Izbicki, Jakob Robert; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Steurer, Stefan; Schlomm, Thorsten; Minner, Sarah; Quaas, Alexander


    NY-ESO-1 has been suggested as therapeutic cancer vaccine in prostate cancer. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship of NY-ESO-1 with tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, and molecular subgroups in hormone-naive prostate cancers. NY-ESO-1 immunohistochemistry was analyzed on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancer samples. Results were compared to clinically follow-up data, ERG status, and deletions on PTEN, 3p13, 5q21, and 6q15. NY-ESO-1 expression was absent in benign prostate glands. In prostate cancer, NY-ESO-1 positivity was found 8.8% of our 8,761 interpretable tumors including 5.8% with weak, 2.5% with moderate, and 0.5% with strong expression. There was a threefold higher rate of NY-ESO-1 expression in ERG fusion positive tumors than in ERG negative cancers (P ESO-1 expression was associated with early biochemical recurrence (P = 0.0002) and high Gleason grade (P ESO-1 expression was also linked to PTEN (P = 0.0012) and 6q15 deletions (P = 0.0005). Our observations indicate a tight link of NY-ESO-1 expression to ERG activation and (to a lesser extent) PTEN- and 6q15-deletions in prostate cancer. The impact of these interactions on the likelihood of response to immunotherapy is unclear. The prognostic impact of NY-ESO-1 expression is little and not independent of histologic variables. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of spinal deformities in the tight-skin mouse (United States)

    Li, Bing; Urban, Jill PG; Yu, Jing


    Tight-skin (TSK) mice are commonly used as an animal model to study the pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome (MFS), but little is known of their skeletal phenotype and in particular of the development of the spinal deformities, common in MFS. Here we examined growth of the axial skeletons of TSK and wild-type(B6) mice during their period of rapid growth. The whole bodies of mice, 4–12 weeks of age, were scanned after sacrifice, by micro-computed tomography (microCT). We reconstructed three-dimensional models of the spine and ribs, and measured vertebral body heights and rib lengths using the Mac-based image-processing software “OsiriX”. Although the TSK mice were smaller than the B6 mice at 4 weeks, they experienced an early growth spurt and by 8 weeks the height, but not the width, of the vertebral body was significantly greater in the TSK mice than the B6 mice. Measurement of the angles of scoliotic and kyphotic curves post-mortem in the mice was problematic, hence we measured changes that develop in skeletal elements in these disorders. As a marker of kyphosis, we measured anterior wedging of the vertebral bodies; as a marker for scoliosis we measured asymmetries in rib length. We found, unlike in the B6 mice where the pattern was diffuse, wedging in TSK mice was directly related to spinal level and peaked steeply at the thoracolumbar junction. There was also significant asymmetry in length of the ribs in the TSK mice, but not in the B6 mice. The TSK mice thus appear to exhibit spinal deformities seen in MFS and could be a useful model for gaining understanding of the mechanisms of development of scoliosis and kyphosis in this disorder. PMID:28944086

  9. Gonadotropins regulate rat testicular tight junctions in vivo. (United States)

    McCabe, Mark J; Tarulli, Gerard A; Meachem, Sarah J; Robertson, David M; Smooker, Peter M; Stanton, Peter G


    Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) are an essential component of the blood-testis barrier required for spermatogenesis; however, the role of gonadotropins in their maintenance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin suppression and short-term replacement on TJ function and TJ protein (occludin and claudin-11) expression and localization, in an adult rat model in vivo. Rats (n = 10/group) received the GnRH antagonist, acyline, for 7 wk to suppress gonadotropins. Three groups then received for 7 d: 1) human recombinant FSH, 2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and rat FSH antibody (to study testicular androgen stimulation alone), and 3) hCG alone (to study testicular androgen and pituitary FSH production). TJ proteins were assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, whereas TJ function was assessed with a biotin permeation tracer. Acyline treatment significantly reduced testis weights, serum androgens, LH and FSH, and adluminal germ cells (pachytene spermatocyte, round and elongating spermatids). In contrast to controls, acyline induced seminiferous tubule permeability to biotin, loss of tubule lumens, and loss of occludin, but redistribution of claudin-11, immunostaining. Short-term hormone replacement stimulated significant recoveries in adluminal germ cell numbers. In hCG +/- FSH antibody-treated rats, occludin and claudin-11 protein relocalized at the TJ, but such relocalization was minimal with FSH alone. Tubule lumens also reappeared, but most tubules remained permeable to biotin tracer, despite the presence of occludin. It is concluded that gonadotropins maintain Sertoli cell TJs in the adult rat via a mechanism that includes the localization of occludin and claudin-11 at functional TJs.

  10. Urothelial Tight Junction Barrier Dysfunction Sensitizes Bladder Afferents (United States)

    Rued, Anna C.; Taiclet, Stefanie N.; Birder, Lori A.; Kullmann, F. Aura


    Abstract Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic voiding disorder that presents with pain in the urinary bladder and surrounding pelvic region. A growing body of evidence suggests that an increase in the permeability of the urothelium, the epithelial barrier that lines the interior of the bladder, contributes to the symptoms of IC/BPS. To examine the consequence of increased urothelial permeability on pelvic pain and afferent excitability, we overexpressed in the urothelium claudin 2 (Cldn2), a tight junction (TJ)-associated protein whose message is significantly upregulated in biopsies of IC/BPS patients. Consistent with the presence of bladder-derived pain, rats overexpressing Cldn2 showed hypersensitivity to von Frey filaments applied to the pelvic region. Overexpression of Cldn2 increased the expression of c-Fos and promoted the activation of ERK1/2 in spinal cord segments receiving bladder input, which we conceive is the result of noxious stimulation of afferent pathways. To determine whether the mechanical allodynia observed in rats with reduced urothelial barrier function results from altered afferent activity, we examined the firing of acutely isolated bladder sensory neurons. In patch-clamp recordings, about 30% of the bladder sensory neurons from rats transduced with Cldn2, but not controls transduced with GFP, displayed spontaneous activity. Furthermore, bladder sensory neurons with tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) action potentials from rats transduced with Cldn2 showed hyperexcitability in response to suprathreshold electrical stimulation. These findings suggest that as a result of a leaky urothelium, the diffusion of urinary solutes through the urothelial barrier sensitizes bladders afferents, promoting voiding at low filling volumes and pain. PMID:28560313

  11. Redshift-space limits of bound structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duenner, Rolando; Reisenegger, Andreas; Meza, Andres; Araya, Pablo A.; Quintana, Hernan


    An exponentially expanding Universe, possibly governed by a cosmological constant, forces gravitationally bound structures to become more and more isolated, eventually becoming causally disconnected from each other and forming so-called 'island universes'. This new scenario reformulates the question

  12. Rational design of amyloid beta peptide-binding proteins: pseudo-Abeta beta-sheet surface presented in green fluorescent protein binds tightly and preferentially to structured Abeta. (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Ohta, Kenichi; Mihara, Hisakazu


    Some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease are caused by protein misfolding. In AD, amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) is thought to be a toxic agent by self-assembling into a variety of aggregates involving soluble oligomeric intermediates and amyloid fibrils. Here, we have designed several green fluorescent protein (GFP) variants that contain pseudo-Abeta beta-sheet surfaces and evaluated their abilities to bind to Abeta and inhibit Abeta oligomerization. Two GFP variants P13H and AP93Q bound tightly to Abeta, K(d) = 260 nM and K(d) = 420 nM, respectively. Moreover, P13H and AP93Q were capable of efficiently suppressing the generation of toxic Abeta oligomers as shown by a cell viability assay. By combining the P13H and AP93Q mutations, a super variant SFAB4 comprising four strands of Abeta-derived sequences was designed and bound more tightly to Abeta (K(d) = 100 nM) than those having only two pseudo-Abeta strands. The SFAB4 protein preferentially recognized the soluble oligomeric intermediates of Abeta more than both unstructured monomer and mature amyloid fibrils. Thus, the design strategy for embedding pseudo-Abeta beta-sheet structures onto a protein surface arranged in the beta-barrel structure is useful to construct molecules capable of binding tightly to Abeta and inhibiting its aggregation. This strategy may provide implication for the diagnostic and therapeutic development in the treatment of AD. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nayeem


    Full Text Available This paper is an exploration of the survival strategies of the Bangladeshi Diaspora in Malaysia. To cope with the realities, Bangladeshi migrants develop different forms of survival strategies. As a result intra and inter-ethnic strong and weak ties are formed in the receiving country. Empirical analysis depicts that respondents with weak ties have higher income mobility than those with strong ties. It also demonstrates that the Bangladeshi migrants of the study areas do not restrict themselves only to their close social networks; rather they develop distant networks for higher social mobility. Or in other words, though the ideal socio-cultural model emphasizes community cohesion (something that can be conceptualized as an example of a tightly structured social system, the actual behavior of the Bangladeshi migrants indicates a loosely or disintegrated social system. Migrant's embeddedness in the ongoing social relations and power structures regulates the nature and strength of these ties.

