Solar-like oscillations in a massive star.
Belkacem, Kévin; Samadi, Réza; Goupil, Marie-Jo; Lefèvre, Laure; Baudin, Fréderic; Deheuvels, Sébastien; Dupret, Marc-Antoine; Appourchaux, Thierry; Scuflaire, Richard; Auvergne, Michel; Catala, Claude; Michel, Eric; Miglio, Andrea; Montalban, Josefina; Thoul, Anne; Talon, Suzanne; Baglin, Annie; Noels, Arlette
2009-06-19
Seismology of stars provides insight into the physical mechanisms taking place in their interior, with modes of oscillation probing different layers. Low-amplitude acoustic oscillations excited by turbulent convection were detected four decades ago in the Sun and more recently in low-mass main-sequence stars. Using data gathered by the Convection Rotation and Planetary Transits mission, we report here on the detection of solar-like oscillations in a massive star, V1449 Aql, which is a known large-amplitude (beta Cephei) pulsator.
Seismic diagnostics of solar-like oscillating stars
Li, Ya-Guang; Du, Ming-Hao; Xie, Bo-Han; Tian, Zhi-Jia; Bi, Shao-Lan; Li, Tan-Da; Wu, Ya-Qian; Liu, Kang
2017-04-01
High precision and long-lasting Kepler data enabled us to estimate stellar properties with asteroseismology as an accurate tool. We performed asteroseismic analysis on six solar-like stars observed by the Kepler mission: KIC 6064910, KIC 6766513, KIC 7107778, KIC 10079226, KIC 10147635 and KIC 12069127. The extraction of seismic information includes two parts. First, we obtained two global asteroseismic parameters, mean large separation {{Δ }}ν and frequency of maximum power {ν }\\max , with autocorrelation function and collapsed autocorrelation function. Second, we extracted individual oscillation modes ν nl with low-l degree using a least-squares fit. Stellar grid models were built with Yale Rotating Stellar Evolution Code (YREC) to analyze stellar properties. They covered the range of M=0.8˜ 1.8{M}⊙ with a step of 0.02 {M}⊙ and [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-0.3˜ 0.4 dex with a step of 0.1 dex. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate stellar fundamental parameters of the six stars, under the constraints of asteroseismic parameters ({{Δ }}ν , {ν }\\max ) and non-asteroseismic parameters ({T}{eff}, [{Fe}/{{H}}]). We discover that the six targets include five sub-giant stars with 1.2˜ 1.5 {M}⊙ and one main-sequence star with 1.08 {M}⊙ , and with ages in the range of 3˜ 5 {Gyr}.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Kallinger, Thomas
2011-01-01
implies that the stellar parameters can be measured to much higher precision than what is usually achievable for single stars. This makes clusters ideal for exploring the relation between the mode amplitude of solar-like oscillations and the global stellar properties. We have analyzed data obtained...... with NASA's Kepler space telescope to study solar-like oscillations in 100 red giant stars located in either of the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811. By fitting the measured amplitudes to predictions from simple scaling relations that depend on luminosity, mass, and effective...
On the detectability of solar-like oscillations with the NASA TESS mission
Campante, Tiago L.
2017-10-01
The upcoming NASA TESS mission will perform an all-sky survey for planets transiting bright nearby stars. In addition, its excellent photometric precision will enable asteroseismology of solar-type and red-giant stars. We apply a newly developed detection test along a sequence of stellar evolutionary tracks in order to predict the detectability of solar-like oscillations with TESS.
Determining global parameters of the oscillations of solar-like stars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Régulo, C.
2010-01-01
Context. Helioseismology has enabled us to better understand the solar interior, while also allowing us to better constrain solar models. But now is a tremendous epoch for asteroseismology as space missions dedicated to studying stellar oscillations have been launched within the last years (MOST...... and CoRoT). CoRoT has already proved valuable results for many types of stars, while Kepler, which was launched in March 2009, will provide us with a huge number of seismic data very soon. This is an opportunity to better constrain stellar models and to finally understand stellar structure and evolution......), retrieve the surface rotation period of the star and use these results to estimate the global parameters of the star (radius and mass). Methods. To prepare for the arrival and the analysis of hundreds of solar-like oscillating stars, we have developed a robust and automatic pipeline, which was partially...
Solar-like Oscillations in Low-luminosity Red Giants: First Results from Kepler
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bedding, T. R.; Huber, D.; Stello, D.
2010-01-01
We have measured solar-like oscillations in red giants using time-series photometry from the first 34 days of science operations of the Kepler Mission. The light curves, obtained with 30 minute sampling, reveal clear oscillations in a large sample of G and K giants, extending in luminosity from t...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barban C.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler measurements reveal us that the amplitudes of solar-like oscillations detected in red giant stars scale from stars to stars in a characteristic way. This observed scaling relation is not yet fully understood but constitutes potentially a powerful diagnostic about mode physics. Quasi-adiabatic theoretical scaling relations in terms of mode amplitudes result in systematic and large differences with the measurements performed for red giant stars. The use of a non-adiabatic intensity-velocity relation derived from a non-adiabatic pulsation code significantly reduces the discrepancy with the CoRoT measurements. The origin of the remaining difference is still unknown. Departure from adiabatic eigenfunction is a very likely explanation that is investigated in the present work using a 3D hydrodynamical model of the surface layers of a representative red giant star.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huber, D.; Bedding, T.R.; Stello, D.
2011-01-01
for subgiant stars. Finally, we test the location of the cool edge of the instability strip in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram using solar-like oscillations and find the detections in the hottest stars compatible with a domain of hybrid stochastically excited and opacity driven pulsation.......We have analyzed solar-like oscillations in ~1700 stars observed by the Kepler Mission, spanning from the main sequence to the red clump. Using evolutionary models, we test asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency of maximum power (νmax), the large frequency separation (Δν...
“Rapid-Fire” Spectroscopy of Kepler Solar-Like Oscillators
Thygesen, Anders O.; Bruntt, Hans; Chaplin, William J.; Basu, Sarbani
The NASA Kepler mission has been continuously monitoring the same field of the sky since the successful launch in March 2009, providing high-quality stellar lightcurves that are excellent data for asteroseismology, far superior to any other observations available at the present. In order to make a meaningful analysis and interpretation of the asteroseismic data, accurate fundamental parameters for the observed stars are needed. The currently available parameters are quite uncertain as illustrated by e.g. Thygesen et al. (A&A 543:A160, 2012), who found deviations as extreme as 2 dex in [Fe/H] and logg, compared to catalogue values. Thus, additional follow-up observations for these targets are needed in order to put firm limits on the parameter space investigated by the asteroseismic modellers. Here, we propose a method for deriving accurate metallicities of main sequence and subgiant solar-like oscillators from medium resolution spectra with a moderate S/N. The method takes advantage of the additional constraints on the fundamental parameters, available from asteroseismology and multi-color photometry. The approach enables us to reduce the analysis overhead significantly when doing spectral synthesis, which in turn will increases the efficiency of follow-up observations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campante, T. L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Handberg, R.; Miglio, A.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lund, M. N.; Arentoft, T.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Karoff, C.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Huber, D. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hekker, S. [Astronomical Institute, " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); García, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot (France); IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Corsaro, E. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Basu, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Bedding, T. R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Gilliland, R. L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kawaler, S. D., E-mail: campante@bison.ph.bham.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); and others
2014-03-10
We present a novel method for estimating lower-limit surface gravities (log g) of Kepler targets whose data do not allow the detection of solar-like oscillations. The method is tested using an ensemble of solar-type stars observed in the context of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium. We then proceed to estimate lower-limit log g for a cohort of Kepler solar-type planet-candidate host stars with no detected oscillations. Limits on fundamental stellar properties, as provided by this work, are likely to be useful in the characterization of the corresponding candidate planetary systems. Furthermore, an important byproduct of the current work is the confirmation that amplitudes of solar-like oscillations are suppressed in stars with increased levels of surface magnetic activity.
The excitation of solar-like oscillations in a δSct star by efficient envelope convection
Antoci, V.; Handler, G.; Campante, T. L.; Thygesen, A. O.; Moya, A.; Kallinger, T.; Stello, D.; Grigahcène, A.; Kjeldsen, H.; Bedding, T. R.; Lüftinger, T.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Catanzaro, G.; Frasca, A.; De Cat, P.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Bruntt, H.; Houdek, G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Lenz, P.; Kaiser, A.; van Cleve, J.; Allen, C.; Clarke, B. D.
2011-09-01
Delta Scuti (δSct) stars are opacity-driven pulsators with masses of 1.5-2.5Msolar, their pulsations resulting from the varying ionization of helium. In less massive stars such as the Sun, convection transports mass and energy through the outer 30per cent of the star and excites a rich spectrum of resonant acoustic modes. Based on the solar example, with no firm theoretical basis, models predict that the convective envelope in δSct stars extends only about 1per cent of the radius, but with sufficient energy to excite solar-like oscillations. This was not observed before the Kepler mission, so the presence of a convective envelope in the models has been questioned. Here we report the detection of solar-like oscillations in the δSct star HD187547, implying that surface convection operates efficiently in stars about twice as massive as the Sun, as the ad hoc models predicted.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Mikkel N.; Chaplin, William J.; Kjeldsen, Hans
2012-01-01
frequency) background contributions from stellar granulation and shot or instrumental noise. We adopt a false-alarm approach (Chaplin et al. 2011) to ascertain whether flagged excess power, which is consistent with the excess expected from solar-like oscillations, is hard to explain by chance alone (and......We introduce a new method to detect solar-like oscillations in frequency power spectra of stellar observations, under conditions of very low signal to noise. The Moving-Windowed-Power-Search, or MWPS, searches the power spectrum for signatures of excess power, over and above slowly varying (in...... hence a candidate detection). We apply the method to solar photometry data, whose quality was systematically degraded to test the performance of the MWPS at low signal-to-noise ratios. We also compare the performance of the MWPS against the frequently applied power-spectrum-of-power-spectrum (PSx...
Rotation and magnetic activity of oscillating solar-like stars with the Kepler mission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathur Savita
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For the last few decades the investigation of stellar magnetic activity has been conducted through spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric surveys. This led not only to the detection of magnetic cycles in other stars but also to variable and magnetic activity. For the Sun, the magnetic activity is described as the interaction between convection, rotation, and magnetic field. To study magnetic activity of solar-like stars we need to have the knowledge of the surface rotation period, the properties of magnetic activity, and the structure of the stars. We present the results obtained from the studies of Kepler solarlike targets in terms of rotation periods, magnetic activity proxies and magnetic activity cycles detected. We can then combine this information with asteroseismic studies to have a broader picture of stellar magnetic activity.
Solar-like oscillations in the G9.5 subgiant β Aquilae
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Corsaro, E.; Grundahl, F.; Leccia, S.
2012-01-01
An interesting asteroseismic target is the G9.5 IV solar-like star beta Aql. This is an ideal target for asteroseismic investigations, because precise astrometric measurements are available from Hipparcos that greatly help in constraining the theoretical interpretation of the results. The star......, where the possibility of detecting time individual p-mode frequencies for the first and deriving their corresponding asymptotic values will be discussed. The time-series analysis carried out from \\sim 800 collected spectra shows the typical p-mode frequency pattern with a maximum centered at 416 \\mu......Hz. In the frequency range 300 - 600 \\muHz we identified for the first time six high S/N (\\gtrsim 3.5) modes with l = 0,2 and 11 star appears to be quite difficult owing to a substantial presence...
Characterization of the power excess of solar-like oscillations in red giants with Kepler
Mosser, B.; Elsworth, Y.; Hekker, S.; Huber, D.; Kallinger, T.; Mathur, S.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, M.; Samadi, R.; Barban, C.; Bedding, T.R.; Chaplin, W.J.; Garcia, R.A.; Stello, D.; De Ridder, J.; Middour, C.K.; Morris, R.L.; Quintana, E.V.
2012-01-01
Context. The space mission Kepler provides us with long and uninterrupted photometric time series of red giants. This allows us to examine their seismic global properties and to compare these with theoretical predictions. Aims. We aim to describe the oscillation power excess observed in red giant
A Multi-Site Campaign to Measure Solar-Like Oscillations in Procyon. II. Mode Frequencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bedding, Timothy R.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Campante, Tiago L.
2010-01-01
We have analyzed data from a multi-site campaign to observe oscillations in the F5 star Procyon. The data consist of high-precision velocities that we obtained over more than three weeks with 11 telescopes. A new method for adjusting the data weights allows us to suppress the sidelobes in the p...... We have analyzed data from a multi-site campaign to observe oscillations in the F5 star Procyon. The data consist of high-precision velocities that we obtained over more than three weeks with 11 telescopes. A new method for adjusting the data weights allows us to suppress the sidelobes...... with mixed character. We show that the frequencies of the ridge centroids and their separations are useful diagnostics for asteroseismology. In particular, variations in the large separation appear to indicate a glitch in the sound-speed profile at an acoustic depth of similar to 1000 s. We list frequencies...
Solar-like oscillating stars as standard clocks and rulers for Galactic studies
Miglio, Andrea; Girardi, Leo; Rodrigues, Thaise S.; Stello, Dennis; Chaplin, William J.
2014-01-01
The CoRoT and Kepler space missions have detected oscillations in hundreds of Sun-like stars and thousands of field red-giant stars. This has opened the door to a new era of stellar population studies in the Milky Way. We report on the current status and future prospects of harvesting space-based photometric data for ensemble asteroseismology, and highlight some of the challenges that need to be faced to use these stars as accurate clocks and rulers for Galactic studies.
Solar-like Oscillations in KIC 11395018 and KIC 11234888 from 8 Months of Kepler Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mathur, S.; Handberg, Rasmus; Campante, Tiago. L.
2011-01-01
We analyze the photometric short-cadence data obtained with the Kepler mission during the first 8 months of observations of two solar-type stars of spectral types G and F: KIC 11395018 and KIC 11234888, respectively, the latter having a lower signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) compared with the former. We...... laws. We emphasize the importance of continued observations for the stars with low S/N for an improved characterization of the oscillation modes. Our results offer a preview of what will be possible for many stars with the long data sets obtained during the remainder of the mission....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Casagrande L.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Solar-like oscillating giants observed by the space-borne satellites CoRoT and Kepler can be used as key tracers of stellar populations in the Milky Way. When combined with additional photometric/spectroscopic constraints, the pulsation spectra of solar-like oscillating giant stars not only reveal their radii, and hence distances, but also provide well-constrained estimates of their masses, which can be used as proxies for the ages of these evolved stars. In this contribution we provide supplementary material to the comparison we presented in Miglio et al. (2013 between populations of giants observed by CoRoT in the fields designated LRc01 and LRa01.
Wu, Tao; Li, Yan
2017-10-01
Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for probing stellar interiors and determining stellar fundamental parameters. In the present work, we adopt the χ2-minimization method but only use the observed high-precision seismic observations (i.e., oscillation frequencies) to constrain theoretical models for analyzing solar-like oscillator KIC 6225718. Finally, we find the acoustic radius τ0 is the only global parameter that can be accurately measured by the χ2-matching method between observed frequencies and theoretical model calculations for a pure p-mode oscillation star. We obtain seconds for KIC 6225718. It leads that the mass and radius of the CMMs are degenerate with each other. In addition, we find that the distribution range of acoustic radius is slightly enlarged by some extreme cases, which posses both a larger mass and a higher (or lower) metal abundance, at the lower acoustic radius end.
Solar-like oscillations from the depths of the red-giant star KIC4351319 observed with Kepler
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
di Mauro, M.P.; Cardini, D.; Catanzaro, G.
2011-01-01
-mode pattern due to radial acoustic modes and non-radial nearly pure p modes. In addition, several non-radial mixed modes have been identified. Theoretical models well reproduce the observed oscillation frequencies and indicate that this star, located at the base of the ascending red-giant branch......Hz, respectively, and the frequency of maximum oscillation power, inline imageHz. The high signal-to-noise ratio of the observations allowed us to identify 25 independent pulsation modes whose frequencies range approximately from 300 to inline imageHz. The observed oscillation frequencies together...... with the accurate determination of the atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, gravity and metallicity), provided by additional ground-based spectroscopic observations, enabled us to theoretically interpret the observed oscillation spectrum. KIC 4351319 appears to oscillate with a well-defined solar-type p...
Wu, Tao; Li, Yan
2017-09-01
Asteroseismology is a useful tool that is usually used to probe stellar interiors and to determine stellar fundamental parameters, such as stellar mass, radius, and surface gravity. In order to probe stellar interiors, making comparisons between observations and models is usually used with the {χ }2-minimization method. The work of Wu & Li reported that the best parameter determined by the {χ }2-matching process is the acoustic radius for pure p-mode oscillations. In the present work, based on the theoretical calculations of Wu & Li, we will independently analyze the seismic observations of KIC 6225718 to determine its fundamental parameters and to investigate its interior properties. First, in order to test the method, we use it in the Sun to determine its fundamental parameters and to investigate interiors. Second, we independently determine the fundamental parameters of KIC 6225718 without any other non-seismic constraint. Therefore, those determined fundamental parameters are independent of those determined by other methods. They can be regarded as independent references in other analyses. Finally, we analyze the stellar internal structure and find that KIC 6225718 has a convective core with the size of 0.078-0.092 {R}⊙ . Its overshooting parameter {f}{ov} in the core is around 0.010. In addition, its center hydrogen {X}{{c}} is about 0.264-0.355.
Asymptotic behavior of a weakly forced dry friction oscillator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Ildefonso Diaz
2007-05-01
Full Text Available This note is devoted to stick-slip aspects of the motion of a dry friction damped oscillator under weak irregular forcing. Our main result complements [10, Theorem 3.(a] and is also related to [1], where a non-Lipschitz model for Coulomb friction was consider in the unforced case. We provide sufficient conditions guaranteeing that solutions stabilizing in finite time, but observe also an infinite succession of ``stick-slip'' behavior. The last section discusses an extension to certain systems of such oscillators.
A Duffing oscillator algorithm to detect the weak chromatographic signal.
Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Bing-Ren
2007-02-28
Based on the Duffing equation, a Duffing oscillator algorithm (DOA) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was presented. By simulated and experimental data sets, it was proven that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the weak signal could be greatly enhanced by this method. Using signal enhancement by DOA, this method extends the SNR of low concentrations of methylbenzene from 2.662 to 29.90 and the method can be used for quantitative analysis of methylbenzene, which are lower than detection limit of an analytical system. The Duffing oscillator algorithm (DOA) might be a promising tool to extend instrumental linear range and to improve the accuracy of trace analysis. The research enlarged the application scope of Duffing equation to chromatographic signal processing.
Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Wirth
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts.
The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is, how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow, is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model.
The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hekker, S.; Debosscher, J.; Huber, D.
2010-01-01
satellite. We compute stellar parameters of the red giant from spectra and the asteroseismic mass and radius from the oscillations. Although only one eclipse has been observed so far, we can already determine that the secondary is a main-sequence F star in an eccentric orbit with a semi-major axis larger...
Effective long-time phase dynamics of limit-cycle oscillators driven by weak colored noise
Nakao, Hiroya; Teramae, Jun-nosuke; Goldobin, Denis S.; Kuramoto, Yoshiki
2010-09-01
An effective white-noise Langevin equation is derived that describes long-time phase dynamics of a limit-cycle oscillator driven by weak stationary colored noise. Effective drift and diffusion coefficients are given in terms of the phase sensitivity of the oscillator and the correlation function of the noise, and are explicitly calculated for oscillators with sinusoidal phase sensitivity functions driven by two typical colored Gaussian processes. The results are verified by numerical simulations using several types of stochastic or chaotic noise. The drift and diffusion coefficients of oscillators driven by chaotic noise exhibit anomalous dependence on the oscillator frequency, reflecting the peculiar power spectrum of the chaotic noise.
Fast Rotating solar-like stars using asteroseismic datasets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A. García, R.; Ceillier, T.; Campante, T.
2011-01-01
The NASA Kepler mission is providing an unprecedented set of asteroseismic data. In particular, short-cadence lightcurves (~60s samplings), allow us to study solar-like stars covering a wide range of masses, spectral types and evolutionary stages. Oscillations have been observed in around 600 out...
On approximations of first integrals for a system of weakly nonlinear, coupled harmonic oscillators
Waluya, S.B.; van Horssen, W.T.
2001-01-01
In this paper a system of weakly nonlinear, coupled harmonic oscillators will be studied. It will be shown that the recently developed perturbation method based on integrating vectors can be used to approximate rst integrals and periodic solutions. To show how this perturbation method works the
Leaci, Paola; Ortolan, Antonello
2007-12-01
We discuss limitations in precision measurements of a weak classical force coupled to quantum mechanical systems, the so-called standard quantum limit (SQL). Among the several contexts exploiting the measurement of classical signals, gravitational wave (GW) detection is of paramount importance. In this framework, we analyze the quantum limited sensitivity of a free test mass, a quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator, two harmonic oscillators with equal masses and different resonance frequencies, and finally two mechanical oscillators with different masses and resonating at the same frequency. The sensitivity analysis of the latter two cases illustrates the potentialities of back-action reduction and classical impedance matching schemes, respectively. By examining coupled quantum oscillators as detectors of classical signals, we found a viable path to approach the SQL for planned or operating GW detectors, such as DUAL and AURIGA.
Hoppensteadt, F C; Izhikevich, E M
1996-08-01
We study weakly connected networks of neural oscillators near multiple Andronov-Hopf bifurcation points. We analyze relationships between synaptic organizations (anatomy) of the networks and their dynamical properties (function). Our principal assumptions are: (1) Each neural oscillator comprises two populations of neurons; excitatory and inhibitory ones; (2) activity of each population of neurons is described by a scalar (one-dimensional) variable; (3) each neural oscillator is near a nondegenerate supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation point; (4) the synaptic connections between the neural oscillators are weak. All neural networks satisfying these hypotheses are governed by the same dynamical system, which we call the canonical model. Studying the canonical model shows that: (1) A neural oscillator can communicate only with those oscillators which have roughly the same natural frequency. That is, synaptic connections between a pair of oscillators having different natural frequencies are functionally insignificant. (2) Two neural oscillators having the same natural frequencies might not communicate if the connections between them are from among a class of pathological synaptic configurations. In both cases the anatomical presence of synaptic connections between neural oscillators does not necessarily guarantee that the connections are functionally significant. (3) There can be substantial phase differences (time delays) between the neural oscillators, which result from the synaptic organization of the network, not from the transmission delays. Using the canonical model we can illustrate self-ignition and autonomous quiescence (oscillator death) phenomena. That is, a network of passive elements can exhibit active properties and vice versa. We also study how Dale's principle affects dynamics of the networks, in particular, the phase differences that the network can reproduce. We present a complete classification of all possible synaptic organizations from this
A Nanotechnology-Ready Computing Scheme based on a Weakly Coupled Oscillator Network
Vodenicarevic, Damir; Locatelli, Nicolas; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Grollier, Julie; Querlioz, Damien
2017-03-01
With conventional transistor technologies reaching their limits, alternative computing schemes based on novel technologies are currently gaining considerable interest. Notably, promising computing approaches have proposed to leverage the complex dynamics emerging in networks of coupled oscillators based on nanotechnologies. The physical implementation of such architectures remains a true challenge, however, as most proposed ideas are not robust to nanotechnology devices’ non-idealities. In this work, we propose and investigate the implementation of an oscillator-based architecture, which can be used to carry out pattern recognition tasks, and which is tailored to the specificities of nanotechnologies. This scheme relies on a weak coupling between oscillators, and does not require a fine tuning of the coupling values. After evaluating its reliability under the severe constraints associated to nanotechnologies, we explore the scalability of such an architecture, suggesting its potential to realize pattern recognition tasks using limited resources. We show that it is robust to issues like noise, variability and oscillator non-linearity. Defining network optimization design rules, we show that nano-oscillator networks could be used for efficient cognitive processing.
Hoppensteadt, F C; Izhikevich, E M
1998-01-01
We consider all models of the thalamo-cortical system that satisfy the following two assumptions: (1) each cortical column is an autonomous oscillator; (2) connections between cortical columns and the thalamus are weak. Our goal is to deduce from these assumptions general principles of thalamo-cortical interactions that are independent of the equations describing the system. We find that the existence of synaptic connections between any two cortical columns does not guarantee that the columns interact: They interact only when there is a certain nearly resonant relation between their frequencies, which implies that the interactions are frequency modulated (FM). When the resonance relation holds, the cortical columns interact through phase modulations. Thus, communications between weakly connected cortical oscillators employ a principle similar to that in FM radio: The frequency of oscillation encodes the channel of communication, while the information is transmitted via phase modulations. If the thalamic input has an appropriate frequency, then it can dynamically link any two cortical columns, even those that have non-resonant frequencies and would otherwise be unlinked. Thus, by adjusting its temporal activity, the thalamus has control over information processing taking place in the cortex. Our results suggest that the mean firing rate (frequency) of periodically spiking neuron does not carry any information other than identifying a channel of communication. Information (i.e. neural code) is carried through modulations of interspike intervals.
Weak synchronization and large-scale collective oscillation in dense bacterial suspensions
Wu, Yilin
Collective oscillatory behavior is ubiquitous in nature and it plays a vital role in many biological processes. Collective oscillations in biological multicellular systems often arise from coupling mediated by diffusive chemicals, by electrochemical mechanisms, or by biomechanical interaction between cells and their physical environment. In these examples, the phase of some oscillatory intracellular degree of freedom is synchronized. Here, in contrast, we discovered a unique 'weak synchronization' mechanism that does not require long-range coupling, nor even inherent oscillation of individual cells: We found that millions of motile cells in dense bacterial suspensions can self-organize into highly robust collective oscillatory motion, while individuals move in an erratic manner. Over large spatial scales we found that the phase of the oscillations is in fact organized into a centimeter scale traveling wave. We present a model of noisy self-propelled particles with strictly local interactions that accounts faithfully for our observations. These findings expand our knowledge of biological self-organization and reveal a new type of long-range order in active matter systems. The mechanism of collective oscillation uncovered here may inspire new strategies to control the self-organization of active matter and swarming robots. This work is supported by funding from CUHK Direct research Grants (4053019, 4053079, 4053130), the Research Grants Council of HKSAR (RGC Ref. No. CUHK 409713), and from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 21473152).
Traveling-wave tubes and backward-wave oscillators with weak external magnetic fields.
Abu-elfadl, T M; Nusinovich, G S; Shkvarunets, A G; Carmel, Y; Antonsen, T M; Goebel, D
2001-06-01
Recent development of plasma-assisted slow-wave oscillators [Goebel et al. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 22, 547 (1994)], microwave sources that operate without guiding magnetic fields, has stimulated interest in the theoretical analysis of such tubes. In principle, in the absence of guiding magnetic fields, due to the space charge forces and the radial electric field of the wave, the electrons may propagate radially outward which increases electron coupling to the slow wave whose field is localized near the slow-wave structure (SWS). This increases the wave growth rate and efficiency, and hence allows one to shorten the interaction region. So the radial electron motion can be beneficial for operation if it does not lead to interception of electrons by the SWS. To avoid this interception a weak external magnetic field can be applied. The theory developed describes the effect of weak magnetic fields on the operation of traveling-wave tubes and backward-wave oscillators with electrons moving not only axially but also transversely. This theory allows one to estimate the magnetic field required for protecting the SWS from electron bombardment at different power levels. Theoretical predictions of the efficiency enhancement due to the weak magnetic field are confirmed in experiments.
Robust Weak Chimeras in Oscillator Networks with Delayed Linear and Quadratic Interactions
Bick, Christian; Sebek, Michael; Kiss, István Z.
2017-10-01
We present an approach to generate chimera dynamics (localized frequency synchrony) in oscillator networks with two populations of (at least) two elements using a general method based on a delayed interaction with linear and quadratic terms. The coupling design yields robust chimeras through a phase-model-based design of the delay and the ratio of linear and quadratic components of the interactions. We demonstrate the method in the Brusselator model and experiments with electrochemical oscillators. The technique opens the way to directly bridge chimera dynamics in phase models and real-world oscillator networks.
Shen, Zhongtao; Feng, Changqing
2017-05-01
In this paper, a hardware real-time weak signal detection method using Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Duffing Oscillator (DUOS) and high speed Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. In the design, the Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA is chosen as the controller and the DUOS weak signal detecting algorithm is implemented in it with single floating precision. The ADS5409, a dual-channel, 12-bit, 900 MSPS ADC of TI, is used for data acquisition. Besides, to guarantee the same detection Signal-Noise Ratio (SNR) for signals of different amplitudes, a signal auto-damping strategy is adopted in the FPGA, which can adjust the amplitudes of the input signals automatically. The method introduced in this paper achieves not only the ability of efficient weak signal detection in noisy environment but also the advantages of hardware processing such as real-time, low power and so on.
Astrospheres and Solar-like Stellar Winds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wood Brian E.
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Stellar analogs for the solar wind have proven to be frustratingly difficult to detect directly. However, these stellar winds can be studied indirectly by observing the interaction regions carved out by the collisions between these winds and the interstellar medium (ISM. These interaction regions are called "astrospheres", analogous to the "heliosphere" surrounding the Sun. The heliosphere and astrospheres contain a population of hydrogen heated by charge exchange processes that can produce enough H I Ly alpha absorption to be detectable in UV spectra of nearby stars from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. The amount of astrospheric absorption is a diagnostic for the strength of the stellar wind, so these observations have provided the first measurements of solar-like stellar winds. Results from these stellar wind studies and their implications for our understanding of the solar wind are reviewed here. Of particular interest are results concerning the past history of the solar wind and its impact on planetary atmospheres.
Seismic analysis of four solar-like stars observed during more than eight months by Kepler
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mathur, S.; L. Campante, T.; Handberg, R.
2011-01-01
Having started science operations in May 2009, the Kepler photometer has been able to provide exquisite data of solar-like stars. Five out of the 42 stars observed continuously during the survey phase show evidence of oscillations, even though they are rather faint (magnitudes from 10.5 to 12......). In this paper, we present an overview of the results of the seismic analysis of 4 of these stars observed during more than eight months....
Hoppensteadt, F C; Izhikevich, E M
1996-08-01
This is the second of two articles devoted to analyzing the relationship between synaptic organizations (anatomy) and dynamical properties (function) of networks of neural oscillators near multiple supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation points. Here we analyze learning processes in such networks. Regarding learning dynamics, we assume (1) learning is local (i.e. synaptic modification depends on pre- and postsynaptic neurons but not on others), (2) synapses modify slowly relative to characteristic neuron response times, (3) in the absence of either pre- or postsynaptic activity, the synapse weakens (forgets). Our major goal is to analyze all synaptic organizations of oscillatory neural networks that can memorize and retrieve phase information or time delays. We show that such network have the following attributes: (1) the rate of synaptic plasticity connected with learning is determined locally by the presynaptic neurons, (2) the excitatory neurons must be long-axon relay neurons capable of forming distant connections with other excitatory and inhibitory neurons, (3) if inhibitory neurons have long axons, then the network can learn, passively forget and actively unlearn information by adjusting synaptic plasticity rates.
Beer, Katharina; Joschinski, Jens; Arrazola Sastre, Alazne; Krauss, Jochen; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte
2017-11-02
Timing seasonal events, like reproduction or diapause, is crucial for the survival of many species. Global change causes phenologies worldwide to shift, which requires a mechanistic explanation of seasonal time measurement. Day length (photoperiod) is a reliable indicator of winter arrival, but it remains unclear how exactly species measure day length. A reference for time of day could be provided by a circadian clock, by an hourglass clock, or, as some newer models suggest, by a damped circadian clock. However, damping of clock outputs has so far been rarely observed. To study putative clock outputs of Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids, we raised individual nymphs on coloured artificial diet, and measured rhythms in metabolic activity in light-dark illumination cycles of 16:08 hours (LD) and constant conditions (DD). In addition, we kept individuals in a novel monitoring setup and measured locomotor activity. We found that A. pisum is day-active in LD, potentially with a bimodal distribution. In constant darkness rhythmicity of locomotor behaviour persisted in some individuals, but patterns were mostly complex with several predominant periods. Metabolic activity, on the other hand, damped quickly. A damped circadian clock, potentially driven by multiple oscillator populations, is the most likely explanation of our results.
Izhikevich, E M
1999-01-01
We study pulse-coupled neural networks that satisfy only two assumptions: each isolated neuron fires periodically, and the neurons are weakly connected. Each such network can be transformed by a piece-wise continuous change of variables into a phase model, whose synchronization behavior and oscillatory associative properties are easier to analyze and understand. Using the phase model, we can predict whether a given pulse-coupled network has oscillatory associative memory, or what minimal adjustments should be made so that it can acquire memory. In the search for such minimal adjustments we obtain a large class of simple pulse-coupled neural networks that can memorize and reproduce synchronized temporal patterns the same way a Hopfield network does with static patterns. The learning occurs via modification of synaptic weights and/or synaptic transmission delays.
Huang, Xiangdi; Li, Jing
2018-03-01
For the three-dimensional full compressible Navier-Stokes system describing the motion of a viscous, compressible, heat-conductive, and Newtonian polytropic fluid, we establish the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions with smooth initial data which are of small energy but possibly large oscillations where the initial density is allowed to vanish. Moreover, for the initial data, which may be discontinuous and contain vacuum states, we also obtain the global existence of weak solutions. These results generalize previous ones on classical and weak solutions for initial density being strictly away from a vacuum, and are the first for global classical and weak solutions which may have large oscillations and can contain vacuum states.
