WorldWideScience

Sample records for weak polar vortex

  1. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  2. Chemical Observations of a Polar Vortex Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Douglass, A. R.; McGee, T. J.; Browell, E.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Froidevaux, L.

    2006-01-01

    An intrusion of vortex edge air in D the interior of the Arctic polar vortex was observed on the January 31,2005 flight of the NASA DC-8 aircraft. This intrusion was identified as anomalously high values of ozone by the AROTAL and DIAL lidars. Our analysis shows that this intrusion formed when a blocking feature near Iceland collapsed, allowing edge air to sweep into the vortex interior. along the DC-8 flight track also shows the intrusion in both ozone and HNO3. Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) were observed by the DIAL lidar on the DC-8. The spatial variability of the PSCs can be explained using MLS HNO3 and H2O observations and meteorological analysis temperatures. We also estimate vortex denitrification using the relationship between N2O and HNO3. Reverse domain fill back trajectory calculations are used to focus on the features in the MLS data. The trajectory results improve the agreement between lidar measured ozone and MLS ozone and also improve the agreement between the HNO3 measurements PSC locations. The back trajectory calculations allow us to compute the local denitrification rate and reduction of HCl within the filament. We estimate a denitrification rate of about lO%/day after exposure to below PSC formation temperature. Analysis of Aura MLS observations made

  3. Experimental verification on tightly focused radially polarized vortex beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Fu-Rong; Zhou Zhe-Hai; Tan Qiao-Feng; Yang Chang-Xi; Zhang Xiao-Qing; Zhu Lian-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of tightly focused radially polarized vortex beams are demonstrated.An auto-focus technology is introduced into the measurement system in order to enhance the measurement precision,and the radially polarized vortex beams are generated by a liquid-crystal polarization converter and a vortex phase plate.The focused fields of radially polarized vortex beams with different topological charges at numerical apertures (NAs) of 0.65 and 0.85 are measured respectively,and the results indicate that the total intensity distribution at focus is dependent not only on the NA of the focusing objective lens and polarization pattem of the beam but also on the topological charge l of the beam.Some unique focusing properties of radially polarized vortex beams with fractional topological charges are presented based on numerical calculations.The experimental verification paves the way for some practical applications of radially polarized vortex beams,such as in optical trapping,near-field microscopy,and material processing.

  4. Evolution of microwave limb sounder ozone and the polar vortex during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, G. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Zurek, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of polar ozone observed by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is described for the northern hemisphere (NH) winters of 1991/1992, 1992/1993, and 1993/1994 and the southern hemisphere (SH) winters of 1992 and 1993. Imterannual and interhemispheric variability in polar ozone evolution are closely related to differences in the polar vortex and to the frequency, duration and strength of stratospheric sudden warmings. Ozone in the midstratospheric vortices increases during the winter, with largest increases associated with stratospheric warmings and a much larger increase in the NH than in the SH. A smaller NH increase was observed in 1993/1994, when the middle stratospheric vortex was stronger. During strong stratospheric warmings in the NH, the upper stratospheric vortex may be so much eroded that it presents little barrier to poleward transport; in contrast, the SH vortex remains strong throughout the stratosphere during wintertime warmings, and ozone increases only below the mixing ratio peak, due to enhanced diabatic descent. Ozone mixing ratios decrease rapidly in the lower stratosphere in both SH late winters, as expected from chemical destruction due to enhanced reactive chlorine. The interplay between dynamics and chemistry is more complex in the NH lower stratosphere and interannual variability is greater. Evidence has previously been shown for chemical ozone destruction in the 1991/1992 and 1992/1993 winters. We show here evidence suggesting some chemical destruction in late February and early March 1994. In the NH late winter lower stratosphere the pattern of high-ozone values (typical of the vortex) seen in mid-latitudes is related to the strength of the lower-stratospheric vortex, with the largest areal extent of high ozone outside the vortex in 1994, when the lower stratospheric vortex is relatively weak, and the least extent in 1993 when the lower stratospheric vortex is strongest.

  5. Cassini ISS observation of Saturn's north polar vortex and comparison to the south polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-03-01

    We present analyses of Saturn's north pole using high-resolution images captured in late 2012 by the Cassini spacecraft's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) camera. The images reveal the presence of an intense cyclonic vortex centered at the north pole. In the red and green visible continuum wavelengths, the north polar region exhibits a cyclonically spiraling cloud morphology extending from the pole to 85°N planetocentric latitude, with a 4700 km radius. Images captured in the methane bands, which sense upper tropospheric haze, show an approximately circular hole in the haze extending up to 1.5° latitude away from the pole. The spiraling morphology and the "eye"-like hole at the center are reminiscent of a terrestrial tropical cyclone. In the System III reference frame (rotation period of 10h39m22.4s, Seidelmann et al. 2007; Archinal et al. 2011), the eastward wind speed increases to about 140 m s-1 at 89°N planetocentric latitude. The vorticity is (6.5± 1.5) × 10-4 s-1 at the pole, and decreases to (1.3± 1.2) × 10-4 s-1 at 89°N. In addition, we present an analysis of Saturn's south polar vortex using images captured in January 2007 to compare its cloud morphology to the north pole. The set of images captured in 2007 includes filters that have not been analyzed before. Images captured in the violet filter (400 nm) also reveal a bright polar cloud. The south polar morphology in 2007 was more smooth and lacked the small clouds apparent around the north pole in 2012. Saturn underwent equinox in August 2009. The 2007 observation captured the pre-equinox south pole, and the 2012 observation captured the post-equinox north pole. Thus, the observed differences between the poles are likely due to seasonal effects. If these differences indeed are caused by seasonal effects, continuing observations of the summer north pole by the Cassini mission should show a formation of a polar cloud that appears bright in short-wavelength filters.

  6. Topological features of vector vortex beams perturbed with uniformly polarized light

    CERN Document Server

    D'Errico, Alessio; Piccirillo, Bruno; de Lisio, Corrado; Cardano, Filippo; Marrucci, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Optical singularities manifesting at the center of vector vortex beams are unstable, since their topological charge is higher than the lowest value permitted by Maxwell's equations. Inspired by conceptually similar phenomena occurring in the polarization pattern characterizing the skylight, we show how perturbations that break the symmetry of radially symmetric vector beams lead to the formation of a pair of fundamental and stable singularities, i.e. points of circular polarization. We prepare a superposition of a radial (or azimuthal) vector beam and a uniformly linearly polarized Gaussian beam; by varying the amplitudes of the two fields, we control the formation of pairs of these singular points and their spatial separation. We complete this study by applying the same analysis to vector vortex beams with higher topological charges, and by investigating the features that arise when increasing the intensity of the Gaussian term. Our results can find application in the context of singularimetry, where weak fi...

  7. Venusian Polar Vortex reproduced by a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Takagi, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Unlike the polar vortices observed in the Earth, Mars and Titan atmospheres, the observed Venus polar vortex is warmer than the mid-latitudes at cloud-top levels (~65 km). This warm polar vortex is zonally surrounded by a cold latitude band located at ~60 degree latitude, which is a unique feature called 'cold collar' in the Venus atmosphere [e.g. Taylor et al. 1980; Piccioni et al. 2007]. Although these structures have been observed in numerous previous observations, the formation mechanism is still unknown. In addition, an axi-asymmetric feature is always seen in the warm polar vortex. It changes temporally and sometimes shows a hot polar dipole or S-shaped structure as shown by a lot of infrared measurements [e.g. Garate-Lopez et al. 2013; 2015]. However, its vertical structure has not been investigated. To solve these problems, we performed a numerical simulation of the Venus atmospheric circulation using a general circulation model named AFES for Venus [Sugimoto et al. 2014] and reproduced these puzzling features.And then, the reproduced structures of the atmosphere and the axi-asymmetirc feature are compared with some previous observational results.In addition, the quasi-periodical zonal-mean zonal wind fluctuation is also seen in the Venus polar vortex reproduced in our model. This might be able to explain some observational results [e.g. Luz et al. 2007] and implies that the polar vacillation might also occur in the Venus atmosphere, which is silimar to the Earth's polar atmosphere. We will also show some initial results about this point in this presentation.

  8. Experimental observation of polarization-dependent optical vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Srisuphaphon, S; Photia, T; Temnuch, W; Chiangga, S; Deachapunya, S

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of the induced polarization-dependent optical vortex beams. We use the Talbot configuration as a method to probe this effect. In particular, our simple experiment shows the direct measurement of this observation. Our experiment can exhibit clearly the combination between the polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light. This implementation might be useful for further studies in the quantum system or quantum information.

  9. Geometry of weak lensing of CMB polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Challinor, A D; Challinor, Anthony; Chon, Gayoung

    2002-01-01

    Hu has presented a harmonic-space method for calculating the effects of weak gravitational lensing on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) over the full sky. Computing the lensed power spectra to first order in the deflection power requires one to formulate the lensing displacement beyond the tangent-space approximation. We point out that for CMB polarization this displacement must undergo geometric corrections on the spherical sky to maintain statistical isotropy of the lensed fields. Although not discussed by Hu, these geometric effects are implicit in his analysis. However, there they are hidden by an overly-compact notation that is both unconventional and rather confusing. Here we aim to ameliorate this deficiency by providing a rigorous derivation of the lensed spherical power spectra.

  10. Titan's south polar stratospheric vortex evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Vinatier, Sandrine; Sylvestre, Melody; de Kok, Remco; Nixon, Conor; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph

    2016-10-01

    Titan experienced northern spring equinox in August 2009 when the south polar region was plunged into perpetual darkness. Following equinox, the south pole experienced the most extreme changes in stratospheric behaviour ever observed: the global stratospheric circulation cell reversed direction (Teanby et al 2012), HCN ice clouds (de Kok et al 2014) and other exotic condensates appeared over the south pole (Jennings et al 2015, West et al 2016), and significant composition and temperature changes occurred (Vinatier et al 2015, Teanby et al 2015, Coustenis et al 2016). Here we use Cassini CIRS limb and nadir observations from 2004-2016 to investigate the evolution of south polar stratospheric temperature and composition in the post-equinox period. Reversal following equinox was extremely rapid, taking less than 6 months (1/60th of a Titan year), which resulted in an initial adiabatic polar hot spot and increased trace gas abundances (Teanby et al 2012). However, rather than develop this trend further as winter progressed, Titan's polar hot spot subsequently disappeared, with the formation of a polar cold spot. Recently in late 2015 / early 2016 a more subdued hotspot began to return with associated extreme trace gas abundances. This talk will reveal the rapid and significant changes observed so far and discuss implications for possible polar feedback mechanisms and Titan's atmospheric dynamics.Coustenis et al (2016), Icarus, 270, 409-420.de Kok et al (2014), Nature, 514, 65-67.Jennings et al (2015), ApJL, 804, L34.Teanby et al (2012), Nature, 491, 732-735.Teanby et al (2015), DPS47, National Harbor, 205.02.Vinatier et al (2015), Icarus, 250, 95-115.West et al (2016), Icarus, 270, 399-408.

  11. Vortex erosion in a shallow water model of the polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Robin; Kwasniok, Frank; Thuburn, John

    2017-06-01

    The erosion of a model stratospheric polar vortex in response to bottom boundary forcing is investigated numerically. Stripping of filaments of air from the polar vortex has been implicated in the occurrence of stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) but it is not understood in detail what factors determine the rate and amount of stripping. Here a shallow water vortex forced by topography is used to investigate the factors initiating stripping and whether this leads the vortex to undergo an SSW. It is found that the amplitude of topographic forcing must exceed some threshold (of order 200-450 m) in order for significant stripping to occur. For larger forcing amplitudes significant stripping occurs, but not as an instantaneous response to the forcing; rather, the forcing appears to initiate a process that ultimately results in stripping several tens of days later. There appears to be no simple quantitative relationship between the amount of mass stripped and the topography amplitude. However, at least over the early stages of the experiments, there is a good correlation between the amount of mass stripped and the global integral of wave activity, which may be interpreted as a measure of the accumulated topographic forcing. Finally there does not appear to be a simple correspondence between amount of mass stripped and the occurrence of an SSW.

  12. Polar Vortex Oscillation Viewed in an Isentropic Potential Vorticity Coordinate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The stratospheric polar vortex oscillation (PVO) in the Northern Hemisphere is examined in a semiLagrangian θ-PVLAT coordinate constructed by using daily isentropic potential vorticity maps derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis Ⅱ dataset covering the period from 1979 to 2003. In the semi-Lagrangian θ-PVLAT coordinate, the variability of the polar vortex is solely attributed to its intensity change because the changes in its location and shape would be naturally absent by following potential vorticity contours on isentropic surfaces. The EOF and regression analyses indicate that the PVO can be described by a pair of poleward and downward propagating modes. These two modes together account for about 82% variance of the daily potential vorticity anomalies over the entire Northern Hemisphere. The power spectral analysis reveals a dominant time scale of about 107 days in the time series of these two modes,representing a complete PVO cycle accompanied with poleward propagating heating anomalies of both positive and negative signs from the equator to the pole. The strong polar vortex corresponds to the arrival of cold anomalies over the polar circle and vice versa. Accompanied with the poleward propagation is a simultaneous downward propagation. The downward propagation time scale is about 20 days in high and low latitudes and about 30 days in mid-latitudes. The zonal wind anomalies lag the poleward and downward propagating temperature anomalies of the opposite sign by 10 days in low and high latitudes and by 20 days in mid-latitudes. The time series of the leading EOF modes also exhibit dominant time scales of 8.7, 16.9, and 33.8 months. They approximately follow a double-periodicity sequence and correspond to the 3-peak extratropical Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) signal.

  13. Dynamical diagnosis of the breakup of the stratospheric polar vortex in the Northern Hemisphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The research on climate change in polar regions, especially on the role of polar in the global climate system, has gain unprecedented level of interest. It has been the key scientific issue of the International Polar Year program (IPY, 2007―2008). In this paper, we dealt with the debate upon the breakup time of the stratospheric polar vortex in boreal spring. An observational study of the relation between stratospheric polar vortex breakup and the extra-tropical circulation was performed. The mean breakup date―when the winter westerly at the core of polar jet turns to summer easterly―is about April 10. The breakup time has large interannual variation with a time span of about 2 months. It also has a long-term trend with the 1990s and 2000s witnessing more and more late breakups of polar vortex. Composite of wind speed at the core of polar jet for the extremely early and late breakup years shows that late years have two periods of westerly weakening while early breakup years have only one. The first weakening in the late years happens in middle January with wind speed dropping sharply from more than 40 m s-1 to about 15 m s-1. This is accompanied with anomalous activities of planetary waves in both stratosphere and troposphere; while the second weakening in the late breaking years is mainly the results of diabatic heating with very weak wave activities. In early breakup years, the transition from westerly to easterly is rapid with wind speed dropping from more than 30 m s-1 to less than -10 m s-1 within a month. This evolution is associated with a strong bidirectional dynamical coupling of the stratosphere and troposphere. The circulation anomalies at low troposphere are also analyzed in the extremely early and late breakup years. It shows that there are significant differences between the two kinds of extreme years in the geopotential height and temperature composite analysis, indicating the dynamical coupling of stratosphere and troposphere with the

  14. The extraordinarily strong and cold polar vortex in the early northern winter 2015/2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, V.; Dörnbrack, A.; Stober, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic polar vortex in the early winter 2015/2016 was the strongest and coldest of the last 68 years. Using global reanalysis data, satellite observations, and mesospheric radar wind measurements over northern Scandinavia we investigate the characteristics of the early stage polar vortex and relate them to previous winters. We found a correlation between the planetary wave (PW) activity and the strength and temperature of the northern polar vortex in the stratosphere and mesosphere. In November/December 2015, a reduced PW generation in the troposphere and a stronger PW filtering in the troposphere and stratosphere, caused by stronger zonal winds in midlatitudes, resulted in a stronger polar vortex. This effect was strengthened by the equatorward shift of PWs due to the strong zonal wind in polar latitudes resulting in a southward shift of the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence and hence inducing a decreased deceleration of the polar vortex by PWs.

  15. Mesoscopic lateral S/N/S weak links: Josephson effects and Josephson-like vortex flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Gombos, M.

    2017-02-01

    We report an experimental and numerical study of magneto-transport properties of mesoscopic lateral S/N/S superconducting weak links where the N region is made of the same material as the S banks, though with strongly reduced critical temperature. Magnetoresistance oscillations and clear dc and ac Josephson effects are observed. Experimental results are analyzed in the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model for mesoscopic type II superconductors with an inhomogeneous critical temperature. The analysis suggests that dissipative branches of the current-voltage curve of the weak link in the presence of a magnetic field are accounted for by moving ‘Josephson-like’ vortices. These relatively fast excitations are anisotropic as per the ordinary Josephson vortex in tunnel junctions, but have a normal core like the ordinary Abrikosov vortex in plain superconducting strips. Moreover, unlike the vortex in tunneling junctions, in the lateral S/N/S weak link, the extension of the moving vortex is larger than the extension of the static one. Further, we report in some detail on the lateral proximity effect, and the deviations from the ideality of the current-phase relation of this kind of lateral weak link in the Josephson regime.

  16. Stratospheric water vapour in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maturilli

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric water vapour mixing ratio inside, outside, and at the edge of the polar vortex has been accurately measured by the FLASH-B Lyman-Alpha hygrometer during the LAUTLOS campaign in Sodankylä, Finland, in January and February 2004. The retrieved H2O profiles reveal a detailed view on the Arctic lower stratospheric water vapour distribution, and provide a valuable dataset for the validation of model and satellite data. Analysing the measurements with the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, water vapour profiles typical for the polar vortex' interior and exterior have been identified, and laminae in the observed profiles have been correlated to filamentary structures in the potential vorticity field. Applying the validated MIMOSA transport scheme to specific humidity fields from operational ECMWF analyses, large discrepancies from the observed profiles arise. Although MIMOSA is able to reproduce weak water vapour filaments and improves the shape of the profiles compared to operational ECMWF analyses, both models reveal a dry bias of about 1 ppmv in the lower stratosphere above 400 K, accounting for a relative difference from the measurements in the order of 20%. The large dry bias in the analysis representation of stratospheric water vapour in the Arctic implies the need for future regular measurements of water vapour in the polar stratosphere to allow the validation and improvement of climate models.

  17. Stratospheric water vapour in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturilli, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam (Germany); Fierli, F. [CNR (Italy). Inst. for Atmospheric Sciences and Climate; Yushkov, V.; Lukyanov, A.; Khaykin, S. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hauchecorne, A. [CNRS, Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie

    2006-07-01

    The stratospheric water vapour mixing ratio inside, outside, and at the edge of the polar vortex has been accurately measured by the FLASH-B Lyman-Alpha hygrometer during the LAUTLOS campaign in Sodankylae, Finland, in January and February 2004. The retrieved H{sub 2}O profiles reveal a detailed view on the Arctic lower stratospheric water vapour distribution, and provide a valuable dataset for the validation of model and satellite data. Analysing the measurements with the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, water vapour profiles typical for the polar vortex' interior and exterior have been identified, and laminae in the observed profiles have been correlated to filamentary structures in the potential vorticity field. Applying the validated MIMOSA transport scheme to specific humidity fields from operational ECMWF analyses, large discrepancies from the observed profiles arise. Although MIMOSA is able to reproduce weak water vapour filaments and improves the shape of the profiles compared to operational ECMWF analyses, both models reveal a dry bias of about 1 ppmv in the lower stratosphere above 400 K, accounting for a relative difference from the measurements in the order of 20%. The large dry bias in the analysis representation of stratospheric water vapour in the Arctic implies the need for future regular measurements of water vapour in the polar stratosphere to allow the validation and improvement of climate models. (orig.)

  18. Nanoscale switch for vortex polarization mediated by Bloch core formation in magnetic hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlhüter, Phillip; Bryan, Matthew Thomas; Warnicke, Peter; Gliga, Sebastian; Stevenson, Stephanie Elizabeth; Heldt, Georg; Saharan, Lalita; Suszka, Anna Kinga; Moutafis, Christoforos; Chopdekar, Rajesh Vilas; Raabe, Jörg; Thomson, Thomas; Hrkac, Gino; Heyderman, Laura Jane

    2015-08-01

    Vortices are fundamental magnetic topological structures characterized by a curling magnetization around a highly stable nanometric core. The control of the polarization of this core and its gyration is key to the utilization of vortices in technological applications. So far polarization control has been achieved in single-material structures using magnetic fields, spin-polarized currents or spin waves. Here we demonstrate local control of the vortex core orientation in hybrid structures where the vortex in an in-plane Permalloy film coexists with out-of-plane maze domains in a Co/Pd multilayer. The vortex core reverses its polarization on crossing a maze domain boundary. This reversal is mediated by a pair of magnetic singularities, known as Bloch points, and leads to the transient formation of a three-dimensional magnetization structure: a Bloch core. The interaction between vortex and domain wall thus acts as a nanoscale switch for the vortex core polarization.

  19. Visualization of stratospheric ozone depletion and the polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treinish, Lloyd A.

    1995-01-01

    Direct analysis of spacecraft observations of stratospheric ozone yields information about the morphology of annual austral depletion. Visual correlation of ozone with other atmospheric data illustrates the diurnal dynamics of the polar vortex and contributions from the upper troposphere, including the formation and breakup of the depletion region each spring. These data require care in their presentation to minimize the introduction of visualization artifacts that are erroneously interpreted as data features. Non geographically registered data of differing mesh structures can be visually correlated via cartographic warping of base geometries without interpolation. Because this approach is independent of the realization technique, it provides a framework for experimenting with many visualization strategies. This methodology preserves the fidelity of the original data sets in a coordinate system suitable for three-dimensional, dynamic examination of atmospheric phenomena.

  20. Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts of polarized vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2009-02-01

    We study, analytically and numerically, reflection and transmission of an arbitrarily polarized vortex beam on an interface separating two dielectric media and derive general expressions for linear and angular Goos-Hänchen (GH) and Imbert-Fedorov shifts. We predict a novel vortex-induced GH shift and also reveal a direct connection between the spin-induced angular shifts and the vortex-induced linear shifts.

  1. Three dimensional Lagrangian structures in the Antarctic Polar Vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, Ana M.; Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Curbelo, Jezabel; Niang, Coumba; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Wiggins, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Dynamical systems theory has supported the description of transport processes in fluid dynamics. For understanding trajectory patterns in chaotic advection the geometrical approach by Poincaré seeks for spatial structures that separate regions corresponding to qualitatively different types of trajectories. These structures have been referred to as Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS), which typically in geophysical flows are well described under the approach of incompressible 2D flows. Different tools have been used to visualize LCS. In this presentation we use Lagrangian Descriptors [1,2,3,4] (function M) for visualizing 3D Lagrangian structures in the atmosphere, in particular in the Antarctic Polar Vortex. The function M is computed in a fully 3D incompressible flow obtained from data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast and it is represented in 2D surfaces. We discuss the findings during the final warming that took place in the spring of 1979 [5]. This research is supported by MINECO grant MTM2014-56392-R. Support is acknowledged also from CSIC grant COOPB20265, U.S. NSF grant AGS-1245069 and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. C. Niang acknowledges Fundacion Mujeres por Africa and ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 for financial support. [1] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [2] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. Lagrangian Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [3] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea-Iniesta, S. Wiggins and A. M. Mancho. Lagrangian descriptors for two dimensional, area preserving autonomous and nonautonomous maps. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations, 27 (2015) (1-3), 40-51. [4] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea-Iniesta, V. J. García-Garrido, S. Wiggins, and A

  2. Ultrasmall polarization rotation measurements via weak value amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio@fisica.ufpb.br; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • We present a class of weak measurements where the measurer is an angular variable of the system. • Photon-energy qubits are required, which seems to be the first application of this kind of light. • Both weak optical activity and reflection-induced polarization rotation can be amplified. • This protocol can amplify the optical activity signal in nanostructures and biological tissues. - Abstract: We propose a framework to analyze weak measurements based on an angular version of the von Neumann measurement scheme, where the coupling between the system and the meter causes rotation of the measuring variable. We also discuss an experimental application of this theory in which measurements of weak optical activity and reflection-induced polarization rotation could be amplified in nearly two orders of magnitude. It can shed a new light on a great variety of physical chemistry, molecular biology and nanotechnology studies.

  3. Middle Stratospheric Polar Vortex Ozone Budget during the Warming Arctic Winter, 2002-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; LIU Chuanxi; Xuexi TIE; GAO Shouting

    2011-01-01

    The ozone budget inside the middle stratospheric polar vortex (24-36 km) during the 2002 2003 Arctic winter is studied by analyzing Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite data.A comprehensive global chemical transport model (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers,MOZART-3) is used to analyze the observed variation in polar vortex ozone during the stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events.Both MIPAS measurement and MOZART-3 calculation show that a pronounced increase (26-28 DU) in the polar vortex ozone due to the SSW events.Due to the weakening of the polar vortex,the exchange of ozone mass across the edge of the polar vortex increases substantially and amounts to about 3.0 × 107 kg according to MOZART-3 calculation.The enhanced downward transport offsets about 80% of polar vortex ozone mass increase by horizontal transport.A “passive ozone” experiment shows that only ~55% of the vertical ozone mass flux in February and March can be attributed to the variation in vertical transport.It is also shown that the enhanced downward ozone above ~32 km should be attributed to the springtime photochemical ozone production.Due to the increase of air temperature,the NOx reaction rate increases by 40%-80% during the SSW events.As a rcsult,NOx catalytic cycle causes another 44% decrease in polar vortex ozone compared to the net ozone changes due to dynamical transport.It is also shown that the largest change in polar vortex ozone is due to horizontal advection by planetary waves in January 2003.

  4. Ozone Depletion in the Arctic Lower Stratosphere; Timing and Impacts on the Polar Vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Cameron; Pyle, John

    2017-04-01

    There a strong link between ozone depletion in the Antarctic lower stratosphere and the strength/duration of the southern hemisphere polar vortex. Ozone depletion arising from enhanced levels of ODS in the lower stratosphere during the last few decades of the 20th century has been accompanied by a delay in the final warming date in the southern hemisphere. The delay in final warming is associated with anomalous tropospheric conditions. The relationship in the Arctic, however, is less clear as the northern hemisphere experiences relatively less intense ozone destruction in the Arctic lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is generally less stable. This study investigates the impacts of imposed lower stratospheric ozone depletion on the evolution of the polar vortex, particularly in the late-spring towards the end of its lifetime. A perpetual-year integration is compared with a series of near-identical seasonal integrations which differ only by an imposed artificial ozone depletion event, occurring a fixed number of days before the polar vortex final warming date each year. Any differences between the seasonal forecasts and perpetual year simulation are due to the timely occurrence of a strong ozone depletion event in the late-spring Arctic polar vortex. This ensemble of seasonal forecasts demonstrates the impacts that a strong ozone depletion event in the Arctic lower stratosphere will have on the evolution of the polar vortex, and highlights tropospheric impacts associated with this phenomenon.

  5. The Distribution of Ozone in the Early Stages of Polar Vortex Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Previous analysis has shown that the distribution of O3 at high northern latitudes in the lower-to-middle stratosphere at the beginning of the winter season, 1999-2000 has a characteristic distribution, which is consistent between in situ and satellite measurements [Kawa et al., The Interaction Between Dynamics and Chemistry of Ozone in the Set-up Phase of the Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, submitted manuscript, 2001 ]. Initial O3 profiles in the vortex are similar to each other and are quite different from outside the vortex at the same latitude and also from a zonal mean climatology. In the vortex, O3 is nearly constant from 500 to above 800 K with a value at 3 ppmv +/- approx.10%. Values outside the vortex are up to a factor of 2 higher and increase significantly with potential temperature. The seasonal time series of POAM data shows that relatively low O3 mixing ratios, which characterize the vortex in late fall, are already present at high latitudes at the end of summer in September before the vortex circulation sets up. This suggests a possible feedback role between O3 chemistry and the formation of the vortex, which is dominated by the seasonal radiation balance. Here we show that these characteristic O3 distributions are consistent from year to year and between the hemispheres. We will attempt to determine whether variations in fall vortex O3 are related in any way to O3 abundances and vortex structure later during winter and into spring.

  6. Generation of cylindrically polarized vector vortex beams with digital micromirror device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Meng; Zhong, Mincheng; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Yinmei, E-mail: liyinmei@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Ren, Yuxuan [National Center for Protein Sciences Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2014-11-14

    We propose a novel technique to directly transform a linearly polarized Gaussian beam into vector-vortex beams with various spatial patterns. Full high-quality control of amplitude and phase is implemented via a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) binary holography for generating Laguerre-Gaussian, Bessel-Gaussian, and helical Mathieu–Gaussian modes, while a radial polarization converter (S-waveplate) is employed to effectively convert the optical vortices into cylindrically polarized vortex beams. Additionally, the generated vector-vortex beams maintain their polarization symmetry after arbitrary polarization manipulation. Due to the high frame rates of DMD, rapid switching among a series of vector modes carrying different orbital angular momenta paves the way for optical microscopy, trapping, and communication.

  7. Stratospheric polar vortex splits and displacements in the high-top CMIP5 climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seviour, William J. M.; Gray, Lesley J.; Mitchell, Daniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events can occur as either a split or a displacement of the stratospheric polar vortex. Recent observational studies have come to different conclusions about the relative impacts of these two types of SSW upon surface climate. A clearer understanding of their tropospheric impact would be beneficial for medium-range weather forecasts and could improve understanding of the physical mechanism for stratosphere-troposphere coupling. Here we perform the first multimodel comparison of stratospheric polar vortex splits and displacements, analyzing 13 stratosphere-resolving models from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble. We find a wide range of biases among models in both the mean state of the vortex and the frequency of vortex splits and displacements, although these biases are closely related. Consistent with observational results, almost all models show vortex splits to occur barotropically throughout the depth of the stratosphere, while vortex displacements are more baroclinic. Vortex splits show a slightly stronger North Atlantic surface signal in the month following onset. However, the most significant difference in the surface response is that vortex displacements show stronger negative pressure anomalies over Siberia. This region is shown to be colocated with differences in tropopause height, suggestive of a localized response to lower stratospheric potential vorticity anomalies.

  8. The evolution of ozone observed by UARS MLS in the 1992 late winter southern polar vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manney, G.L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.W.; Elson, L.S.; Fishbein, E.F.; Zurek, R.W. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (United States)); Harwood, R.S.; Lahoz, W.A. (Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1993-06-18

    This paper presents initial data analysis of ozone distributions in the southern polar vortex region during the winter of 1992. The data comes from the microwave limb sounder on the upper atmosphere research satellite. The data provides never before available coverage of the polar stratosphere, and reveals the development of an ozone hole from column ozone data, changes in ozone mixing ratios in the lower stratosphere consistent with ozone destruction processes in the stratosphere, and evidence to support the transport of ozone toward the pole by tidal wave activity in the stratosphere. The ozone measurements are compared with the development of the polar vortex derived from national meteorological center data.

  9. Structured caustic vector vortex optical field: manipulating optical angular momentum flux and polarization rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chen, Zhaozhong; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Li, Pei-Gang; Yu, Zhongliang; Ding, Jianping; He, Sailing

    2015-05-29

    A caustic vector vortex optical field is experimentally generated and demonstrated by a caustic-based approach. The desired caustic with arbitrary acceleration trajectories, as well as the structured states of polarization (SoP) and vortex orders located in different positions in the field cross-section, is generated by imposing the corresponding spatial phase function in a vector vortex optical field. Our study reveals that different spin and orbital angular momentum flux distributions (including opposite directions) in different positions in the cross-section of a caustic vector vortex optical field can be dynamically managed during propagation by intentionally choosing the initial polarization and vortex topological charges, as a result of the modulation of the caustic phase. We find that the SoP in the field cross-section rotates during propagation due to the existence of the vortex. The unique structured feature of the caustic vector vortex optical field opens the possibility of multi-manipulation of optical angular momentum fluxes and SoP, leading to more complex manipulation of the optical field scenarios. Thus this approach further expands the functionality of an optical system.

  10. The dynamics of the stratospheric polar vortex and its relation to springtime ozone depletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    Recent aircraft observations have determined the structure of polar vortices during winter and their relationship to polar ozone depletions, based on high dynamical isolation and the extremely low temperatures required for stratospheric cloud formation. The aircraft data reveal large gradients of potential vorticity and concentrations of conservative trace species at the transition from high-latitude to polar air, implying that the inward mixing of heat and constituents is strongly inhibited, and that the perturbed polar stratospheric chemistry associated with the ozone hole is isolated from the rest of the stratosphere until the vortex breaks up in late spring. It is therefore the overall polar vortex which limits the annual polar ozone depletions' maximum area-coverage.

  11. Persistent shift of the Arctic polar vortex towards the Eurasian continent in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankai; Tian, Wenshou; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Xie, Fei; Huang, Jinlong

    2016-12-01

    The wintertime Arctic stratospheric polar vortex has weakened over the past three decades, and consequently cold surface air from high latitudes is now more likely to move into the middle latitudes. However, it is not known if the location of the polar vortex has also experienced a persistent change in response to Arctic climate change and whether any changes in the vortex position have implications for the climate system. Here, through the analysis of various data sets and model simulations, we show that the Arctic polar vortex shifted persistently towards the Eurasian continent and away from North America in February over the past three decades. This shift is found to be closely related to the enhanced zonal wavenumber-1 waves in response to Arctic sea-ice loss, particularly over the Barents-Kara seas (BKS). Increased snow cover over the Eurasian continent may also have contributed to the shift. Our analysis reveals that the vortex shift induces cooling over some parts of the Eurasian continent and North America which partly offsets the tropospheric climate warming there in the past three decades. The potential vortex shift in response to persistent sea-ice loss in the future, and its associated climatic impact, deserve attention to better constrain future climate changes.

  12. Assessment of the Breakup of the Antarctic Polar Vortex in Two New Chemistry-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Li, F.; Morgenstern, O.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Successful simulation of the breakup of the Antarctic polar vortex depends on the representation of tropospheric stationary waves at Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes. This paper assesses the vortex breakup in two new chemistry-climate models (CCMs). The stratospheric version of the UK Chemistry and Aerosols model is able to reproduce the observed timing of the vortex breakup. Version 2 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS V2) model is typical of CCMs in that the Antarctic polar vortex breaks up too late; at 10 hPa, the mean transition to easterlies at 60 S is delayed by 12-13 days as compared with the ERA-40 and National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalyses. The two models' skill in simulating planetary wave driving during the October-November period accounts for differences in their simulation of the vortex breakup, with GEOS V2 unable to simulate the magnitude and tilt of geopotential height anomalies in the troposphere and thus underestimating the wave driving. In the GEOS V2 CCM the delayed breakup of the Antarctic vortex biases polar temperatures and trace gas distributions in the upper stratosphere in November and December.

  13. Analysis of Mechanism of Tibetan Plateau Vortex Frequency Differences between Strong and Weak MJO Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Zhao, Fuhu

    2017-04-01

    There are many unique weather systems over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Among them, the TP vortex (TPV for short) is representative of the low air pressure weather systems. The generation, development and eastward propagation of the TPV is usually accompanied by precipitation, strong winds, thunderstorms and other weather processes, resulting in a series of extreme weather events over the TP and the Sichuan-Chongqing basin where is the downstream of the plateau. Some TPVs, which move from the plateau to the east and develop strongly, even affect a wide range of China's eastern region. NCEP/DOE reanalysis data, OLR data from NOAA, the Australian Meteorological Bureau Real-time Multivariate MJO index, and Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) statistical data from the Institute of Plateau Meteorology, are used to discuss the modulation of the TPV by the MJO. Wavelet analysis and composite analysis are the methods used. The results show that: (1) The MJO plays an important role in modulating the TPV, for the number of TPVs generated in strong MJO periods is three times more than in weak periods. (2) During strong (weak) MJO periods, the Tibetan Plateau is in control of a low-frequency, low-pressure cyclone (high-pressure anticyclone) system, and thus the atmospheric circulation conditions over the plateau are conducive (not conducive) to the generation of TPVs. (3) During strong (weak) MJO periods, southerly (northerly) winds prevail in the east of the plateau, but northerly (southerly) winds in the west. Over the northern part of the plateau, easterly (westerly) flow is predominant, while westerly (easterly) flow prevails over the south, thus conducive (not conducive) to the formation of cyclonic circulation (i.e., TPVs) at low altitude over the plateau. (4) In strong MJO periods, water vapor is relatively less abundant over most of the plateau, which is not conducive to the generation of TPVs; however, moisture transported by the south branch trough and the low-frequency, high

  14. Continuous Ozone Depletion over Antarctica After 2000 and Its Relationship with the Polar Vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Libo; ZHANG Yu; MA Shupo

    2014-01-01

    Observations have shown highly variable ozone depletion over the Antarctic in the 2000s, which could aff ect the long-term ozone trend in this region as well as the global ozone recovery. By using the total column ozone data (1979-2011), interannual variation of the springtime Antarctic ozone low is investigated, together with its relationship with the polar vortex evolution in the lower stratosphere. The results show that springtime Antarctic ozone depletion has continued in the 2000s, seemingly contradicting the consensus view of a global ozone recovery expected at the beginning of the 21st century. The spring Antarctic polar vortex in the lower stratosphere is much stronger in the 2000s than before, with a larger area, delayed breakup time, and greater longevity during 2000-2011. Further analyses show that the recent continuation of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion could be largely attributed to the abnormal variation of the Antarctic polar vortex.

  15. Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric Polar Vortex Extremes in February under the Control of Downward Wave Flux in the Lower Stratosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ke; CHEN Wen

    2012-01-01

    Using ECWMF ERA-40 and Interim reanalysis data, the planetary wave fluxes associated with the February extreme stratospheric polar vortex were studied. Using the three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux as a measure of the wave activity propagation, the authors show that the unusual warm years in the Arctic feature an anomalous weak stratosphere-troposphere coupling and weak downward wave flux at the lower stratosphere, especially over the North America and North Atlantic (NANA) region. The extremely cold years are characterized by strong stratosphere-troposphere coupling and strong downward wave flux in this region. The refractive index is used to examine the conception of planetary wave reflection, which shows a large refractive index (low reflection) for the extremely warm years and a small refractive index (high reflection) for the extremely cold years. This study reveals the importance of the downward planetary wave propagation from the stratosphere to the troposphere for explaining the unusual state of the stratospheric polar vortex in February.

  16. Weakening of the Stratospheric Polar Vortex by Arctic Sea-Ice Loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Baek-Min; Son, Seok-Woo; Min, Seung-Ki; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Joong; Zhang, Xiangdong; Shim, Taehyoun; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-09-02

    Successive cold winters of severely low temperatures in recent years have had critical social and economic impacts on the mid-latitude continents in the Northern Hemisphere. Although these cold winters are thought to be partly driven by dramatic losses of Arctic sea ice, the mechanism that links sea ice loss to cold winters remains a subject of debate. Here, by conducting observational analyses and model experiments, we show how Arctic sea ice loss and cold winters in extra-polar regions are dynamically connected through the polar stratosphere. We find that decreased sea ice cover during early winter months (November-December), especially over the Barents-Kara seas, enhance the upward propagation of planetary-scale waves with wavenumbers of 1 and 2, subsequently weakening the stratospheric polar vortex in mid-winter (January- February). The weakened polar vortex preferentially induces a negative phase of Arctic Oscillation at the surface, resulting in low temperatures in mid-latitudes.

  17. Shaping the focal field of radially/azimuthally polarized phase vortex with Zernike polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The focal field properties of radially/azimuthally polarized Zernike polynomials are studied. A method to design the pupil field in order to shape the focal field of radially or azimuthally polarized phase vortex is introduced. With this method, we are able to obtain a pupil field to achieve a longitudinally polarized hollow spot with a depth of focus up to $12\\lambda$ and $0.14\\lambda$ lateral resolution for a optical system with numerical aperture 0.99; A pupil field to generate 8 circularly polarized focal spots along the optical axis is also obtained with this method.

  18. Early prediction of extreme stratospheric polar vortex states based on causal precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Marlene; Runge, Jakob; Coumou, Dim

    2017-08-01

    Variability in the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) can influence the tropospheric circulation and thereby winter weather. Early predictions of extreme SPV states are thus important to improve forecasts of winter weather including cold spells. However, dynamical models are usually restricted in lead time because they poorly capture low-frequency processes. Empirical models often suffer from overfitting problems as the relevant physical processes and time lags are often not well understood. Here we introduce a novel empirical prediction method by uniting a response-guided community detection scheme with a causal discovery algorithm. This way, we objectively identify causal precursors of the SPV at subseasonal lead times and find them to be in good agreement with known physical drivers. A linear regression prediction model based on the causal precursors can explain most SPV variability (r2 = 0.58), and our scheme correctly predicts 58% (46%) of extremely weak SPV states for lead times of 1-15 (16-30) days with false-alarm rates of only approximately 5%. Our method can be applied to any variable relevant for (sub)seasonal weather forecasts and could thus help improving long-lead predictions.

  19. Generation of polarization vortex beams by segmented quarter-wave plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingtao Xin; Xiaoping Lou; Zhehai Zhou; Mingli Dong; Lianqing Zhu

    2016-01-01

    A spatially variable retardation device,an SQWP,is designed to generate polarization vortex beams.The transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian beams by the SQWP is further studied,and it is found that the SQWPs can also be used to generate helical beams and measure the topological charges of helical beams.

  20. Correlations of mesospheric winds with subtle motion of the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between high latitude upper mesospheric winds and the state of the stratospheric polar vortex in the absence of major sudden stratospheric warmings. A ground based Michelson Interferometer stationed at Resolute Bay (74°43' N, 94°58' W in the Canadian High Arctic is used to measure mesopause region neutral winds using the hydroxyl (OH Meinel-band airglow emission (central altitude of ~85 km. These observed winds are compared to analysis winds in the upper stratosphere during November and December of 1995 and 1996; years characterized as cold, stable polar vortex periods. Correlation of mesopause wind speeds with those from the upper stratosphere is found to be significant for the 1996 season when the polar vortex is subtly displaced off its initial location by a strong Aleutian High. These mesopause winds are observed to lead stratospheric winds by approximately two days with increasing (decreasing mesospheric winds predictive of decreasing (increasing stratospheric winds. No statistically significant correlations are found for the 1995 season when there is no such displacement of the polar vortex.

  1. Correlations of mesospheric winds with subtle motion of the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhattacharya

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between high latitude upper mesospheric winds and the state of the stratospheric polar vortex in the absence of major sudden stratospheric warmings. A ground based Michelson Interferometer stationed at Resolute Bay (74°43´ N, 94°58´ W in the Canadian High Arctic is used to measure mesopause region neutral winds using the hydroxyl (OH Meinel-band airglow emission (central altitude of ~85 km. These observed winds are compared to analysis winds in the upper stratosphere during November and December of 1995 and 1996; years characterized as cold, stable polar vortex periods. Correlation of mesopause wind speeds with those from the upper stratosphere is found to be significant for the 1996 season when the polar vortex is subtly displaced off its initial location by a strong Aleutian High. These mesopause winds are observed to lead stratospheric winds by approximately two days with increasing (decreasing mesospheric winds predictive of decreasing (increasing stratospheric winds. No statistically significant correlations are found for the 1995 season when there is no such displacement of the polar vortex.