  14. Weak convergence of the function-indexed integrated periodogram for infinite variance processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Can, Umut; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Samorodnitsky, Gennady


    ), entropy conditions are needed for α ∈ [1, 2) to ensure the tightness of the sequence of integrated periodograms indexed by functions. The results of this paper are of additional interest since they provide limit results for infinite mean random quadratic forms with particular Toeplitz coefficient matrices.......In this paper, we study the weak convergence of the integrated periodogram indexed by classes of functions for linear processes with symmetric α-stable innovations. Under suitable summability conditions on the series of the Fourier coefficients of the index functions, we show that the weak limits...... constitute α-stable processes which have representations as infinite Fourier series with i.i.d. α-stable coefficients. The cases α ∈ (0, 1) and α ∈ [1, 2) are dealt with by rather different methods and under different assumptions on the classes of functions. For example, in contrast to the case α ∈ (0, 1...

  15. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris


    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  16. Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter


    Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue


    The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound states. We derive pr...

  17. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.


    Dawson, D W; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R K


    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...

  18. Dynamic optimization problems with bounded terminal conditions (United States)

    Lee, A. Y.


    Bounded terminal conditions of nonlinear optimization problems are converted to equality terminal conditions via Valentine's device. In so doing, additional unknown parameters are introduced into the problem. The transformed problems can still be easily solved using the sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) via a simple augmentation of the unknown parameter vector pi. Three example problems with bounded terminal conditions are solved to verify this technique.

  19. Tightness of the thermal envelope of office and educational buildings; Klimaskaermens taethed i kontor- og undervisningsbygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsoee, N.C. (SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)); Radisch, N.H.; Nickel, J.; Treldal, J. (Ramboell Danmark A/S, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); Bundesen, E.W.; Nielsen, Carsten (DanEjendomme, Hellerup (Denmark))


    In 2006 tightening of the energy regulations in the Danish Building Regulations were introduced including requirements regarding the tightness of the building envelope. The requirements are, with minor changes, continued in the current Building Regulations, BR10. During the past few years experience has been gained regarding both the actual execution of air tightness measurements and solutions that will lead to more air tight building envelopes. Experiences, however, are primarily related to single family houses. The report presents results of measurements in large buildings and discusses reasons for lack of knowledge and experience on the tightness of the building envelope in large buildings. Apparently, there is a need for dissemination of knowledge on the importance of a tight building envelope both in terms of energy consumption and indoor climate and in terms of the difficulties and costs associated with repairing leaks in a completed envelope. Air tightness must be brought into focus at an early stage in the planning process, and during the construction phase air tightness measurements should be performed, e.g. on facade sections or in parts of the building. The project team has attended a number of measurements in large buildings and further gained access to results of a large number of measurements. In summary, the results show that it is possible to achieve the required tightness, and in most buildings the results are better than the requirement of a maximum of 1.5 l/s per m{sub 2}. (Author)

  20. Tightness of M-estimators for multiple linear regression in time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent

    We show tightness of a general M-estimator for multiple linear regression in time series. The positive criterion function for the M-estimator is assumed lower semi-continuous and sufficiently large for large argument: Particular cases are the Huber-skip and quantile regression. Tightness requires...

  1. Intestinal epithelial barrier function and tight junction proteins with heat and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokladny, Karol; Zuhl, Micah N; Moseley, Pope L


    (passive hyperthermia) heat stress on tight junction barrier function in in vitro and in vivo (animals and humans) models. Our secondary focus is to review changes in tight junction proteins in response to exercise or hyperthermic conditions. Finally, we discuss some pharmacological or nutritional...

  2. Regulation of testicular tight junctions by gonadotrophins in the adult Djungarian hamster in vivo. (United States)

    Tarulli, Gerard A; Meachem, Sarah J; Schlatt, Stefan; Stanton, Peter G


    This study aimed to assess the effect of gonadotrophin suppression and FSH replacement on testicular tight junction dynamics and blood-testis barrier (BTB) organisation in vivo, utilising the seasonal breeding Djungarian hamster. Confocal immunohistology was used to assess the cellular organisation of tight junction proteins and real-time PCR to quantify tight junction mRNA. The effect of tight junction protein organisation on the BTB permeability was also investigated using a biotin-linked tracer. Tight junction protein (claudin-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-A and occludin) localisation was present but disorganised after gonadotrophin suppression, while mRNA levels (claudin-11, claudin-3 and occludin) were significantly (two- to threefold) increased. By contrast, both protein localisation and mRNA levels for the adaptor protein zona occludens-1 decreased after gonadotrophin suppression. FSH replacement induced a rapid reorganisation of tight junction protein localisation. The functionality of the BTB (as inferred by biotin tracer permeation) was found to be strongly associated with the organisation and localisation of claudin-11. Surprisingly, JAM-A was also recognised on spermatogonia, suggesting an additional novel role for this protein in trans-epithelial migration of germ cells across the BTB. It is concluded that gonadotrophin regulation of tight junction proteins forming the BTB occurs primarily at the level of protein organisation and not gene transcription in this species, and that immunolocalisation of the organised tight junction protein claudin-11 correlates with BTB functionality.

  3. Synthesis and application of new polymer bound catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterly, Brandon Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Nitric acid has been shown to be a weak acid in acetonitrile. It is conceivable that a nitrate salt of a weakly Lewis acidic cation could furnish a ''naked'' nitrate anion as a basic catalyst in a variety of reactions in non-aqueous solvents. Such a nitrate salt could also be bound to a polymeric support via the cation, thereby allowing for reclamation and recycling of the nitrate ion. This subject is dealt with in Chapter 2, wherein my contributions consisted of performing all the reactions with the polymer supported catalyst and carrying out the experiments necessary to shed light on the reaction mechanisms. Chapter 3 contains a description of the structure and catalytic properties of an azidoproazaphosphatrane. This compound is an air-stable versatile catalyst that has proven useful not only homogeneously, but also when bound to a solid support. The synthesis of a polymer bound proazaphosphatrane containing a trivalent phosphorus is presented in Chapter 4. Such a compound has been sought after by our group for a number of years. Not only does the synthesis I have accomplished for it allow for easier separation of proazaphosphatrane catalysts from reaction mixtures, but recycling of the base is made much simpler. Proazaphosphatranes are useful homogeneous catalysts that activate atoms in other reagents, thus enhancing their reactivity. The next chapters deal with two such reactions with aldehydes and ketones, namely silylcyanations with trialkylsilylcyanides (Chapters 5 and 6) and reductions with poly(methylhydrosiloxane), in Chapter 7. In Chapter 5, Zhigang Wang performed the initial optimization and scoping of the reaction, while repetitions of the scoping experiments for reproducibility, determination of diastereomeric ratios, and experiments aimed at elucidating aspects of the mechanism were performed by me. The proazaphosphatrane coordinates to the silicon atom in both cases, thereby allowing the aforementioned reactions to proceed under

  4. Quadriceps weakness and osteoarthritis of the knee. (United States)

    Slemenda, C; Brandt, K D; Heilman, D K; Mazzuca, S; Braunstein, E M; Katz, B P; Wolinsky, F D


    The quadriceps weakness commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the knee is widely believed to result from disuse atrophy secondary to pain in the involved joint. However, quadriceps weakness may be an etiologic factor in the development of osteoarthritis. To explore the relation between lower-extremity weakness and osteoarthritis of the knee. Cross-sectional prevalence study. Population-based, with recruitment by random-digit dialing. 462 volunteers 65 years of age or older. Radiographs of the knee were graded for the presence of osteoarthritis. Knee pain and function were assessed with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, the strength of leg flexors and extensors was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, and lower-extremity lean tissue mass was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among participants with osteoarthritis, quadriceps weakness, but not hamstring weakness, was common. The ratio of extensor strength to body weight was approximately 20% lower in those with than in those without radiographic osteoarthritis. Notably, among women with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis, extensor weakness was present in the absence of knee pain and was seen in participants with normal lower-extremity lean mass (extensor strength, 30.1 lb-ft for those with osteoarthritis and 34.8 lb-ft for those without osteoarthritis; P osteoarthritis of the knee (odds ratio for prevalence of osteoarthritis per 10 lb-ft loss of strength, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.90] for radiographic osteoarthritis and 0.71 [CI, 0.51 to 0.87] for symptomatic osteoarthritis). Quadriceps weakness may be present in patients who have osteoarthritis but do not have knee pain or muscle atrophy; this suggests that the weakness may be due to muscle dysfunction. The data are consistent with the possibility that quadriceps weakness is a primary risk factor for knee pain, disability, and progression of joint damage in persons with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  5. Strong versus Weak Ties in Migration


    Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline; Zenou, Yves


    This paper studies the role of strong versus weak ties in the rural-to-urban migration decision in China. We first develop a network model that puts forward the different roles of weak and strong ties in helping workers to migrate to the city. We then use a unique longitudinal data that allows us to test our model by focusing on first-time migration. Strong ties are measured by the closest family contact (excluding household members) while weak ties are determined by the fraction of migrants ...