Huang, Xiangdi; Li, Jing
2017-11-01
For the three-dimensional full compressible Navier-Stokes system describing the motion of a viscous, compressible, heat-conductive, and Newtonian polytropic fluid, we establish the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions with smooth initial data which are of small energy but possibly large oscillations where the initial density is allowed to vanish. Moreover, for the initial data, which may be discontinuous and contain vacuum states, we also obtain the global existence of weak solutions. These results generalize previous ones on classical and weak solutions for initial density being strictly away from a vacuum, and are the first for global classical and weak solutions which may have large oscillations and can contain vacuum states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macias-Diaz, J.E. [Departamento de Matematicas y Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Ags. 20100 (Mexico) and Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)]. E-mail: jemacias@correo.uaa.mx; Puri, A. [Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)]. E-mail: apuri@uno.edu
2007-07-02
In the present Letter, we simulate the propagation of binary signals in semi-infinite, mechanical chains of coupled oscillators harmonically driven at the end, by making use of the recently discovered process of nonlinear supratransmission. Our numerical results-which are based on a brand-new computational technique with energy-invariant properties-show an efficient and reliable transmission of information.
Differential rotation in solar-like stars from global simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerrero, G.; Kosovichev, A. G. [Solar Physics, HEPL, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading RG2 9AX (United Kingdom); Mansour, N. N., E-mail: gag@stanford.edu, E-mail: sasha@sun.stanford.edu, E-mail: smolar@ecmwf.int, E-mail: nagi.n.mansour@nasa.gov [NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94040 (United States)
2013-12-20
To explore the physics of large-scale flows in solar-like stars, we perform three-dimensional anelastic simulations of rotating convection for global models with stratification resembling the solar interior. The numerical method is based on an implicit large-eddy simulation approach designed to capture effects from non-resolved small scales. We obtain two regimes of differential rotation, with equatorial zonal flows accelerated either in the direction of rotation (solar-like) or in the opposite direction (anti-solar). While the models with the solar-like differential rotation tend to produce multiple cells of meridional circulation, the models with anti-solar differential rotation result in only one or two meridional cells. Our simulations indicate that the rotation and large-scale flow patterns critically depend on the ratio between buoyancy and Coriolis forces. By including a sub-adiabatic layer at the bottom of the domain, corresponding to the stratification of a radiative zone, we reproduce a layer of strong radial shear similar to the solar tachocline. Similarly, enhanced super-adiabaticity at the top results in a near-surface shear layer located mainly at lower latitudes. The models reveal a latitudinal entropy gradient localized at the base of the convection zone and in the stable region, which, however, does not propagate across the convection zone. In consequence, baroclinicity effects remain small, and the rotation isocontours align in cylinders along the rotation axis. Our results confirm the alignment of large convective cells along the rotation axis in the deep convection zone and suggest that such 'banana-cell' pattern can be hidden beneath the supergranulation layer.
CoRoT and Kepler results: Solar-like oscillators
Hekker, S.
2013-01-01
The space-borne observatories CoRoT (Convection Rotation and planetary Transits) and Kepler have provided photometric time series data of unprecedented precision for large numbers of stars. These data have revolutionized the fields of transiting exoplanets and asteroseismology. In this review some
The excitation of solar-like oscillations in a δ Sct star by efficient envelope convection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antoci, V.; Handler, G.; Kallinger, T.
2011-01-01
Delta Scuti (δSct) stars are opacity-driven pulsators with masses of 1.5-2.5Msolar, their pulsations resulting from the varying ionization of helium. In less massive stars such as the Sun, convection transports mass and energy through the outer 30per cent of the star and excites a rich spectrum o...
Excitation of Solar-like Oscillations: From PMS to MS Stellar Models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France. Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, USA. Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mt. Stromlo Observatory, Weston, Australia. Michigan ...
Inferring properties of small convective cores in main-sequence solar-like pulsators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandão, I. M.; Cunha, M. S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.
2013-01-01
This work concerns the study of the properties of convective cores in main-sequence models of solar-like pulsators and what information they may hold about stellar ages. We verified that the maximum absolute frequency derivative of particular combinations of frequencies, which we name "the slopes......", provides information on the relative size of the discontinuity in the sound-speed profile at the border of the convectively mixed region. Since the latter is related to the evolutionary state of stars, we show that for models with masses above 1.3M⊙, it may be possible to estimate the fraction of stellar...
Turbulent transport coefficients in spherical wedge dynamo simulations of solar-like stars
Warnecke, J.; Rheinhardt, M.; Tuomisto, S.; Käpylä, P. J.; Käpylä, M. J.; Brandenburg, A.
2018-01-01
Aims: We investigate dynamo action in global compressible solar-like convective dynamos in the framework of mean-field theory. Methods: We simulate a solar-type star in a wedge-shaped spherical shell, where the interplay between convection and rotation self-consistently drives a large-scale dynamo. To analyze the dynamo mechanism we apply the test-field method for azimuthally (φ) averaged fields to determine the 27 turbulent transport coefficients of the electromotive force, of which six are related to the α tensor. This method has previously been used either in simulations in Cartesian coordinates or in the geodynamo context and is applied here for the first time to fully compressible simulations of solar-like dynamos. Results: We find that the φφ-component of the α tensor does not follow the profile expected from that of kinetic helicity. The turbulent pumping velocities significantly alter the effective mean flows acting on the magnetic field and therefore challenge the flux transport dynamo concept. All coefficients are significantly affected by dynamically important magnetic fields. Quenching as well as enhancement are being observed. This leads to a modulation of the coefficients with the activity cycle. The temporal variations are found to be comparable to the time-averaged values and seem to be responsible for a nonlinear feedback on the magnetic field generation. Furthermore, we quantify the validity of the Parker-Yoshimura rule for the equatorward propagation of the mean magnetic field in the present case.
Oscillation mode frequencies of 61 main-sequence and subgiant stars observed by Kepler
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appourchaux, T.; Chaplin, W. J.; García, R. A.
2012-01-01
Solar-like oscillations have been observed by Kepler and CoRoT in several solar-type stars, thereby providing a way to probe the stars using asteroseismology Aims. We provide the mode frequencies of the oscillations of various stars required to perform a comparison with those obtained from stella...
Iron abundance determination for the solar-like stars HR 4345 and HR 6573
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vince Oliver I.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Using the BLACKWELL software package written by R.O. Gray, the iron abundance of the solar-like stars HR 4345 and HR 6573 has been determined. The method is based on determination of the minimum dispersion (or the region of least confusion of the iron abundance versus microturbulent velocity functions for some selected spectral lines of neutral iron. The input data used by BLACKWELL are the observed equivalent widths of several spectral lines of neutral iron. They are obtained from spectra observed at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France, with the 1.52-m telescope and Aurelie spectrograph. Reduction of the raw spectra and the measurement of the equivalent widths of spectral lines are carried out using IRAF and SPE software packages. The measured values of iron abundances of HR 4345 and HR 6573 are 7.72±0.03 and 7.63±0.05 respectively.
Star/disk interaction and angular momentum evolution model for solar-like stars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gallet Florian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The magnetic field in young stellar object is undoubtedly the most important component when one dealing with the angular momentum evolution. It controls this latter one from the pre-main sequence, during the so-called disk locking phase where the stars magnetically interact with their surrounding disk, to the main-sequence through powerful stellar winds that remove angular momentum from the stellar surface. We present new models for the rotational evolution of solar-like stars between 1 Myr and 10 Gyr with the aim to reproduce the distributions of rotational periods observed for star forming regions and young open clusters within this age range. We based our simulation on a recent model dedicated to the study of the angular momentum evolution of solar-type stars. This model include a new wind braking law based on recent numerical simulations of magnetized stellar winds and a specific dynamo and mass-loss prescription are used to link the angular momentum loss-rate to angular velocity evolution. The model additionally allows for a core/envelope decoupling with an angular momentum transfer between these two regions. Since this former model didn’t include any physical star/disk interaction description, two star/disk interaction processes are eventually added to it in order to reproduce the apparent small angular velocities to which the stellar surface is subject during the disk accretion phase. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow, median and fast rotators including two star/disk interaction scenarios that are the magnetospheric ejection and the accretion powered stellar winds processes. The models appear to fail at reproducing the rotational behaviour of solar-type stars except when a more intense magnetic field is used during the disk accretion phase.
Selleri, Franco
2015-01-01
Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.
Hyperchaos in coupled Colpitts oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cenys, Antanas; Tamasevicius, Arunas; Baziliauskas, Antanas
2003-01-01
The paper suggests a simple solution of building a hyperchaotic oscillator. Two chaotic Colpitts oscillators, either identical or non-identical ones are coupled by means of two linear resistors R-k. The hyperchaotic output signal v(t) is a linear combination, specifically the mean of the individu...... oscillators. The spectrum of the Lyapunov exponents (LE) have been calculated versus the coefficient k. For weakly coupled oscillators there are two positive LE indicating hyperchaotic behaviour of the overall system.......The paper suggests a simple solution of building a hyperchaotic oscillator. Two chaotic Colpitts oscillators, either identical or non-identical ones are coupled by means of two linear resistors R-k. The hyperchaotic output signal v(t) is a linear combination, specifically the mean of the individual...
Oscillation mode linewidths of main-sequence and subgiant stars observed by Kepler
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Gruberbauer, M.
2012-01-01
Solar-like oscillations have been observed by {{\\it Kepler}} and CoRoT in several solar-type stars. We study the variations of stellar p-mode linewidth as a function of effective temperature. Time series of 9 months of Kepler data have been used. The power spectra of 42 cool main-sequence stars a...
Espinosa, Ismael; Gonzalez, Hortensia; Quiza, Jorge; Gonazalez, J. Jesus; Arroyo, Ruben; Lara, Ritaluz
1995-01-01
Oscillation of electrical activity has been found in many nervous systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates including man. There exists experimental evidence of very simple circuits with the capability of oscillation. Neurons with intrinsic oscillation have been found and also neural circuits where oscillation is a property of the network. These two types of oscillations coexist in many instances. It is nowadays hypothesized that behind synchronization and oscillation there is a system of coupled oscillators responsible for activities that range from locomotion and feature binding in vision to control of sleep and circadian rhythms. The huge knowledge that has been acquired on oscillators from the times of Lord Rayleigh has made the simulation of neural oscillators a very active endeavor. This has been enhanced with more recent physiological findings about small neural circuits by means of intracellular and extracellular recordings as well as imaging methods. The future of this interdisciplinary field looks very promising; some researchers are going into quantum mechanics with the idea of trying to provide a quantum description of the brain. In this work we describe some simulations using neuron models by means of which we form simple neural networks that have the capability of oscillation. We analyze the oscillatory activity with root locus method, cross-correlation histograms, and phase planes. In the more complicated neural network models there is the possibility of chaotic oscillatory activity and we study that by means of Lyapunov exponents. The companion paper shows an example of that kind.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Al Kaissi MD, MSc
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome. And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations.
Model of stochastic self-oscillation in Gunn diode oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bocharov, E.P.; Korostelev, G.N.; Khripunov, M.V.
1987-07-01
The applicability of the two-mode nonlinear model of decay stochasticity for explanation of the transition from monochromatic self-oscillation to developed stochasticity in the Gunn diode oscillator is demonstrated. Numerical realizations of the basic regimes corresponding to various cases of consideration of the weak nonlinearity of the falling portion of the current-voltage characteristic are presented. A comparative analysis of calculation results of time realizations and experimentally observed oscillograms of stochastic regimes is performed.
Blaise, Paul
2011-01-01
An invaluable reference for an overall but simple approach to the complexity of quantum mechanics viewed through quantum oscillators Quantum oscillators play a fundamental role in many areas of physics; for instance, in chemical physics with molecular normal modes, in solid state physics with phonons, and in quantum theory of light with photons. Quantum Oscillators is a timely and visionary book which presents these intricate topics, broadly covering the properties of quantum oscillators which are usually dispersed in the literature at varying levels of detail and often combined with other p
An Oscillating Magnet Watt Balance
Ahmedov, H.
2015-01-01
We establish the principles for a new generation of simplified and accurate watt balances in which an oscillating magnet generates Faraday's voltage in a stationary coil. A force measuring system and a mechanism providing vertical movements of the magnet are completely independent in an oscillating magnet watt balance. This remarkable feature allows to establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by a one single experiment. Weak dependence on variations of environment...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
processes at the cellular level like the glycolytic pathway, peroxi- dase-catalysed reaction or the biosynthesis of certain proteins. A systematic study of oscillating chemical reactions is of consider- able interest, since these oscillating reactions can be used as prototype examples of the behaviours possible in reactions gov-.
Is There a Substellar Object Orbiting the Solar-like Stable Contact Binary V2284 Cyg?
Wang, J.-J.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Zhang, B.; Zhao, S.-Q.; Yu, J.
2017-12-01
V2284 Cyg is a neglected W UMa-type binary star for photometric investigations. Monitored by the Kepler Space Telescope from 2009 to 2013, its light curves are continuously stable, suggesting that both components are inactive during this time interval. Based on the short-cadence observations, we determined the photometric solutions by using the 2013 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. These parameters reveal that V2284 Cyg is a W-type system with a degree of contact factor of f = 39.23% and a mass ratio of q = 2.90. Meanwhile, hundreds of times of minimum light were obtained and applied to analyze the orbital period changes. In the O-C diagram, a small-amplitude cyclic oscillation (A 3 = 0.00030 days and T 3 = 2.06 years) superimposed on a secular decreasing was found. The continuous decreasing may be a result from the mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one. With the long-term decreasing of the orbital period, this binary will evolve into a deeper contact system. Because the light curve is stable, the cyclic variation is plausibly explained as the light-travel time effect (LTTE) due to the presence of an additional body. The mass of the companion is {M}3\\sin i\\prime =0.036(+/- 0.003) {M}⊙ . If the orbital plane inclination is a random distribution, it is a brown dwarf with 66.7% probability. Therefore, the companion of V2284 Cyg is possibly the first candidate of the brown dwarf orbiting around contact binary, where both component are sharing a common convective envelope.
Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2016-01-01
We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... that at resonance a stationary state arise consisting of multiple oscillating shock waves. Off resonance driving leads to a nearly linear oscillating ground state but superimposed by bursts of a fast oscillating shock wave. Based on a travelling wave ansatz for the fluid velocity potential with an added 2'nd order...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....
Isotropy of Angular Frequencies and Weak Chimeras with Broken Symmetry
Bick, Christian
2017-04-01
The notion of a weak chimeras provides a tractable definition for chimera states in networks of finitely many phase oscillators. Here, we generalize the definition of a weak chimera to a more general class of equivariant dynamical systems by characterizing solutions in terms of the isotropy of their angular frequency vector—for coupled phase oscillators the angular frequency vector is given by the average of the vector field along a trajectory. Symmetries of solutions automatically imply angular frequency synchronization. We show that the presence of such symmetries is not necessary by giving a result for the existence of weak chimeras without instantaneous or setwise symmetries for coupled phase oscillators. Moreover, we construct a coupling function that gives rise to chaotic weak chimeras without symmetry in weakly coupled populations of phase oscillators with generalized coupling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arik, M. (Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mathematics Bogazici Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Physics); Demircan, E.; Turgut, T. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics); Ekinci, L.; Mungan, M. (Bogazici Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Physics)
1992-07-01
We discuss the properties of oscillators whose spectrum is given by a generalized Fibonacci sequence. The properties include: Invariance under the unitary quantum group, generalized angular momentum, coherent states and difference calculus, relativistic interpretation. (orig.).
On Rabi oscillations between Bloch bands
Plötz, Patrick
2010-01-01
We study Rabi oscillations between the bands of an arbitrary biased superlattice in a tight-binding model. We reduce the problem to an equation of Whittaker--Hill type and, in absence of any known solutions in closed form, discuss different approximations to describe the oscillations between the Bloch bands. We identify regimes of weak and strong inter-band coupling and compare predictions for these Rabi oscillations to numerical results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iñigo Arregui
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Prominences are intriguing, but poorly understood, magnetic structures of the solar corona. The dynamics of solar prominences has been the subject of a large number of studies, and of particular interest is the study of prominence oscillations. Ground- and space-based observations have confirmed the presence of oscillatory motions in prominences and they have been interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD waves. This interpretation opens the door to perform prominence seismology, whose main aim is to determine physical parameters in magnetic and plasma structures (prominences that are difficult to measure by direct means. Here, we review the observational information gathered about prominence oscillations as well as the theoretical models developed to interpret small amplitude oscillations and their temporal and spatial attenuation. Finally, several prominence seismology applications are presented.
Analytical solutions of weakly coupled map lattices using recurrence relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sotelo Herrera, Dolores, E-mail: dsh@dfmf.uned.e [Applied Maths, EUITI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, 3-28012 Madrid (Spain); San Martin, Jesus [Applied Maths, EUITI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, 3-28012 Madrid (Spain); Dep. Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, UNED, Senda del Rey 9-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2009-07-20
By using asymptotic methods recurrence relations are found that rule weakly CML evolution, with both global and diffusive coupling. The solutions obtained from these relations are very general because they do not hold restrictions about boundary conditions, initial conditions and number of oscilators in the CML. Furthermore, oscillators are ruled by an arbitraty C{sup 2} function.
Rutten, R.J.
1999-01-01
This review concentrates on the quiet-Sun chromosphere. Its internetwork areas are dynamically dominated by the so-called chromospheric three-minute oscillation. They are interpretationally dominated by the so-called Ca II K 2V and H 2V grains. The main points of this review are that the one
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccari, A. [Istituto Tecnico `G. Cardano`, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy)
1996-08-01
The most important characteristics of the non-local oscillator, an oscillator subjected to an additional non-local force, are extensively studied by means of a new asymptotic perturbation method that is able to furnish an approximate solution of weakly non-linear differential equations. The resulting motion is doubly periodic, because a second little frequency appears, in addition to the fundamental harmonic frequency. Comparison with the numerical solution obtained by the Runge-Kitta method confirms the validity of the asymptotic perturbation method and its importance for the study of non-linear dynamical systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
George Neil
2003-05-12
FEL Oscillators have been around since 1977 providing not only a test bed for the physics of Free Electron Lasers and electron/photon interactions but as a workhorse of scientific research. More than 30 FEL oscillators are presently operating around the world spanning a wavelength range from the mm region to the ultraviolet using DC and rf linear accelerators and storage rings as electron sources. The characteristics that have driven the development of these sources are the desire for high peak and average power, high micropulse energies, wavelength tunability, timing flexibility, and wavelengths that are unavailable from more conventional laser sources. Substantial user programs have been performed using such sources encompassing medicine, biology, solid state research, atomic and molecular physics, effects of non-linear fields, surface science, polymer science, pulsed laser vapor deposition, to name just a few.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Arentoft, Torben
2010-01-01
Space-based projects are providing a wealth of high-quality asteroseismic data, including frequencies for a large number of stars showing solar-like oscillations. These data open the prospect for precise determinations of key stellar parameters, of particular value to the study of extra...... of stellar radius and mass for a sample of well-observed stars. We conclude that the SEEK package fixes stellar parameters with accuracy and precision....
Baraffe, I.; Pratt, J.; Goffrey, T.; Constantino, T.; Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Viallet, M.
2017-08-01
We study lithium depletion in low-mass and solar-like stars as a function of time, using a new diffusion coefficient describing extra-mixing taking place at the bottom of a convective envelope. This new form is motivated by multi-dimensional fully compressible, time-implicit hydrodynamic simulations performed with the MUSIC code. Intermittent convective mixing at the convective boundary in a star can be modeled using extreme value theory, a statistical analysis frequently used for finance, meteorology, and environmental science. In this Letter, we implement this statistical diffusion coefficient in a one-dimensional stellar evolution code, using parameters calibrated from multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a young low-mass star. We propose a new scenario that can explain observations of the surface abundance of lithium in the Sun and in clusters covering a wide range of ages, from ˜50 Myr to ˜4 Gyr. Because it relies on our physical model of convective penetration, this scenario has a limited number of assumptions. It can explain the observed trend between rotation and depletion, based on a single additional assumption, namely, that rotation affects the mixing efficiency at the convective boundary. We suggest the existence of a threshold in stellar rotation rate above which rotation strongly prevents the vertical penetration of plumes and below which rotation has small effects. In addition to providing a possible explanation for the long-standing problem of lithium depletion in pre-main-sequence and main-sequence stars, the strength of our scenario is that its basic assumptions can be tested by future hydrodynamic simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baraffe, I.; Pratt, J.; Goffrey, T.; Constantino, T.; Viallet, M. [Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R., E-mail: i.baraffe@ex.ac.uk [Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)
2017-08-10
We study lithium depletion in low-mass and solar-like stars as a function of time, using a new diffusion coefficient describing extra-mixing taking place at the bottom of a convective envelope. This new form is motivated by multi-dimensional fully compressible, time-implicit hydrodynamic simulations performed with the MUSIC code. Intermittent convective mixing at the convective boundary in a star can be modeled using extreme value theory, a statistical analysis frequently used for finance, meteorology, and environmental science. In this Letter, we implement this statistical diffusion coefficient in a one-dimensional stellar evolution code, using parameters calibrated from multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a young low-mass star. We propose a new scenario that can explain observations of the surface abundance of lithium in the Sun and in clusters covering a wide range of ages, from ∼50 Myr to ∼4 Gyr. Because it relies on our physical model of convective penetration, this scenario has a limited number of assumptions. It can explain the observed trend between rotation and depletion, based on a single additional assumption, namely, that rotation affects the mixing efficiency at the convective boundary. We suggest the existence of a threshold in stellar rotation rate above which rotation strongly prevents the vertical penetration of plumes and below which rotation has small effects. In addition to providing a possible explanation for the long-standing problem of lithium depletion in pre-main-sequence and main-sequence stars, the strength of our scenario is that its basic assumptions can be tested by future hydrodynamic simulations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
1997-01-01
In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear wit...... with negative resistance), Kennedy's Colpitts-oscillator (with and without chaos) and a new 4'th order oscillator with hyper-chaos.......In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear...
Graf, Rudolf F
1996-01-01
This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing
Power oscillation damping controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...... signal in response to the oscillation indicating signal, by processing the oscillation damping control signal in a signal processing chain. The signal processing chain includes a filter configured for passing only signals within a predetermined frequency range....
Oscillation parameters of red giants observed in the CoRoT exofield
Themessl, N.; Kallinger, T.; Montalbán, J.; García, R. A.
2014-02-01
The high-precision data obtained by the CoRoT (Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits) space mission allows firm detections of solar-like oscillations in a great variety of different stars. We derived reliable estimates of the frequency of maximum oscillation power νmax and the large frequency separation Δν of more than 300 cool red giants, that were observed by CoRoT. A detailed study of their seismic parameters provides an exclusive view of the population of the observed giants.
New neutrino oscillation results from NOVA
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
Neutrinos oscillate among flavors as they travel because a neutrino of a particular flavor is also a superposition of multiple neutrinos with slightly different masses. The interferometric nature of oscillations allows these tiny mass differences to be measured, along with the parameters of the PMNS matrix which governs the mixing. However, since neutrinos only interact weakly, a powerful neutrino source and massive detectors are required to measure them. In this talk I will show recently updated results from NOvA, a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab with two functionally identical scintillator detectors. I will present measurements of muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance, and what constraints those measurements put on the remaining open questions in neutrino oscillations: Is the neutrino mass hierarchy "normal" or "inverted?" Do neutrino oscillations violate CP symmetry? Is the mixing in the atmospheric sector maximal? The recent update includes 50%...
Stochastically excited oscillations on the upper main sequence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antoci, Victoria
2013-01-01
Convective envelopes in stars on the main sequence are usually connected only with stars of spectral types F5 or later. However, observations as well as theory indicate that the convective outer layers in earlier stars, despite being shallow, are still effective and turbulent enough to stochastic......Convective envelopes in stars on the main sequence are usually connected only with stars of spectral types F5 or later. However, observations as well as theory indicate that the convective outer layers in earlier stars, despite being shallow, are still effective and turbulent enough...... to stochastically excite oscillations. Because of the low amplitudes, exploring stochastically excited pulsations became possible only with space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT. Here I review the recent results and discuss among others, pulsators such as delta Scuti, gamma Doradus, roAp, beta Cephei, Slowly...... Pulsating B and Be stars, all in the context of solar-like oscillations....
Bai, Li; Huang, Xiaoying; Yang, Qian; Wu, Jian-young
2015-01-01
We have discovered an evoked network oscillation in rat neocortical slices and have examined its spatiotemporal patterns with voltage sensitive dye imaging. The slices (visual and auditory cortices) were prepared in a medium of low calcium, high magnesium and with sodium replaced by choline in order to reduce the excito-toxicity and sodium loading. After slicing, the choline was washed out while normal calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations were restored. The oscillation was evoked by a single electrical shock to slices bathed in normal artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF). The oscillation was organized as an all-or-none epoch containing 4 to 13 cycles at a central frequency around 25 Hz. The activity can be reversibly blocked by CNQX, APV and atropine, but not by bicuculline, indicating poly-synaptic excitatory mechanisms. Voltage sensitive dye imaging showed high amplitude oscillation signals in superficial and middle cortical layers. Spatiotemporally, the oscillations were organized as waves, propagating horizontally along cortical laminar. Each oscillation cycle was associated with one wave propagating in space. The waveforms were often different at different locations (e.g., extra cycles), suggesting the co-existence of multiple local oscillators. For different cycles, the waves often initiated at different locations, suggesting that local oscillators are competing to initiate each oscillation cycle. Overall our results suggest that this cortical network oscillation is organized at two levels: locally, oscillating neurons are tightly coupled to form local oscillators, and globally the coupling between local oscillators is weak, allowing abrupt spatial phase lags and propagating waves with multiple initiation sites. PMID:16870836
Oscillations and Magnetic Fields in the G8 Star EK Eridani
Dall, T. H.; Cunha, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Stello, D.; Bruntt, H.
2011-12-01
Asteroseismology can provide information that is otherwise not easily accessible, like the stellar mass and the evolutionary stage. Strong magnetic fields are usually accompanied by rapid rotation, which makes asteroseismology difficult due to spectral line broadening. We have found what may turn out to be the Rosetta Stone of the stars: A slowly rotating solar-like star with a strong magnetic field. We have recently detected solar-like oscillations in this active sub-giant, but with amplitudes much lower than expected. We suggest that the large-scale magnetic field alters the pulsations, which become magnetoacoustic in nature. Here we present our results and discuss possible implications and how this may open up a new frontier in the studies of magnetic fields and stellar evolution.
WEAK GORENSTEIN GLOBAL DIMENSION
Bennis, Driss
2010-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the weak Gorenstein global dimensions. We are mainly interested in studying the problem when the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions coincide. We first show, for GF-closed rings, that the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions are equal when they are finite. Then, we prove that the same equality holds for any two-sided coherent ring. We conclude the paper with some examples and a brief discussion of the scope and limits of our results.
Do weak global stresses synchronize earthquakes?
Bendick, R.; Bilham, R.
2017-08-01
Insofar as slip in an earthquake is related to the strain accumulated near a fault since a previous earthquake, and this process repeats many times, the earthquake cycle approximates an autonomous oscillator. Its asymmetric slow accumulation of strain and rapid release is quite unlike the harmonic motion of a pendulum and need not be time predictable, but still resembles a class of repeating systems known as integrate-and-fire oscillators, whose behavior has been shown to demonstrate a remarkable ability to synchronize to either external or self-organized forcing. Given sufficient time and even very weak physical coupling, the phases of sets of such oscillators, with similar though not necessarily identical period, approach each other. Topological and time series analyses presented here demonstrate that earthquakes worldwide show evidence of such synchronization. Though numerous studies demonstrate that the composite temporal distribution of major earthquakes in the instrumental record is indistinguishable from random, the additional consideration of event renewal interval serves to identify earthquake groupings suggestive of synchronization that are absent in synthetic catalogs. We envisage the weak forces responsible for clustering originate from lithospheric strain induced by seismicity itself, by finite strains over teleseismic distances, or by other sources of lithospheric loading such as Earth's variable rotation. For example, quasi-periodic maxima in rotational deceleration are accompanied by increased global seismicity at multidecadal intervals.
Lee, T. D.
1970-07-01
While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.
Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.
Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.
On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we determine the dynamic buckling load of a strictly nonlinear but weakly damped elastic oscillatory model structure subjected to small perturbations The loading history is explicitly time dependent and varies slowly with time over a natural period of oscillation of the structure. A multiple timing regular ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric
Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor...... variables. The predictor is based on a test for finitesample predictive ability. Our predictor shrinks the OLS estimate not to zero, but towards the null of the test which equates squared bias with estimation variance. We derive the asymptotic distribution and show that the predictor can substantially lower...
The structure of weak shocks in quantum plasmas
Bychkov, Vitaly; Marklund, Mattias
2008-01-01
The structure of a weak shock in a quantum plasma is studied, taking into account both dissipation terms due to thermal conduction and dispersive quantum terms due to the Bohm potential. Unlike quantum systems without dissipations, even a small thermal conduction may lead to a stationary shock structure. In the limit of zero quantum effects, the monotonic Burgers solution for the weak shock is recovered. Still, even small quantum terms make the structure non-monotonic with the shock driving a train of oscillations into the initial plasma. The oscillations propagate together with the shock. The oscillations become stronger as the role of Bohm potential increases in comparison with thermal conduction. The results could be of importance for laser-plasma interactions, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas, and in astrophysical environments, as well as in condensed matter systems.
Kleinberg, L. L.
1969-01-01
Microelectronic oscillator uses a bipolar transistor to circumvent the problem of developing suitable inductors for lower frequencies. The oscillator is fabricated by hybrid thin film techniques or by monolithic construction. Discrete microminiature components may also be employed.
Ma, Hongbin
2015-01-01
This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation, theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer, neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes. The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...
Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The phenomenology of solar, atmospheric, supernova and laboratory neutrino oscillations is described. Analytical formulae for matter effects are reviewed. The results from oscillations are confronted with neutrinoless double beta decay.
Pattern recognition with simple oscillating circuits
Hölzel, R. W.; Krischer, K.
2011-07-01
Neural network devices that inherently possess parallel computing capabilities are generally difficult to construct because of the large number of neuron-neuron connections. However, there exists a theoretical approach (Hoppensteadt and Izhikevich 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 2983) that forgoes the individual connections and uses only a global coupling: systems of weakly coupled oscillators with a time-dependent global coupling are capable of performing pattern recognition in an associative manner similar to Hopfield networks. The information is stored in the phase shifts of the individual oscillators. However, to date, even the feasibility of controlling phase shifts with this kind of coupling has not yet been established experimentally. We present an experimental realization of this neural network device. It consists of eight sinusoidal electrical van der Pol oscillators that are globally coupled through a variable resistor with the electric potential as the coupling variable. We estimate an effective value of the phase coupling strength in our experiment. For that, we derive a general approach that allows one to compare different experimental realizations with each other as well as with phase equation models. We demonstrate that individual phase shifts of oscillators can be experimentally controlled by a weak global coupling. Furthermore, supplied with a distorted input image, the oscillating network can indeed recognize the correct image out of a set of predefined patterns. It can therefore be used as the processing unit of an associative memory device.
Turlay, René
1979-01-01
In this review of charged weak currents the author concentrates on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. The authors discusses the general structure of charged currents, new results on total cross- sections, the Callan-Gross relation, antiquark distributions, scaling violations and tests of QCD. A very short summary on multilepton physics is given. (44 refs).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm
2002-01-01
We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...
The colpitts oscillator family
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.
A tutorial study of the Colpitts oscillator family defined as all oscillators based on a nonlinear amplifier and a three- terminal linear resonance circuit with one coil and two capacitors. The original patents are investigated. The eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian for oscillators based...
Ljubas, Davor; Smoljanić, Goran; Juretić, Hrvoje
2015-09-15
In this study we used TiO2 nanoparticles as semiconductor photocatalysts for the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) and Congo Red (CR) dyes in an aqueous solution. Since TiO2 particles become photocatalytically active by UV radiation, two sources of UV-A radiation were used - natural solar radiation which contains 3-5% UV-A and artificial, solar-like radiation, created by using a lamp. The optimal doses of TiO2 of 500 mg/L for the CR and 1500 mg/L for the MO degradation were determined in experiments with the lamp and were also used in degradation experiments with natural solar light. The efficiency of each process was determined by measuring the absorbance at two visible wavelengths, 466 nm for MO and 498 nm for CR, and the total organic carbon (TOC), i.e. decolorization and mineralization, respectively. In both cases, considerable potential for the degradation of CR and MO was observed - total decolorization of the solution was achieved within 30-60 min, while the TOC removal was in the range 60-90%. CR and MO solutions irradiated without TiO2 nanoparticles showed no observable changes in either decolorization or mineralization. Three different commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles were used: pure-phase anatase, pure-phase rutile, and mixed-phase preparation named Degussa P25. In terms of degradation kinetics, P25 TiO2 exhibited a photocatalytic activity superior to that of pure-phase anatase or rutile. The electric energy consumption per gram of removed TOC was determined. For nearly the same degradation effect, the consumption in the natural solar radiation experiment was more than 60 times lower than in the artificial solar-like radiation experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nature's Autonomous Oscillators
Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.
2012-01-01
Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.
Rhodes, J. D.; Bennett, D. P.; Kaiser, N.