  2. The Interaction Between Dynamics and Chemistry of Ozone in the Set-up Phase of the Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Margitan, J. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Hoppel, K.; Sen, B.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The morphology and evolution of the stratospheric ozone (O3) distribution at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) are examined for the late summer and fall seasons of 1999. This time period sets the O3 initial condition for the SOLVE/THESEO field mission performed during winter 1999-2000. In situ and satellite data are used along with a three-dimensional model of chemistry and transport (CTM) to determine the key processes that control the distribution of O3 in the lower-to-middle stratosphere. O3 in the vortex at the beginning of the winter season is found to be nearly constant from 500 to above 800 K with a value at 3 ppmv +/- approx. 10%. Values outside the vortex are up to a factor of 2 higher and increase significantly with potential temperature. The seasonal time series of data from POAM shows that relatively low O3 mixing ratios, which characterize the vortex in late fall, are already present at high latitudes at the end of summer before the vortex circulation sets up. Analysis of the CTM output shows that the minimum O3 and increase in variance in late summer are the result of: 1) stirring of polar concentric O3 gradients by nascent wave-driven transport, and 2) an acceleration of net photochemical loss with decreasing solar illumination. The segregation of low O3 mixing ratios into the vortex as the circulation strengthens through the fall suggests a possible feedback role between O3 chemistry and the vortex formation dynamics. Trajectory calculations from O3 sample points early in the fall, however, show only a weak correlation between initial O3 mixing ratio and potential vorticity later in the season consistent with order-of-magnitude calculations for the relative importance of O3 in the fall radiative balance at high latitudes. The possible connection between O3 chemistry and the dynamics of vortex formation does suggest that these feedbacks and sensitivities need to be better understood in order to make confident predictions of the recovery

  3. Analysis of the mechanism underlying Tibetan Plateau vortex frequency difference between strong and weak MJO periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Zhao, Fuhu

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the NCEP/DOE reanalysis data, OLR data from NOAA, Australian Meteorological Bureau real-time multivariate MJO index, and Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) statistical data from the Chengdu Institute of Plateau Meteorology, are used to discuss the modulation of the TPV by the MJO, through applying the wavelet analysis and composite analysis. The results show that: (1) The MJO plays an important role in modulating the TPV, as the number of TPVs generated in strong MJO periods is three times that in weak periods. (2) During strong (weak) MJO periods, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is in control of a low-frequency, low-pressure cyclone (high-pressure, anticyclone) system, and thus the atmospheric circulation conditions over the plateau are conducive (inconducive) to the generation of TPVs. (3) During strong (weak) MJO periods, southerly (northerly) winds prevail in the east of the TP, while northerly (southerly) winds in the west. Over the northern part of the TP, easterly (westerly) flow is predominant, while westerly (easterly) flow prevails over the south, thus conducive (inconducive) to the formation of cyclonic circulation (i.e., TPVs) at low altitude over the TP. (4) In strong MJO periods, water vapor is relatively less abundant over most of the TP, inconducive to the generation of TPVs; however, moisture transported by the south branch trough and the low-frequency, high-pressure anticyclone system from the Bay of Bengal, are very important for the development of TPVs. As the strength of the MJO changes continuously during its eastward propagation, the intensity of tropical convection and vertical circulation structures of the tropical atmosphere also change accordingly. Alternation between favorable and unfavorable conditions for the generation of TPVs occurs, thus resulting in significant frequency differences of TPVs between strong and weak MJO periods.

  4. Polarization-selective vortex-core switching by tailored orthogonal Gaussian-pulse currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Young-Sang; Lee, Ki-Suk; Jung, Hyunsung; Choi, Youn-Seok; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Han, Dong-Soo; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2011-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate low-power-consumption vortex-core switching in magnetic nanodisks using tailored rotating magnetic fields produced with orthogonal and unipolar Gaussian-pulse currents. The optimal width of the orthogonal pulses and their time delay are found, from analytical and micromagnetic numerical calculations, to be determined only by the angular eigenfrequency ωD for a given vortex-state disk of polarization p, such that σ=1/ωD and Δt=π/2p/ωD. The estimated optimal pulse parameters are in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, this work lays a foundation for energy-efficient information recording in vortex-core cross-point architecture.

  5. A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wohltmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative analysis of the chemical reactions involved in polar ozone depletion in the stratosphere and of the relevant reaction pathways and cycles. While the reactions involved in polar ozone depletion are well known, quantitative estimates of the importance of individual reactions or reaction cycles are rare. In particular, there is no comprehensive and quantitative study of the reaction rates and cycles averaged over the polar vortex under conditions of heterogeneous chemistry so far. We show time series of reaction rates averaged over the core of the polar vortex in winter and spring for all relevant reactions and indicate which reaction pathways and cycles are responsible for the vortex-averaged net change of the key species involved in ozone depletion, i.e., ozone, chlorine species (ClOx, HCl, ClONO2, bromine species, nitrogen species (HNO3, NOx and hydrogen species (HOx. For clarity, we focus on one Arctic winter (2004–2005 and one Antarctic winter (2006 in a layer in the lower stratosphere around 54 hPa and show results for additional pressure levels and winters in the Supplement. Mixing ratios and reaction rates are obtained from runs of the ATLAS Lagrangian chemistry and transport model (CTM driven by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data. An emphasis is put on the partitioning of the relevant chemical families (nitrogen, hydrogen, chlorine, bromine and odd oxygen and activation and deactivation of chlorine.

  6. Polar night vortex breakdown and large-scale stirring in the southern stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Alvaro de la [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geofisica y Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mechoso, C.R. [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ide, K. [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, Collage Park, MD (United States); Walterscheid, R. [The Aerospace Corporation, Space Sciences Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schubert, G. [University of California, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The present paper examines the vortex breakdown and large-scale stirring during the final warming of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during the spring of 2005. A unique set of in situ observations collected by 27 superpressure balloons (SPBs) is used. The balloons, which were launched from McMurdo, Antarctica, by the Strateole/VORCORE project, drifted for several weeks on two different isopycnic levels in the lower stratosphere. We describe balloon trajectories and compare them with simulations obtained on the basis of the velocity field from the GEOS-5 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses performed with and without VORCORE data. To gain insight on the mechanisms responsible for the horizontal transport of air inside and outside the well-isolated vortex we examine the balloon trajectories in the framework of the Lagrangian properties of the stratospheric flow. Coherent structures of the flow are visualized by computing finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). A combination of isentropic analysis and FTLE distributions reveals that air is stripped away from the vortex's interior as stable manifolds eventually cross the vortex's edge. It is shown that two SPBs escaped from the vortex within high potential vorticity tongues that developed in association with wave breaking at locations along the vortex's edge where forward and backward FTLE maxima approximately intersect. The trajectories of three SPBs flying as a group at the same isopycnic level are examined and their behavior is interpreted in reference to the FTLE field. These results support the concept of stable and unstable manifolds governing transport of air masses across the periphery of the stratospheric polar vortex. (orig.)

  7. The Role o f Stationary and Transient Planetary Waves in the Maintenance of Stratospheric Polar Vortex Regimes in Northern Hemisphere Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; Hans-F. GRAF; CUI Xuefeng

    2011-01-01

    Using 1958-2002 NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, we investigate stationary and transient planetary wave propagation and its role in wave-mean flow interaction which influences the state of the polar vortex (PV)in the stratosphere in Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter. This is done by analyzing the Eliassen-Palm (E-P) flux and its divergence. We find that the stationary and transient waves propagate upward and equatorward in NH winter, with stronger upward propagation of stationary waves from the troposphere to the stratosphere, and stronger equatorward propagation of transient waves from mid-latitudes to the subtropics in the troposphere. Stationary waves exhibit more upward propagation in the polar stratosphere during the weak polar vortex regime (WVR) than during the strong polar vortex regime (SVR). On the other hand, transient waves have more upward propagation during SVR than during WVR in the subpolar stratosphere, with a domain of low frequency waves. With different paths of upward propagation, both stationary and transient waves contribute to the maintenance of the observed stratospheric PV regimes in NH winter.

  8. Interannual Variability of the Winter Stratospheric Polar Vortex in the Northern Hemisphere and Their Relations to QBO and ENSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen; WEI Ke

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the interannual variations of the winter stratospheric polar vortex in this paper.EOF analysis shows that two modes of variability dominate the stratospheric polar vortex on interannual timescales.The leading mode (EOF1) reflects the intensity variation of the polar vortex and is characterized by a geopotential height seesaw between the polar region and the mid-latitudes.The second one (EOF2) exhibits variation in the zonal asymmetric part of the polar vortex,which mainly describes the stationary planetary wave activity.As the strongest interannual variation signal in the atmosphere,the QBO has been shown to influence mainly the strength of the polar vortex.On the other hand,the ENSO cycle,as the strongest interannual variation signal in the ocean,has been shown to be mainly associated with the variation of stationary planetary wave activity in the stratosphere.Possible influences of the stratospheric polar vortex on the tropospheric circulation are also discussed in this paper.

  9. Electrical measurement of magnetic-field-impeded polarity switching of a ferromagnetic vortex core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushruth, Manu; Fried, Jasper P.; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Xavier, Stephane; Deranlot, Cyril; Kostylev, Mikhail; Cros, Vincent; Metaxas, Peter J.

    2016-09-01

    Vortex core polarity switching in NiFe disks has been evidenced using an all-electrical magnetoresistive rectification scheme. Simulation and experiments yield a consistent rectified signal loss when driving core gyration at high powers. With increasing power, the frequency range over which the loss occurs grows and the resonance downshifts in frequency, consistent with nonlinear core dynamics and periodic core polarity switching induced by the core reaching its critical velocity. Core-polarity-dependent rectification signals enable an independent verification of the switched core polarity. We also demonstrate the ability to impede core polarity switching by displacing the core towards the disk's edge where an increased core stiffness reduces the core velocity.

  10. Spatial variation of ozone depletion rates in the springtime Antarctic polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk L.; Allen, Mark; Crisp, David; Zurek, Richard W.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1990-01-01

    An area-mapping technique, designed to filter out synoptic perturbations of the Antarctic polar vortex such as distortion or displacement away from the pole, was applied to the Nimbus-7 TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data. This procedure reveals the detailed morphology of the temporal evolution of column O3. The results for the austral spring of 1987 suggest the existence of a relatively stable collar region enclosing an interior that is undergoing large variations. A simplified photochemical model of O3 loss and the temporal evolution of the area-mapped polar O3 are used to constrain the chlorine monoxide (ClO) concentrations in the springtime Antarctic vortex. The O3 loss rates could be larger than deduced here because of underestimates of total O3 by TOMS near the terminator.

  11. Dependence of model-simulated response to ozone depletion on stratospheric polar vortex climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pu; Paynter, David; Polvani, Lorenzo; Correa, Gustavo J. P.; Ming, Yi; Ramaswamy, V.

    2017-06-01

    We contrast the responses to ozone depletion in two climate models: Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3) and Geophysical Fuild Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) AM3. Although both models are forced with identical ozone concentration changes, the stratospheric cooling simulated in CAM3 is 30% stronger than in AM3 in annual mean, and twice as strong in December. We find that this difference originates from the dynamical response to ozone depletion, and its strength can be linked to the timing of the climatological springtime polar vortex breakdown. This mechanism is further supported by a variant of the AM3 simulation in which the southern stratospheric zonal wind climatology is nudged to be CAM3-like. Given that the delayed breakdown of the southern polar vortex is a common bias among many climate models, previous model-based assessments of the forced responses to ozone depletion may have been somewhat overestimated.

  12. Large amplitude spin torque vortex oscillations at zero external field using a perpendicular spin polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussaux, A.; Rache Salles, B.; Jenkins, A. S.; Bortolotti, P.; Grollier, J.; Cros, V.; Fert, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Université Paris Sud 11, 1 Ave. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Grimaldi, E., E-mail: eva.grimaldi@thalesgroup.com [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Université Paris Sud 11, 1 Ave. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); CNES, 1 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Khvalkovskiy, A. V. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Université Paris Sud 11, 1 Ave. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, Vavilova Str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kubota, H.; Fukushima, A.; Yakushiji, K.; Yuasa, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2014-07-14

    We investigate the microwave response of a spin transfer vortex based oscillator in a magnetic tunnel junction with an in-plane reference layer combined with a spin valve with an out-of-plane magnetization spin polarizing layer. The main advantage of this perpendicular spin polarizer is to induce a large spin transfer force even at zero magnetic field, thus leading to a record emitted power (up to 0.6 μW) associated to a very narrow spectral linewidth of a few hundreds of kHz. The characteristics of this hybrid vortex based spin transfer nano-oscillator obtained at zero field and room temperature are of great importance for applications based on rf spintronic devices as integrated and tunable microwave source and/or microwave detector.

  13. Tightly Focusing of Circularly Polarized Vortex Beams through a Uniaxial Birefringent Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Lian-Zhou; WANG Zong-Chi; ZHENG Xiao-Xia

    2008-01-01

    Under the approximation of small birefringence, the properties of circalarly polarized vortex beams tightly focused through a uniaxial birefringent crystal are studied. With the proper combination of the topological charge and the birefringence, the small focus, the small bottle beam and the inverse c-shaped intensity profile can be obtained.The effects of the focal shift and the Strehl ratio on the birefringence are analysed. A relation between angular momentum (included spin and orbital) and topological Pancharatnam charge is also presented.

  14. Using FTIR measurements of stratospheric composition to identify midlatitude polar vortex intrusions over Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, C.; Strong, K.; Adams, C.; Bourassa, A. E.; Daffer, W. H.; Degenstein, D. A.; Fast, H.; Fogal, P. F.; Manney, G. L.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Pavlovic, B.; Wiacek, A.

    2013-11-01

    Using 11 years of trace gas measurements made at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (43.66°N, 79.40°W) and Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (44.23°N, 79.78°W), along with derived meteorological products, we identify a number of polar intrusion events, which are excursions of the polar vortex or filaments from the polar vortex extending down to midlatitudes. These events are characterized by enhanced stratospheric columns (12-50 km) of hydrogen fluoride (HF), by diminished stratospheric columns of nitrous oxide (N2O), and by a scaled potential vorticity above 1.2 × 10-4s-1. The events comprise 16%of winter/spring (November to April inclusive) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements from January 2002 to March 2013, and we find at least two events per year. The events are corroborated by Modèle Isentrope du transport Méso-échelle de l'Ozone Stratosphérique par Advection, Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications potential vorticity maps, and Global Modeling Initiative N2O maps. During polar intrusion events, the stratospheric ozone (O3) columns over Toronto are usually greater than when there is no event. Our O3 measurements agree with the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System satellite instrument and are further verified with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite observations. We find six cases out of 53 for which chemical O3depletion within the polar vortex led to a reduction in stratospheric O3 columns over Toronto. We have thus identified a dynamical cause for most of the winter/spring variability of stratospheric trace gas columns observed at our midlatitude site. While there have been a number of prior polar intrusion studies, this is the first study to report in the context of 11 years of ground-based FTIR column measurements, providing insight into the frequency of midlatitude polar vortex intrusions

  15. Effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on the magnetic vortex oscillator driven by spin-polarized current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Senfu; Zhu, Qiyuan; Liu, Xianyin; Jin, Chendong; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang, E-mail: liuqf@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-05-07

    By micromagnetic simulation, we investigated the dynamic of magnetic vortex driven by spin-polarized current in Permalloy nanodisks in the presence of interfacial/superficial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMI). It is found that spin-polarized current can drive the vortex precession. In the presence of DMI, the oscillation frequency of the vortex is about 3 times higher than that of without DMI for the same nanodisk. Moreover, the linewidth is more narrow than that of without DMI when the radius of nanodisk is 50 nm. In addition, the vortex can support a higher current density than that of without DMI. Introduction of DMI in this system can provide a new way to design magnetic vortex oscillator.

  16. The magnetic vortex gyration mediated by spin-polarized current in a confined off-centered nanocontact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Li, Dongfei; Wang, Yaxin; Hua, Zhong

    2017-02-01

    We study the magnetic vortex dynamical behaviors in a confined off-centered nanocontact system through micromagnetic simulations. It is found that the vortex core could be pinned when the nanocontact is shifted to large enough distance from the center of the nanodisk. We also find that the position of nanocontact exerts great influence on the vortex core gyration, including trajectory, eigenfrequency, excitation time, and instantaneous velocity. The simulations show that it is possible to utilize the nanocontact position to change the total effective potential energy of the system so as to realize both the pinning of the vortex core and the controllability of vortex core gyration. The characteristic gyration in this system is advantageous to control the polarity switching and other dynamical behaviors of magnetic vortex.

  17. Dual-polarization and dual-mode orbital angular momentum radio vortex beam generated by using reflective metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shixing; Li, Long; Shi, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    A metasurface, which is composed of printed cross-dipole elements with different arm lengths, is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves of dual polarizations and dual modes in the radio frequency domain simultaneously. The prototype of a practical metasurface is fabricated and measured to validate the results of theoretical analysis and design at 5.8 GHz. Numerical and experimental results verify that vortex waves with dual OAM modes and dual polarizations can be flexibly generated by using a reflective metasurface. The proposed method paves a way to generate diverse OAM vortex waves for radio frequency and microwave wireless communication applications.

  18. Generation of Vortex Beams with Strong Longitudinally Polarized Magnetic Field by Using a Metasurface

    CERN Document Server

    Veysi, Mehdi; Capolino, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of generation and synthesis of azimuthally E-polarized vortex beams is presented. Along the axis of propagation such beams have a strong longitudinally polarized magnetic field where ideally there is no electric field. We show how these beams can be constructed through the interference of Laguerre-Gaussian beams carrying orbital angular momentum. As an example, we present a metasurface made of double-split ring slot pairs and report a good agreement between simulated and analytical results. Both a high magnetic-to-electric-field contrast ratio and a magnetic field enhancement are achieved. We also investigate the metasurface physical constraints to convert a linearly polarized beam into an azimuthally E- polarized beam and characterize the performance of magnetic field enhancement and electric field suppression of a realistic metasurface. These findings are potentially useful for novel optical spectroscopy related to magnetic dipolar transitions and for optical manipulation of particles with sp...

  19. Three-dimensional thermal structure of the South Polar Vortex of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Garate-Lopez, Itziar; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We have analyzed thermal infrared images provided by the VIRTIS-M instrument aboard Venus Express (VEX) to obtain high resolution thermal maps of the Venus south polar region between 55 and 85 km altitudes. The maps investigate three different dynamical configurations of the polar vortex including its classical dipolar shape, a regularly oval shape and a transition shape between the different configurations of the vortex. We apply the atmospheric model described by García Muñoz et al. (2013) and a variant of the retrieval algorithm detailed in Grassi et al. (2008) to obtain maps of temperature over the Venus south polar region in the quoted altitude range. These maps are discussed in terms of cloud motions and relative vorticity distribution obtained previously (Garate-Lopez et al. 2013). Temperature maps retrieved at 55 - 63 km show the same structures that are observed in the ~5 µm radiance images. This altitude range coincides with the optimal expected values of the cloud top altitude at polar latitudes and magnitudes derived from the analysis of ~5 µm images are measured at this altitude range. We also study the imprint of the vortex on the thermal field above the cloud level which extends up to 80 km. From the temperature maps, we also study the vertical stability of different atmospheric layers. The cold collar is clearly the most statically stable structure at polar latitudes, while the vortex and subpolar latitudes show lower stability values. Furthermore, the hot filaments present within the vortex at 55-63 km exhibit lower values of static stability than their immediate surroundings.ReferencesGarate-Lopez et al. Nat. Geosci. 6, 254-257 (2013).García Muñoz et al. Planet. Space Sci. 81, 65-73 (2013).Grassi, D. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 113, 1-12 (2008).AcknowledgementsWe thank ESA for supporting Venus Express, ASI, CNES and the other national space agencies supporting VIRTIS on VEX and their principal investigators G. Piccioni and P. Drossart. This work

  20. Polarization dependent nanostructuring of silicon with femtosecond vortex pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, M. G.; Bouchard, F.; Al-Khazraji, H.; Karimi, E.; Corkum, P. B.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2017-08-01

    We fabricated conical nanostructures on silicon with a tip dimension of ˜ 70 nm using a single twisted femtosecond light pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (ℓ =±1 ). The height of the nano-cone, encircled by a smooth rim, increased from ˜ 350 nm to ˜ 1 μ m with the pulse energy and number of pulses, whereas the apex angle remained constant. The nano-cone height was independent of the helicity of the twisted light; however, it is reduced for linear polarization compared to circular at higher pulse energies. Fluid dynamics simulations show nano-cones formation when compressive forces arising from the radial inward motion of the molten material push it perpendicular to the surface and undergo re-solidification. Simultaneously, the radial outward motion of the molten material re-solidifies after reaching the cold boundary to form a rim. Overlapping of two irradiated spots conforms to the fluid dynamics model.

  1. Polarization dependent nanostructuring of silicon with femtosecond vortex pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Rahimian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated conical nanostructures on silicon with a tip dimension of ∼ 70 nm using a single twisted femtosecond light pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (ℓ=±1. The height of the nano-cone, encircled by a smooth rim, increased from ∼ 350 nm to ∼ 1 μm with the pulse energy and number of pulses, whereas the apex angle remained constant. The nano-cone height was independent of the helicity of the twisted light; however, it is reduced for linear polarization compared to circular at higher pulse energies. Fluid dynamics simulations show nano-cones formation when compressive forces arising from the radial inward motion of the molten material push it perpendicular to the surface and undergo re-solidification. Simultaneously, the radial outward motion of the molten material re-solidifies after reaching the cold boundary to form a rim. Overlapping of two irradiated spots conforms to the fluid dynamics model.

  2. The use of weak magnetic fields in collisions of polarized atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Zeegers, Th.; Pelgrim, T.J.C.; Heideman, H.G.M.; Morgenstern, R.

    1989-01-01

    We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the behavior of excited Na atoms under the combined influence of resonant laser light and a weak magnetic field. The use of weak magnetic fields gives another possibility to vary the polarization of the atoms, additional to variation of the polar

  3. Weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex by Arctic sea-ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baek-Min; Son, Seok-Woo; Min, Seung-Ki; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Joong; Zhang, Xiangdong; Shim, Taehyoun; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-09-02

    Successive cold winters of severely low temperatures in recent years have had critical social and economic impacts on the mid-latitude continents in the Northern Hemisphere. Although these cold winters are thought to be partly driven by dramatic losses of Arctic sea-ice, the mechanism that links sea-ice loss to cold winters remains a subject of debate. Here, by conducting observational analyses and model experiments, we show how Arctic sea-ice loss and cold winters in extra-polar regions are dynamically connected through the polar stratosphere. We find that decreased sea-ice cover during early winter months (November-December), especially over the Barents-Kara seas, enhances the upward propagation of planetary-scale waves with wavenumbers of 1 and 2, subsequently weakening the stratospheric polar vortex in mid-winter (January-February). The weakened polar vortex preferentially induces a negative phase of Arctic Oscillation at the surface, resulting in low temperatures in mid-latitudes.

  4. A quasi-Lagrangian coordinate system based on high resolution tracer observations: implementation for the Antarctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ivanova

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantitatively analyse the chemical and dynamical evolution of the polar vortex it has proven extremely useful to work with coordinate systems that follow the vortex flow. We propose here a two-dimensional quasi-Lagrangian coordinate system {χi, Δχi}, based on the mixing ratio of a long-lived stratospheric trace gas i, and its systematic use with i = N2O, in order to describe the structure of a well-developed Antarctic polar vortex. In the coordinate system {χi, Δχi} the mixing ratio χi is the vertical coordinate and Δχi = χi(Θ−χivort(Θ is the meridional coordinate (χivort(Θ being a vertical reference profile in the vortex core. The quasi-Lagrangian coordinates {χi, Δχi} persist for much longer time than standard isentropic coordinates, potential temperature Θ and equivalent latitude φe, do not require explicit reference to geographic space, and can be derived directly from high-resolution in situ measurements. They are therefore well-suited for studying the evolution of the Antarctic polar vortex throughout the polar winter with respect to the relevant chemical and microphysical processes. By using the introduced coordinate system {χN2O, ΔχN2O} we analyze the well-developed Antarctic vortex investigated during the APE-GAIA (Airborne Polar Experiment – Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica – 1999 campaign (Carli et al., 2000. A criterion, which uses the local in-situ measurements of χi=χi(Θ and attributes the inner vortex edge to a rapid change (δ-step in the

  5. A quasi-Lagrangian coordinate system based on high resolution tracer observations: implementation for the Antarctic polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Volk, C. M.; Riediger, O.; Klein, H.; Sitnikov, N. M.; Ulanovskii, A. E.; Yushkov, V. A.; Ravegnani, F.; Möbius, T.; Schmidt, U.

    2008-08-01

    In order to quantitatively analyse the chemical and dynamical evolution of the polar vortex it has proven extremely useful to work with coordinate systems that follow the vortex flow. We propose here a two-dimensional quasi-Lagrangian coordinate system {χi, Δχi}, based on the mixing ratio of a long-lived stratospheric trace gas i, and its systematic use with i = N2O, in order to describe the structure of a well-developed Antarctic polar vortex. In the coordinate system {χi, Δχi} the mixing ratio χi is the vertical coordinate and Δχi = χi(Θ)-χivort(Θ) is the meridional coordinate (χivort(Θ) being a vertical reference profile in the vortex core). The quasi-Lagrangian coordinates {χi, Δχi} persist for much longer time than standard isentropic coordinates, potential temperature Θ and equivalent latitude φe, do not require explicit reference to geographic space, and can be derived directly from high-resolution in situ measurements. They are therefore well-suited for studying the evolution of the Antarctic polar vortex throughout the polar winter with respect to the relevant chemical and microphysical processes. By using the introduced coordinate system {χN2O, ΔχN2O} we analyze the well-developed Antarctic vortex investigated during the APE-GAIA (Airborne Polar Experiment - Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica - 1999) campaign (Carli et al., 2000). A criterion, which uses the local in-situ measurements of χi=χi(Θ) and attributes the inner vortex edge to a rapid change (δ-step) in the meridional profile of the mixing ratio χi, is developed to determine the (Antarctic) inner vortex edge. In turn, we suggest that the outer vortex edge of a well-developed Antarctic vortex can be attributed to the position of a local minimum of the χH2O gradient in the polar vortex area. For a well-developed Antarctic vortex, the ΔχN2O-parametrization of tracer-tracer relationships allows to distinguish the tracer inter-relationships in the vortex core, vortex

  6. The influence of tropical Indian Ocean warming on the Southern Hemispheric stratospheric polar vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    During the past decades, concurrent with global warming, most of global oceans, particularly the tropical Indian Ocean, have become warmer. Meanwhile, the Southern Hemispheric stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) exhibits a deepening trend. Although previous modeling studies reveal that radiative cooling effect of ozone depletion plays a dominant role in causing the deepening of SPV, the simulated ozone-depletion-induced SPV deepening is stronger than the observed. This suggests that there must be other factors canceling a fraction of the influence of the ozone depletion. Whether the tropical Indian Ocean warming (IOW) is such a factor is unclear. This issue is addressed by conducting ensemble atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments. And one idealized IOW with the amplitude as the observed is prescribed to force four AGCMs. The results show that the IOW tends to warm the southern polar stratosphere, and thus weakens SPV in austral spring to summer. Hence, it offsets a fraction of the effect of the ozone depletion. This implies that global warming will favor ozone recovery, since a warmer southern polar stratosphere is un-beneficial for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), which is a key factor to ozone depletion chemical reactions.

  7. The influence of tropical Indian Ocean warming on the Southern Hemispheric stratospheric polar vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ShuangLin

    2009-01-01

    During the past decades,concurrent with global warming,most of global oceans,particularly the tropical Indian Ocean,have become warmer.Meanwhile,the Southern Hemispheric stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) exhibits a deepening trend.Although previous modeling studies reveal that radiative cooling effect of ozone depletion plays a dominant role in causing the deepening of SPV,the simulated ozone-depletion-induced SPV deepening is stronger than the observed.This suggests that there must be other factors canceling a fraction of the influence of the ozone depletion.Whether the tropical Indian Ocean warming (IOW) is such a factor is unclear.This issue is addressed by conducting ensemble atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments.And one idealized IOW with the amplitude as the observed is prescribed to force four AGCMs.The results show that the IOW tends to warm the southern polar stratosphere,and thus weakens SPV in austral spring to summer.Hence,it offsets a fraction of the effect of the ozone depletion.This implies that global warming will favor ozone recovery,since a warmer southern polar stratosphere is un-beneficial for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs),which is a key factor to ozone depletion chemical reactions.

  8. Visualizing Spacetime Curvature via Frame-Drag Vortexes and Tidal Tendexes I. General Theory and Weak-Gravity Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nichols, David A; Zhang, Fan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Brink, Jeandrew; Chen, Yanbei; Kaplan, Jeffrey D; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Matthews, Keith D; Scheel, Mark A; Thorne, Kip S

    2011-01-01

    When one splits spacetime into space plus time, the Weyl curvature tensor (vacuum Riemann tensor) gets split into two spatial, symmetric, and trace-free (STF) tensors: (i) the Weyl tensor's so-called "electric" part or tidal field, and (ii) the Weyl tensor's so-called "magnetic" part or frame-drag field. Being STF, the tidal field and frame-drag field each have three orthogonal eigenvector fields which can be depicted by their integral curves. We call the integral curves of the tidal field's eigenvectors tendex lines, we call each tendex line's eigenvalue its tendicity, and we give the name tendex to a collection of tendex lines with large tendicity. The analogous quantities for the frame-drag field are vortex lines, their vorticities, and vortexes. We build up physical intuition into these concepts by applying them to a variety of weak-gravity phenomena: a spinning, gravitating point particle, two such particles side by side, a plane gravitational wave, a point particle with a dynamical current-quadrupole mo...

  9. Spinning and orbiting motion of particles in vortex beams with circular or radial polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Focusing fields of optical vortex (OV) beams with circular or radial polarizations carry both spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM), and can realize non-axial spinning and orbiting motion of absorptive particles. Using the T-matrix method, we evaluate the optical forces and torques exerted on micro-sized particles induced by the OV beams. Numerical results demonstrate that the particle is trapped on the circle of intensity maxima, and experiences a transverse spin torque along azimuthal direction, a longitudinal spin torque, and an orbital torque, respectively. The direction of spinning motion is not only related to the sign of topological charge of the OV beam, but also to the polarization state. However, the topological charge controls the direction of orbiting motion individually. Optically induced rotations of particles with varying sizes and absorptivity are investigated in OV beams with different topological charges and polarization states. These results may be exploited in practical optical manipulation, especially for optically induced rotations of micro-particles.

  10. Vortex Properties of Nanosized Superconducting Strips with One Central Weak Link Under an Applied Current Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Cai, Chuanbing

    2016-06-01

    The static and dynamic properties of vortices in a nanosized superconducting strip with one central weak link (weakly superconducting region or normal metal) are investigated in the presence of external magnetic and electric fields. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations are used to describe the electronic transport and have been solved numerically by a finite element analysis. Anisotropy is included through the spatially dependent anisotropy coefficient ζ in different layers of the sample. Our results show that the energy barrier for vortices to enter a weak link is smaller than that for vortices to enter the superconducting layers. The magnetization shows periodic oscillations. With the introduction of the weak link, the period of oscillations decreases.

  11. Vortex polarity in 2-D magnetic dots by Langevin dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depondt, Ph., E-mail: depondt@insp.jussieu.f [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7588 CNRS, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Levy, J.-C.S., E-mail: jean-claude.levy@univ-paris-diderot.f [Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, Universite Denis Diderot, UMR 7162 CNRS, 75013 Paris (France); Mertens, F.G., E-mail: franz.mertens@uni-bayreuth.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-01-17

    Two-dimensional magnetic plots of finite size were simulated by integrating the Landau-Lifshitz equation for the isotropic Heisenberg model with a systematic exploration of the effect of dipole-dipole interactions of various strengths d, at a low temperature. Structures with or without vortices are observed, and in the cases in which vortices are present, out-of-plane contributions show only for relatively weak dipolar strengths: the integrated intensity of the out-of-plane component decreases roughly as 1/d with increasing dipolar strength while the vortex core width decreases as d{sup -1/2}. The coexistence of several vortices with an out-of-plane component seems limited to a narrow d-range, at least for the sample sizes studied. The size limit below which the vortices disappear decreases roughly as 1/d.

  12. Can Surface Flux Transport Account for the Weak Polar Field in Cycle 23?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Cameron, Robert H.; Schmitt, Dieter; Schüssler, Manfred

    2013-06-01

    To reproduce the weak magnetic field on the polar caps of the Sun observed during the declining phase of cycle 23 poses a challenge to surface flux transport models since this cycle has not been particularly weak. We use a well-calibrated model to evaluate the parameter changes required to obtain simulated polar fields and open flux that are consistent with the observations. We find that the low polar field of cycle 23 could be reproduced by an increase of the meridional flow by 55% in the last cycle. Alternatively, a decrease of the mean tilt angle of sunspot groups by 28% would also lead to a similarly low polar field, but cause a delay of the polar field reversals by 1.5 years in comparison to the observations.

  13. Can surface flux transport account for the weak polar field in cycle 23?

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jie; Schmitt, Dieter; Schuessler, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    To reproduce the weak magnetic field on the polar caps of the Sun observed during the declining phase of cycle 23 poses a challenge to surface flux transport models since this cycle has not been particularly weak. We use a well-calibrated model to evaluate the parameter changes required to obtain simulated polar fields and open flux that are consistent with the observations. We find that the low polar field of cycle 23 could be reproduced by an increase of the meridional flow by 55% in the last cycle. Alternatively, a decrease of the mean tilt angle of sunspot groups by 28% would also lead to a similarly low polar field, but cause a delay of the polar field reversals by 1.5 years in comparison to the observations.

  14. Heterogeneous chlorine activation on stratospheric aerosols and clouds in the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wegner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorine activation in the Arctic is investigated by examining different parameterizations for uptake coefficients on stratospheric aerosols, high-resolution in-situ measurements and vortex-wide satellite observations. The parameterizations for heterogeneous chemistry on liquid aerosols are most sensitive to temperature with the reaction rates doubling for every 1 K increase in temperature. However, differences between the currently available parameterizations are negligible. For Nitric Acid Trihydrate particles (NAT the major factors of uncertainty are the number density of nucleated particles and different parameterizations for heterogeneous chemistry. These two factors induce an uncertainty that covers several orders of magnitude on the reaction rate. Nonetheless, since predicted reaction rates on liquid aerosols always exceed those on NAT, the overall uncertainty for chlorine activation is small. In-situ observations of ClOx from Arctic winters in 2005 and 2010 are used to evaluate the heterogeneous chemistry parameterizations. The conditions for these measurements proved to be very different between those two winters with HCl being the limiting reacting partner for the 2005 measurements and ClONO2 for the 2010 measurements. Modeled levels of chlorine activation are in very good agreement with the in-situ observations and the surface area provided by Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs has only a limited impact on modeled chlorine activation. This indicates that the parameterizations give a good representation of the processes in the atmosphere. Back-trajectories started on the location of the observations in 2005 indicate temperatures on the threshold for PSC formation, hence the surface area is mainly provided by the background aerosol. Still, the model shows additional chlorine activation during this time-frame, providing cautionary evidence for chlorine activation even in the absence of PSCs. Vortex-averaged satellite

  15. Current driven transition from Abrikosov-Josephson to Josephson-like vortex in mesoscopic lateral S/S’/S superconducting weak links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Barone, C.; Pagano, S.; Gombos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S’/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S’. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S’ region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage. Our numerical simulations show that when a slow moving Abrikosov-Josephson vortex is driven by a strong constant current it becomes unstable with respect to a faster moving excitation: the Josephon-like vortex. Such a current-driven transition explains the structured dissipative branches that we observe in the voltage-current curve of the weak link. When vortex matter is strongly confined phenomena as magnetoresistance oscillations and reentrance of superconductivity can possibly occur. We experimentally observe these phenomena in our weak links. PMID:27752137

  16. Analysis of a Group of Weak Small-Scale Vortexes in the Planetary Boundary Layer in the Mei-yu Front

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Guoqing; ZHOU Lingli; WANG Zhi

    2007-01-01

    A mei-yu front process in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River on 23 June 1999 was simulated by using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-NCAR (PSU/NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) with FDDA (Four Dimension Data Assimilation). The analysis shows that seven weak small mesoscale vortexes of tens of kilometers, correspondent to surface low trough or mesoscale centers, in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the mei-yu front were heavily responsible for the heavy rainfall. Sometimes, several weak smallscale vortexes in the PBL could form a vortex group, some of which would weaken locally, and some would develop to be a meso-α-scale low vortex through combination. The initial dynamical triggering mechanism was related to two strong currents: one was the northeast flow in the PBL at the rear of the mei-yu front, the vortexes occurred exactly at the side of the northeast flow; and the other was the strong southwest low-level jet (LLJ) in front of the Mei-yu front, which moved to the upper of the vortexes. Consequently, there were notable horizontal and vertical wind shears to form positive vorticity in the center of the southwest LLJ.The development of mesoscale convergence in the PBL and divergence above, as well as the vertical positive vorticity column, were related to the small wind column above the nose-shaped velocity contours of the northeast flow embedding southwestward in the PBL, which intensified the horizontal wind shear and the positive vorticity column above the vortexes, baroclinicity and instability.

  17. The impact of volcanic aerosol on the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex: mechanisms and sensitivity to forcing structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations and simple theoretical arguments suggest that the Northern Hemisphere (NH stratospheric polar vortex is stronger in winters following major volcanic eruptions. However, recent studies show that climate models forced by prescribed volcanic aerosol fields fail to reproduce this effect. We investigate the impact of volcanic aerosol forcing on stratospheric dynamics, including the strength of the NH polar vortex, in ensemble simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. The model is forced by four different prescribed forcing sets representing the radiative properties of stratospheric aerosol following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo: two forcing sets are based on observations, and are commonly used in climate model simulations, and two forcing sets are constructed based on coupled aerosol–climate model simulations. For all forcings, we find that temperature and zonal wind anomalies in the NH high latitudes are not directly impacted by anomalous volcanic aerosol heating. Instead, high latitude effects result from robust enhancements in stratospheric residual circulation, which in turn result, at least in part, from enhanced stratospheric wave activity. High latitude effects are therefore much less robust than would be expected if they were the direct result of aerosol heating. While there is significant ensemble variability in the high latitude response to each aerosol forcing set, the mean response is sensitive to the forcing set used. Significant differences, for example, are found in the NH polar stratosphere temperature and zonal wind response to two different forcing data sets constructed from different versions of SAGE II aerosol observations. Significant strengthening of the polar vortex, in rough agreement with the expected response, is achieved only using aerosol forcing extracted from prior coupled aerosol–climate model simulations. Differences in the dynamical response to the different forcing sets used

  18. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  19. Polarization forces in the vicinity of nanoparticles in weakly ionized plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the polarization forces in a weakly ionized plasma lead to a substantial increase in the fluxes of neutral atoms and molecules to the surface of charged nanoparticles. Thus, the nanoparticles can change thermal balance due to the acceleration of atoms and molecules in the dipole potential and subsequent inelastic collisions to the nanoparticles.

  20. An Operator Perturbation Method of Polarized Line Transfer V. Diagnosis of Solar Weak Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. N. Nagendra; H. Frisch; M. Faurobert-Scholl; F. Paletou

    2000-09-01

    We present an application of the PALI (Polarized Approximate Lambda Iteration) method to the resonance scattering in spectral lines formed in the presence of weak magnetic fields. The method is based on an operator perturbation approach, and can efficiently give solutions for oriented vector magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere.

  1. Measurements of condensation nuclei in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition - Observations of particle production in the polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. C.; Stolzenburg, M. R.; Clark, W. E.; Loewenstein, M.; Ferry, G. V.; Chan, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    The ER-2 Condensation Nucleus Counter (ER-2 CNC) was operated in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) in January and February 1989. The ER-2 CNC measures the mixing ratio of particles, CN, with diameters from approximately 0.02 to approximately 1 micron. The spatial distribution of CN in the Arctic polar vortex was found to resemble that measured in the Antarctic in the Spring of 1987. The vertical profile of CN in the vortex was lowered by subsidence. At altitudes above the minimum in the CN mixing ratio profile, CN mixing ratios correlated negatively with that of N2O, demonstrating new particle production. CN serve as nuclei in the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) and the concentration of CN can affect PSC properties.

  2. Observation of mesospheric air inside the arctic stratospheric polar vortex in early 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Engel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During several balloon flights inside the Arctic polar vortex in early 2003, unusual trace gas distributions were observed, which indicate a strong influence of mesospheric air in the stratosphere. The tuneable diode laser (TDL instrument SPIRALE (Spectroscopie Infra-Rouge par Absorption de Lasers Embarqués measured unusually high CO values (up to 600 ppb on 27 January at about 30 km altitude. The cryosampler BONBON sampled air masses with very high molecular Hydrogen, extremely low SF6 and enhanced CO values on 6 March at about 25 km altitude. Finally, the MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR spectrometer showed NOy values which are significantly higher than NOy* (the NOy derived from a correlation between N2O and NOy under undisturbed conditions, on 21 and 22 March in a layer centred at 22 km altitude. Thus, the mesospheric air seems to have been present in a layer descending from about 30 km in late January to 25 km altitude in early March and about 22 km altitude on 20 March. We present corroborating evidence from a model study using the KASIMA (KArlsruhe SImulation model of the Middle Atmosphere model that also shows a layer of mesospheric air, which descended into the stratosphere in November and early December 2002, before the minor warming which occurred in late December 2002 lead to a descent of upper stratospheric air, cutting off a layer in which mesospheric air is present. This layer then descended inside the vortex over the course of the winter. The same feature is found in trajectory calculations, based on a large number of trajectories started in the vicinity of the observations on 6 March. Based on the difference between the mean age derived from SF6 (which has an irreversible mesospheric loss and from CO2 (whose mesospheric loss is much smaller and reversible we estimate that the fraction of mesospheric air in the layer observed on 6 March, must have been

  3. Dynamics of Venus' Southern hemisphere and South Polar Vortex from VIRTIS data obtained during the Venus Expres Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    The VIRTIS instrument onboard Venus Express observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. The images have been used to trace the motions of the atmosphere at different layers of clouds [1-3]. We review the VIRTIS cloud image data and wind results obtained by different groups [1-3] and we present new results concerning the morphology and evolution of the South Polar Vortex at the upper and lower cloud levels with data covering the first 900 days of the mission. We present wind measurements of the South hemisphere obtained by cloud tracking individual cloud features and higher-resolution wind results of the polar region covering the evolution of the South polar vortex. The later were obtained by an image correlation algorithm run under human supervision to validate the data. We present day-side data of the upper clouds obtained at 380 and 980 nm sensitive to altitudes of 66-70 km, night-side data in the near infrared at 1.74 microns of the lower cloud (45-50 km) and day and night-side data obtained in the thermal infrared (wavelengths of 3.8 and 5.1 microns) which covers the dynamical evolution of Venus South Polar vortex at the cloud tops (66-70 km). We explore the different dynamics associated to the varying morphology of the vortex, its dynamical structure at different altitudes, the variability of the global wind data of the southern hemisphere and the interrelation of the polar vortex dynamics with the wind dynamics at subpolar and mid-latitudes. Acknowledgements: Work funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. References [1] A. Sánchez-Lavega et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13204, (2008). [2] D. Luz et al., Science, 332, 577-580 (2011). [3] R. Hueso, et al., Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.020 (2011)

  4. New test of weak equivalence principle using polarized light from astrophysical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Wei, Jun-Jie; Lan, Mi-Xiang; Gao, He; Dai, Zi-Gao; Mészáros, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Einstein's weak equivalence principle (WEP) states that any freely falling, uncharged test particle follows the same identical trajectory independent of its internal structure and composition. Since the polarization of a photon is considered to be part of its internal structure, we propose that polarized photons from astrophysical transients, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and fast radio bursts (FRBs), can be used to constrain the accuracy of the WEP through the Shapiro time delay effect. Assuming that the arrival time delays of photons with different polarizations are mainly attributed to the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, we show that a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ value for the polarized optical emission of GRB 120308A is Δ γ <1.2 ×10-10 , for the polarized gamma-ray emission of GRB 100826A is Δ γ <1.2 ×10-10 , and for the polarized radio emission of FRB 150807 is Δ γ <2.2 ×10-16 . These are the first direct verifications of the WEP for multiband photons with different polarizations. In particular, the result from FRB 150807 provides the most stringent limit to date on a deviation from the WEP, improving by one order of magnitude the previous best result based on Crab pulsar photons with different energies.