  6. Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui, E-mail:


    Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be ‘extracted’ not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.

  7. Current problems in the weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais, A


    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references. (JFP)

  8. The regularization of Old English weak verbs


    Marta Tío Sáenz


    [EN] This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporate...

  9. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.


    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  10. Dynamics of quadratic polynomials: Complex bounds for real maps


    Lyubich, Mikhail; Yampolsky, Michael


    We extend Sullivan's complex a priori bounds to real quadratic polynomials with essentially bounded combinatorics. Combined with the previous results of the first author, this yields complex bounds for all real quadratics. Local connectivity of the corresponding Julia sets follows.

  11. Bounds Estimation Via Regression with Asymmetric Cost Functions (United States)

    DeCoste, D.


    This paper addresses a significant but mostly-neglected class of problems that we call bounds estimation. This includes learning empirical best-case and worst-case algorithmic complexity bounds and red-line bounds on sensor data.

  12. Muscle weakness causes joint degeneration in rabbits. (United States)

    Rehan Youssef, A; Longino, D; Seerattan, R; Leonard, T; Herzog, W


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) induced quadriceps weakness on micro-structural changes in knee cartilage of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into an experimental and a sham control group. Each group received a unilateral single quadriceps muscle injection either with saline (sham control; n=4) or BTX-A (experimental; n=11). BTX-A injection produced significant quadriceps muscle weakness (Pmuscle mass (Pknee cartilage, assessed with the Mankin grading system, were the same for the injected and non-injected hind limbs of the experimental group animals. Sham injection had no effect on joint degeneration but all control animals showed some degenerative changes in the knee. Degenerative changes of the retro-patellar cartilage were more severe in the experimental compared to sham control group rabbits (P0.05). Quadriceps muscle weakness caused increased degeneration in the retro-patellar cartilage of NZW rabbits, providing evidence that muscle weakness might be a risk factor for the onset and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Future work needs to delineate whether muscle weakness directly affects joint degeneration, or if changes in function and movement execution associated with muscle weakness are responsible for the increased rate of OA onset and progression observed here.

  13. Universal bounds in even-spin CFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, Joshua D. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University,Taipei, Taiwan (China)


    We prove using invariance under the modular S− and ST−transformations that every unitary two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) having only even-spin primary operators (with no extended chiral algebra and with right- and left-central charges c,c̃>1) contains a primary operator with dimension Δ{sub 1} satisfying 0<Δ{sub 1}<((c+c̃)/24)+0.09280…. After deriving both analytical and numerical bounds, we discuss how to extend our methods to bound higher conformal dimensions before deriving lower and upper bounds on the number of primary operators in a given energy range. Using the AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2} dictionary, the bound on Δ{sub 1} proves the lightest massive excitation in appropriate theories of 3D matter and gravity with cosmological constant Λ<0 can be no heavier than 1/8G{sub N}+O(√(−Λ)); the bounds on the number of operators are related via AdS/CFT to the entropy of states in the dual gravitational theory. In the flat-space approximation, the limiting mass is exactly that of the lightest BTZ black hole.

  14. Development of tight junctions between odontoblasts in early dentinogenesis as revealed by freeze-fracture. (United States)

    Arana-Chavez, V E; Katchburian, E


    Mature odontoblasts possess junctional structures constituted by adherens, gap, and tight junctions. Although adherens and gap junctions appear early between odontoblasts, there is no information on the appearance and development of tight junctions between odontoblasts. In this study, we have examined freeze-fracture replicas of early dentinogenesis to study the development of tight junctions between odontoblasts and to determine whether these junctions are of zonular or macular type. Upper first molar tooth germs of Wistar rats between 1 and 3 days old were fixed in buffered 4% glutaraldehyde/4% formaldehyde and subsequently cryoprotected with cacodylate-buffered glycerol. Freeze-fracture replicas were obtained in a Balzers 301 apparatus, and early stages of dentinogenesis were examined in a Jeol 100 CX II electron microscope. In the stage of early dentine matrix prior to mineralization, odontoblasts exhibit only gap junctions. With the progression of development, the distal plasma membranes of odontoblasts show numerous short tight junctions formed by fused particles and grooves. In the stage of advanced mineralization, branched and continuous rows of fused particles or grooves constitute tight junctions of the focal or macular type. The present study shows that tight junctions of focal or macular type appear on distal plasma membrane of early odontoblasts during differentiation. Formation of tight junctions indicates the establishment of a distal membrane domain and maturation of odontoblasts. These events occur as mantle dentine formation ceases and circumpulpar dentine formation begins.

  15. Impact of Air Tightness on the Evaluation of Building Energy Performance in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Šadauskienė


    Full Text Available In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD requirements for the reduction of energy consumption, European national requirements have been created for building envelope thermal properties and calculation methodology to determine if building energy efficiency is created. This is however not true in all methodologies. The necessity of building air tightness appears only for new A class buildings, and there are no requirements for air tightness for other building classes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to improve the methodology for the calculation of energy efficiency of buildings, while taking into account the air tightness of the buildings. In order to achieve this aim, the sum energy consumption of investigated buildings was calculated, energy efficiency classes were determined, air tightness of the buildings was measured, and reasons for insufficient air tightness were analyzed. Investigation results show that the average value of air tightness of A energy efficiency class buildings is 0.6 h−1. The results of other investigated buildings, corresponding to B and C energy efficiency classes, show insufficient air tightness (the average n50 value is 6 h−1; herewith, energy consumption for heating is higher than calculated, according to the energy efficiency methodology. This paper provides an energy performance evaluation scheme, under which performed evaluation of energy performance of buildings ensures high quality construction work, building durability, and the reliability of heat-loss calculations.

  16. Influence of humeral torsion on interpretation of posterior shoulder tightness measures in overhead athletes. (United States)

    Myers, Joseph B; Oyama, Sakiko; Goerger, Benjamin M; Rucinski, Terri Jo; Blackburn, J Troy; Creighton, R Alexander


    To measure the influence of humeral torsion on interpretation of clinical indicators of posterior shoulder tightness in overhead athletes. Cross-sectional control group comparison. A university-based sports medicine research laboratory. Twenty-nine healthy intercollegiate baseball players and 25 college-aged control individuals with no history of participation in overhead athletics were enrolled. In all participants, bilateral humeral rotation and humeral horizontal adduction variables were measured with a digital inclinometry. Bilateral humeral torsion was measured with ultrasonography. Group and limb comparisons were made for clinical indicators of posterior shoulder tightness (humeral rotation and horizontal adduction variables) and humeral torsion variables. The relationship between humeral torsion and clinical indicators of posterior shoulder tightness were established. The dominant limb of the baseball players demonstrated greater humeral torsion, and less internal rotation and total rotation range of motion, compared with control participants and the nondominant limb in both groups. Once corrected for torsion, no group or limb differences in internal rotation were present. Statistically significant relationships existed between the amount of humeral torsion and measures of posterior shoulder tightness. Although limb differences in clinical indicators of posterior tightness exist in healthy overhead athletes, these measures appear to be influenced by humeral torsion rather than soft tissue tightness. Once torsion is accounted for, the limb differences observed clinically were minimal in healthy overhead athletes. When possible, accounting for humeral torsion when interpreting clinical measures of posterior shoulder tightness may aid in treatment decisions.