2001-12-01
Weak lensing by large-scale structure (cosmic shear) provides an opportunity to directly observe the dark matter in the universe. Current ground-based and space-based surveys have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique in determining the mass distribution and thus placing constraints on cosmological parameters such as Ω m, σ 8, and the bias parameter b. Current surveys have been hampered by the comparatively low resolution of ground-based telescopes and the small field of view of HST. To make significant progress in this field, wide field space-based surveys are needed. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) will be able to provide 500- 1000 sqare degrees with a resolution of better than 0.2 arcseconds in multiple filters. This will make it an ideal instrument for a weak lensing survey.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, M.
1988-04-01
Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.
Amemiya, Takashi; Shibata, Kenichi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Kiminori; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko
2017-10-01
We report the first direct observation of glycolytic oscillations in HeLa cervical cancer cells, which we regard as primordial oscillations preserved in living cells. HeLa cells starved of glucose or both glucose and serum exhibited glycolytic oscillations in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), exhibiting asynchronous intercellular behaviors. Also found were spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous intracellular NADH oscillations in the individual cells. Our results demonstrate that starved HeLa cells may be induced to exhibit glycolytic oscillations by either high-uptake of glucose or the enhancement of a glycolytic pathway (Crabtree effect or the Warburg effect), or both. Their asynchronous collective behaviors in the oscillations were probably due to a weak intercellular coupling. Elucidation of the relationship between the mechanism of glycolytic dynamics in cancer cells and their pathophysiological characteristics remains a challenge in future.
On the surface physics affecting solar oscillation frequencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Houdek, G.; Trampedach, R.; Aarslev, M. J.
2017-01-01
Adiabatic oscillation frequencies of stellar models, computed with the standard mixing-length formulation for convection, increasingly deviate with radial order from observations in solar-like stars. Standard solar models overestimate adiabatic frequencies by as much as similar to 20 mu Hz....... In this Letter, we address the physical processes of turbulent convection that are predominantly responsible for the frequency differences between standard models and observations, also called 'surface effects'. We compare measured solar frequencies from the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the SOlar...... and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft with frequency calculations that include 3D hydrodynamical simulation results in the equilibrium model, non-adiabatic effects, and a consistent treatment of the turbulent pressure in both the equilibrium and stability computations. With the consistent inclusion of the above...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren
2015-01-01
The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....
A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation
Talukdar, A.; Radwan, A. G.; Salama, K. N.
2011-09-01
This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.
A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne
2012-10-06
This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.
Measurement of weak radioactivity
Theodorsson , P
1996-01-01
This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.
Kato, Shoji
2016-01-01
This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...
Seasonality and mechanisms of tropical intraseasonal oscillations
Hazra, Abheera; Krishnamurthy, V.
2018-01-01
This study has compared the monsoon intraseasonal oscillation (MISO) during the boreal summer and Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) during the boreal winter. Based on MISO and MJO in high-resolution three-dimensional diabatic heating, the possible mechanisms are discussed through observational analyses of dynamical and thermodynamical variables. The MISO and MJO are extracted as nonlinear oscillations during boreal summer and winter, respectively, by applying multi-channel singular spectrum analysis on daily anomalies of diabatic heating over the Indo-Pacific region. Lead and lag relations among moisture, temperature and surface fields relative to diabatic heating are analyzed to compare the mechanisms of MISO and MJO. While both the oscillations show eastward propagation, MISO has a strong northward propagation and MJO has a weak southward propagation as well. The analysis shows that MJO and MISO are essentially driven by the same mechanisms but with some difference in the meridional propagation. The westerly shear leads the diabatic heating, while the vorticity has weak correlation. Large-scale circulation creates positive moisture preconditioning before convection and negative moisture preconditioning before suppressed conditions. A positive lower level horizontal advection of temperature and upper level temperature tendencies lead the convective state while a negative lower level horizontal advection of temperature and upper level temperature tendencies lead the suppressed state. There is positive feedback from the SST to atmosphere. The difference in the meridional propagation of MISO and MJO is hypothesized to be because of the different differential heating meridionally during the two seasons.
A new kind of metal detector based on chaotic oscillator
Hu, Wenjing
2017-12-01
The sensitivity of a metal detector greatly depends on the identification ability to weak signals from the probe. In order to improve the sensitivity of metal detectors, this paper applies the Duffing chaotic oscillator to metal detectors based on its characteristic which is very sensitive to weak periodic signals. To make a suitable Duffing system for detectors, this paper computes two Lyapunov characteristics exponents of the Duffing oscillator, which help to obtain the threshold of the Duffing system in the critical state accurately and give quantitative criteria for chaos. Meanwhile, a corresponding simulation model of the chaotic oscillator is made by the Simulink tool box of Matlab. Simulation results shows that Duffing oscillator is very sensitive to sinusoidal signals in high frequency cases. And experimental results show that the measurable diameter of metal particles is about 1.5mm. It indicates that this new method can feasibly and effectively improve the metal detector sensitivity.
Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L
2016-11-01
Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Oscillator Principle of Nature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2012-01-01
Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators...
Oscillating spin-2 dark matter
Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Urban, Federico R.
2018-01-01
The negative outcomes of laboratory searches, juxtaposed with cosmological observations, may indicate that dark matter has a gravitational origin. We show that coherent oscillations of a massive spin-2 field emerging from bimetric theory can easily account for the observed dark matter abundance. The framework, based on the only known consistent extension of general relativity to interacting spin-2 fields, is testable in precision measurements of the electric charge variation by means of atomic clocks, molecular systems, dedicated resonant mass detectors, as well as gravity interferometers and axionlike-particle experiments. These searches, therefore, provide a new window into the phenomenology of gravity which complements the results of dedicated tests of gravitation. We also present a multimetric extension of the scenario that straightforwardly implements the clockwork mechanism for gravity, explaining the apparent weakness of this force.
Kaplan, L
1998-01-01
We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)
2013-12-01
We investigate the effect of helium abundance and α-element enhancement on the properties of convection in envelopes of solar-like main-sequence stars using a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Helium abundance increases the mean molecular weight of the gas and alters opacity by displacing hydrogen. Since the scale of the effect of helium may depend on the metallicity, the grid consists of simulations with three helium abundances (Y = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3), each with two metallicities (Z = 0.001, 0.020). We find that changing the helium mass fraction generally affects structure and convective dynamics in a way opposite to that of metallicity. Furthermore, the effect is considerably smaller than that of metallicity. The signature of helium differs from that of metallicity in the manner in which the photospheric velocity distribution is affected. We also find that helium abundance and surface gravity behave largely in similar ways, but differ in the way they affect the mean molecular weight. A simple model for spectral line formation suggests that the bisectors and absolute Doppler shifts of spectral lines depend on the helium abundance. We look at the effect of α-element enhancement and find that it has a considerably smaller effect on the convective dynamics in the superadiabatic layer compared to that of helium abundance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
2008-01-01
We discuss nonlinear mechanical systems containing several oscillators whose frequecies are all much higher than frequencies associated with the remaining degrees of freedom. In this situation a near constant of the motion, an adiabatic invariant, exists which is the sum of all the oscillator...
Hyperchaotic Oscillator with Gyrators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamasevicius, A; Cenys, A; Mykolaitis, G.
1997-01-01
A fourth-order hyperchaotic oscillator is described. It contains a negative impedance converter, two gyratots, two capacitors and a diode. The dynamics of the oscillator is shown to be characterised by two positive Lyapunov exponents. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means...
Weger, J.G.; Water, van de W.; Molenaar, J.
2000-01-01
An impact oscillator is a periodically driven system that hits a wall when its amplitude exceeds a critical value. We study impact oscillations where collisions with the wall are with near-zero velocity (grazing impacts). A characteristic feature of grazing impact dynamics is a geometrically
Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.
1997-01-01
Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...... oscillators are investigated demonstrating synchronization by means of only one properly selected variable....
Prediction of resonant oscillation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
oscillations and compare the measured oscillations using FFT analysis of signal correlations, variance analysis of signals and other comparisons. As an example, the presence of a growing peak around a frequency that doubles the roll natural frequency indicates the possibility that parametric roll is going...
Closed-loop transcranial alternating current stimulation of slow oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wilde Christian
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is an emerging non-invasive tool for modulating brain oscillations. There is evidence that weak oscillatory electrical stimulation during sleep can entrain cortical slow oscillations to improve the memory consolidation in rodents and humans. Using a novel method and a custom built stimulation device, automatic stimulation of slow oscillations in-phase with the endogenous activity in a real-time closed-loop setup is possible. Preliminary data from neuroplasticity experiments show a high detection performance of the proposed method, electrical measurements demonstrate the outstanding quality of the presented stimulation device.
Synchronization of oscillations in resonance systems with distributed interaction
Vavriv, D. M.; Tretiakov, O. A.
1984-09-01
The region of existence of a synchronous regime in millimeter-wave resonance oscillators with distributed interaction (diffraction-radiation generators, orotrons, and resonance BWTs) is determined in the case when a weak external signal modulates the beam at the entrance to the interaction space. Explicit expressions are derived for the width of the synchronization band and the amplitude of forced oscillations, and the dependence of these expressions on the beam and resonator parameters is analyzed. The synchronous oscillation regime at high beam currents is considered, and the effect of accelerating voltage on the synchronization regime is assessed.
Oscillations of the Boundary Layer and High-frequency QPOs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blinova A. A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We observed persistent high-frequency oscillations of the boundary layer near an accreting, weakly-magnetized star in global 3D MHD simulations. The tilted dipole magnetic field is not strong enough to open a gap between the star and the disk. Instead, it forms a highly-wrapped azimuthal field near the surface of the star which slows down rotation of the disk matter, while a small tilt of the field excites oscillations of the boundary layer with a frequency below the Keplerian frequency. This mechanism may be responsible for the high-frequency oscillations in accreting neutron stars, white dwarfs and classical T Tauri stars.
Magnetostatic wave oscillator frequencies
Sethares, J. C.; Stiglitz, M. R.; Weinberg, I. J.
1981-03-01
The frequencies of magnetostatic wave (MSW) oscillators employing three principal modes of propagation, surface (MSSW), forward (MSFVW), and backward (MSBVW) volume waves, have been investigated. Previous (MSW) oscillator papers dealt with MSSW. Oscillators were fabricated using LPE-YIG MSW delay lines in a feedback loop of a 2-4 GHz amplifier. Wide and narrow band transducers were employed. Oscillator frequency as a function of biasing field is in agreement with a theoretical analysis. The analysis predicts frequency in terms of material parameters, biasing field, and transducer geometry. With wide band transducers a comb of frequencies is generated. Narrow band transducers for MSSW and MSFVW select a single mode; and MSBVW selects two modes. Spurious modes, attributed to instrumentation, are more than 20 dB below the main response, and bandwidths are less than 0.005 percent. No other spurious modes are observed. MSW oscillators produce clean electronically tunable signals and appear attractive in frequency agile systems.
Kayser, Boris
2014-04-10
To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures.
Classical oscillator driven by an oscillating chirped force
Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.
2006-01-01
The motion of a classical (harmonic) oscillator is studied in the case where the oscillator is driven by a pulsed oscillating force with a frequency varying in time (frequency chirp). The amplitude and phase of the oscillations left after the pulsed force in dependence on the profile and strength of
High frequency nanotube oscillator
Peng, Haibing [Houston, TX; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, TX
2012-02-21
A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.
Neutrino anomalies without oscillations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
conventional' neutrino oscillations induced by mass-mixing. Several of these require non-zero neutrino masses as well. Author Affiliations. Sandip Pakvasa1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA ...
Neural Oscillators Programming Simplified
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick McDowell
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The neurological mechanism used for generating rhythmic patterns for functions such as swallowing, walking, and chewing has been modeled computationally by the neural oscillator. It has been widely studied by biologists to model various aspects of organisms and by computer scientists and robotics engineers as a method for controlling and coordinating the gaits of walking robots. Although there has been significant study in this area, it is difficult to find basic guidelines for programming neural oscillators. In this paper, the authors approach neural oscillators from a programmer’s point of view, providing background and examples for developing neural oscillators to generate rhythmic patterns that can be used in biological modeling and robotics applications.
solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The sMA region and a large part of the vacuum oscillation region are seen to have been washed away with the inclusion of the sK spectrum data. In the left panel of figure 4 we show the dependence of the probabilities on energy. In the sMA and the VO oscillation regions the probability has a non- monotonic dependence ...
Synchronizability of nonidentical weakly dissipative systems
Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Letellier, Christophe
2017-10-01
Synchronization is a very generic process commonly observed in a large variety of dynamical systems which, however, has been rarely addressed in systems with low dissipation. Using the Rössler, the Lorenz 84, and the Sprott A systems as paradigmatic examples of strongly, weakly, and non-dissipative chaotic systems, respectively, we show that a parameter or frequency mismatch between two coupled such systems does not affect the synchronizability and the underlying structure of the joint attractor in the same way. By computing the Shannon entropy associated with the corresponding recurrence plots, we were able to characterize how two coupled nonidentical chaotic oscillators organize their dynamics in different dissipation regimes. While for strongly dissipative systems, the resulting dynamics exhibits a Shannon entropy value compatible with the one having an average parameter mismatch, for weak dissipation synchronization dynamics corresponds to a more complex behavior with higher values of the Shannon entropy. In comparison, conservative dynamics leads to a less rich picture, providing either similar chaotic dynamics or oversimplified periodic ones.
Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arun Kumar Pati
The concept of the weak measurements, for the first time, was introduced by Aharonov et al.1. Quantum state is preselected in |ψi〉 and allowed to interact weakly with apparatus. Measurement strength can be tuned and for “small g(t)” it is called 'weak measurement'. With postselection in |ψf 〉, apparatus state is shifted by an ...
Jenkins, Alejandro
2011-01-01
Physicists are very familiar with forced and parametric resonance, but usually not with self-oscillation, a property of certain linear systems that gives rise to a great variety of vibrations, both useful and destructive. In a self-oscillator, the driving force is controlled by the oscillation itself so that it acts in phase with the velocity, causing a negative damping that feeds energy from the environment into the vibration: no external rate needs to be tuned to the resonant frequency. A paper from 1830 by G. B. Airy gives us the opening to introduce self-oscillation as a sort of "perpetual motion" responsible for the human voice. The famous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in 1940, often attributed by introductory physics texts to forced resonance, was actually a self-oscillation, as was the more recent swaying of the London Millenium Footbridge. Clocks are self-oscillators, as are bowed and wind musical instruments, and the heartbeat. We review the criterion that determines whether an arbitrary line...
Five ways of reducing the Crank-Nicolson oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østerby, Ole
2003-01-01
Crank-Nicolson is a popular method for solving parabolic equations because it is unconditionally stable and second-order accurate. One drawback of CN is that it responds to jump discontinuities in the initial conditions with oscillations which are weakly damped and therefore may persist for a long...
Proof of Concept of Kinematically Correct Neutrino Flavor Oscillations
Williams, J M
2002-01-01
Assuming neutrinos have a flavor-independent and small but nonzero rest mass, flavor oscillations can be demonstrated which fit the known data without violating any physical law. We require that the neutrino have observable substructure and an effective size, in at least one dimension, expanding after creation to exceed the range of the weak force. Thus, neutrinos are made truly analogous to kaons.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ki Hwan Kim
Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations produce oscillating magnetic fields. There have been trials to detect neuronal oscillations using MRI, but the detectability in in vivo is still in debate. Major obstacles to detecting neuronal oscillations are (i weak amplitudes, (ii fast oscillations, which are faster than MRI temporal resolution, and (iii random frequencies and on/off intervals. In this study, we proposed a new approach for direct detection of weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields. The approach consists of (i dynamic acquisitions using multiple times to repeats (TRs and (ii an expanded frequency spectral analysis. Gradient echo echo-planar imaging was used to test the feasibility of the proposed approach with a phantom generating oscillating magnetic fields with various frequencies and amplitudes and random on/off intervals. The results showed that the proposed approach could precisely detect the weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields with random frequencies and on/off intervals. Complex and phase spectra showed reliable signals, while no meaningful signals were observed in magnitude spectra. A two-TR approach provided an absolute frequency spectrum above Nyquist sampling frequency pixel by pixel with no a priori target frequency information. The proposed dynamic multiple-TR imaging and Fourier analysis are promising for direct detection of neuronal oscillations and potentially applicable to any pulse sequences.
Strong and Weak Chaos in Weakly Nonintegrable Many-Body Hamiltonian Systems
Mulansky, M.; Ahnert, K.; Pikovsky, A.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2011-12-01
We study properties of chaos in generic one-dimensional nonlinear Hamiltonian lattices comprised of weakly coupled nonlinear oscillators by numerical simulations of continuous-time systems and symplectic maps. For small coupling, the measure of chaos is found to be proportional to the coupling strength and lattice length, with the typical maximal Lyapunov exponent being proportional to the square root of coupling. This strong chaos appears as a result of triplet resonances between nearby modes. In addition to strong chaos we observe a weakly chaotic component having much smaller Lyapunov exponent, the measure of which drops approximately as a square of the coupling strength down to smallest couplings we were able to reach. We argue that this weak chaos is linked to the regime of fast Arnold diffusion discussed by Chirikov and Vecheslavov. In disordered lattices of large size we find a subdiffusive spreading of initially localized wave packets over larger and larger number of modes. The relations between the exponent of this spreading and the exponent in the dependence of the fast Arnold diffusion on coupling strength are analyzed. We also trace parallels between the slow spreading of chaos and deterministic rheology.
Constraints on neutron star crusts from oscillations in giant flares.
Steiner, Andrew W; Watts, Anna L
2009-10-30
We show that the fundamental seismic shear mode, observed as a quasiperiodic oscillation in giant flares emitted by highly magnetized neutron stars, is particularly sensitive to the nuclear physics of the crust. The identification of an oscillation at approximately 30 Hz as the fundamental crustal shear mode requires a nuclear symmetry energy that depends very weakly on density near saturation. If the nuclear symmetry energy varies more strongly with density, then lower frequency oscillations, previously identified as torsional Alfvén modes of the fluid core, could instead be associated with the crust. If this is the case, then future observations of giant flares should detect oscillations at around 18 Hz. An accurate measurement of the neutron-skin thickness of lead will also constrain the frequencies predicted by the model.
On the localized quantum oscillators in a common heat bath
Nasr, Z.; Kheirandish, F.
2017-06-01
To remedy the failure of minimal coupling method in describing the quantum dynamics of two localized Brownian oscillators interacting with a common medium, a scheme is introduced to model the medium by a continuum of complex scalar fields or equivalently two independent real scalar fields. The starting point is a Lagrangian of the total system and quantization is achieved in the framework of canonical quantization. The equations of motion, memory or response functions and fluctuation-dissipation relations are obtained. An induced force between oscillators is obtained originating from the fluctuations of the medium. Ohmic and non-Ohmic regimes are discussed and the positions of oscillators are obtained approximately in large time limit and weak coupling regime. Quantum entanglement between localized oscillators is obtained in zero temperature and strong coupling regime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine
1999-07-01
We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)
Hagedorn, Peter
1982-01-01
Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this concise text provides an engineer's view of non-linear oscillations, explaining the most important phenomena and solution methods. Non-linear descriptions are important because under certain conditions there occur large deviations from the behaviors predicted by linear differential equations. In some cases, completely new phenomena arise that are not possible in purely linear systems. The theory of non-linear oscillations thus has important applications in classical mechanics, electronics, communications, biology, and many other branches of science. In addition to many other changes, this edition has a new section on bifurcation theory, including Hopf's theorem.
Brownian parametric oscillators
Zerbe, Christine; Jung, Peter; Hänggi, Peter
1994-05-01
We discuss the stochastic dynamics of dissipative, white-noise-driven Floquet oscillators, characterized by a time-periodic stiffness. Thus far, little attention has been paid to these exactly solvable nonstationary systems, although they carry a rich potential for several experimental applications. Here, we calculate and discuss the mean values and variances, as well as the correlation functions and the Floquet spectrum. As one main result, we find for certain parameter values that the fluctuations of the position coordinate are suppressed as compared to the equilibrium value of a harmonic oscillator (parametric squeezing).
Friedel oscillations in graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lawlor, J. A.; Power, S. R.; Ferreira, M.S.
2013-01-01
Symmetry breaking perturbations in an electronically conducting medium are known to produce Friedel oscillations in various physical quantities of an otherwise pristine material. Here we show in a mathematically transparent fashion that Friedel oscillations in graphene have a strong sublattice...... asymmetry. As a result, the presence of impurities and/or defects may impact the distinct graphene sublattices very differently. Furthermore, such an asymmetry can be used to explain the recent observations that nitrogen atoms and dimers are not randomly distributed in graphene but prefer to occupy one...
Resisting Weakness of the Will.
Levy, Neil
2011-01-01
I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology.
Kepler-77b: a very low albedo, Saturn-mass transiting planet around a metal-rich solar-like star
Gandolfi, D.; Parviainen, H.; Fridlund, M.; Hatzes, A. P.; Deeg, H. J.; Frasca, A.; Lanza, A. F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Tognelli, E.; McQuillan, A.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Antoci, V.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Djupvik, A. A.; Guenther, E. W.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Ofir, A.; Telting, J.
2013-09-01
We report the discovery of Kepler-77b (alias KOI-127.01), a Saturn-mass transiting planet in a 3.6-day orbit around a metal-rich solar-like star. We combined the publicly available Kepler photometry (quarters 1-13) with high-resolution spectroscopy from the Sandiford at McDonald and FIES at NOT spectrographs. We derived the system parameters via a simultaneous joint fit to the photometric and radial velocity measurements. Our analysis is based on the Bayesian approach and is carried out by sampling the parameter posterior distributions using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Kepler-77b is a moderately inflated planet with a mass of Mp = 0.430 ± 0.032 MJup, a radius of Rp = 0.960 ± 0.016 RJup, and a bulk density of ρp = 0.603 ± 0.055 g cm-3. It orbits a slowly rotating (Prot = 36 ± 6 days) G5 V star with M⋆ = 0.95 ± 0.04 M⊙, R⋆ = 0.99 ± 0.02 R⊙, Teff = 5520 ± 60 K, [M/H] = 0.20 ± 0.05 dex, that has an age of 7.5 ± 2.0 Gyr. The lack of detectable planetary occultation with a depth higher than ~10 ppm implies a planet geometric and Bond albedo of Ag ≤ 0.087 ± 0.008 and AB ≤ 0.058 ± 0.006, respectively, placing Kepler-77b among the gas-giant planets with the lowest albedo known so far. We found neither additional planetary transit signals nor transit-timing variations at a level of ~0.5 min, in accordance with the trend that close-in gas giant planets seem to belong to single-planet systems. The 106 transitsobserved in short-cadence mode by Kepler for nearly 1.2 years show no detectable signatures of the planet's passage in front of starspots. We explored the implications of the absence of detectable spot-crossing events for the inclination of the stellar spin-axis, the sky-projected spin-orbit obliquity, and the latitude of magnetically active regions. Based on observations obtained with the 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA.Based on observations obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the
Weak Coupling Phases future directions
Rosner, Jonathan L.
2003-01-01
Recent results obtained from B decays on the phases of weak couplings described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are discussed, with particular emphasis on $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma = \\pi - \\beta - \\alpha$.
Surface-effect corrections for oscillation frequencies of evolved stars
Ball, W. H.; Gizon, L.
2017-04-01
Context. Accurate modelling of solar-like oscillators requires that modelled mode frequencies are corrected for the systematic shift caused by improper modelling of the near-surface layers, known as the surface effect. Several parametrizations of the surface effect are now available but they have not yet been systematically compared with observations of stars showing modes with mixed g- and p-mode character. Aims: We investigate how much additional uncertainty is introduced to stellar model parameters by our uncertainty about the functional form of the surface effect. At the same time, we test whether any of the parametrizations is significantly better or worse at modelling observed subgiants and low-luminosity red giants. Methods: We model six stars observed by Kepler that show clear mixed modes. We fix the input physics of the stellar models and vary the choice of surface correction between five parametrizations. Results: Models using a solar-calibrated power law correction consistently fit the observations more poorly than the other four corrections. Models with the remaining four corrections generally fit the observations about equally well, with the combined surface correction by Ball & Gizon perhaps being marginally superior. The fits broadly agree on the model parameters within about the 2σ uncertainties, with discrepancies between the modified Lorentzian and free power law corrections occasionally exceeding the 3σ level. Relative to the best-fitting values, the total uncertainties on the masses, radii and ages of the stars are all less than 2, 1 and 6 per cent, respectively. Conclusions: A solar-calibrated power law, as formulated by Kjeldsen et al., appears unsuitable for use with more evolved solar-like oscillators. Among the remaining surface corrections, the uncertainty in the model parameters introduced by the surface effects is about twice as large as the uncertainty in the individual fits for these six stars. Though the fits are thus somewhat less
Weakly compact operators and interpolation
Maligranda, Lech
1992-01-01
The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...
Weak interactions of elementary particles
Okun, Lev Borisovich
1965-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 5: Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of elementary particles and high energies. The book first discusses elementary particles. Concerns include isotopic invariance in the Sakata model; conservation of fundamental particles; scheme of isomultiplets in the Sakata model; universal, unitary-symmetric strong interaction; and universal weak interaction. The text also focuses on spinors, amplitudes, and currents. Wave function, calculation of traces, five bilinear covariants,
Jones, R. T.
1976-01-01
For acoustic tests the violin is driven laterally at the bridge by a small speaker of the type commonly found in pocket transistor radios. An audio oscillator excites the tone which is picked up by a sound level meter. Gross patterns of vibration modes are obtained by the Chladni method.
Oscillators and operational amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2005-01-01
A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation...
Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations
Kobzarev, I Yu; Okun, Lev Borisovich; Shchepkin, M G
1980-01-01
A complete phenomenological description of neutrino oscillations is given. The most general form of the mass matrix of N types of neutrino and of the matrix of neutrino mixing in the left charged current is analyzed. Measuring the parameters of the charged current matrix in oscillatory experiments and in the experimental studies of the beta -decay electron spectra, is discussed. (20 refs).
Neutrino oscillation experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camilleri, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)
1996-11-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments ({nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}}) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.
Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef
2007-01-01
to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...
Acute muscular weakness in children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.
Precision metrology using weak measurements.
Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A
2015-05-29
Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.
Photonic local oscillator development
Kimberk, Robert; Tong, Edward; Hunter, Todd R.; Christensen, Robert; Blundell, Ray
2006-12-01
In the receiver lab, we have developed a 200 GHz to 230 GHz local oscillator constructed from mostly commercially available 1550 nm laser communication components. Theoretical and experimental work show that the laser adds negligible phase noise to this photonic local oscillator system and that spectral purity and phase stability are similar to Gunn oscillator based local oscillator output. The optical path consists of a single 1550 nm diode laser, a lithium niobate optical phase modulator, a Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with a free spectral range of 75 GHz, and a 160 GHz to 260 GHz photomixer whose output is connected to a horn antenna. All of the optical devices and connections are polarization maintaining, and the photomixer was designed and fabricated at the CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The electrical path consists of a YIG synthesizer, operating in the frequency range 14-20 GHz, a frequency doubler, and a power amplifier connected to the RF port of the phase modulator. At the SMA on Mauna Kea, we incorporated the photonic LO into one element (Antenna 6) of a five antenna array for test observations of CO J=2-1 made towards the ultracompact HII region G138.295+1.555. Spectral features of comparable width occur on baselines with and without antenna 6, and noise increases with baseline length independent of antenna number. Continuum observations were also made toward the quasar 3c454.3 for a period of about one hour. In summary, the SMA has proven that the photonic local oscillator operates with adequate phase and frequency stability for radio-interferometry.
Identifying neuronal oscillations using rhythmicity
Fransen, A.M.M.; Ede, F.L. van; Maris, E.G.G.
2015-01-01
Neuronal oscillations are a characteristic feature of neuronal activity and are typically investigated through measures of power and coherence. However, neither of these measures directly reflects the distinctive feature of oscillations: their rhythmicity. Rhythmicity is the extent to which future
Bimodal oscillations in nephron autoregulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A.N.; Mosekilde, Erik
2002-01-01
The individual functional unit of the kidney (the nephron) displays oscillations in its pressure and flow regulation at two different time scales: fast oscillations associated with a myogenic dynamics of the afferent arteriole, and slower oscillations arising from a delay in the tubuloglomerular...
Spectral linewidths of Josephson oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salerno, M; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Yulin, AV
2001-01-01
We show that the linewidth of a Josephson flux-flow oscillator has the same functional dependence on temperature, static, and dynamic resistances as the ones of Josephson single-fluxon oscillators and small Josephson junctions. This suggests a universal formula for the linewidth of Josephson...... oscillators....
Quantum discord with weak measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in; Pati, Arun Kumar, E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in
2014-04-15
Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.
Thermal decay of Coulomb blockade oscillations
Idrisov, Edvin G.; Levkivskyi, Ivan P.; Sukhorukov, Eugene V.
2017-10-01
We study transport properties and the charge quantization phenomenon in a small metallic island connected to the leads through two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The linear conductance is calculated perturbatively with respect to weak tunneling and weak backscattering at QPCs as a function of the temperature T and gate voltage. The conductance shows Coulomb blockade (CB) oscillations as a function of the gate voltage that decay with the temperature as a result of thermally activated fluctuations of the charge in the island. The regimes of quantum T ≪EC and thermal T ≫EC fluctuations are considered, where EC is the charging energy of an isolated island. Our predictions for CB oscillations in the quantum regime coincide with previous findings by Furusaki and Matveev [Phys. Rev. B 52, 16676 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevB.52.16676]. In the thermal regime the visibility of Coulomb blockade oscillations decays with the temperature as √{T /EC }exp(-π2T /EC) , where the exponential dependence originates from the thermal averaging over the instant charge fluctuations, while the prefactor has a quantum origin. This dependence does not depend on the strength of couplings to the leads. The differential capacitance, calculated in the case of a single tunnel junction, shows the same exponential decay, however the prefactor is linear in the temperature. This difference can be attributed to the nonlocality of the quantum effects. Our results agree with the recent experiment [Nature (London) 536, 58 (2016), 10.1038/nature19072] in the whole range of the parameter T /EC .
Asymptotics of weakly collapsing solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equation
Ovchinnikov, Yu N
2001-01-01
One studied possible types of asymptotic behavior of weakly collapsing solution of the 3-rd nonlinear Schroedinger equation. It is shown that within left brace A, C sub 1 right brace parameter space there are two neighboring lines along which the amplitude of oscillation terms is exponentially small as to C sub 1 parameter. The same lines locates values of left brace A, C sub 1 right brace parameters at which the energy is equal to zero. With increase of C sub 1 parameter the accuracy of numerical determination of points with zero energy drops abruptly
Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karta Kooner
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.
Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Habibollah Razmi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.
Entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)
2009-03-15
Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)
Acoustics waves and oscillations
Sen, S.N.
2013-01-01
Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...
Convection and stellar oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarslev, Magnus Johan
2017-01-01
of stars. For stars like the sun, energy transport in the outer layers occurs mainly through turbulent convection. Here, pressure mode oscillations are essentially propagating sound waves, whose properties can be altered by interaction with the turbulent motion of the gas. This has always been a problem...... for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...
Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.
2007-01-01
A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...... contralateral to stimulus side and additionally an unexpected 20 Hz activity was observed slightly lateralized in the frontal central region. The gamma phase locking may be a manifestation of early somatosensory feature integration. The analyses suggest that the high frequency activity consists of two distinct...
Neutrino Masses and Oscillations
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel
2002-01-01
This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.
Decay of oscillating universes
Mithani, Audrey Todhunter
2016-08-01
It has been suggested by Ellis et al that the universe could be eternal in the past, without beginning. In their model, the "emergent universe'' exists forever in the past, in an "eternal'' phase before inflation begins. We will show that in general, such an "eternal'' phase is not possible, because of an instability due to quantum tunneling. One candidate model, the "simple harmonic universe'' has been shown by Graham et al to be perturbatively stable; we find that it is unstable with respect to quantum tunneling. We also investigate the stability of a distinct oscillating model in loop quantum cosmology with respect to small perturbations and to quantum collapse. We find that the model has perturbatively stable and unstable solutions, with both types of solutions occupying significant regions of the parameter space. All solutions are unstable with respect to collapse by quantum tunneling to zero size. In addition, we investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and the Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. Finally, we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe. Although the wave function of the universe lacks explicit time dependence in canonical quantum cosmology, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. Here, we apply this approach to the simple harmonic universe, by extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field φ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock''.
Oscillating stagnation point flow
Grosch, C. E.; Salwen, H.
1982-01-01
A solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is given for an incompressible stagnation point flow whose magnitude oscillates in time about a constant, non-zero, value (an unsteady Hiemenz flow). Analytic approximations to the solution in the low and high frequency limits are given and compared with the results of numerical integrations. The application of these results to one aspect of the boundary layer receptivity problem is also discussed.
Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device
Bandara, R.; Khachan, J.
2013-07-01
A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.
Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandara, R.; Khachan, J. [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)
2013-07-15
A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))
1989-12-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence
Zakharov, V E
1997-01-01
This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.
Oscillations in the Umbral Atmosphere
Brynildsen, N.; Maltby, P.; Foley, C. R.; Fredvik, T.; Kjeldseth-Moe, O.