  5. Study of weak vacuum polarization in $Z \\to 2l \\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Zhabin, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the work was to perform a search of weak vacuum polarization in the channel $Z \\to 2l \\gamma$ using $20 \\text{ fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2012 at 8 TeV. The ratio of the distribution of an invariant mass of $l\\gamma$ obtained from experimental data to the MC distribution from the experimental data was used for the search of the effect. Total significance of weak vacuum polarization signal in the invariant mass distribution of $l \\gamma$ in only one of four channels has some significance. First studies indicate that an evidence of about $3.5 \\sigma$ can be reached. The parameters, amplitude and phase, determined from the fit are different in each channel and thus inconclusive.

  6. First Test of Lorentz Invariance in the Weak Decay of Polarized Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, S E; Bekker, H; Berg, J E van den; Böll, O; Hoekstra, S; Jungmann, K; Meinema, C; Noordmans, J P; Portela, M Nuñez; Onderwater, C J G; Pijpker, C; van der Poel, A; Santra, B; Sytema, A; Timmermans, R G E; Versolato, O O; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W; Yai, K

    2013-01-01

    A new test of Lorentz invariance in the weak interactions has been made by searching for variations in the decay rate of spin-polarized 20Na nuclei. This test is unique to Gamow-Teller transitions, as was shown in the framework of a recently developed theory that assumes a Lorentz symmetry breaking background field of tensor nature. The nuclear spins were polarized in the up and down direction, putting a limit on the amplitude of sidereal variations of the form |(\\Gamma_{up} - \\Gamma_{down})| / (\\Gamma_{up} + \\Gamma_{down}) < 3 * 10^{-3}. This measurement shows a possible route toward a more detailed testing of Lorentz symmetry in weak interactions.

  7. A Novel Electrostatic Guiding Scheme for Cold Polar Molecules in Weak-Field-Seeking States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Lian-Zhong; XIA Yong; YIN Jian-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ We propose a novel electrostatic guiding scheme for cold polar molecules in weak-field-seeking states using a single charged wire half embanked in a ceramic substrate (i.e., a chip) and a homogeneous bias electric field, which is produced by a capacitor composed of two large parallel metal plates. We calculate the spatial distribution of the electrostatic fields generated by the combination of the charged wire and the plate capacitor and the corresponding trapping potentials for CO molecules, and analyse the relationships between the electric field and the parameters of the charged-wire layout. Our study shows that the proposed scheme with a single charged-wire can be used to guide cold polar molecules in the weak-field-seeking states, and has some potential applications in construction of various molecule-optical elements.

  8. Evolution of the Antarctic polar vortex in spring: Response of a GCM to a prescribed Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boville, B. A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    The possible effect of the Antartic ozone hole on the evolution of the polar vortex during late winter and spring using a general circulation model (GCM) is examined. The GCM is a version of the NCAR Community Climate Model whose domain extends from the surface to the mesosphere and is similar to that described on Boville and Randel (1986). Ozone is not a predicted variable in the model. A zonally averaged ozone distribution is specified as a function of latitude, pressure and month for the radiation parameterization. Rather that explicitly address reasons for the formation of the ozone hole, researchers postulate its existence and ask what effect it has on the subsequent evolution of the vortex. The evolution of the model when an ozone hole is imposed is then discussed.

  9. Role of polar nanoregions with weak random fields in Pb-based perovskite ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, M. A.; Aftabuzzaman, M.; Tsukada, S.; Kojima, S.

    2017-01-01

    In relaxor ferroelectrics, the role of randomly orientated polar nanoregions (PNRs) with weak random fields (RFs) is one of the most puzzling issues of materials science. The relaxation time of polarization fluctuations of PNRs, which manifests themselves as a central peak (CP) in inelastic light scattering, is the important physical quantity to understand the dynamics of PNRs. Here, the angular and temperature dependences of depolarized and polarized CPs in 0.44Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.56PbTiO3 single crystals with weak RFs have been studied by Raman and Brillouin scattering, respectively. The CPs observed in Raman scattering show the very clear angular dependence which is consistent with the local tetragonal symmetry. It is different from the well-known local rhombohedral symmetry with strong RFs for Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3. In Brillouin scattering, depolarized and polarized CPs show two relaxation processes corresponding to transverse and longitudinal fluctuations of PNRs. The remarkable slowing down towards the Curie temperature was observed for transverse fluctuations in local tetragonal symmetry. PMID:28300152

  10. Generation of radially polarized high energy mid-infrared optical vortex by use of a passive axially symmetric ZnSe waveplate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, Toshitaka, E-mail: wakayama@saitama-med.ac.jp; Yonemura, Motoki [School of Biomedical Engineering, Saitama Medical University, Yamane 1397-1, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Oikawa, Hiroki; Sasanuma, Atsushi; Arai, Goki; Fujii, Yusuke [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Otani, Yukitoshi [Center for Optical Research & Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Center for Optical Research & Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Sakaue, Kazuyuki, E-mail: kazuyuki.sakaue@aoni.waseda.jp [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Miura, Taisuke, E-mail: miura@fzu.cz [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics CAS, Za radnicí 828, 252 41, Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic); Takahashi, Akihiko [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakamura, Daisuke; Okada, Tatsuo [Graduate School of Information Sciences and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrated the generation of the intense radially polarized mid-infrared optical vortex at a wavelength of 10.6 μm by use of a passive axially symmetric zinc selenide (ZnSe) waveplate with high energy pulse throughput. The phase of the radially polarized optical vortex with the degree of polarization of 0.95 was spirally distributed in regard to the angle. The converted laser beam energy of about 2.6 mJ per pulse was obtained at the input pulse energy of 4.9 mJ, corresponding to the energy conversion efficiency of 56%.

  11. Interannual Variability of Ozone in the Polar Vortex during the Fall Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor); Kawa, S. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Bevilacqua, R.

    2002-01-01

    Previous analysis has shown that the distribution of O3 at high northern latitudes in the lower-to-middle stratosphere at the beginning of the winter season has a characteristic distribution, which is consistent between in situ and satellite measurements. Initial O3 profiles in the vortex are similar to each other and are quite different from outside the vortex at the same latitude and also from a zonal mean climatology. In the vortex, O3 is nearly constant from 500 to above 800 K with a value near 3 ppmv. Values outside the vortex are up to a factor of 2 higher and increase significantly with potential temperature. Model analysis indicates that the characteristic vortex O3 profiles arise from a combination of seasonally accelerated photochemical loss at high latitudes and minimal transport of air from lower latitudes. Analysis of the relatively high-resolution POAM data shows that these characteristic O3 distributions are consistent from year to year and between the hemispheres. Here we emphasize analysis of the 24-year time series of O3 data from SBUV in the lower-to-middle stratosphere at high latitudes in the fall vortex. We find that the variability of O3 from SBUV is relatively small in this regime and no significant trend is detectable. The implications of the findings for stratospheric O3 chemistry and transport will be explored.

  12. Middle atmospheric water vapour and dynamics in the vicinity of the polar vortex during the Hygrosonde-2 campaign

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lossow; M. Khaplanov; Gumbel, J.; Stegman, J.; G. Witt; Dalin, P.; Kirkwood, S.; F. J. Schmidlin; K. H. Fricke; U. Blum

    2009-01-01

    The Hygrosonde-2 campaign took place on 16 December 2001 at Esrange/Sweden (68° N, 21° E) with the aim to investigate the small scale distribution of water vapour in the middle atmosphere in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex. In situ balloon and rocket-borne measurements of water vapour were performed by means of OH fluorescence hygrometry. The combined measurements yielded a high resolution water vapour profile up to an altitude of 75 km. Using the characteristic of wat...

  13. Connections Between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-sea Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Oman, Luke David; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Hurwitz, Margaret H.; Molod, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    A robust connection between the drag on surface-layer winds and the stratospheric circulation is demonstrated in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Specifically, an updated parameterization of roughness at the air-sea interface, in which surface roughness is increased for moderate wind speeds (4ms to 20ms), leads to a decrease in model biases in Southern Hemispheric ozone, polar cap temperature, stationary wave heat flux, and springtime vortex breakup. A dynamical mechanism is proposed whereby increased surface roughness leads to improved stationary waves. Increased surface roughness leads to anomalous eddy momentum flux convergence primarily in the Indian Ocean sector (where eddies are strongest climatologically) in September and October. The localization of the eddy momentum flux convergence anomaly in the Indian Ocean sector leads to a zonally asymmetric reduction in zonal wind and, by geostrophy, to a wavenumber-1 stationary wave pattern. This tropospheric stationary wave pattern leads to enhanced upwards wave activity entering the stratosphere. The net effect is an improved Southern Hemisphere vortex: the vortex breaks up earlier in spring (i.e., the spring late-breakup bias is partially ameliorated) yet is no weaker in mid-winter. More than half of the stratospheric biases appear to be related to the surface wind speed biases. As many other chemistry climate models use a similar scheme for their surface layer momentum exchange and have similar biases in the stratosphere, we expect that results from GEOSCCM may be relevant for other climate models.

  14. OAM mode of the Hankel-Bessel vortex beam in weak to strong turbulent link of marine-atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Yixin

    2017-04-01

    We study the turbulent effects of maritime atmosphere on the propagation of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes of a vortex beam. Based on the modified Rytov approximation, we model the effective marine-atmospheric spectrum and the normalized energy weight of the vortex modes of Hankel-Bessel beams in a paraxial marine turbulent channel. Our results show that the intensity of the signal vortex modes of Hankel-Bessel beams in a non-turbulence channel increases with increasing the quantum number of the OAM of vortex modes from one to higher. We can utilize OAM eigenstates of the Hankel-Bessel vortex beam to increase the channel capacity in optical communication of the remote link. The normalized energy weight of signal OAM modes increases and that of crosstalk OAM modes decreases from the worst to the best turbulent maritime climate. The normalized energy weight of signal OAM modes reduces with the increasing of the turbulent outer scale from 0.1 \\text{m} to 0.5 \\text{m} and the receiving diameter, but it increases with increasing the turbulent outer scale when the outer scale is greater than 0.5 \\text{m} . The effects of the inner scale on the normalized energy weight of OAM modes can be ignored. We can mitigate the effects of turbulence by the choice of the longer wavelength and smaller receiver aperture.

  15. Testing Lorentz invariance in the weak interaction using laser-polarized {sup 20}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijck, Elwin A.; Sytema, Auke; Mueller, Stefan E.; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Noordmans, Jacob P.; Onderwater, Gerco; Pijpker, Coen; Timmermans, Rob G.E.; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans W. [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Lorentz invariance is one of the fundamental principles underlying our current understanding of nature. In models aiming to unify the Standard Model with (quantum) gravity this symmetry may be broken. Few tests of Lorentz invariance in the weak interaction have been made. We have performed a novel test of rotational invariance by searching for variations in the decay rate of {sup 20}Na nuclei depending on the nuclear spin orientation with respect to a possible Lorentz symmetry breaking background field. Using optical pumping, the nuclei were alternately polarized in opposite vertical directions, while the absolute orientation of the spins changed with the rotation of the Earth. A polarization-dependent Lorentz symmetry violating effect was searched for, putting a 95% confidence limit on the amplitude of sidereal variations in the decay rate asymmetry at < 3 x 10{sup -3}. This result was analyzed in the framework of a recently developed theory that assumes a Lorentz symmetry breaking background field of tensor nature.

  16. Determination of the Axial-Vector Weak Coupling Constant with Polarized Ultracold Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Holley, A T; Back, H O; Bowles, T J; Broussard, L J; Carr, R; Clayton, S; Currie, S; Filippone, B W; Garcia, A; Geltenbort, P; Hickerson, K P; Hoagland, J; Hogan, G E; Hona, B; Ito, T M; Liu, C -Y; Makela, M; Mammei, R R; Martin, J W; Melconian, D; Morris, C L; Pattie, R W; Galvan, A Perez; Pitt, M L; Plaster, B; Ramsey, J C; Rios, R; Russell, R; Saunders, A; Seestrom, S; Sondheim, W E; Tatar, E; Vogelaar, R B; VornDick, B; Wrede, C; Yan, H; Young, A R

    2010-01-01

    A precise measurement of the neutron decay $\\beta$-asymmetry $A_0$ has been carried out using polarized ultracold neutrons (UCN) from the pulsed spallation UCN source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Combining data obtained in 2008 and 2009, we report $A_0 = -0.11966 \\pm 0.00089 _{-0.00140}^{+0.00123}$, from which we determine the ratio of the axial-vector to vector weak coupling of the nucleon $g_A/g_V = -1.27590 _{-0.00445}^{+0.00409}$.

  17. Measurement of field-free molecular alignment by balanced weak field polarization technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Peng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the measurement of field-free molecular alignment of air can be realized by combining the weak field polarization technique (WFPT with a balanced detection system. The measured signal is proportional to the alignment parameter. Periodic revival structures of the transient alignment and permanent alignment between revivals can be detected clearly by a single measurement with high sensitivity. Fourier transform spectrum of the measured signal agrees well with the calculation result and provides information of the populations of different J states in the rotational wave packet.

  18. Chiral assembly of weakly curled hard rods: Effect of steric chirality and polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensink, H. H., E-mail: wensink@lps.u-psud.fr; Morales-Anda, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides–UMR 8502, Université Paris-Sud & CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-10-14

    We theoretically investigate the pitch of lyotropic cholesteric phases composed of slender rods with steric chirality transmitted via a weak helical deformation of the backbone. In this limit, the model is amenable to analytical treatment within Onsager theory and a closed expression for the pitch versus concentration and helical shape can be derived. Within the same framework, we also briefly review the possibility of alternative types of chiral order, such as twist-bend or screw-like nematic phases, finding that cholesteric order dominates for weakly helical distortions. While long-ranged or “soft” chiral forces usually lead to a pitch decreasing linearly with concentration, steric chirality leads to a much steeper decrease of quadratic nature. This reveals a subtle link between the range of chiral intermolecular interaction and the pitch sensitivity with concentration. A much richer dependence on the thermodynamic state is revealed for polar helices where parallel and anti-parallel pair alignments along the local director are no longer equivalent. It is found that weak temperature variations may lead to dramatic changes in the pitch, despite the lyotropic nature of the assembly.

  19. Chemical analysis of refractory stratospheric aerosol particles collected within the arctic vortex and inside polar stratospheric clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Martin; Weigel, Ralf; Kandler, Konrad; Günther, Gebhard; Molleker, Sergej; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Vogel, Bärbel; Weinbruch, Stephan; Borrmann, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    Stratospheric aerosol particles with diameters larger than about 10 nm were collected within the arctic vortex during two polar flight campaigns: RECONCILE in winter 2010 and ESSenCe in winter 2011. Impactors were installed on board the aircraft M-55 Geophysica, which was operated from Kiruna, Sweden. Flights were performed at a height of up to 21 km and some of the particle samples were taken within distinct polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). The chemical composition, size and morphology of refractory particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. During ESSenCe no refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were sampled. In total 116 small silicate, Fe-rich, Pb-rich and aluminum oxide spheres were found. In contrast to ESSenCe in early winter, during the late-winter RECONCILE mission the air masses were subsiding inside the Arctic winter vortex from the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, thus initializing a transport of refractory aerosol particles into the lower stratosphere. During RECONCILE, 759 refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were found consisting of silicates, silicate / carbon mixtures, Fe-rich particles, Ca-rich particles and complex metal mixtures. In the size range below 500 nm the presence of soot was also proven. While the data base is still sparse, the general tendency of a lower abundance of refractory particles during PSC events compared to non-PSC situations was observed. The detection of large refractory particles in the stratosphere, as well as the experimental finding that these particles were not observed in the particle samples (upper size limit ˜ 5 µm) taken during PSC events, strengthens the hypothesis that such particles are present in the lower polar stratosphere in late winter and have provided a surface for heterogeneous nucleation during PSC formation.

  20. Relationship between the lunar tidal amplification in the equatorial electrojet and weakening of the northern polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan Siddiqui, Tarique; Luehr, Hermann; Stolle, Claudia; Matzka, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced lunar tidal effects in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) during boreal winters have been reported in the form of so-called "big L days" for a long time. Recent studies have suggested a relation between these enhanced lunar tidal observations and stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events in the northern hemisphere through changes in tidal propagation conditions due to increased planetary wave activity. In this study we have used the horizontal component of the magnetic field recorded at Huancayo, Peru from 1997-2013 to study the relation between the timing and magnitude of the semimonthly lunar tide in the EEJ and the stratospheric polar vortex weakening (PVW). The definition of PVW is used to characterize the individual SSW events, and the intensity of PVW during each winter is estimated by taking into account the stratospheric temperature and wind conditions at polar latitudes. Our results indicate that the semimonthly lunar tide in the EEJ gets enhanced during boreal winters when a significant weakening in the polar vortex occurs and its timing and magnitude is correlated with the timing and intensity of the PVW. Our results suggest that the initiation of the lunar tidal enhancement in most of the cases is closely related to a PVW event. Further, we also discuss the longitudinal differences in lunar tidal enhancements of the EEJ during the SSW years. Finally, we extend the lunar tidal time series by utilizing the recently digitized magnetic recordings from Huancayo. The additional data of Huancayo recordings between 1962-1984 will open new perspectives in investigating long term trends of equatorial electrodynamics.

  1. Polarization pattern of vector vortex beams generated by $q$-plates with different topological charges

    CERN Document Server

    Cardano, Filippo; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; de Lisio, Corrado; Santamato, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    We describe the polarization topology of the vector beams emerging from a patterned birefringent liquid crystal plate with a topological charge $q$ at its center ($q$-plate). The polarization topological structures for different $q$-plates and different input polarization states have been studied experimentally by measuring the Stokes parameters point-by-point in the beam transverse plane. Furthermore, we used a tuned $q=1/2$-plate to generate cylindrical vector beams with radial or azimuthal polarizations, with the possibility of switching dynamically between these two cases by simply changing the linear polarization of the input beam.

  2. Polarization pattern of vector vortex beams generated by q-plates with different topological charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardano, Filippo; Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; de Lisio, Corrado; Santamato, Enrico

    2012-04-01

    We describe the polarization topology of the vector beams emerging from a patterned birefringent liquid crystal plate with a topological charge q at its center (q-plate). The polarization topological structures for different q-plates and different input polarization states have been studied experimentally by measuring the Stokes parameters point-by-point in the beam transverse plane. Furthermore, we used a tuned q=1/2-plate to generate cylindrical vector beams with radial or azimuthal polarizations, with the possibility of switching dynamically between these two cases by simply changing the linear polarization of the input beam.

  3. Depletion of ozone and reservoir species of chlorine and nitrogen oxide in the lower Antarctic polar vortex measured from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkat, T.; Voigt, C.; Kaufmann, S.; Grooß, J.-U.; Ziereis, H.; Dörnbrack, A.; Hoor, P.; Bozem, H.; Engel, A.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Hüneke, T.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Zahn, A.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.; Schlager, H.

    2017-06-01

    Novel airborne in situ measurements of inorganic chlorine, nitrogen oxide species, and ozone were performed inside the lower Antarctic polar vortex and at its edge in September 2012. We focus on one flight during the Transport and Composition of the LMS/Earth System Model Validation (TACTS/ESMVal) campaign with the German research aircraft HALO (High-Altitude LOng range research aircraft), reaching latitudes of 65°S and potential temperatures up to 405 K. Using the early winter correlations of reactive trace gases with N2O from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), we find high depletion of chlorine reservoir gases up to ˜40% (0.8 ppbv) at 12 km to 14 km altitude in the vortex and 0.4 ppbv at the edge in subsided stratospheric air with mean ages up to 4.5 years. We observe denitrification of up to 4 ppbv, while ozone was depleted by 1.2 ppmv at potential temperatures as low as 380 K. The advanced instrumentation aboard HALO enables high-resolution measurements with implications for the oxidation capacity of the lowermost stratosphere.

  4. The generation of a complete spiral spot and multi split rings by focusing three circularly polarized vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiannong; Gao, Xiumin; Zhu, Linwei; Xu, Qinfeng; Ma, Wangzi

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate that a complete right-handed or left-handed spiral-shaped focus can be created by focusing circularly polarized and three spatially shifted vortex beams through high numerical objective. By dividing the back aperture into multi annular zones and applying an additional phase term, the multi focal spots aligned along z axis of individual three dimensional focal shapes can be generated. The spiral shaped focus provides a pathway of manipulating the micro-particles in a curved trajectory and opens up a possibility of measuring mechanical torque of biological large molecules such as DNA by chemically binding one end on the cover-glass. The multi focal spots aligned along the z axis can eliminate the need of z axis scanning in the direct laser writing fabrication of some metamaterials which is composed of three-dimensional array of specific shapes of building blocks.

  5. The effect of preceding wintertime Arctic polar vortex on springtime NDVI patterns in boreal Eurasia, 1982-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Ke; Xu, Jianjun; Powell, Alfred M.; Kogan, Felix

    2016-08-01

    The polar vortex is implicated in certain cold events in boreal Eurasia and has a further influence on land surface properties (e.g., vegetation and snow) during spring. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be used as a proxy of land surface responses to climate changes to a certain degree. In this study, we demonstrate the significant correlation between preceding wintertime Arctic polar vortex intensity (WAPVI) and springtime NDVI (SNDVI) over a 34-year period (1982-2015) in boreal Eurasia (50°-75°N, 0°-150°E). Results show that a positive phase of WAPVI tends to increase the SNDVI in Europe and Lake Baikal, but causes a significant decrease in Siberia; the physical mechanisms involved in this relationship are then investigated. A positive phase of WAPVI leads to anomalies in surface air temperature and rainfall over Eurasia, which then induces a significant decrease in snow cover and snow depth in Europe and Lake Baikal and an increase of snow depth in Siberia. The colder ground temperature in Siberia during spring is considered responsible for the stronger snow depth and weaker vegetation growth in this region. The weaker and thinner snow cover in Europe and Baikal produces a decrease in albedo and an increase in heat. Thin snow melts fast in the following spring and land releases more heat to the atmosphere; consequently, warm and moist land surface facilitates vegetation growth in Europe and the Baikal regions during positive WAPVI years. In addition, WAPVI can induce sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Atlantic, which displays a tripole pattern similar to that of the empirical mode pattern in winter. Furthermore, the SST anomalous pattern persisting from winter to spring can trigger a stationary wave-train propagating from west to east in boreal Eurasia, with "negative-positive-negative-positive" geopotential height anomalies, which further exerts an impact on vegetation growth through modulation of the heat balance.

  6. The effect of preceding wintertime Arctic polar vortex on springtime NDVI patterns in boreal Eurasia, 1982-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Ke; Xu, Jianjun; Powell, Alfred M.; Kogan, Felix

    2017-07-01

    The polar vortex is implicated in certain cold events in boreal Eurasia and has a further influence on land surface properties (e.g., vegetation and snow) during spring. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be used as a proxy of land surface responses to climate changes to a certain degree. In this study, we demonstrate the significant correlation between preceding wintertime Arctic polar vortex intensity (WAPVI) and springtime NDVI (SNDVI) over a 34-year period (1982-2015) in boreal Eurasia (50°-75°N, 0°-150°E). Results show that a positive phase of WAPVI tends to increase the SNDVI in Europe and Lake Baikal, but causes a significant decrease in Siberia; the physical mechanisms involved in this relationship are then investigated. A positive phase of WAPVI leads to anomalies in surface air temperature and rainfall over Eurasia, which then induces a significant decrease in snow cover and snow depth in Europe and Lake Baikal and an increase of snow depth in Siberia. The colder ground temperature in Siberia during spring is considered responsible for the stronger snow depth and weaker vegetation growth in this region. The weaker and thinner snow cover in Europe and Baikal produces a decrease in albedo and an increase in heat. Thin snow melts fast in the following spring and land releases more heat to the atmosphere; consequently, warm and moist land surface facilitates vegetation growth in Europe and the Baikal regions during positive WAPVI years. In addition, WAPVI can induce sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Atlantic, which displays a tripole pattern similar to that of the empirical mode pattern in winter. Furthermore, the SST anomalous pattern persisting from winter to spring can trigger a stationary wave-train propagating from west to east in boreal Eurasia, with "negative-positive-negative-positive" geopotential height anomalies, which further exerts an impact on vegetation growth through modulation of the heat balance.

  7. Observation of an unusual mid-stratospheric aerosol layer in the Arctic: possible sources and implications for polar vortex dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    Full Text Available By the beginning of winter 2000/2001, a mysterious stratospheric aerosol layer had been detected by four different Arctic lidar stations. The aerosol layer was observed first on 16 November 2000, at an altitude of about 38 km near Søndre Strømfjord, Greenland (67° N, 51° W and on 19 November 2000, near Andenes, Norway (69°  N, 16°  E. Subsequently, in early December 2000, the aerosol layer was observed near Kiruna, Sweden (68°  N, 21°  E and Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen (79°  N, 12°  E. No mid-latitude lidar station observed the presence of aerosols in this altitude region. The layer persisted throughout the winter 2000/2001, at least up to 12 February 2001. In November 2000, the backscatter ratio at a wavelength of 532 nm was up to 1.1, with a FWHM of about 2.5 km. By early February 2001, the layer had sedimented from an altitude of 38 km to about 26 km. Measurements at several wavelengths by the ALOMAR and Koldewey lidars indicate the particle size was between 30 and 50 nm. Depolarisation measurements reveal that the particles in the layer are aspherical, hence solid. In the mid-stratosphere, the ambient atmospheric temperature was too high to support in situ formation or existence of cloud particles consisting of ice or an acid-water solution. Furthermore, in the year 2000 there was no volcanic eruption, which could have injected aerosols into the upper stratosphere. Therefore, other origins of the aerosol, such as meteoroid debris, condensed rocket fuel, or aerosols produced under the influence of charged solar particles, will be discussed in the paper. Trajectory calculations illustrate the path of the aerosol cloud within the polar vortex and are used to link the observations at the different lidar sites. From the descent rate of  the layer and particle sedimentation rates, the mean down-ward motion of air within the polar vortex was estimated to be about 124 m/d between 35 and 30 km, with higher values at the edge of the

  8. The Effect of Polar Vortex Disturbances on Mesopause Gravity Wave Drag in Relation to Mesopause Pole-to-Pole Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, R.; Hibbins, R. E.; Espy, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role in the dynamics of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region, linking the lower to the upper atmosphere. GW filtering by the background zonal wind is furthermore believed to be the fundamental mechanism coupling the winter stratosphere to the summer polar mesopause, in which increased planetary wave (PW) activity in the former is related to enhanced temperatures in the latter through a chain of global MLT temperature anomalies. During major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) the interaction between PWs and the background flow leads to increased polar stratospheric temperatures and a reversal of the climatological winds from eastward to westward. As a result, large changes in GW filtering conditions occur, making SSWs an excellent tool to empirically test the inter-hemispheric coupling mechanism. In this study, mesopause GW forcing derived from meteor radar observations over Trondheim, Norway (63°N, 10°E) during the January 2013 major SSW is discussed in light of the polar vortex strength and selective filtering conditions over the same location to show the coupling between the polar winter stratosphere and MLT. Global temperature observations obtained with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are subsequently used to study the temperature signature of the SSW in the MLT region over the winter pole in relation to the observed GW forcing. Furthermore, the temperature effect of the SSW throughout the middle atmosphere is tracked, away from the winter pole toward the summer pole, and compared to the temperature structure expected from the inter-hemispheric coupling mechanism.

  9. Polarization conversion under focusing of vortex laser beams along the axis of anisotropic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonina, Svetlana N.; Karpeev, Sergei V.; Paranin, Vyacheslav D.; Morozov, Andrei A.

    2017-08-01

    We report the development of an optical system based on diffractive optical elements and uniaxial crystals to produce radially and azimuthally polarized beams, including beams of higher orders. The conditions for the generation of beams with different polarization states in an anisotropic crystal with an arbitrary axially symmetric amplitude distribution are analyzed theoretically. The results of the experimental study on the generation of cylindrical vector beams in a calcite crystal agree with the results of the simulation.

  10. In-Situ Measurements of Changes in Stratospheric Aerosol and the N2O - Aerosol Relationship inside and outside of the Polar Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, S.; Dye, J. E.; Baumgardner, D.; Wilson, J. C.; Jonsson, H. H.; Brock, C. A.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Ferry, G. V.; Barr, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    Two optical particle counters on the ER-2, together covering a particle size diameter range from 0.1 micrometers to 23 micrometers, were used to measure the aerosol bulk quantities integral number, aerosol surface and volume, as well as detailed size distributions inside and outside of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere. While AASE I (Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition, (Dec. 1988 - Feb. 1989) was conducted in a period of relative volcanic quiescence, enhancements in aerosol number, surface and volume of factors around 10, 25 and 100 were observed during AASE II (Aug. 1991 - Mar. 1992) due to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The changes in these bulk quantities as well as in the size distributions measured both outside and inside the the polar vortex are presented and compared with those obtained in polar stratospheric cloud events (AASE I). Except for a shift towards larger aerosol mixing ratios the general shape of correlograms between the measured N2O and particle mixing ratios remain similar before and after the eruption. Similar correlograms are used to interpret data from vertical profiles inside and outside of the polar vortex.

  11. YY Draconis and V709 Cassiopeiae two intermediate polars with weak magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, A J; Allan, A R; Hellier, C; Allan, Alasdair; Hellier, Coel

    1999-01-01

    We present data from long ROSAT HRI observations of the intermediate polars YY Dra and V709 Cas which show that V709 Cas, like YY Dra, exhibits a double-peaked X-ray pulse profile. Neither system shows evidence for X-ray beat period or orbital modulation, so both must be disc-fed accretors seen at low inclination angles. We argue that the short spin periods of the white dwarfs in these objects indicate that they have weak magnetic fields, so the radius at which material is captured by the field lines is relatively small. Consequently the footprints of the disc-fed accretion curtains on the white dwarf surface are large. The optical depths to X-ray emission within the accretion curtains are therefore lowest in the direction along the magnetic field lines, and highest in the direction parallel to the white dwarf surface, such that the emission from the two poles conspires to produce double-peaked X-ray pulse profiles. We emphasise that such a pulse profile is not a unique indicator of two-pole accretion however...

  12. Optical spin torque induced by vector Bessel (vortex) beams with selective polarizations on a light-absorptive sphere of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renxian; Ding, Chunying; Mitri, F. G.

    2017-07-01

    The optical spin torque (OST) induced by vector Bessel (vortex) beams can cause a particle to rotate around its center of mass. Previous works have considered the OST on a Rayleigh absorptive dielectric sphere by a vector Bessel (vortex) beam, however, it is of some importance to analyze the OST components for a sphere of arbitrary size. In this work, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT) is used to compute the OST induced by vector Bessel (vortex) beams on an absorptive dielectric sphere of arbitrary size, with particular emphasis on the beam order, the polarization of the plane wave component forming the beam, and the half-cone angle. The OST is expressed as the integration of the moment of the time-averaged Maxwell stress tensor, and the beam shape coefficients (BSCs) are calculated using the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM). Using this theory, the OST exerted on the light-absorptive dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh, Mie or the geometrical optics regimes can be considered. The axial and transverse OSTs are numerically calculated with particular emphasis on the sign reversal of the axial OST and the vortex-like character of the transverse OST, and the effects of polarization, beam order, and half-cone angle are discussed in detail. Numerical results show that by choosing an appropriate polarization, order and half-cone angle, the sign of the axial OST can be reversed, meaning that the sphere would spin in opposite handedness of the angular momentum carried by the incident beam. The vortex-like structure of the total transverse OSTs can be observed for all cases. When the sphere moves radially away from the beam axis, it may rotate around its center of mass in either the counter-clockwise or the clockwise direction. Conditions are also predicted where the absorptive sphere experiences no spinning. Potential applications in particle manipulation and rotation in optical tweezers and tractor beams would benefit from the results.

  13. Molecular hydrogen as a mesospheric hydrogen reservoir; evidence from tracer-tracer interrelationships in descended air measured within the northern polar stratospheric vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, L. K.; Ray, E. A.; Moore, F. L.; Plumb, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The distribution and partitioning of all hydrogen-carrying species in and above the mesosphere inform our understanding of upper atmospheric chemistry and transport; however, many species are not easily measured. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is described as a mesospheric reservoir of hydrogen atoms released from methane (CH4) oxidation and water vapor (H2O) photolysis. Only limited indirect measurements and modeling studies have provided evidence for this reservoir until now. Measuring air that descends from upper levels within polar stratospheric vortices provides a unique opportunity to sample the chemical composition of the mesosphere at more accessible stratospheric altitudes. Such measurements were made of atmospheric H2 by the balloonborne, in situ Lightweight Airborne Chromatograph Experiment (LACE) instrument during the 1999-2000 SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). Vertical profiles of a number of tracers were made in November 1999 after the vortex formation and again in March 2000 just before vortex breakup. The tropospheric-stratospheric H2 profile shifted dramatically from being vertically uniform (~0.5 ppm) in the young vortex to exhibiting distinct minimum (~0.4 ppm) and maximum (~1 ppm) peak features after a winter of mixing and descent in the late polar vortex. Both observational and model results show that a significant fraction of mesospheric air was present in the late vortex, suggesting that the late vortex H2 features were of mesospheric origin. The goal of this study is to determine whether the chemical measurements made with LACE confirm the anticipated H2 mixing ratio peak in the mesosphere. Tracer-tracer interrelationships of H2 with concurrently measured tracers, such as SF6, CO, N2O, and CFCs, are used to determine the original altitude and mixing ratio of the H2 peak. A simple model of mixing and descent within the vortex will be used to infer the altitude distribution of H2 in the mesosphere by forcing its consistency with

  14. Polarization dependence of the magnetic fluctuations in the weak itinerant ferromagnet MnSi below T{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P.; Tixier, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Endoh, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Shirane, G. [Brookhaven (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The dispersion of the spin-flip and non-spin-flip excitations in the weak itinerant ferromagnet MnSi have been measured in the ferromagnetic phase using inelastic polarized neutron scattering. Spin wave excitations are well defined at energy transfers as large as 7 meV. The cross section of the non-spin-flip excitations is compatible with a quasielastic response function. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  15. Vortex Characterization for Engineering Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankun-Kelly, M; Thompson, D S; Jiang, M; Shannahan, B; Machiraju, R

    2008-01-30

    Realistic engineering simulation data often have features that are not optimally resolved due to practical limitations on mesh resolution. To be useful to application engineers, vortex characterization techniques must be sufficiently robust to handle realistic data with complex vortex topologies. In this paper, we present enhancements to the vortex topology identification component of an existing vortex characterization algorithm. The modified techniques are demonstrated by application to three realistic data sets that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.

  16. Variation in the stratospheric aerosol associated with the North Cyclonic Polar Vortex as measured by the SAM II satellite sensor. [Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. S.; Farrukh, U. O.; Trepte, C. R.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Optical depth data gathered by the stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM II) satellite during the 1979-80 winter season are analyzed to study mean atmospheric motions. The spacecraft photometer yielded extinction rates over the Northern Hemisphere in the 8-30 km altitude interval. Filtering was performed to remove the effects of high clouds and polar stratospheric clouds. Free horizontal mixing was prevalent below 14 km, as was a systematic difference across the polar jet stream above that altitude. The aerosol declined in altitude as the winter progressed. The polar vortex is concluded to have a base at the 14 km altitude and an outer boundary which coincides with the jet stream axis. The model accords with atmospheric tracer measurements made during the open-air nuclear testing programs in the 1950s.

  17. A strong phase reversal of the Arctic Oscillation in midwinter 2015/2016: Role of the stratospheric polar vortex and tropospheric blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoffman H. N.; Zhou, Wen; Leung, Marco Y. T.; Shun, C. M.; Lee, S. M.; Tong, H. W.

    2016-11-01

    In January 2016, Asia and North America experienced unusual cold temperatures, although the global average of surface air temperature broke the warmest record during a strong El Niño event. This was closely related to the remarkable phase transition of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), which can be explained by stratosphere-troposphere interactions. First, the quasi-biennial oscillation changed to its westerly phase in summer 2015 and the stratospheric polar vortex was stronger in early to midwinter 2015/2016. As blocking did not occur in December, the associated downward propagation signal resulted in a strongly positive AO in late December 2015. Second, after late December, the positive phase of Pacific-North America pattern became apparent in El Niño event, which strengthened the Aleutian anticyclone in the stratosphere. In addition, an equivalent barotropic ("blocking") anticyclone was established in the troposphere over Asia. The coexistence of blocking over Asia and North America characterized the negative AO and a strong zonal wave number 2 pattern. Due to stronger zonal wave number 2 signals from the troposphere, the stronger stratospheric polar vortex was elongated, with two cyclonic centers over Asia and the North Atlantic in January. The resultant southward displacement of polar vortices was followed by rare snowfall in the subtropical region of East Asia and a heavy snowstorm on the East Coast of the United States.

  18. The Arctic Vortex in March 2011: A Dynamical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Newman, Paul A.; Garfinkel,Chaim I.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the record ozone loss observed in March 2011, dynamical conditions in the Arctic stratosphere were unusual but not unprecedented. Weak planetary wave driving in February preceded cold anomalies in t he polar lower stratosphere in March and a relatively late breakup of the Arctic vortex in April. La Nina conditions and the westerly phas e of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) were observed in March 201 1. Though these conditions are generally associated with a stronger vortex in mid-winter, the respective cold anomalies do not persist t hrough March. Therefore, the La Nina and QBO-westerly conditions cannot explain the observed cold anomalies in March 2011. In contrast, po sitive sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Pacific may ha ve contributed to the unusually weak tropospheric wave driving and s trong Arctic vortex in late winter 2011.

  19. Tight Focusing of Partially Coherent Vortex Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tight focusing of partially polarized vortex beams has been studied. Compact form of the coherence matrix has been derived for polarized vortex beams. Effects of topological charge and polarization distribution of the incident beam on intensity distribution, degree of polarization, and coherence have been investigated.

  20. The role of weakly polar and H-bonding interactions in the stabilization of the conformers of FGG, WGG, and YGG: an aqueous phase computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, József; Murphy, Richard F; Lovas, Sándor

    2008-11-01

    The energetics of intramolecular interactions on the conformational potential energy surface of the terminally protected N-Ac-Phe-Gly-Gly-NHMe (FGG), N-Ac-Trp-Gly-Gly-NHMe (WGG), and N-Ac-Tyr-Gly-Gly-NHMe (YGG) tripeptides was investigated. To identify the representative conformations, simulated annealing molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) methods were used. The interaction energies were calculated at the BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. In the global minima, 10%, 31%, and 10% of the stabilization energy come from weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. In the prominent cases 46%, 62%, and 46% of the stabilization energy is from the weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. On average, weakly polar interactions account for 15%, 34%, and 9% of the stabilization energies of the FGG, WGG, and YGG conformers, respectively. Thus, weakly polar interactions can make an important energetic contribution to protein structure and function.

  1. Analysis of large effective electric fields of weakly polar molecules for electron electric dipole moment searches

    CERN Document Server

    Sunaga, A; Hada, M; Das, B P

    2016-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of an electron (eEDM) is one of the sensitive probes of physics beyond the standard model. The possible existence of the eEDM gives rise to an experimentally observed energy shift, which is proportional to the effective electric field (Eeff) of a target molecule. Hence, an analysis of the quantities that enhance Eeff is necessary to identify suitable molecules for eEDM searches. In the context of such searches, it is generally believed that a molecule with larger electric polarization also has a larger value of Eeff. However, our Dirac-Fock and relativistic coupled-cluster singles and doubles calculations show that the hydrides of Yb and Hg have larger Eeff than those of fluorides, even though their polarizations are smaller. This is due to significant mixing of valence s and p orbitals of the heavy atom in the molecules. This mixing has been attributed to the energy differences of the valence atomic orbitals and the overlap of the two atomic orbitals based on the orbital interactio...

  2. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  3. Spin Polarized Photons from Axially Charged Plasma at Weak Coupling: Complete Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Mamo, Kiminad A

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin-aligned, which is a unique P- and CP-odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this "P-odd photon emission rate" in weak coupling regime at high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P-even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of P-odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: 1) Compton and Pair Annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, 2) soft t- and u-channel contributions with Hard Thermal Loop re-summation, 3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) re-summation of collinear Bremstrahlung and Pair Annihilation. We present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P-odd photon emission rate observable.

  4. Future asymptotics and geodesic completeness of polarized T2-symmetric spacetimes with weak regularity

    CERN Document Server

    LeFloch, Philippe G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the late-time asymptotics of future expanding, polarized vacuum Einstein spacetimes with T2-symmetry on T3, which, by definition, admit two spacelike Killing fields. Our main result is the existence of a stable asymptotic regime within this class, that is, we provide here a full description of the late-time asymptotics of the solutions to the Einstein equations when the initial data set is close to the asymptotic regime. Our proof is based on several energy functionals with lower order corrections (as is standard for such problems) and the derivation of a simplified model which we exhibit here. Roughly speaking, the Einstein equations in the symmetry class under consideration consists of a system of wave equations coupled to constraint equations plus a system of ordinary differential equations. The unknowns involved in the system of ordinary equations are blowing up in the future timelike directions. One of our main contributions is the derivation of novel effective equations for suitably renor...

  5. Stimulated Raman Scattering in a Weakly Polar Ⅲ-Ⅴ Semiconductor: Effect of dc Magnetic Field and Free Carrier Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Singh; P. Aghamkar; P. K. Sen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Using the hydrodynamic model of semiconductor plasmas, we perform an analytical investigation of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of an electromagnetic pump wave in a transversely magnetized weakly polar semiconductor arising from electron-density perturbations and molecular vibrations of the medium both produced at the longitudinal optical phonon frequency. Assuming that the origin of SRS lies in the third-order susceptibility of the medium, we investigate the growth rate of Stokes mode. The dependence of stimulated Raman gain on the external dc magnetic field strength and free carrier concentration is reported. The possibility of the occurrence of optical phase conjugation via SRS is also studied. The steady-state Raman gain is found to be greatly enhanced by the presence of the strong external dc magnetic field.

  6. Selective observation of Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Federov shifts in partial reflection via optimized weak measurements in linear and elliptical polarization basis

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, S; Pal, M; Nandi, A; Panigrahi, P K; Ghosh, N

    2015-01-01

    The spatial and the angular variants of the Goos-H\\"anchen (GH) and the Imbert-Federov (IF) beam shifts contribute in a complex interrelated way to the resultant beam shift in partial reflection at planar dielectric interfaces. Here, we show that the angular GH and the two variants of the IF effects can be decoupled, amplified and separately observed by weak value amplification and subsequent conversion of spatial$\\leftrightarrow$angular nature of the beam shifts using appropriate pre and post selection of polarization states. We experimentally demonstrate such decoupling and illustrate various other intriguing manifestations of weak measurements by employing optimized pre and post selections (based on the eigen polarization states of the shifts) elliptical and / or linear polarization basis. The demonstrated ability to amplify, controllably decouple or combine the beam shifts via weak measurements may prove to be valuable for understanding the different physical contributions of the effects and for their app...