  17. Production of recombinant cholesterol oxidase containing covalently bound FAD in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla Gianluca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol oxidase is an alcohol dehydrogenase/oxidase flavoprotein that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of C(3-OH of cholesterol. It has two major biotechnological applications, i.e. in the determination of serum (and food cholesterol levels and as biocatalyst providing valuable intermediates for industrial steroid drug production. Cholesterol oxidases of type I are those containing the FAD cofactor tightly but not covalently bound to the protein moiety, whereas type II members contain covalently bound FAD. This is the first report on the over-expression in Escherichia coli of type II cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sterolicum (BCO. Results Design of the plasmid construct encoding the mature BCO, optimization of medium composition and identification of the best cultivation/induction conditions for growing and expressing the active protein in recombinant E. coli cells, concurred to achieve a valuable improvement: BCO volumetric productivity was increased from ~500 up to ~25000 U/L and its crude extract specific activity from 0.5 up to 7.0 U/mg protein. Interestingly, under optimal expression conditions, nearly 55% of the soluble recombinant BCO is produced as covalently FAD bound form, whereas the protein containing non-covalently bound FAD is preferentially accumulated in insoluble inclusion bodies. Conclusions Comparison of our results with those published on non-covalent (type I COs expressed in recombinant form (either in E. coli or Streptomyces spp., shows that the fully active type II BCO can be produced in E. coli at valuable expression levels. The improved over-production of the FAD-bound cholesterol oxidase will support its development as a novel biotool to be exploited in biotechnological applications.

  18. Resistivity bound for hydrodynamic bad metals (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Hartnoll, Sean A.


    We obtain a rigorous upper bound on the resistivity ρ of an electron fluid whose electronic mean free path is short compared with the scale of spatial inhomogeneities. When such a hydrodynamic electron fluid supports a nonthermal diffusion process—such as an imbalance mode between different bands—we show that the resistivity bound becomes ρ≲AΓ. The coefficient A is independent of temperature and inhomogeneity lengthscale, and Γ is a microscopic momentum-preserving scattering rate. In this way, we obtain a unified mechanism—without umklapp—for ρ˜T2 in a Fermi liquid and the crossover to ρ˜T in quantum critical regimes. This behavior is widely observed in transition metal oxides, organic metals, pnictides, and heavy fermion compounds and has presented a long-standing challenge to transport theory. Our hydrodynamic bound allows phonon contributions to diffusion constants, including thermal diffusion, to directly affect the electrical resistivity.

  19. Equivalence principle and bound kinetic energy. (United States)

    Hohensee, Michael A; Müller, Holger; Wiringa, R B


    We consider the role of the internal kinetic energy of bound systems of matter in tests of the Einstein equivalence principle. Using the gravitational sector of the standard model extension, we show that stringent limits on equivalence principle violations in antimatter can be indirectly obtained from tests using bound systems of normal matter. We estimate the bound kinetic energy of nucleons in a range of light atomic species using Green's function Monte Carlo calculations, and for heavier species using a Woods-Saxon model. We survey the sensitivities of existing and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle, and report new constraints at the level of between a few parts in 10(6) and parts in 10(8) on violations of the equivalence principle for matter and antimatter.

  20. Yukawa Bound States and Their LHC Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhbat Tsedenbaljir


    Full Text Available We present the current status on the possible bound states of extra generation quarks. These include phenomenology and search strategy at the LHC. If chiral fourth-generation quarks do exist their strong Yukawa couplings, implied by current experimental lower bound on their masses, may lead to formation of bound states. Due to nearly degenerate 4G masses suggested by Precision Electroweak Test one can employ “heavy isospin” symmetry to classify possible spectrum. Among these states, the color-octet isosinglet vector ω 8 is the easiest to be produced at the LHC. The discovery potential and corresponding decay channels are covered in this paper. With possible light Higgs at ~125 GeV two-Higgs doublet version is briefly discussed.

  1. Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Heydarzade


    Full Text Available The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.

  2. Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Hadi, H.; Corda, C.; Darabi, F.


    The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.

  3. Entropy Bounds, Holographic Principle and Uncertainty Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volovich


    Full Text Available Abstract: A simple derivation of the bound on entropy is given and the holographic principle is discussed. We estimate the number of quantum states inside space region on the base of uncertainty relation. The result is compared with the Bekenstein formula for entropy bound, which was initially derived from the generalized second law of thermodynamics for black holes. The holographic principle states that the entropy inside a region is bounded by the area of the boundary of that region. This principle can be called the kinematical holographic principle. We argue that it can be derived from the dynamical holographic principle which states that the dynamics of a system in a region should be described by a system which lives on the boundary of the region. This last principle can be valid in general relativity because the ADM hamiltonian reduces to the surface term.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  5. Tight Money, Real Interest Rates, and Inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa


    Edward F. Buffie


    The consequences of tight monetary policy are analyzed in an optimizing currency-substitution model of a small, open economy that operates under an open capital account and a flexible exchange rate. There is a reasonably good fit between the dynamics generated by the model and the stylized facts in the tight-money episodes that occurred in Kenya in 1993 and Nigeria in 1989-91. The study's results shed light on two issues: why tight money has provoked stupendous increases in inflation and the ...

  6. Proteomic and bioinformatic analysis of epithelial tight junction reveals an unexpected cluster of synaptic molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Vivian W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zonula occludens, also known as the tight junction, is a specialized cell-cell interaction characterized by membrane "kisses" between epithelial cells. A cytoplasmic plaque of ~100 nm corresponding to a meshwork of densely packed proteins underlies the tight junction membrane domain. Due to its enormous size and difficulties in obtaining a biochemically pure fraction, the molecular composition of the tight junction remains largely unknown. Results A novel biochemical purification protocol has been developed to isolate tight junction protein complexes from cultured human epithelial cells. After identification of proteins by mass spectroscopy and fingerprint analysis, candidate proteins are scored and assessed individually. A simple algorithm has been devised to incorporate transmembrane domains and protein modification sites for scoring membrane proteins. Using this new scoring system, a total of 912 proteins have been identified. These 912 hits are analyzed using a bioinformatics approach to bin the hits in 4 categories: configuration, molecular function, cellular function, and specialized process. Prominent clusters of proteins related to the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and vesicular traffic have been identified. Weaker clusters of proteins associated with cell growth, cell migration, translation, and transcription are also found. However, the strongest clusters belong to synaptic proteins and signaling molecules. Localization studies of key components of synaptic transmission have confirmed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins at the tight junction domain. To correlate proteomics data with structure, the tight junction has been examined using electron microscopy. This has revealed many novel structures including end-on cytoskeletal attachments, vesicles fusing/budding at the tight junction membrane domain, secreted substances encased between the tight junction kisses, endocytosis of tight junction

  7. Installation of the light tight cover for the SSD modules (the modules are behind the aluminium plate). The silicon sensors are sensitive to light tight, so ambient light will increase the noise and may even damage them.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G.


    Installation of the light tight cover for the SSD modules (the modules are behind the aluminium plate). The silicon sensors are sensitive to light tight , so ambient light will increase the noise and may even damage them.

  8. Career Development and Personal Functioning Differences between Work-Bound and Non-Work Bound Students (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle


    We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…

  9. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math... (United States)


    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... hand delivery. Please note that comments submitted by fax or email and those submitted after the... 1995 (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)), provides the general public and Federal agencies with an...

  10. Violation of Energy Bounds in Designer Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hertog, T


    We continue our study of the stability of designer gravity theories, where one considers anti-de Sitter gravity coupled to certain tachyonic scalars with boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. It has recently been argued there is a lower bound on the conserved energy in terms of the global minimum of W, if the scalar potential arises from a superpotential P and the scalar reaches an extremum of P at infinity. We show, however, there are superpotentials for which these bounds do not hold.

  11. G-frames with bounded linear operators


    Xiao, Xiang-chun; Zhu, Yu-can; Shu, Zhi-biao; Ding, Ming-ling


    In this paper, we introduce the more general g-frame which is called a $K$-g-frame by combining a g-frame with a bounded linear operator $K$ in a Hilbert space. We give several equivalent characterizations for $K$-g-frames and discuss the stability of perturbation for $K$-g-frames. We also investigate the relationship between a $K$-g-frame and the range of the bounded linear operator $K$. In the end, we give two sufficient conditions for the remainder of a $K$-g-frame after an erasure to stil...

  12. Bounds on fake weighted projective space


    Kasprzyk, Alexander M.


    A fake weighted projective space X is a Q-factorial toric variety with Picard number one. As with weighted projective space, X comes equipped with a set of weights (λ0, ..., λn). We see how the singularities of P (λ0, ..., λn) influence the singularities of X, and how the weights bound the number of possible fake weighted projective spaces for a fixed dimension. Finally, we present an upper bound on the ratios λj/Σλi if we wish X to have only terminal (or canonical) singularities.

  13. Verifying bound entanglement of dephased Werner states (United States)

    Thomas, P.; Bohmann, M.; Vogel, W.


    The verification of quantum entanglement under the influence of realistic noise and decoherence is crucial for the development of quantum technologies. Unfortunately, a full entanglement characterization is generally not possible with most entanglement criteria such as entanglement witnesses or the partial transposition criterion. In particular, so-called bound entanglement cannot be certified via the partial transposition criterion. Here we present the full entanglement verification of dephased qubit and qutrit Werner states via entanglement quasiprobabilities. Remarkably, we are able to reveal bound entanglement for noisy mixed states in the qutrit case. This example demonstrates the strength of the entanglement quasiprobabilities for verifying the full entanglement of quantum states suffering from noise.