2004-06-01
The results of simultaneous observations of oscillations in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona above nine sunspots are presented. The data are obtained through coordinated observing with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory — SOHO and the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer — TRACE. Oscillations are detected above each umbra. The power spectra show one dominant frequency corresponding to a period close to 3 min. We show that the oscillations in the sunspot transition region can be modeled by upwardly propagating acoustic waves. In the corona the oscillations are limited to small regions that often coincide with the endpoints of sunspot coronal loops. Spectral observations show that oscillations in the corona contribute to the observed oscillations in the TRACE 171 Å channel observations. We show that a recent suggestion regarding a connection between sunspot plumes and 3-min oscillations conflicts with the observations.
Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts.
Popov, M; Popov, V L; Pohrt, R
2015-11-09
If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect "relaxation damping". The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed.
Generation of entanglement in quantum parametric oscillators using phase control.
Gonzalez-Henao, J C; Pugliese, E; Euzzor, S; Abdalah, S F; Meucci, R; Roversi, J A
2015-08-19
The control of quantum entanglement in systems in contact with environment plays an important role in information processing, cryptography and quantum computing. However, interactions with the environment, even when very weak, entail decoherence in the system with consequent loss of entanglement. Here we consider a system of two coupled oscillators in contact with a common heat bath and with a time dependent oscillation frequency. The possibility to control the entanglement of the oscillators by means of an external sinusoidal perturbation applied to the oscillation frequency has been theoretically explored. We demonstrate that the oscillators become entangled exactly in the region where the classical counterpart is unstable, otherwise when the classical system is stable, entanglement is not possible. Therefore, we can control the entanglement swapping from stable to unstable regions by adjusting amplitude and phase of our external controller. We also show that the entanglement rate is approximately proportional to the real part of the Floquet coefficient of the classical counterpart of the oscillators. Our results have the intriguing peculiarity of manipulating quantum information operating on a classical system.
Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo
2011-01-01
A short conducting pipe that hangs from a weak spring is forced to oscillate by the magnetic field of a surrounding coaxial coil that has been excited by a low-frequency current source in the presence of an additional static magnetic field. Induced oscillating currents appear in the pipe. The pipe motion becomes damped by the dragging forces…
Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 119, No. 3, June 2009, pp. 297–318. © Printed in India. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. A CARRIAZO, L M FERN ´ANDEZ and A RODRÍGUEZ-HIDALGO. Department of Geometry and Topology, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Sevilla,. Apartado de Correos 1160, 41080-Sevilla, Spain.
Beam splitting on weak illumination.
Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J
1998-01-01
We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.
Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong
2013-01-01
We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983
Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids
Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.
2017-01-01
This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of
Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators.
Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L
2013-01-09
We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.
Glucose Oscillations Can Activate an Endogenous Oscillator in Pancreatic Islets.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph P McKenna
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Pancreatic islets manage elevations in blood glucose level by secreting insulin into the bloodstream in a pulsatile manner. Pulsatile insulin secretion is governed by islet oscillations such as bursting electrical activity and periodic Ca2+ entry in β-cells. In this report, we demonstrate that although islet oscillations are lost by fixing a glucose stimulus at a high concentration, they may be recovered by subsequently converting the glucose stimulus to a sinusoidal wave. We predict with mathematical modeling that the sinusoidal glucose signal's ability to recover islet oscillations depends on its amplitude and period, and we confirm our predictions by conducting experiments with islets using a microfluidics platform. Our results suggest a mechanism whereby oscillatory blood glucose levels recruit non-oscillating islets to enhance pulsatile insulin output from the pancreas. Our results also provide support for the main hypothesis of the Dual Oscillator Model, that a glycolytic oscillator endogenous to islet β-cells drives pulsatile insulin secretion.
Modeling microtubule oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jobs, E.; Wolf, D.E.; Flyvbjerg, H.
1997-01-01
Synchronization of molecular reactions in a macroscopic volume may cause the volume's physical properties to change dynamically and thus reveal much about the reactions. As an example, experimental time series for so-called microtubule oscillations are analyzed in terms of a minimal model...... for this complex polymerization-depolymerization cycle. The model reproduces well the qualitatively different time series that result from different experimental conditions, and illuminates the role and importance of individual processes in the cycle. Simple experiments are suggested that can further test...... and define the model and the polymer's reaction cycle....
From excitability to oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A. Y.; Jacobsen, J. C. B.
2013-01-01
One consequence of cell-to-cell communication is the appearance of synchronized behavior, where many cells cooperate to generate new dynamical patterns. We present a simple functional model of vasomotion based on the concept of a two-mode oscillator with dual interactions: via relatively slow...... diffusive coupling that gives rise to wave dynamics and via fast changes in membrane potential that propagate almost instantly over significant distances. The model reproduces the basic calcium dynamics of the vascular smooth muscle cell: calcium waves which upon increased activity of cGMP-sensitive calcium...
Oscillations in nonlinear systems
Hale, Jack K
2015-01-01
By focusing on ordinary differential equations that contain a small parameter, this concise graduate-level introduction to the theory of nonlinear oscillations provides a unified approach to obtaining periodic solutions to nonautonomous and autonomous differential equations. It also indicates key relationships with other related procedures and probes the consequences of the methods of averaging and integral manifolds.Part I of the text features introductory material, including discussions of matrices, linear systems of differential equations, and stability of solutions of nonlinear systems. Pa
Brain Oscillations, Hypnosis, and Hypnotizability.
Jensen, Mark P; Adachi, Tomonori; Hakimian, Shahin
2015-01-01
This article summarizes the state-of-science knowledge regarding the associations between hypnosis and brain oscillations. Brain oscillations represent the combined electrical activity of neuronal assemblies, usually measured as specific frequencies representing slower (delta, theta, alpha) and faster (beta, gamma) oscillations. Hypnosis has been most closely linked to power in the theta band and changes in gamma activity. These oscillations are thought to play a critical role in both the recording and recall of declarative memory and emotional limbic circuits. The authors propose that this role may be the mechanistic link between theta (and perhaps gamma) oscillations and hypnosis, specifically, that the increases in theta oscillations and changes in gamma activity observed with hypnosis may underlie some hypnotic responses. If these hypotheses are supported, they have important implications for both understanding the effects of hypnosis and for enhancing response to hypnotic treatments.
Optimal Weak Lensing Skewness Measurements
Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John
2003-01-01
Weak lensing measurements are entering a precision era to statistically map the distribution of matter in the universe. The most common measurement has been of the variance of the projected surface density of matter, which corresponds to the induced correlation in alignments of background galaxies. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content, like using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. But when the depth is shallow as happens near a beach, waves beco...
Weak neutral-current interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnett, R.M.
1978-08-01
The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z/sup 0/ boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references. (JFP)
Linearization of conservative nonlinear oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belendez, A; Alvarez, M L [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, E; Pascual, I [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y AnatomIa, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es
2009-03-11
A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the technique.
[Muscle weakness in cerebral palsy].
Givon, Uri
2009-01-01
Over the last two decades, muscle weakness has been shown to be a major component of cerebral palsy (CP) pathology. Caused by multiple etiologies including variations in the muscle fiber type, pathologic motor unit function, co-contraction of agonists and antagonists, and muscle size and rigidity, weakness interferes with function and leads to limited function and participation. Muscle strength was found to be associated with walking ability and with functional scales. Children with CP were found to be weaker than typically developing children, and differences were found with respect to muscle groups in children with CP. Muscle weakness should be evaluated as objectively as possible to improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment. Manual muscle testing is not sufficient for evaluation, and instrumented muscle testing is validated in CP. Muscle strengthening is an important part of treatment of CP. Several methods of strengthening have been described. Muscle lengthening and other spasticity-modifying therapies have been shown to have a positive effect on muscle strength. Children who participated in muscle strengthening programs had a better quality of life and improved function.
A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator
Caliga, Seth C; Zozulya, Alex A; Anderson, Dana Z
2012-01-01
A triple-well atomtronic transistor combined with forced RF evaporation is used to realize a driven matterwave oscillator circuit. The transistor is implemented using a metalized compound glass and silicon substrate. On-chip and external currents produce a cigar-shaped magnetic trap, which is divided into transistor source, gate, and drain regions by a pair of blue-detuned optical barriers projected onto the magnetic trap through a chip window. A resonant laser beam illuminating the drain portion of the atomtronic transistor couples atoms emitted by the gate to the vacuum. The circuit operates by loading the source with cold atoms and utilizing forced evaporation as a power supply that produces a positive chemical potential in the source, which subsequently drives oscillation. High-resolution in-trap absorption imagery reveals gate atoms that have tunneled from the source and establishes that the circuit emits a nominally mono-energetic matterwave with a frequency of 23.5(1.0) kHz by tunneling from the gate, ...
Heat exchanger with oscillating flow
Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.
The Duffing oscillator with damping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johannessen, Kim
2015-01-01
An analytical solution to the differential equation describing the Duffing oscillator with damping is presented. The damping term of the differential equation and the initial conditions satisfy an algebraic equation, and thus the solution is specific for this type of damping. The nonlinear term....... It is established that the period of oscillation is shorter compared to that of a linearized model but increasing with time and asymptotically approaching the period of oscillation of the linear damped model. An explicit expression for the period of oscillation has been derived, and it is found to be very accurate....
Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.
1999-01-01
A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...
Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
if the operator ρa of right multiplication by a is compact (weakly compact, respectively). An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) if any element a ∈ A is right completely continuous (right weakly completely con- tinuous, respectively). Left completely continuous (left weakly ...
Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters
Wang, Bright L.
2011-01-01
Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s
Quasi-periodic oscillations in bright galactic-bulge X-ray sources
Lamb, F. K.; Shibazaki, N.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.
1985-01-01
Quasiperiodic oscillations with frequencies in the range 5-50 Hz have recently been discovered in X-rays from two bright galactic-bulge sources and Sco X-1. These sources are weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting from disks in which the plasma is clumped. The interaction of the magnetosphere with clumps in the inner disk causes oscillations in the X-ray flux with many of the properties observed.
Quasi-periodic oscillations in bright galactic-bulge X-ray sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lamb, F.K.; Shibazaki, N.; Alpar, M.A.; Shaham, J.
1985-10-24
Quasi-periodic oscillations with frequencies in the range 5-50 Hz have recently been discovered in X-rays from two bright galactic-bulge sources and ScoX-1. It is proposed that these sources are weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting from disks in which the plasma is clumped. The interaction of the magnetosphere with clumps in the inner disk modulates the accretion rate, causing oscillations in the X-ray flux with many of the observed properties.
Quasiperiodic oscillations in bright galactic-bulge x-ray sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lamb, F.K.; Shibazaki, N.; Alpar, M.A.; Shaham, J.
1985-09-01
Quasiperiodic oscillations with frequencies in the range 5-50 Hz have recently been discovered in x-rays from two bright galactic-bulge sources and Sco X-1. These sources are weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting from disks in which the plasma is clumped. The interaction of the magnetosphere with clumps in the inner disk causes oscillations in the x-ray flux with many of the properties observed.
Quasiperiodic oscillations in bright galactic-bulge X-ray sources
Lamb, F. K.; Shibazaki, N.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.
1985-01-01
Quasiperiodic oscillations with frequencies in the range 5-50 Hz have recently been discovered in X-rays from two bright galactic-bulge sources and Sco X-1. These sources are weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting from disks which the plasma is clumped. The interaction of the magnetosphere with clumps in the inner disk causes oscillations in the X-ray flux with many of the properties observed.
Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors
Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.
2016-01-01
In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution, and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe u...
Gossip and Distributed Kalman Filtering: Weak Consensus Under Weak Detectability
Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.
2011-04-01
The paper presents the gossip interactive Kalman filter (GIKF) for distributed Kalman filtering for networked systems and sensor networks, where inter-sensor communication and observations occur at the same time-scale. The communication among sensors is random; each sensor occasionally exchanges its filtering state information with a neighbor depending on the availability of the appropriate network link. We show that under a weak distributed detectability condition: 1. the GIKF error process remains stochastically bounded, irrespective of the instability properties of the random process dynamics; and 2. the network achieves \\emph{weak consensus}, i.e., the conditional estimation error covariance at a (uniformly) randomly selected sensor converges in distribution to a unique invariant measure on the space of positive semi-definite matrices (independent of the initial state.) To prove these results, we interpret the filtered states (estimates and error covariances) at each node in the GIKF as stochastic particles with local interactions. We analyze the asymptotic properties of the error process by studying as a random dynamical system the associated switched (random) Riccati equation, the switching being dictated by a non-stationary Markov chain on the network graph.
U.S. Hail Frequency and the Global Wind Oscillation
Gensini, Vittorio A.; Allen, John T.
2018-02-01
Changes in Earth relative atmospheric angular momentum can be described by an index known as the Global Wind Oscillation. This global index accounts for changes in Earth's atmospheric budget of relative angular momentum through interactions of tropical convection anomalies, extratropical dynamics, and engagement of surface torques (e.g., friction and mountain). It is shown herein that U.S. hail events are more (less) likely to occur in low (high) atmospheric angular momentum base states when excluding weak Global Wind Oscillation days, with the strongest relationships found in the boreal spring and fall. Severe, significant severe, and giant hail events are more likely to occur during Global Wind Oscillation phases 8, 1, 2, and 3 during the peak of U.S. severe weather season. Lower frequencies of hail events are generally found in Global Wind Oscillation phases 4-7 but vary based on Global Wind Oscillation amplitude and month. In addition, probabilistic anomalies of atmospheric ingredients supportive of hail producing supercell thunderstorms closely mimic locations of reported hail frequency, helping to corroborate report results.
Weak polyelectrolytes in Confined Geometries
Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Rathee, Vikramjit S.; Sikora, Benjamin
Crucial to the behavior of recently designed charge-rejection and mosaic membranes are the conformations of polyelectrolyte brushes and oligomeric grafts used to control the membranes' surface charge. The use of pH-tunable weak polyelectrolytes with associative interactions enables fine tuning of material transport properties. Here, we apply constant-pH molecular dynamics along with free energy sampling algorithms to understand the subtle tug-of-war between pH, salt concentrations, and solvation forces in confined systems, and determine how each of these effects alters transport within the system. We further discuss the implications of our findings for the design of electrolyte separation membranes.
Coronal Waves and Oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakariakov Valery M.
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.
Hyperchaotic system with unstable oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.
2000-01-01
A simple electronic system exhibiting hyperchaotic behaviour is described. The system includes two nonlinearly coupled 2nd order unstable oscillators, each composed of an LC resonance loop and an amplifier. The system is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential...... equations, PSPICE simulations and hardware experiments. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic mode of the oscillations....
The Wien Bridge Oscillator Family
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2006-01-01
A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic...
Energy Conservative Limit Cycle Oscillations
Stramigioli, Stefano; van Dijk, Michel
This paper shows how globally attractive limit cycle oscillations can be induced in a system with a nonlinear feedback element. Based on the same principle as the Van der Pol oscillator, the feedback behaves as a negative damping for low velocities but as an ordinary damper for high velocities. This
Mechanical Parametric Oscillations and Waves
Dittrich, William; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.
2013-01-01
Usually parametric oscillations are not the topic of general physics courses. Probably it is because the mathematical theory of this phenomenon is relatively complicated, and until quite recently laboratory experiments for students were difficult to implement. However parametric oscillations are good illustrations of the laws of physics and can be…
Augmenting cognition by neuronal oscillations
Horschig, J.M.; Zumer, J.; Bahramisharif, A.
2014-01-01
Cortical oscillations have been shown to represent fundamental functions of a working brain, e.g., communication, stimulus binding, error monitoring, and inhibition, and are directly linked to behavior. Recent studies intervening with these oscillations have demonstrated effective modulation of both
Dudinets, I. V.; Man’ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Zaccaria, F.
2017-11-01
Symplectic tomographies of classical and quantum states are shortly reviewed. The concept of nonlinear f-oscillators and their properties are recalled. The tomographic probability representations of oscillator coherent states and the problem of entanglement are then discussed. The entanglement of even and odd f-coherent states is evaluated by the linear entropy.
Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 35; Issue 3. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars ... Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important ...
Oscillating scalar fields in extended quintessence
Li, Dan; Pi, Shi; Scherrer, Robert J.
2018-01-01
We study a rapidly oscillating scalar field with potential V (ϕ )=k |ϕ |n nonminimally coupled to the Ricci scalar R via a term of the form (1 -8 π G0ξ ϕ2)R in the action. In the weak coupling limit, we calculate the effect of the nonminimal coupling on the time-averaged equation of state parameter γ =(p +ρ )/ρ . The change in ⟨γ ⟩ is always negative for n ≥2 and always positive for n values of n . Constraints on the time variation of G force this change to be infinitesimally small at the present time whenever the scalar field dominates the expansion, but constraints in the early universe are not as stringent. The rapid oscillation induced in G also produces an additional contribution to the Friedman equation that behaves like an effective energy density with a stiff equation of state, but we show that, under reasonable assumptions, this effective energy density is always smaller than the density of the scalar field itself.
Hong, F. J.; Jiang, D. D.; Cheng, P.
2012-08-01
Sessile droplet oscillations in electrowetting on dielectric with a coplanar-electrode configuration are studied experimentally under the actuation of ac voltage with different frequencies. It was found that the experimental resonance frequencies and the number of lobes at different resonance modes agree reasonably well with a previous linear analysis. Oscillations of contact width and droplet height are in-phase at resonance modes P2n+2 while out-of-phase at P2n with n = 2, 4, 6,…. At certain critical frequencies, the droplet oscillations are very weak and switch from in-phase (out-of-phase) to out-of-phase (in-phase). For the oscillations after resonance frequency but before critical frequency, at low frequency, the large amplitude oscillation of the contact line deforms it from a circle to having lobes; the number of lobes increases with the frequency and their position alternates in the azimuthal direction, through periodical droplet spreading and receding. For the oscillations after critical frequency but before resonance frequency, the droplet oscillation demonstrates droplet waggling with an obvious contact line at normal and abnormal stops, due to the contact line pinning at low frequency, or the transportation of lobes on the droplet surface from one end to the other at high frequency. These asymmetric oscillations will produce a more chaotic fluid flow inside the droplets than symmetric oscillations and could be used purposely to enhance mixing in droplet-based micro-fluidics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taherkhani, Masoomeh; Willatzen, Morten; Mørk, Jesper
2017-01-01
-I systems. To increase the oscillator strength, we propose a double quantum dot structure featuring a strongly localized exciton wave function and a corresponding fourfold relative enhancement of the oscillator strength, paving the way towards efficient optically controlled quantum gate applications......We present a numerical investigation of the exciton energy and oscillator strength in type-II nanowire quantum dots. For a single quantum dot, the poor overlap of the electron part and the weakly confined hole part of the excitonic wave function leads to a low oscillator strength compared to type...
Lu, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Xiong, Hao
The chaotic van der Pol oscillator is a powerful tool for detecting defects in electric systems by using online partial discharge (PD) monitoring. This paper focuses on realizing weak PD signal detection in the strong periodic narrowband interference by using high sensitivity to the periodic narrowband interference signals and immunity to white noise and PD signals of chaotic systems. A new approach to removing the periodic narrowband interference by using a van der Pol chaotic oscillator is described by analyzing the motion characteristic of the chaotic oscillator on the basis of the van der Pol equation. Furthermore, the Floquet index for measuring the amplitude of periodic narrowband signals is redefined. The denoising signal processed by the chaotic van der Pol oscillators is further processed by wavelet analysis. Finally, the denoising results verify that the periodic narrowband and white noise interference can be removed efficiently by combining the theory of the chaotic van der Pol oscillator and wavelet analysis.
Control of forced self-sustained oscillations via a backward time controller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pyragas, K. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)]. E-mail: pyragas@pfi.lt; Pyragiene, T. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Tamasevicius, A. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Mykolaitis, G. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)
2006-02-13
A weakly non-linear self-sustained oscillator can be synchronized by an external force only in a certain domain of parameters. We exploit unstable periodic orbits and extend this domain via a small control perturbation. The controller is constructed as a backward time replica of the original oscillator that has the same periodic orbits but with the opposite stability properties. The control is achieved by synchronizing the original oscillator with its backward time replica. We demonstrate these ideas both theoretically and experimentally.
Decoupling of Superfluid and Normal Oscillation Modes in Rotating Neutron Stars
Kantor, E. M.; Gusakov, M. E.
2012-12-01
It was shown in Gusakov & Kantor (2011) that equations governing oscillations of superfluid neutron stars can be split into two systems of weakly coupled equations, one describing the superfluid modes and another one, the normal modes. Here we demonstrate that similar decoupling of modes also occurs in rotating NSs. To this aim we formulated the relativistic hydrodynamics of superfluid mixtures allowing for vortices. Our results indicate, in particular, that emission of gravitational waves from superfluid oscillation modes is suppressed in comparison to that from normal modes. The proposed approach allows one to drastically simplify modeling of oscillations of superfluid rotating neutron stars.
Prospects for Neutrino Oscillation Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvia Pascoli
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Recently the last unknown lepton mixing angle θ 13 has been determined to be relatively large, not too far from its previous upper bound. This opens exciting possibilities for upcoming neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing fundamental questions, among them the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the search for CP violation in the lepton sector. In this paper we review the phenomenology of neutrino oscillations, focusing on subleading effects, which will be the key towards these goals. Starting from a discussion of the present determination of three-flavour oscillation parameters, we give an outlook on the potential of near-term oscillation physics as well as on the long-term program towards possible future precision oscillation facilities. We discuss accelerator-driven long-baseline experiments as well as nonaccelerator possibilities from atmospheric and reactor neutrinos.
Weak lensing and cosmological investigation
Acquaviva, V
2005-01-01
In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliana Henriques de Brito
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.
Political corruption and weak state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stojiljković Zoran
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anticorruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu
Weak transitions in lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maturana, G.
1984-01-01
Some techniques to calculate the effects of the strong interactions on the matrix elements of weak processes are described. The lattice formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics is used to account for the low energy gluons, and the corresponding numerical methods are explained. The high energy contributions are included in effective lagrangians and the problem of matching the different scales related to the renormalization of the operators and wavefunctions is also discussed. The ..delta..l = 1/2 enhancement rule and the K/sup 0/-anti-K/sup 0/ are used to illustrate these techniques and the results of a numerical calculation is reported. The values obtained are very encouraging and they certainly show good qualitative agreement with the experimental values. The emphasis is on general techniques, and in particular, several improvements to this particular calculation are proposed.
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.
2016-01-01
The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess......The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake....... Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...
Bimodal oscillations in nephron autoregulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A N; Mosekilde, E
2002-01-01
The individual functional unit of the kidney (the nephron) displays oscillations in its pressure and flow regulation at two different time scales: fast oscillations associated with a myogenic dynamics of the afferent arteriole, and slower oscillations arising from a delay in the tubuloglomerular...... feedback. We investigate the intra- and internephron entrainment of the two time scales. In addition to full synchronization, both wavelet analyses of experimental data and numerical simulations reveal a partial entrainment in which neighboring nephrons attain a state of chaotic synchronization...
Collective oscillations in a plasma
Akhiezer, A I; Polovin, R V; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy: Collective Oscillations in a Plasma, Volume 7 presents specific topics within the general field of radio waves propagation. This book contains five chapters that address the theory of linear oscillations in a plasma, the spectra of the eigen oscillations, and the mechanism of high-frequency heating. The opening chapters deal with the self-consistent fields; development of initial perturbation; dispersion permittivity tensor of a plasma in a magnetic field; effect of thermal motion of particles on low-frequency resonances; excitation of
Neutrino Oscillations and Non-standard Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasaman Farzan
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Current neutrino experiments are measuring the neutrino mixing parameters with an unprecedented accuracy. The upcoming generation of neutrino experiments will be sensitive to subdominant neutrino oscillation effects that can in principle give information on the yet-unknown neutrino parameters: the Dirac CP-violating phase in the PMNS mixing matrix, the neutrino mass ordering and the octant of θ23. Determining the exact values of neutrino mass and mixing parameters is crucial to test various neutrino models and flavor symmetries that are designed to predict these neutrino parameters. In the first part of this review, we summarize the current status of the neutrino oscillation parameter determination. We consider the most recent data from all solar neutrino experiments and the atmospheric neutrino data from Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and ANTARES. We also implement the data from the reactor neutrino experiments KamLAND, Daya Bay, RENO, and Double Chooz as well as the long baseline neutrino data from MINOS, T2K, and NOνA. If in addition to the standard interactions, neutrinos have subdominant yet-unknown Non-Standard Interactions (NSI with matter fields, extracting the values of these parameters will suffer from new degeneracies and ambiguities. We review such effects and formulate the conditions on the NSI parameters under which the precision measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters can be distorted. Like standard weak interactions, the non-standard interaction can be categorized into two groups: Charged Current (CC NSI and Neutral Current (NC NSI. Our focus will be mainly on neutral current NSI because it is possible to build a class of models that give rise to sizeable NC NSI with discernible effects on neutrino oscillation. These models are based on new U(1 gauge symmetry with a gauge boson of mass ≲ 10 MeV. The UV complete model should be of course electroweak invariant which in general implies that along with neutrinos, charged
Oscillations in Mathematical Biology
1983-01-01
The papers in this volume are based on talks given at a one day conference held on the campus of Adelphi University in April 1982. The conference was organized with the title "Oscillations in Mathematical Biology;" however the speakers were allowed considerable latitutde in their choice of topics. In the event, the talks all concerned the dynamics of non-linear systems arising in biology so that the conference achieved a good measure of cohesion. Some of the speakers cho~e not to submit a manuscript for these proceedings, feeling that their material was too conjectural to be committed to print. Also the paper of Rinzel and Troy is a distillation of the two separate talks that the authors gave. Otherwise the material reproduces the conference proceedings. The conference was made possible by the generous support of the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Adelphi. The bulk of the organization of the conference was carried out by Dr. Ronald Grisell whose energy was in large measure responsib...
Fault zone fabric and fault weakness
Collettini, C.; Niemeijer, A.; Viti, C.; Marone, C.
2009-01-01
Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak1–6 compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength7. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals4, high fluid pressures within the fault core8,9 and dynamic processes such as
Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...
Tlatov, A. G.; Dormidontov, D. V.; Chernov, Ya. O.
2016-12-01
The variation of intensity in spectral line wings, which was obtained from observations of the patrol telescope at the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, Russian Academy of Science (KMAS) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) space observatory, are considered. A series of observations lasting a few hours near the solar active regions, in which both short- and longperiod oscillations were observed simultaneously during 2014-2015, are analyzed. It is found out that oscillations with a period of 3-5 min can exist at one time and in one place with oscillations with a period of about 100 min. The amplitude of long-period oscillations can be comparable with that for short-period oscillations. The conditions for excitation of the wave processes are considered. Oscillations with a period of 100 min have a weak dependence on the area of the active region.
Wolding, Brandon O.; Maloney, Eric D.; Henderson, Stephanie; Branson, Mark
2017-03-01
WTG balance is used to examine how changes in the moist thermodynamic structure of the tropics affect the MJO in two simulations of the Superparameterized Community Earth System Model (SP-CESM), one at preindustrial (PI) levels of CO2 and one where CO2 levels have been quadrupled (4×CO2). While MJO convective variability increases considerably in the 4×CO2 simulation, the dynamical response to this convective variability decreases. Increased MJO convective variability is shown to be a robust response to the steepening vertical moisture gradient, consistent with the findings of previous studies. The steepened vertical moisture gradient allows MJO convective heating to drive stronger variations in large-scale vertical moisture advection, supporting destabilization of the MJO. The decreased dynamical response to MJO convective variability is shown to be a consequence of increased static stability, which allows weaker variations in large-scale vertical velocity to produce sufficient adiabatic cooling to balance variations in MJO convective heating. This weakened dynamical response results in a considerable reduction of the MJO's ability to influence the extratropics, which is closely tied to the strength of its associated divergence. A composite lifecycle of the MJO was used to show that northern hemisphere extratropical 525 hPa geopotential height anomalies decreased by 27% in the 4×CO2 simulation, despite a 22% increase in tropical convective heating associated with the MJO. Results of this study suggest that while MJO convective variability may increase in a warming climate, the MJO's role in "bridging weather and climate" in the extratropics may not.
Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions
Cveticanin, Livija
2017-01-01
This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.
Long period oscillations in sunspots
Chorley, N.; Hnat, B.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Inglis, A. R.; Bakunina, I. A.
2010-04-01
Long period oscillations of the gyroresonant emission from sunspot atmospheres are studied. Time series data generated from the sequences of images obtained by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph operating at a frequency of 17 GHz for three sunspots have been analysed and are found to contain significant periods in the range of several tens of minutes. Wavelet analysis shows that these periods are persistent throughout the observation periods. The presence of the oscillations is confirmed by several methods (periodogram, wavelets, Fisher randomisation and empirical mode decomposition). Spatial analysis using the techniques of period, power, correlation and time lag mapping reveals regions of enhanced oscillatory power in the umbral regions. Also seen are two regions of coherent oscillation of about 25 pixels in size, that oscillate in anti-phase with each other. Possible interpretation of the observed periodicities is discussed, in terms of the shallow sunspot model and the leakage of the solar g-modes.
Parametric electroconvection in a weakly conducting fluid in a horizontal parallel-plate capacitor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kartavykh, N. N.; Smorodin, B. L., E-mail: bsmorodin@yandex.ru; Il’in, V. A. [Perm State National Research University (Russian Federation)
2015-07-15
We study the flows of a nonuniformly heated weakly conducting fluid in an ac electric field of a horizontal parallel-plate capacitor. Analysis is carried out for fluids in which the charge formation is governed by electroconductive mechanism associated with the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of the medium. Periodic and chaotic regimes of fluid flow are investigated in the limiting case of instantaneous charge relaxation and for a finite relaxation time. Bifurcation diagrams and electroconvective regimes charts are constructed. The regions where fluid oscillations synchronize with the frequency of the external field are determined. Hysteretic transitions between electroconvection regimes are studied. The scenarios of transition to chaotic oscillations are analyzed. Depending on the natural frequency of electroconvective system and the external field frequency, the transition from periodic to chaotic oscillations can occur via quasiperiodicity, a subharmonic cascade, or intermittence.
Building a Synthetic Transcriptional Oscillator.
Schwarz-Schilling, Matthaeus; Kim, Jongmin; Cuba, Christian; Weitz, Maximilian; Franco, Elisa; Simmel, Friedrich C
2016-01-01
Reaction circuits mimicking genetic oscillators can be realized with synthetic, switchable DNA genes (so-called genelets), and two enzymes only, an RNA polymerase and a ribonuclease. The oscillatory behavior of the genelets is driven by the periodic production and degradation of RNA effector molecules. Here, we describe the preparation, assembly, and testing of a synthetic, transcriptional two-node negative-feedback oscillator, whose dynamics can be followed in real-time by fluorescence read-out.
Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.
Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A
2013-08-01
We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))
1989-01-01
We present results from the Wilson fermion part of the Grand Challenge'' weak matrix element project. A new procedure for correcting the chiral behavior of {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd}, the K{sup 0}-{bar K}{sup 0} {Beta} parameter,'' is proposed and applied. On our largest lattice (24{sup 3} {times} 40 at {beta} = 6.0), we get {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} = .86 {plus minus} .11 {plus minus} .05, where the first error is statistical and the second is a measure of the systematic errors due to the procedure and to related finite-size effects. Results for the direct K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} amplitude are also presented. There is some evidence for higher order chiral effects which may make these results compatible both with experiment and with the {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} computation. The status of the direct K{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {pi} {sup +} {pi}{sup {minus}} {Delta}I = 1/2 amplitude is then discussed. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
A Universe without Weak Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad
2006-04-07
A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.
Design of weak link channel-cut crystals for fast QEXAFS monochromators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polheim, O. von, E-mail: vonpolheim@uni-wuppertal.de; Müller, O.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, Gaußstraße 20, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany)
2016-07-27
A weak link channel-cut crystal, optimized for dedicated Quick EXAFS monochromators and measurements, was designed using finite element analysis. This channel-cut crystal offers precise detuning capabilities to enable suppression of higher harmonics in the virtually monochromatic beam. It was optimized to keep the detuning stable, withstanding the mechanical load, which occurs during oscillations with up to 50 Hz. First tests at DELTA (Dortmund, Germany), proved the design.
Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors
Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.
2016-07-01
In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe undergoes decoherence can be significantly lower than that of a standard weak measurement. This indicates another advantage of weak-value amplification in improving the performance of parameter estimation. We illustrate the results by an exact numerical simulation of decoherence arising from a bosonic mode and compare it to the first-order analytical result we obtain.
On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators
Elwakil, Ahmed S.
2009-06-01
We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Hydrodynamic Force on a Cylinder Oscillating at Low Frequency
Berg, Robert F.; Yao, Minwu; Panzarella, Charles H.
2007-01-01
The hydrodynamic force on a cylinder oscillating transversely to its axis is a nonlinear function of the displacement amplitude x0. We report measurements and numerical calculations of the force at frequencies low enough that delta > R, where delta is the viscous penetration length and R is the cylinder radius. For small amplitudes, the numerically calculated Fourier transform of the force per unit length, F(sub small), agrees with Stokes' analytical calculation. For larger amplitudes, the force per unit length found by both calculation and measurement is F = F(sub small)C (x(sub 0)/delta,R/delta). The complex function C depends only weakly on R/delta, indicating that x0/delta is more appropriate as a scaling variable than the Keulegan-Carpenter number KC = pi*x(sub 0)/R. The measurements used a torsion oscillator driven at frequencies from 1 to 12 Hz while immersed in dense xenon. The oscillator comprised cylinders with an effective radius of R = 13.4 micron and oscillation amplitudes as large as x(sub 0)/delta = 4 (corresponding to KC as large as 71). The calculations used similar conditions except that the amplitudes were as large as x0/delta = 28.