  7. Resonance scattering of a dielectric sphere illuminated by electromagnetic Bessel non-diffracting (vortex) beams with arbitrary incidence and selective polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F.G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology–ETC, 5 Bisbee Ct., Santa Fe, NM 87508 (United States); Li, R.X., E-mail: rxli@mail.xidian.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Guo, L.X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Ding, C.Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A complete description of vector Bessel (vortex) beams in the context of the generalized Lorenz–Mie theory (GLMT) for the electromagnetic (EM) resonance scattering by a dielectric sphere is presented, using the method of separation of variables and the subtraction of a non-resonant background (corresponding to a perfectly conducting sphere of the same size) from the standard Mie scattering coefficients. Unlike the conventional results of standard optical radiation, the resonance scattering of a dielectric sphere in air in the field of EM Bessel beams is examined and demonstrated with particular emphasis on the EM field’s polarization and beam order (or topological charge). Linear, circular, radial, azimuthal polarizations as well as unpolarized Bessel vortex beams are considered. The conditions required for the resonance scattering are analyzed, stemming from the vectorial description of the EM field using the angular spectrum decomposition, the derivation of the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) using the integral localized approximation (ILA) and Neumann–Graf’s addition theorem, and the determination of the scattering coefficients of the sphere using Debye series. In contrast with the standard scattering theory, the resonance method presented here allows the quantitative description of the scattering using Debye series by separating diffraction effects from the external and internal reflections from the sphere. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to include rainbow formation in Bessel beams and the derivation of a generalized formula for the deviation angle of high-order rainbows. Potential applications for this analysis include Bessel beam-based laser imaging spectroscopy, atom cooling and quantum optics, electromagnetic instrumentation and profilometry, optical tweezers and tractor beams, to name a few emerging areas of research.

  8. On the Weak* Drop Property for Polar of Closed Bounded Convex Sets%关于有界闭凸集的极上的弱滴性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子厚

    2004-01-01

    We define and study the weak* drop property for the polar of a closed bounded convex set in a Banach space which is both a generalization of the weak* drop property for dual norm in a Banach space and a characterization of the sub-differential mappingx→αp(x) from S(X) into 2S(X*) that is norm upper semi-countinuous and norm compact-valued.

  9. Vortex phase diagram studies in the weakly pinned single crystals of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Jaiswal-Nagar; D Pal; M R Eskildsen; P C Canfield; H Takeya; S Ramakrishnan; A K Grover

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of magnetization measurements performed on the single crystals of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C. For both the compounds, we find flux jumps in magnetisation values in the respective field regions, where the structural transitions in the flux line lattice symmetry have been reported in these systems via the small angle neutron scattering experiments. The magnetisation hysteresis loops and the AC susceptibility measurements show pronounced peak effect as well as second magnetisation peak anomaly for both YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C. Based on these results, a vortex phase diagram has been constructed for YNi2B2C for $H \\Arrowvert c$ depicting different glassy phases of the vortex matter.

  10. Modeling gasodynamic vortex cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Fauve, S.

    2017-08-01

    We aim at studying gasodynamic vortex cooling in an analytically solvable, thermodynamically consistent model that can explain limitations on the cooling efficiency. To this end, we study an angular plus radial flow between two (coaxial) rotating permeable cylinders. Full account is taken of compressibility, viscosity, and heat conductivity. For a weak inward radial flow the model qualitatively describes the vortex cooling effect, in terms of both temperature and the decrease of the stagnation enthalpy, seen in short uniflow vortex (Ranque) tubes. The cooling does not result from external work and its efficiency is defined as the ratio of the lowest temperature reached adiabatically (for the given pressure gradient) to the lowest temperature actually reached. We show that for the vortex cooling the efficiency is strictly smaller than 1, but in another configuration with an outward radial flow, we find that the efficiency can be larger than 1. This is related to both the geometry and the finite heat conductivity.

  11. The shock-vortex interaction patterns affected by vortex flow regime and vortex models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Keun-Shik; Barik, Hrushikesh; Chang, Se-Myong

    2009-08-01

    We have used a third-order essentially non-oscillatory method to obtain numerical shadowgraphs for investigation of shock-vortex interaction patterns. To search different interaction patterns, we have tested two vortex models (the composite vortex model and the Taylor vortex model) and as many as 47 parametric data sets. By shock-vortex interaction, the impinging shock is deformed to a S-shape with leading and lagging parts of the shock. The vortex flow is locally accelerated by the leading shock and locally decelerated by the lagging shock, having a severely elongated vortex core with two vertices. When the leading shock escapes the vortex, implosion effect creates a high pressure in the vertex area where the flow had been most expanded. This compressed region spreads in time with two frontal waves, an induced expansion wave and an induced compression wave. They are subsonic waves when the shock-vortex interaction is weak but become supersonic waves for strong interactions. Under a intermediate interaction, however, an induced shock wave is first developed where flow speed is supersonic but is dissipated where the incoming flow is subsonic. We have identified three different interaction patterns that depend on the vortex flow regime characterized by the shock-vortex interaction.

  12. Vortex rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmetov, D.G. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    This book presents a comprehensive coverage of the wide field of vortex rings. The book presents the results of systematic experimental investigations, theoretical foundation, as well as the practical applications of vortex rings, such as the extinction of fires at gushing gas and oil wells. All the basic properties of vortex rings as well as their hydrodynamic structures are presented. Special attention is paid to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings. (orig.)

  13. Vulcanized Vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Inyong

    2008-01-01

    We investigate vortex configurations with the "vulcanization" term introduced for renormalization of $\\phi_\\star^4$ theory in canonical $\\theta$-deformed noncommutativity. In the small-$\\theta$ limit, we perform numerical calculations and find that nontopological vortex solutions exist as well as Q-ball type solutions, but topological vortex solutions are not admitted.

  14. Tolerance to excess-boron conditions acquired by stabilization of a BOR1 variant with weak polarity in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji eWakuta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B is a metalloid that is essential for plant growth but is toxic when present in excess. Arabidopsis BOR1 is a borate exporter, facilitating B translocation from root to shoot under limited-B conditions. BOR1 shows stele side polar localization in the plasma membrane of various root cells, presumably to support B translocation toward the stele. BOR1 is degraded under high-B supply through vacuolar sorting via ubiquitination at the K590 residue to prevent the accumulation of B to a toxic level in shoots. A previous study showed that overexpression of BOR1 under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter improved the growth of Arabidopsis under limited-B conditions without affecting the growth under sufficient-to-excess-B conditions. In this study, we unexpectedly found that ubiquitous expression of a stabilized BOR1 variant improved tolerance to excess-B in Arabidopsis. We established transgenic plants expressing BOR1-GFP fused with hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT and BOR1(K590A-GFP-HPT under control of the ubiquitin 10 promoter. BOR1-GFP-HPT and BOR1(K590A-GFP-HPT were expressed in various cell types in leaves and roots and showed weak polar localization in root tip cells. BOR1-GFP-HPT, but not BOR1(K590A-GFP-HPT, was degraded through an endocytic pathway under high-B conditions. Transgenic plants with the stabilized variant BOR1(K590A-GFP-HPT showed improved root and shoot growth under excess-B conditions. The concentration of B was greater in the shoots of plants with BOR1(K590A-GFP-HPT or BOR1-GFP-HPT than in those of untransformed wild-type plants. These results suggest that BOR1(K590A-GFP-HPT confers tolerance to excess-B by excluding B from the cytosol of shoot cells. Results from this study indicate the potential for engineering the trafficking properties of a transporter to produce plants that are tolerant to mineral stress.

  15. Some discussions on Arctic vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hai; Sun Lantao; Wu Huiding; Li Xiang

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic vortex is a persistent large-scale cyclonic circulation in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere. Its activity and variation control the semi-permanent active centers of Pan-Arctic and the short-time cyclone activity in the subarctic areas. Its strength variation, which directly relates to the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and ecosystem of the Arctic, can affect the lower atmospheric circulation, the weather of subarctic area and even the weather of middle latitude areas. The 2003 Chinese Second Arctic Research Expedition experienced the transition of the stratosphereic circulation from a warm anticyclone to a cold cyclone during the ending period of Arctic summertime, a typical establishing process of the polar vortex circulation. The impact of the polar vortex variation on the low-level circulation has been investigated by some scientists through studying the coupling mechanisms of the stratosphere and troposphere. The impact of the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SFW) events on the polar vortex variation was drawing people's great attention in the fifties of the last century. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) , relating to the variation of the Arctic vortex, has been used to study the impact of the Arctic vortex on climate change. The recent Arctic vortex studies are simply reviewed and some discussions on the Arctic vertex are given in the paper. Some different views and questions are also discussed.

  16. Measurement of longitudinal spin asymmetries for weak boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-15

    We report measurements of single- and double-spin asymmetries for W^{±} and Z/γ^{*} boson production in longitudinally polarized p+p collisions at sqrt[s]=510  GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for W^{±} were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the W mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by polarized deep inelastic scattering measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range 0.05

  17. Measurement of longitudinal spin asymmetries for weak boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of single and double spin asymmetries for $W^{\\pm}$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ boson production in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 510$ GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for $W^{\\pm}$ were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the $W$ mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by recent polarized DIS measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range $0.05

  18. Backreaction of excitations on a vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Arodz, H; Arodz, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek

    1997-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their backreaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate backreaction of Proca type excitations on a straightlinear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose exact Ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the backreaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave packet type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component.

  19. Effect of Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction on magnetic vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Luo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM interaction on the vortex in magnetic microdisk was investigated by micro-magnetic simulation based on the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Our results show that the DM interaction modifies the size of the vortex core, and also induces an out-of-plane magnetization component at the edge and inside the disk. The DM interaction can destabilizes one vortex handedness, generate a bias field to the vortex core and couple the vortex polarity and chirality. This DM-interaction-induced coupling can therefore provide a new way to control vortex polarity and chirality.

  20. New omega vortex identification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChaoQun; Wang, YiQian; Yang, Yong; Duan, ZhiWei

    2016-08-01

    A new vortex identification criterion called Ω-method is proposed based on the ideas that vorticity overtakes deformation in vortex. The comparison with other vortex identification methods like Q-criterion and λ 2-method is conducted and the advantages of the new method can be summarized as follows: (1) the method is able to capture vortex well and very easy to perform; (2) the physical meaning of Ω is clear while the interpretations of iso-surface values of Q and λ 2 chosen to visualize vortices are obscure; (3) being different from Q and λ 2 iso-surface visualization which requires wildly various thresholds to capture the vortex structure properly, Ω is pretty universal and does not need much adjustment in different cases and the iso-surfaces of Ω=0.52 can always capture the vortices properly in all the cases at different time steps, which we investigated; (4) both strong and weak vortices can be captured well simultaneously while improper Q and λ 2 threshold may lead to strong vortex capture while weak vortices are lost or weak vortices are captured but strong vortices are smeared; (5) Ω=0.52 is a quantity to approximately define the vortex boundary. Note that, to calculate Ω, the length and velocity must be used in the non-dimensional form. From our direct numerical simulation, it is found that the vorticity direction is very different from the vortex rotation direction in general 3-D vortical flow, the Helmholtz velocity decomposition is reviewed and vorticity is proposed to be further decomposed to vortical vorticity and non-vortical vorticity.

  1. Lift Enhancement and Oscillatory Suppression of Vortex-induced Vibration in Shear Flow by Loentz Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 范宝春; 李鸿志

    2012-01-01

    The flow of the weak electrolyte solution can be controlled by Lorentz force achieved with the suitable magnetic and electric fields, and it has the advantages of vortex street suppression, drag reduction, lift enhancement and oscillatory suppression for the flow over a bluff body. The electro-magnetic control of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cyl- inder in the shear flow was investigated numerically in the exponential-polar coordinates attached on the moving cylinder for Re = 150. With the effect of background vorticity, the vortex street of VIV cylinder was composed of two parallel rows with an opposite sign of the vortices which inclines toward the lower side and the strength of upper vortex is larger than that of lower vortex. The lift force vibrated periodically with the effect of vortex shedding and the mean value was negative due to the background vorticity. The Lorentz force for controlling the VIV cylinder was classified into the field Lorentz force and the wall Lorentz force. The field Lorentz force suppresses the lift oscillation, and in turn, suppresses the VIV, whereas the wall Loreutz force increases the lift.

  2. Effect of triethanolamine and heliotropin on cathodic polarization of weakly acidic baths and properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloy electrodeposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinqiu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); An Maozhong [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)], E-mail: mzan@hit.edu.cn; Chang Limin; Liu Guiyuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of triethanolamine (TEA) and heliotropin (HT) on the cathodic polarization of weakly acidic baths and the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloy electrodeposits were investigated. Lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy were electrodeposited in weakly acidic baths (pH 5.5) containing Sn(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, AgI, Cu(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, K{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, KI, hydroquinone, TEA, HT and methylsulfonic acid (MSA). The cathodic polarization of baths and the properties of electrodeposits were evaluated by Liner sweep voltammetry (LSV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that HT is a main brightening agent that increases the cathodic polarization of baths and refines the grains of electrodeposits; TEA is a complexing agent for copper ions and a brightening promoter that decreases the cathodic polarization of baths and densifies the electrodeposits. The bright, compact, and smooth Sn-Ag-Cu alloy electrodeposits contain 88-95 wt% tin, 5-10 wt% silver and 0.5-2 wt% copper. Organic compounds used in the baths neither adsorb on the electrodeposits surfaces nor are included in the electrodeposits. It can be therefore concluded that the use of both TEA and HT is better than that of them either in the process of electroplating bright Sn-Ag-Cu alloy.

  3. Vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorin, A.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

  4. Analysis of large effective electric fields of weakly polar molecules for electron electric-dipole-moment searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, A.; Abe, M.; Hada, M.; Das, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Combined experimental and theoretical studies on the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) can probe energy scales of a few TeV to PeV. The possible existence of the eEDM gives rise to an experimentally observed energy shift, which is proportional to the effective electric field (Eeff) of a target molecule. Hence, an analysis of the quantities that enhance Eeff is necessary to identify suitable molecules for eEDM searches. In the context of such searches, it is generally believed that a molecule with larger electric polarization also has a larger value of Eeff. However, our Dirac-Fock and relativistic coupled-cluster singles and doubles calculations show that the hydrides of Yb and Hg have larger Eeff than those of fluorides, even though their polarizations are smaller. This is due to significant mixing of valence s and p orbitals of the heavy atom in the molecules. This mixing has been attributed to the energy differences of the valence atomic orbitals and the overlap of the two atomic orbitals based on the orbital interaction theory.

  5. New experimental possibility to search for the ratio of a possible T-violating amplitude to the weak-interaction amplitude in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target

    CERN Document Server

    Lukashevich, V V; Dallman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a spin-dependent neutron interaction with optical potentials (fields) from the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and an assumed T-violating interaction. The vector sum of these fields and their interferences determines an effective field of the target with an angular position in space due to polar and azimuthal angles. The phase of the azimuthal component is found to be the sum of two angles. The tangent of the first angle is equal to the ratio of the T-violating forward-scattering amplitude D to the weak-interaction amplitude C. The quantity is of interest. The tangent of the second angle depends on the spin rotation in the residual pseudomagnetic field of the target, and it can be treated as a background effect. This paper shows that the second angle has different signs in measurements with polarized and unpolarized neutrons; thus, two measurements allow it to be compensated for. In addition, the use of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields for measurement of the neu...

  6. Resonant Interaction Between a Weak Gravitational Wave and a Microwave Beam in the Double Polarized States Through a Static Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-Yu; YANG Nan

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigate the resonant interaction of a weak gravitational wave with a microwave beam in a coupling electromagnetic system, which consists of a Gaussian beam with double polarized transverse electric modes,a static magnetic field and fractal membranes. We find that under the synchroresonance condition, a highfrequency gravitational wave in amplitude 10-30 and frequency 3 GHz may produce the perturbative photon flux of 2.15 × 10 s- 1 in a surface of 10-2 m2. The perturbative photon flux can be pumped out from the background photon fluxes and one may obtain the amplified signal photon flux of2.15 × 104 s-1 by cascade fractal membranes.It is worth studying this effect for the detection of high-frequency relic gravitational waves in quintessential inflationary models and the high-frequency gravitational waves expected by possible laboratory schemes.

  7. Brownian vortexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Lin, Jiayi; Darby, Ellis; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Mechanical equilibrium at zero temperature does not necessarily imply thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature for a particle confined by a static but nonconservative force field. Instead, the diffusing particle can enter into a steady state characterized by toroidal circulation in the probability flux, which we call a Brownian vortex. The circulatory bias in the particle’s thermally driven trajectory is not simply a deterministic response to the solenoidal component of the force but rather reflects interplay between advection and diffusion in which thermal fluctuations extract work from the nonconservative force field. As an example of this previously unrecognized class of stochastic heat engines, we consider a colloidal sphere diffusing in a conventional optical tweezer. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonconservative optical forces bias the particle’s fluctuations into toroidal vortexes whose circulation can reverse direction with temperature or laser power.

  8. Vortex transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2005-09-16

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.

  9. Spin torque and critical currents for magnetic vortex nano-oscillator in nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guslienko, K Y; Gonzalez, J [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Aranda, G R, E-mail: sckguslk@ehu.es [Centro de Fisica de Materiales UPV/EHU-CSIC, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-04-01

    We calculated the main dynamic parameters of the spin polarized current induced magnetic vortex oscillations in nanopillars, such as the range of current density, where vortex steady oscillations exist, the oscillation frequency and orbit radius. We accounted for both the non-linear vortex frequency and non-linear vortex damping. To describe the vortex excitations by the spin polarized current we used a generalized Thiele approach to motion of the vortex core as a collective coordinate. All the calculation results are represented via the free layer sizes, saturation magnetization, and the Gilbert damping. Predictions of the developed model can be checked experimentally.

  10. Vortex bursting and tracer transport of a counter-rotating vortex pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaka, T.; Holzäpfel, F.; Hennemann, I.; Gerz, T.; Manhart, M.; Schwertfirm, F.

    2012-02-01

    Large-eddy simulations of a coherent counter-rotating vortex pair in different environments are performed. The environmental background is characterized by varying turbulence intensities and stable temperature stratifications. Turbulent exchange processes between the vortices, the vortex oval, and the environment, as well as the material redistribution processes along the vortex tubes are investigated employing passive tracers that are superimposed to the initial vortex flow field. It is revealed that the vortex bursting phenomenon, known from photos of aircraft contrails or smoke visualization, is caused by collisions of secondary vortical structures traveling along the vortex tube which expel material from the vortex but do not result in a sudden decay of circulation or an abrupt change of vortex core structure. In neutrally stratified and weakly turbulent conditions, vortex reconnection triggers traveling helical vorticity structures which is followed by their collision. A long-lived vortex ring links once again establishing stable double rings. Key phenomena observed in the simulations are supported by photographs of contrails. The vertical and lateral extents of the detrained passive tracer strongly depend on environmental conditions where the sensitivity of detrainment rates on initial tracer distributions appears to be low.

  11. Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vortex during winter 2004/2005 was interesting for several reasons. It has been described as "cold" stratospherically, with relatively strong westerly winds. Losses of ozone until the final warming in March were considerable, and comparable to the cold 1999–2000 winter. There were also modest warming events, indicated by peaks in 10 hPa zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes, near 1 January and 1 February. Events associated with a significant regional stratospheric warming in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector then began and peaked toward the end of February, providing strong longitudinal variations in dynamical characteristics (Chshyolkova et al., 2007; hereafter C07. The associated disturbed vortex of 25 February was displaced from the pole and either elongated (upper or split into two cyclonic centres (lower.

    Observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura are used here to study the thermal characteristics of the stratosphere in the Canadian-US (253° E and Scandinavian-Europe (16° E sectors. Undisturbed high latitude stratopause (55 km zonal mean temperatures during the mid-winter (December–February reached 270 K, warmer than empirical-models such as CIRA-86, suggesting that seasonal polar warming due to dynamical influences affects the high altitude stratosphere as well as the mesosphere. There were also significant stratopause differences between Scandinavia and Canada during the warming events of 1 January and 1 February, with higher temperatures near 275 K at 16° E. During the 25 February "PWC" event a warming occurred at low and middle stratospheric heights (10–30 km: 220 K at 253° E and the stratopause cooled; while over Scandinavia-Europe the stratosphere below ~30 km was relatively cold at 195 K and the stratopause became even warmer (>295 K and lower (~45 km. The zonal winds followed the associated temperature gradients so that the vertical and latitudinal gradients of the winds differed strongly

  12. Polar Vortex and Temperature Diagnostics for Intercomparisons and MLS Data Inspection: Update on Antarctic 2012 Meteorology in Relation to MLS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Zachary; Manney, Gloria; Minschwaner, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Stratospheric temperature diagnostics are important indicators for evaluating the severity of polar winters and the susceptibility to conditions that lead to ozone loss at the poles. The availability of many meteorological datasets with temperature products that span multiple years allows for direct comparisons between satellite measurements (the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS), operational data assimilation systems, and reanalysis data sets produced by meteorological forecast centers. We focus on two diagnostics: first, the area where temperatures are less than the threshold temperatures for the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), and second, the minimum daily temperatures over the course of the polar winters. Both diagnostics have a long history of use for monitoring the wintertime polar stratosphere, and we will present a comparison of results based on updated data products and analysis techniques, along with an update on meteorological conditions and ozone for the 2012 Antarctic winter.

  13. Exploring transverse pattern formation in a dual-polarization self-mode-locked monolithic Yb: KGW laser and generating a 25-GHz sub-picosecond vortex beam via gain competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M T; Liang, H C; Su, K W; Chen, Y F

    2016-04-18

    Formation of transverse modes in a dual-polarization self-mode-locked monolithic Yb: KGW laser under high-power pumping is thoroughly explored. It is experimentally observed that the polarization-resolved transverse patterns are considerably affected by the pump location in the transverse plane of the gain medium. In contrast, the longitudinal self-mode-locking is nearly undisturbed by the pump position, even under the high-power pumping. Under central pumping, a vortex beam of the Laguerre-Gaussian LGp,l mode with p = 1 and l = 1 can be efficiently generated through the process of the gain competition with a sub-picosecond pulse train at 25.3 GHz and the output power can be up to 1.45 W at a pump power of 10.0 W. Under off-center pumping, the symmetry breaking causes the transverse patterns to be dominated by the high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes. Numerical analyses are further performed to manifest the symmetry breaking induced by the off-center pumping.

  14. Entangled vector vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.

  15. Optical vortex conversion in the elliptic vortex-beam propagating orthogonally to the crystal optical axis: the experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Bogdan; Kudryavtseva, Maria; Zinovyev, Alexey; Konovalenko, Victor; Rubass, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have experimentally analyzed the topological reactions occurred in the elliptic vortex-beam transmitting orthogonally to the optical axis of the SiO2 crystal. We have revealed that the oscillations of the polarization state when propagating the beam are accompanied by reconstruction of the polarization singularities at the beam cross-section that, in turn, entails the reconstruction of the wavefront in each circularly polarized beam component. Both synchronic oscillations of the spin angular momentum and the sign of the vortex topological charge are expressing in a field structure as birth and annihilation of topological dipoles. Also periodical conversion of the vortex ellipticity along the crystal length z and huge splash of spin angular momentum were analysed. The run of the dislocation reactions in the beam component results in converting the sign of the topological charge in the centered optical vortex, the distance of the vortex conversion being about 0.05 of the wavelength.

  16. Observation of Vortex Patterns in a Magnetized Dusty Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Feng; YE Maofu; WANG Long; LIU Yanhong

    2007-01-01

    Vortex patterns of dust particles have been observed in a magnetized dusty plasma system. The formation mechanism of two-dimensional (2D) vortex patterns has been investigated by analysing the forces acting on dust particles and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in a 2D confined magnetized dusty plasma. It has been found that with a weak confining electric field and a strong magnetic field, the particles' trajectories will form a vortex shape. The simulation results agree with our experimental observations. In our experiments, vortex patterns can be induced via circular rotation of particles by changing the rf (radio-frequency) power in a magnetized dusty plasma.

  17. Fractional vortex Hilbert's Hotel

    CERN Document Server

    Gbur, Greg

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how the unusual mathematics of transfinite numbers, in particular a nearly perfect realization of Hilbert's famous hotel paradox, manifests in the propagation of light through fractional vortex plates. It is shown how a fractional vortex plate can be used, in principle, to create any number of "open rooms," i.e. topological charges, simultaneously. Fractional vortex plates are therefore demonstrated to create a singularity of topological charge, in which the vortex state is completely undefined and in fact arbitrary.

  18. Spin-orbit interaction of light and diffraction of polarized beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekshaev, Aleksandr Ya

    2017-08-01

    The edge diffraction of a homogeneously polarized light beam is studied theoretically based on the paraxial optics and Fresnel-Kirchhoff approximation, and the dependence of the diffracted beam pattern of the incident beam polarization is predicted. If the incident beam is circularly polarized, the trajectory of the diffracted beam center of gravity exhibits a small angular deviation from the geometrically expected direction. The deviation is parallel to the screen edge and reverses the sign with the polarization handedness; it is explicitly calculated for the case of a Gaussian incident beam with a plane wavefront. This effect is a manifestation of the spin-orbit interaction of light and can be interpreted as a revelation of the internal spin energy flow immanent in circularly polarized beams. It also exposes the vortex character of the weak longitudinal field component associated with the circularly polarized incident beam.

  19. Sadovskii vortex in strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    A Sadovskii vortex is a patch of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. Using a boundary element type method, we investigate the steady states of this flow in an incompressible, inviscid straining flow. Outside the vortex, the fluid is irrotational. In the limiting case where the entire circulation is due to the vortex patch, this is a patch vortex (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971). In the other limiting case, where all the circulation is due to the vortex sheet, this is a hollow vortex (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691, 2012). This flow has two governing nondimensional parameters, relating the strengths of the straining field, vortex sheet, and patch vorticity. We study the relationship between these two parameters, and examine the shape of the resulting vortices. We also work towards a bifurcation diagram of the steady states of the Sadovskii vortex in an attempt to understand the connection between vortex sheet and vortex patch desingularizations of the point vortex. Support from NSF-CMMI-0970113.

  20. Streamwise Vortex Interaction with a Horseshoe Vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr Doerffer; Pawel Flaszynski; Franco Magagnato

    2003-01-01

    Flow control in turbomachinery is very difficult because of the complexity of its fully 3-D flow structure. The authors propose to introduce streamwise vortices into the control of internal flows. A simple configuration of vortices was investigated in order to better understand the flow control methods by means of streamwise vortices.The research presented here concerns streamwise vortex interaction with a horseshoe vortex. The effects of such an interaction are significantly dependent on the relative location of the streamwise vortex in respect to the leading edge of the profile. The streamwise vortex is induced by an air jet. The horseshoe vortex is generated by the leading edge of a symmetric profile. Such a configuration gives possibility to investigate the interaction of these two vortices alone. The presented analysis is based on numerical simulations by means of N-S compressible solver with a two-equation turbulence model.

  1. Coexistence of Weak Ferromagnetism and Polar Lattice Distortion in Epitaxial NiTiO3 thin films of the LiNbO3-Type Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Tamas [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Droubay, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Colby, Robert J. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Dehong [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kabius, Bernd C. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Apra, Edoardo [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shelton, William A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Chambers, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We report the magnetic and structural characteristics of epitaxial NiTiO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition that are isostructural with acentric LiNbO3 (space group R3c). Optical second harmonic generation and magnetometry demonstrate lattice polarization at room temperature and weak ferromagnetism below 250 K, respectively. These results appear to be consistent with earlier predictions from first-principles calculations of the coexistence of ferroelectricity and weak ferromagnetism in a series of transition metal titanates crystallizing in the LiNbO3 structure. This acentric form of NiTiO3 is believed to be one of the rare examples of ferroelectrics exhibiting weak ferromagnetism generated by a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  2. Vortex dominated flows. Analysis and computation for multiple scale phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, L. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences; Klein, R. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik und Informatik; Knio, O.M. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This monograph provides in-depth analyses of vortex dominated flows via matched and multiscale asymptotics, and demonstrates how insight gained through these analyses can be exploited in the construction of robust, efficient, and accurate numerical techniques. The book explores the dynamics of slender vortex filaments in detail, including fundamental derivations, compressible core structure, weakly non-linear limit regimes, and associated numerical methods. Similarly, the volume covers asymptotic analysis and computational techniques for weakly compressible flows involving vortex-generated sound and thermoacoustics. The book is addressed to both graduate students and researchers. (orig.)

  3. The mechanism of vortex switching in magnetic nanodots under circular magnetic field. II. The dynamics of spin plaquette with vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalev, A S

    2003-01-01

    A plaquette spin system in a vortex configuration is considered analytically and numerically to treat theoretically the vortex switching in magnetic nanodots due to the action of external circular magnetic field. The initial (linear) stage of the switching is analyzed. The analytical results obtained confirm the numerical data on the plaquette dynamics. Both the numerical analysis and the analytical consideration of the initial activation stage show the importance of taking into account the system azimuthal modes. At the frequencies of these modes the most rapid amplification of the vortex energy and the total out-of-plane magnetization occurs. The growth of the modes amplitudes gives rise to a parametrical activation of the low-frequency symmetric mode, and in turn causes the vortex switching. The results obtained provide a qualitative explanation of the numerical data on vortex switching in large-sized magnetic systems and may be used in experiments on guided effect on vortex polarization in magnetic nanodo...

  4. Experimental observation of the collision of three vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, R. H.; Monsalve, E.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate for the first time the motion, interaction and simultaneous collision between three initially stable vortex rings arranged symmetrically, making an angle of 120 degrees between their straight path lines. We report results with laminar vortex rings in air and water obtained through measurements of the ring velocity field with a hot-wire anemometer, both in free flight and during the entire collision. In the air experiment, our flow visualizations allowed us to identify two main collision stages. A first ring-dominated stage where the rings slowdown progressively, increasing their diameter rapidly, followed by secondary vortex structures resulting after the rings make contact. Local portions of the vortex tubes of opposite circulation are coupled together thus creating local arm-like vortex structures moving radially in outward directions, rapidly dissipating kinetic energy. From a similar water experiment, we provide detailed shadowgraph visualizations of both the ring bubble and the full size collision, showing clearly the final expanding vortex structure. It is accurately resolved that the physical contact between vortex ring tubes gives rise to three symmetric expanding vortex arms but also the vortex reconnection of the top and lower vortex tubes. The central collision zone was found to have the lowest kinetic energy during the entire collision and therefore it can be identified as a safe zone. The preserved collision symmetries leading to the weak kinematic activity in the safe zone is the first step into the development of an intermittent hydrodynamic trap for small and lightweight particles.

  5. Vortex mechanism in hydrocyclones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继润; 刘正宁; 邢军; 李新跃; 黄慧; 徐海燕; 罗茜

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the vortex characteristics, a new mechanism of the vortex formation in hydrocyclones is developed. The main concept of the mechanism is that the vortex flow in a hydrocyclone is resulted from the overlapping of container rotation and hole leakage. The model is then used to explain the compound distribution of free vortex and forced vortex, predict the similarity of tangential velocity at different input pressures, and make count of the principle of small hydrocyclone with lower cut-size than large one. Meanwhile a new possible approach to a large hydro-cyclone with lower cut-size by minimizing or eliminating the air core is discussed briefly.

  6. Structure of a Steady Bathtub Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Bøhling, Lasse; Fabre, David

    2010-11-01

    Bathtub vortex flows constitute an important class of concentrated vortex flows which are characterised by intense axial down-flow and stress free surface. We use direct numerical simulations to explore the flow structure of a steady bathtub vortex in a cylindrical tank with a central drain-hole. We find that the qualitative structure of the meridional flow does not depend on the radial Reynolds number, whereas we observe a weak overall rotation at low radial Reynolds number and a concentrated vortex above the drain-hole at high radial Reynolds number. We present a simple analytical model which shows the same qualitative dependence on the radial Reynolds number as the simulations and which compares favourably with the results for the radial velocity and the azimuthal velocity at the surface. Finally, we describe the height dependence of the radius of the vortex core and the maximum of the azimuthal velocity at high radial Reynolds number, and we show that the data on the radius of the vortex core and the maximum of the azimuthal velocity as functions of height collapse on single curves by appropriate scaling.

  7. Depicting Vortex Stretching and Vortex Relaxing Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符松; 李启兵; 王明皓

    2003-01-01

    Different from many existing studies on the paranetrization of vortices, we investigate the effectiveness of two new parameters for identifying the vortex stretching and vortex relaxing mechanisms. These parameters are invariants and identify three-dimensional flow structures only, i.e. they diminish in two-dimensional flows. This is also unlike the existing vortex identification approaches which deliver information in two-dimensional flows. The present proposals have been successfully applied to identify the stretching and relaxing vortices in compressible mixing layers and natural convection flows.

  8. Two vortex-blob regularization models for vortex sheet motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik

    2014-04-01

    Evolving vortex sheets generally form singularities in finite time. The vortex blob model is an approach to regularize the vortex sheet motion and evolve past singularity formation. In this paper, we thoroughly compare two such regularizations: the Krasny-type model and the Beale-Majda model. It is found from a linear stability analysis that both models have exponentially decaying growth rates for high wavenumbers, but the Beale-Majda model has a faster decaying rate than the Krasny model. The Beale-Majda model thus gives a stronger regularization to the solution. We apply the blob models to the two example problems: a periodic vortex sheet and an elliptically loaded wing. The numerical results show that the solutions of the two models are similar in large and small scales, but are fairly different in intermediate scales. The sheet of the Beale-Majda model has more spiral turns than the Krasny-type model for the same value of the regularization parameter δ. We give numerical evidences that the solutions of the two models agree for an increasing amount of spiral turns and tend to converge to the same limit as δ is decreased. The inner spiral turns of the blob models behave differently with the outer turns and satisfy a self-similar form. We also examine irregular motions of the sheet at late times and find that the irregular motions shrink as δ is decreased. This fact suggests a convergence of the blob solution to the weak solution of infinite regular spiral turns.

  9. Measurement of the polarization of tau--leptons produced in Z decays at CMS and determination of the effective weak mixing angle

    CERN Document Server

    Cherepanov, Vladimir; Lohmann, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis the first measurement of the τ-lepton polarization in Z → ττ decays is performed at a proton-proton collider. A sample of 8818 events of the decay Z0 → τ + τ − → µνν,a1 ν is used. It is selected in data corresponding to a luminosity of 19.6 fb−1 collected by theCMS detector at 8 TeV. The average polarization is measured to be:

  10. Irreversible Magnetization Deep in the Vortex-Liquid State of a 2D Superconductor at High Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Maniv, T.; Zhuravlev, V.; Wosnitza, J.; Hagel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable phenomenon of weak magnetization hysteresis loops, observed recently deep in the vortex-liquid state of a nearly two-dimensional (2D) superconductor at low temperatures, is shown to reflect the existence of an unusual vortex-liquid state, consisting of collectively pinned crystallites of easily sliding vortex chains.

  11. Vanishing electron g factor and long-lived nuclear spin polarization in weakly strained nanohole-filled GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Ulhaq, A.; Duan, Q; Zallo, E.; Ding, F.; Schmidt, O. G.; Tartakovskii, A. I.; Skolnick, M. S.; Chekhovich, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots grown by in situ droplet etching and nanohole in-filling offer a combination of strong charge confinement, optical efficiency, and high spatial symmetry advantageous for polarization entanglement and spin-photon interface. Here, we study experimentally electron and nuclear spin properties of such dots. We find nearly vanishing electron g factors (ge

  12. Chiral specific electron vortex beam spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, J; Babiker, M

    2013-01-01

    Electron vortex beams carry well-defined orbital angular momentum (OAM) about the propagation axis. Such beams are thus characterised by chirality features which make them potentially useful as probes of magnetic and other chiral materials. An analysis of the inelastic processes in which electron vortex beams interact with atoms and which involve OAM exchange is outlined, leading to the multipolar selection rules governing this chiral specific electron vortex beam spectroscopy. Our results show clearly that the selection rules are dependent on the dynamical state and location of the atoms involved. In the most favorable scenario, this form of electron spectroscopy can induce magnetic sublevel transitions which are commonly probed using circularly polarized photon beams.

  13. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  14. Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Yang, Jianke; Musslimani, Ziad

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optically induced waveguide array are reported. In the strong localization regime, the fundamental soliton is largely confined to one lattice site, while the vortex state comprises of four fundamental modes superimposed in a square configuration with a phase structure that is topologically equivalent to the conventional vortex. However, in the weak localization regime, both the fundamental and vortex solitons spread over many lattice sites. We further show that fundamental and vortex solitons are stable against small perturbations in the strong localization regime.

  15. Off-centred immobile magnetic vortex under influence of spin-transfer torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, Volodymyr P; Sheka, Denis D; Gaididei, Yuri [Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kiev (Ukraine); Mertens, Franz G, E-mail: vkravchuk@bitp.kiev.ua [Physics Institute, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-07-20

    Formation of the 'dip' structure which foregoes switching of magnetic vortex polarity is studied numerically in magnetic nanodisc. A new method based on influence of the spin-transfer torque is used. The method allows one to obtain the dip structure for immobile vortex which significantly improves studying accuracy in comparison with the case of moving vortex. Free out-of-plane vortices as well as in-plane vortices pinned on hole defects are considered. It is shown that the process of the dip formation is different for free and pinned vortices and direction of the dip does not directly depend on the vortex polarity.

  16. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Keiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.

  17. Cryptanalysis of Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Dunkelman, Orr; Mendel, Florian;

    2009-01-01

    Vortex is a hash function that was first presented at ISC'2008, then submitted to the NIST SHA-3 competition after some modifications. This paper describes several attacks on both versions of Vortex, including collisions, second preimages, preimages, and distinguishers. Our attacks exploit flaws ...

  18. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig;

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  19. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I.; Bellaiche, Laurent M.; Prosandeev, Sergey A.; Ponomareva, Inna V.; Kornev, Igor A.

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  20. A computational study of the topology of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional numerical simulation of vortex breakdown using the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been performed. Solutions to four distinct types of breakdown are identified and compared with experimental results. The computed solutions include weak helical, double helix, spiral, and bubble-type breakdowns. The topological structure of the various breakdowns as well as their interrelationship are studied. The data reveal that the asymmetric modes of breakdown may be subject to additional breakdowns as the vortex core evolves in the streamwise direction. The solutions also show that the freestream axial velocity distribution has a significant effect on the position and type of vortex breakdown.

  1. An optical vortex coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, David M.

    2005-08-01

    An optical vortex may be characterized as a dark core of destructive interference in a beam of spatially coherent light. This dark core may be used as a filter to attenuate a coherent beam of light so an incoherent background signal may be detected. Applications of such a filter include: eye and sensor protection, forward-scattered light measurement, and the detection of extra-solar planets. Optical vortices may be created by passing a beam of light through a vortex diffractive optical element, which is a plate of glass etched with a spiral pattern, such that the thickness of the glass increases in the azimuthal direction. An optical vortex coronagraph may be constructed by placing a vortex diffractive optical element near the image plane of a telescope. An optical vortex coronagraph opens a dark window in the glare of a distant star so nearby terrestrial sized planets and exo-zodiacal dust may be detected. An optical vortex coronagraph may hold several advantages over other techniques presently being developed for high contrast imaging, such as lower aberration sensitivity and multi-wavelength operation. In this manuscript, I will discuss the aberration sensitivity of an optical vortex coronagraph and the key advantages it may hold over other coronagraph architectures. I will also provide numerical simulations demonstrating high contrast imaging in the presence of low-order static aberrations.

  2. Fast Josephson vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malishevskii, A.S.; Silin, V.P.; Uryupin, S.A

    2002-12-30

    For the magnetically coupled waveguide and long Josephson junction we gave the analytic description of two separate velocity domains where the free motion of traveling vortex (2{pi}-kink) exists. The role of the mutual influence of waveguide and long Josephson junction is discussed. It is shown the possibility of the fast vortex motion with the velocity much larger than Swihart velocity of Josephson junction and close to the speed of light in the waveguide. The excitation of motion of such fast Josephson vortex is described.

  3. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  4. The mechanism of vortex switching in magnetic nanodots under circular magnetic field. I. The resonance action of the field on the nanodot eigenmodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalev, A S

    2002-01-01

    The resonance activation of eigenmodes for a finite 2D easy-plane ferromagnet is considered to treat theoretically by the vortex switching in magnetic nanodots due to the action of external circular magnetic field. It is shown analytically that if the anisotropy is weak, i.e. the vortex has a nonzero polarity (total magnization along the z-axis), the process of the field action has a complicated nature. The circular field acts in a resonance way upon azimuthal system eigenmodes, in which magnetization depends on the azimuthal coordinate (as a direct resonance at the eigenfrequencies of these modes). The interaction of the azimuthal and symmetric modes (in which the magnetization does not depend on the azimuthal coordinate) via the applied field gives rise to complex parametric resonance at multifrequencies. The results obtained are compared with the data of previous numerical calculations.

  5. Stabilizing semilocal strings by polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Eto, Minoru; Sakurai, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Semilocal strings are vortices in the extended Abelian-Higgs model with two complex Higgs scalar fields among which a global $SU(2)$ symmetry acts. They are known to be stable (unstable against expansion) in type-I (II) superconductors, in which gauge field is heavier (lighter) than the Higgs scalar field. In this paper, we find that vortices can be stabilized in the whole parameter region including the type-II region by adding a potential term breaking the $SU(2)$ symmetry. We construct numerical solutions in various parameters and determine the vortex phase diagram consisting of six phases. In two phases, a vortex is polarized, that is, split into two half-quantized vortices with a certain distance, to form a vortex molecule, while in the rests a vortex is identical to the conventional Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortex.

  6. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  7. Vortex flow hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.

  8. Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.

  9. Vortex disruption by magnetohydrodynamic feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Julian; Hughes, D W

    2016-01-01

    In an electrically conducting fluid, vortices stretch out a weak, large-scale magnetic field to form strong current sheets on their edges. Associated with these current sheets are magnetic stresses, which are subsequently released through reconnection, leading to vortex disruption, and possibly even destruction. This disruption phenomenon is investigated here in the context of two-dimensional, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. We derive a simple order of magnitude estimate for the magnetic stresses --- and thus the degree of disruption --- that depends on the strength of the background magnetic field (measured by the parameter $M$, a ratio between the Alfv\\'en speed and a typical flow speed) and on the magnetic diffusivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number $\\mbox{Rm}$). The resulting estimate suggests that significant disruption occurs when $M^{2}\\mbox{Rm} = O(1)$. To test our prediction, we analyse direct numerical simulations of vortices generated by the breakup of unstable shear flo...

  10. Buoyant Norbury's vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Mark; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Salman, Hayder

    2014-11-01

    Norbury's vortices are a one-parameter family of axisymmetric vortex rings that are exact solutions to the Euler equations. Due to their relative simplicity, they are extensively used to model the behavior of real vortex rings found in experiments and in Nature. In this work, we extend the original formulation of the problem to include buoyancy effects for the case where the fluid that lies within the vortex has a different density to that of the ambient. In this modified formulation, buoyancy effects enter the problem through the baroclinic term of the vorticity equation. This permits an efficient numerical solution of the governing equation of motion in terms of a vortex contour method that tracks the evolution of the boundary of the vortex. Finally, we compare our numerical results with the theoretical analysis of the short-time evolution of a buoyant vortex. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through grant DPI2011-28356-C03-02 and by the London Mathematical Society.