  14. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alonso-Izquierdo


    Full Text Available In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  15. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Garcia Fuertes, W., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)


    In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  16. A Comparative Density Functional Theory and Density Functional Tight Binding Study of Phases of Nitrogen Including a High Energy Density Material N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Capel


    Full Text Available We present a comparative dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT and Density Functional Tight Binding (DFTB-D study of several phases of nitrogen, including the well-known alpha, beta, and gamma phases as well as recently discovered highly energetic phases: covalently bound cubic gauche (cg nitrogen and molecular (vdW-bound N8 crystals. Among several tested parametrizations of N–N interactions for DFTB, we identify only one that is suitable for modeling of all these phases. This work therefore establishes the applicability of DFTB-D to studies of phases, including highly metastable phases, of nitrogen, which will be of great use for modelling of dynamics of reactions involving these phases, which may not be practical with DFT due to large required space and time scales. We also derive a dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D setup (atom-centered basis parameters and Grimme dispersion parameters tuned for accurate description simultaneously of several nitrogen allotropes including covalently and vdW-bound crystals and including high-energy phases.

  17. The First Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions and the Prediction of Weak Neutral Currents


    Bludman, S. A.


    The three theoretical and historical components of the Standard Model are the exact chiral gauge theory of weak interactions, electroweak unification, and the Higgs mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. I put into historical perspective my 1958 invention of the first gauge theory of weak interactions, predicting weak neutral currents, and show how the fundamental differences between global and gauge symmetries and between partial flavour and exact gauge symmetries, emerged in the stron...

  18. Geometric phase topology in weak measurement (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.


    The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1–64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η ‑ χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.

  19. Empirical tight-binding modeling of ordered and disordered semiconductor structures; Empirische Tight-Binding-Modellierung geordneter und ungeordneter Halbleiterstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Daniel


    In this thesis, we investigate the electronic and optical properties of pure as well as of substitutionally alloyed II-VI and III-V bulk semiconductors and corresponding semiconductor quantum dots by means of an empirical tight-binding (TB) model. In the case of the alloyed systems of the type A{sub x}B{sub 1-x}, where A and B are the pure compound semiconductor materials, we study the influence of the disorder by means of several extensions of the TB model with different levels of sophistication. Our methods range from rather simple mean-field approaches (virtual crystal approximation, VCA) over a dynamical mean-field approach (coherent potential approximation, CPA) up to calculations where substitutional disorder is incorporated on a finite ensemble of microscopically distinct configurations. In the first part of this thesis, we cover the necessary fundamentals in order to properly introduce the TB model of our choice, the effective bond-orbital model (EBOM). In this model, one s- and three p-orbitals per spin direction are localized on the sites of the underlying Bravais lattice. The matrix elements between these orbitals are treated as free parameters in order to reproduce the properties of one conduction and three valence bands per spin direction and can then be used in supercell calculations in order to model mixed bulk materials or pure as well as mixed quantum dots. Part II of this thesis deals with unalloyed systems. Here, we use the EBOM in combination with configuration interaction calculations for the investigation of the electronic and optical properties of truncated pyramidal GaN quantum dots embedded in AlN with an underlying zincblende structure. Furthermore, we develop a parametrization of the EBOM for materials with a wurtzite structure, which allows for a fit of one conduction and three valence bands per spin direction throughout the whole Brillouin zone of the hexagonal system. In Part III, we focus on the influence of alloying on the electronic

  20. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio


    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger


    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  2. Single- and Two-Phase Turbulent Mixing Rate between Subchannels in Triangle Tight Lattice Rod Bundle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAWAHARA, Akimaro; SADATOMI, Michio; KUDO, Hiroyuki; KANO, Keiko


    In order to obtain the data on turbulent mixing rate between triangle tight lattice subchannels, which will be adopted as the next generation BWR fuel rod bundle, adiabatic experiments were conducted...

  3. Fast Litho-Panspermia in Tightly-Packed Systems Around M Dwarfs (United States)

    Krijt, S.; Bowling, T. J.; Lyons, R. J.; Ciesla, F. J.


    We investigate the fate of impact ejecta in tightly-packed planetary architectures like the TRAPPIST-1 system, finding that material transfer in such configurations is many orders of magnitude faster compared to the inner solar system.

  4. MicroRNAs regulate tight junction proteins and modulate epithelial/endothelial barrier functions. (United States)

    Cichon, Christoph; Sabharwal, Harshana; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M Alexander


    Tightly controlled epithelial and endothelial barriers are a prerequisite for life as these barriers separate multicellular organisms from their environment and serve as first lines of defense. Barriers between neighboring epithelial cells are formed by multiple intercellular junctions including the 'apical junctional complex-AJC' with tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and desmosomes. TJ consist of tetraspan transmembrane proteins like occludin, various claudins that directly control paracellular permeability, and the 'Junctional Adhesion Molecules' (JAMs). For establishing tight barriers TJ are essential but at the same time have to allow also selective permeability. For this, TJ need to be tightly regulated and controlled. This is organized by a variety of adaptor molecules, i.e., protein kinases, phosphatases and GTPases, which in turn are regulated and fine-tuned involving microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review we summarize available data on the role and targeting of miRNAs in the maintenance of epithelial and/or endothelial barriers.

  5. Keratin 76 is required for tight junction function and maintenance of the skin barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tia DiTommaso


    Full Text Available Keratins are cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are increasingly being recognised for their diverse cellular functions. Here we report the consequences of germ line inactivation of Keratin 76 (Krt76 in mice. Homozygous disruption of this epidermally expressed gene causes neonatal skin flaking, hyperpigmentation, inflammation, impaired wound healing, and death prior to 12 weeks of age. We show that this phenotype is associated with functionally defective tight junctions that are characterised by mislocalization of the integral protein CLDN1. We further demonstrate that KRT76 interacts with CLDN1 and propose that this interaction is necessary to correctly position CLDN1 in tight junctions. The mislocalization of CLDN1 has been associated in various dermopathies, including the inflammatory disease, psoriasis. These observations establish a previously unknown connection between the intermediate filament cytoskeleton network and tight junctions and showcase Krt76 null mice as a possible model to study aberrant tight junction driven skin diseases.

  6. Keratin 76 is required for tight junction function and maintenance of the skin barrier. (United States)

    DiTommaso, Tia; Cottle, Denny L; Pearson, Helen B; Schlüter, Holger; Kaur, Pritinder; Humbert, Patrick O; Smyth, Ian M


    Keratins are cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are increasingly being recognised for their diverse cellular functions. Here we report the consequences of germ line inactivation of Keratin 76 (Krt76) in mice. Homozygous disruption of this epidermally expressed gene causes neonatal skin flaking, hyperpigmentation, inflammation, impaired wound healing, and death prior to 12 weeks of age. We show that this phenotype is associated with functionally defective tight junctions that are characterised by mislocalization of the integral protein CLDN1. We further demonstrate that KRT76 interacts with CLDN1 and propose that this interaction is necessary to correctly position CLDN1 in tight junctions. The mislocalization of CLDN1 has been associated in various dermopathies, including the inflammatory disease, psoriasis. These observations establish a previously unknown connection between the intermediate filament cytoskeleton network and tight junctions and showcase Krt76 null mice as a possible model to study aberrant tight junction driven skin diseases.

  7. Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Hamstring Tightness in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Kim, Yong Wook; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Na Young; Kwon, Jun Beom; Lee, Sang Chul


    To assess the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for healthy participants with hamstring tightness. This study was performed at a university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty nine healthy adults with hamstring tightness were enrolled and randomly allocated into four groups (ESWT, stretching exercise, ESWT with stretching exercise, and control). The effects of individual treatments were compared by the finger-to-floor test and popliteal angle. The ESWT group, stretching exercise group and ESWT with stretching exercise group had decreased finger-to-floor distances and right popliteal angles immediately after intervention, compared with the control group (pstretching exercise group showed a significant improvement, compared with the control group (p=0.008 and 0.023). While ESWT and stretching both reduced hamstring tightness immediately after interventions, only ESWT with stretching exercise maintained the significantly improved relief of hamstring tightness significantly after 4 weeks.

  8. Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games (United States)

    Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne


    In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769

  9. Extrapolating weak selection in evolutionary games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    Full Text Available In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By "qualitatively valid" we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies [Formula: see text]. In particular, rank changes are almost certain for [Formula: see text], which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection.