Emergence of slow collective oscillations in neural networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Kaare; Imparato, Alberto; Torcini, Alessandro
2013-01-01
The collective dynamics of excitatory pulse coupled neurons with spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is studied. The introduction of STDP induces persistent irregular oscillations between strongly and weakly synchronized states, reminiscent of brain activity during slow-wave sleep. We explain...
A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Lassen, Benny
2016-01-01
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact cal...... oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.......Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact...... calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch...
On the mechanism of oscillations in neutrophils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brasen, Jens Christian; Barington, Torben; Olsen, Lars Folke
2010-01-01
of the external glucose concentration and the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production are 180 degrees out of phase with the oscillations in NAD(P)H. Cytochalasin B blocked the oscillations in shape and size whereas it increased the period of the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. 1- and 2-butanol also blocked...... the oscillations in shape and size, but only 1-butanol inhibited the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. We conjecture that the oscillations are likely to be due to feedback regulations in the signal transduction cascade involving phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). We have tested this using a simple mathematical......We have investigated the regulation of the oscillatory generation of H(2)O(2) and oscillations in shape and size in neutrophils in suspension. The oscillations are independent of cell density and hence do not represent a collective phenomena. Furthermore, the oscillations are independent...
Parzen, Benjamin
1992-01-01
The theory of oscillator analysis in the immittance domain should be read in conjunction with the additional theory presented here. The combined theory enables the computer simulation of the steady state oscillator. The simulation makes the calculation of the oscillator total steady state performance practical, including noise at all oscillator locations. Some specific precision oscillators are analyzed.
Rabi oscillations and stimulated mode conversion on the subwavelength scale.
Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Chen, Xianfeng
2015-03-09
We study stimulated mode conversion and dynamics of Rabi-like oscillations of weights of guided modes in deeply subwavelength guiding structures, whose dielectric permittivity changes periodically in the direction of light propagation. We show that despite strong localization of the fields of eigenmodes on the scales below the wavelength of light, even weak longitudinal modulation couples modes of selected parity and causes periodic energy exchange between them, thereby opening the way for controllable transformation of the internal structure of subwavelength beams. The effect is reminiscent of Rabi oscillations in multilevel quantum systems subjected to the action of periodic external fields. By using rigorous numerical solution of the full set of the Maxwell's equations, we show that the effect takes place not only in purely dielectric, but also in metallic-dielectric structures, despite the energy dissipation inherent to the plasmonic waveguides. The stimulated conversion of subwavelength light modes is possible in both linear and nonlinear regimes.
The Weak Lensing Masses of Filaments between Luminous Red Galaxies
Epps, Seth D.; Hudson, Michael J.
2017-07-01
In the standard model of non-linear structure formation, a cosmic web of dark-matter-dominated filaments connects dark matter haloes. In this paper, we stack the weak lensing signal of an ensemble of filaments between groups and clusters of galaxies. Specifically, we detect the weak lensing signal, using CFHTLenS galaxy ellipticities, from stacked filaments between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). As a control, we compare the physical LRG pairs with projected LRG pairs that are more widely separated in redshift space. We detect the excess filament mass density in the projected pairs at the 5σ level, finding a mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1013 M⊙ for a stacked filament region 7.1 h-1 Mpc long and 2.5 h-1 Mpc wide. This filament signal is compared with a model based on the three-point galaxy-galaxy-convergence correlation function, as developed in Clampitt et al., yielding reasonable agreement.
Burst Oscillation Studies with NICER
Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod E.
2017-08-01
Type I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear flashes observed from the surfaces of accreting neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries. Oscillations have been observed during the rise and/or decay of some of these X-ray bursts. Those seen during the rise can be well explained by a spreading hot spot model, but large amplitude oscillations in the decay phase remain mysterious because of the absence of a clear-cut source of asymmetry. Here we present the results of our computations of the light curves and amplitudes of oscillations in X-ray burst models that realistically account for both flame spreading and subsequent cooling. For the cooling phase of the burst we use two simple phenomenological models. The first considers asymmetric cooling that can achieve high amplitudes in the tail. The second considers a sustained temperature pattern on the stellar surface that is produced by r-modes propagating in the surface fluid ocean of the star. We will present some simulated burst light curves/spectra using these models and NICER response files, and will show the capabilities of NICER to detect and study burst oscillations. NICER will enable us to study burst oscillations in the energy band below ~3 keV, where there has been no previous measurements of these phenomena.
ALG-2 oscillates in subcellular localization, unitemporally with calcium oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Berchtold, Martin Werner
2007-01-01
discovered that the subcellular distribution of a tagged version of ALG-2 could be directed by physiological external stimuli (including ATP, EGF, prostaglandin, histamine), which provoke intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Cellular stimulation led to a redistribution of ALG-2 from the cytosol to a punctate...... localization in an oscillatory fashion unitemporally with Ca2+ oscillations, whereas a Ca2+-binding deficient mutant of ALG-2 did not redistribute. Using tagged ALG-2 as bait we identified its novel target protein Sec31A and based on the partial colocalization of endogenous ALG-2 and Sec31A we propose that ALG...
Spin effects in the weak interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)
1990-01-01
Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.
Weiss oscillations and particle-hole symmetry at the half-filled Landau level
Cheung, Alfred K C; Mulligan, Michael
2016-01-01
Particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level of the two-dimensional electron gas requires the electrical Hall conductivity to equal $\\pm e^2/2h$ at half-filling. We study the consequences of weakly broken particle-hole symmetry for magnetoresistance oscillations about half-filling in the presence of an applied periodic one-dimensional electrostatic potential. At fixed electron density, the oscillation minima are asymmetrically biased towards higher magnetic fields, while at fixed magnetic field, the oscillations occur symmetrically as the electron density is varied about half-filling. We find an approximate "sum rule" obeyed for all pairs of oscillation minima that can be tested in experiment. We discuss the implications of our results and approximations for the description of the half-filled Landau level.
Optimal Phase-Control Strategy for Damped-Driven Duffing Oscillators.
Meucci, R; Euzzor, S; Pugliese, E; Zambrano, S; Gallas, M R; Gallas, J A C
2016-01-29
Phase-control techniques of chaos aim to extract periodic behaviors from chaotic systems by applying weak harmonic perturbations with a suitably chosen phase. However, little is known about the best strategy for selecting adequate perturbations to reach desired states. Here we use experimental measures and numerical simulations to assess the benefits of controlling individually the three terms of a Duffing oscillator. Using a real-time analog indicator able to discriminate on-the-fly periodic behaviors from chaos, we reconstruct experimentally the phase versus perturbation strength stability areas when periodic perturbations are applied to different terms governing the oscillator. We verify the system to be more sensitive to perturbations applied to the quadratic term of the double-well Duffing oscillator and to the quartic term of the single-well Duffing oscillator.
Restoration of oscillation in network of oscillators in presence of direct and indirect interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majhi, Soumen; Bera, Bidesh K. [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India); Bhowmick, Sourav K. [Department of Electronics, Asutosh College, Kolkata-700026 (India); Ghosh, Dibakar, E-mail: diba.ghosh@gmail.com [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India)
2016-10-23
The suppression of oscillations in coupled systems may lead to several unwanted situations, which requires a suitable treatment to overcome the suppression. In this paper, we show that the environmental coupling in the presence of direct interaction, which can suppress oscillation even in a network of identical oscillators, can be modified by introducing a feedback factor in the coupling scheme in order to restore the oscillation. We inspect how the introduction of the feedback factor helps to resurrect oscillation from various kinds of death states. We numerically verify the resurrection of oscillations for two paradigmatic limit cycle systems, namely Landau–Stuart and Van der Pol oscillators and also in generic chaotic Lorenz oscillator. We also study the effect of parameter mismatch in the process of restoring oscillation for coupled oscillators. - Highlights: • Amplitude death is observed using direct and indirect coupling. • Revival of oscillation using feedback parameter is discussed. • Restoration of oscillation is observed in limit cycle and chaotic systems.
Weak isometries of the Boolean cube
Winter, S De; Korb, M
2014-01-01
Consider the metric space $\\mathcal{C}$ consisting of the $n$-dimensional Boolean cube equipped with the Hamming distance. A weak isometry of $\\mathcal{C}$ is a permutation of $\\mathcal{C}$ preserving a given subset of Hamming distances. In \\cite{Krasin} Krasin showed that in most cases preserving a single Hamming distance forces a weak isometry to be an isometry. In this article we study those weak isometries that are not automatically an isometry, providing a complete classification of weak...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Lin Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A positive answer to the open problem of Iorgulescu on extending weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras to the noncommutative forms is given. We show that pseudo-weak-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-IMTL algebras and that pseudo-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-NM algebras. Some properties, the noncommutative forms of the properties in weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras, are investigated. The simplified axiom systems of pseudo-weak-R0 algebras and pseudo-R0 algebras are obtained.
Infinite invariant densities due to intermittency in a nonlinear oscillator
Meyer, Philipp; Kantz, Holger
2017-08-01
Dynamical intermittency is known to generate anomalous statistical behavior of dynamical systems, a prominent example being the Pomeau-Manneville map. We present a nonlinear oscillator, i.e., a physical model in continuous time, whose properties in terms of weak ergodity breaking and aging have a one-to-one correspondence to the properties of the Pomeau-Manneville map. So for both systems in a wide range of parameters no physical invariant density exists. We show how this regime can be characterized quantitatively using the techniques of infinite invariant densities and the Thaler-Dynkin limit theorem. We see how expectation values exhibit aging in terms of scaling in time.
Infinite invariant densities due to intermittency in a nonlinear oscillator.
Meyer, Philipp; Kantz, Holger
2017-08-01
Dynamical intermittency is known to generate anomalous statistical behavior of dynamical systems, a prominent example being the Pomeau-Manneville map. We present a nonlinear oscillator, i.e., a physical model in continuous time, whose properties in terms of weak ergodity breaking and aging have a one-to-one correspondence to the properties of the Pomeau-Manneville map. So for both systems in a wide range of parameters no physical invariant density exists. We show how this regime can be characterized quantitatively using the techniques of infinite invariant densities and the Thaler-Dynkin limit theorem. We see how expectation values exhibit aging in terms of scaling in time.
Electromagnetic oscillations of the Earth's upper atmosphere (review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. Khantadze
2010-07-01
Full Text Available A complete theory of low-frequency MHD oscillations of the Earth's weakly ionized ionosphere is formulated. Peculiarities of excitation and propagation of electromagnetic acoustic-gravity, MHD and planetary waves are considered in the Earth's ionosphere. The general dispersion equation is derived for the magneto-acoustic, magneto-gravity and electromagnetic planetary waves in the ionospheric E- and F-regions. The action of the geomagnetic field on the propagation of acoustic-gravity waves is elucidated. The nature of the existence of the comparatively new large-scale electromagnetic planetary branches is emphasized.
Stabilization of Sawtooth Oscillations by the Circulating Energetic Ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; V.S. Marchenko; R.B.White
2004-05-26
The influence of the well-circulating energetic ions on the ideal kink instability and semi-collisional tearing mode are studied. It is found that the precession of these ions can be a key factor that affects the instability: it can lead to the stabilization of the mentioned instabilities, the effect being weakly dependent on the direction of the injection. The developed theory is consistent with the experimental observations of the stabilization of sawtooth oscillations during the negative-ion-based neutral beam injection in JT-60U.
Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-01-01
oscillation and an axial oscillation in the pulse echo field. The theory behind the creation of the double oscillation pulse echo field is explained as well as the theory behind the estimation of the vector velocity. A parameter study of the method is performed, using the ultrasound simulation program Field...... II. A virtual linear array transducer with center frequency 7 MHz and 128 active elements is created, and a virtual blood vessel of radius 6.4 mm is simulated. The performance of the TO method is found around an initial point in the parameter space. The parameters varied are: flow angle, transmit...... focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...
Prediction of pilot induced oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentin PANĂ
2011-03-01
Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.
Hidden symmetries of deformed oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey Krivonos
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We associate with each simple Lie algebra a system of second-order differential equations invariant under a non-compact real form of the corresponding Lie group. In the limit of a contraction to a Schrödinger algebra, these equations reduce to a system of ordinary harmonic oscillators. We provide two clarifying examples of such deformed oscillators: one system invariant under SO(2,3 transformations, and another system featuring G2(2 symmetry. The construction of invariant actions requires adding semi-dynamical degrees of freedom; we illustrate the algorithm with the two examples mentioned.
Oscillating-Coolant Heat Exchanger
Scotti, Stephen J.; Blosser, Max L.; Camarda, Charles J.
1992-01-01
Devices useful in situations in which heat pipes inadequate. Conceptual oscillating-coolant heat exchanger (OCHEX) transports heat from its hotter portions to cooler portions. Heat transported by oscillation of single-phase fluid, called primary coolant, in coolant passages. No time-averaged flow in tubes, so either heat removed from end reservoirs on every cycle or heat removed indirectly by cooling sides of channels with another coolant. Devices include leading-edge cooling devices in hypersonic aircraft and "frost-free" heat exchangers. Also used in any situation in which heat pipe used and in other situations in which heat pipes not usable.
Ladder operators for isospectral oscillators
Seshadri, S.; Balakrishnan, V.; Lakshmibala, S.
1998-02-01
We present, for the isospectral family of oscillator Hamiltonians, a systematic procedure for constructing raising and lowering operators satisfying any prescribed "distorted" Heisenberg algebra (including the q-generalization). This is done by means of an operator transformation implemented by a shift operator. The latter is obtained by solving an appropriate partial isometry condition in the Hilbert space. Formal representations of the nonlocal operators concerned are given in terms of pseudo-differential operators. Using the new annihilation operators, new classes of coherent states are constructed for isospectral oscillator Hamiltonians. The corresponding Fock-Bargmann representations are also considered, with specific reference to the order of the entire function family in each case.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ates, Sule, E-mail: suleates@selcuk.edu.tr; Oezarslan, Selma; Celik, Gueltekin; Taser, Mehmet
2012-07-15
The electric dipole oscillator strengths for lines between some singlet and triplet levels have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory and the quantum defect orbital theory for Be I. In the calculations both multiplet and fine structure transitions are studied. We employed both the numerical Coulomb approximation method and numerical non-relativistic Hartree-Fock wavefunctions for expectation values of radii. The necessary energy values have been taken from experimental energy data in the literature. The calculated oscillator strengths have been compared with available theoretical results. A good agreement with the results in the literature has been obtained.
TOWARDS THRESHOLD FREQUENCY IN CHAOTIC COLPITTS OSCILLATOR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik; Tamasevicius, Arunas; Mykolaitis, Gytis
2007-01-01
A novel version of chaotic Colpitts oscillator is described. Instead of a linear loss resistor, it includes an extra inductor and diode in the collector circuit of the transistor. The modified circuit in comparison with the common Colpitts oscillator may generate chaotic oscillations at the funda......A novel version of chaotic Colpitts oscillator is described. Instead of a linear loss resistor, it includes an extra inductor and diode in the collector circuit of the transistor. The modified circuit in comparison with the common Colpitts oscillator may generate chaotic oscillations...
A classification of weakly acyclic games
Apt, K.R.; Simon, S.
2012-01-01
Weakly acyclic games form a natural generalization of the class of games that have the finite improvement property (FIP). In such games one stipulates that from any initial joint strategy some finite improvement path exists. We classify weakly acyclic games using the concept of a scheduler recently
Revisiting Weak Simulation for Substochastic Markov Chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jansen, David N.; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun
2013-01-01
The spectrum of branching-time relations for probabilistic systems has been investigated thoroughly by Baier, Hermanns, Katoen and Wolf (2003, 2005), including weak simulation for systems involving substochastic distributions. Weak simulation was proven to be sound w.r.t. the liveness fragment...
A note on Weak Stability Boundaries
García González, Fernando; Gómez Muntané, Gerard
2006-01-01
This paper is devoted to clarify the algorithmic definition of the weak stability boundary in the framework of the planar Restricted Three Body Problem. The role of the invariant hyperbolic manifolds associated to the central manifolds of the libration points L1 and L2, as boundary of the weak stability region, is shown Peer Reviewed
CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence
Fitch, V. L.
1972-03-23
Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.
Towards a classification of weak hand holds
Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.
2016-01-01
The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been
Spin Seebeck effect in a weak ferromagnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arboleda, Juan David, E-mail: juan.arboledaj@udea.edu.co; Arnache Olmos, Oscar [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Aguirre, Myriam Haydee; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Ramos, Rafael [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Anadon, Alberto [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)
2016-06-06
We report the observation of room temperature spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a weak ferromagnetic normal spinel Zinc Ferrite (ZFO). Despite the weak ferromagnetic behavior, the measurements of the SSE in ZFO show a thermoelectric voltage response comparable with the reported values for other ferromagnetic materials. Our results suggest that SSE might possibly originate from the surface magnetization of the ZFO.
On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH
Abrams, Daniel B.; Haitjema, Henk; Kauffman, Leon J.
2012-01-01
Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.
Intensive care unit-acquired weakness
Horn, J.; Hermans, G.
2017-01-01
When critically ill, a severe weakness of the limbs and respiratory muscles often develops with a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), a condition vaguely termed intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). Many of these patients have serious nerve and muscle injury. This syndrome is
Persisting weakness after withdrawal of a statin.
Mygland, Åse; Ljøstad, Unn; Krossnes, Bård Kronen
2014-04-08
An 81-year-old woman treated with simvastatin for several years followed by atorvastatin for about 1 year presented with fatigue, weakness and unsteady gait. The finding of elevated creatine kinase (CK) and symmetric muscle weakness around shoulders and hips led to suspicion of a toxic statin-associated myopathy. Atorvastatin was withdrawn, but her weakness persisted. Owing to persisting weakness, an autoimmune myopathy (myositis) was suspected, but initially disregarded since a muscle biopsy showed necrotic muscle fibres without inflammatory cell infiltrates and myositis-specific autoantibodies were absent. After 18 months with slowly progressive weakness and increasing CK values, awareness of new knowledge about autoimmunity as a cause of necrotic myopathy, led to a successful treatment trial with intravenous immunoglobulines, followed by steroids and metothrexate. Antibodies to the target enzyme of statins (HMGCR (3-hydroksy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase)) were detected in her serum, and she was diagnosed with autoimmune necrotic myositis probably triggered by atorvastatin.
Willocq, S
2002-01-01
We review new studies of the time dependence of B0s - B0s-bar mixing by the ALEPH, DELPHI and SLD Collaborations, with an emphasis on the different analysis methods used. Combining all available results yields a preliminary lower limit on the oscillation frequency of dms > 14.4 ps-1 at the 95% C.L.
Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Oscillating solitons are obtained in nonlinear optics. Analytical study of the variable- coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is used to describe the soliton propagation in those systems, is carried out using the Hirota's bilinear method. The bilinear forms and analytic soliton solutions are derived, and the ...
Chemical Oscillations-Mathematical Modelling
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. Chemical Oscillations - Mathematical Modelling ... Protein Science and Engineering Unit Institute of Microbial Technology Sector 39A Chandigarh 160 036; Department of Chemistry and Centre for Advanced Studies in Chemistry Punjab ...
Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators
Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada
2009-01-01
A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…
Linearization of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators
Belendez, A.; Alvarez, M. L.; Fernandez, E.; Pascual, I.
2009-01-01
A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for…
Sum rules for neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Nartem' yanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Shchepkin, M.G. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki)
1982-05-01
Sum rules for neutrino oscillations have been obtained. The effects due to the neutrino masses are taken into account, msub(..nu..) being not assumed to be a small parameter. Study of the ''binary'' lsub(i)sup(-) ..-->.. ..nu.. ..-->.. lsub(k)sup(+-) process permits to accurately take into account neutrino masses and to obtain expressions for the cross sections oscillating as functions of distance L between the points of neutrino production and absorption. In the case of Dirac or left Majoran masses obtained is the sum rule according to which the cross section sigma(lsub(i)sup(-) ..-->.. lsub(k)sup(-)) summarized with the weight 1/vsub(k) by aromas of final lepton remains constant (exactly, decrease as 1/L/sup 2/) and it does not oscillate. In the case of left Majoran masses there is admixture of antineutrino due to which the lsub(i)sup(-) ..-->.. lsub(k)sup(+) process is possible. In this case both components (neutrino with antineutrino admixture) oscillates independently and there exists analogous sum rule for the sigma(lsub(i)sup(-) ..-->.. lsub(k)sup(+)) cross section.
Discovery of atmospheric neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kajita, Takaaki [Tokyo Univ., Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)
2003-05-01
Cosmic ray particles entering the atmosphere interact with the air nuclei produce neutrinos. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. The atmospheric neutrino anomaly observed in Kamiokande is now understood as due to neutrino oscillations by high statistics measurements of the atmospheric neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande. The studies of the atmospheric neutrinos have matured into detailed studies of neutrino masses and mixings. (author)
Sustained oscillations in living cells
Danø, Sune; Sørensen, Preben Graae; Hynne, Finn
1999-11-01
Glycolytic oscillations in yeast have been studied for many years simply by adding a glucose pulse to a suspension of cells and measuring the resulting transient oscillations of NADH. Here we show, using a suspension of yeast cells, that living cells can be kept in a well defined oscillating state indefinitely when starved cells, glucose and cyanide are pumped into a cuvette with outflow of surplus liquid. Our results show that the transitions between stationary and oscillatory behaviour are uniquely described mathematically by the Hopf bifurcation. This result characterizes the dynamical properties close to the transition point. Our perturbation experiments show that the cells remain strongly coupled very close to the transition. Therefore, the transition takes place in each of the cells and is not a desynchronization phenomenon. With these two observations, a study of the kinetic details of glycolysis, as it actually takes place in a living cell, is possible using experiments designed in the framework of nonlinear dynamics. Acetaldehyde is known to synchronize the oscillations. Our results show that glucose is another messenger substance, as long as the glucose transporter is not saturated.
Sound oscillation of dropwise cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shavlov, A.V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V.A.; Romanyuk, S.N. [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation)
2012-06-04
There was registered sound oscillation of a dropwise cluster formed over the warmed-up water surface. We have calculated the electrical charge of drops on the basis of experimental data on ion-sound oscillation. It was demonstrated that the charge is proportional to surface area of the drops and does not depend on intensity of their evaporation (condensation) in the range of 60–100 °C. The charge of drops reaches 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} units of elementary charge and coincides on magnitude order with the literary value of a charge calculated by another method. -- Highlights: ► The present investigation registered short-wave sound oscillations of water drops in a dropwise cluster in the range of 60–100 °C. ► We have found autocorrelation functions and Fourier transforms of time series of interdroplet distance; defined oscillation frequencies. ► Calculated electrical charge of drops and specified that the charge is proportional to the drop surface area.
Controlling particle trajectories using oscillating microbubbles
Jalikop, Shreyas; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha
2010-11-01
In many applications of microfluidics and biotechnology, such as cytometry and drug delivery, it is vital to manipulate the trajectories of microparticles such as vesicles or cells. On this small scale, inertial or gravitational effects are often too weak to exploit. We propose a mechanism to selectively trap and direct particles based on their size in creeping transport flows (Re1). We employ Rayleigh-Nyborg-Westervelt (RNW) streaming generated by an oscillating microbubble, which in turn generates a streaming flow component around the mobile particles. The result is an attractive interaction that draws the particle closer to the bubble. The impenetrability of the bubble interface destroys time-reversal symmetry and forces the particles onto either narrow trajectory bundles or well-defined closed trajectories, where they are trapped. The effect is dependent on particle size and thus allows for the passive focusing and sorting of selected sizes, on scales much smaller than the geometry of the microfluidic device. The device could eliminate the need for complicated microchannel designs with external magnetic or electric fields in applications such as particle focusing and size-based sorting.
Stable bubble oscillations beyond Blake's critical threshold.
Hegedűs, Ferenc
2014-04-01
The equilibrium radius of a single spherical bubble containing both non-condensable gas and vapor is determined by the mechanical balance at the bubble interface. This expression highlights the fact that decreasing the ambient pressure below the so called Blake's critical threshold, the bubble has no equilibrium state at all. In the last decade many authors have tried to find evidence for the existence of stable bubble oscillation under harmonic forcing in this regime, that is, they have tried to stabilize the bubble motion applying ultrasonic radiation on the bubble. The available numerical results provide only partial proof for the existence as they are usually based on linearized or weakly nonlinear (higher order approximation) bubble models. Here, based on numerical techniques of the modern nonlinear and bifurcation theory, the existence of stable bubble motion has been proven without any restrictions in nonlinearities. Although the model, applied in this paper, is the rather simple Rayleigh-Plesset equation, the presented technique can be extended to more complex bubble models easily. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Analytic Neutrino Oscillation Probabilities in Matter: Revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parke, Stephen J. [Fermilab; Denton, Peter B. [Copenhagen U.; Minakata, Hisakazu [Madrid, IFT
2018-01-02
We summarize our recent paper on neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter, explaining the importance, relevance and need for simple, highly accurate approximations to the neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter.
Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran
2013-01-01
In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.
Quantum oscillations in the chiral magnetic conductivity
Kaushik, Sahal; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2017-06-01
In strong magnetic field, the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in three-dimensional chiral materials is shown to exhibit a new type of quantum oscillations arising from the chiral magnetic effect (CME). These quantum CME oscillations are predicted to dominate over the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) ones in chiral materials with an approximately conserved chirality of quasiparticles at strong magnetic fields. The phase of quantum CME oscillations differs from the phase of the conventional SdH oscillations by π /2 .
Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits
Ge, Xiaoqing
2010-06-01
Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.
Quadriceps weakness and osteoarthritis of the knee.
Slemenda, C; Brandt, K D; Heilman, D K; Mazzuca, S; Braunstein, E M; Katz, B P; Wolinsky, F D
1997-07-15
The quadriceps weakness commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the knee is widely believed to result from disuse atrophy secondary to pain in the involved joint. However, quadriceps weakness may be an etiologic factor in the development of osteoarthritis. To explore the relation between lower-extremity weakness and osteoarthritis of the knee. Cross-sectional prevalence study. Population-based, with recruitment by random-digit dialing. 462 volunteers 65 years of age or older. Radiographs of the knee were graded for the presence of osteoarthritis. Knee pain and function were assessed with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, the strength of leg flexors and extensors was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, and lower-extremity lean tissue mass was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among participants with osteoarthritis, quadriceps weakness, but not hamstring weakness, was common. The ratio of extensor strength to body weight was approximately 20% lower in those with than in those without radiographic osteoarthritis. Notably, among women with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis, extensor weakness was present in the absence of knee pain and was seen in participants with normal lower-extremity lean mass (extensor strength, 30.1 lb-ft for those with osteoarthritis and 34.8 lb-ft for those without osteoarthritis; P osteoarthritis of the knee (odds ratio for prevalence of osteoarthritis per 10 lb-ft loss of strength, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.90] for radiographic osteoarthritis and 0.71 [CI, 0.51 to 0.87] for symptomatic osteoarthritis). Quadriceps weakness may be present in patients who have osteoarthritis but do not have knee pain or muscle atrophy; this suggests that the weakness may be due to muscle dysfunction. The data are consistent with the possibility that quadriceps weakness is a primary risk factor for knee pain, disability, and progression of joint damage in persons with osteoarthritis of the knee.
Strong versus Weak Ties in Migration
Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline; Zenou, Yves
2014-01-01
This paper studies the role of strong versus weak ties in the rural-to-urban migration decision in China. We first develop a network model that puts forward the different roles of weak and strong ties in helping workers to migrate to the city. We then use a unique longitudinal data that allows us to test our model by focusing on first-time migration. Strong ties are measured by the closest family contact (excluding household members) while weak ties are determined by the fraction of migrants ...
Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui, E-mail: quaninformation@sina.com
2014-12-15
Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be ‘extracted’ not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.
Assessing the quality of stochastic oscillations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Population dynamics; stochastic oscillations. ... We propose a quantification of the oscillatory appearance of the fluctuating populations, and show that good stochastic oscillations are present if a parameter of the macroscopic model is small, and that no microscopic model will show oscillations if that parameter is large.
Internal dynamics of long Josephson junction oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.; Scott, Alwyn C.
1981-01-01
Numerical computations on a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson junction fluxon oscillator are compared with experimental measurements. Good agreement is found for the voltage current characteristic, oscillator power output, and range of current bias over which oscillation is observed. Our numerical...
Comparison of Methods for Oscillation Detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Trangbæk, Klaus
2006-01-01
This paper compares a selection of methods for detecting oscillations in control loops. The methods are tested on measurement data from a coal-fired power plant, where some oscillations are occurring. Emphasis is put on being able to detect oscillations without having a system model and without...
Scleronomic Holonomic Constraints and Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators
Munoz, R.; Gonzalez-Garcia, G.; Izquierdo-De La Cruz, E.; Fernandez-Anaya, G.
2011-01-01
A bead sliding, under the sole influence of its own weight, on a rigid wire shaped in the fashion of a plane curve, will describe (generally anharmonic) oscillations around a local minimum. For given shapes, the bead will behave as a harmonic oscillator in the whole range, such as an unforced, undamped, Duffing oscillator, etc. We also present…
Coherent states for the Legendre oscillator
Borzov, V. V.; Damaskinsky, E. V.
2003-01-01
A new oscillator-like system called by the Legendre oscillator is introduced in this note. The two families of coherent states (coherent states as eigenvectors of the annihilation operator and the Klauder-Gazeau temporally stable coherent states) are defined and investigated for this oscillator.
Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S; Trevaskis, Ben
2015-01-01
The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.
Testing the Fundamentals of Physics Using Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators
Tobar, Michael E.
2006-02-01
The conventional understanding of the Universe admits four fundamental interactions or forces - Gravitational, Electromagnetic, and the Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces. It is widely believed that these four forces are really manifestations of a single underlying and unifying interaction that can be revealed if one examines nature with sufficiently precise measurement. Naturally it is not clear what type of precise measurement will reveal deviations from the present understanding. Particle accelerators directly probe nature on short-distance and high-energy; an alternative approach is to search for exquisitely small deviations from known physics that can be seen on conventional energy and distance scales. Examples of such measurements include new versions of the famous Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thoradike experiments, as well as laboratory measurements of the time independence of the fine structure constant and tests of Standard Model Extensions. We are developing a new range of oscillators based on high-Q microwave resonators, when combined with the best from across the world, offer the prospect of measurements that may reveal this next layer of understanding. To achieve these types of measurements, oscillators with frequency stability in the sub-10-15 range are necessary. This type of performance can be achieved with state-of-the art cryogenic microwave oscillators.
Patterns of interval correlations in neural oscillators with adaptation.
Schwalger, Tilo; Lindner, Benjamin
2013-01-01
Neural firing is often subject to negative feedback by adaptation currents. These currents can induce strong correlations among the time intervals between spikes. Here we study analytically the interval correlations of a broad class of noisy neural oscillators with spike-triggered adaptation of arbitrary strength and time scale. Our weak-noise theory provides a general relation between the correlations and the phase-response curve (PRC) of the oscillator, proves anti-correlations between neighboring intervals for adapting neurons with type I PRC and identifies a single order parameter that determines the qualitative pattern of correlations. Monotonically decaying or oscillating correlation structures can be related to qualitatively different voltage traces after spiking, which can be explained by the phase plane geometry. At high firing rates, the long-term variability of the spike train associated with the cumulative interval correlations becomes small, independent of model details. Our results are verified by comparison with stochastic simulations of the exponential, leaky, and generalized integrate-and-fire models with adaptation.
Coherence of mechanical oscillators mediated by coupling to different baths
Boyanovsky, Daniel; Jasnow, David
2017-07-01
We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of two mechanical oscillators with general linear couplings to two uncorrelated thermal baths at temperatures T1 and T2, respectively. We obtain the complete solution of the Heisenberg-Langevin equations, which reveal a coherent mixing among the normal modes of the oscillators as a consequence of their off-diagonal couplings to the baths. Unique renormalization aspects resulting from this mixing are discussed. Diagonal and off-diagonal (coherence) correlation functions are obtained analytically in the case of strictly Ohmic baths with different couplings in the strong- and weak-coupling regimes. An asymptotic nonequilibrium stationary state emerges for which we obtain the complete expressions for the correlations and coherence. Remarkably, the coherence survives in the high-temperature, classical limit for T1≠T2 . This is a consequence of the coherence being determined by the difference of the bath correlation functions. In the case of vanishing detuning between the oscillator normal modes both coupling to one and the same bath, the coherence retains memory of the initial conditions at long times. An out-of-equilibrium setup with small detuning and large | T1-T2| produces nonvanishing steady-state coherence in the high-temperature limit of the baths.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Dang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the fact that the slight fault signals in early failure of mechanical system are usually submerged in heavy background noise, it is unfeasible to extract the weak fault feature via the traditional vibration analysis. Stochastic resonance (SR, as a method of utilizing noise to amplify weak signals in nonlinear dynamical systems, can detect weak signals overwhelmed in the noise. However, based on the analysis of the impact of noise intensity on SR effect, it is concluded that the detection results are dramatically limited by the noise intensity of measured signals, especially for incipient fault feature of mechanical system with poor working environment. Therefore, this paper proposes a partly Duffing oscillator SR method to extract the fault feature of mechanical system. In this method, to locate the appearance of weak fault feature and decrease noise intensity, the permutation entropy index is constructed to select the measured signals for the input of Duffing oscillator system. Then, according to the regulation of system parameters, a reasonable match between the selected signals and Duffing oscillator model is achieved to produce a SR phenomenon and realize the fault diagnosis of mechanical system. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a better effect on the fault diagnosis of mechanical system.