  11. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-05-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

  12. Temperature effect on vortex-core reversals in magnetic nanodots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bosung; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Lee, Jehyun; Kim, Sang-Koog, E-mail: sangkoog@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Creative Research Initiative Center for Spin Dynamics and Spin-Wave Devices, Nanospinics Laboratory, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-07

    We studied the temperature effect on vortex-core reversals in soft magnetic nanodots by micromagnetic numerical calculations within a framework of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert scheme. It was determined that vortex-core-switching events at non-zero temperatures occur stochastically, and that the threshold field strength increases with temperature for a given field frequency. The mechanism of core reversals at elevated temperatures is the same as that of vortex-antivortex-pair-mediated core reversals found at the zero temperature. The reversal criterion is also the out-of-plane component of a magnetization dip that should reach −p, which is to say, m{sub z,dip} = −p, where p is the original polarization, p = +1 (−1), for the upward (downward) core. By this criterion, the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair accompanies complete vortex-antivortex-annihilation-mediated core reversals, resulting in the maximum excess of the exchange energy density, ΔE{sub ex}{sup cri} ≈ 15.4 ± 0.2 mJ/cm{sup 3}. This work provides the underlying physics of vortex-core reversals at non-zero temperatures, and potentiates the real application of vortex random access memory operating at elevated temperatures.

  13. Delta-singular vortex dynamics on a rotating sphere and stability of coupled atmospheric centers of action

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, I I; Chefranov, A G

    2010-01-01

    Existence of a stationary mode for a Hamiltonian dynamic system of two point vortexes with different signs on different latitudes of a uniform rotating sphere complying with observed data is stated. It is shown that such mode realization is possible only in the case when the more intensive cyclonic vortex has greater latitude than that of the anticyclonic vortex. A criterion of exponential instability of the stationary vortex mode taken into account impact of the polar vortexes is obtained. Compliance of the theory to observed data and reanalysis for coupled quasi-stationary systems of cyclonic and anticyclonic atmosphere action centers above oceans in the Northern Hemisphere is considered.

  14. Optical vortex beam generator at nanoscale level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoli, Denis; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Gorodetski, Yuri; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Optical beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) can find tremendous applications in several fields. In order to apply these particular beams in photonic integrated devices innovative optical elements have been proposed. Here we are interested in the generation of OAM-carrying beams at the nanoscale level. We design and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic optical vortex emitter, based on a metal-insulator-metal holey plasmonic vortex lens. Our plasmonic element is shown to convert impinging circularly polarized light to an orbital angular momentum state capable of propagating to the far-field. Moreover, the emerging OAM can be externally adjusted by switching the handedness of the incident light polarization. The device has a radius of few micrometers and the OAM beam is generated from subwavelength aperture. The fabrication of integrated arrays of PVLs and the possible simultaneous emission of multiple optical vortices provide an easy way to the large-scale integration of optical vortex emitters for wide-ranging applications. PMID:27404659

  15. Are vortices in rotating superfluids breaking the Weak Equivalence Principle?

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto

    2009-01-01

    Due to the breaking of gauge symmetry in rotating superfluid Helium, the inertial mass of a vortex diverges with the vortex size. The vortex inertial mass is thus much higher than the classical inertial mass of the vortex core. An equal increase of the vortex gravitational mass is questioned. The possibility that the vortices in a rotating superfluid could break the weak equivalence principle in relation with a variable speed of light in the superfluid vacuum is debated. Experiments to test this possibility are investigated on the bases that superfluid Helium vortices would not fall, under the single influence of a uniform gravitational field, at the same rate as the rest of the superfluid Helium mass.

  16. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  17. Phase locking of vortex cores in two coupled magnetic nanopillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyuan Zhu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase locking dynamics of the coupled vortex cores in two identical magnetic spin valves induced by spin-polarized current are studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. Our results show that the available current range of phase locking can be expanded significantly by the use of constrained polarizer, and the vortices undergo large orbit motions outside the polarization areas. The effects of polarization areas and dipolar interaction on the phase locking dynamics are studied systematically. Phase locking parameters extracted from simulations are discussed by theoreticians. The dynamics of vortices influenced by spin valve geometry and vortex chirality are discussed at last. This work provides deeper insights into the dynamics of phase locking and the results are important for the design of spin-torque nano-oscillators.

  18. Reconnection of superfluid vortex bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Sultan Z; Youd, Anthony J; Barenghi, Carlo F

    2008-11-21

    Using the vortex filament model and the Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we show that bundles of quantized vortex lines in He II are structurally robust and can reconnect with each other maintaining their identity. We discuss vortex stretching in superfluid turbulence and show that, during the bundle reconnection process, kelvin waves of large amplitude are generated, in agreement with the finding that helicity is produced by nearly singular vortex interactions in classical Euler flows.

  19. Nano magnetic vortex wall guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A concept of nano magnetic vortex wall guide is introduced. Two architectures are proposed. The first one is properly designed superlattices while the other one is bilayer nanostrips. The concept is verified by micromagnetic simulations. Both guides can prevent the vortex core in a magnetic vortex wall from colliding with sample surface so that the information stored in the vortex core can be preserved during its transportation from one location to another one through the guides.

  20. Direct observation of imprinted antiferromagnetic vortex state in CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Carlton, D.; Park, J. S.; Meng, Y.; Arenholz, E.; Doran, A.; Young, A.T.; Scholl, A.; Hwang, C.; Zhao, H. W.; Bokor, J.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2010-12-21

    In magnetic thin films, a magnetic vortex is a state in which the magnetization vector curls around the center of a confined structure. A vortex state in a thin film disk, for example, is a topological object characterized by the vortex polarity and the winding number. In ferromagnetic (FM) disks, these parameters govern many fundamental properties of the vortex such as its gyroscopic rotation, polarity reversal, core motion, and vortex pair excitation. However, in antiferromagnetic (AFM) disks, though there has been indirect evidence of the vortex state through observations of the induced FM-ordered spins in the AFM disk, they have never been observed directly in experiment. By fabricating single crystalline NiO/Fe/Ag(001) and CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks and using X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD), we show direct observation of the vortex state in an AFM disk of AFM/FM bilayer system. We observe that there are two types of AFM vortices, one of which has no analog in FM structures. Finally, we show that a frozen AFM vortex can bias a FM vortex at low temperature.

  1. Jet vortex methods

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, Darryl D

    2015-01-01

    Vortex blob methods are typically characterized by a regularization length scale, below which the the dynamics are trivial for isolated blobs. In this article we will find that the dynamics need not be trivial if one is willing to consider distributional derivatives of Dirac delta functionals as valid vorticity distributions. More specifically, a new singular vortex theory is presented for regularised Euler fluid equations of ideal incompressible flow in the plane. We determine the conditions under which such regularised Euler fluid equations may admit vorticity singularities which are stronger than delta functions, e.g., derivatives of delta functions. We also characterise the Hamiltonian dynamics of the higher-order singular vortices. Applications to the design of numerical meth- ods similar to vortex blob methods are also discussed. Such findings shed light onto the rich dynamics which occur below the regularization length scale and enlighten our perspective on the multiscale aspects of regularized fluid m...

  2. Vortex tube optimization theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewins, Jeffery [Cambridge Univ., Magdalene Coll., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bejan, Adrian [Duke Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube splits a single high pressure stream of gas into cold and warm streams. Simple models for the vortex tube combined with regenerative precooling are given from which an optimisation can be undertaken. Two such optimisations are needed: the first shows that at any given cut or fraction of the cold stream, the best refrigerative load, allowing for the temperature lift, is nearly half the maximum loading that would result in no lift. The second optimisation shows that the optimum cut is an equal division of the vortex streams between hot and cold. Bounds are obtainable within this theory for the performance of the system for a given gas and pressure ratio. (Author)

  3. Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2013-07-01

    Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices.

  4. Spontaneous vortex nanodomain arrays at ferroelectric heterointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher T; Winchester, Benjamin; Zhang, Yi; Kim, Sung-Joo; Melville, Alexander; Adamo, Carolina; Folkman, Chad M; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Eom, Chang-Beom; Schlom, Darrell G; Chen, Long-Qing; Pan, Xiaoqing

    2011-02-09

    The polarization of the ferroelectric BiFeO(3) sub-jected to different electrical boundary conditions by heterointerfaces is imaged with atomic resolution using a spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. Unusual triangular-shaped nanodomains are seen, and their role in providing polarization closure is understood through phase-field simulations. Heterointerfaces are key to the performance of ferroelectric devices, and this first observation of spontaneous vortex nanodomain arrays at ferroelectric heterointerfaces reveals properties unlike the surrounding film including mixed Ising-Néel domain walls, which will affect switching behavior, and a drastic increase of in-plane polarization. The importance of magnetization closure has long been appreciated in multidomain ferromagnetic systems; imaging this analogous effect with atomic resolution at ferroelectric heterointerfaces provides the ability to see device-relevant interface issues. Extension of this technique to visualize domain dynamics is envisioned.

  5. Weak ferromagnetism and nanodimensional ferroelectric domain structure stabilized in the polar phase of Bi{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}FeO{sub 3} multiferroics via Ti doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomchenko, V. A., E-mail: uladzimir@fis.uc.pt; Paixão, J. A. [CEMDRX/Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, L. C. J. [Unidade de Ciências Químicas e Radiofarmacêuticas, IST/CTN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa/CFMCUL, P-2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-04-28

    Crystal structure, microstructure, local ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of the Bi{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} samples have been investigated at room temperature to reveal the effect of Ti{sup 4+} doping on the multiferroic behavior of the lanthanide-modified compound representing a polar (space group R3c) antiferromagnetic phase of the Bi{sub 1−x}Ln{sub x}FeO{sub 3} perovskites. Ti doping results in a gradual suppression of the rhombohedral distortions, however, symmetry of the crystal structure remains the same in the entire concentration range allowing the single-phase perovskites to be obtained (x ≤ 0.08). The doping tends to reduce existing lone-pair cation-driven polar displacements, thus giving rise to a decrease of the ferroelectric polarization in the Bi{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (x→0.08) series. A drastic (from ∼10 μm for x = 0 to ∼1 μm for 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.08) decrease of the average grain size induced by the doping is accompanied by the formation of a ferroelectric domain structure with the average domain width of ∼40 nm. Finally, the doping was shown to induce an antiferromagnetic to weak ferromagnetic transformation. The maximum remanent magnetization observed in the Bi{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} series at x ∼ 0.05 coincides with the locked magnetization releasing upon the magnetic field-induced suppression of the magnetic cycloid in pure BiFeO{sub 3}.

  6. Dynamics of Vortex Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanisms with which tip vortex cavitation is responsible for broadband pressure fluctuations on ship propellers. Hypotheses for these are described in detail by Bosschers (2009). Validation is provided by three main cavitation-tunnel experiments, one on a model propeller

  7. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging

  8. Ionospheric current system accompanied by auroral vortex streets

    CERN Document Server

    Hiraki, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    High resolution optical measurements have revealed that a sudden brightening of aurora and its deformation from an arc-like to a vortex street structure appear just at the onset of substorm. The instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves reflected from the ionosphere has been studied by means of magnetohydrodynamic simulations in order to comprehend the formation of auroral vortex streets. Our previous work reported that an initially placed arc intensifies, splits, and deforms into a vortex street during a couple of minutes, and the prime key is an enhancement of the convection electric field. This study elaborated physics of the ionospheric horizontal currents related to the vortex street in the context of so-called Cowling polarization. One component is due to the perturbed electric field by Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves, and the other is due to the perturbed electron density (or polarization) in the ionosphere. It was found that, when a vortex street develops, upward/downward pair currents in its leading/trail...

  9. Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  10. Vectorial rotating vortex Hankel laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Victor V.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Soifer, Victor A.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a generalization of spherical waves in the form of linearly polarized beams with embedded optical vortices. The source of these beams is an infinitely narrow light ring with an infinitely small radius. These vectorial beams are obtained based on scalar Hankel beams discovered by the authors recently. We have derived explicit relations for complex amplitudes of all six components of vectorial vortex Hankel beams. A closed analytical expression for the axial projection of the orbital angular momentum density in far field has been obtained. We also showed that the intensity distribution of the electric vector rotates by 90 degrees upon the beam propagation in near field.

  11. The vortex moving toward Taiwan and the influence of the central mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yih

    2016-12-01

    Surface friction is important to a vortex moving toward Taiwan but was ignored in several previous studies. The change of the potential vorticity comes from friction in the shallow-water equation, hence, it was applied to study the westbound vortex influenced by the central mountain range (CMR) blocking and surface friction, which is defined as friction coefficient multiplied by the square root of topographic elevation. Without surface friction, the movement of vortex is not affected by the CMR due to the conservation of potential vorticity. With small surface friction, the simulated vortex first deflects southward slightly, then rebounds gently north due to the effect of channel flow, as the previous studies. With moderate or large surface friction, when the vortex approaching Taiwan, it deforms and creates two wind maxima; one due to effect of channel flow and the other on the east of the vortex, because the slowdown vortex is pushed by the mean easterly flow behind. Meanwhile, the vortex and two wind maxima rotate cyclonically. Hence, the vortex can deflect north or south, or form a loop, that depends on the strength and location of the wind maxima. If the circulation of the vortex moves around the northern tip of Taiwan, it can induce a significant secondary vortex on the lee side. On the other hand, the secondary vortex, triggered by the flow passing over the CMR, is rather weak. This paper may provide the formation of asymmetric inner flow and the deflection of the vortex, which may be difficult to define in a more complicated atmospheric model.

  12. Dynamics of two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qing-Bao [Department of Physics, Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China); Luo, Meng-Bo, E-mail: Luomengbo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-10-30

    We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field. Two kinds of depinning behaviors, a continuous depinning transition at weak pinning and a discontinuous one at strong pinning, are found. We show that the two different kinds of vortex depinning transitions can be identified in transport as a function of the pinning strength and temperature. Moreover, interstitial vortex state can be probed from the transport properties of vortices.

  13. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-07-01

    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  14. Simulations of vortex generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoutsakos, P.

    1995-01-01

    We are interested in the study, via direct numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the stream direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise vorticity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations complement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators at NASA Ames and Stanford University (Saddoughi, 1994, and Jacobson and Reynolds, 1993). Jacobson and Reynolds (1993) used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and he observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. Our task is to simulate the flows generated by these devices and to conduct a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin (1994). The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands of particles allow for high resolution simulations. The results of the present simulations would help us assess some of the effects of three-dimensionality in experiments and investigate the role

  15. Multiply Phased Traveling BPS Vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Kyoungtae; Cho, Y M

    2016-01-01

    We present the multiply phased current carrying vortex solutions in the U(1) gauge theory coupled to an $(N+1)$-component SU(N+1) scalar multiplet in the Bogomolny limit. Our vortex solutions correspond to the static vortex dressed with traveling waves along the axis of symmetry. What is notable in our vortex solutions is that the frequencies of traveling waves in each component of the scalar field can have different values. The energy of the static vortex is proportional to the topological charge of $CP^N$ model in the BPS limit, and the multiple phase of the vortex supplies additional energy contribution which is proportional to the Noether charge associated to the remaining symmetry.

  16. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

    2017-02-01

    Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  17. Simply enhancing throughput of free-flow electrophoresis via organic-aqueous environment for purification of weak polarity solute of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in fermentation of Pseudomonas sp. M18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Hua; Shao, Jing; Wang, Hou-Yu; Dong, Jing-Yu; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xu, Yu-Quan

    2012-09-01

    Herein, a simple novel free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) method was developed via introduction of organic solvent into the electrolyte system, increasing the solute solubility and throughput of the sample. As a proof of concept, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) from Pseudomonas sp. M18 was selected as a model solute for the demonstration on feasibility of novel FFE method on account of its faint solubility in aqueous circumstance. In the developed method, the organic solvent was added into not only the sample buffer to improve the solubility of the solute, but also the background buffer to construct a uniform aqueous-organic circumstance. These factors of organic solvent percentage and types as well as pH value of background buffer were investigated for the purification of PCA in the FFE device via CE. The experiments revealed that the percentage and the types of organic solvent exerted major influence on the purification of PCA. Under the optimized conditions (30 mM phosphate buffer in 60:40 (v/v) water-methanol at an apparent pH 7.0, 3.26 mL/min background flux, 10-min residence time of injected sample, and 400 V), PCA could be continuously purified from its impurities. The flux of sample injection was 10.05 μL/min, and the recovery was up to 93.7%. An 11.9-fold improvement of throughput was found with a carrier buffer containing 40% (v/v) methanol, compared with the pure aqueous phase. The developed procedure is of evident significance for the purification of weak polarity solute via FFE.

  18. A generalization of vortex lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fecko, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Helmholtz theorem states that, in ideal fluid, vortex lines move with the fluid. Another Helmholtz theorem adds that strength of a vortex tube is constant along the tube. The lines may be regarded as integral surfaces of an 1-dimensional integrable distribution (given by the vorticity 2-form). In general setting of theory of integral invariants, due to Poincare and Cartan, one can find $d$-dimensional integrable distribution whose integral surfaces show both properties of vortex lines: they move with (abstract) fluid and, for appropriate generalization of vortex tube, strength of the latter is constant along the tube.

  19. Magnetoplasmon Excitations at Graphene Vortex Hall Fluid Edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rabiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate magnetoplasmon dynamics localized on the edges of graphene vortex Hall fluid. The vortex matter captures an anomalous term that causes vortex localization near fluid boundary and creates a double boundary layer, Δ0∝(β-1lB with β being filling factor. The term also has qualitative effect on resonant excitations of edge magnetoplasmons. We found that, for sharp edges under experimental conditions, graphene edge magnetoplasmon (EMP resonances have similar behavior as in recent experiments. Gradual distinctions arise for smooth edges in the presence of the anomalous term, where a weak EMP peak appears. The second peak becomes well noticed as the smoothness is increased. We identified the resonant mode as an Inter-EMP. It originates from the oscillations of charges in the inner boundary of the double layer. The present observation brings to light the direct cause of Inter-EMP which remained to be detected in graphene experiments.

  20. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  1. Vortex-Surface Interactions: Vortex Dynamics and Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    a) Main vortex structures developing on a typical submarine hull; (b) Schematic illustrating a horseshoe vortex at a wing-body junction of a " Rood ...secondary vortices. Firstly, looking at Figure 7, showing only the secondary vortices being visualized by our technique , we see that a tongue of secondary

  2. Evolution of optical vortex distributions in stochastic vortex fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available dipole,? Opt. Commun. 236, 433?440 (2004). [23] Dana, I. and Freund, I., ?Vortex-lattice wave fields,? Opt. Commun. . [24] Jenkins, R., Banerji, J., and Davies, A., ?The generation of optical vortices and shape preserving vortex arrays in hollow...

  3. Vortex dynamics of stratospheric sudden warmings: a reanalysis data study using PV contour integral diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Robin; Thuburn, John; Kwasniok, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of the polar vortex behind stratospheric sudden warming events is investigated in a data-based study. Potential vorticity contour integral diagnostics of mass and circulation are calculated from ERA-40 reanalysis data for the stratosphere. The edge of the vortex is easily identifiable in these diagnostics as a high gradient of potential vorticity, and the warming events are clearly visible. The amount of air stripped from the vortex as part of a preconditioning leading up to the warming events is determined using the balance equation of the mass integral. Significant persistent removal of mass from the vortex is found, with several such stripping events identifiable through the winter, especially in those during which a major sudden warming event occurred. These stripping episodes are visible in corresponding potential vorticity maps, where tongues of potential vorticity can be seen to be stripped from the vortex and mixed into the sorrounding surf zone of turbulent air.

  4. Large Eddy Simulation of Aircraft Wake Vortices in a Homogeneous Atmospheric Turbulence: Vortex Decay and Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of ambient turbulence on decay and descent of aircraft wake vortices are studied using a validated, three-dimensional: large-eddy simulation model. Numerical simulations are performed in order to isolate the effect of ambient turbulence on the wake vortex decay rate within a neutrally-stratified atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a range of turbulence intensities, by injecting wake vortex pairs into an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence field. The decay rate of the vortex circulation increases clearly with increasing ambient turbulence level, which is consistent with field observations. Based on the results from the numerical simulations, simple decay models are proposed as functions of dimensionless ambient turbulence intensity (eta) and dimensionless time (T) for the circulation averaged over a range of radial distances. With good agreement with the numerical results, a Gaussian type of vortex decay model is proposed for weak turbulence: while an exponential type of Tortex decay model can be applied for strong turbulence. A relationship for the vortex descent based on above vortex decay model is also proposed. Although the proposed models are based on simulations assuming neutral stratification, the model predictions are compared to Lidar vortex measurements observed during stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric conditions. In the neutral and unstable atmosphere, the model predictions appear to be in reasonable agreement with the observational data, while in the stably-stratified atmosphere, they largely underestimate the observed circulation decay with consistent overestimation of the observed vortex descent. The underestimation of vortex decay during stably-stratified conditions suggests that stratification has an important influence on vortex decay when ambient levels of turbulence are weak.

  5. Solitary vortexes in magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainshtein, S.I.

    1985-12-01

    Stationary configurations in magnetohydrodynamics are investigated for the following two particular cases: (1) there is no motion, which corresponds to a state of magnetostatic equilibrium; and (2) the magnetic field intensity becomes zero, i.e., hydrodynamic vortexes are involved. It is shown that in certain cases the line-of-force topology must be sufficiently simple in order before a stationary or equilibrium state can be achieved. It is also shown that in the two-dimensional case, the magnetic surfaces of an equilibrium configuration represent coaxial cylindrical surfaces. 12 references.

  6. Vortex Flow Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    j . 1978. 93. Grabowski , W.J.; "Solutions of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Vortex Breakdown," NASA CR...including foreign nations. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. LAWRENCE W. ROGERS Q LOWELL C. KEEL, Major, USAF Project...or’ a w U - a LU LU U- LU C - J ’di 2 2 C LU I- 4 S Ua * - w x 2 40 20 I- 2 LU W S ~ 00 * U. 4 I- 𔃾 LU a 4 U 4 2 C C LU 4 a 4a 2 I- 4 a 3 9

  7. Robustness of a coherence vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cleberson R; Jesus-Silva, Alcenisio J; Fonseca, Eduardo J S

    2016-09-20

    We study, experimentally and theoretically, the behavior of a coherence vortex after its transmission through obstacles. Notably, we find that such a vortex survives and preserves its effective topological charge. Despite suffering changes on the modulus of the coherence function, these changes disappear during propagation.

  8. Vortex duality in higher dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, Aron Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic vortex line traces out a world sheet in spacetime. This thesis shows that the information of all its dynamic behaviour is completely contained in the world sheet. Furthermore a mathematical framework for order–disorder phase transitions in terms of the proliferation of such vortex world sh

  9. Subwave spikes of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex-beams in a uniaxial crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeyeva, T; Rubass, A; Zinov'ev, A; Konovalenko, V; Volyar, A

    2011-01-01

    We have theoretically predicted the gigantic spikes of the orbital angular momentum caused by the conversion processes of the centered optical vortex in the circularly polarized components of the elliptic vortex beam propagating perpendicular to the crystal optical axis. We have experimentally observed the conversion process inside the subwave deviations of the crystal length. We have found that the total orbital angular momentum of the wave beam is conserved.

  10. Subwave spikes of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex beams in a uniaxial crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyeva, T.; Alexeyev, C.; Rubass, A.; Zinov'Ev, A.; Konovalenko, V.; Volyar, A.

    2011-11-01

    We have theoretically predicted the gigantic spikes of the orbital angular momentum caused by the conversion processes of the centered optical vortex in the circularly polarized components of the elliptic vortex beam propagating perpendicular to the crystal optical axis. We have experimentally observed the conversion process inside the subwave deviations of the crystal length. We have found that the total orbital angular momentum of the wave beam is conserved.

  11. The effect of dust on the martian polar vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of atmospheric dust on the dynamics and stability of the martian polar vortices is examined, through analysis of Mars Climate Sounder observations and MarsWRF general circulation model simulations. We show that regional and global dust storms produce "transient vortex warming" events that partially or fully disrupt the northern winter polar vortex for brief periods. Increased atmospheric dust heating alters the Hadley circulation and shifts the downwelling branch of the circulation poleward, leading to a disruption of the polar vortex for a period of days to weeks. Through our simulations, we find this effect is dependent on the atmospheric heating rate, which can be changed by increasing the amount of dust in the atmosphere or by altering the dust optical properties (e.g., single scattering albedo). Despite this, our simulations show that some level of atmospheric dust is necessary to produce a distinct northern hemisphere winter polar vortex.

  12. Discrimination of orbital angular momentum modes of the terahertz vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Niu, Liting; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-06-13

    We present an efficient method to discriminate orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the terahertz (THz) vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer. The mode transformer performs a log-polar coordinate transformation of the input THz vortex beam, which consists of two 3D-printed diffractive elements. A following lens separates each transformed OAM mode to a different lateral position in its focal plane. This method enables a simultaneous measurement over multiple OAM modes of the THz vortex beam. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of seven individual OAM modes and two multiplexed OAM modes, which is in good agreement with simulations.

  13. Large Vortex in Front Stagnation Region of a Square Plate Induced by a Fine Interference Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连淇祥; 苏宗周

    1994-01-01

    Using hydrogen bubble technique, the great change in flow field caused by weak interference in the stagnation region has been observed. When a fine interference wire was set in the upstream of a square plate, the wake of the wire invoked a large counter rotating vortex pair in the front stagnation region of the square plate. This large vortex pair and the reverse flow region might occupy a region larger than half part of the model, with a size over a 100 times greater than the diameter of the interference wire. The formation and development process of the large vortex pair are investigated in this paper.

  14. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  15. Statistical Behavior of Formation Process of Magnetic Vortex State in Ni80Fe20 Nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Keisuke, Yamada; Kasai, Shinya

    2011-01-14

    Magnetic vortices in magnetic nanodots, which are characterized by an in-plane (chirality) and an out-of-plane (polarity) magnetizations, have been intensively attracted because of their high potential for technological application to data storage and memory scheme as well as their scientific interest for an understanding of fundamental physics in magnetic nanostructures. Complete understanding of the formation process of vortex state in magnetic vortex systems is very significant issue to achieve storage and memory technologies using magnetic vortices and understand intrinsic physical properties in magnetic nanostructures. In our work, we have statistically investigated the formation process of vortex state in permalloy (Py, Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) nanodisks through the direct observation of vortex structure utilizing a magnetic transmission soft X-ray microscopy (MTXM) with a high spatial resolution down to 20 nm. Magnetic imaging in Py nanodots was performed at the Fe L{sub 3} (707 eV) absorption edge. Figure 1 shows in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic components observed in 40 nm thick nanodot arrays with different dot radius of r = 500 and 400 nm, respectively. Vortex chirality, either clockwise (CW) or counter-clockwise (CCW), and polarity, either up or down, are clearly visible in both arrays. To investigate the statistical behavior in formation process of the vortex state, the observation of vortex structure at a remanant state after saturation of nanodots by an external magnetic field of 1 kOe has been repeatedly performed over 100 times for each array. The typical MTXM images of vortex chirality taken in two successive measurements together with their overlapped images in nanodot arrays of r = 500 and 400 nm are displayed in Fig. 2. Within the statistical measurement, the formation process of chirality of either CW or CCW is quite stochastic in each nanodot. Similar behavior is also witnessed in the formation of vortex polarity observed in consecutive

  16. Superfluid Vortex Cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaeva, I. A.; Lindemann, U.; Jiang, N.; de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Thummes, G.

    2004-06-01

    A superfluid vortex cooler (SVC) is a combination of a fountain pump and a vortex cooler. The working fluid in the SVC is 4He at a temperature below the lambda line. The cooler has no moving parts, is gravity independent, and hardly requires any additional infrastructure. At saturated vapour pressure the SVC is capable of reaching a temperature as low as 0.75 K. At pressures close to the melting pressure the temperature can be brought down to 0.65 K. As the SVC operates only below the lambda line, it has to be precooled e.g. by a liquid-helium bath or a cryocooler. As a first step of our research we have carried out a number of experiments, using a liquid-helium bath as a precooler for the SVC. In this arrangement we have reached temperatures below 1 K with 3.5 mW heating power supplied to the fountain part of the SVC at 1.4 K. The next step was combining the SVC with a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR), developed at the University of Giessen. It is a two-stage G-M type refrigerator with 3He as a working fluid that reached a lowest temperature of 1.27 K. In this contribution we report on the results of the SVC tests in liquid helium and the progress in the integration of the SVC with the PTR.

  17. Weak Galois and Weak Cocleft Coextensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.N. Alonso (A)lvarez; J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; A.B. Rodríguez Raposo

    2007-01-01

    For a weak entwining structure (A, C,ψ) living in a braided monoidal category with equalizers and coequalizers, we formulate the notion of weak A-Galois coextension with normal basis and we show that these Galois coextensions are equivalent to the weak A-cocleft coextensions introduced by the authors.

  18. Regimes of flow past a vortex generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...

  19. Motion of a helical vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, Oscar Velasco

    2015-01-01

    We study the motion of a single helical vortex in an unbounded, inviscid, incompressible fluid. The vortex is an infinite tube whose centerline is a helix and whose cross section is a circle of small radius (compared to the radius of curvature) where the vorticity is uniform and parallel to the centerline. Ever since Joukowsky (1912) deduced that this vortex translates and rotates steadily without change of form, numerous attempts have been made to compute these self-induced velocities. Here we use Hardin's (1982) solution for the velocity field to find new expressions for the vortex's linear and angular velocities. Our results, verified by numerically computing the Helmholtz integral and the Rosenhead-Moore approximation to the Biot-Savart law, are more accurate than previous results over the whole range of values of the vortex pitch and cross-section. We then use the new formulas to study the advection of passive particles near the vortex; we find that the vortex's motion and capacity to transport fluid dep...

  20. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  1. Bathtub vortex induced by instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Jiro; Abe, Kazuki; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2014-10-01

    The driving mechanism and the swirl direction of the bathtub vortex are investigated by the linear stability analysis of the no-vortex flow as well as numerical simulations. We find that only systems having plane symmetries with respect to vertical planes deserve research for the swirl direction. The bathtub vortex appearing in a vessel with a rectangular cross section having a drain hole at the center of the bottom is proved to be induced by instability when the flow rate exceeds a threshold. The Coriolis force is capable of determining the swirl direction to be cyclonic.

  2. Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.

    1999-09-16

    We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.

  3. Vortex electronis and squids

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the nature of vortices in high-Tc superconductors is a crucial subject for research on superconductive electronics, especially for superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs), it is also a fundamental problem in condensed-matter physics. Recent technological progress in methods for both direct and indirect observation of vortices, e.g. scanning SQUID, terahertz imaging, and microwave excitation, has led to new insights into vortex physics, the dynamic behavior of vortices in junctions and related questions of noise. This book presents the current status of research activity and provides new information on the applications of SQUIDs, including magnetocardiography, immunoassays, and laser-SQUID microscopes, all of which are close to being commercially available.

  4. Vortex loops and Majoranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesi, Stefano [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); CEMS, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Jaffe, Arthur [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Loss, Daniel [CEMS, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Pedrocchi, Fabio L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2013-11-15

    We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry.

  5. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvis, J.A. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de ingeniería y Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Central, Bogotá (Colombia); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Suderow, H., E-mail: hermann.suderow@uam.es [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  6. Scalable fast multipole accelerated vortex methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Qi

    2014-05-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) is often used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions in particle-based methods to simulate incompressible flows. To evaluate the most time-consuming kernels - the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equation, we mathematically reformulated it so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six. This automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, we developed a new FMM-based vortex method on heterogeneous architectures, which distributed the work between multicore CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently, with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching calculation for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s.

  7. Vortex state in ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betto, Davide; Coey, J. M. D.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of the magnetic state of a soft ferromagnetic nanoparticle with its size is usually thought to be from superparamagnetic single domain to blocked single domain to a blocked multidomain structure. Néel pointed out that a vortex configuration produces practically no stray field at the cost of an increase in the exchange energy, of the order of RJS2lnR /c, where JS2 is the bond energy, R is the particle radius, and c is of the order of the exchange length. A vortex structure is energetically cheaper than single domain when the radius is greater than a certain value. The correct sequence should include a vortex configuration between the single domain and the multidomain states. The critical size is calculated for spherical particles of four important materials (nickel, magnetite, permalloy, and iron) both numerically and analytically. A vortex state is favored in materials with high magnetisation.

  8. Particle-vortex symmetric liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Mulligan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an effective theory with manifest particle-vortex symmetry for disordered thin films undergoing a magnetic field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition. The theory may enable one to access both the critical properties of the strong-disorder limit, which has recently been confirmed [Breznay et al., PNAS 113, 280 (2016)] to exhibit particle-vortex symmetric electrical response, and the metallic phase discovered earlier [Mason and Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5341 (1999)] in less disordered samples. Within the effective theory, the Cooper-pair and field-induced vortex degrees of freedom are simultaneously incorporated into an electrically-neutral Dirac fermion minimally coupled to an (emergent) Chern-Simons gauge field. A derivation of the theory follows upon mapping the superconductor-insulator transition to the integer quantum Hall plateau transition and the subsequent use of Son's particle-hole symmetric composite Fermi liquid. Remarkably, particle-vortex symmetric response does not requir...

  9. Vortex migration in protoplanetary discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaloizou John C. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vortices embedded in protoplanetary discs can act as obstacles to the unperturbed disc flow. The resulting velocity perturbations propagate away from the vortex in the form of density waves that transport angular momentum. Any asymmetry between the inner and the outer density wave means that the region around the vortex has to change its angular momentum. We find that this leads to orbital migration of the vortex. Asymmetric waves always arise except in the case of a disc with constant pressure, for isothermal as well as non-isothermal discs. Depending on the size and strength of the vortex, the resulting migration time scales can be as short as a few thousand orbits.

  10. Integrated multi vector vortex beam generator

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Sebastian A; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    A novel method to generate and manipulate vector vortex beams in an integrated, ring resonator based geometry is proposed. We show numerically that a ring resonator, with an appropriate grating, addressed by a vertically displaced access waveguide emits a complex optical field. The emitted beam possesses a specific polarization topology, and consequently a transverse intensity profile and orbital angular momentum. We propose a combination of several concentric ring resonators, addressed with different bus guides, to generate arbitrary orbital angular momentum qudit states, which could potentially be used for classical and quantum communications. Finally, we demonstrate numerically that this device works as an orbital angular momentum sorter with an average cross-talk of -10 dB between different orbital angular momentum channels.

  11. Vortex, Molecular Spin and Nanovorticity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    McCormack, Percival

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this book is the physics of vortices. A detailed analysis of the dynamics of vortices will be presented. The important topics of vorticity and molecular spin will be dealt with, including the electromagnetic analogy and quantization in superfluids. The effect of molecular spin on the dynamics of molecular nano-confined fluids using the extended Navier-Stokes equations will also be covered –especially important to the theory and applicability of nanofluidics and associated devices. The nanoscale boundary layer and nanoscale vortex core are regions of intense vorticity (molecular spin). It will be shown, based on molecular kinetic theory and thermodynamics, that the macroscopic (solid body) rotation must be accompanied by internal rotation of the molecules. Electric polarization of the internal molecular rotations about the local rotation axis –the Barnett effect – occurs. In such a spin aligned system, major changes in the physical properties of the fluid result.

  12. Dynamics of Giant Planet Polar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueshaber, Shawn R.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.

    2016-10-01

    The polar atmospheres of the giant planets have come under increasing interest since a compact, warm-core, stable, cyclonic polar vortex was discovered at each of Saturn's poles. In addition, the south pole of Neptune appears to have a similar feature, and Uranus' north pole is exhibiting activity that could indicate the formation of a polar vortex. We investigate the formation and maintenance of these giant planet polar vortices by varying several key atmospheric dynamics parameters in a forced-dissipative, 1.5-layer shallow water model. Our simulations are run using the EPIC (Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate) global circulation model, to which we have added a gamma-plane rectangular grid option appropriate for simulating polar atmospheric dynamics.In our numerical simulations, we vary the atmospheric deformation radius, planetary rotation rate, storm forcing intensity, and storm vorticity (cyclone-to-anticyclone) ratio to determine what combination of values favors the formation of a polar vortex. We find that forcing the atmosphere by injecting small-scale mass perturbations ("storms") to form either all cyclones, all anticyclones, or equal numbers of both, may all result in a cyclonic polar vortex. Additionally, we examine the role of eddy momentum convergence in the intensification and maintenance of a polar cyclone.Our simulation results are applicable to understanding all four of the solar system giant planets. In the future, we plan to expand our modeling effort with a more realistic 3D primitive equations model, also with a gamma-plane rectangular grid using EPIC. With our 3D primitive equations model, we will study how various vertical atmospheric stratification structures influence the formation and maintenance of a polar cyclone. While our shallow-water model only involves storms of a single layer, a 3D primitive equations model allows us to study how storms of finite vertical extent and at differing levels in the atmosphere may further favor

  13. Formation number for vortex dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Vahid; Krueger, Paul S.

    2016-11-01

    This investigation considers the axisymmetric formation of two opposite sign concentric vortex rings from jet ejection between concentric cylinders. This arrangement is similar to planar flow in that the vortex rings will travel together when the gap between the cylinders is small, similar to a vortex dipole, but it has the advantage that the vortex motion is less constrained than the planar case (vortex stretching and vortex line curvature is allowed). The flow was simulated numerically at a jet Reynolds number of 1,000 (based on ΔR and the jet velocity), jet pulse length-to-gap ratio (L / ΔR) in the range 10-20, and gap-to-outer radius ratio (ΔR /Ro) in the range 0.01-0.1. Small gap ratios were chosen for comparison with 2D results. In contrast with 2D results, the closely paired vortices in this study exhibited pinch-off from the generating flow and finite formation numbers. The more complex flow evolution afforded by the axisymmetric model and its influence on the pinch-off process will be discussed. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1133876 and SMU. This supports are gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Vortex migration in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Paardekooper, S -J; Papaloizou, J C B

    2010-01-01

    We consider the radial migration of vortices in two-dimensional isothermal gaseous disks. We find that a vortex core, orbiting at the local gas velocity, induces velocity perturbations that propagate away from the vortex as density waves. The resulting spiral wave pattern is reminiscent of an embedded planet. There are two main causes for asymmetries in these wakes: geometrical effects tend to favor the outer wave, while a radial vortensity gradient leads to an asymmetric vortex core, which favors the wave at the side that has the lowest density. In the case of asymmetric waves, which we always find except for a disk of constant pressure, there is a net exchange of angular momentum between the vortex and the surrounding disk, which leads to orbital migration of the vortex. Numerical hydrodynamical simulations show that this migration can be very rapid, on a time scale of a few thousand orbits, for vortices with a size comparable to the scale height of the disk. We discuss the possible effects of vortex migrat...

  15. Optical Vortex Solitons in Parametric Wave Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, T J; Buryak, A V; Sammut, R A; Alexander, Tristram J.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Buryak, Alexander V.; Sammut, Rowland A.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze two-component spatial optical vortex solitons supported by degenerate three- or four-wave mixing in a nonlinear bulk medium. We study two distinct cases of such solitons, namely, parametric vortex solitons due to phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a optical medium with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinear response, and vortex solitons in the presence of third-harmonic generation in a cubic medium. We find, analytically and numerically, the structure of two-component vortex solitons, and also investigate modulational instability of their plane-wave background. In particular, we predict and analyze in detail novel types of vortex solitons, a `halo-vortex', consisting of a two-component vortex core surrounded by a bright ring of its harmonic field, and a `ring-vortex' soliton which is a vortex in a harmonic field that guides a bright localized ring-like mode of a fundamental frequency field.

  16. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wohltmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs and Earth system models (ESMs to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx, HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect

  17. On Weak Regular *-semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.

  18. 4pi聚焦系统中振幅和相位调制的径向偏振涡旋光束聚焦特性的研究*%Study of the focusing features of spatial amplitude and phase modulated radially polarized vortex beams in a 4pi focusing system∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常强; 杨艳芳†; 何英; 刘海港; 刘键

    2013-01-01

      基于Richards-Wolf矢量衍射积分公式,研究了径向偏振涡旋光束在振幅和相位调制下的4pi聚焦特性。振幅调制是通过振幅滤波实现,即改变入射光束起始积分值达到调节,相位调制是通过添加相位延迟角δ的液晶相位延迟器来改变入射光束的偏振态。模拟结果显示,随着振幅的减小,4pi聚焦系统焦点附近的光轴上呈现出多光球结构;而相位调制对焦点附近的光强分布产生拉伸作用,即调节入射光束的拓扑核m和相位延迟器的延迟角δ,可以得到特殊的光强分布。随着相位δ增大, m=0产生的多光球结构慢慢向光链结构转变,最终变成暗通道;而m=1产生的光链结构慢慢变成光球结构;m=2产生的暗通道变成光球和光链叠加的结构,这种特殊聚焦光束在光学微操纵领域具有潜在的应用价值。%The focusing properties of phase and amplitude modulated radially polarized vortex beams in a 4pi focusing system are theoreti-cally investigated near the focal plane by using Richards-Wolf vectorial diffraction method. The amplitude modulation of vortex beams can be adjusted by changing the start integration value. The phase modulation of vortex beams can be realized by adding liquid crystal variable retarder with the phase delay angleδ. The simulated results show that multiple spherical spots can be obtained near the focus of the 4pi focusing system with the decrease of amplitude. The phase delay angleδ of the input beams can generate extruding effect for the electrical field distribution near the focus of the 4pi focusing system. Some special intensity distributions can be obtained by changing topological charge m and phase delay angleδ. Optical chain can be generated in the case of m=1. Dark channel can be ob-tained in the case of m=2. These special focusing beams can also transform with phase modulation. With the increase of phaseδ, the multiple spherical spots at m=0 change slowly

  19. Compressive wavefront sensing with weak values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Howell, John C

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate a wavefront sensor that unites weak measurement and the compressive-sensing, single-pixel camera. Using a high-resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) as a variable waveplate, we weakly couple an optical field's transverse-position and polarization degrees of freedom. By placing random, binary patterns on the SLM, polarization serves as a meter for directly measuring random projections of the wavefront's real and imaginary components. Compressive-sensing optimization techniques can then recover the wavefront. We acquire high quality, 256 × 256 pixel images of the wavefront from only 10,000 projections. Photon-counting detectors give sub-picowatt sensitivity.

  20. Analysis of the Radar Reflectivity of Aircraft Vortex Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim; Wray, Alan; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Radar has been proposed as a way to track wake vortices to reduce aircraft spacing and tests have revealed radar echoes from aircraft wakes in clear air. The results are always interpreted qualitatively using Tatarski's theory of weak scattering by isotropic atmospheric turbulence. The goal of the present work was to predict the value of the radar cross-section (RCS) using simpler models. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the refractive index is obtained. Since the structure of the aircraft wakes is different from atmospheric turbulence, three simple mechanisms specific to vortex wakes are considered: (1) Radial density gradient in a two-dimensional vortex, (2) three-dimensional fluctuations in the vortex cores, and (3) Adiabatic transport of the atmospheric fluid in a two-dimensional oval surrounding the pair of vortices. The index of refraction is obtained more precisely for the two-dimensional mechanisms than for the three-dimensional ones. In the second step, knowing the index of refraction, a scattering analysis is performed. Tatarski's weak scattering approximation is kept but the usual assumptions of a far-field and a uniform incident wave are dropped. Neither assumption is generally valid for a wake that is coherent across the radar beam. For analytical insight, a simpler approximation that invokes, in addition to weak scattering, the far-field and wide cylindrical beam assumptions, is also developed and compared with the more general analysis. The predicted RCS values for the oval surround the vortices (mechanism C) agree with the experiments of Bilson conducted over a wide range of frequencies. However, the predictions have a cut-off away from normal incidence which is not present in the measurements. Estimates suggest that this is due to turbulence in the baroclinic vorticity generated at the boundary of the oval. The reflectivity of a vortex itself (mechanism A) is comparable to that of the oval (mechanism C) but cuts-off at frequencies lower

  1. Stratospheric water vapour as tracer for Vortex filamentation in the Arctic winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers measured three high-resolution profiles of stratospheric water vapour above Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen during winter 2002/2003. The profiles obtained on 12 December 2002 and on 17 January 2003 provide an insight into the vertical distribution of water vapour in the core of the polar vortex. The water vapour sounding on 11 February 2003 was obtained within the vortex edge region of the lower stratosphere. Here, a significant reduction of water vapour mixing ratio was observed between 16 and 19 km. The stratospheric temperatures indicate that this dehydration was not caused by the presence of polar stratospheric clouds or earlier PSC particle sedimentation. Ozone observations on this day indicate a large scale movement of the polar vortex and show laminae in the same altitude range as the water vapour profile. The link between the observed water vapour reduction and filaments in the vortex edge region is indicated in the results of the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, which show that adjacent filaments of polar and mid latitude air can be identified above the Spitsbergen region. A vertical cross-section produced by the MIMOSA model reveals that the water vapour sonde flew through polar air in the lowest part of the stratosphere below 425 K, then passed through filaments of mid latitude air with lower water vapour concentrations, before it finally entered the polar vortex above 450 K. These results indicate that on 11 February 2003 the frost point hygrometer measured different water vapour concentrations as the sonde detected air with different origins. Instead of being linked to dehydration due to PSC particle sedimentation, the local reduction in the stratospheric water vapour profile was in this case caused by dynamical processes in the polar stratosphere.