  10. From strong to weak coupling in holographic models of thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University,Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Starinets, Andrei O. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)


    We investigate the analytic structure of thermal energy-momentum tensor correlators at large but finite coupling in quantum field theories with gravity duals. We compute corrections to the quasinormal spectra of black branes due to the presence of higher derivative R{sup 2} and R{sup 4} terms in the action, focusing on the dual to N=4 SYM theory and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We observe the appearance of new poles in the complex frequency plane at finite coupling. The new poles interfere with hydrodynamic poles of the correlators leading to the breakdown of hydrodynamic description at a coupling-dependent critical value of the wave-vector. The dependence of the critical wave vector on the coupling implies that the range of validity of the hydrodynamic description increases monotonically with the coupling. The behavior of the quasinormal spectrum at large but finite coupling may be contrasted with the known properties of the hierarchy of relaxation times determined by the spectrum of a linearized kinetic operator at weak coupling. We find that the ratio of a transport coefficient such as viscosity to the relaxation time determined by the fundamental non-hydrodynamic quasinormal frequency changes rapidly in the vicinity of infinite coupling but flattens out for weaker coupling, suggesting an extrapolation from strong coupling to the kinetic theory result. We note that the behavior of the quasinormal spectrum is qualitatively different depending on whether the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density is greater or less than the universal, infinite coupling value of ℏ/4πk{sub B}. In the former case, the density of poles increases, indicating a formation of branch cuts in the weak coupling limit, and the spectral function shows the appearance of narrow peaks. We also discuss the relation of the viscosity-entropy ratio to conjectured bounds on relaxation time in quantum systems.

  11. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca


    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  12. Characterization of plasma membrane bound inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Currently, a major problem in the management of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, especially in the Indian subcontinent, is the growing unresponsiveness to conventional antimonial therapy. Membrane bound pyrophophatase (PPases) do not exist in plasma membrane from mammals. Thus, H+-PPases ...

  13. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 20, 2011 ... Using Kalai's result, Tay (1995) proved LBT for a bigger class of simplicial complexes (namely, normal pseudomanifolds). In 2008, we (Bagchi & Datta) have presented a self-contained combinatorial proof of LBT for normal pseudomanifolds. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta.

  14. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization-II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 4. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization - II. M V Panduranga Rao. General Article Volume 15 Issue 4 April 2010 pp 337-346 ... Keywords. Diagonalization; time–hierarchy theorem; relativization; Baker–Gill–Solovay theorem.

  15. Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha


    We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...




  17. Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf


    We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N

  18. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality. (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles A.


    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  19. The metamorphosis of 'culture-bound' syndromes. (United States)

    Jilek, W G; Jilek-Aall, L


    Starting from a critical review of the concept of 'culture-bound' disorders and its development in comparative psychiatry, the authors present the changing aspects of two so-called culture-bound syndromes as paradigms of transcultural metamorphosis (koro) and intra-cultural metamorphosis (Salish Indian spirit sickness), respectively. The authors present recent data on epidemics of koro, which is supposedly bound to Chinese culture, in Thailand and India among non-Chinese populations. Neither the model of Oedipal castration anxiety nor the model of culture-specific pathogenicity, commonly adduced in psychiatric and ethnological literature, explain these phenomena. The authors' data on Salish Indian spirit sickness describes the contemporary condition as anomic depression, which is significantly different from its traditional namesake. The traditional concept was redefined by Salish ritual specialists in response to current needs imposed by social changes. The stresses involved in creating the contemporary phenomena of koro and spirit sickness are neither culture-specific nor culture-inherent, as postulated for 'culture-bound' syndromes, rather they are generated by a feeling of powerlessness caused by perceived threats to ethnic survival.

  20. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations (United States)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.


    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  1. Upper Bounds for Mutations of Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Cruz Morales


    Full Text Available In this note we provide a new, algebraic proof of the excessive Laurent phenomenon for mutations of potentials (in the sense of [Galkin S., Usnich A., Preprint IPMU 10-0100, 2010] by introducing to this theory the analogue of the upper bounds from [Berenstein A., Fomin S., Zelevinsky A., Duke Math. J. 126 (2005, 1-52].

  2. Building high-coverage monolayers of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mackenzie G.; Teplyakov, Andrew V., E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A method for forming a layer of covalently bound nanoparticles is offered. • A nearly perfect monolayer of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles was formed on gold. • Spectroscopic techniques confirmed covalent binding by the “click” reaction. • The influence of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage was investigated. - Abstract: This work presents an approach for producing a high-coverage single monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles using “click chemistry” between complementarily functionalized nanoparticles and a flat substrate. This method highlights essential aspects of the functionalization scheme for substrate surface and nanoparticles to produce exceptionally high surface coverage without sacrificing selectivity or control over the layer produced. The deposition of one single layer of magnetic particles without agglomeration, over a large area, with a nearly 100% coverage is confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectroscopic techniques, supplemented by computational predictions, are used to interrogate the chemistry of the attachment and to confirm covalent binding, rather than attachment through self-assembly or weak van der Waals bonding. Density functional theory calculations for the surface intermediate of this copper-catalyzed process provide mechanistic insight into the effects of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage. Based on this analysis, it appears that steric limitations of the intermediate structure affect nanoparticle coverage on a flat solid substrate; however, this can be overcome by designing a functionalization scheme in such a way that the copper-based intermediate is formed on the spherical nanoparticles instead. This observation can be carried over to other approaches for creating highly controlled single- or multilayered nanostructures of a wide range of materials to result in high coverage and possibly, conformal filling.

  3. A theoretical overview of hypernuclear weak decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumillas, C. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garbarino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy)], E-mail:; Parreno, A.; Ramos, A. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The physics of the weak decay of hypernuclei is briefly reviewed from a theoretical point of view. Special regard is devoted to the recent progress concerning the determination of the non-mesonic decay widths and the asymmetry parameters. Convincing evidence has been achieved for a solution of the long-standing puzzle on the ratio {gamma}{sub n}/{gamma}{sub p}. Very recently, it has been shown that the exchange of a {pi}{pi} pair in the weak mechanism plays a crucial role in explaining the discrepancies between theory and experiment on the decay asymmetries.

  4. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.


    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  5. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc


    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. A Continuation Method for Weakly Kannan Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza-Ruiz David


    Full Text Available The first continuation method for contractive maps in the setting of a metric space was given by Granas. Later, Frigon extended Granas theorem to the class of weakly contractive maps, and recently Agarwal and O'Regan have given the corresponding result for a certain type of quasicontractions which includes maps of Kannan type. In this note we introduce the concept of weakly Kannan maps and give a fixed point theorem, and then a continuation method, for this class of maps.

  7. Tightness of M-estimators for multiple linear regression in time series


    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent


    We show tightness of a general M-estimator for multiple linear regression in time series. The positive criterion function for the M-estimator is assumed lower semi-continuous and sufficiently large for large argument: Particular cases are the Huber-skip and quantile regression. Tightness requires an assumption on the frequency of small regressors. We show that this is satisfied for a variety of deterministic and stochastic regressors, including stationary an random walks regressors. The resul...

  8. A Tightly Coupled Non-Equilibrium Magneto-Hydrodynamic Model for Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas (United States)


    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 May 2015 – 06 Oct 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Tightly Coupled Non-Equilibrium Magneto- Hydrodynamic ...development a tightly coupled magneto- hydrodynamic model for Inductively Coupled Radio- Frequency (RF) Plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE... hydrodynamic model for Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas A. Munafò,1, a) S. A. Alfuhaid,1, b) J.-L. Cambier,2, c) and M. Panesi1, d) 1)Department of

  9. Tight coupling UFMArcGIS for simulating inundation depth in densely area


    Kang, S. H.


    The integration of hydrological models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) usually takes two approaches: loose coupling and tight coupling. This paper presents a tight coupling approach within a GIS environment that is achieved by integrating the urban flood model with the macro language of GIS. Such an approach affords an uncomplicated way to capitalize on the GIS visualization and spatial analysis functions, thereby significantly supporting the dynamic simulation process of hydrologi...