Slow oscillations orchestrating fast oscillations and memory consolidation.
Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan
2011-01-01
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) facilitates the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. Based on the standard two-stage memory model, we propose that memory consolidation during SWS represents a process of system consolidation which is orchestrated by the neocortical memory. The slow oscillations temporally group neuronal activity into up-states of strongly enhanced neuronal activity and down-states of neuronal silence. In a feed-forward efferent action, this grouping is induced not only in the neocortex but also in other structures relevant to consolidation, namely the thalamus generating 10-15Hz spindles, and the hippocampus generating sharp wave-ripples, with the latter well known to accompany a replay of newly encoded memories taking place in hippocampal circuitries. The feed-forward synchronizing effect of the slow oscillation enables the formation of spindle-ripple events where ripples and accompanying reactivated hippocampal memory information become nested into the single troughs of spindles. Spindle-ripple events thus enable reactivated memory-related hippocampal information to be fed back to neocortical networks in the excitable slow oscillation up-state where they can induce enduring plastic synaptic changes underlying the effective formation of long-term memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yan, Mi; DeSalvo, B J; Huang, Ying; Naidon, P; Killian, T C
2013-10-11
We demonstrate coherent one-color photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, which results in Rabi oscillations between atomic and molecular condensates. We attain atom-molecule Rabi frequencies that are comparable to decoherence rates by driving photoassociation of atoms in an ^{88}Sr condensate to a weakly bound level of the metastable 1S0+3P1 molecular potential, which has a long lifetime and a large Franck-Condon overlap integral with the ground scattering state. Transient shifts and broadenings of the excitation spectrum are clearly seen at short times, and they create an asymmetric excitation profile that only displays Rabi oscillations for blue detuning from resonance.
Microwave spectroscopy on a double quantum dot with an on-chip Josephson oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holleitner, A.W.; Qin, H.; Simmel, F.; Irmer, B.; Kotthaus, J. P. [Center for NanoScience and Sektion Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Muenchen (Germany); Blick, R.H. [Center for NanoScience and Sektion Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Muenchen (Germany). E-mail: robert.blick at physik.uni-muenchen.de; Ustinov, A.V. [Physikalisches Institut III, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Eberl, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)
2000-01-01
We present measurements on microwave spectroscopy on a double quantum dot with an on-chip microwave source. The quantum dots are realized in the two-dimensional electron gas of an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure and are weakly coupled in series by a tunnelling barrier forming an 'ionic' molecular state. We employ a Josephson oscillator formed by a long Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb junction as a microwave source. We find photon-assistedtunnelling sidebands induced by the Josephson oscillator, and compare the results with those obtained using an externally operated microwave source. (author)
Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Backhouse, Christopher James [Oriel College, Oxford (United Kingdom)
2011-01-01
MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δm_{atm}^{2} and sin^{2} 2θ_{atm}). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of v_{μ} interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the v_{μ}-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the v_{μ}-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm^{2} = 2.32_{-0.08}^{+0.12} x 10^{-3} eV^{2}, sin ^{2} 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly $\\bar{v}$_{μ} beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ$\\bar{m}${sup 2} = (3.36_{-0.40}^{+0.46}(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10^{-3}eV^{2}, sin^{2} 2$\\bar{θ}$ = 0.86_{-0.12}^{_0}
Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne
2012-07-28
Traditionally, the necessary and sufficient condition for any system to be oscillating is that its poles are located on the imaginary (jω) axis. In this paper, for the first time, we have shown that systems can oscillate with time-domain oscillating poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating resistance and triangular shape of FFT are also demonstrated with mathematical reasoning and simulation results to support the unusual and surprising characteristics. © 2009 IEEE.
Current problems in the weak interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pais, A
1977-01-01
Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references. (JFP)
Regularity of Tor for weakly stable ideals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katie Ansaldi
2015-05-01
Full Text Available It is proved that if I and J are weakly stable ideals in a polynomial ring R = k[x_1, . . ., x_n], with k a field, then the regularity of Tor^R_i (R/I, R/J has the expected upper bound. We also give a bound for the regularity of Ext^i_R (R/I, R for I a weakly stable ideal.
The regularization of Old English weak verbs
Marta Tío Sáenz
2015-01-01
[EN] This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporate...
Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.
1968-01-01
A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....
Multifrequency Oscillator-Type Active Printed Antenna Using Chaotic Colpitts Oscillator
Bibha Kumari; Nisha Gupta
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new concept to realize a multifrequency Oscillator-type active printed monopole antenna. The concept of period doubling route to chaos is exploited to generate the multiple frequencies. The chaotic Colpitts oscillator is integrated with the printed monopole antenna (PMA) on the same side of the substrate to realize an Oscillator-type active antenna where the PMA acts as a load and radiator to the chaotic oscillator. By changing the bias voltage of the oscillator, the ant...
Experimental studies of neutrino oscillations
Kajita, Takaaki
2016-01-01
The 2015 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Takaaki Kajita of Tokyo University is a Japanese physicist, known for neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, Super-Kamiokande. This volume of collected works of Kajita on neutrino oscillations provides a good glimpse into as well as a record of the rise and the role of Asian research in the frontiers of neutrino physics. Japan is now a major force in the study of the 3 families of neutrinos. Much remains to be done to clarify the Dirac vs. Majorana nature of the neutrino, and the cosmological implications of the neutrino. The collected works of Kajita and his Super-Kamiokande group will leave an indelible foot-print in the history of big and better science.
Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es
2009-09-15
A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.
Quantum transduction with mechanical oscillators
Lehnert, Konrad
In modern information technology, micromechanical oscillators are ubiquitous signal processing elements. Because the speed of sound is so slow compared to the speed of light, mechanical structures create superb compact filters and clocks. Moreover they convert force and acceleration signals into more easily processed electrical signals. Although these humble devices appear manifestly classical, they can exhibit quantum behavior when their vibrations are strongly coupled to optical light or to microwave electricity. I will describe our progress in using this recent result to develop quantum information processing elements. First, we are developing a device that uses a mechanical oscillator to transfer information noiselessly between electrical and optical domains. Second, we prepare propagating microwave fields in superpositions of 0 and 1 photon, and use an electromechanical device to store and amplify these fragile quantum bits. Work supported by AFOSR MURI:FA9550-15-1-0015, NSF under Grant Number 1125844, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
Memristor-based reactance-less oscillator
Zidan, Mohammed A.
2012-10-02
The first reactance-less oscillator is introduced. By using a memristor, the oscillator can be fully implemented on-chip without the need for any capacitors or inductors, which results in an area-efficient fully integrated solution. The concept of operation of the proposed oscillator is explained and detailed mathematical analysis is introduced. Closed-form expressions for the oscillation frequency and oscillation conditions are derived. Finally, the derived equations are verified with circuit simulations showing excellent agreement. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian
2015-01-01
Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here...... for ~66% of total cyanide removal. Simulations of our updated computational model show that intracellular cyanide reactions increase the amplitude of oscillations and that cyanide addition lowers [ACA] instantaneously. We conclude that cyanide provides the following means of inducing global oscillations......: a) by reducing [ACAx] relative to oscillation amplitude, b) by targeting multiple intracellular carbonyl compounds during fermentation, and c) by acting as a phase resetting stimulus....
Muscle weakness causes joint degeneration in rabbits.
Rehan Youssef, A; Longino, D; Seerattan, R; Leonard, T; Herzog, W
2009-09-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) induced quadriceps weakness on micro-structural changes in knee cartilage of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into an experimental and a sham control group. Each group received a unilateral single quadriceps muscle injection either with saline (sham control; n=4) or BTX-A (experimental; n=11). BTX-A injection produced significant quadriceps muscle weakness (Pmuscle mass (Pknee cartilage, assessed with the Mankin grading system, were the same for the injected and non-injected hind limbs of the experimental group animals. Sham injection had no effect on joint degeneration but all control animals showed some degenerative changes in the knee. Degenerative changes of the retro-patellar cartilage were more severe in the experimental compared to sham control group rabbits (P0.05). Quadriceps muscle weakness caused increased degeneration in the retro-patellar cartilage of NZW rabbits, providing evidence that muscle weakness might be a risk factor for the onset and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Future work needs to delineate whether muscle weakness directly affects joint degeneration, or if changes in function and movement execution associated with muscle weakness are responsible for the increased rate of OA onset and progression observed here.
Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2009-06-01
Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.
Oscillations and Waves in Sunspots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Khomenko
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A magnetic field modifies the properties of waves in a complex way. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of the physics of sunspot waves with the help of high-resolution observations, analytical theories, as well as numerical simulations. We review the current ideas in the field, providing the most coherent picture of sunspot oscillations as by present understanding.
Renormalization for free harmonic oscillators
Sonoda, H.
2013-01-01
We introduce a model of free harmonic oscillators that requires renormalization. The model is similar to but simpler than the soluble Lee model. We introduce two concrete examples: the first, resembling the three dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory, needs only mass renormalization, and the second, resembling the four dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory and the Lee model, needs additional renormalization of a coupling and a wave function.
Oscillations of a polarizable vacuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James G. Gilson
1991-01-01
Full Text Available A classical basis for one-dimensional Schrödinger quantum theory is constructed from simple vacuum polarization harmonic oscillators within standard stochastic theory. The model is constructed on a two-dimensional phase configuration surface with phase velocity vectors that have a speed of light zitterbewegung behaviour character. The system supplies a natural Hermitian scalar product describing probability density which is derived from angular momentum considerations. The generality of the model which is extensive is discussed.
Automatic oscillator frequency control system
Smith, S. F. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A frequency control system makes an initial correction of the frequency of its own timing circuit after comparison against a frequency of known accuracy and then sequentially checks and corrects the frequencies of several voltage controlled local oscillator circuits. The timing circuit initiates the machine cycles of a central processing unit which applies a frequency index to an input register in a modulo-sum frequency divider stage and enables a multiplexer to clock an accumulator register in the divider stage with a cyclical signal derived from the oscillator circuit being checked. Upon expiration of the interval, the processing unit compares the remainder held as the contents of the accumulator against a stored zero error constant and applies an appropriate correction word to a correction stage to shift the frequency of the oscillator being checked. A signal from the accumulator register may be used to drive a phase plane ROM and, with periodic shifts in the applied frequency index, to provide frequency shift keying of the resultant output signal. Interposition of a phase adder between the accumulator register and phase plane ROM permits phase shift keying of the output signal by periodic variation in the value of a phase index applied to one input of the phase adder.
Neutrino Oscillation Experiment at JHF
2002-01-01
T2K is a long baseline neutrino experiment designed to investigate how neutrinos change from one flavor to another as they travel (neutrino oscillations). An intense beam of muon neutrinos is generated at the J-PARC nuclear physics site on the East coast of Japan and directed across the country to the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector in the mountains of western Japan. The beam is measured once before it leaves the J-PARC site, using the near detector ND280, and again at Super-K, 295 km away: the change in the measured intensity and composition of the beam is used to provide information on the properties of neutrinos. The high intensity neutrino beam is produced in an off-axis configuration. The peak neutrino energy is tuned to the oscillation maximum of ∼ 0.6 GeV to maximize the sensitivity to neutrino oscillations. The science goals of T2K can be summarized as follows: •\tsearch for CP violation in the neutrino sector •\tdiscovery of νμ → νe ( i.e. the confirmation that θ13 > 0 ) •\tprecision ...
Capacitive coupling synchronizes autonomous microfluidic oscillators.
Lesher-Perez, Sasha Cai; Zhang, Chao; Takayama, Shuichi
2018-01-31
Even identically-designed autonomous microfluidic oscillators have device-to-device oscillation variability that arises due to inconsistencies in fabrication, materials, and operation conditions. This work demonstrates, experimentally and theoretically, that with appropriate capacitive coupling these microfluidic oscillators can be synchronized. The size and characteristics of the capacitive coupling needed and the range of input flow rate differences that can be synchronized are also characterized. In addition to device-to-device variability, there is also within-device oscillation noise that arises. An additional advantage of coupling multiple fluidic oscillators together is that the oscillation noise decreases. The ability to synchronize multiple autonomous oscillators is also a first step towards enhancing their usefulness as tools for biochemical research applications where multiplicate experiments with identical temporal-stimulation conditions are required. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Microwave balanced oscillators and frequency doublers
Siripon, N
2002-01-01
The research presented in this thesis is on the application of the injection-locked oscillator technique to microwave balanced oscillators. The balanced oscillator design is primarily analysed using the extended resonance technique. A transmission line is connected between the two active devices, so that the active device resonate each other. The electrical length of the transmission line is also analysed for the balanced oscillation condition. The balanced oscillator can be viewed with the negative resistance model and the feedback model. The former model is characterised at a circuit plane where the feedback network is cut. By using both the negative-resistance oscillator model and the feedback model, the locking range of the oscillator is analysed by extending Kurokawa's theory. This analysis demonstrates the locking range of the injection phenomenon, where the injection frequency is either close to the free-running frequency, close to (1/n) x free-running frequency or close to n x the free-running frequen...
Weiss oscillations and particle-hole symmetry at the half-filled Landau level
Cheung, Alfred K. C.; Raghu, S.; Mulligan, Michael
2017-06-01
Particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level of the two-dimensional electron gas requires the electrical Hall conductivity to equal ±e2/2 h at half filling. We study the consequences of weakly broken particle-hole symmetry for magnetoresistance oscillations about half filling in the presence of an applied periodic one-dimensional electrostatic potential using the Dirac composite fermion theory proposed by Son [Son, Phys. Rev. X 5, 031027 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.031027]. At fixed electron density, the oscillation minima are asymmetrically biased towards higher magnetic fields, while at fixed magnetic field the oscillations occur symmetrically as the electron density is varied about half filling. We find an approximate "sum rule" obeyed for all pairs of oscillation minima that can be tested in experiment. The locations of the magnetoresistance oscillation minima for the composite fermion theory of Halperin, Lee, and Read (HLR) and its particle-hole conjugate agree exactly. Within the current experimental resolution, the locations of the oscillation minima produced by the Dirac composite fermion coincide with those of HLR. These results may indicate that all three composite fermion theories describe the same long-wavelength physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emenheiser, Jeffrey [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Chapman, Airlie; Mesbahi, Mehran [William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Pósfai, Márton [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Crutchfield, James P. [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States); D' Souza, Raissa M. [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)
2016-09-15
Following the long-lived qualitative-dynamics tradition of explaining behavior in complex systems via the architecture of their attractors and basins, we investigate the patterns of switching between distinct trajectories in a network of synchronized oscillators. Our system, consisting of nonlinear amplitude-phase oscillators arranged in a ring topology with reactive nearest-neighbor coupling, is simple and connects directly to experimental realizations. We seek to understand how the multiple stable synchronized states connect to each other in state space by applying Gaussian white noise to each of the oscillators' phases. To do this, we first analytically identify a set of locally stable limit cycles at any given coupling strength. For each of these attracting states, we analyze the effect of weak noise via the covariance matrix of deviations around those attractors. We then explore the noise-induced attractor switching behavior via numerical investigations. For a ring of three oscillators, we find that an attractor-switching event is always accompanied by the crossing of two adjacent oscillators' phases. For larger numbers of oscillators, we find that the distribution of times required to stochastically leave a given state falls off exponentially, and we build an attractor switching network out of the destination states as a coarse-grained description of the high-dimensional attractor-basin architecture.
Minimal size of cell assemblies coordinated by gamma oscillations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christoph Börgers
2012-02-01
Full Text Available In networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons with mutual synaptic coupling, specific drive to sub-ensembles of cells often leads to gamma-frequency (25-100 Hz oscillations. When the number of driven cells is too small, however, the synaptic interactions may not be strong or homogeneous enough to support the mechanism underlying the rhythm. Using a combination of computational simulation and mathematical analysis, we study the breakdown of gamma rhythms as the driven ensembles become too small, or the synaptic interactions become too weak and heterogeneous. Heterogeneities in drives or synaptic strengths play an important role in the breakdown of the rhythms; nonetheless, we find that the analysis of homogeneous networks yields insight into the breakdown of rhythms in heterogeneous networks. In particular, if parameter values are such that in a homogeneous network, it takes several gamma cycles to converge to synchrony, then in a similar, but realistically heterogeneous network, synchrony breaks down altogether. This leads to the surprising conclusion that in a network with realistic heterogeneity, gamma rhythms based on the interaction of excitatory and inhibitory cell populations must arise either rapidly, or not at all. For given synaptic strengths and heterogeneities, there is a (soft lower bound on the possible number of cells in an ensemble oscillating at gamma frequency, based simply on the requirement that synaptic interactions between the two cell populations be strong enough. This observation suggests explanations for recent experimental results concerning the modulation of gamma oscillations in macaque primary visual cortex by varying spatial stimulus size or attention level, and for our own experimental results, reported here, concerning the optogenetic modulation of gamma oscillations in kainate-activated hippocampal slices. We make specific predictions about the behavior of pyramidal cells and fast-spiking interneurons in these
Sandeep; Dahiya, Sunita; Singh, Navneet
2017-11-01
An analytical treatment based on the hydrodynamic model of plasmas is developed to study parametric amplification and oscillation of optical phonon modes in weakly polar narrow direct-gap magnetized semiconductor plasmas. Second-order optical susceptibility arising due to nonlinear polarization and the basic operational characteristics of the parametric device, viz. threshold nature, power gain mechanisms and conversion efficiency, are obtained. The effects of doping, magnetic field and excitation intensity, on the above operational characteristics have been studied in detail. Numerical estimates are made for an n-InSb crystal at 5 K duly irradiated by a pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser. The analysis suggests the possibility of observing super-fluorescent parametric emission and oscillation in moderately doped n-InSb crystal under off-resonant nanosecond pulsed not-too-high power laser irradiation, the crystal being immersed in a large magnetic field.
Millimeter-Wave Power-Combining with Radiating Oscillator Arrays.
York, Robert Armstrong
The next generation of communications and radar systems will soon begin to exploit the millimeter-wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Such systems will require a high-power source of millimeter-wave energy, ideally small, lightweight, highly efficient, and failure -proof over a span of decades. Circuits using semiconductor devices have proved useful for this purpose at lower frequencies, but unfortunately the power generating capacity of solid -state devices diminishes quickly as frequencies approach 100 GHz. This has forced designers to use bulky, inefficient, and unreliable (but high-power) vacuum-tube sources. Combining the power produced by a large number of individual solid-state devices has been suggested as a means of overcoming the inherent limitations of millimeter -wave devices. In order to compete with vacuum-tube sources, power-combiners would require up to 1000 devices, presenting a difficult engineering challenge. This thesis introduces one possible solution to this problem. The proposed concept uses arrays of millimeter-wave oscillators, where each oscillator contains one or more active devices in a planar radiating structure. The oscillators are weakly coupled to synchronize frequency and phase relationships, and the power produced by each oscillator is radiatively combined in free-space, which gives rise to very high combining efficiencies. The array concept has been demonstrated at microwave frequencies using both Gunn and MESFET devices in a 4 x 4 patch antenna configuration. The Gunn array produced 22 Watts Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), and the MESFET array produced 10 Watts ERP. A new theory has been developed which describes the coupled-oscillator dynamics, and has been shown to accurately predict experimentally observed effects. In addition to strict CW power-combining, a new mode of operation has been discovered which enables the same arrays to generate high-power pulses of energy. This new effect involves a "mode
Schroder, Sondra; Herzog, Erik D; Kiss, István Z
2012-02-01
Daily locomotor patterns of a variety of organisms have been interpreted as driven by dual circadian oscillators. Yet, in mammals, cellular data have revealed many circadian oscillators in the bilateral suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). To test how large numbers of oscillators could respond to environmental cues as a pair of oscillators, the authors developed a computational model composed of 2 groups of oscillators with strong local interactions and with weaker coupling between the 2 groups. Unlike previous models that assumed that light affects the timing or polarity of coupling between a pair of oscillators, this simulation assumed that light increased the transcription rate of a clock gene and consequently altered circadian properties of individual cells. In constant dark, weak local (within each of the 2 groups) and distant (between group) coupling established in-phase oscillations and a typical single bout of daily activity. In constant light, local synchrony developed only if coupling was strong and resulted in antiphase synchrony between the 2 groups and bimodal daily activity reminiscent of split behavior. These numerical simulations thus showed that splitting behavior can develop with increased light intensity without structural changes in the coupling topology or sign. Instead, the authors propose that light changes intrinsic oscillator properties through the increase of maximal transcription rate of a clock gene, so that as light intensity increases, the output of the coupled network transitions from a single bout of activity through irregular beating to 2 bouts and, in bright constant light, arrhythmicity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ladera, Celso L; Donoso, Guillermo, E-mail: clladera@usb.v [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1086 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2011-07-15
A short conducting pipe that hangs from a weak spring is forced to oscillate by the magnetic field of a surrounding coaxial coil that has been excited by a low-frequency current source in the presence of an additional static magnetic field. Induced oscillating currents appear in the pipe. The pipe motion becomes damped by the dragging forces between the induced currents and the static field. This oscillating system presents an interesting set of properties. To start with, it is not a magnet interacting with the oscillating field of a coil. The oscillating pipe is not even a ferromagnet. It is a new and conceptually rich case of a damped forced oscillator whose motion differential equation contains coefficients that depend upon a parameter. Here, we present and analytically explain the case of the small amplitude oscillations of this magneto-mechanical system. The ordinary amplitude and phase resonance curves are theoretically derived and confirmed by the set of experimental results presented. This oscillator is inexpensive and simple to set up, does not require sophisticated instrumentation, and with its interesting analytical model, is recommended either as an undergraduate laboratory experiment, as student project work, or even as a demonstration experiment. In loving memory of our late colleague and friend Professor DarIo Moreno
SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. D. Petrenko
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.
Weak oceanic heat transport as a cause of the instability of glacial climates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colin de Verdiere, Alain [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, Alain Colin de Verdiere, Brest 3 (France); Te Raa, L. [Utrecht University, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, The Hague (Netherlands)
2010-12-15
The stability of the thermohaline circulation of modern and glacial climates is compared with the help of a two dimensional ocean - atmosphere - sea ice coupled model. It turns out to be more unstable as less freshwater forcing is required to induce a polar halocline catastrophy in glacial climates. The large insulation of the ocean by the extensive sea ice cover changes the temperature boundary condition and the deepwater formation regions moves much further South. The nature of the instability is of oceanic origin, identical to that found in ocean models under mixed boundary conditions. With similar strengths of the oceanic circulation and rates of deep water formation for warm and cold climates, the loss of stability of the cold climate is due to the weak thermal stratification caused by the cooling of surface waters, the deep water temperatures being regulated by the temperature of freezing. Weaker stratification with similar overturning leads to a weakening of the meridional oceanic heat transport which is the major negative feedback stabilizing the oceanic circulation. Within the unstable regime periodic millennial oscillations occur spontaneously. The climate oscillates between a strong convective thermally driven oceanic state and a weak one driven by large salinity gradients. Both states are unstable. The atmosphere of low thermal inertia is carried along by the oceanic overturning while the variation of sea ice is out of phase with the oceanic heat content. During the abrupt warming events that punctuate the course of a millennial oscillation, sea ice variations are shown respectively to damp (amplify) the amplitude of the oceanic (atmospheric) response. This sensitivity of the oceanic circulation to a reduced concentration of greenhouse gases and to freshwater forcing adds support to the hypothesis that the millennial oscillations of the last glacial period, the so called Dansgaard - Oeschger events, may be internal instabilities of the climate system
The First Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions and the Prediction of Weak Neutral Currents
Bludman, S. A.
1992-01-01
The three theoretical and historical components of the Standard Model are the exact chiral gauge theory of weak interactions, electroweak unification, and the Higgs mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. I put into historical perspective my 1958 invention of the first gauge theory of weak interactions, predicting weak neutral currents, and show how the fundamental differences between global and gauge symmetries and between partial flavour and exact gauge symmetries, emerged in the stron...
Geometric phase topology in weak measurement
Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2017-12-01
The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1–64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η ‑ χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.
Electrostatic thermal noise in a weakly ionized collisional plasma
Martinović, M. M.; Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimović, M.; Å egan, S.
2017-01-01
Quasi-thermal noise (QTN) spectroscopy is a plasma diagnostic technique which enables precise measurements of local electron velocity distribution function moments. This technique is based on measurements and analysis of voltage fluctuations at the antenna terminals, induced by thermal motion of charged particles. In this work, we accommodate, for the first time, this technique to weakly ionized collisional plasmas. It turns out that the QTN spectrum is modified both at low frequencies, increasing the level of power spectrum, and around the plasma frequency, where collisions damp the plasma oscillations and therefore broaden and reduce the amplitude of so called "plasma peak," while the spectrum at high frequencies is nearly unmodified compared to the collisionless case. Based on these results, we show that QTN spectroscopy enables independent measurements of the collision frequency, electron density, and temperature, provided the ratio of collision frequency to plasma frequency is ν/ωp˜0.1. The method presented here can be used for precise estimation of plasma parameters in laboratory devices and unmagnetized ionospheres, while application in the ionosphere of Earth is possible but limited to small, low-frequency range due to magnetic field influence.
Separation control with fluidic oscillators in water
Schmidt, H.-J.; Woszidlo, R.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.
2017-08-01
The present study assesses the applicability of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water. The first part of this work evaluates the properties of the fluidic oscillators including frequency, cavitation effects, and exerted thrust. Derived from the governing internal dynamics, the oscillation frequency is found to scale directly with the jet's exit velocity and the size of the fluidic oscillator independent of the working fluid. Frequency data from various experiments collapse onto a single curve. The occurrence of cavitation is examined by visual inspection and hydrophone measurements. The oscillation frequency is not affected by cavitation because it does not occur inside the oscillators. The spectral information obtained with the hydrophone provide a reliable indicator for the onset of cavitation at the exit. The performance of the fluidic oscillators for separation control on a bluff body does not seem to be affected by the presence of cavitation. The thrust exerted by an array of fluidic oscillators with water as the working fluid is measured to be even larger than theoretically estimated values. The second part of the presented work compares the performance of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water with previous results in air. The array of fluidic oscillators is installed into the rear end of a bluff body model. The drag improvements based on force balance measurements agree well with previous wind tunnel experiments on the same model. The flow field is examined by pressure measurements and with particle image velocimetry. Similar performance and flow field characteristics are observed in both water and air.
Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations
Figalli, Alessio
2016-06-23
Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Allan, David W; Levine, Judah
2016-04-01
Over the past 50 years, variances have been developed for characterizing the instabilities of precision clocks and oscillators. These instabilities are often modeled as nonstationary processes, and the variances have been shown to be well-behaved and to be unbiased, efficient descriptors of these types of processes. This paper presents a historical overview of the development of these variances. The time-domain and frequency-domain formulations are presented and their development is described. The strengths and weaknesses of these characterization metrics are discussed. These variances are also shown to be useful in other applications, such as in telecommunication.
Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Reiweger
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.
Constraints on mirror models of dark matter from observable neutron-mirror neutron oscillation
Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Nussinov, Shmuel
2018-01-01
The process of neutron-mirror neutron oscillation, motivated by symmetric mirror dark matter models, is governed by two parameters: n -n‧ mixing parameter δ and n -n‧ mass splitting Δ. For neutron mirror neutron oscillation to be observable, the splitting between their masses Δ must be small and current experiments lead to δ ≤ 2 ×10-27 GeV and Δ ≤10-24 GeV. We show that in mirror universe models where this process is observable, this small mass splitting constrains the way that one must implement asymmetric inflation to satisfy the limits of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis on the number of effective light degrees of freedom. In particular we find that if asymmetric inflation is implemented by inflaton decay to color or electroweak charged particles, the oscillation is unobservable. Also if one uses SM singlet fields for this purpose, they must be weakly coupled to the SM fields.
Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games
Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne
2013-01-01
In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769
Extrapolating weak selection in evolutionary games.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Wu
Full Text Available In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By "qualitatively valid" we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies [Formula: see text]. In particular, rank changes are almost certain for [Formula: see text], which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection.
Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca
2013-01-01
A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…
Oh, Myongkeun; Matveev, Victor
2011-08-01
Phase response is a powerful concept in the analysis of both weakly and non-weakly perturbed oscillators such as regularly spiking neurons, and is applicable if the oscillator returns to its limit cycle trajectory between successive perturbations. When the latter condition is violated, a formal application of the phase return map may yield phase values outside of its definition domain; in particular, strong synaptic inhibition may result in negative values of phase. The effect of a second perturbation arriving close to the first one is undetermined in this case. However, here we show that for a Morris-Lecar model of a spiking cell with strong time scale separation, extending the phase response function definition domain to an additional negative value branch allows to retain the accuracy of the phase response approach in the face of such strong inhibitory coupling. We use the resulting extended phase response function to accurately describe the response of a Morris-Lecar oscillator to consecutive non-weak synaptic inputs. This method is particularly useful when analyzing the dynamics of three or more non-weakly coupled cells, whereby more than one synaptic perturbation arrives per oscillation cycle into each cell. The method of perturbation prediction based on the negative-phase extension of the phase response function may be applicable to other excitable cell models characterized by slow voltage dynamics at hyperpolarized potentials.
A theoretical overview of hypernuclear weak decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chumillas, C. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garbarino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: garbarin@to.infn.it; Parreno, A.; Ramos, A. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2008-05-15
The physics of the weak decay of hypernuclei is briefly reviewed from a theoretical point of view. Special regard is devoted to the recent progress concerning the determination of the non-mesonic decay widths and the asymmetry parameters. Convincing evidence has been achieved for a solution of the long-standing puzzle on the ratio {gamma}{sub n}/{gamma}{sub p}. Very recently, it has been shown that the exchange of a {pi}{pi} pair in the weak mechanism plays a crucial role in explaining the discrepancies between theory and experiment on the decay asymmetries.
Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, J.
1978-08-01
Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)
From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2010-12-16
This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
A Continuation Method for Weakly Kannan Maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ariza-Ruiz David
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The first continuation method for contractive maps in the setting of a metric space was given by Granas. Later, Frigon extended Granas theorem to the class of weakly contractive maps, and recently Agarwal and O'Regan have given the corresponding result for a certain type of quasicontractions which includes maps of Kannan type. In this note we introduce the concept of weakly Kannan maps and give a fixed point theorem, and then a continuation method, for this class of maps.
Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas
Pecseli, Hans L
2012-01-01
The result of more than 15 years of lectures in plasma sciences presented at universities in Denmark, Norway, and the United States, Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas addresses central issues in modern plasma sciences. The book covers fluid models as well as kinetic plasma models, including a detailed discussion of, for instance, collisionless Landau damping. Offering a clear separation of linear and nonlinear models, the book can be tailored for readers of varying levels of expertise.Designed to provide basic training in linear as well as nonlinear plasma dynamics, and practical in areas as d
Pair creation and plasma oscillations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prozorkevich, A. V.; Vinnik, D. V.; Schmidt, S. M.; Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.
2000-12-15
We describe aspects of particle creation in strong fields using a quantum kinetic equation with a relaxation-time approximation to the collision term. The strong electric background field is determined by solving Maxwell's equation in tandem with the Vlasov equation. Plasma oscillations appear as a result of feedback between the background field and the field generated by the particles produced. The plasma frequency depends on the strength of the initial background fields and the collision frequency, and is sensitive to the necessary momentum-dependence of dressed-parton masses.
Wave Physics Oscillations - Solitons - Chaos
Nettel, Stephen
2009-01-01
This textbook is intended for those second year undergraduates in science and engineering who will later need an understanding of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The classical physics of oscillations and waves is developed at a more advanced level than has been customary for the second year, providing a basis for the quantum mechanics that follows. In this new edition the Green's function is explained, reinforcing the integration of quantum mechanics with classical physics. The text may also form the basis of an "introduction to theoretical physics" for physics majors. The concluding chapters give special attention to topics in current wave physics: nonlinear waves, solitons, and chaotic behavior.
Making space for harmonic oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab
2004-11-01
If we restrict the number of harmonic oscillator energy eigenstates to some finite value, N, then the discrete spectrum of the corresponding position operator comprise the roots of the Hermite polynomial H{sub N+1}. Its range is just large enough to accommodate classical motion at high energy. A negative energy term must be added to the Hamiltonian which affects only the last eigenstate, |N>, suggesting it is concentrated at the extrema of this finite ''space''. Calculations support a conjecture that, in the limit of large N, the global distribution of points approaches the differential form for classical action.
Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors
Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao
2015-01-01
Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahmani, S.; Hassanabadi, H. [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-09-15
Employing generalized quantum isotonic oscillator potential we determine wave function for mesonic system in nonrelativistic formalism. Then we investigate branching ratios of leptonic decays for heavy-light mesons including a charm quark. Next, by applying the Isgur-Wise function we obtain branching ratios of semileptonic decays for mesons including a bottom quark. The weak decay of the B{sub c} meson is also analyzed to study the life time. Comparison with other available theoretical approaches is presented. (orig.)