  2. Quantum magnetic flux lines, BPS vortex zero modes, and one-loop string tension shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.; de la Torre Mayado, M.

    2016-08-01

    Spectral heat kernel/zeta function regularization procedures are employed in this paper to control the divergences arising from vacuum fluctuations of Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfield vortices in the Abelian Higgs model. Zero modes of vortex fluctuations are the source of difficulties appearing when the standard Gilkey-de Witt expansion is the tool used in the calculations of one-loop shifts of vortex masses and string tensions. A modified GdW expansion is developed to diminish the impact of the infrared divergences due to the vortex zero modes of fluctuation. With this new technique at our disposal we compute the one-loop vortex mass shifts in the planar AHM and the quantum corrections to the string tension of the magnetic flux tubes living in three dimensions. In both cases it is observed that weak repulsive forces surge between these classically noninteracting topological defects caused by vacuum quantum fluctuations.

  3. Numerical Study of Wake Vortex Behavior in Turbulent Domains with Ambient Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional large eddy simulation model is used to investigate the sensitivity of ambient stratification with turbulence on the behavior of aircraft wake vortices. Modeled ambient turbulence levels range from very weak to moderate, and stratification levels range from strongly stable to unstable. The results of profound significance from this study are: 1) very little sensitivity between vortex linking time and the level of stratification, 2) the mean vortex separation remained nearly constant regardless of stratification and turbulence (at least prior to linking), 3) the wake vortices did not rise regardless of the level of stratification, and 4) for very strong stratification, the vortex stopped descending and quickly dissipated even before vortex linking could occur. These results are supported by experimental data and are contrary to conclusions from other numerical studies that assume laminar flow and/or relatively-low Reynolds numbers.

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of vortex structure in a ferroelectric nanoparticle driven by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, D; Liu, Z; Rolo, T Dos Santos; Harder, R; Balachandran, P V; Xue, D; Lookman, T; Fohtung, E

    2017-08-17

    Topological defects of spontaneous polarization are extensively studied as templates for unique physical phenomena and in the design of reconfigurable electronic devices. Experimental investigations of the complex topologies of polarization have been limited to surface phenomena, which has restricted the probing of the dynamic volumetric domain morphology in operando. Here, we utilize Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of a single BaTiO3 nanoparticle in a composite polymer/ferroelectric capacitor to study the behavior of a three-dimensional vortex formed due to competing interactions involving ferroelectric domains. Our investigation of the structural phase transitions under the influence of an external electric field shows a mobile vortex core exhibiting a reversible hysteretic transformation path. We also study the toroidal moment of the vortex under the action of the field. Our results open avenues for the study of the structure and evolution of polar vortices and other topological structures in operando in functional materials under cross field configurations.Imaging of topological states of matter such as vortex configurations has generally been limited to 2D surface effects. Here Karpov et al. study the volumetric structure and dynamics of a vortex core mediated by electric-field induced structural phase transition in a ferroelectric BaTiO3 nanoparticle.

  5. Vortex ring formation in starting forced plumes with negative and positive buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Yu, S. C. M.

    2016-11-01

    The limiting process of vortex ring formation in starting forced plumes, with Richardson number in the range of -0.06 ≤ Ri ≤ 0.06, was studied numerically under the Boussinesq approximation. The examination of the dynamics of the starting flow evolution reveals that the plume-ambient density difference affects the vortex ring pinch-off mainly through three mechanisms, i.e., the baroclinic production of vorticity, the buoyancy acceleration (or deceleration) on the vortical structures, and its effect on the trailing shear layer instability. As Ri increases from negative to positive values, three regimes can be identified in terms of the vortex interaction patterns during the pinch-off process, i.e., the weak-interaction regime (-0.06 results show that the variation trends of formation number and separation number against Ri change near the critical value of Ric ≈ - 0.02. In the weak-interaction regime, both formation number and separation number increase rapidly against Ri. While in the transition and strong-interaction regimes alike, the formation number increases at a much slower rate than in the weak-interaction regime, and the separation number declines dramatically as Ri increases. Finally, a qualitative explanation on the variation patterns of formation number and separation number is proposed based on the buoyancy effects on the dynamic properties of the leading vortex ring and the vortex interaction patterns.

  6. GC-MS分离鉴定黄芪、白芍及药对中的弱极性成分%Separation and Identification of Weak Polar Components from Astragali Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba and Herb pairs by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张星; 徐晓燕; 陈芳甜; 骆婷; 李大鹏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a GC-MS method for rapid detection of weak polar components from Astragali Radix,Paeoniae Radix Alba and herb pairs.Methods The weak polar components were extracted with petroleum ether and were identified by GC-MS.Results Fifteen compounds were identified,and most of these compounds were higher fatty acids,especially linoleic acid and linoleic acid methyl ester.Paeonol and Eugenol were found to have an antioxidant activity.In herb pairs,there were compounds such as caryophyllene,-sitosterol and lupenone which were not found in single drug.Conclusion This can be a quick and simple method to analyze weak polar components of herbs.%目的 建立用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)法快速检测黄芪、白芍及药对中弱极性成分的方法.方法 石油醚提取黄芪、白芍及药对中弱极性成分,并用GC-MS法鉴定.结果 从黄芪、白芍单药及药对中共鉴定出15种成分,其中大多数为高级脂肪酸及其酯化物,以亚油酸、亚油酸甲酯含量最为丰富.其中,丹皮酚、丁香酚等物质具有抗氧化效果.此外,在药对中还鉴定出单药中未出现的丁子香烯、β-谷甾醇、羽扇烯酮等.结论 本方法快速、简便,可用于分析鉴定中药中弱极性成分.

  7. Vortex sound in the presence of a low Mach number flow across a drum-like silencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S K

    2011-05-01

    The sound generated by a vortex propagating across a two-dimensional duct section with flexible walls (membranes) in an infinitely long rigid duct conveying a flow is investigated numerically using the matched asymptotic expansion technique and the potential theory. The effects of the initial vortex position, the mechanical properties of the flexible walls, and the mean flow on the sound generation are examined in detail. Results show that the presence of a vortex inside a uniform mean flow can strengthen or attenuate the sound generation, depending on the phase of the membrane vibration when the vortex starts vigorous interaction with the membranes and the strength of the mean flow. The results tend to imply that there is a higher chance of sound amplification when a vortex stream is moving closer to the lighter membrane under a relatively strong mean flow or when the mean flow is weak. The chances of sound amplification or attenuation are equal otherwise.

  8. Structural features of sequential weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the abstract structure of sequential weak measurement (WM) of general observables. In all orders, the sequential WM correlations without postselection yield the corresponding correlations of the Wigner function, offering direct quantum tomography through the moments of the canonical variables. Correlations in spin-1/2 sequential weak measurements coincide with those in strong measurements, they are constrained kinematically, and they are equivalent with single measurements. In sequential WMs with postselection, an anomaly occurs, different from the weak value anomaly of single WMs. In particular, the spread of polarization σ ̂ as measured in double WMs of σ ̂ will diverge for certain orthogonal pre- and postselected states.

  9. Numerical simulation of the characteristics of turbulent Taylor vortex flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiantao; PAN Jiazhen; CHEN Liqing; SHI Yan; CHEN Wenmei; CHU Liangyin

    2007-01-01

    Turbulent Taylor vortex flow,which is contained between a rotating inner cylinder and a coaxial fixed outer cylinder with fixed ends,is simulated by applying the development in Reynolds stress equations mold (RSM) of the micro-perturbation.This resulted from the truncation error between the numerical solution and exact solution of the Reynolds stress equations.Based on the numerical simulation results of the turbulent Taylor vortex flow,its characteristics such as the fluctuation of the flow field,the precipitous drop of azimuthal velocity,the jet flow of radial velocity,the periodicity of axial velocity,the wave periodicity of pressure distribution,the polarization of shear stress on the walls,and the turbulence intensity in the jet region,are discussed.Comparing the pilot results measured by previous methods,the relative error of the characteristics predicted by simulation is less than 30%.

  10. Vortex driven phase transition in Topologically Massive QED

    CERN Document Server

    Hoshino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    There is chiral like symmetry for 4-component massless fermion in (2+1)-dimensional gauge theory.Since QED$_{3}$ with Chern-Simons term contains vortex solution for vector potential,one may expect vortex driven phase transition as Kosterlitz-Thouless type where chiral condensate is washed away at zero temperature.To study this possibility,we evaluate the fermion propagator by Dyson-Schwinger equation numerically and spectral function analytically in the Landau gauge.For quenched case we adopt Ball-Chiu vertex to keep gauge invariance of the results.The critical value of topological mass,above which chiral condensate washed away, turned out to be $O(10^{-2})e^{2}$ at least for weak coupling in both cases.

  11. Characterization of vortex pinning through the Campbell length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willa, Roland; Geshkenbein, Vadim B.; Blatter, Gianni

    Vortex pinning is decisive in establishing dissipation-free current flow in a type-II superconductor; knowledge and optimization of the pinning landscape (pinscape) is of major importance for applications. The ac magnetic response, characterized by the Campbell penetration depth λC, provides valuable information on the pinscape, besides the critical current density jc. While microscopic derivations of jc are available both in the weak and strong pinning limits, this is not the case for the Campbell length, whose understanding has remained on a phenomenological level so far. Based on the microscopic theory of strong pinning, we have established a proper link between the Campbell length and the pinscape parameters. This new quantitative formalism captures all experimentally observed signatures, among which are the dependence of λC on the vortex state preparation and the hysteresis in λC upon thermal cycling the field-cooled state.

  12. Vortex Laser at Exceptional Point

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min

    2016-01-01

    The optical vortices carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) are commonly generated by modulating the available conventional light beam. This article shows that a micro-laser operates at the exceptional point (EP) of the non-Hermitian quantum system can directly emit vortex laser with well-defined OAM at will. Two gratings (the refractive index modulation and along azimuthal direction and the grating protruding from the micro-ring cavity) modulate the eigenmode of a micro-ring cavity to be a vortex laser mode. The phase-matching condition ensures that we can tune the OAM of the vortex beam to be arbitrary orders by changing the grating protruding from the micro-ring cavity while the system is kept at EP. The results are obtained by analytical analysis and confirmed by 3D full wave simulations.

  13. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  14. GENERALIZED WEAK FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁夏畦; 罗佩珠

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.

  15. Analysis of the horizontal two-dimensional near-surface structure of a winter tornadic vortex using high-resolution in situ wind and pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryohei; Kusunoki, Kenichi; Sato, Eiichi; Mashiko, Wataru; Inoue, Hanako Y.; Fujiwara, Chusei; Arai, Ken-ichiro; Nishihashi, Masahide; Saito, Sadao; Hayashi, Syugo; Suzuki, Hiroto

    2015-06-01

    The horizontal two-dimensional near-surface structure of a tornadic vortex within a winter storm was analyzed. The tornadic vortex was observed on 10 December 2012 by the high-resolution in situ observational linear array of wind and pressure sensors (LAWPS) system in conjunction with a high-resolution Doppler radar. The 0.1 s maximum wind speed and pressure deficit near the ground were recorded as 35.3 m s-1 and -3.8 hPa, respectively. The horizontal two-dimensional distributions of the tornadic vortex wind and pressure were retrieved by the LAWPS data, which provided unprecedented observational detail on the following important features of the near-surface structure of the tornadic vortex. Asymmetric convergent inflow toward the vortex center existed. Total wind speed was strong to the right and rear side of the translational direction of the vortex and weak in the forward part of the vortex possibly because of the strong convergent inflow in that region. The tangential wind speed profile of the vortex was better approximated using a modified Rankine vortex rather than the Rankine vortex both at 5 m above ground level (agl) and 100 m agl, and other vortex models (Burgers-Rott vortex and Wood-White vortex) were also compared. The cyclostrophic wind balance was violated in the core radius R0 and outside the core radius in the forward sector; however, it was held with a relatively high accuracy of approximately 14% outside the core of the vortex in the rearward sector (from 2 R0 to 5 R0) near the ground.

  16. Ion Polarization Scheme for MEIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratenko, A M; Filatov, Yu N; Derbenev, Ya S; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    The choice of a figure 8 shape for the booster and collider rings of MEIC opens wide possibilities for preservation of the ion polarization during beam acceleration as well as for control of the polarization at the collider's interaction points. As in the case of accelerators with Siberian snakes, the spin tune is energy independent but is equal to zero instead of one half. The figure-8 topology eliminates the effect of arcs on the spin motion. There appears a unique opportunity to control the polarization of any particle species including deuterons, using longitudinal fields of small integrated strength (weak solenoids). Contrary to existing schemes, using weak solenoids in figure-8 colliders, one can control the polarization at the interaction points without essentially any effect on the beam's orbital characteristics. A universal scheme for control of the polarization using weak solenoids provides an elegant solution to the problem of ion acceleration completely eliminating resonant beam depolarization. It...

  17. Direct observation of current-induced motion of a 3D vortex domain wall in cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2017-05-08

    The current-induced dynamics of 3D magnetic vortex domain walls in cylindrical Co/Ni nanowires are revealed experimentally using Lorentz microscopy and theoretically using micromagnetic simulations. We demonstrate that a spin-polarized electric current can control the reversible motion of 3D vortex domain walls, which travel with a velocity of a few hundred meters per second. This finding is a key step in establishing fast, high-density memory devices based on vertical arrays of cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

  18. A Experimental Study of Viscous Vortex Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Mauricio

    Motivated by the role played by vortex rings in the process of turbulent mixing, the work is focused on the problem of stability and viscous decay of a single vortex ring. A new classification is proposed for vortex rings which is based on extensive hot-wire measurements of velocity in the ring core and wake and flow visualization. Vortex rings can be classified as laminar, wavy, turbulence-producing, and turbulent. Prediction of vortex ring type is shown to be possible based on the vortex ring Reynolds number. Linear growth rates of ring diameter with time are observed for all types of vortex rings, with different growth rates occurring for laminar and turbulent vortex rings. Data on the viscous decay of vortex rings are used to provide experimental confirmation of the accuracy of Saffman's equation for the velocity of propagation of a vortex ring. Experimental data indicate that instability of the vortex ring strongly depends on the mode of generation and can be delayed by properly adjusting the generation parameters. A systematic review of the literature on vortex-ring interactions is presented in the form of an appendix, which helps identify areas in which further research may be fruitful.

  19. Fractional vortex dipole phase filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam

    2014-10-01

    In spatial filtering experiments, the use of vortex phase filters plays an important role in realizing isotropic edge enhancement. In this paper, we report the use of a vortex dipole phase filter in spatial filtering. A dipole made of fractional vortices is used, and its filtering characteristics are studied. It is observed that the filter performance can be tuned by varying the distance of separation between the vortices of the dipole to achieve better contrast and output noise suppression, and when this distance tends to infinity, the filter performs like a 1-D Hilbert mask. Experimental and simulation results are presented.

  20. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  1. Generation of nonlinear vortex precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex har- monics are generated in the transmitted field due to ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provide a straightforward way of measuring precursors. By the virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical informa- tion and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity and high speed communication are required.

  2. Evolution of the vortex state in the BCS-BEC crossover of a quasi two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuebing; Zhou, Kezhao; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-11-01

    We use the path-integral formalism to investigate the vortex properties of a quasi-two dimensional (2D) Fermi superfluid system trapped in an optical lattice potential. Within the framework of mean-field theory, the cooper pair density, the atom number density, and the vortex core size are calculated from weakly interacting BCS regime to strongly coupled while weakly interacting BEC regime. Numerical results show that the atoms gradually penetrate into the vortex core as the system evolves from BEC to BCS regime. Meanwhile, the presence of the optical lattice allows us to analyze the vortex properties in the crossover from three-dimensional (3D) to 2D case. Furthermore, using a simple re-normalization procedure, we find that the two-body bound state exists only when the interaction is stronger than a critical one denoted by G c which is obtained as a function of the lattice potential’s parameter. Finally, we investigate the vortex core size and find that it grows with increasing interaction strength. In particular, by analyzing the behavior of the vortex core size in both BCS and BEC regimes, we find that the vortex core size behaves quite differently for positive and negative chemical potentials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51331006, 51590883, and 11204321) and the Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJZD-EW-M05-3).

  3. Master equation theory applied to the redistribution of polarized radiation in the weak radiation field limit. IV. Application to the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Context. The spectrum of the linear polarization, which is formed by scattering and observed on the solar disk close to the limb, is very different from the intensity spectrum and thus able to provide new information, in particular about anisotropies in the solar surface plasma and magnetic fields. In addition, a large number of lines show far wing polarization structures assigned to partial redistribution (PRD), which we prefer to denote as Rayleigh/Raman scattering. The two-level or two-term atom approximation without any lower level polarization is insufficient for many lines. Aims: In the previous paper of this series, we presented our theory generalized to the multilevel and multiline atom and comprised of statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix elements and radiative transfer equation for the polarized radiation. The present paper is devoted to applying this theory to model the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines. Methods: The solution method is iterative, of the lambda-iteration type. The usual acceleration techniques were considered or even applied, but we found these to be unsuccessful, in particular because of nonlinearity or large number of quantities determining the radiation at each depth. Results: The observed spectrum is qualitatively reproduced in line center, but the convergence is yet to be reached in the far wings and the observed spectrum is not totally reproduced there. Conclusions: We need to investigate noniterative resolution methods. The other limitation lies in the one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere model, which is unable to reproduce the intermittent matter structure formed of small loops or spicules in the chromosphere. This modeling is rough, but the computing time in the presence of hyperfine structure and PRD prevents us from envisaging a three-dimensional (3D) model at this instant.

  4. Magnus force and the inertial properties of magnetic vortices in weak ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvezdin, A. K.; Zvezdin, K. A.

    2010-08-01

    The Magnus force (gyroscopic force) acting on magnetic vortices (Bloch lines) within domain boundaries in weak ferromagnets is discussed. A general formula is derived for the Magnus force in weak ferromagnets. The Magnus force is found to be nonzero for most types of domain boundaries and is determined by the average sublattice magnetization and the constants for the Dzyaloshinsky interaction and the exchange interaction between sublattices. Generalized expressions are obtained for the effective Lagrange and Rayleigh functions in weak ferromagnets taking their vortex structure into account. The question of the vortex mass, which has been found to be on the order of m*˜10-14g/cm in YFeO3, is discussed. The dynamic flexure of domain boundaries when moving vortices are present is analyzed. A formula is derived for the magnetic field dependence of the velocity of a vortex in a motionless domain boundary.

  5. Vortex State in Sub-100 nm Magnetic Nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchin, Igor V.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetism of nanostructured magnets, which size is comparable to or smaller than ferromagnetic domain size, offers a great potential for new physics. Detailed knowledge of magnetization reversal and possible magnetic configurations in magnetic nanostructures is essential for high-density magnetic memory. Many theoretical and experimental studies are focused on a magnetic vortex which in addition to a circular in-plane configuration of spins has a core, - the region with out-of-plane magnetization. We present a quantitative study of the magnetic vortex state and the vortex core in sub-100 nm magnetic dots. Arrays of single-layer and bilayer nanodots covering over 1 cm^2 are fabricated using self-assembled nanopores in anodized alumina. This method allows good control over the dot size and periodicity. Magnetization measurements performed using SQUID, VSM, and MOKE indicate a transition from a vortex to a single domain state for the Fe dots. This transition is studied as a function of the magnetic field and dots size. Micromagnetic and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the experimental observations. Thermal activation and exchange bias strongly affect the vortex nucleation field and have a much weaker effect on the vortex annihilation field. Direct imaging of magnetic moments in sub-100 nm dots is extremely difficult and has not been reported yet. Polarized grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering measurements allow dot imaging in reciprocal space. Quantitative analysis of such measurements performed on 65 nm Fe dots yields the vortex core size of ˜15 nm, in good agreement with the 14 nm obtained from the simulations. This work is done in collaboration with Chang-Peng Li, Zhi-Pan Li, S. Roy, S. K. Sinha, (UCSD), Xavier Batlle (U. Barcelona), R. K. Dumas, Kai Liu, (UC Davis), S. Park, R. Pynn, M. R. Fitzsimmons (LANL), J. Mejia Lopez (Pontificia U. Catolica de Chile), D. Altbir, (U. de Santiago de Chile), A. H. Romero (Cinvestav-Unidad Queretaro), and Ivan K

  6. Vortex-lines motion for the Ginzburg-Landau equation with impurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-han; LIU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of solutions of the Ginzburg-Landau equation with impurity. We prove that, asymptotically, the vortex-lines evolve according to the mean curvature flow with a forcing term in the sense of the weak formulation.

  7. Melting of heterogeneous vortex matter: The vortex `nanoliquid'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Banerjee; S Goldberg; Y Myasoedov; M Rappaport; E Zeldov; A Soibel; F de la Cruz; C J van der Beek; M Konczykowski; T Tamegai; V Vinokur

    2006-01-01

    Disorder and porosity are parameters that strongly influence the physical behavior of materials, including their mechanical, electrical, magnetic and optical properties. Vortices in superconductors can provide important insight into the effects of disorder because their size is comparable to characteristic sizes of nanofabricated structures. Here we present experimental evidence for a novel form of vortex matter that consists of inter-connected nanodroplets of vortex liquid caged in the pores of a solid vortex structure, like a liquid permeated into a nanoporous solid skeleton. Our nanoporous skeleton is formed by vortices pinned by correlated disorder created by high-energy heavy ion irradiation. By sweeping the applied magnetic field, the number of vortices in the nanodroplets is varied continuously from a few to several hundred. Upon cooling, the caged nanodroplets freeze into ordered nanocrystals through either a first-order or a continuous transition, whereas at high temperatures a uniform liquid phase is formed upon delocalization-induced melt- ing of the solid skeleton. This new vortex nanoliquid displays unique properties and symmetries that are distinct from both solid and liquid phases.

  8. The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, T; Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T D; Averill, R; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bessuille, J; Birchall, J; Bonnell, E; Bowman, J; Brindza, P; Brown, D B; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cavness, B; Clark, G; Cornejo, J C; Dusa, S Covrig; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Dean, D C; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dow, K; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Echols, J R; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finelli, K D; Finn, J M; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hansknecht, J; Harrison, D J; Henderson, E; Hoskins, J R; Ihloff, E; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; Kelsey, J; Khan, N; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Kubera, A; Leacock, J; Leckey, J P; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; Liang, Y; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McCreary, A; McDonald, M H; McHugh, M J; Medeiros, P; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Musson, J; Mesick, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roberts, W R; Roche, J; Rose, P W; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Sobczynski, S; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Stokes, B; Storey, D W; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Urban, E; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Zhamkochyan, S; Zielinski, R B

    2014-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The ...

  9. Particle-vortex symmetric liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an effective theory with manifest particle-vortex symmetry for disordered thin films undergoing a magnetic field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition. The theory may enable one to access both the critical properties of the strong-disorder limit, which has recently been confirmed by Breznay et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 280 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1522435113] to exhibit particle-vortex symmetric electrical response, and the nearby metallic phase discovered earlier by Mason and Kapitulnik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5341 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.5341] in less disordered samples. Within the effective theory, the Cooper-pair and field-induced vortex degrees of freedom are simultaneously incorporated into an electrically neutral Dirac fermion minimally coupled to a (emergent) Chern-Simons gauge field. A derivation of the theory follows upon mapping the superconductor-insulator transition to the integer quantum Hall plateau transition and the subsequent use of Son's particle-hole symmetric composite Fermi liquid. Remarkably, particle-vortex symmetric response does not require the introduction of disorder; rather, it results when the Dirac fermions exhibit vanishing Hall effect. The theory predicts approximately equal (diagonal) thermopower and Nernst signal with a deviation parameterized by the measured electrical Hall response at the symmetric point.

  10. Anatomy of a Bathtub Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    We present experiments and theory for the "bathtub vortex," which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating "drainpipe" from the free surface down to the drain hole. Sur...

  11. Merger of Long Vortex Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Akshay

    2012-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video demonstrates the merger of long vortex filaments is shown experimentally. Two counter-rotating vortices are generated using in a tank with very high aspect ratio. PIV demonstrates the merger of the vortices within a single orbit.

  12. Thermal inhomogeneities in vortex tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemesh, N. I.; Senchuk, L. A.

    An experimental study of the effect of the temperature of the inlet gas on the temperature difference between the hot and cold streams discharged from a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is described. The experimental results are presented in graphical form. It is that the temperature difference increases with the temperature of the entering gas.

  13. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...

  14. 150 Years of vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    An IUTAM symposium with the title of this paper was held on October 12-16, 2008, in Lyngby and Copenhagen, Denmark, to mark the sesquicentennial of publication of Helmholtz's seminal paper on vortex dynamics. This volume contains the proceedings of the Symposium. The present paper provides...

  15. Imprinting superconducting vortex footsteps in a magnetic layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Jérémy; Motta, Maycon; Avila, Jonathan I; Shaw, Gorky; Devillers, Thibaut; Dempsey, Nora M; Veerapandian, Savita K P; Colson, Pierre; Vanderheyden, Benoît; Vanderbemden, Philippe; Ortiz, Wilson A; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Kramer, Roman B G; Silhanek, Alejandro V

    2016-06-06

    Local polarization of a magnetic layer, a well-known method for storing information, has found its place in numerous applications such as the popular magnetic drawing board toy or the widespread credit cards and computer hard drives. Here we experimentally show that a similar principle can be applied for imprinting the trajectory of quantum units of flux (vortices), travelling in a superconducting film (Nb), into a soft magnetic layer of permalloy (Py). In full analogy with the magnetic drawing board, vortices act as tiny magnetic scribers leaving a wake of polarized magnetic media in the Py board. The mutual interaction between superconducting vortices and ferromagnetic domains has been investigated by the magneto-optical imaging technique. For thick Py layers, the stripe magnetic domain pattern guides both the smooth magnetic flux penetration as well as the abrupt vortex avalanches in the Nb film. It is however in thin Py layers without stripe domains where superconducting vortices leave the clearest imprints of locally polarized magnetic moment along their paths. In all cases, we observe that the flux is delayed at the border of the magnetic layer. Our findings open the quest for optimizing magnetic recording of superconducting vortex trajectories.

  16. Chaos in body-vortex interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    The model of body–vortex interactions, where the fluid flow is planar, ideal and unbounded, and the vortex is a point vortex, is studied. The body may have a constant circulation around it. The governing equations for the general case of a freely moving body of arbitrary shape and mass density...... of a circle is integrable. As the body is made slightly elliptic, a chaotic region grows from an unstable relative equilibrium of the circle-vortex case. The case of a cylindrical body of any shape moving in fluid otherwise at rest is also integrable. A second transition to chaos arises from the limit between...... and an arbitrary number of point vortices are presented. The case of a body and a single vortex is then investigated numerically in detail. In this paper, the body is a homogeneous, elliptical cylinder. For large body–vortex separations, the system behaves much like a vortex pair regardless of body shape. The case...

  17. Polar low monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    passive microwave data make it possible to retrieve several important atmospheric and oceanic parameters inside the polar lows, such as sea surface wind speed, water vapour content in the atmosphere, total liquid water content in the clouds and others, providing not only qualitative image of a vortex, but also quantitative information about these severe events, constituting a promising tool for their study and monitoring. An approach for detection and tracking of polar lows is developed utilizing the data from two sensors: SSM/I onboard DMSP and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) onboard Aqua satellite. This approach consists of two stages. At the first stage total atmospheric water vapor fields are retrieved from SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurement data using precise Arctic polar algorithms, developed at NIERSC. These algorithms are applicable over open water. They have high retrieval accuracies under a wide range of environmental conditions. Algorithms are based on numerical simulation of brightness temperatures and their inversion by means of Neural Networks. At the second stage the vortex structures are detected in these fields, polar lows are identified and tracked and some of their parameters are calculated. A few case studies are comprehensively conducted based on SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurements and using other satellite data including visible, infrared and SAR images, QuickScat Scatterometer wind fields, surface analysis maps and re-analysis data, which demonstrated the advantages of satellite passive microwave data usage in the polar low studies.

  18. The structure and evolution of the stratospheric vortex in response to natural forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. M.; Gray, L. J.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.

    2011-08-01

    The structure and evolution of the Arctic stratospheric polar vortex is assessed during opposing phases of, primarily, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), but the 11 year solar cycle and winters following large volcanic eruptions are also examined. The analysis is performed by taking 2-D moments of vortex potential vorticity (PV) fields which allow the area and centroid of the vortex to be calculated throughout the ERA-40 reanalysis data set (1958-2002). Composites of these diagnostics for the different phases of the natural forcings are then considered. Statistically significant results are found regarding the structure and evolution of the vortex during, in particular, the ENSO and QBO phases. When compared with the more traditional zonal mean zonal wind diagnostic at 60°N, the moment-based diagnostics are far more robust and contain more information regarding the state of the vortex. The study details, for the first time, a comprehensive sequence of events which map the evolution of the vortex during each of the forcings throughout an extended winter period.

  19. Saturn's Polar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sayanagi, Kunio M; Dyudina, Ulyana A; Fletcher, Leigh N; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; West, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    This book chapter, Saturn's Polar Atmosphere, is to be published by Cambridge University Press as part of a multi-volume work edited by Kevin Baines, Michael Flasar, Norbert Krupp, and Thomas Stallard, entitled "Saturn in the 21st Century." This chapter reviews the state of our knowledge about Saturn's polar atmosphere that has been revealed through Earth- and space-based observation as well as theoretical and numerical modeling. In particular, the Cassini mission to Saturn, which has been in orbit around the ringed planet since 2004, has revolutionized our understanding of the planet. The current review updates a previous review by Del Genio et al (2009; Saturn Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics, Chapter 7 of "Saturn from Cassini-Huygens"), written after Cassini's primary mission phase that ended in 2008, by focusing on the north polar region of Saturn and comparing it to the southern high latitudes. Two prominent features in the northern high latitudes are the northern hexagon and the north polar vortex; we...

  20. Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatovsky, Cyril; Shvedov, Vladlen G; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Rode, Andrei V

    2010-10-15

    In this Letter we present the first (to our knowledge) demonstration of material modification using tightly focused single femtosecond laser vortex pulses. Double-charge femtosecond vortices were synthesized with a polarization-singularity beam converter based on light propagation in a uniaxial anisotropic medium and then focused using moderate- and high-NA optics (viz., NA=0.45 and 0.9) to ablate fused silica and soda-lime glass. By controlling the pulse energy, we consistently machine micrometer-size ring-shaped structures with <100nm uniform groove thickness.

  1. The potential for ozone depletion in the Arctic polar stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, W. H.; Anderson, J. G.; Toohey, D. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Poole, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    The nature of the Arctic polar stratosphere is observed to be similar in many respects to that of the Antarctic polar stratosphere, where an ozone hole has been identified. Most of the available chlorine (CHl and ClONO2) was converted by reactions on polar stratospheric clouds to reactive ClO and Cl2O2 thoroughout the Arctic polar vortex before midwinter. Reactive nitrogen was converted to HNO3, and some, with spatial inhomogeneity, fell out of the stratosphere. These chemical changes ensured characteristic ozone losses of 10 to 15 percent at altitudes inside the polar vortex where polar stratospheric clouds had occurred. These local losses can translate into 5 to 8 percent losses in the vertical column abundance of ozone. As the amount of stratospheric chlorine inevitably increases by 50 percent over the next two decades, ozone losses recognizable as an ozone hole may well appear.

  2. Effects of chiral helimagnets on vortex states in a superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Saoto; Kato, Masaru; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    We have investigated vortex states in chiral helimagnet/superconductor bilayer systems under an applied external magnetic field {H}{appl}, using the Ginzburg-Landau equations. Effect of the chiral helimagnet on the superconductor is taken as a magnetic field {H}{CHM}, which is perpendicular to the superconductor and oscillates spatially. For {H}{appl}=0 and weak {H}{CHM}, there appear pairs of up- and down-vortices. Increasing {H}{appl}, down-vortices gradually disappear, and the number of up-vortices increases in the large magnetic field region. Then, up-vortices form parallel, triangular, or square structures.

  3. On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING

    2011-01-01

    A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 (←→) aα(b) = 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.

  4. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Atmospheric Polar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, P. G.; Nixon, C. A.; de Kok, R.; Vinatier, S.; Coustenis, A.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Flasar, F. M.

    2013-10-01

    Titan is the largest satellite of Saturn and is the only moon in our solar system to have a significant atmosphere. Titan's middle-atmosphere circulation usually comprises a single hemisphere-to-hemisphere meridional circulation cell, with upwelling air in the summer hemisphere and subsiding air at the winter pole with an associated winter polar vortex. Titan has an axial tilt (obliquity) of 26.7degrees, so during its 29.5 Earth year annual cycle pronounced seasonal effects are expected as the relative solar insolation in each hemisphere changes. The most dramatic of these changes is predicted to be the reversal in global meridional circulation as the peak solar heating switches hemispheres after an equinox. Since northern spring equinox in mid-2009, Titan's atmosphere has demonstrated dramatic changes in temperature, composition, and aerosol distribution. These changes indicate major changes to the atmospheric circulation pattern have indeed occurred. Here we use nine years of Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra to determine the temperature and composition evolution of the atmosphere through northern-fall to northern-spring. Particularly dramatic changes are observed at the poles, where a new south polar hot-spot/vortex has been forming. The north polar vortex also appears to be weakening throughout this period. Furthermore, the meridional circulation reversal, predicted by numerical models, occurred a mere six months after equinox, showing that despite Titan's long annual cycle, rapid changes are possible. This gives us new insight into vortex formation processes and atmospheric dynamics.

  5. Generation of Intense High-Order Vortex Harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the method for the first time to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region. In three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, both the reflected and transmitted light beams include high-order harmonics of the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode when a linearly polarized LG laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The mode of the generated LG harmonic scales with its order, in good agreement with our theoretical analysis. The intensity of the generated high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, and the pulse duration can be in attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. Thus, the obtained intense vortex beam may have extraordinarily promising applications for high-capacity quantum information and for high-resolution dete...

  6. Vortex tube reconnection at Re = 104

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rees, Wim M.; Hussain, Fazle; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2012-07-01

    We present simulations of the long-time dynamics of two anti-parallel vortex tubes with and without initial axial flow, at Reynolds number Re = Γ/ν = 104. Simulations were performed in a periodic domain with a remeshed vortex method using 785 × 106 particles. We quantify the vortex dynamics of the primary vortex reconnection that leads to the formation of elliptical rings with axial flow and report for the first time a subsequent collision of these rings. In the absence of initial axial flow, a -5/3 slope of the energy spectrum is observed during the first reconnection of the tubes. The resulting elliptical vortex rings experience a coiling of their vortex lines imparting an axial flow inside their cores. These rings eventually collide, exhibiting a -7/3 slope of the energy spectrum. Studies of vortex reconnection with an initial axial flow exhibit also the -7/3 slope during the initial collision as well as in the subsequent collision of the ensuing elliptical vortex rings. We quantify the detailed vortex dynamics of these collisions and examine the role of axial flow in the breakup of vortex structures.

  7. Influence of mesoscale topography on vortex intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of mesoscale topography on multi-vortex self-organization is investigated numerically in this paper using a barotropic primitive equation model with topographic term. In the initial field there are one DeMaria major vortex with the maximum wind radius rm of 80 km at the center of the computational domain, and four meso-β vortices in the vicinity of rm to the east of the major vortex center.When there is no topography present, the initial vortices self-organize into a quasi-final state flow pattern, I.e. A quasi-axisymmetric vortex whose intensity is close to that of the initial major vortex. However, when a mesoscale topography is incorporated, the spatial scale of the quasi-final state vortex reduces, and the relative vorticity at the center of the vortex and the local maximum wind speed remarkably increase. The possible mechanism for the enhancement of the quasi-final state vortex might be that the negative relative vorticity lump,generated above the mesoscale topography because of the constraint of absolute vorticity conservation, squeezes the center of positive vorticity towards the mountain slope area, and thus reduces the spatial range of the major vortex. Meanwhile, because the total kinetic energy is basically conservative, the squeezing directly leads to the concentration of the energy in a smaller area, I.e. The strengthening of the vortex.

  8. Observations of filamentary structures near the vortex edge in the Arctic winter lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kalicinsky

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The CRISTA-NF (Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere – New Frontiers instrument is an airborne infrared limb sounder operated aboard the Russian research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The instrument successfully participated in a large Arctic aircraft campaign within the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions project in Kiruna (Sweden from January to March 2010. This paper concentrates on the measurements taken during one flight of the campaign, which took place on 2 March in the vicinity of the polar vortex. We present two-dimensional cross-sections of derived volume mixing ratios for the trace gases CFC-11, O3, and ClONO2 with an unprecedented vertical resolution of about 500 to 600 m for a large part of the observed altitude range (≈ 6–19 km and a dense horizontal sampling along flight direction of ≈ 15 km. The trace gas distributions show several structures, for example a part of the polar vortex and a vortex filament, which can be identified by means of O3–CFC-11 tracer–tracer correlations. The observations made during this flight are interpreted using the chemistry and transport model CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere. Comparisons of the observations with the model results are used to assess the performance of the model with respect to advection, mixing, and the chemistry in the polar vortex. These comparisons confirm the capability of CLaMS to reproduce even very small-scale structures in the atmosphere, which partly have a vertical extent of only 1 km. Based on the good agreement between simulation and observation, we use artificial (passive tracers, which represent different air mass origins (e.g. vortex, tropics, to further analyse the CRISTA-NF observations in terms of the composition of air mass origins. These passive tracers clearly illustrate the observation of

  9. Vortex dynamics in the presence of excess energy for the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kurzke, Matthias; Moser, Roger; Spirn, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We study the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the dynamics of a magnetic vortex system. We present a PDE-based method for proving vortex dynamics that does not rely on strong well-preparedness of the initial data and allows for instantaneous changes in the strength of the gyrovector force due to bubbling events. The main tools are estimates of the Hodge decomposition of the supercurrent and an analysis of the defect measure of weak convergence of the stress energy tensor. Ginzburg-Landau equations with mixed dynamics in the presence of excess energy are also discussed.

  10. Tracer-tracer relations as a tool for research on polar ozone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Rolf

    2010-07-01

    The report includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction: ozone in the atmosphere, anthropogenic influence on the ozone layer, polar stratospheric ozone loss; (2) Tracer-tracer relations in the stratosphere: tracer-tracer relations as a tool in atmospheric research; impact of cosmic-ray-induced heterogeneous chemistry on polar ozone; (3) quantifying polar ozone loss from ozone-tracer relations: principles of tracer-tracer correlation techniques; reference ozone-tracer relations in the early polar vortex; impact of mixing on ozone-tracer relations in the polar vortex; impact of mesospheric intrusions on ozone-tracer relations in the stratospheric polar vortex calculation of chemical ozone loss in the arctic in March 2003 based on ILAS-II measurements; (4) epilogue.

  11. 庞加莱球方法对非线性相干耦合模在低双折射光纤中的偏振态稳定性分析%Polarization stability analysis of nonlinear coherent coupling by using Poincaré sphere in a weakly birefringent fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    通拉嘎; 贾卫国; 杨军; 张俊萍

    2012-01-01

    通过对低双折射非线性相干耦合模传输方程引入斯托克斯参量表达式,利用庞加莱球图示法,分析了非线性相干耦合波在低双折射光纤中偏振态的衍化规律,并运用相图法数学几何法给出了双折射差与偏振不稳定性的关系,临街功率表达式.当两个运动常量满足关系时,偏振态围绕庞加莱球上的P1,P2稳定点旋转的闭合曲线衍化,并呈现椭圆偏振态;当两个运动常量满足关系时,出现保偏现象;当两个运动常量满足关系时,偏振态围绕P1,P3稳定点旋转的闭合曲线衍化.%Nonlinear polarization evolution for different birefringence regions in a weakly birefringent fiber was analysed by using Poincaré sphere.It was derived by quoting the Stoke's parameters formalism in the nonlinear coupled differential equations for the nonlinear coupled-mode.The phase plane method shows how the evolution of polarization was governed by refringence.Three conditions was derived for different initial values.While the two constants of motion allow for the inequality-R>Γ,the polarization state would either be elliptical or spin around the stable singular points P1 and P2 on the Poincaré sphere.For the inequality-R=Γ,the linear polarization maintaing phenomenon would occur,the critical power for polarization instability was obtained by using geometrical methods.For the inequality-R<Γ<R,the evolution of polarization state would spin around the two points fixed point P and P3 on the Poincaré sphere.

  12. Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997

  13. Ozone and water vapour in the austral polar stratospheric vortex and sub-vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Peet, E.; V. Rudakov; V. Yushkov; G. Redaelli; A. R. MacKenzie

    2004-01-01

    In-situ measurements of ozone and water vapour, in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, were made as part of the APE-GAIA mission in September and October 1999. The measurements show a distinct difference above and below the 415K isentrope. Above 415K, the chemically perturbed region of low ozone and water vapour is clearly evident. Below 415K, but still above the tropopause, no sharp meridional gradients in ozone and water vapour were observed. The observations are consistent with analyses of p...

  14. Optical telecom networks as weak measurements with post-selection

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, N

    2003-01-01

    In this work we establish a link between two apparently unrelated subjects: polarization effects in optical fibers and devices, and the quantum theory of weak measurements. We show that the abstract concept of weak measurements followed by post-selection, introduced a decade ago by quantum theorists, naturally appears in the everyday physics of telecom networks.

  15. The Influence of Low-frequency Oscillation Propagation of the Tibetan Plateau Vortex on Rainstorm Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tiangui; Wang, Chao; La, Jia; Du, Jun; Zhang, Kairong

    2017-04-01

    Based on Tibetan Plateau vortex data, ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the characteristics of Tibetan Plateau vortex and the relationship with Low-Frequency Oscillation (LFO) from 2003 to 2012 were investigated. The heavy rainstorm occurred in Sichuan from June 29th to July 2nd in 2013, caused by the LFO, was studied. Besides, the signal of LFO, energy transmission and those influence to rainstorm were also investigate. The main conclusions are as follows: (1)Most of Tibetan Plateau vortex generate in eastern plateau, located at Tanggula Mountains, Zaduo, Dege, Qumalai and Qaidam. The moving-out Tibetan Plateau vortex mainly generate in Qumalai and most vortex occurrences during April to September. There are three directions of moving-out vortex paths: northeast, southeast and east. The areas which plateau vortex moving into are mainly distributed in Gansu, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Ningxia. (2)The zonal wind at 500hPa in plateau key region has a significant main 10-30d oscillation, with the secondly significant oscillation in 30-50d and the third in 70-90d. The relative vorticity at 500hPa in plateau key region has a significant main 30-50d oscillations, with the secondly significant oscillation in 10-30d. The 30-50d oscillation phase zone with weak westerly oscillation zone of 500hPa, and the 10-30d oscillation positive phase zone with weak oscillation zone of 500hPa are benefit to vortex generation. The 30-50d oscillation of zonal wind at 500hPa provides necessary circulation background for generation of plateau vortex, and positive phase region of 10-30d oscillation of relative vorticity at 500hPa provide necessary dynamic background conditions for it. (3) Comparing with the high frequency oscillation vortex, 10-25d low-frequency vortex is not significant at 500hPa before merging into the basin vortex. However, after merging into the basin vortex, there is a significant relationship between low-frequency vortex and the process of development, weakening and

  16. Vortex scattering by step topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, A. K.; Johnson, E. R.; McDonald, N. R.