  10. Insoluble-Bound Phenolics in Food. (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Yeo, Ju-Dong


    This contribution provides a review of the topic of insoluble-bound phenolics, especially their localization, synthesis, transfer and formation in plant cells, as well as their metabolism in the human digestive system and corresponding bioactivities. In addition, their release from the food matrix during food processing and extraction methods are discussed. The synthesis of phenolics takes place mainly at the endoplasmic reticulum and they are then transferred to each organ through transport proteins such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter at the organ's compartment membrane or via transport vesicles such as cytoplasmic and Golgi vesicles, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolics at the vacuole and cell wall matrix, respectively. This part has not been adequately discussed in the food science literature, especially regarding the synthesis site and their transfer at the cellular level, thus this contribution provides valuable information to the involved scientists. The bound phenolics cannot be absorbed at the small intestine as the soluble phenolics do (5%-10%), thus passing into the large intestine and undergoing fermentation by a number of microorganisms, partially released from cell wall matrix of foods. Bound phenolics such as phenolic acids and flavonoids display strong bioactivities such as anticancer, anti-inflammation and cardiovascular disease ameliorating effects. They can be extracted by several methods such as acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis to quantify their contents in foods. In addition, they can also be released from the cell wall matrix during food processing procedures such as fermentation, germination, roasting, extrusion cooking and boiling. This review provides critical information for better understanding the insoluble-bound phenolics in food and fills an existing gap in the literature.

  11. Posterior shoulder tightness and rotator cuff strength assessments in painful shoulders of amateur tennis players. (United States)

    Marcondes, Freddy B; de Jesus, Julio F; Bryk, Flavio F; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo A; Fukuda, Thiago Y


    Previous studies have shown a relationship between shoulder posterior capsule tightness and shoulder pain in overhead athletes. However, this relationship has not been studied in tennis players. Assessment of the shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength and posterior capsule tightness of skilled amateur tennis players who had complaints of dominant shoulder pain in comparison with tennis players without pain. Forty-nine skilled amateur tennis players were distributed in 2 groups: Control Group (n=22) and Painful Group (n=27). The first group was composed of asymptomatic subjects, and the second was composed of subjects with shoulder pain on the dominant side. These groups were evaluated to determine the dominant and non-dominant shoulder ROM (internal and external rotation), isometric shoulder strength (internal and external rotation) and posterior shoulder tightness by blind evaluators. The ANOVA results indicated significant differences between the groups in the dominant shoulder ROM, posterior capsule tightness, external rotation strength and strength ratio (pPainful Group displayed a significant difference for ROM, posterior capsule tightness and external rotation strength (ppain in the dominant shoulder presented greater posterior capsule tightness, internal rotation deficit (ROM), external rotation gain (ROM) and deficits in external rotation strength than the tennis players without pain.

  12. Posterior shoulder tightness and rotator cuff strength assessments in painful shoulders of amateur tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy B. Marcondes


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a relationship between shoulder posterior capsule tightness and shoulder pain in overhead athletes. However, this relationship has not been studied in tennis players. OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the shoulder range of motion (ROM, strength and posterior capsule tightness of skilled amateur tennis players who had complaints of dominant shoulder pain in comparison with tennis players without pain. METHOD: Forty-nine skilled amateur tennis players were distributed in 2 groups: Control Group (n=22 and Painful Group (n=27. The first group was composed of asymptomatic subjects, and the second was composed of subjects with shoulder pain on the dominant side. These groups were evaluated to determine the dominant and non-dominant shoulder ROM (internal and external rotation, isometric shoulder strength (internal and external rotation and posterior shoulder tightness by blind evaluators. RESULTS: The ANOVA results indicated significant differences between the groups in the dominant shoulder ROM, posterior capsule tightness, external rotation strength and strength ratio (p<0.05. The intragroup analysis (dominant versus non-dominant in the Painful Group displayed a significant difference for ROM, posterior capsule tightness and external rotation strength (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The tennis players with pain in the dominant shoulder presented greater posterior capsule tightness, internal rotation deficit (ROM, external rotation gain (ROM and deficits in external rotation strength than the tennis players without pain.

  13. Performance Improvement of Receivers Based on Ultra-Tight Integration in GNSS-Challenged Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qin


    Full Text Available Ultra-tight integration was first proposed by Abbott in 2003 with the purpose of integrating a global navigation satellite system (GNSS and an inertial navigation system (INS. This technology can improve the tracking performances of a receiver by reconfiguring the tracking loops in GNSS-challenged environments. In this paper, the models of all error sources known to date in the phase lock loops (PLLs of a standard receiver and an ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver are built, respectively. Based on these models, the tracking performances of the two receivers are compared to verify the improvement due to the ultra-tight integration. Meanwhile, the PLL error distributions of the two receivers are also depicted to analyze the error changes of the tracking loops. These results show that the tracking error is significantly reduced in the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver since the receiver’s dynamics are estimated and compensated by an INS. Moreover, the mathematical relationship between the tracking performances of the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver and the quality of the selected inertial measurement unit (IMU is derived from the error models and proved by the error comparisons of four ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receivers aided by different grade IMUs.

  14. Performance Improvement of Receivers Based on Ultra-Tight Integration in GNSS-Challenged Environments (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Zhan, Xingqun; Du, Gang


    Ultra-tight integration was first proposed by Abbott in 2003 with the purpose of integrating a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and an inertial navigation system (INS). This technology can improve the tracking performances of a receiver by reconfiguring the tracking loops in GNSS-challenged environments. In this paper, the models of all error sources known to date in the phase lock loops (PLLs) of a standard receiver and an ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver are built, respectively. Based on these models, the tracking performances of the two receivers are compared to verify the improvement due to the ultra-tight integration. Meanwhile, the PLL error distributions of the two receivers are also depicted to analyze the error changes of the tracking loops. These results show that the tracking error is significantly reduced in the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver since the receiver's dynamics are estimated and compensated by an INS. Moreover, the mathematical relationship between the tracking performances of the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver and the quality of the selected inertial measurement unit (IMU) is derived from the error models and proved by the error comparisons of four ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receivers aided by different grade IMUs.

  15. Selective release of the digital extensor hood to reduce intrinsic tightness in tetraplegia (United States)

    Reinholdt, Carina; Fridén, Jan


    Patients with tetraplegia may have various degrees of spasticity in the hand ranging from a completely clenched fist to reduced control of grip at triggered spasticity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the functional effect of the distal ulnar intrinsic release procedure to reduce intrinsic tightness. Seventeen patients with tetraplegia (37 fingers) and with prominent intrinsic tightness were operated on for distal intrinsic release with a modification of the procedure to include only the ulnar side of the proximal phalanx. All the patients had more pronounced tightness on the ulnar than on the radial side of the affected finger. Long fingers were consistently the most affected digits. The intrinsic tightness was released completely in all patients and the range of motion (ROM) was improved by 25%, and up to 45% in mild and severe cases, respectively. The good immediate effects of treatment as shown by increased ROM remained intact by 6 months postoperatively. These data suggest that the distal ulnar intrinsic release procedure is a simple and valuable way of reducing intrinsic tightness and improving hand function and grip for patients with intrinsic tightness. This procedure can be added to other procedures such as lengthening and transfer of tendons. PMID:21504278

  16. Gas-Water Flow Behavior in Water-Bearing Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi Cao


    Full Text Available Some tight sandstone gas reservoirs contain mobile water, and the mobile water generally has a significant impact on the gas flowing in tight pores. The flow behavior of gas and water in tight pores is different than in conventional formations, yet there is a lack of adequate models to predict the gas production and describe the gas-water flow behaviors in water-bearing tight gas reservoirs. Based on the experimental results, this paper presents mathematical models to describe flow behaviors of gas and water in tight gas formations; the threshold pressure gradient, stress sensitivity, and relative permeability are all considered in our models. A numerical simulator using these models has been developed to improve the flow simulation accuracy for water-bearing tight gas reservoirs. The results show that the effect of stress sensitivity becomes larger as water saturation increases, leading to a fast decline of gas production; in addition, the nonlinear flow of gas phase is aggravated with the increase of water saturation and the decrease of permeability. The gas recovery decreases when the threshold pressure gradient (TPG and stress sensitivity are taken into account. Therefore, a reasonable drawdown pressure should be set to minimize the damage of nonlinear factors to gas recovery.