Phase noise and frequency stability in oscillators
Rubiola, Enrico
2009-01-01
Presenting a comprehensive account of oscillator phase noise and frequency stability, this practical text is both mathematically rigorous and accessible. An in-depth treatment of the noise mechanism is given, describing the oscillator as a physical system, and showing that simple general laws govern the stability of a large variety of oscillators differing in technology and frequency range. Inevitably, special attention is given to amplifiers, resonators, delay lines, feedback, and flicker (1/f) noise. The reverse engineering of oscillators based on phase-noise spectra is also covered, and end-of-chapter exercises are given. Uniquely, numerous practical examples are presented, including case studies taken from laboratory prototypes and commercial oscillators, which allow the oscillator internal design to be understood by analyzing its phase-noise spectrum. Based on tutorials given by the author at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, international IEEE meetings, and in industry, this is a useful reference for acade...
Signature of tilted Dirac cones in Weiss oscillations of 8 -P m m n borophene
Islam, SK Firoz; Jayannavar, A. M.
2017-12-01
Polymorph of 8 -P m m n borophene exhibits anisotropic tilted Dirac cones. In this work, we explore the consequences of the tilted Dirac cones in magnetotransport properties of a periodically modulated borophene. We evaluate modulation-induced diffusive conductivity by using linear response theory in low temperature regime. The application of weak spatial modulation (electric, magnetic or both) gives rise to the magnetic-field-dependent nonzero oscillatory drift velocity which causes Weiss oscillation in the longitudinal conductivity at low magnetic field. The Weiss oscillation is studied in the presence of a weak spatial electric, magnetic, and both modulations individually. The tilting of the Dirac cones gives rise to an additional contribution to the Weiss oscillation in longitudinal conductivity. Moreover, it also enhances the frequency of the Weiss oscillation and modifies its amplitude too. Most remarkably, it is found that the presence of both out-of-phase electric and magnetic modulations can cause a sizable valley polarization in diffusive conductivity. The origin of valley polarization lies in the opposite tilting of the two Dirac cones at two valleys.
Modes of nanosatellite aerodynamic oscillations in atmosphere
Gerasimov, Yu V.; Ivanov, E. A.; Karetnikov, G. K.; Konstantinova, I. A.; Selivanov, A. B.
2017-11-01
The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the dependencies of nanosatellite aerodynamic oscillations frequency on attack angle at different altitudes up to 70 km are defined. The oscillations bandwidths are determined with respect to the geometric parameters for a nanosatellite with 10 kg mass and 6000 kg/m3 average density. The model allows estimating the bandwidth aerodynamic oscillations in the suborbital nanosatellite trajectory based on the given geometry and mass-dimensional parameters.
Characterizing correlations of flow oscillations at bottlenecks
Kretz, Tobias; Woelki, Marko; Schreckenberg, Michael
2006-01-01
"Oscillations" occur in quite different kinds of many-particle-systems when two groups of particles with different directions of motion meet or intersect at a certain spot. We present a model of pedestrian motion that is able to reproduce oscillations with different characteristics. The Wald-Wolfowitz test and Gillis' correlated random walk are shown to hold observables that can be used to characterize different kinds of oscillations.
Characterizing correlations of flow oscillations at bottlenecks
Kretz, Tobias; Wölki, Marko; Schreckenberg, Michael
2006-02-01
'Oscillations' occur in quite different kinds of many-particle systems when two groups of particles with different directions of motion meet or intersect at a certain spot. In this work a model of pedestrian motion is presented that is able to reproduce oscillations with different characteristics. The Wald-Wolfowitz test and Gillis' correlated random walk are shown to include observables that can be used to characterize different kinds of oscillations.
Oscillations of neutral B mesons systems
Boucrot, J
1999-01-01
The oscillation phenomenon in the neutral B mesons systems is now well established. The motivations and principles of the measurements are given; then the most recent results from the LEP experiments, the CDF collaboration at Fermilab and the SLD collaboration at SLAC are reviewed. The present world average of the $\\bd$ meson oscillation frequency is $\\dmd = 0.471 \\pm 0.016 \\ps$ and the lower limit on the $\\bs$ oscillation frequency is
Phase-locked Josephson soliton oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, T.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Grønbech-Jensen, N.
1991-01-01
Detailed experimental characterization of the phase-locking at both DC and at microwave frequencies is presented for two closely spaced Josephson soliton (fluxon) oscillators. In the phase-locked state, the radiated microwave power exhibited an effective gain. With one common bias source......, a frequency tunability of the phase-locked oscillators up to 7% at 10 GHz was observed. The interacting soliton oscillators were modeled by two inductively coupled nonlinear transmission lines...
SPIRAL, FUNCTIONS AND OSCILLATING SYSTEMS BESSEL
Gil Benitez, W.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Analisis y Diseño de Procesos Av. Venezuela sin - Ciudad Universitaria UNMSM - Lima - Peru
2014-01-01
lt is shown a mathematics analysis that link spirals, differential equations of second order of the Bessel function type and the oscillant systems with constant and variable frequency. lt is found that the oscillant systems are consecuents to a spiral mathematical functions and Bessel is only some of its varieties. Consequently is shown an exact solution of the Bessel equations which does l'lot require tables. The math model it is a tool which will be used to simulate oscillant phenomena with...
Small oscillations via conservation of energy
Troy, Tia; Reiner, Megan; Haugen, Andrew J.; Moore, Nathan T.
2017-11-01
The work describes an analogy-based small oscillations analysis of a standard static equilibrium lab problem. In addition to force analysis, a potential energy function for the system is developed, and by drawing out mathematical similarities to the simple harmonic oscillator, we are able to describe (and experimentally verify) the period of small oscillations about the static equilibrium state. The problem was developed and implemented in a standard University Physics course at Winona State University.
Q-oscillators and relativistic position operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arik, M. (Dept. of Mathematics, Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)); Mungan, M. (Dept. of Physics, Bogazici Univ., Istanbul (Turkey))
1992-05-21
We investigate the multi-dimensional q-oscillator whose commutation relations are invariant under the quantum group. The no-interaction limit corresponds to a contraction of the q-oscillator algebra and yields relativistic position operators which can be expressed in terms of the generators of the Poincare group. This leads to the interpretation of the interacting q-oscillator as an relativistic quantum system and results in a hamiltonian whose spectrum is exactly exponential. (orig.).
Toward precision study of atmospheric neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kajita, Takaaki [Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Univ. of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)
2006-09-15
Atmospheric neutrinos have been playing a major role in studying neutrino oscillations. Because of the unique feature of atmospheric neutrinos, future atmospheric neutrino experiments are likely to contribute to precision studies of neutrino oscillations. Possible contribution of future atmospheric neutrino experiments to the neutrino oscillation physics are discussed, including the measurements of {theta}{sub 13}, the sign of {delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2}, the determination of octant of {theta}{sub 23} and possibly the CP phase.
Spinning Photons and Twisting Oscillators
Shi, Hao
2014-05-01
Optomechanics is the study of the interaction between optical radiation and mechanical motion. Typically, an optomechanical system is composed of an optical resonator coupled to a mechanical degree of freedom. Some of the most striking experimental achievements include the quantum ground state preparation for a macroscopic oscillator, the detection of optomechanical quantum back-action, and generation of optomechanically induced transparency and slow light. Most optomechanical systems depend on linear coupling between the optical field and the displacement of the mechanical oscillator. In this talk, I will start instead by discussing the basic quantum mechanics of a generic quadratically coupled optomechanical system, followed by our efforts towards extending optomechanics to torsional and rotational systems. Specifically, I will describe our theoretical proposal to couple a windmill-shaped dielectric to cavity Laguerre Gaussian modes. In addition, I will present an optoacoustic system, composed of a LG mode coupled t surface acoustic waves of a spherical mirror, as a new platform for storage of photons carrying orbital angular momentum. Finally, I will discuss our most recent investigation of the prospects of cooling full rotational motion to the quantum regime.
Cardiogenic oscillation induced ventilator autotriggering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narender Kaloria
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cardiogenic oscillation during mechanical ventilation can auto-trigger the ventilator resembling patient initiated breadth. This gives a false sense of intact respiratory drive and determination brain death, even if other tests are positive, is not appropriate in such a situation. It will prolong the ICU stay and confound the brain-death determination. In this case report, we describe a 35 year old man who was brought to the hospital after many hours of critical delay following multiple gun shot injuries. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest while on the way from another hospital. After an emergency laparotomy, patient was shifted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score of E1VTM1 and was mechanically ventilated. Despite absence of brainstem reflexes, the ventilator continued to be triggered on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP mode and the patient maintained normal oxygen saturation and acceptable levels of carbon dioxide. An apnoea test confirmed absent respiratory drive. Ventilatory waveform graph analysis, revealed cardiogenic oscillation as the cause for autotrigerring.
Microdroplet oscillations during optical pulling
Ellingsen, Simen A.˚.
2012-02-01
It was recently shown theoretically that it is possible to pull a spherical dielectric body towards the source of a laser beam [J. Chen, J. Ng, Z. Lin, and C. T. Chan, "Optical pulling force," Nat. Photonics 5, 531 (2011)], a result with immediate consequences to optical manipulation of small droplets. Optical pulling can be realized, e.g., using a diffraction-free Bessel beam, and is expected to be of great importance in manipulation of microscopic droplets in micro- and nanofluidics. Compared to conventional optical pushing, however, the ratio of optical net force to stress acting on a droplet is much smaller, increasing the importance of oscillations. We describe the time-dependent surface deformations of a water microdroplet under optical pulling to linear order in the deformation. Shape oscillations have a lifetime in the order of microseconds for droplet radii of a few micrometers. The force density acting on the initially spherical droplet is strongly peaked near the poles on the beam axis, causing the deformations to take the form of jet-like protrusions.
Nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive inertial detection
Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay V
2013-08-13
A system for ultrasensitive mass and/or force detection of this invention includes a mechanical oscillator driven to oscillate in a nonlinear regime. The mechanical oscillator includes a piezoelectric base with at least one cantilever resonator etched into the piezoelectric base. The cantilever resonator is preferably a nonlinear resonator which is driven to oscillate with a frequency and an amplitude. The system of this invention detects an amplitude collapse of the cantilever resonator at a bifurcation frequency as the cantilever resonator stimulated over a frequency range. As mass and/or force is introduced to the cantilever resonator, the bifurcation frequency shifts along a frequency axis in proportion to the added mass.
Introduction to classical and quantum harmonic oscillators
Bloch, Sylvan C
2013-01-01
From conch shells to lasers . harmonic oscillators, the timeless scientific phenomenon As intriguing to Galileo as they are to scientists today, harmonic oscillators have provided a simple and compelling paradigm for understanding the complexities that underlie some of nature's and mankind's most fascinating creations. From early string and wind instruments fashioned from bows and seashells to the intense precision of lasers, harmonic oscillators have existed in various forms, as objects of beauty and scientific use. And harmonic oscillation has endured as one of science's most fascinating con
High Reliability Oscillators for Terahertz Systems Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Terahertz sources based on lower frequency oscillators and amplifiers plus a chain of frequency multipliers are the workhorse technology for NASA's terahertz...
Waves and oscillations in nature an introduction
Narayanan, A Satya
2015-01-01
Waves and oscillations are found in large scales (galactic) and microscopic scales (neutrino) in nature. Their dynamics and behavior heavily depend on the type of medium through which they propagate.Waves and Oscillations in Nature: An Introduction clearly elucidates the dynamics and behavior of waves and oscillations in various mediums. It presents different types of waves and oscillations that can be observed and studied from macroscopic to microscopic scales. The book provides a thorough introduction for researchers and graduate students in assorted areas of physics, such as fluid dynamics,
Stochastic Kuramoto oscillators with discrete phase states
Jörg, David J.
2017-09-01
We present a generalization of the Kuramoto phase oscillator model in which phases advance in discrete phase increments through Poisson processes, rendering both intrinsic oscillations and coupling inherently stochastic. We study the effects of phase discretization on the synchronization and precision properties of the coupled system both analytically and numerically. Remarkably, many key observables such as the steady-state synchrony and the quality of oscillations show distinct extrema while converging to the classical Kuramoto model in the limit of a continuous phase. The phase-discretized model provides a general framework for coupled oscillations in a Markov chain setting.
Scleronomic holonomic constraints and conservative nonlinear oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munoz, R; Gonzalez-Garcia, G; Izquierdo-De La Cruz, E Izquierdo-De La [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Centro Historico, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier 92, Col Centro, Del Cuauhtemoc, Mexico DF, CP 06080 (Mexico); Fernandez-Anaya, G, E-mail: rodrigo.munoz@uacm.edu.mx, E-mail: gggharper@gmail.com, E-mail: erickidc@gmail.com, E-mail: guillermo.fernandez@uia.mx [Universidad Iberoamericana, Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Prolongacon Paseo de de la Reforma 880, Col Lomas de Santa Fe, Del Alvaro Obregn, Mexico DF, CP 01219 (Mexico)
2011-05-15
A bead sliding, under the sole influence of its own weight, on a rigid wire shaped in the fashion of a plane curve, will describe (generally anharmonic) oscillations around a local minimum. For given shapes, the bead will behave as a harmonic oscillator in the whole range, such as an unforced, undamped, Duffing oscillator, etc. We also present cases in which the effective potential acting on the bead is not analytical around a minimum. The small oscillation approximation cannot be applied to such pathological cases. Nonetheless, these latter instances are studied with other standard techniques.
Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing
Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta
2012-01-01
Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes
Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].
Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes
Heijmen, T.G.A.
1998-01-01
Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced
Cultural capital: strengths, weaknesses and two advancements
van de Werfhorst, H.G.
2010-01-01
In this paper I discuss two weaknesses in Bourdieu’s work on cultural capital, both of which are related to his integration of the multidimensional nature of social space in different domains of life: social mobility, lifestyle differentiation, and political orientation. First, there is an anomaly
Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Aristizábal
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.
Thermorheological effect on magnetoconvection in weak electrically ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The thermorheological effect on magnetoconvection in fluids with weak elec- trical conductivity is studied numerically under 1g and μg conditions. The results with a non-linear thermorheological equation considered in the problem when compared with those of the classical approach with constant viscosity ...
Solitons and Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1985-01-01
Theoretical descriptions of solitons and weakly nonlinear waves propagating in plasma media are reviewed, with particular attention to the Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) equation and the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). The modifications of these basic equations due to the effects of resonant...
Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
The history of weak interactions starting with. Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Dis- coveries of parity violation, matter{antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted. Introduction. Sun gives us ...
Phenomenological model of the weak interaction
Schunck, Franz E.
2008-01-01
We use the informations known so far about elementary particles in order to construct a simple model. We find a reason for the gyromagnetic factor of 2 for leptons and a vivid imagination for the weak interaction. By this, we understand, why the elementary particles with lowest mass are stable and all other unstable.
Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions
Rajasekaran, G.
2014-01-01
The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.
Dynamical theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions
Englert, F
1974-01-01
The gauge theory of unified weak and electromagnetic interactions is developed without the use of scalar mesons. It is shown that the Glashow Weinberg scheme is unrealistic, but that a similar such scheme is possible if one includes two pairs of leptons, identified with e-, νe and μ-, νμ.
The weak acid nature of precipitation
John O. Frohliger; Robert L. Kane
1976-01-01
Recent measurements of the pH of precipitation leave no doubt that rainfall is acidic. Evidence will be presented that precipitation is a weak acid system. The results of this research indicate the need to establish standard sampling procedures to provide uniform sampling of precipitation
Neutrino propagation in a weakly magnetized medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of the W and Z bosons allowing us to neglect the momentum dependence in the. W and Z propagators. This is equivalent to lowest-order GF calculations and is justified for low-energy neutrinos and low temperatures and weak fields compared to the Fermi scale. Since, in this work we focus our attention on the possible astro ...
Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions. G Rajasekaran. General Article Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 18-44 ... Keywords. Fermi; beta decay; parity violation; electroweak theory; neutral current; quarks and leptons; neutrino mass.
Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis
ter Beek, A.S.
2009-01-01
Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of
A coupled-oscillator model of olfactory bulb gamma oscillations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoshi Li
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system. To understand this transformation and its integration with interareal coordination mechanisms requires that we understand its fundamental dynamical principles. Using a biophysically explicit, multiscale model of olfactory bulb circuitry, we here demonstrate that an inhibition-coupled intrinsic oscillator framework, pyramidal resonance interneuron network gamma (PRING, best captures the diversity of physiological properties exhibited by the olfactory bulb. Most importantly, these properties include global zero-phase synchronization in the gamma band, the phase-restriction of informative spikes in principal neurons with respect to this common clock, and the robustness of this synchronous oscillatory regime to multiple challenging conditions observed in the biological system. These conditions include substantial heterogeneities in afferent activation levels and excitatory synaptic weights, high levels of uncorrelated background activity among principal neurons, and spike frequencies in both principal neurons and interneurons that are irregular in time and much lower than the gamma frequency. This coupled cellular oscillator architecture permits stable and replicable ensemble responses to diverse sensory stimuli under various external conditions as well as to changes in network parameters arising from learning-dependent synaptic plasticity.
Nonautonomous linear Hamiltonian systems oscillation, spectral theory and control
Johnson, Russell; Novo, Sylvia; Núñez, Carmen; Fabbri, Roberta
2016-01-01
This monograph contains an in-depth analysis of the dynamics given by a linear Hamiltonian system of general dimension with nonautonomous bounded and uniformly continuous coefficients, without other initial assumptions on time-recurrence. Particular attention is given to the oscillation properties of the solutions as well as to a spectral theory appropriate for such systems. The book contains extensions of results which are well known when the coefficients are autonomous or periodic, as well as in the nonautonomous two-dimensional case. However, a substantial part of the theory presented here is new even in those much simpler situations. The authors make systematic use of basic facts concerning Lagrange planes and symplectic matrices, and apply some fundamental methods of topological dynamics and ergodic theory. Among the tools used in the analysis, which include Lyapunov exponents, Weyl matrices, exponential dichotomy, and weak disconjugacy, a fundamental role is played by the rotation number for linear Hami...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ikuhiro Yamaguchi
Full Text Available Time delay is known to induce sustained oscillations in many biological systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG activities and gene regulations. Furthermore, interactions among delay-induced oscillations can generate complex collective rhythms, which play important functional roles. However, due to their intrinsic infinite dimensionality, theoretical analysis of interacting delay-induced oscillations has been limited. Here, we show that the two primary methods for finite-dimensional limit cycles, namely, the center manifold reduction in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation and the phase reduction for weak interactions, can successfully be applied to interacting infinite-dimensional delay-induced oscillations. We systematically derive the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and the phase equation without delay for general interaction networks. Based on the reduced low-dimensional equations, we demonstrate that diffusive (linearly attractive coupling between a pair of delay-induced oscillations can exhibit nontrivial amplitude death and multimodal phase locking. Our analysis provides unique insights into experimentally observed EEG activities such as sudden transitions among different phase-locked states and occurrence of epileptic seizures.
New weak keys in simplified IDEA
Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini
2016-02-01
Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.
Oscillating water column structural model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-09-01
An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.
Signal velocity in oscillator arrays
Cantos, C. E.; Veerman, J. J. P.; Hammond, D. K.
2016-09-01
We investigate a system of coupled oscillators on the circle, which arises from a simple model for behavior of large numbers of autonomous vehicles where the acceleration of each vehicle depends on the relative positions and velocities between itself and a set of local neighbors. After describing necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, we derive expressions for the phase velocity of propagation of disturbances in velocity through this system. We show that the high frequencies exhibit damping, which implies existence of well-defined signal velocitiesc+ > 0 and c- < 0 such that low frequency disturbances travel through the flock as f+(x - c+t) in the direction of increasing agent numbers and f-(x - c-t) in the other.
Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ballarini, Paolo; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Mura, Ivan
2009-01-01
Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking. In Proc. of the Second International Workshop "From Biology To Concurrency" (FBTC 2008), Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science......Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking. In Proc. of the Second International Workshop "From Biology To Concurrency" (FBTC 2008), Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science...
Electromagnetic Radiation Originating from Unstable Electron Oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Pécseli, Hans
1975-01-01
Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function.......Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function....
Stabilizing oscillating universes against quantum decay
Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander
2015-07-01
We investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. However, stability may be achieved for some specially fine-tuned non-vacuum states.
Neutrino mass and oscillation: An introductory review
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tion to the atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data requires only two right handed singlet neutrinos. 2. Neutrino mixing and oscillation (vacuum). If the neutrinos have nonzero mass, there will in general be mixing between the neutrino species as in the case of quarks. For most practical applications it is adequate to ...
Chaos in nonlinear oscillations controlling and synchronization
Lakshamanan, M
1996-01-01
This book deals with the bifurcation and chaotic aspects of damped and driven nonlinear oscillators. The analytical and numerical aspects of the chaotic dynamics of these oscillators are covered, together with appropriate experimental studies using nonlinear electronic circuits. Recent exciting developments in chaos research are also discussed, such as the control and synchronization of chaos and possible technological applications.
Stabilizing oscillating universes against quantum decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2015-07-07
We investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. However, stability may be achieved for some specially fine-tuned non-vacuum states.
Vibrational resonance in the Morse oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The occurrence of vibrational resonance is investigated in both classical and quantum mechanical Morse oscillators driven by a biharmonic force. The biharmonic force consists of two forces of widely different frequencies ω and with. ≫ ω. In the damped and biharmoni- cally driven classical Morse oscillator, ...
Effective harmonic oscillator description of anharmonic molecular ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... a harmonic oscillator eigenfunction with the centroid and width parameter as variational paraeters. It is found that the effective harmonic oscillator approximation provides a description of the anharmonic eigenstates very similar to the vibrational self consistent field results. Coriolis coupling is also included in these studies.
Neutrino oscillations: Present status and outlook
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The status of sterile neutrino oscillation interpretations of the LSND anomaly in the light of recent MiniBooNE results is also discussed. Further-more, an outlook on the measurement of the mixing angle 13 in the near term future, as well as prospects to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillations and to determine the type ...
Effective harmonic oscillator description of anharmonic molecular ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
Abstract. The validity of an effective harmonic oscillator approximation for anharmonic molecular vibrations is tested and compared with vibrational self consistent field and vibrational configurational interaction results. The effective harmonic oscillator is constructed variationally, by taking the trial wave function as a harmonic ...
Discontinuous Spirals of Stable Periodic Oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sack, Achim; Freire, Joana G.; Lindberg, Erik
2013-01-01
We report the experimental discovery of a remarkable organization of the set of self-generated periodic oscillations in the parameter space of a nonlinear electronic circuit. When control parameters are suitably tuned, the wave pattern complexity of the periodic oscillations is found to increase...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Fabiano M., E-mail: fmandrade@uepg.br [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR (Brazil); Silva, Edilberto O., E-mail: edilbertoo@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís-MA (Brazil)
2014-11-10
In this Letter, 2D Dirac oscillator in the quantum deformed framework generated by the κ-Poincaré–Hopf algebra is considered. The problem is formulated using the κ-deformed Dirac equation. The resulting theory reveals that the energies and wave functions of the oscillator are modified by the deformation parameter.
In plane oscillation of a bifilar pendulum
Hinrichsen, Peter F.
2016-11-01
The line tensions, the horizontal and vertical accelerations as well as the period of large angle oscillations parallel to the plane of a bifilar suspension are presented and have been experimentally investigated using strain gauges and a smart phone. This system has a number of advantages over the simple pendulum for studying large angle oscillations, and for measuring the acceleration due to gravity.
Oscillating systems with cointegrated phase processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Jacob; Rahbek, Anders; Ditlevsen, Susanne
2017-01-01
We present cointegration analysis as a method to infer the network structure of a linearly phase coupled oscillating system. By defining a class of oscillating systems with interacting phases, we derive a data generating process where we can specify the coupling structure of a network that resemb...
Neutrino oscillations: Present status and outlook
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
more, an outlook on the measurement of the mixing angle θ13 in the near term future, as well as prospects to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillations and to determine the type of the neutrino mass ordering by long-baseline experiments in the long term future are given. Keyword. Neutrino oscillations. PACS Nos 14.60.
Small Oscillations via Conservation of Energy
Troy, Tia; Reiner, Megan; Haugen, Andrew J.; Moore, Nathan T.
2017-01-01
The work describes an analogy-based small oscillations analysis of a standard static equilibrium lab problem. In addition to force analysis, a potential energy function for the system is developed, and by drawing out mathematical similarities to the simple harmonic oscillator, we are able to describe (and experimentally verify) the period of small…
Oscillations of first order difference equations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Oscillations of first order difference equations. N PARHI. Department of Mathematics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India. MS received 10 June 1999; revised 28 December 1999. Abstract. The oscillatory and asymptotic behaviour of solutions of first order diff- erence equations is studied. Keywords. Oscillation ...
Teaching Oscillations by a Model of Nanoresonator
Lindell, A.; Viiri, J.
2009-01-01
Nanoscience offers fascinating opportunities for science education as it links the achievements of modern technology to traditional models of science. In this article we present a nanotechnology orientated lesson on oscillations, suitable for physics courses at high schools and universities. The focus of the lesson is in forced oscillations on a…
Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik
2005-01-01
separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...
Modeling diauxic glycolytic oscillations in yeast
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Bjørn Olav; Sørensen, Preben Graae
2010-01-01
Glycolytic oscillations in a stirred suspension of starved yeast cells is an excellent model system for studying the dynamics of metabolic switching in living systems. In an open-flow system the oscillations can be maintained indefinitely at a constant operating point where they can be characteri...
Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko
2013-01-01
We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...
Surface plasmon excitation by a quantum oscillator
Lidsky, V. V.
2009-01-01
Surface waves in a thin uniform metal film are described in terms of quantum electrodynamics.The interaction of surface waves with a quantum oscillator is discussed in the dipole approximation. The increase in the spontaneous emission rate of the excited quantum oscillator, the so called Purcell factor, is evaluated to be as high as by 10 to the five times.
Acoustic Tests of Lorentz Symmetry Using Quartz Oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anthony Lo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a test of Lorentz symmetry based on new, compact, and reliable quartz oscillator technology. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the matter and photon sector of the standard model extension generate anisotropies in particles’ inertial masses and the elastic constants of solids, giving rise to measurable anisotropies in the resonance frequencies of acoustic modes in solids. A first realization of such a “phonon-sector” test of Lorentz symmetry using room-temperature stress-compensated-cut crystals yields 120 h of data at a frequency resolution of 2.4×10^{−15} and a limit of c[over ˜]_{Q}^{n}=(−1.8±2.2×10^{−14} GeV on the most weakly constrained neutron-sector c coefficient of the standard model extension. Future experiments with cryogenic oscillators promise significant improvements in accuracy, opening up the potential for improved limits on Lorentz violation in the neutron, proton, electron, and photon sector.
Recurrent jellyfish blooms are a consequence of global oscillations.
Condon, Robert H; Duarte, Carlos M; Pitt, Kylie A; Robinson, Kelly L; Lucas, Cathy H; Sutherland, Kelly R; Mianzan, Hermes W; Bogeberg, Molly; Purcell, Jennifer E; Decker, Mary Beth; Uye, Shin-ichi; Madin, Laurence P; Brodeur, Richard D; Haddock, Steven H D; Malej, Alenka; Parry, Gregory D; Eriksen, Elena; Quiñones, Javier; Acha, Marcelo; Harvey, Michel; Arthur, James M; Graham, William M
2013-01-15
A perceived recent increase in global jellyfish abundance has been portrayed as a symptom of degraded oceans. This perception is based primarily on a few case studies and anecdotal evidence, but a formal analysis of global temporal trends in jellyfish populations has been missing. Here, we analyze all available long-term datasets on changes in jellyfish abundance across multiple coastal stations, using linear and logistic mixed models and effect-size analysis to show that there is no robust evidence for a global increase in jellyfish. Although there has been a small linear increase in jellyfish since the 1970s, this trend was unsubstantiated by effect-size analysis that showed no difference in the proportion of increasing vs. decreasing jellyfish populations over all time periods examined. Rather, the strongest nonrandom trend indicated jellyfish populations undergo larger, worldwide oscillations with an approximate 20-y periodicity, including a rising phase during the 1990s that contributed to the perception of a global increase in jellyfish abundance. Sustained monitoring is required over the next decade to elucidate with statistical confidence whether the weak increasing linear trend in jellyfish after 1970 is an actual shift in the baseline or part of an oscillation. Irrespective of the nature of increase, given the potential damage posed by jellyfish blooms to fisheries, tourism, and other human industries, our findings foretell recurrent phases of rise and fall in jellyfish populations that society should be prepared to face.
Quantum Groups, Property (T), and Weak Mixing
Brannan, Michael; Kerr, David
2017-11-01
For second countable discrete quantum groups, and more generally second countable locally compact quantum groups with trivial scaling group, we show that property (T) is equivalent to every weakly mixing unitary representation not having almost invariant vectors. This is a generalization of a theorem of Bekka and Valette from the group setting and was previously established in the case of low dual by Daws, Skalski, and Viselter. Our approach uses spectral techniques and is completely different from those of Bekka-Valette and Daws-Skalski-Viselter. By a separate argument we furthermore extend the result to second countable nonunimodular locally compact quantum groups, which are shown in particular not to have property (T), generalizing a theorem of Fima from the discrete setting. We also obtain quantum group versions of characterizations of property (T) of Kerr and Pichot in terms of the Baire category theory of weak mixing representations and of Connes and Weiss in terms of the prevalence of strongly ergodic actions.
Model Reduction of Strong-Weak Neurons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven James Cox
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travelfrom the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous workwe have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell modelsmay be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of stronglyexcitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude,without sacrificing thespatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs. We combine the best of these twostrategies via a predictor--corrector decomposition scheme andachieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.
Model reduction of strong-weak neurons.
Du, Bosen; Sorensen, Danny; Cox, Steven J
2014-01-01
We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs). We combine the best of these two strategies via a predictor-corrector decomposition scheme and achieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.
Towards weakly constrained double field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanghoon Lee
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Weak Gravitational Lensing of Finite Beams
Fleury, Pierre; Larena, Julien; Uzan, Jean-Philippe
2017-11-01
The standard theory of weak gravitational lensing relies on the infinitesimal light beam approximation. In this context, images are distorted by convergence and shear, the respective sources of which unphysically depend on the resolution of the distribution of matter—the so-called Ricci-Weyl problem. In this Letter, we propose a strong-lensing-inspired formalism to describe the lensing of finite beams. We address the Ricci-Weyl problem by showing explicitly that convergence is caused by the matter enclosed by the beam, regardless of its distribution. Furthermore, shear turns out to be systematically enhanced by the finiteness of the beam. This implies, in particular, that the Kaiser-Squires relation between shear and convergence is violated, which could have profound consequences on the interpretation of weak-lensing surveys.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich
2002-01-01
The so-called weak Konig's lemma WKL asserts the existence of an infinite path b in any infinite binary tree (given by a representing function f). Based on this principle one can formulate subsystems of higher-order arithmetic which allow to carry out very substantial parts of classical mathematics...... is of interest in the context of explicit mathematics as developed by S. Feferman. The elimination process in Kohlenbach [10] actually can be used to eliminate even this uniform weak Konig's lemma provided that PRA only has a quantifier-free rule of extensionality QF-ER instead of the full axioms (E...... as the computational strength of UWKL relative to the intuitionistic variant of PRA both with and without the Markov principle....
Weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders
Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
The Talk will cover weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders ATLAS and CMS in particular. ATLAS has measured the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process in a wide mass range around the Z resonance region using dielectron and dimuon final states with $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV data. For the dielectron channel, the measurement includes electrons detected in the forward calorimeter which extends the covered phase space. The result is then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. Uncertainties from the limited knowledge on the parton distribution functions in the proton constitute a significant part of the uncertainty and a dedicated study is performed to obtain a PDF set describing W and Z data measured previously by ATLAS. Similar studies from CMS will be reported.
The regularization of Old English weak verbs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Tío Sáenz
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporated the texts of the Dictionary of Old English Corpus. As regards the question of the limits of normalization, the solution adopted are, in the first place, that when it is necessary to regularize, normalization is restricted to correspondences based on dialectal and diachronic variation and, secondly, that normalization has to be unidirectional.
Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes
Rio, Emmanuel
2017-01-01
Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...
Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1999-01-01
An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.
Orbits in weak and strong bars
Contopoulos, George
1980-01-01
The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).
Weakly Collisional and Collisionless Astrophysical Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berlok, Thomas
investigate helium mixing in the weakly collisional intracluster medium of galaxy clusters using Braginskii MHD. Secondly, we present a newly developed Vlasov-fluid code which can be used for studying fully collisionless plasmas such as the solar wind and hot accretions flows. The equations of Braginskii MHD...... are used to study weakly collisional, stratified atmospheres which offer a useful model of the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters. Using linear theory and computer simulations, we study instabilities that feed off thermal and compositional gradients. We find that these instabilities lead to vigorous...... mixing of the composition and discuss the potential consequences for X-ray observations of galaxy clusters. Collisionless plasmas can be subject to microscale velocity-space instabilities which are not well-described by Braginskii MHD. In contrast, Vlasov-fluid theory captures all the kinetic phenomena...
A dynamical weak scale from inflation
You, Tevong
2017-09-01
Dynamical scanning of the Higgs mass by an axion-like particle during inflation may provide a cosmological component to explaining part of the hierarchy problem. We propose a novel interplay of this cosmological relaxation mechanism with inflation, whereby the backreaction of the Higgs vacuum expectation value near the weak scale causes inflation to end. As Hubble drops, the relaxion's dissipative friction increases relative to Hubble and slows it down enough to be trapped by the barriers of its periodic potential. Such a scenario raises the natural cut-off of the theory up to ~ 1010 GeV, while maintaining a minimal relaxion sector without having to introduce additional scanning scalars or new physics coincidentally close to the weak scale.