    The scattering at a rectilinear step change in depth of a shallow-water vortex pair consisting of two patches of equal but opposite-signed vorticity is studied. Using the constants of motion, an explicit relationship is derived relating the angle of incidence to the refracted angle after crossing. A pair colliding with a step from deep water crosses the escarpment and subsequently propagates in shallow water refracted towards the normal to the escarpment. A pair colliding with a step from shallow water either crosses and propagates in deep water refracted away from the normal or, does not cross the step and is instead totally internally reflected by the escarpment. For large depth changes, numerical computations show that the coherence of the vortex pair is lost on encountering the escarpment.

  17. Perturbations of vortex ring pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S; Parikh, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    We study pairs of co-axial vortex rings starting from the action for a classical bosonic string in a three-form background. We complete earlier work on the phase diagram of classical orbits by explicitly considering the case where the circulations of the two vortex rings are equal and opposite. We then go on to study perturbations, focusing on cases where the relevant four-dimensional transfer matrix splits into two-dimensional blocks. When the circulations of the rings have the same sign, instabilities are mostly limited to wavelengths smaller than a dynamically generated length scale at which single-ring instabilities occur. When the circulations have the opposite sign, larger wavelength instabilities can occur.

  18. Collisions of Vortex Filament Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banica, Valeria; Faou, Erwan; Miot, Evelyne

    2014-12-01

    We consider the problem of collisions of vortex filaments for a model introduced by Klein et al. (J Fluid Mech 288:201-248, 1995) and Zakharov (Sov Phys Usp 31(7):672-674, 1988, Lect. Notes Phys 536:369-385, 1999) to describe the interaction of almost parallel vortex filaments in three-dimensional fluids. Since the results of Crow (AIAA J 8:2172-2179, 1970) examples of collisions are searched as perturbations of antiparallel translating pairs of filaments, with initial perturbations related to the unstable mode of the linearized problem; most results are numerical calculations. In this article, we first consider a related model for the evolution of pairs of filaments, and we display another type of initial perturbation leading to collision in finite time. Moreover, we give numerical evidence that it also leads to collision through the initial model. We finally study the self-similar solutions of the model.

  19. Divergence of optical vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabhakar, Shashi; Anwar, Ali; Banerji, J; Singh, R P

    2015-01-01

    We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the propagation of optical vortices in free space can be analysed by using the width ($w(z)$) of the host Gaussian beam and the inner and outer radii of the vortex beam at the source plane ($z=0$) as defined in \\textit{Optics Letters \\textbf{39,} 4364-4367 (2014)}. We also studied the divergence of vortex beams, considered as the rate of change of inner or outer radius with the propagation distance, and found that it varies with the order in the same way as that of the inner and outer radii at zero propagation distance. These results may be useful in designing optical fibers for orbital angular momentum modes that play a crucial role in quantum communication.

  20. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  1. Model of strong stationary vortex turbulence in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Aburjania

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the macroscopic consequences of nonlinear solitary vortex structures in magnetized space plasmas by developing theoretical model of plasma turbulence. Strongly localized vortex patterns contain trapped particles and, propagating in a medium, excite substantial density fluctuations and thus, intensify the energy, heat and mass transport processes, i.e., such vortices can form strong vortex turbulence. Turbulence is represented as an ensemble of strongly localized (and therefore weakly interacting vortices. Vortices with various amplitudes are randomly distributed in space (due to collisions. For their description, a statistical approach is applied. It is supposed that a stationary turbulent state is formed by balancing competing effects: spontaneous development of vortices due to nonlinear twisting of the perturbations' fronts, cascading of perturbations into short scales (direct spectral cascade and collisional or collisionless damping of the perturbations in the short-wave domain. In the inertial range, direct spectral cascade occurs through merging structures via collisions. It is shown that in the magneto-active plasmas, strong turbulence is generally anisotropic Turbulent modes mainly develop in the direction perpendicular to the local magnetic field. It is found that it is the compressibility of the local medium which primarily determines the character of the turbulent spectra: the strong vortex turbulence forms a power spectrum in wave number space. For example, a new spectrum of turbulent fluctuations in k−8/3 is derived which agrees with available experimental data. Within the framework of the developed model particle diffusion processes are also investigated. It is found that the interaction of structures with each other and particles causes anomalous diffusion in the medium. The effective coefficient of diffusion has a square root dependence on the stationary level of noise.

  2. Dust vortex flows in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, P.K

    2002-12-30

    Coherent nonlinear structures in the form of dust vortex flows have been observed in unmagnetized laboratory dusty plasmas. Our objective here is show that the dynamics of such dust vortices is governed by a modified Navier-Stokes equation (MNSE) and that the stationary solutions of the MNSE can be represented as monopolar as well as a row of identical Stuart and a row of counter-rotating vortices.

  3. Experimental characteristics of vortex heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralishvili, Sh. A.; Novikov, N. N.

    The performance of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is investigated experimentally for the case where the tube operates as a heater, with the mass of the heated gas remaining constant. The results obtained indicate that energy separation zones with sufficiently high (50 percent) relative heating effects can be achieved for a gas flow ratio of unity. A nomogram is presented for calculating the relative and absolute heating effects as a function of the tube geometry.

  4. Prediction and Control of Vortex Dominated and Vortex-wake Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments under this research grant, including a list of publications and dissertations, produced in the field of prediction and control of vortex dominated and vortex wake flows.

  5. Relationship of Arctic sea ice and Northern Hemispheric 500 hPa Polar vortices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis monthly 500 hPa height data on a 2.5 latitude-longitude grid and 1°×1° sea ice data, the polar vortex area, intensity index and arctic sea ice area index are calculated respectively, and the meridional distribution, period variation and the abrupts in the long range trend are analyzed to study their relationship. The results show that the meridional distribution of sea ice and polar vortex h-ave distinctive difference, the relative positions of them are different in the eastern and western hemispheres, and exept they have periods of 4 months, quasi half year, quasi year, 4-5 years and 10 years commonly, and each of them has its own respective variation as well. The sea ice area is decreasing apparently since 1980's, so is the polar vortex area, but their abrupt changge time are different totally. The area of sea ice and polar vortex has prominent positive correlation, but the relationship of sea ice intensity, polar vortex intensity, polar vortex area is complicated.

  6. Optical Telecom Networks as Weak Quantum Measurements with Postselection

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Nicolas; Acin, Antonio; Collins, Daniel Geoffrey; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2003-01-01

    We show that weak measurements with post-selection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the post-selection is done in the most natural way: one post-selects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formali...

  7. Birth and evolution of an optical vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Vallone, Giuseppe; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    When a phase singularity is suddenly imprinted on the axis of an ordinary Gaussian beam, an optical vortex appears and starts to grow radially, by effect of diffraction. This radial growth and the subsequent evolution of the optical vortex under focusing or imaging can be well described in general within the recently introduced theory of circular beams, which generalize the hypergeometric-Gaussian beams and which obey novel kinds of ABCD rules. Here, we investigate experimentally these vortex propagation phenomena and test the validity of circular-beam theory. Moreover, we analyze the difference in radial structure between the newly generated optical vortex and the vortex obtained in the image plane, where perfect imaging would lead to complete closure of the vortex core.

  8. Topology of Vortex-Wing Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Chris; Rockwell, Donald

    2016-11-01

    Aircraft flying together in an echelon or V formation experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex from the leader (upstream) wing on the follower wing can yield an increase of lift to drag ratio. This enhancement is known to depend on the location of vortex impingement on the follower wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine streamline topology in successive crossflow planes, which characterize the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure along the chord of the follower wing and into its wake. Different modes of vortex-follower wing interaction are created by varying both the spanwise and vertical locations of the leader wing. These modes are defined by differences in the number and locations of critical points of the flow topology, and involve bifurcation, attenuation, and mutual induction. The bifurcation and attenuation modes decrease the strength of the tip vortex from the follower wing. In contrast, the mutual induction mode increases the strength of the follower tip vortex. AFOSR.

  9. Vortex rings impinging on permeable boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujal-Colilles, Anna; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Bateman, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with vortex rings impinging permeable and solid boundaries are presented in order to investigate the influence of permeability. Utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry, we compared the behaviour of a vortex ring impinging four different reticulated foams (with permeability k ˜ 26 - 85 × 10-8 m2) and a solid boundary. Results show how permeability affects the stretching phenomena of the vortex ring and the formation and evolution of the secondary vortex ring with opposite sign. Moreover, permeability also affects the macroscopic no-slip boundary condition found on the solid boundary, turning it into an apparent slip boundary condition for the most permeable boundary. The apparent slip-boundary condition and the flux exchange between the ambient fluid and the foam are jointly responsible for both the modified formation of the secondary vortex and changes on the vortex ring diameter increase.

  10. Vortex dynamics in nonrelativistic Abelian Higgs model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kozhevnikov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the gauge vortex with arbitrary form of a contour is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic Abelian Higgs model, including the possibility of the gauge field interaction with the fermion asymmetric background. The equations for the time derivatives of the curvature and the torsion of the vortex contour generalizing the Betchov–Da Rios equations in hydrodynamics, are obtained. They are applied to study the conservation of helicity of the gauge field forming the vortex, twist, and writhe numbers of the vortex contour. It is shown that the conservation of helicity is broken when both terms in the equation of the vortex motion are present, the first due to the exchange of excitations of the phase and modulus of the scalar field and the second one due to the coupling of the gauge field forming the vortex, with the fermion asymmetric background.

  11. An axisymmetric steady state vortex ring model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ruo-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Based on the solution of Atanasiu et al. (2004), a theoretical model for axisymmetric vortex flows is derived in the present study by solving the vorticity transport equation for an inviscid, incompressible fluid in cylindrical coordinates. The model can describe a variety of axisymmetric flows with particular boundary conditions at a moderately high Reynolds number. This paper shows one example: a high Reynolds number laminar vortex ring. The model can represent a family of vortex rings by specifying the modulus function using a Rayleigh distribution function. The characteristics of this vortex ring family are illustrated by numerical methods. For verification, the model results compare well with the recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) in terms of the vorticity distribution and streamline patterns, cross-sectional areas of the vortex core and bubble, and radial vorticity distribution through the vortex center. Most importantly, the asymmetry and elliptical outline of the vorticity profile are well capt...

  12. Destabilization of free convection by weak rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfgat, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This study offers an explanation of a recently observed effect of destabilization of free convective flows by weak rotation. After studying several models where flows are driven by a simultaneous action of convection and rotation, it is concluded that the destabilization is observed in the cases where centrifugal force acts against main convective circulation. At relatively low Prandtl numbers this counter action can split the main vortex into two counter rotating vortices, where the interaction leads to instability. At larger Prandtl numbers, the counter action of the centrifugal force steepens an unstable thermal stratification, which triggers Rayleigh-B\\'enard instability mechanism. Both cases can be enhanced by advection of azimuthal velocity disturbances towards the axis, where they grow and excite perturbations of the radial velocity. The effect was studied considering a combined convective/rotating flow in a cylinder with a rotating lid and a parabolic temperature profile at the sidewall. Next, explana...

  13. Front propagation in vortex-dominated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Garrett; Winokur, Justin; Solomon, Tom

    2008-11-01

    We present experiments that explore how the propagation of a reaction front is affected by a two-dimensional flow dominated by vortices. The reaction is the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical reaction. The flow is driven by the interaction between an electrical current passing through the fluid and a spatially-varying magnetic field produced by an array of magnets below the fluid. For some of the experiments, the forcing is strong enough to produce a weakly turbulent flow. Measurements are made both of the enhanced diffusion coefficient D^* describing transport in the flow and of the propagation speed v of a reaction front in the same flow. Scaling of v versus D^* is compared with that for the standard Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov prediction v ˜√D (with D as the molecular diffusion coefficient) for the reaction-diffusion limit with no fluid advection. We also study the effects of superdiffusive transport and Lévy flights on front propagation in a time-dependent vortex array with wavy jet regions.

  14. Magnetism near Vortex Cores of Cuprate Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. C.; Prudchenko, K.; Launspach, B.; Ruiz, E. J.; Boekema, C.

    2005-03-01

    We examined muon-spin-resonance (μSR) vortex data of Bi2212, Tl2223, and YBCO to search for antiferromagnetism (AF) near the vortex cores. [1] Field distributions were obtained from μSR data using Maximum-Entropy analysis. The grainboundary and vortex signals were fitted by Gaussian and Lorentzian curves, the latter suggestive of extra AF ordering. Narrow Gaussians fit the grainboundary signals well, independent of temperature. For T B17 (2003) 3436.

  15. Astronomical demonstration of an optical vortex coronagraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzlander, Grover A; Ford, Erin L; Abdul-Malik, Rukiah S; Close, Laird M; Peters, Mary A; Palacios, David M; Wilson, Daniel W

    2008-07-07

    Using an optical vortex coronagraph and simple adaptive optics techniques, we have made the first convincing demonstration of an optical vortex coronagraph that is coupled to a star gazing telescope. We suppressed by 97% the primary star of a resolvable binary system, Cor Caroli. The stars had an angular separation of 1.9lambda/D at our imaging camera. The secondary star suffered no suppression from the vortex lens.

  16. Efficient Vortex Generation in Subwavelength Epsilon-Near-Zero Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Marini, Andrea; Rizza, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order 2 in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the transverse magnetic and transverse electric asymmetric response of the rotationally invariant system. In addition, in the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in subwavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime. This physically stems from the fact that a vacuum paraxial field can excite a nonparaxial field inside an epsilon-near-zero slab since it hosts slowly varying fields over physically large portions of the bulk. Our theoretical predictions indicate that epsilon-near-zero media hold great potential as nanophotonic elements for manipulating the angular momentum of the radiation, since they are available without resorting to complicated micro- or nanofabrication processes and can operate even at very small (ultraviolet) wavelengths.

  17. Efficient Vortex Generation in Subwavelength Epsilon-Near-Zero Slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Marini, Andrea; Rizza, Carlo

    2017-03-10

    We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order 2 in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the transverse magnetic and transverse electric asymmetric response of the rotationally invariant system. In addition, in the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in subwavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime. This physically stems from the fact that a vacuum paraxial field can excite a nonparaxial field inside an epsilon-near-zero slab since it hosts slowly varying fields over physically large portions of the bulk. Our theoretical predictions indicate that epsilon-near-zero media hold great potential as nanophotonic elements for manipulating the angular momentum of the radiation, since they are available without resorting to complicated micro- or nanofabrication processes and can operate even at very small (ultraviolet) wavelengths.

  18. Spontaneous generation of vortex and coherent vector beams from a thin-slice c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser with wide-aperture laser-diode end pumping: application to highly sensitive rotational and translational Doppler velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kenju; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Selective excitation of Laguerre-Gauss modes (optical vortices: helical LG0,2 and LG0,1), reflecting their weak transverse cross-saturation of population inversions against a preceding higher-order Ince-Gauss (IG0,2) or Hermite-Gauss (HG2,1) mode, was observed in a thin-slice c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser with wide-aperture laser-diode end pumping. Single-frequency coherent vector beams were generated through the transverse mode locking of a pair of orthogonally polarized IG2,0 and LG0,2 or HG2,1 and LG0,1 modes. Highly sensitive self-mixing rotational and translational Doppler velocimetry is demonstrated by using vortex and coherent vector beams.

  19. Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  20. Weakly asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of "weakly asymptotically hyperbolic" geometries whose sectional curvatures tend to $-1$ and are $C^0$, but are not necessarily $C^1$, conformally compact. We subsequently investigate the rate at which curvature invariants decay at infinity, identifying a conformally invariant tensor which serves as an obstruction to "higher order decay" of the Riemann curvature operator. Finally, we establish Fredholm results for geometric elliptic operators, extending the work of Rafe Mazzeo and John M. Lee to this setting. As an application, we show that any weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric is conformally related to a weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric of constant negative curvature.

  1. The quasi-vortex-lattice method for wings with edge vortex separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, J. L.; Lan, E.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of wings with leading-edge vortex separation were predicted using a method based on a flow model with free vortex elements which are allowed to merge into a concentrated core. The calculated pressure distribution is more accurate than that predicted by methods with discrete vortex filaments alone. In addition, the computer time is reduced approximately by half.

  2. Recent Advances in Study of Oceanic Vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Gang; LI Li; LIU Qinyu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the recent advances in the study of oceanic vortex are outlined. Firstly, the previous studies on oceanic vortex are reviewed. Secondly, some prominent features of oceanic vortex in the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio, the South China Sea and the Japan Sea regions are depicted based upon the observations and numerical modeling results. Generally, the lifetime of these oceanic vortices ranges from several weeks to several months, and their horizontal scales vary from tens of kilometers to hundreds of kilometers. Their vertical scales are on the order of thousands of meters. Finally, some theoretical studies, mainly on the splitting of a cyclonic vortex and the merging of anticyclonic vortices, are introduced.

  3. Optical telecom networks as weak quantum measurements with post- selection

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, N; Collins, D; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, V; Acin, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2003-01-01

    We show that weak measurements with post-selection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the post-selection is done in the most natural way: one post-selects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formalism is shown to simplify the calculation of optical networks in the telecom limit of weak PMD.

  4. Optical telecom networks as weak quantum measurements with postselection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Acín, Antonio; Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2003-10-31

    We show that weak measurements with postselection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the postselection is done in the most natural way: one postselects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formalism is shown to simplify the calculation of optical networks in the telecom limit of weak PMD.

  5. Weak Quasielastic Production of Hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Alam, M Rafi; Chauhan, S; Singh, S K

    2016-01-01

    We present the results for antineutrino induced quasielastic hyperon production from nucleon and nuclear targets \\cite{Alam:2014bya,Singh:2006xp}. The inputs are the nucleon-hyperon(N--Y) transition form factors determined from the analysis of neutrino-nucleon scattering and semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry. The calculations for the nuclear targets are done in local density approximation. The nuclear medium effects(NME) like Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and final state interaction(FSI) effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have been taken into account. The hyperons giving rise to pions through weak decays also contribute to the weak pion production in addition to the $\\Delta$ excitation mechanism which dominates in the energy region of $<$ 0.7 GeV. We also present the results of longitudinal and perpendicular components of polarization of final hyperon \\cite{Akbar:2016awk}. These measurements in the future accelerator experiments with antineutrinos may give some informat...

  6. Weak lensing and cosmological investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, V

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...

  7. On quantum magnetic flux lines, BPS vortex zero modes, and one-loop string tension shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A; Mayado, M de la Torre

    2016-01-01

    Spectral heat kernel/zeta function regularization procedures are employed in this paper to control the divergences arising from vacuum fluctuations of Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfield vortices in the Abelian Higgs model. Zero modes of vortex fluctuations are the source of difficulties appearing when the standard Gilkey-de Witt expansion is performed. A modified GdW expansion is developed to diminish the impact of the infrared divergences due to the vortex zero modes. With this new technique at our disposal we compute the one-loop vortex mass shift in the planar AHM and the quantum corrections to the string tension of the magnetic flux tubes living in three dimensions. In both cases it is observed that weak repulsive forces surge between these classically non interacting topological defects caused by vacuum quantum fluctuations.

  8. Vortex motion in layered superconductors Cu0.03TaS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The vortex motion in Cu0.03TaS2 has been investigated by resistivity results with a special electrode arrangements. The vortex behaviors for H ∥ c are completely different from that for H ∥ ab. The analysis indicates that when H ∥ ab, the sharp ρ − T transition is the superconductive-normal transition while for H ∥ c, the broadened ρ − T transition is caused by the suppression of the superconducting weak link between the S-Ta-S layers. The existence of the vortex pancake in Cu0.03TaS2 is contradictory to the Clem's model, further demonstrating that the models for high temperature cuprates superconductors are not applicable to the layered transition metal dichalcogenides.

  9. Phase slips and vortex dynamics in Josephson oscillations between Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M.; Guilleumas, M.; Mayol, R.; Piazza, F.; Jezek, D. M.; Smerzi, A.

    2015-02-01

    We study the relation between Josephson dynamics and topological excitations in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a double-well trap. We show that the phase slips responsible for the self-trapping regime are created by vortex rings entering and annihilating inside the weak-link region or created at the center of the barrier and expanding outside the system. Large amplitude oscillations just before the onset of self-trapping are also strictly connected with the dynamics of vortex rings at the edges of the inter-well barrier. Our results extend and analyze the dynamics of the vortex-induced phase slippages suggested a few decades ago in relation to the “ac” Josephson effect of superconducting and superfluid helium systems.

  10. Measuring the rates of spontaneous vortex formation in highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Tyler; Samson, Edward; Bradley, Ashton; Davis, Matthew; Anderson, Brian

    2009-05-01

    By studying the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensation transition in highly oblate (˜11:1 aspect ratio) traps, we have measured the dependence of spontaneous vortex formation on BEC growth rate, extending our previous experimental and numerical observations of spontaneous vortex formation in weakly oblate (˜2:1 aspect ratio) traps [1]. Our condensation procedure in these highly oblate traps allows us to create BECs over a large range of growth times, from approximately 200 ms to over 2 s. By characterizing vortex formation vs. BEC growth rate, and comparing experimental and numerical results, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism for topological defect formation may be quantitatively studied in our system. [1] C.N. Weiler, T.W. Neely, D.R. Scherer, A.S. Bradley, M.J. Davis, and B.P. Anderson., Nature 455, 948 (2008).

  11. Low-noise III-V metasurface based semiconductor vortex laser and rotational Doppler velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghilani, Mohamed; Chomet, Baptiste; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis.24 We use a first order phase perturbation to introduce a weak orbital anisotropy, based on a dielectric metasurface and non-linear laser dynamics, allowing selecting vortex handedness. Moreover, similarly to linear Doppler Shift, light carrying orbital angular momentum L, scattered by a rotating object at angular velocity, experiences a rotational Doppler shift L. We show that this fundamental light matter interaction can be detected exploiting self-mixing in a vortex laser under Doppler-shifted optical feedback, with quantum noise-limited light detection.25 This will allow us to combine a velocity sensor with optical tweezers for micro-manipulation applications, with high performances, simplicity and compactness. Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications.

  12. Evolution of a superfluid vortex filament tangle driven by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Villois, Alberto; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The development and decay of a turbulent vortex tangle driven by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is studied. Using a recently-developed accurate and robust tracking algorithm, all quantised vortices are extracted from the fields. The Vinen's decay law for the total vortex length with a coefficient that is in quantitative agreement with the values measured in Helium II is observed. The topology of the tangle is then studied showing that linked rings may appear during the decay. The tracking also allows for determining the statistics of small-scales quantities of vortex lines, exhibiting large fluctuations of curvature and torsion. Finally, the temporal evolution of the Kelvin wave spectrum is obtained providing evidence of the development of a weak-wave turbulence cascade.

  13. Strange Weak Values

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Akio

    2010-01-01

    We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.

  14. Static property and current-driven precession of 2π-vortex in nano-disk with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianyin; Zhu, Qiyuan; Zhang, Senfu; Liu, Qingfang, E-mail: liuqf@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: liuqf@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2015-08-15

    An interesting type of skyrmion-like spin texture, 2π-vortex, is obtained in a thin nano-disk with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. We have simulated the existence of 2π-vortex by micromagnetic method. Furthermore, the spin polarized current is introduced in order to drive the motion of 2π-vortex in a nano-disk with diameter 2 R = 140 nm. When the current density matches with the current injection area, 2π-vortex soon reaches a stable precession (3∼4 ns). The relationship between the precession frequency of 2π-vortex and the current density is almost linear. It may have potential use in spin torque nano-oscillators.

  15. Rotating hot-wire investigation of the vortex responsible for blade-vortex interaction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Richard Remo

    1988-01-01

    This distribution of the circumferential velocity of the vortex responsible for blade-vortex interaction noise was measured using a rotating hot-wire rake synchronously meshed with a model helicopter rotor at the blade passage frequency. Simultaneous far-field acoustic data and blade differential pressure measurements were obtained. Results show that the shape of the measured far-field acoustic blade-vortex interaction signature depends on the blade-vortex interaction geometry. The experimental results are compared with the Widnall-Wolf model for blade-vortex interaction noise.

  16. Vortex diffusion and vortex-line hysteresis in radial quantum turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saluto, L., E-mail: lidia.saluto@unipa.it [DEIM, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Jou, D., E-mail: david.jou@uab.es [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Mongiovi, M.S., E-mail: m.stella.mongiovi@unipa.it [DEIM, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    We study the influence of vortex diffusion on the evolution of inhomogeneous quantized vortex tangles. A simple hydrodynamical model to describe inhomogeneous counterflow superfluid turbulence is used. As an illustration, we obtain solutions for these effects in radial counterflow of helium II between two concentric cylinders at different temperatures. The vortex diffusion from the inner hotter cylinder to the outer colder cylinder increases the vortex length density everywhere as compared with the non-diffusive situation. The possibility of hysteresis in the vortex line density under cyclical variations of the heat flow is explored.

  17. A Study on the Dynamic Mechanism of the Formation of Mesoscale Vortex in Col Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yongqiang; WANG Yuan; HUANG Hong

    2012-01-01

    The mesoscale vortex associated with a mesoscale low-level jet (mLLJ) usually causes heavy rainfall in the col field.The col field is defined as a region between two highs and two lows,with the isobaric surface similar to a col.Using a two-dimensional shallow water model,the meso-β scale vortex couplets (MβVCs)induced by eight types of mesoscale wind perturbations in an ideal col field were numerically simulated.With the sizes of ~100 km,the MβVCs induced by northerly perturbation (NP) and southerly perturbation (SP)moved toward the col point.The sizes of MβVCs induced by southwesterly perturbation (SWP),southeasterly perturbation (SEP),northwesterly perturbation (NWP),and northeasterly perturbation (NEP) were relatively small for the perturbations moving toward dilatation axis.The MβVC induced by easterly perturbation (EP) and westerly perturbation (WP) could not develop because they quickly moved away from the col point,before the circulation could form.The size of the circulation was determined by the distance between the vortex and the col point.The closer to the col point the vortex was,the larger the size of vortex.The comparisons of maximum vorticity and vorticity root mean square error (RMSE) of the NP,the SWP,and the WP show that the maximum vorticity and the vorticity RMSE of the NP decreased slower than other perturbations.Therefore,the weak environment of the col field favors the maintenance of vorticity and the formation of vortex.When a mesoscalc vortex forms near the col point or moves toward the col point,it may maintain a quasi-stationary state in the stable col field.

  18. Superconductor-ferromagnet bilayer under external drive: The role of vortex-antivortex matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, D. A.; Chaves, A.; Ferreira, W. P.; Farias, G. A.; Milošević, M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Using advanced Ginzburg-Landau simulations, we study the superconducting state of a thin superconducting film under a ferromagnetic layer, separated by an insulating oxide, in applied external magnetic field and electric current. The taken uniaxial ferromagnet is organized into a series of parallel domains with alternating polarization of out-of-plane magnetization, sufficiently strong to induce vortex-antivortex pairs in the underlying superconductor in absence of other magnetic field. We show the organization of such vortex-antivortex matter into rich configurations, some of which are not matching the periodicity of the ferromagnetic film. The variety of possible configurations is enhanced by applied homogeneous magnetic field, where additional vortices in the superconductor may lower the energy of the system by either annihilating the present antivortices under negative ferromagnetic domains or by lowering their own energy after positioning under positive ferromagnetic domains. As a consequence, both the vortex-antivortex reordering in increasing external field and the evolution of the energy of the system are highly nontrivial. Finally, we reveal the very interesting effects of applied dc electric current on the vortex-antivortex configurations, since resulting Lorentzian force has opposite direction for vortices and antivortices, while direction of the applied current with respect to ferromagnetic domains is of crucial importance for the interaction of the applied and the Meissner current, as well as the consequent vortex-antivortex dynamics—both of which are reflected in the anisotropic critical current of the system.

  19. Highly intense monocycle terahertz vortex generation by utilizing a Tsurupica spiral phase plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Won Tae; Sasaki, Yuta; Niinomi, Hiromasa; Suizu, Koji; Rotermund, Fabian; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-12-01

    Optical vortex, possessing an annular intensity profile and an orbital angular momentum (characterized by an integer termed a topological charge) associated with a helical wavefront, has attracted great attention for diverse applications due to its unique properties. In particular for terahertz (THz) frequency range, several approaches for THz vortex generation, including molded phase plates consisting of metal slit antennas, achromatic polarization elements and binary-diffractive optical elements, have been recently proposed, however, they are typically designed for a specific frequency. Here, we demonstrate highly intense broadband monocycle vortex generation near 0.6 THz by utilizing a polymeric Tsurupica spiral phase plate in combination with tilted-pulse-front optical rectification in a prism-cut LiNbO3 crystal. A maximum peak power of 2.3 MW was obtained for THz vortex output with an expected topological charge of 1.15. Furthermore, we applied the highly intense THz vortex beam for studying unique nonlinear behaviors in bilayer graphene towards the development of nonlinear super-resolution THz microscopy and imaging system.

  20. Wave–vortex interactions in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuan, E-mail: yuanguo@cims.nyu.edu; Bühler, Oliver [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    This is a theoretical study of wave–vortex interaction effects in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is a useful conceptual model for the limiting dynamics of superfluid quantum condensates at zero temperature. The particular wave–vortex interaction effects are associated with the scattering and refraction of small-scale linear waves by the straining flows induced by quantized point vortices and, crucially, with the concomitant nonlinear back-reaction, the remote recoil, that these scattered waves exert on the vortices. Our detailed model is a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude waves refracted by one or two vortices. Weak interactions are studied using a suitable perturbation method in which the nonlinear recoil force on the vortex then arises at second order in wave amplitude, and is computed in terms of a Magnus-type force expression for both finite and infinite wavetrains. In the case of an infinite wavetrain, an explicit asymptotic formula for the scattering angle is also derived and cross-checked against numerical ray tracing. Finally, under suitable conditions a wavetrain can be so strongly refracted that it collapses all the way onto a zero-size point vortex. This is a strong wave–vortex interaction by definition. The conditions for such a collapse are derived and the validity of ray tracing theory during the singular collapse is investigated.

  1. Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of vortex shedding behind a rotating circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dol Sharul Sham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence studies were made in the wake of a rotating circular cylinder in a uniform free stream with the objective of describing the patterns of the vortex shedding up to suppression of the periodic vortex street at high velocity ratios, λ. The results obtained in the present study establish that shedding of Kármán vortices in a rotating circular cylinder-generated wake is modified by rotation of the cylinder. Alternate vortex shedding is highly visible when λ < 2.0 although the strength of the separated shear layers differ due to the rotation of the cylinder. The spectral density in the wakes indicate significant changes at λ = 2.0. The results indicate that the rotation of the cylinder causes significant disruption in the structure of the flow. Alternate vortex shedding is weak, distorted and close to being suppressed at λ = 2.0. It is clear that flow asymmetries will weaken vortex shedding, and when the asymmetries are significant enough, total suppression of a periodic street occurs. Particular attention was paid to the decomposition of the flow using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD. By analyzing this decomposition with the help of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV data, it was found that large scales contribute to the coherent motion. Vorticity structures in the modes become increasingly irregular with downstream distance, suggesting turbulent interactions are occurring at the more downstream locations, especially when the cylinder rotates.

  2. Pinch-off of axisymmetric vortex pairs in the limit of vanishing vortex line curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, V.; Krueger, P. S.

    2016-07-01

    Pinch-off of axisymmetric vortex pairs generated by flow between concentric cylinders with radial separation ΔR was studied numerically and compared with planar vortex dipole behavior. The axisymmetric case approaches planar vortex dipole behavior in the limit of vanishing ΔR. The flow was simulated at a jet Reynolds number of 1000 (based on ΔR and the jet velocity), jet pulse length-to-gap ratio ( /L Δ R ) in the range 10-20, and gap-to-outer radius ratio ( /Δ R R o ) in the range 0.01-0.1. Contrary to investigations of strictly planar flows, vortex pinch-off was observed for all gap sizes investigated. This difference was attributed to the less constrained geometry considered, suggesting that even very small amounts of vortex line curvature and/or vortex stretching may disrupt the absence of pinch-off observed in strictly planar vortex dipoles.

  3. Preparing quantum vortex states with odd Schr(o)dinger cat states through a coupled waveguide system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Hui-Qin; Li Shao-Xin; Zhu Kai-Cheng; Tang Ying; Zheng Xiao-Juan

    2013-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for preparing a quantum vortex state with a coupled waveguide,in which a single-mode odd cat state with weak intensity and a single-mode coherent state are inserted in the input ports,respectively.The analytical wavefunction of the resulting state in the quadrature space is derived,and the vortex structure of the output state is analyzed.It is found that the obtained states,which may carry a vortex with topological charge index one,are entangled and nonclassical,depending only on the scaled propagation time and the weak intensity of the input odd cat state instead of the displacement parameter of the input coherent state.The phase distribution,however,in the quadrature space,depends on the displacement parameter of the input coherent state

  4. Simulations of Active Vortex Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, N. N.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We are interested in the study, via numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the streamwise direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise voracity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations c Implement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators that have been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center and Stanford University. Jacobson and Reynolds used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. More recently, Lachowiez and Wlezien are investigating the flow generated by an electro-mechanically driven lid to be used for assertion control in aerodynamic applications. We are simulating the flows generated by these devices and we are conducting a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin. The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands ol'particle's allow for high resolution simulations

  5. Vortex metrology using Fourier analysis techniques: vortex networks correlation fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Toro, Luciano; Sierra-Sosa, Daniel; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor

    2012-10-20

    In this work, we introduce an alternative method of analysis in vortex metrology based on the application of the Fourier optics techniques. The first part of the procedure is conducted as is usual in vortex metrology for uniform in-plane displacement determination. On the basis of two recorded intensity speckled distributions, corresponding to two states of a diffuser coherently illuminated, we numerically generate an analytical signal from each recorded intensity pattern by using a version of the Riesz integral transform. Then, from each analytical signal, a two-dimensional pseudophase map is generated in which the vortices are located and characterized in terms of their topological charges and their core's structural properties. The second part of the procedure allows obtaining Young's interference fringes when Fourier transforming the light passing through a diffracting mask with multiple apertures at the locations of the homologous vortices. In fact, we use the Fourier transform as a mathematical operation to compute the far-field diffraction intensity pattern corresponding to the multiaperture set. Each aperture from the set is associated with a rectangular hole that coincides both in shape and size with a pixel from recorded images. We show that the fringe analysis can be conducted as in speckle photography in an extended range of displacement measurements. Effects related with speckled decorrelation are also considered. Our experimental results agree with those of speckle photography in the range in which both techniques are applicable.

  6. Can weak lensing surveys confirm BICEP2 ?

    CERN Document Server

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Schmidt, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The detection of B-modes in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization by the BICEP2 experiment, if interpreted as evidence for a primordial gravitational wave background, has enormous ramifications for cosmology and physics. It is crucial to test this hypothesis with independent measurements. A gravitational wave background leads to B-modes in galaxy shape correlations (shear) both through lensing and tidal alignment effects. Since the systematics and foregrounds of galaxy shapes and CMB polarization are entirely different, a detection of a cross-correlation between the two observables would provide conclusive proof for the existence of a primordial gravitational wave background. We find that upcoming weak lensing surveys will be able to detect the cross-correlation between B-modes of the CMB and galaxy shapes. However, this detection is not sufficient to confirm or falsify the hypothesis of a primordial origin for CMB B-mode polarization.

  7. Vortex distribution in amorphous Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plates with artificial pinning center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Huy, Ho Thanh [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Sciences, Vietnam National University HCMC, 227 Nguyen Van Cu, District 5, HoChiMinh City (Viet Nam); Miyoshi, Hiroki; Okamoto, Takuto; Dang, Vu The [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kato, Masaru [Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Mathematical Science, Osaka Prefecture University1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu, E-mail: ishida@center.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We reveal that the vortex distribution in small amorphous Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} superconducting starshaped plate by using a scanning SQUID microscope. • We find that vortex configuration evolves systematically when the applied magnetic field is changed at the several different fields. • We fabricate an artificial dip by Ar ion milling in a mesoscopic plate, and find this works as a pinning center by comparing the vortex behavior in a sample without pins. - Abstract: Vortices in superconductor give rise to a rich variety of phenomena because they interact with shielding currents, temperature gradients, sample defects, boundaries, and other neighboring vortices. It would be very important to understand particular features of vortex states in a downsized system. Our study focuses on vortex states in small star-shaped Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plates with and without an artificial pin at the plate center. Vortex states are greatly influenced by the sample geometry, the temperature and the magnetic field, and they can be occasionally exotic compared to the bulk case. We use the amorphous Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} films due to the nature of weak pinning in studying vortex configurations. We applied scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy because it enables us to see vortex states directly and it is the most sensitive instrument for mapping tiny local current flows or magnetic moments without damaging the sample. We interpreted that vortex configurations had essentially the nature of mirror reflection symmetry in both cases with an artificial pin and without an artificial pin and pinned cases while the influence of disorder was seen in our observation on the specimen without an artificial pin.

  8. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  9. Simple measures of ozone depletion in the polar stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the extent to which quantities that are based on total column ozone are applicable as measures of ozone loss in the polar vortices. Such quantities have been used frequently in ozone assessments by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO and also to assess the performance of chemistry-climate models. The most commonly considered quantities are March and October mean column ozone poleward of geometric latitude 63° and the spring minimum of daily total ozone minima poleward of a given latitude. Particularly in the Arctic, the former measure is affected by vortex variability and vortex break-up in spring. The minimum of daily total ozone minima poleward of a particular latitude is debatable, insofar as it relies on one single measurement or model grid point. We find that, for Arctic conditions, this minimum value often occurs in air outside the polar vortex, both in the observations and in a chemistry-climate model. Neither of the two measures shows a good correlation with chemical ozone loss in the vortex deduced from observations. We recommend that the minimum of daily minima should no longer be used when comparing polar ozone loss in observations and models. As an alternative to the March and October mean column polar ozone we suggest considering the minimum of daily average total ozone poleward of 63° equivalent latitude in spring (except for winters with an early vortex break-up. Such a definition both obviates relying on one single data point and reduces the impact of year-to-year variability in the Arctic vortex break-up on ozone loss measures. Further, this measure shows a reasonable correlation (r=–0.75 with observed chemical ozone loss. Nonetheless, simple measures of polar ozone loss must be used with caution; if possible, it is preferable to use more sophisticated measures that include additional information to disentangle the impact of transport and chemistry on ozone.

  10. Delaying vortex breakdown by waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M. F.; Jiang, L. B.; Wu, J. Z.; Ma, H. Y.; Pan, J. Y.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of spiral waves on delaying vortex breakdown in a tube is studied experimentally and theoretically. When a harmonic oscillation was imposed on one of guiding vanes in the tube, the breakdown was observed to be postponed appreciately. According to the generalized Lagrangian mean theory, proper forcing spiral waves may produce an additional streaming momentum, of which the effect is favorable and similar to an axial suction at downstream end. The delayed breakdown position is further predicted by using nonlinear wave theory. Qualitative agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, and experimental comparison of the effects due to forcing spiral wave and axial suction is made.

  11. Anatomy of a bathtub vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, A; Bohr, T; Stenum, B; Rasmussen, J Juul; Lautrup, B

    2003-09-05

    We present experiments and theory for the "bathtub vortex," which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating "drainpipe" from the free surface down to the drain hole. Surrounding this drainpipe is a region with slow upward flow generated by the Ekman layer at the bottom of the container. This flow structure leads us to a theoretical model similar to one obtained earlier by Lundgren [J. Fluid Mech. 155, 381 (1985)

  12. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of ion phase space vortexes in the ion two stream region behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are observed in a laboratory experiment. A detailed analysis demonstrates that the evolution of such vortexes is associated with ion-ion beam instabilities and a nonlinear equation for ...

  13. The linear stability of swirling vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargan-Shingles, C.; Rudman, M.; Ryan, K.

    2016-11-01

    The stability of vortex rings with an azimuthal component of velocity is investigated numerically for various combinations of ring wavenumber and swirl magnitude. The vortex rings are equilibrated from an initially Gaussian distribution of azimuthal vorticity and azimuthal velocity, at a circulation-based Reynolds number of 10 000, to a state in which the vortex core is qualitatively identical to that of the piston generated vortex rings. The instability modes of these rings can be characterised as Kelvin instability modes, analogous to instability modes observed for Gaussian and Batchelor vortex pairs. The shape of an amplified mode typically depends only on the azimuthal wavenumber at the centre of the vortex core and the magnitude of the corresponding velocity component. The wavenumber of a particular sinuous instability varies with radius from the vortex ring centre for rings of finite aspect ratio. Thicker rings spread the amplification over a wider range of wavenumbers for a particular resonant mode pair, while the growth rate and the azimuthal wavenumber corresponding to the peak growth both vary as a function of the wavenumber variation. Normalisation of the wavenumber and the growth rate by a measure of the wavenumber variation allows a coherent description of stability modes to be proposed, across the parameter space. These results provide a framework for predicting the development of resonant Kelvin instabilities on vortex rings with an induced component of swirling velocity.

  14. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.;

    2005-01-01

    or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  15. An investigation of the vortex method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Jr., Duaine Wright [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The vortex method is a numerical scheme for solving the vorticity transport equation. Chorin introduced modern vortex methods. The vortex method is a Lagrangian, grid free method which has less intrinsic diffusion than many grid schemes. It is adaptive in the sense that elements are needed only where the vorticity is non-zero. Our description of vortex methods begins with the point vortex method of Rosenhead for two dimensional inviscid flow, and builds upon it to eventually cover the case of three dimensional slightly viscous flow with boundaries. This section gives an introduction to the fundamentals of the vortex method. This is done in order to give a basic impression of the previous work and its line of development, as well as develop some notation and concepts which will be used later. The purpose here is not to give a full review of vortex methods or the contributions made by all the researchers in the field. Please refer to the excellent review papers in Sethian and Gustafson, chapters 1 Sethian, 2 Hald, 3 Sethian, 8 Chorin provide a solid introduction to vortex methods, including convergence theory, application in two dimensions and connection to statistical mechanics and polymers. Much of the information in this review is taken from those chapters, Chorin and Marsden and Batchelor, the chapters are also useful for their extensive bibliographies.

  16. Vortex attraction and the formation of sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    A downdraft vortex ring in a stratified atmosphere exhibits universal attraction for nearby vertical magnetic flux bundles. It is speculated that the magnetic fields emerging through the surface of the sun are individually encircled by one or more subsurface vortex rings, providing an important part of the observed clustering of magnetic fibrils to form pores and sunspots.

  17. Investigation of Wake-Vortex Aircraft Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonya T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions though the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. The major goal of the TAP program is to develop the technology that will allow air traffic levels during instrument meteorological condition to approach those achieved during visual operations. The Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement of TAP at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) will develop the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The purpose of the AVOSS is to integrate current and predicted weather conditions, wake vortex transport and decay knowledge, wake vortex sensor data, and operational definitions of acceptable strengths for vortex encounters to produce dynamic wake vortex separation criteria. The proposed research is in support of the wake vortex hazard definition component of the LaRC AVOSS development research. The research program described in the next section provided an analysis of the static test data and uses this data to evaluate the accuracy vortex/wake-encounter models. The accuracy of these models has not before been evaluated using experimental data. The research results also presented the first analysis of the forces and moments imparted on an airplane during a wake vortex encounter using actual flight test data.