  17. Injuries and disorders among young ice skaters: relationship with generalized joint laxity and tightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamura S


    Full Text Available Shinobu Okamura,1 Naoki Wada,1 Masayuki Tazawa,1 Makoto Sohmiya,1 Yoko Ibe,1 Toru Shimizu,1 Shigeru Usuda,2 Kenji Shirakura1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Gunma University School of Health Science, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan Abstract: This study retrospectively investigated 192 teenage speed and figure skaters with prior injuries documented by an athletes’ questionnaire, who underwent a physical examination to assess their muscle tightness and generalized joint laxity. In all athletes, the degree of muscle tightness and joint laxity were measured by a standardized physical examination. A descriptive report of the types of injuries showed a predominance of fractures, ligament injuries, enthesitis, and lower back pain. Approximately 5% of all skaters tested positive for tightness, while 25.8% of figure skaters and 15.2% of speed skaters had generalized ligamentous laxity. Statistical testing showed an association between ankle sprains and muscle tightness, and an association between knee enthesitis and muscle tightness in skating athletes. There was also an association between lower back pain and generalized joint laxity, which held true only for the male skaters. Keywords: sports injury, skating, junior athlete, tightness, joint laxity, medical checkup

  18. Occludin localization at the tight junction requires the second extracellular loop. (United States)

    Medina, R; Rahner, C; Mitic, L L; Anderson, J M; Van Itallie, C M


    Occludin is a transmembrane protein of the tight junction with two extracellular loops. Our previous demonstration that the extracellular loops are adhesive suggested the possibility that they contribute to localizing occludin at the tight junction. To address this question, truncated forms of occludin were generated in which one or both of the extracellular loops were deleted. These constructs were expressed in both occludin-null Rat-1 fibroblasts and in MDCK epithelial cells. The patterns of sensitivity to proteinase K suggested all constructs were present on the plasma membrane and retained the normal topology. In fibroblasts, all truncated forms of occludin colocalized with ZO-1 at regions of cell-cell contact, demonstrating that even in the absence of tight junctions cytoplasmic interactions with ZOs is sufficient to cluster occludin. In MDCK cell monolayers, both full-length and occludin lacking the first extracellular loop colocalized with ZO-1 at the tight junction. In contrast, constructs lacking the second, or both, extracellular loops were absent from tight junctions and were found only on the basolateral cell surface. By freeze-fracture electron microscopic analysis, overexpression of full length occludin induced side-to-side aggregation of fibrils within the junction, while excess occludin on the lateral membrane did not form fibrils. These results suggest that the second extracellular domain is required for stable assembly of occludin in the tight junction and that occludin influences the structural organization of the paracellular barrier.

  19. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta


    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  20. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  1. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.


    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced

  2. Cultural capital: strengths, weaknesses and two advancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werfhorst, H.G.


    In this paper I discuss two weaknesses in Bourdieu’s work on cultural capital, both of which are related to his integration of the multidimensional nature of social space in different domains of life: social mobility, lifestyle differentiation, and political orientation. First, there is an anomaly

  3. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal


    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  4. Thermorheological effect on magnetoconvection in weak electrically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The thermorheological effect on magnetoconvection in fluids with weak elec- trical conductivity is studied numerically under 1g and μg conditions. The results with a non-linear thermorheological equation considered in the problem when compared with those of the classical approach with constant viscosity ...

  5. Solitons and Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans


    Theoretical descriptions of solitons and weakly nonlinear waves propagating in plasma media are reviewed, with particular attention to the Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) equation and the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). The modifications of these basic equations due to the effects of resonant...

  6. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The history of weak interactions starting with. Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Dis- coveries of parity violation, matter{antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted. Introduction. Sun gives us ...

  7. Phenomenological model of the weak interaction


    Schunck, Franz E.


    We use the informations known so far about elementary particles in order to construct a simple model. We find a reason for the gyromagnetic factor of 2 for leptons and a vivid imagination for the weak interaction. By this, we understand, why the elementary particles with lowest mass are stable and all other unstable.

  8. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions


    Rajasekaran, G.


    The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.

  9. Dynamical theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, F


    The gauge theory of unified weak and electromagnetic interactions is developed without the use of scalar mesons. It is shown that the Glashow Weinberg scheme is unrealistic, but that a similar such scheme is possible if one includes two pairs of leptons, identified with e-, νe and μ-, νμ.

  10. The weak acid nature of precipitation (United States)

    John O. Frohliger; Robert L. Kane


    Recent measurements of the pH of precipitation leave no doubt that rainfall is acidic. Evidence will be presented that precipitation is a weak acid system. The results of this research indicate the need to establish standard sampling procedures to provide uniform sampling of precipitation

  11. Neutrino propagation in a weakly magnetized medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the W and Z bosons allowing us to neglect the momentum dependence in the. W and Z propagators. This is equivalent to lowest-order GF calculations and is justified for low-energy neutrinos and low temperatures and weak fields compared to the Fermi scale. Since, in this work we focus our attention on the possible astro ...

  12. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions. G Rajasekaran. General Article Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 18-44 ... Keywords. Fermi; beta decay; parity violation; electroweak theory; neutral current; quarks and leptons; neutrino mass.

  13. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.


    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of

  14. Josephson current and Andreev level dynamics in nanoscale superconducting weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Aldo


    In this thesis we focus on the interplay between proximity induced superconducting correlations and Coulomb interactions in a Josephson junction: i.e., in a system where two superconductors modeled as two s-wave superconductors at a phase difference φ are contacted by means of a weak link, in our case a quantum dot located in the contact. In the first part we study the Josephson current-phase relation for a multi-level quantum dot tunnel-contacted by two conventional s-waves superconductors. We determine in detail the conditions for observing a finite anomalous Josephson current, i.e. a supercurrent flowing at zero phase difference in a two-level dot with spin-orbit interactions, a weak magnetic (Zeeman) field, and in the presence of Coulomb interactions. This leads to an onset behavior I{sub a}∝sgn(B), interpreted as the sign of an incipient spontaneous breakdown of time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, we will provide conditions for realizing spatially separated - but topologically unprotected - Majorana bound states, whose signature in the system will be detectable via the current-phase relation. In the second part of the thesis, we address the Andreev bound state population dynamics in superconducting weak links (a superconducting 'atomic contact'), in which a poisoning mechanism due to the trapping of single quasiparticles can occur. Our motivation is that quantum coherent superconducting circuits are the most promising candidates for future large-scale quantum information processing devices. Moreover, quasiparticle poisoning has recently been observed in devices which contain a short superconducting weak link with few transport channels. We discuss a novel charge imbalance effect in the continuum quasiparticle population, which is due to phase fluctuations of the environment weakly coupled to the superconducting contact. This coupling enters the system as a transition rate connecting continuum quasiparticles and the Andreev bound state system. The

  15. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  16. Bound states emerging from below the continuum in a solvable PT -symmetric discrete Schrödinger equation (United States)

    Znojil, Miloslav


    The phenomenon of the birth of an isolated quantum bound state at the lower edge of the continuum is studied for a particle moving along a discrete real line of coordinates x ∈Z . The motion is controlled by a weakly nonlocal 2 J -parametric external potential V which is non-Hermitian but P T symmetric. The model is found exactly solvable. The bound states are interpreted as Sturmians. Their closed-form definitions are presented and discussed up to J =7 .

  17. Upper bounds on the non- 3-colourability threshold of random graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Fountoulakis


    Full Text Available We present a full analysis of the expected number of `rigid' 3-colourings of a sparse random graph. This shows that, if the average degree is at least 4.99, then as n → ∞ the expected number of such colourings tends to 0 and so the probability that the graph is 3-colourable tends to 0. (This result is tight, in that with average degree 4.989 the expected number tends to ∞. This bound appears independently in Kaporis et al. [Kap]. We then give a minor improvement, showing that the probability that the graph is 3-colourable tends to 0 if the average degree is at least 4.989.

  18. Capacity bounds for the 2-user Gaussian IM-DD optical multiple-access channel

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ebraheemy, Omer M. S.


    Optical wireless communications (OWC) is a potential solution for coping with the mismatch between the users growing demand for higher data-rates and the wireless network capabilities. In this paper, a multi-user OWC scenario is studied from an in formation-theoretic perspective. The studied network consists of two users communicating simultaneously with one access point using OWC, thus establishing an optical uplink channel. The capacity of this network is an important metric which reflects the highest possible communication rates that can be achieved over this channel. Capacity outer and inner bounds are derived, and are shown to be fairly tight in the high signal-to-noise ratio regime. © 2016 IEEE.

  19. Optimal Bounds in Parametric LTL Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zimmermann


    Full Text Available We consider graph games of infinite duration with winning conditions in parameterized linear temporal logic, where the temporal operators are equipped with variables for time bounds. In model checking such specifications were introduced as "PLTL" by Alur et al. and (in a different version called "PROMPT-LTL" by Kupferman et al.. We present an algorithm to determine optimal variable valuations that allow a player to win a game. Furthermore, we show how to determine whether a player wins a game with respect to some, infinitely many, or all valuations. All our algorithms run in doubly-exponential time; so, adding bounded temporal operators does not increase the complexity compared to solving plain LTL games.

  20. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo


    Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim to...... and limited processing may occur due to time constraints, low involvement in the decision at hand, relying on habits or the task requiring too high a mental effort....... to maximise some subjective measure. Where other fields, for example within the social sciences and psychology, have made serious efforts to explore alternative models derived from principles of bounded rationality, this direction has begun to take speed within transport applications only recently. Bounded...