On weakly D-differentiable operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik
2016-01-01
Let DD be a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space HH and aa a bounded operator on HH. We say that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, if for any pair of vectors ξ,ηξ,η from HH the function 〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉 is differentiable. We give an elementary example of a bounded operator aa...
Dynamic properties of superconducting weak links
Schmid, Albert; Schön, Gerd; Tinkham, Michael
1980-06-01
A comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamic properties of the order parameter and the quasiparticles in superconducting short weak links is presented. Both diffusion and inelastic scattering are found to be important in relaxing nonequilibrium populations. At low voltages a dissipative current, which is considerably larger than the normal ohmic current, is found and at higher voltages the maximum supercurrent is enhanced. These effects describe quantitatively well the foot structure in the I-V characteristic observed experimentally by Octavio, Skocpol, and Tinkham.
On weak compactness in L_1 spaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fabian, Marián; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, Václav
2009-01-01
Roč. 39, č. 6 (2009), s. 1885-1893 ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190610; GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA AV ČR IAA1019103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : weak compactness * subspace of L_1 * superreflexive space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.260, year: 2009
Summary of the Hadronic Weak Interaction session
Bock, G.; Bryman, D. A.; Numao, T.
1993-07-01
We summarize and discuss present and future experiments on decays of light mesons and muons that were presented in the Hadronic Weak Interaction working group session of the Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Facilities. Precise measurements and rare-decay searches, which sense mass scales in the 1-1000 TeV region, are discussed in the context of the standard model and beyond.
Summary of the Hadronic Weak Interaction session
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bock, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Bryman, D.A.; Numao, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TRIUMF Facility
1993-07-01
We summarize and discuss present and future experiments on decays of light mesons and muons that were presented in the Hadronic Weak Interaction working group session of the ``Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Facilities.`` Precise measurements and rare-decay searches, which sense mass scales in the 1--1000 TeV region, are discussed in the context of the standard model and beyond.
Diffusion in a weakly random Hamiltonian flow
Komorowski, T.; Ryzhik, L.
2005-01-01
We consider the motion of a particle governed by a weakly random Hamiltonian flow. We identify temporal and spatial scales on which the particle trajectory converges to a spatial Brownian motion. The main technical issue in the proof is to obtain error estimates for the convergence of the solution of the stochastic acceleration problem to a momentum diffusion. We also apply our results to the system of random geometric acoustics equations and show that the energy density of the acoustic waves...
Chemical sensor with oscillating cantilevered probe
Adams, Jesse D
2013-02-05
The invention provides a method of detecting a chemical species with an oscillating cantilevered probe. A cantilevered beam is driven into oscillation with a drive mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A free end of the oscillating cantilevered beam is tapped against a mechanical stop coupled to a base end of the cantilevered beam. An amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured with a sense mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A treated portion of the cantilevered beam is exposed to the chemical species, wherein the cantilevered beam bends when exposed to the chemical species. A second amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured, and the chemical species is determined based on the measured amplitudes.
Is the quadrature oscillator a multivibrator?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2004-01-01
The aim of this article is to give insight into the mechanisms behind the behavior of oscillators from a new angle, introducing the idea of "frozen eigenvalues". This approach is based on piecewise-linear modelling and a study of the eigenvalues of the time varying linearized Jacobian of the nonl......The aim of this article is to give insight into the mechanisms behind the behavior of oscillators from a new angle, introducing the idea of "frozen eigenvalues". This approach is based on piecewise-linear modelling and a study of the eigenvalues of the time varying linearized Jacobian...... of the nonlinear differential equations describing the oscillator. A multivibrator and a quadrature oscillator are used as test examples. The mechanisms behind the oscillations of the two circuits are compared....
Improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator
Mosad, Ahmed G.
2013-09-01
This paper presents an improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator which offers higher frequency and wider tunning range than the existing reactance-less oscillators. It also has the capability of operating on two positive supplies or alternatively a positive and negative supply. Furthermore, it has the advantage that it can be fully integrated on-chip providing an area-efficient solution. On the other hand, The oscillation concept is discussed then a complete mathematical analysis of the proposed oscillator is introduced. Furthermore, the power consumption of the new relaxation circuit is discussed and validated by the PSPICE circuit simulations showing an excellent agreement. MATLAB results are also introduced to demonstrate the resistance range and the corresponding frequency range which can be obtained from the proposed relaxation oscillator. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Atmospheric neutrino oscillations for earth tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winter, Walter
2016-04-05
Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of a few percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.
Atmospheric neutrino oscillations for Earth tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winter, Walter, E-mail: walter.winter@desy.de
2016-07-15
Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of a few percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.
Atmospheric neutrino oscillations for Earth tomography
Winter, Walter
2016-07-01
Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of a few percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.
Geometric phase shifts in biological oscillators.
Tourigny, David S
2014-08-21
Many intracellular processes continue to oscillate during the cell cycle. Although it is not well-understood how they are affected by discontinuities in the cellular environment, the general assumption is that oscillations remain robust provided the period of cell divisions is much larger than the period of the oscillator. Here, I will show that under these conditions a cell will in fact have to correct for an additional quantity added to the phase of oscillation upon every repetition of the cell cycle. The resulting phase shift is an analogue of the geometric phase, a curious entity first discovered in quantum mechanics. In this letter, I will discuss the theory of the geometric phase shift and demonstrate its relevance to biological oscillations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies
Orozco, Luis
2014-05-01
Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico
Mechanisms Undlerlying Quadriceps Weakness in Knee Osteoarthritis
PETTERSON, STEPHANIE C.; BARRANCE, PETER; BUCHANAN, THOMAS; BINDER-MACLEOD, STUART; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN
2013-01-01
Purpose To identify determinants of quadriceps weakness among persons with end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods One-hundred twenty-three individuals (mean age 64.9 ± 8.5 yr) with Kellgren/Lawrence grade IV knee OA participated. Quadriceps strength (MVIC) and volitional muscle activation (CAR) were measured using a burst superimposition test. Muscle composition (lean muscle cross-sectional area (LMCSA) and fat CSA (FCSA)) were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Specific strength (MVIC/LMCSA) was computed. Interlimb differences were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests. Regression analysis was applied to identify determinants of MVIC. An alpha level of 0.05 was adopted. Results The OA limb was significantly weaker, had lower CAR, and had smaller LMCSA than the contralateral limb. CAR explained 17% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 40% in the OA limb. LMCSA explained 41% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 27% in the OA limb. Conclusion Both reduced CAR and LMCSA contribute to muscle weakness in persons with knee OA. Similar to healthy elders, the best predictor of strength in the contralateral, nondiseased limb was largely determined by LMCSA, whereas CAR was found to be the primary determinant of strength in the OA limb. Deficits in CAR may undermine the effectiveness of volitional strengthening programs in targeting quadriceps weakness in the OA population. PMID:18379202
Mechanisms underlying quadriceps weakness in knee osteoarthritis.
Petterson, Stephanie C; Barrance, Peter; Buchanan, Thomas; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
2008-03-01
To identify determinants of quadriceps weakness among persons with end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). One-hundred twenty-three individuals (mean age 64.9 +/- 8.5 yr) with Kellgren/Lawrence grade IV knee OA participated. Quadriceps strength (MVIC) and volitional muscle activation (CAR) were measured using a burst superimposition test. Muscle composition (lean muscle cross-sectional area (LMCSA) and fat CSA (FCSA)) were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Specific strength (MVIC/LMCSA) was computed. Interlimb differences were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests. Regression analysis was applied to identify determinants of MVIC. An alpha level of 0.05 was adopted. The OA limb was significantly weaker, had lower CAR, and had smaller LMCSA than the contralateral limb. CAR explained 17% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 40% in the OA limb. LMCSA explained 41% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 27% in the OA limb. Both reduced CAR and LMCSA contribute to muscle weakness in persons with knee OA. Similar to healthy elders, the best predictor of strength in the contralateral, nondiseased limb was largely determined by LMCSA, whereas CAR was found to be the primary determinant of strength in the OA limb. Deficits in CAR may undermine the effectiveness of volitional strengthening programs in targeting quadriceps weakness in the OA population.
Siemaszko, Daniel
2015-06-15
The handling of weak networks with asymmetric loads and disturbances im- plies the accurate handling of the second-harmonic component that appears in an unbalanced network. This paper proposes a classic vector control approach using a PI-based controller with superior decoupling capabilities for operation in weak networks with unbalanced phase voltages. A synchronization method for weak unbalanced networks is detailed, with dedicated dimensioning rules. The use of a double-frame controller allows a current symmetry or controlled imbalance to be forced for compensation of power oscillations by controlling the negative current sequence. This paper also serves as a useful reminder of the proper way to cancel the inherent coupling effect due to the transformation to the synchronous rotating reference frame, and of basic considerations of the relationship between switching frequency and control bandwidth.
Global dynamics of a stochastic neuronal oscillator
Yamanobe, Takanobu
2013-11-01
Nonlinear oscillators have been used to model neurons that fire periodically in the absence of input. These oscillators, which are called neuronal oscillators, share some common response structures with other biological oscillations such as cardiac cells. In this study, we analyze the dependence of the global dynamics of an impulse-driven stochastic neuronal oscillator on the relaxation rate to the limit cycle, the strength of the intrinsic noise, and the impulsive input parameters. To do this, we use a Markov operator that both reflects the density evolution of the oscillator and is an extension of the phase transition curve, which describes the phase shift due to a single isolated impulse. Previously, we derived the Markov operator for the finite relaxation rate that describes the dynamics of the entire phase plane. Here, we construct a Markov operator for the infinite relaxation rate that describes the stochastic dynamics restricted to the limit cycle. In both cases, the response of the stochastic neuronal oscillator to time-varying impulses is described by a product of Markov operators. Furthermore, we calculate the number of spikes between two consecutive impulses to relate the dynamics of the oscillator to the number of spikes per unit time and the interspike interval density. Specifically, we analyze the dynamics of the number of spikes per unit time based on the properties of the Markov operators. Each Markov operator can be decomposed into stationary and transient components based on the properties of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. This allows us to evaluate the difference in the number of spikes per unit time between the stationary and transient responses of the oscillator, which we show to be based on the dependence of the oscillator on past activity. Our analysis shows how the duration of the past neuronal activity depends on the relaxation rate, the noise strength, and the impulsive input parameters.
Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Smout, Smout J
2010-01-01
Abstract Background The importance of weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is gaining recognition. Aim To quantify the proportions of reflux episodes that are acidic (pH 7) in adult patients with GERD, and to evaluate their correlation with symptoms. Methods Studies were identified by systematic PubMed and Embase searches. Data are presented as sample-size weighted ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. M. Huang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available By using meteor radar, radiosonde and satellite observations over 20° N and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 81 days from 22 December 2004 to 12 March 2005, a quasi-27-day oscillation propagating from the troposphere to the mesosphere is reported. A pronounced 27-day periodicity is observed in the raw zonal wind from meteor radar. Spectral analysis shows that the oscillation also occurs in the meridional wind and temperature and propagates westward with wavenumber s = 1; thus the oscillation is of Rossby wave type. The oscillation attains a large amplitude of about 12 m s−1 in the eastward wind shear region of the troposphere. When the wind shear reverses, its amplitude rapidly decays, and the background wind gradually evolves to be westward. However, the oscillation can penetrate through the weak westward wind field due to its relatively large phase speed. After this, the oscillation restrengthens with its upward propagation and reaches about 20 m s−1 in the mesosphere. Reanalysis data show that the oscillation can propagate to the mid and high latitudes from the low latitudes and has large amplitudes over there. There is another interesting phenomenon that a quasi-46-day oscillation appears simultaneously in the troposphere, but it cannot penetrate through the westward wind field because of its smaller phase speed. In the observational interval, a quasi-27-day periodicity in outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR and specific humidity is found in a latitudinal zone of 5–20° N. Thus the quasi-27-day oscillation may be an atmospheric response to forcing due to the convective activity with a period of about 27 days in the tropical region.
Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Smout, A.
2010-01-01
The importance of weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is gaining recognition. To quantify the proportions of reflux episodes that are acidic (pH <4), weakly acidic (pH 4-7) and weakly alkaline (pH >7) in adult patients with GERD, and to evaluate their
Periodic motions and resonances of impact oscillators
Dyskin, Arcady V.; Pasternak, Elena; Pelinovsky, Efim
2012-06-01
Bilinear oscillators - the oscillators whose springs have different stiffnesses in compression and tension - model a wide range of phenomena. A limiting case of bilinear oscillator with infinite stiffness in compression - the impact oscillator - is studied here. We investigate a special set of impact times - the eigenset, which corresponds to the solution of the homogeneous equation, i.e. the oscillator without the driving force. We found that this set and its subsets are stable with respect to variation of initial conditions. Furthermore, amongst all periodic sets of impact times with the period commensurate with the period of driving force, the eigenset is the only one which can support resonances, in particular the multi-'harmonic' resonances. Other resonances should produce non-periodic sets of impact times. This funding indicates that the usual simplifying assumption [e.g., S.W. Shaw, P.J. Holmes, A periodically forced piecewise linear oscillator, Journal of Sound and Vibration 90 (1983) 129-155] that the times between impacts are commensurate with the period of the driving force does not always hold. We showed that for the first sub-'harmonic resonance' - the resonance achieved on a half frequency of the main resonance - the set of impact times is asymptotically close to the eigenset. The envelope of the oscillations in this resonance increases as a square root of time, opposite to the linear increase characteristic of multi-'harmonic' resonances.
The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. J. Farrugia
2007-02-01
Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (Dst*≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (Dst corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.
The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. J. Farrugia
2007-02-01
Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (D_{st}^{*}≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (D_{st} corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.
Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.
2012-09-19
The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.
Supersymmetric Higgs bosons in weak boson fusion.
Hollik, Wolfgang; Plehn, Tilman; Rauch, Michael; Rzehak, Heidi
2009-03-06
We compute the complete supersymmetric next-to-leading-order corrections to the production of a light Higgs boson in weak-boson fusion. The size of the electroweak corrections is of similar order as the next-to-leading-order corrections in the standard model. The supersymmetric QCD corrections turn out to be significantly smaller than expected and than their electroweak counterparts. These corrections are an important ingredient to a precision analysis of the (supersymmetric) Higgs sector at the LHC, either as a known correction factor or as a contribution to the theory error.
Are the Weak Measurements Really Measurements?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitri Sokolovski
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Weak measurements can be seen as an attempt at answering the Which way? question without destroying interference between the pathways involved. Unusual mean values obtained in such measurements represent the response of a quantum system to this forbidden question, in which the true composition of virtual pathways is hidden from the observer. Such values indicate a failure of a measurement where the uncertainty principle says it must fail, rather than provide an additional insight into physical reality. Quanta 2013; 2: 50–57.
Legitimacy Building under Weak Institutional Settings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wejs, Anja; Harvold, Kjell; Larsen, Sanne Vammen
2014-01-01
Local strategies for adaptation to climate change in Denmark and Norway are discussed. In both countries, the national impetus for local adaptation is weak; it is largely left to local actors to take the initiative. The dynamics of the different approaches to climate-change adaptation at the local...... level are illuminated. Using decision-making and learning theory, we present an analytical framework to examine four cases, two in Norway and two in Denmark, which represent two different responses, i.e. anticipatory actions and obligatory actions. We find that, by bringing in knowledge and resources...
Superconductor in a weak static gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ummarino, Giovanni Alberto [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI-Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gallerati, Antonio [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)
2017-08-15
We provide the detailed calculation of a general form for Maxwell and London equations that takes into account gravitational corrections in linear approximation. We determine the possible alteration of a static gravitational field in a superconductor making use of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, providing also an analytic solution in the weak field condition. Finally, we compare the behavior of a high-T{sub c} superconductor with a classical low-T{sub c} superconductor, analyzing the values of the parameters that can enhance the reduction of the gravitational field. (orig.)
Infrared spectroscopy of weakly bound molecular ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeh, Lisa I-Ching
1988-11-01
The infrared spectra of a series of hydrated hydronium cluster ions and of protonated ethane ion are presented. A tandem mass spectrometer is ideally suited to obtaining the spectra of such weakly bound molecular ions. Traditional absorption spectroscopy is not feasible in these situations, so the techniques described in this thesis make use of some consequence of photon absorption with higher sensitivity than simply attenuation of laser power. That consequence is dissociation. By first mass selecting the parent ion under study and then mass selecting the fragment ion formed from dissociation, the near unit detection efficiency of ion counting methods has been used to full advantage.
Weak η production off the nucleon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)
2015-05-15
The weak η-meson production off the nucleon induced by (anti)neutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies, the range of interest for several ongoing and future neutrino experiments. We consider Born diagrams and the excitation of N{sup *} (1535)S{sub 11} and N{sup *} (1650)S{sub 11} resonances. The vector part of the N-S{sub 11} transition form factors has been obtained from the MAID helicity amplitudes while the poorly known axial part is constrained with the help of the partial conservation of the axial current (PCAC) and assuming the pion-pole dominance of the pseudoscalar form factor.
Oscillating and rotating sine-Gordon system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1986-01-01
The interaction between a 2π kink and the background or vacuum is investigated in the pure sine-Gordon system. For an oscillating background (i.e., the k=0 part of the phonon spectrum) the 2π kink oscillates, while for increasing or decreasing vacuum two phenomena have been observed, depending...... on the rate of change of the vacuum. For small rates a parametric excitation of standing waves is found, and for larger rates the system linearizes. In the case of oscillating vacuum a perturbation approach explains the behavior perfectly, while for small rates of increasing vacuum the system reduces...
Oscillators - an approach for a better understanding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2003-01-01
The aim of this tutorial is to provide an electronic engineer knowledge and insight for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the behaviour of electronic oscillators. A linear oscillator is a mathematical fiction which can only be used as a starting point for the design of a real...... oscillator based on the Barkhausen criteria. Statements in textbooks and papers saying that the nonlinearities are bringing back the poles to the imaginary axis are wrong. The concept of "frozen eigenvalues" is introduced by means of piece-wise-linear modelling of the nonlinear components which are necessary...
Phase Multistability in Coupled Oscillator Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosekilde, Erik; Postnov, D.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga
2003-01-01
The phenomenon of phase multistability arises in connection with the synchronization of coupled oscillator systems when the systems individually display complex wave forms associated, for instance, with the presence of subharmonic components or with significant variations of the phase velocity...... along the orbit of the individual oscillator. Focusing on the mechanisms underlying the appearance of phase multistability, the paper examines a variety of phase-locked patterns. In particular we demonstrate the nested structure of synchronization regions for oscillations with multicrest wave forms...... and investigate how the number of spikes per train and the proximity of a neighboring equilibrium point can influence the formation of coexisting regimes in coupled bursters....
Possible solar modulation of pacific decadal oscillation
Ma, Lihua; Yin, Zhiqiang
2017-09-01
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is an El Niño-like pattern of Pacific climate variability, oscillating between its warm and cool phase about every 20-30 years as defined by oceanic temperature anomalies in the northeast and tropical Pacific Ocean. In this work, the authors investigate the possible connection between the PDO and solar activity by means of wavelet technique. The study shows obvious fluctuation characteristics in the PDO series. The modulation action from solar activity plays an important role in the oscillation of the Pacific, and there is a possible association existing in the PDO and solar activity on decade time scales.
Relativistic quantum mechanics of a Dirac oscillator
Martines y Romero, R P; Salas-Brito, A L
1995-01-01
The Dirac oscillator is an exactly soluble model recently introduced in the context of many particle models in relativistic quantum mechanics. The model has been also considered as an interaction term for modelling quark confinement in quantum chromodynamics. These considerations should be enough for demonstrating that the Dirac oscillator can be an excellent example in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this paper we offer a solution to the problem and discuss some of its properties. We also discuss a physical picture for the Dirac oscillator's non-standard interaction, showing how it arises on describing the behaviour of a neutral particle carrying an anomalous magnetic moment and moving inside a uniformly charged sphere. (author)
Damping of Crank–Nicolson error oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Britz, Dieter; Østerby, Ole; Strutwolf, J.
2003-01-01
The Crank–Nicolson (CN) simulation method has an oscillatory response to sharp initial transients. The technique is convenient but the oscillations make it less popular. Several ways of damping the oscillations in two types of electrochemical computations are investigated. For a simple one...... be computationally more expensive with some systems. The simple device of starting with one backward implicit (BI, or Laasonen) step does damp the oscillations, but not always sufficiently. For electrochemical microdisk simulations which are two-dimensional in space and using CN, the use of a first BI step is much...
Oscillating magnetocaloric effect of a multilayer graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alisultanov, Z. Z., E-mail: zaur0102@gmail.com [Amirkhanov Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Dagestan Science Centre, Makhachkala (Russian Federation); Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dagestan State University, Makhachkala (Russian Federation); Paixão, L. S.; Reis, M. S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil)
2014-12-08
The oscillating magnetocaloric effect of a multilayer graphene in Bernal and rhombohedral stacking is investigated to extend the previous knowledge of the effect on a single layer graphene. We started from results of a tight-binding model and obtained analytical expressions for the thermodynamic potential and for the entropy change. The last exhibits the same dependence on field and temperature observed for other diamagnetic systems; it oscillates with the inverse magnetic field and presents a maximum value at a given temperature. The amplitude of the oscillating entropy change decreases with the number of layers and the stacking sequence rules the magnetocaloric properties of the system.
Oscillating magnetocaloric effect of a multilayer graphene
Alisultanov, Z. Z.; Paixão, L. S.; Reis, M. S.
2014-12-01
The oscillating magnetocaloric effect of a multilayer graphene in Bernal and rhombohedral stacking is investigated to extend the previous knowledge of the effect on a single layer graphene. We started from results of a tight-binding model and obtained analytical expressions for the thermodynamic potential and for the entropy change. The last exhibits the same dependence on field and temperature observed for other diamagnetic systems; it oscillates with the inverse magnetic field and presents a maximum value at a given temperature. The amplitude of the oscillating entropy change decreases with the number of layers and the stacking sequence rules the magnetocaloric properties of the system.
Compact heterodyne NEMS oscillator for sensing applications
Sansa, Marc; Gourlat, Guillaume; Jourdan, Guillaume; Gely, Marc; Villard, Patrick; Sicard, Gilles; Hentz, Sébastien
2016-11-01
We present a novel topology of heterodyne nanoelectromechanical self-oscillator, aimed at the dense integration of resonator arrays for sensing applications. This oscillator is based on an original measurement method, suitable for both open loop and closed loop operations, which simplifies current down-mixing set-ups. When implemented on-chip, it will allow the reduction of the size and power consumption of readout CMOS circuitry. This is today the limiting factor for the integration density of NEMS oscillators for real-life applications. Here we characterize this method in both open-loop and closed-loop, and evaluate its frequency stability.
Oscillations in glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kloster, Antonina; Olsen, Lars Folke
2012-01-01
also decreases by stimulating the ATPase activity, e.g. by FCCP or Amphotericin B. Thus, ATPase activity strongly affects the glycolytic oscillations. We discuss these data in relation to a simple autocatalytic model of glycolysis which can reproduce the experimental data and explain the role...... of membrane-bound ATPases . In addition we also studied a recent detailed model of glycolysis and found that, although thismodel faithfully reproduces the oscillations of glycolytic intermediates observed experimentally, it is not able to explain the role of ATPase activity on the oscillations....
Polaritonic Rabi and Josephson Oscillations.
Rahmani, Amir; Laussy, Fabrice P
2016-07-25
The dynamics of coupled condensates is a wide-encompassing problem with relevance to superconductors, BECs in traps, superfluids, etc. Here, we provide a unified picture of this fundamental problem that includes i) detuning of the free energies, ii) different self-interaction strengths and iii) finite lifetime of the modes. At such, this is particularly relevant for the dynamics of polaritons, both for their internal dynamics between their light and matter constituents, as well as for the more conventional dynamics of two spatially separated condensates. Polaritons are short-lived, interact only through their material fraction and are easily detuned. At such, they bring several variations to their atomic counterpart. We show that the combination of these parameters results in important twists to the phenomenology of the Josephson effect, such as the behaviour of the relative phase (running or oscillating) or the occurence of self-trapping. We undertake a comprehensive stability analysis of the fixed points on a normalized Bloch sphere, that allows us to provide a generalized criterion to identify the Rabi and Josephson regimes in presence of detuning and decay.
Torsional oscillations of strange stars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mannarelli Massimo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Strange stars are one of the hypothetical compact stellar objects that can be formed after a supernova explosion. The existence of these objects relies on the absolute stability of strange collapsed quark matter with respect to standard nuclear matter. We discuss simple models of strange stars with a bare quark matter surface, thus standard nuclear matter is completely absent. In these models an electric dipole layer a few hundreds Fermi thick should exist close to the star surface. Studying the torsional oscillations of the electrically charged layer we estimate the emitted power, finding that it is of the order of 1045 erg/s, meaning that these objects would be among the brightest compact sources in the heavens. The associated relaxation times are very uncertain, with values ranging between microseconds and minutes, depending on the crust thickness. Although part of the radiated power should be absorbed by the electrosphere surrounding the strange star, a sizable fraction of photons should escape and be detectable.
Recherche des oscillations de Neutrinos $\
Gangler, E
1997-01-01
Le detecteur nomad, place sur le faisceau de neutrinos wide-band-beam du sps, de contamination en neutrino tau marginale, permet de rechercher des oscillations neutrino muon - tau dans la region de pertinence cosmologique et de distinguer statistiquement les courants charges des neutrinos tau essentiellement par leur mesure cinematique. Une large part du travail de these a donc ete consacree a la reconstruction des evenements dans les chambres a derive, cible instrumentee et cur de l'experience, dont la physique de detection est decrite. Une methode de recherche de traces fut developpee, utilisant certaines informations d'un autre sous-detecteur de nomad, le trd. Pour combler une perte d'efficacite de reconstruction, une methode de recherche de traces courtes s'appuyant sur des vertex deja constitues fut developpee en exploitant les potentialites du filtre de kalman, algorithme iteratif d'ajustement de traces. Ces methodes sont utilisees en production par la collaboration. Cette these porte sur la recherche d...
Pintér, Balázs; Erdélyi, R.
2018-01-01
Solar fundamental (f) acoustic mode oscillations are investigated analytically in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The model consists of three layers in planar geometry, representing the solar interior, the magnetic atmosphere, and a transitional layer sandwiched between them. Since we focus on the fundamental mode here, we assume the plasma is incompressible. A horizontal, canopy-like, magnetic field is introduced to the atmosphere, in which degenerated slow MHD waves can exist. The global (f-mode) oscillations can couple to local atmospheric Alfvén waves, resulting, e.g., in a frequency shift of the oscillations. The dispersion relation of the global oscillation mode is derived, and is solved analytically for the thin-transitional layer approximation and for the weak-field approximation. Analytical formulae are also provided for the frequency shifts due to the presence of a thin transitional layer and a weak atmospheric magnetic field. The analytical results generally indicate that, compared to the fundamental value (ω =√{ gk }), the mode frequency is reduced by the presence of an atmosphere by a few per cent. A thin transitional layer reduces the eigen-frequencies further by about an additional hundred microhertz. Finally, a weak atmospheric magnetic field can slightly, by a few percent, increase the frequency of the eigen-mode. Stronger magnetic fields, however, can increase the f-mode frequency by even up to ten per cent, which cannot be seen in observed data. The presence of a magnetic atmosphere in the three-layer model also introduces non-permitted propagation windows in the frequency spectrum; here, f-mode oscillations cannot exist with certain values of the harmonic degree. The eigen-frequencies can be sensitive to the background physical parameters, such as an atmospheric density scale-height or the rate of the plasma density drop at the photosphere. Such information, if ever observed with high-resolution instrumentation and inverted, could help to
Optimal Weak-Lensing Skewness Measurements
Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John
2003-12-01
Weak-lensing measurements are starting to provide statistical maps of the distribution of matter in the universe that are increasingly precise and complementary to cosmic microwave background maps. The most common measurement is the correlation in alignments of background galaxies, which can be used to infer the variance of the projected surface density of matter. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content and is analogous to using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. However, when the depth is shallow, as happens near a beach, waves become skewed. Similarly, a measurement of skewness in the projected matter distribution directly measures the total matter content of the universe. While skewness has already been convincingly detected, its constraint on cosmology is still weak. We address optimal analyses for the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in the presence of noise. We show that a compensated Gaussian filter with a width of 2.5‧ optimizes the cosmological constraint, yielding ΔΩm/Ωm~10%. This is significantly better than other filters that have been considered in the literature. This can be further improved with tomography and other sophisticated analyses.
Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte
Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan
2014-10-07
Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.
Weak gravity conjecture and effective field theory
Saraswat, Prashant
2017-01-01
The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff Λ . If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true, then parametric violation of the WGC at low energy comes at the cost of nonminimal field content in the UV. I propose that only a very weak constraint is applicable to EFTs, Λ ≲(log 1/g )-1 /2Mpl , where g is the gauge coupling, motivated by entropy bounds. Remarkably, EFTs produced by Higgsing a theory that satisfies the WGC can saturate but not violate this bound.
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
Oscillation characteristics of zero-field spin transfer oscillators with field-like torque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Xue, Hai-Bin, E-mail: xuehaibin@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducer and Intelligent Control system, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Zhe-Jie, E-mail: pandanlzj@hotmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2015-05-15
We theoretically investigate the influence of the field-like spin torque term on the oscillation characteristics of spin transfer oscillators, which are based on MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) consisting of a perpendicular magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer. It is demonstrated that the field-like torque has a strong impact on the steady-state precession current region and the oscillation frequency. In particular, the steady-state precession can occur at zero applied magnetic field when the ratio between the field-like torque and the spin transfer torque takes up a negative value. In addition, the dependence of the oscillation properties on the junction sizes has also been analyzed. The results indicate that this compact structure of spin transfer oscillator without the applied magnetic field is practicable under certain conditions, and it may be a promising configuration for the new generation of on-chip oscillators.
Oscillation characteristics of zero-field spin transfer oscillators with field-like torque
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan-Yuan Guo
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the influence of the field-like spin torque term on the oscillation characteristics of spin transfer oscillators, which are based on MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs consisting of a perpendicular magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer. It is demonstrated that the field-like torque has a strong impact on the steady-state precession current region and the oscillation frequency. In particular, the steady-state precession can occur at zero applied magnetic field when the ratio between the field-like torque and the spin transfer torque takes up a negative value. In addition, the dependence of the oscillation properties on the junction sizes has also been analyzed. The results indicate that this compact structure of spin transfer oscillator without the applied magnetic field is practicable under certain conditions, and it may be a promising configuration for the new generation of on-chip oscillators.
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Searching for Global oscillations of Jupiter
Murphy, N.; Smith, E. J.; Rogers, W.; Gillam, S.; Rosner, R.; Baliunas, S.
2000-12-01
The detection of global oscillations of Jupiter would lead to significant advances in our understanding of giant planet internal structure, analogous to the enormous increase in knowledge of the sun's interior facilitated by helioseismology. In particular, the frequencies of p-mode oscillations will be strongly affected by the presence of density discontinuities and the planet's core size and structure. While it is clear from previous observations that such oscillations probably only exist with very small amplitudes, current instrumentation may still be able to detect them. We will describe a proposed experiment to detect (or place a firm upper amplitude limit on) global p-mode oscillations of Jupiter, using a magneto-optical filter on the Mt Wilson 100" telescope. We will describe the operation of the instrument, present preliminary data and describe models of instrument response which show that with 7 nights of data we can expect to detect signals with amplitudes less than 20 cm/s.
Star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops
Ma, Xiaolei; Liétor-Santos, Juan-José; Burton, Justin C.
2017-03-01
We experimentally investigate the self-sustained, star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops. The drops levitate on a cushion of evaporated vapor over a heated, curved surface. We observe modes with n =2 -13 lobes around the drop periphery. We find that the wavelength of the oscillations depends only on the capillary length of the liquid and is independent of the drop radius and substrate temperature. However, the number of observed modes depends sensitively on the liquid viscosity. The dominant frequency of pressure variations in the vapor layer is approximately twice the drop oscillation frequency, consistent with a parametric forcing mechanism. Our results show that the star-shaped oscillations are driven by capillary waves of a characteristic wavelength beneath the drop and that the waves are generated by a large shear stress at the liquid-vapor interface.
Dynamical evolution of quantum oscillators toward equilibrium.
Usha Devi, A R; Rajagopal, A K
2009-07-01
A pure quantum state of large number N of oscillators, interacting via harmonic coupling, evolves such that any small subsystem n
Generalized decomposition methods for singular oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, J.I. [Room I-320-D, E. T. S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Plaza El Ejido, s/n 29013 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: jirs@lcc.uma.es
2009-10-30
Generalized decomposition methods based on a Volterra integral equation, the introduction of an ordering parameter and a power series expansion of the solution in terms of the ordering parameter are developed and used to determine the solution and the frequency of oscillation of a singular, nonlinear oscillator with an odd nonlinearity. It is shown that these techniques provide solutions which are free from secularities if the unknown frequency of oscillation is also expanded in power series of the ordering parameter, require that the nonlinearities be analytic functions of their arguments, and, at leading-order, provide the same frequency of oscillation as two-level iterative techniques, the homotopy perturbation method if the constants that appear in the governing equation are expanded in power series of the ordering parameter, and modified artificial parameter - Linstedt-Poincare procedures.