  18. On a few Aspects of Vortex Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prantik Sinha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intricacies of vortex motion have been drawing the attention of scientists for many years. A number of works both experimental and numerical have been conducted to understand the various features of vortex motion and its effects on drag, etc. In the present experimental work we have made an attempt to visualize the patterns of both Forced and Free vortex motion. Here colored die has been used to understand the profiles and an arrow shaped strip marks the difference between irrotational and rotational flow. In the Forced vortex motion it has been observed that the parabolic profile remains invariant with the flow rate (speed of paddle, height of the lowest point of the profile decreases with the increase in flow rate (paddle speed. In the Free Vortex motion observations, the hyperbolic profile doesn’t change with the change in flow rate. In this case, suction is created towards the centre where as in the case of Force vortex no such suction arises. With the reduction in the size of the orifice diameter, the profile becomes less steep for Free vortex. In this case the velocity profile in the core region is straight, as the radius increases the profile becomes rectangular hyperbola where as in the case of Forced vortex the velocity profile maintains its linear nature for the entire range of radii.

  19. The bathtub vortex in a rotating container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, B.

    2006-01-01

    We study the time-independent free-surface flow which forms when a fluid drains out of a container, a so-called bathtub vortex. We focus on the bathtub vortex in a rotating container and describe the free-surface shape and the complex flow structure using photographs of the free surface, flow...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FREE SURFACE VORTEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-feng; CHEN Hong-xun; MA Zheng; ZHOU Yi

    2008-01-01

    An experimental model was set up to investigate the formation and evolution of the free surface vortex. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the free surface vortex flow field at different development stages. Flow visualization was used to locate the vortex position and find its structure. Empirical formulas about the critical submergence and the whole field structure were obtained. It is found that the tangential velocity distribution is similar to that of the Rankine vortex and the radial velocity changes little in the vortex functional scope. Vortex starts from the free surface and gradually intensifies to air entrainment vortex. The vortex core moves during the formation and evolution of the free surface vortex. Based on the experimental model, the vortex position and structure were predicted by numerical simulation combined with a vortex model and compared with that of the experiments, which shows satisfactory agreement.

  1. Polarization dynamics in dissipative soliton fiber lasers mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingjie; Xiao, Xiaosheng; Yang, Changxi

    2011-09-12

    We numerically studied the polarization dynamics in dissipative soliton lasers mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR). It was found that the polarization states of the intracavity dissipative soliton vary with time across the pulse. Depending on output coupling ratios, the polarization states of the pulse peak before the polarizer can be either nearly circular or nearly linear polarizations. The polarization dependent component in NPR is found to play a role of spectral filter under high and medium output coupling. However, NPR may work as a weak optical limiter under low output coupling, when additional spectral filtering is necessary to maintain steady mode-locking state.

  2. Kinetics of O3 destruction by ClO and BrO within the Antarctic vortex - An analysis based on in situ ER-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. G.; Brune, W. H.; Lloyd, S. A.; Toohey, D. W.; Sander, S. P.; Starr, W. L.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics of ozone destruction within the Antarctic polar vortex are studied via simultaneous in situ observations of ClO, BrO, O3, N2O, pressure, and temperature. It is found that the chlorine dimer mechanism rate, limited by the reaction ClO + ClO + M yields ClOOCl + M, contributes the most to the integrated rate of ozone destruction within the vortex on isentropic surfaces between altitudes of 14 and 18.3 km.

  3. Studying the mesoscale structure of inhomogeneities within the high-latitude stratosphere during the evolution of the circumpolar vortex on the basis of aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, G. N.; Volkov, V. V.; Sitnikov, N. M.; Ulanovskii, A. E.; Sitnikova, V. I.

    2014-03-01

    Mesoscale inhomogeneities in the fields of wind, temperature, and ozone concentrations have been studied on the basis of aircraft measurements performed within the international EUPLEX and RECONCILE projects in the northern polar region in the presence of the circumpolar vortex. Data have been obtained on the structure of turbulence inside and outside the circumpolar vortex. The zones of enhanced turbulence have been studied. The spectrum of coherence between ozone and wind velocity are found to have high values.

  4. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aref, H [Center for Fluid Dynamics and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Broens, M [Center for Fluid Dynamics and Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Stremler, M A [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for 'exotic' wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson and Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Karman concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued to be relevant to the wake behind an oscillating body.

  5. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...

  6. Introduction to Vortex Lattice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pinzón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Panel methods have been widely used in industry and are well established since the 1970s for aerodynamic analysis and computation. The Vortex Lattice Panel Method presented in this study comes across a sophisticated method that provides a quick solution time, allows rapid changes in geometry and suits well for aerodynamic analysis. The aerospace industry is highly competitive in design efficiency, and perhaps one of the most important factors on airplane design and engineering today is multidisciplinary optimization.  Any cost reduction method in the design cycle of a product becomes vital in the success of its outcome. The subsequent sections of this article will further explain in depth the theory behind the vortex lattice method, and the reason behind its selection as the method for aerodynamic analysis during preliminary design work and computation within the aerospace industry. This article is analytic in nature, and its main objective is to present a mathematical summary of this widely used computational method in aerodynamics.

  7. The VORTEX coronagraphic test bench

    CERN Document Server

    Jolivet, Aissa; Huby, Elsa; Absil, Olivier; Delacroix, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Surdej, Jean; Habraken, Serge

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the infrared coronagraphic test bench of the University of Li\\`ege named VODCA (Vortex Optical Demonstrator for Coronagraphic Applications). The goal of the bench is to assess the performances of the Annular Groove Phase Masks (AGPMs) at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths. The AGPM is a subwavelength grating vortex coronagraph of charge two (SGVC2) made out of diamond. The bench is designed to be completely achromatic and will be composed of a super continuum laser source emitting in the near to mid-infrared, several parabolas, diaphragms and an infrared camera. This way, we will be able to test the different AGPMs in the M, L, K and H bands. Eventually, the bench will also allow the computation of the incident wavefront aberrations on the coronagraph. A reflective Lyot stop will send most of the stellar light to a second camera to perform low-order wavefront sensing. This second system coupled with a deformable mirror will allow the correction of the wavefront aberrations. We also ai...

  8. Vortex dynamics in $R^4$

    CERN Document Server

    Shashikanth, Banavara N

    2011-01-01

    The vortex dynamics of Euler's equations for a constant density fluid flow in $R^4$ is studied. Most of the paper focuses on singular Dirac delta distributions of the vorticity two-form $\\omega$ in $R^4$. These distributions are supported on two-dimensional surfaces termed {\\it membranes} and are the analogs of vortex filaments in $R^3$ and point vortices in $R^2$. The self-induced velocity field of a membrane is shown to be unbounded and is regularized using a local induction approximation (LIA). The regularized self-induced velocity field is then shown to be proportional to the mean curvature vector field of the membrane but rotated by 90 degrees in the plane of normals. Next, the Hamiltonian membrane model is presented. The symplectic structure for this model is derived from a general formula for vorticity distributions due to Marsden and Weinstein (1983). Finally, the dynamics of the four-form $\\omega \\wedge \\omega$ is examined. It is shown that Ertel's vorticity theorem in $R^3$, for the constant density...

  9. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.

  10. Defect-controlled vortex generation in current-carrying narrow superconducting strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodolazov, D. Yu; Ilin, K.; Merker, M.; Siegel, M.

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally study the effect of a single circular hole on the critical current I c of narrow superconducting strip with width W much smaller than Pearl penetration depth Λ. We found non-monotonous dependence of I c on the location of a hole across the strip and a weak dependence of I c on the radius of a hole in the case of a hole with ξ \\ll R\\ll W (ξ is a superconducting coherence length) which is placed in the center of strip. The observed effects are caused by competition of two mechanisms of destruction of superconductivity—the entrance of vortex via the edge of the strip and the nucleation of the vortex-antivortex pair near the hole. The mechanisms are clearly distinguishable by a difference in dependence of I c on weak magnetic field.

  11. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  12. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition Using 3C-PIV Measurements: Corrected for Vortex Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughues Richard; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2003-01-01

    Three-component (3-C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, within the wake across a rotor disk plane, are used to determine wake vortex definitions important for BVI (Blade Vortex Interaction) and broadband noise prediction. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted using a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). In this paper, measurements are presented of the wake vortex field over the advancing side of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition. The orientations of the vortex (tube) axes are found to have non-zero tilt angles with respect to the chosen PIV measurement cut planes, often on the order of 45 degrees. Methods for determining the orientation of the vortex axis and reorienting the measured PIV velocity maps (by rotation/projection) are presented. One method utilizes the vortex core axial velocity component, the other utilizes the swirl velocity components. Key vortex parameters such as vortex core size, strength, and core velocity distribution characteristics are determined from the reoriented PIV velocity maps. The results are compared with those determined from velocity maps that are not corrected for orientation. Knowledge of magnitudes and directions of the vortex axial and swirl velocity components as a function of streamwise location provide a basis for insight into the vortex evolution.

  13. The method to control the submarine horseshoe vortex by breaking the vortex core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-hua; XIONG Ying; TU Cheng-xu

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the inflow across the propeller is closely related with the hydrodynamic performance and the noise characteristics of the propeller. For a submarine, with a horseshoe vortex generated at the junction of the main body and the appendages, the submarine wake is dominated by a kind of highly non-uniform flow field, which has an adverse effect on the performance of the submarine propeller. In order to control the horseshoe vortex and improve the quality of the submarine wake, the flow field around a submarine model is simulated by the detached eddies simulation (DES) method, and the vortex configuration is displayed using the second invariant of the velocity derivative tensor. The state and the transition process of the horseshoe vortex are analyzed, then a modified method to break the vortex core by a vortex baffle is proposed. The flow numerical simulation is carried out to study the effect of this method. Numerical simulations show that, with the breakdown of the vortex core, many unstable vortices are shed and the energy of the horseshoe vortex is dissipated quickly, and the uniformity of the submarine wake is improved. The submarine wake test in a wind tunnel has verified the effect of the method to control the horseshoe vortex. The vortex baffle can improve the wake uniformity in cases of high Reynolds numbers as well, and it does not have adverse effects on the maneuverability and the speed ability of the submarine.

  14. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  15. The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Lawrence, Zachary D.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015/16 Northern Hemisphere winter stratosphere appeared to have the greatest potential yet seen for record Arctic ozone loss. Temperatures in the Arctic lower stratosphere were at record lows from December 2015 through early February 2016, with an unprecedented period of temperatures below ice polar stratospheric cloud thresholds. Trace gas measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) show that exceptional denitrification and dehydration, as well as extensive chlorine activation, occurred throughout the polar vortex. Ozone decreases in 2015/16 began earlier and proceeded more rapidly than those in 2010/11, a winter that saw unprecedented Arctic ozone loss. However, on 5-6 March 2016 a major final sudden stratospheric warming ("major final warming", MFW) began. By mid-March, the mid-stratospheric vortex split after being displaced far off the pole. The resulting offspring vortices decayed rapidly preceding the full breakdown of the vortex by early April. In the lower stratosphere, the period of temperatures low enough for chlorine activation ended nearly a month earlier than that in 2011 because of the MFW. Ozone loss rates were thus kept in check because there was less sunlight during the cold period. Although the winter mean volume of air in which chemical ozone loss could occur was as large as that in 2010/11, observed ozone values did not drop to the persistently low values reached in 2011.We use MLS trace gas measurements, as well as mixing and polar vortex diagnostics based on meteorological fields, to show how the timing and intensity of the MFW and its impact on transport and mixing halted chemical ozone loss. Our detailed characterization of the polar vortex breakdown includes investigations of individual offspring vortices and the origins and fate of air within them. Comparisons of mixing diagnostics with lower-stratospheric N2O and middle-stratospheric CO from MLS (long-lived tracers) show rapid vortex erosion and extensive mixing during

  16. Microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Hua-Zhou; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min

    2016-12-01

    A microscale vortex laser is a new type of coherent light source with small footprint that can directly generate vector vortex beams. However, a microscale laser with controlled topological charge, which is crucial for virtually any of its application, is still unrevealed. Here we present a microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge. The vortex laser eigenmode was synthesized in a metamaterial engineered non-Hermitian micro-ring cavity system at exceptional point. We also show that the vortex laser cavity can operate at exceptional point stably to lase under optical pumping. The microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge can serve as a unique and general building block for next-generation photonic integrated circuits and coherent vortex beam sources. The method we used here can be employed to generate lasing eigenmode with other complex functionalities. Project supported by the “Youth 1000 Talent Plan” Fund, Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 201421) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574012 and 61521004).

  17. Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yuji; Yoshida, Zensho

    2016-09-01

    The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here, we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes 'scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are 'ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e., the vortex equation is independent of the wave fields). This model describes a minimal departure from the integrable KP system. By the Painlevé test, we delineate how the vorticity term violates integrability, bringing about an essential three-dimensionality to the solutions. By numerical simulation, we show how the solitons are scattered by vortexes and become chaotic.

  18. A VORTEX MODEL OF A HELICOPTER ROTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin BUTOESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A vortex model of a helicopter rotor is presented. Each blade of the rotor has three degrees of freedom: flapping, lagging and feathering. The motions after each degree of freedom are also known for all blades. The blade is modelled as a thin vortex surface. The wakes are free fluid surfaces. A system of five equations are obtained: the first one is the integral equation of the lifting surface (rotor, the next three describe the wakes motion, and the last one relates the vortex strength on the wakes and the variation of vorticity on the rotor. A numerical solution of this system is presented. To avoid the singularities that can occur due to the complexity of vortex system, a desingularized model of the vortex core was adopted. A Mathcad worksheet containing the method has been written.The original contribution of the work. The calculation method of the motion of the wakes free vortex system, the development of the vortex cores in time and a new method to approximate the aerodynamic influence of remoted wake regions.

  19. Polarization Properties of Laser Solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodriguez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to summarize the results obtained for the state of polarization in the emission of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with frequency-selective feedback added. We start our research with the single soliton; this situation presents two perpendicular main orientations, connected by a hysteresis loop. In addition, we also find the formation of a ring-shaped intensity distribution, the vortex state, that shows two homogeneous states of polarization with very close values to those found in the soliton. For both cases above, the study shows the spatially resolved value of the orientation angle. It is important to also remark the appearance of a non-negligible amount of circular light that gives vectorial character to all the different emissions investigated.

  20. Vortex spin-torque oscillator using Co2FexMn1 -xSi Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Seki, Takeshi; Takanashi, Koki

    2016-09-01

    We show spin-transfer-torque-driven vortex oscillations in current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance junctions using epitaxially grown Co2FexMn1 -xSi (CFMS) Heusler alloy thin films. The soft magnetic property and high spin polarization of CFMS enable us to realize vortex oscillation emitting large microwave power with a low threshold current. The output power is maximized for a certain Fe-Mn composition ratio associated with a reduction of the threshold current for the oscillation, which is in agreement with a general model for spin-torque oscillation. Through comparison with an analytical theory that describes the translational motion of a vortex core, we show that the vortex core motion excited in the present device is inhomogeneous along the thickness direction. In spite of the inhomogeneity, the gyration radius at the CFMS/spacer interface region was estimated to be ˜75 % of the actual ferromagnetic layer radius, which indicates that the CFMS-based all-metallic junction is useful for achieving large-amplitude vortex core motion. This comprehensive investigation would also be useful for designing high-performance all-metallic nano-oscillators based on magnetic vortex dynamics.

  1. Instabilities of interacting vortex rings generated by an oscillating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Teng, Lubao; Caulfield, C. P.; Mao, Xuerui

    2016-09-01

    We propose a natural model to probe in a controlled fashion the instability of interacting vortex rings shed from the edge of an oblate spheroid disk of major diameter c , undergoing oscillations of frequency f0 and amplitude A . We perform a Floquet stability analysis to determine the characteristics of the instability modes, which depend strongly on the azimuthal (integer) wave number m . We vary two key control parameters, the Keulegan-Carpenter number KC=2 π A /c and the Stokes number β =f0c2/ν , where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. We observe two distinct flow regimes. First, for sufficiently small β , and hence low frequency of oscillation corresponding to relatively weak interaction between sequentially shedding vortex rings, symmetry breaking occurs directly to a single unstable mode with m =1 . Second, for sufficiently large yet fixed values of β , corresponding to a higher oscillation frequency and hence stronger ring-ring interaction, the onset of asymmetry is predicted to occur due to two branches of high m instabilities as the amplitude is increased, with m =1 structures being dominant only for sufficiently large values of KC. These two branches can be distinguished by the phase properties of the vortical structures above and below the disk. The region in (KC,β ) parameter space where these two high m instability branches arise can be described accurately in terms of naturally defined Reynolds numbers, using appropriately chosen characteristic length scales. We subsequently carry out direct numerical simulations of the fully three-dimensional flow to verify the principal characteristics of the Floquet analysis, in particular demonstrating that high wave-number symmetry-breaking generically occurs when vortex rings sequentially interact sufficiently strongly.

  2. Contrasting vortex-gyration dispersions for different lattice bases in one-dimensional magnetic vortex arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Soo; Jeong, Han-Byeol; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2013-09-01

    We performed micromagnetic numerical and analytical calculations in studying the effects of change in the primitive unit cells of one-dimensional (1D) vortex arrays on collective vortex-gyration dispersion. As the primitive basis, we consider alternating constituent materials (NiMnSb vs. Permalloy) and alternating dimensions including constituent disk diameter and thickness. In the simplest case, that of one vortex-state disk of given dimensions and single material in the primitive cell, only a single branch of collective vortex-gyration dispersion appears. By contrast, two constituent disks' different alternating materials, thicknesses, and diameters yield characteristic two-branch dispersions, the band widths and gaps of which differ in each case. This work offers not only an efficient means of manipulating collective vortex-gyration band structures but also a foundation for the development of a rich variety of 1D or 2D magnonic crystals and their band structures based on dipolar-coupled-vortex arrays.

  3. Evaluation of travelling vortex speed by means of vortex tracking and dynamic mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyhlík, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    The article deals with the analysis of unsteady periodic flow field related to synthetic jet creation. The analyses are based on the data obtained using ANSYS Fluent solver. Numerical results are validated by hot wire anemometry data measured along the jet centerline. The speed of travelling vortex ring is evaluated by using vortex tracking method and by using dynamic mode decomposition method. Vortex identification is based on residual vorticity which allows identifying regions in the flow field where fluid particles perform the rotational motion. The regime of the synthetic jet with Re = 329 and S = 19.7 is chosen. Both the vortex tracking and the dynamic mode decomposition based vortex speed evaluation indicate an increase in the vortex speed close to the orifice and then decrease with maximum reaching almost one and half of orifice centerline velocity. The article contains extended version the article presented at the conference AEaNMiFMaE 2016.

  4. Phase diagrams of vortex matter with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions in layered superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingyou; Varney, Christopher N.; Fangohr, Hans; Babaev, Egor

    2017-01-01

    It was recently proposed to use the stray magnetic fields of superconducting vortex lattices to trap ultracold atoms for building quantum emulators. This calls for new methods for engineering and manipulating of the vortex states. One of the possible routes utilizes type-1.5 superconducting layered systems with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions. In order to explore the possible vortex states that can be engineered, we present two phase diagrams of phenomenological vortex matter models with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions featuring several attractive and repulsive length scales. The phase diagrams exhibit a plethora of phases, including conventional 2D lattice phases, five stripe phases, dimer, trimer, and tetramer phases, void phases, and stable low-temperature disordered phases. The transitions between these states can be controlled by the value of an applied external field.

  5. Symmetry-constrained electron vortex propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, L; Béché, A; Lubk, A; Verbeeck, J

    2016-01-01

    Electron vortex beams hold great promise for development in transmission electron microscopy, but have yet to be widely adopted. This is partly due to the complex set of interactions that occur between a beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) and a sample. Herein, the system is simplified to focus on the interaction between geometrical symmetries, OAM and topology. We present multiple simulations, alongside experimental data to study the behaviour of a variety of electron vortex beams after interacting with apertures of different symmetries, and investigate the effect on their OAM and vortex structure, both in the far-field and under free-space propagation.

  6. Dynamic Optimization for Vortex Shedding Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonis Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flows around structures exhibiting vortex shedding induce vibrations that can potentially damage the structure. A way to avoid it is to suppress vortex shedding by controlling the wake. Wake control of laminar flow behind a rotating cylinder is formulated herein as a dynamic optimization problem. Angular cylinder speed is the manipulated variable that is adjusted to suppress vortex shedding by minimizing lift coefficient variation. The optimal angular speed is assumed to be periodic like wake formation. The control problem is solved for different time horizons tH. The impact of tH to control is evaluated and the need for feedback is assessed.

  7. Vortex dynamics in ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, M.Z.; Adamus, Z. [Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys, PL-02668 Warsaw, (Poland); Konczykowski, M. [CEA, DSM, DRECAM, Lab Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS-UMR 7642, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Zhu, L.Y.; Chien, C.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys and Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The dependence of vortex dynamics on the geometry of magnetic domain pattern is studied in the superconducting/ferromagnetic bilayers, in which niobium is a superconductor, and Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy serves as a ferromagnetic layer. Magnetic domain patterns with different density of domains per surface area and different domain size, w, are obtained for Co/Pt with different thickness of Pt. The dense patterns of domains with the size comparable to the magnetic penetration depth (w {>=} {lambda}) produce large vortex pinning and smooth vortex penetration, while less dense patterns with larger domains (w {>=}{>=} {lambda}) enhance pinning less effectively and result in flux jumps during flux motion. (authors)

  8. Axial dependence of optical weak measurements in the critical region

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Manoel P; Maia, Gabriel G

    2015-01-01

    The interference between optical beams of different polarizations plays a fundamental role in reproducing the optical analog of the electron spin weak measurement. The extraordinary point in optical weak measurements is represented by the possibility to estimate with great accuracy the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift by measuring the distance between the peak of the outgoing beams for two opposite rotation angles of the polarizers located before and after the dielectric block. Starting from the numerical calculation of the GH shift, which clearly shows a frequency crossover for incidence near to the critical angle, we present a detailed study of the interference between s and p polarized waves in the critical region. This allows to determine in which conditions it is possible to avoid axial deformations and reproduce the GH curves. In view of a possible experimental implementation, we give the expected weak measurement curves for Gaussian lasers of different beam waist sizes propagating through borosilicate (BK7) an...

  9. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  10. Superconducting Josephson vortex flow transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, P A C

    2002-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis focuses on the development of high-temperature superconducting Josephson vortex-flow transistors (JVFTs). The JVFT is a particular type of superconducting transistor, i.e. an electromagnetic device capable of delivering gain while keeping the control and output circuits electrically isolated. Devices were fabricated from (100) YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta thin films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition on 24 deg magnesium oxide and strontium titanate bicrystals. The design of the JVFTs was guided by numerical simulations and the devices were optimised for current gain. Improvements were made to the fabrication process in order to accurately pattern the small structures required. The devices exhibited current gains higher than 60 in liquid nitrogen. Gains measured at lower temperatures were significantly higher. As part of the work a data acquisition suite was developed for the characterisation of three-terminal devices and, in particular, of JVFTs.

  11. Vortex Dynamics in Anisotropic Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, David Gordon

    Measurements of the ac screening response and resistance of superconducting Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _8 (BSCCO) crystals have been used to probe the dynamics of the magnetic flux lines within the mixed state as a function of frequency, temperature, and applied dc field. For the particular range of temperature and magnetic field in which measurements were made, the systematic behavior of the observed dissipation peak in the screening response is consistent with electromagnetic skin size effects rather than a phase transition. According to microscopic theories of the interaction between the flux lines and a driving ac field, such a skin size effect is expected for the case when the vortex motion is diffusive in nature. However, diffusive motion is inconsistent with simple activation models that use a single value for the pinning energy (derived from direct measurement of the dc resistance). This contradiction suggests a distribution of pinning energies within the sample. Interlayer vortex decoupling has been directly observed as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field using electronic transport perpendicular to the layers in synthetic amorphous MoGe/Ge multilayer samples. Perpendicular transport has been shown to be a far more sensitive measure of the phase coupling between layers than in-plane properties. Below the decoupling temperature T_{D} the resistivity anisotropy collapses and striking nonlinearities appear in the perpendicular current-voltage behavior, which are not observed in parallel transport. A crossover in behavior is also observed at a field H _{x}, in accordance with theory. The data suggest the presence of a phase transition into a state with finite in-plane resistivity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  12. Weak gravitational lensing with the Square Kilometre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, M L; Camera, S; Harrison, I; Joachimi, B; Metcalf, R B; Pourtsidou, A; Takahashi, K; Zuntz, J A; Abdalla, F B; Bridle, S; Jarvis, M; Kitching, T D; Miller, L; Patel, P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the capabilities of various stages of the SKA to perform world-leading weak gravitational lensing surveys. We outline a way forward to develop the tools needed for pursuing weak lensing in the radio band. We identify the key analysis challenges and the key pathfinder experiments that will allow us to address them in the run up to the SKA. We identify and summarize the unique and potentially very powerful aspects of radio weak lensing surveys, facilitated by the SKA, that can solve major challenges in the field of weak lensing. These include the use of polarization and rotational velocity information to control intrinsic alignments, and the new area of weak lensing using intensity mapping experiments. We show how the SKA lensing surveys will both complement and enhance corresponding efforts in the optical wavebands through cross-correlation techniques and by way of extending the reach of weak lensing to high redshift.

  13. Polarization developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist.

  14. Prediction and control of vortex-dominated and vortex-wake flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama

    1993-01-01

    This progress report documents the accomplishments achieved in the period from December 1, 1992 until November 30, 1993. These accomplishments include publications, national and international presentations, NASA presentations, and the research group supported under this grant. Topics covered by documents incorporated into this progress report include: active control of asymmetric conical flow using spinning and rotary oscillation; supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow; shock-vortex interaction over a 65-degree delta wing in transonic flow; three dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown; numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown; and prediction of asymmetric vortical flows around slender bodies using Navier-Stokes equations.

  15. Scattering of a vortex pair by a single quantum vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, L. A.; Smirnov, A. I.; Mironov, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the scattering of vortex pairs (the particular case of 2D dark solitons) by a single quantum vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive interaction between atoms. For this purpose, an asymptotic theory describing the dynamics of such 2D soliton-like formations in an arbitrary smoothly nonuniform flow of a ultracold Bose gas is developed. Disregarding the radiation loss associated with acoustic wave emission, we demonstrate that vortex-antivortex pairs can be put in correspondence with quasiparticles, and their behavior can be described by canonical Hamilton equations. For these equations, we determine the integrals of motion that can be used to classify various regimes of scattering of vortex pairs by a single quantum vortex. Theoretical constructions are confirmed by numerical calculations performed directly in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We propose a method for estimating the radiation loss in a collision of a soliton-like formation with a phase singularity. It is shown by direct numerical simulation that under certain conditions, the interaction of vortex pairs with a core of a single quantum vortex is accompanied by quite intense acoustic wave emission; as a result, the conditions for applicability of the asymptotic theory developed here are violated. In particular, it is visually demonstrated by a specific example how radiation losses lead to a transformation of a vortex-antivortex pair into a vortex-free 2D dark soliton (i.e., to the annihilation of phase singularities).

  16. Scalable fast multipole methods for vortex element methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Qi

    2012-11-01

    We use a particle-based method to simulate incompressible flows, where the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) is used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions. The most time-consuming kernelsâ\\'the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equationâ\\'are mathematically reformulated so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six, while automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, and on our previous work for a scalar heterogeneous FMM algorithm, we develop a new FMM-based vortex method capable of simulating general flows including turbulence on heterogeneous architectures, which distributes the work between multi-core CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm also uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently but with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. The cause of the weak solar cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jie; Schuessler, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing 11-year cycle of solar activity is considerably less vigorous than the three cycles before. It was preceded by a very deep activity minimum with a low polar magnetic flux, the source of the toroidal field responsible for solar magnetic activity in the subsequent cycle. Simulation of the evolution of the solar surface field shows that the weak polar fields and thus the weakness of the present cycle 24 are mainly caused by a number of bigger bipolar regions emerging at low latitudes with a `wrong' (i.e., opposite to the majority for this cycle) orientation of their magnetic polarities in the North-South direction, which impaired the growth of the polar field. These regions had a particularly strong effect since they emerged within $\\pm10^\\circ$ latitude from the solar equator.

  18. The Weak Haagerup Property II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....

  19. Vortex formation in magnetic narrow rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, J. A. C.

    2002-03-01

    film thickness, using magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometry. The data indicates that the outer diameter of the ring only plays a minor role in determining the value of the switching field. As a general trend, the switching field decreases with increasing ring width and with decreasing film thickness. In particular, the dependence of the switching field on ring width becomes more pronounced for smaller ring widths. This stems from the fact that the vortex state becomes more stable for the narrower rings due to the exchange energy contribution to the barrier for reversal to the onion state. Thicker films also favour the vortex state over the onion state, since the magnetostatic energy associated with the latter state increases with film thickness [3]. Using micromagnetic simulations we show also that the magnetisation reversal in narrow rings can take place via a nucleation-free domain wall motion process when a field pulse is applied in the plane of the film and perpendicular to the net magnetisation. Switching times of the order of 400 ps can be achieved with this approach. A lower bound for the depinning time of the domain walls and a weak dependence of the domain wall velocity with the applied field are described [4]. The magnetic nanostructure of epitaxial fcc Co/Cu(001) circular elements has been imaged with scanning electron microscopy with polarisation analysis (SEMPA) [5]. The elements vary from disks to rings according to the dimensions of the inner diameter of the ring structure and have a nominal composition 4 nm Au/2 nm Cu/34 nm Co/100 nm Cu. In this study the outer diameter was fixed at 1.7 μm while the smallest ring width varies in the range 0.3-0.5 μm. A closed flux quadrant configuration is observed for some of the disks, characteristic of systems with cubic anisotropy (i.e., near vortex structure), besides other more complex configurations at remanence. The width of the 90^o domain wall in the disks is around 0.20 ± 0.05 μm. This value is

  20. Weak martingale Hardy spaces and weak atomic decompositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Youliang; REN; Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we define some weak martingale Hardy spaces and three kinds of weak atoms. They are the counterparts of martingale Hardy spaces and atoms in the classical martingale Hp-theory. And then three atomic decomposition theorems for martingales in weak martingale Hardy spaces are proved. With the help of the weak atomic decompositions of martingale, a sufficient condition for a sublinear operator defined on the weak martingale Hardy spaces to be bounded is given. Using the sufficient condition, we obtain a series of martingale inequalities with respect to the weak Lp-norm, the inequalities of weak (p ,p)-type and some continuous imbedding relationships between various weak martingale Hardy spaces. These inequalities are the weak versions of the basic inequalities in the classical martingale Hp-theory.

  1. The Life of a Vortex Knot

    CERN Document Server

    Kleckner, Dustin; Irvine, William T M

    2013-01-01

    The idea that the knottedness (hydrodynamic Helicity) of a fluid flow is conserved has a long history in fluid mechanics. The quintessential example of a knotted flow is a knotted vortex filament, however, owing to experimental difficulties, it has not been possible until recently to directly generate knotted vortices in real fluids. Using 3D printed hydrofoils and high-speed laser scanning tomography, we generate vortex knots and links and measure their subsequent evolution. In both cases, we find that the vortices deform and stretch until a series of vortex reconnections occurs, eventually resulting several disjoint vortex rings. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion at the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

  2. Vortex Shedding From a Flexible Hydrofoil

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Video of vortex shedding in the wake of a Naca0009 hydrofoil made of polyoxymethylene type C (POM C). This video was submitted as part of the Gallery of Fluid Motion 2011 which is showcase of fluid dynamics videos.

  3. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  4. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  5. Free wake models for vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin, Aerospace Inst. (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The blade element method works fast and good. For some problems (rotor shapes or flow conditions) it could be better to use vortex methods. Different methods for calculating a wake geometry will be presented. (au)

  6. 'Optimal' vortex rings and aquatic propulsion mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Paul; Turner, Stewart

    2004-11-01

    Fish swim by flapping their tail and other fins. Other sea creatures, such as squid and salps, eject fluid intermittently as a jet. We discuss the fluid mechanics behind these propulsion mechanisms, and show that these animals produce optimal vortex rings, which give the maximum thrust for a given energy input. We show fish optimise both their steady swimming and their ability to accelerate and turn by producing an individual optimal ring with each flap of the tail or fin. Salps produce vortex rings directly by ejecting a volume of fluid through a rear orifice, and these are also optimal. An important implication of this paper is that the repetition of vortex production is not necessary for an individual vortex to have the `optimal' characteristics.

  7. Experiments with vortex rings in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, R. H.; Cibert, B.; Béchet, C.

    2006-09-01

    We report quantitative experimental measurements of the instability of vortex rings generated in air. Vortex rings are created by pushing air through the circular orifice of a cylindrical cavity with a flat piston driven by a loudspeaker. Hot-wire anemometry provides accurate measurements of the velocity profile at all stages of the ring formation including stable and unstable rings. Flow visualization using a laser light sheet shows that the initially undisturbed vortex ring is progressively deformed in the azimuthal direction giving rise to a wavy azimuthal and periodic pattern in the circumference of the ring. The wavy pattern is steady, i.e., it does not rotate or translate during the ring's motion. However as the vortex motion progresses in the axial direction, the displaced portions of the ring are convected away from the initial undisturbed position and the wavy pattern grows with local Reynolds number.

  8. Cockpit-based Wake Vortex Visualization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To prevent aircraft accidents due to wake vortex hazards, FAA procedures specify the minimum separation required between different categories of aircraft. However, a...

  9. Development of gas pressure vortex regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uss, A. Yu.; Chernyshyov, A. V.; Krylov, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    The present paper describes the applications of vortex regulators and the current state of the issue on the use and development of such devices. A patent review has been carried out. Automatic control systems using a vortex regulator are considered. Based on the analysis and preliminary numerical calculation of gas flow in the working cavity of the regulator, a new design of a vortex gas pressure regulator has been developed. An experimental sample of the device was made using additive technologies and a number of tests were carried out. The results of experimental studies confirmed the adequacy of the created mathematical model. Based on further numerical studies a new design of a vortex regulator with a distributed feed of the process control flow as well as with the regulated swirl of the supply and control process flows has been developed.

  10. Investigation of aircraft vortex wake structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, N. A.; Turchak, L. I.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we analyze the mechanisms of formation of the vortex wake structure of aircraft with different wing shape in the plan flying close to or away from the underlying surface cleaned or released mechanization wing.

  11. Interaction and merging of vortex filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Weston, R. P.; Ishii, K.; Ting, L.; Visintainer, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for vortex filaments of finite strength with small effective vortical cores are summarized with special emphasis placed on the physical meaning and the practical limit to the applicability of the asymptotic solution. Finite-difference solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for the marging of the filament(s) are described with a focus on the development of the approximate boundary conditions for the computational domain. An efficiency study employing a model problem is used to assess the advantages of the present approximate boundary condition method over previously used techniques. Applications of the present method are presented for the motion and decay of a 3:1 elliptic vortex ring, and for the merging process of a pair of coaxial vortex rings. A numerical procedure for the problem of local merging of vortex filaments, which requires the asymptotic analysis as well as the numerical Navier-Stokes solver, is also presented.

  12. Interaction of Photon Vortex Beams with Atomic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyanik, Maria; Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.

    2017-01-01

    In our work we consider helical Bessel beams' (BB's) propagation and interaction with isotropic matter. Dynamical properties of the beams with non-zero orbital angular momentum (OAM), which are determined by spatial degrees of freedom and polarization, modify the fundamental processes in light-matter interactions. Circular dichroism of BBs propagating in hydrogen gas was considered within the frame of studying the vortex beams' attenuation due to photoabsorption in hydrogen gas. In this case, the phenomenon is due to the topology of the wave front, contrary to the zero OAM case, when the change in polarization state is due to matter inhomogeneity. The effect of circular dichroism has been predicted by calculating the beam ellipticity evolution when traversing an isotropic target. According to our results, the BBs' transverse ellipticity profile has a structure of concentric circular maxima which correspond to minima of the intensity. The characteristic polarization singularity arises on the beam axis as the result of interaction with matter. It is shown, that even for the case of the paraxial approximation the effect of circular dichroism takes place. These signatures can be used for theoretical and experimental analysis of the interactions of optical vortices with atomic matter.

  13. Relativistic electron vortex beams in a laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Pratul; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2015-01-01

    The orbital angular momentum Hall effect and spin Hall effect of electron vortex beams (EVB) have been studied for the EVBs interacting with laser field. In the scenario of paraxial beam, the cumulative effect of the orbit-orbit interaction of EVBs and laser fields drives the orbital Hall effect, which in turn produces a shift of the center of the beam from that of the field-free case towards the polarization axis of photons. Besides, for non-paraxial beams one can also perceive a similar shift of the center of the beam owing to spin Hall effect involving spin-orbit interaction. Our analysis suggests that the shift in the paraxial beams will always be larger than that in non-paraxial beams.

  14. Probability density functions of instantaneous Stokes parameters on weak scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Korotkova, Olga

    2017-10-01

    The single-point probability density functions (PDF) of the instantaneous Stokes parameters of a polarized plane-wave light field scattered from a three-dimensional, statistically stationary, weak medium with Gaussian statistics and Gaussian correlation function have been studied for the first time. Apart from the scattering geometry the PDF distributions of the scattered light have been related to the illumination's polarization state and the correlation properties of the medium.

  15. Metrology with Weak Value Amplification and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-12

    common optical telecom networks. More recently, the amplification properties of this weak value effect have been exploited in similar optical systems to...applications). The light in one port was measured with a photodiode and used to lock the power at 2 mW with an acousto- optic modulator before the fiber ...We examine a sequence of polarized laser pulses effectively trapped inside an interferometer using a Pockels cell and polarization optics . In

  16. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  17. Vortex formation by merging multiple trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Chad; Neely, Tyler; Scherer, David; Anderson, Brian

    2007-06-01

    We have experimentally studied the merging of three trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. We find that, depending on the rate of merging, the final single BEC may contain a single vortex core (for slow merging rates), or multiple cores (for fast merging rates). Similarly, a triple-well trap may initiate the formation of three isolated BECs, but if the barriers between the wells are weak enough, the condensates merge together during their growth; this process can also lead to the formation of vortices in the final BEC. We interpret both scenarios in terms of interference between the initial uncorrelated condensates with indeterminate relative phases. We will discuss the results and interpretation of this experiment (D.R. Scherer, C.N. Weiler, T.W. Neely, B.P. Anderson, cond-mat/0610187, to be published in Phys. Rev. Lett.).

  18. Vortex-like state observed in ferromagnetic contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanson, I K; Naidyuk, Yu G; Fisun, V V; Balkashin, O P; Triputen, L Yu [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Lenin ave., 61103, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Konovalenko, A; Korenivski, V, E-mail: naidyuk@ilt.kharkov.u [Nanostructure Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Point-contacts (PC) offer a simple way to create high current densities, 10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2} and beyond, without substantial Joule heating. We have shown recently (Nano Letters, 7 (2007) 927) that conductivity of nanosized PCs between a normal and ferromagnetic metals exhibits bi-stable hysteretic states versus both bias current and external magnetic field - the effect typical for spin-valve structures. Here we report that apart from the bi-stable state a third intermediate-resistance state is occasionally observed. We interpret this state as due to a spin-vortex in the PC, nucleated either by Oersted field of the bias current and/or by the circular geometry of PC. The observed three-level-states in the PC conductivity testify that the interface spins are both weakly coupled to the spins in the bulk and have depressed exchange interaction within the surface layer.

  19. Baryon spectroscopy with polarization observables from CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Steffen [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The spectrum of nucleon excitations is dominated by broad and overlapping resonances. Polarization observables in photoproduction reactions are key in the study of these excitations. They give indispensable constraints to partial-wave analyses and help clarify the spectrum. A series of polarized photoproduction experiments have been performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). These measurements include data with linearly and circularly polarized tagged-photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized proton and deuterium targets, and recoil polarizations through the observation of the weak decay of hyperons. An overview of these studies and recent results will be given.

  20. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  1. The Weak Neutral Current

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.

  2. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  3. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  4. Application of vortex method; Uzuho no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiji, T. [Ashikaga Inst. of Technology, Tochigi (Japan); Shimizu, S. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-07-15

    Basic jets such as two dimensional free jet, impact jet, axisymmetric circular free jet, and jet flowing out from a nozzle equipped with a collar at the outlet, as well as flow in such valves as disc valves, spool valves, and poppet valves are taken up to discuss their applications using the vortex method, and the results of studies made using vortex method on the analysis of jet and conditions inside valves are reported. The state of the development of large scale vortex structure in the shear layer can be simulated comparatively simply by using the vortex method. The effects of the radius and the lift of a valve on the fluid outlet angle of jet and on the discharge coefficient of orifice are analyzed. Although the shape of the spool valve near the throttle is very complicated, simplified models are used for numerical analysis. An example of calculated result in the case where the spool reciprocates is introduced. Actual vibrating phenomena can be simulated well by the vortex method for minute vibration of the poppet caused by the discharge of lump vortex. 17 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Boundary Layers in Laminar Vortex Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Glenn Leslie

    A detailed experimental study of the flow in an intense, laminar, axisymmetric vortex has been conducted in the Purdue Tornado Vortex Simulator. The complicated nature of the flow in the boundary layer of laboratory vortices and presumably on that encountered in full-scale tornadoes has been examined. After completing a number of modifications to the existing facility to improve the quality of the flow in the simulator, hot-film anemometry was employed for making velocity-component and turbulence-intensity measurements of both the free-stream and boundary layer portions of the flow. The measurements represent the first experimental boundary layer investigation of a well-defined vortex flow to appear in the literature. These results were compared with recent theoretical work by Burggraf, Stewartson and Belcher (1971) and with an exact similarity solution for line-sink boundary layers developed by the author. A comparison is also made with the numerical simulation of Wilson (1981) in which the boundary conditions were matched to those of the present experimental investigation. Expressions for the vortex core radius, the maximum tangential velocity and the maximum pressure drop are given in terms of dimensionless modeling parameters. References. Burggraf, O. R., K. Stewartson and R. Belcher, Boundary layer. induced by a potential vortex. Phys. Fluids 14, 1821-1833 (1971). Wilson, T., M. S. thesis, Vortex Boundary Layer Dynamics, Univ. Calif. Davis (1981).

  6. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wojcieszak

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass pol

  7. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  8. HOCl chemistry in the Antarctic Stratospheric Vortex 2002, as observed with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 2002 Antarctic polar vortex enhanced HOCl mixing ratios were detected by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding both at altitudes of around 35 km (1000 K potential temperature, where HOCl abundances are ruled by gas phase chemistry and at around 18–24 km (475–625 K, which belongs to the altitude domain where heterogeneous chlorine chemistry is relevant. At altitudes of 33 to 40 km polar vortex HOCl mixing ratios were found to be around 0.14 ppbv as long as the polar vortex was intact, centered at the pole, and thus received relatively little sunlight. This is the altitude region where in midlatitudinal and tropic atmospheres peak HOCl mixing ratios significantly above 0.2 ppbv (in terms of daily mean values are observed. After deformation and displacement of the polar vortex in the course of a major warming, ClO-rich vortex air was more exposed to sunlight, where enhanced HOx abundances led to largely increased HOCl mixing ratios (up to 0.3 ppbv, exceeding typical midlatitudinal and tropical amounts significantly. The HOCl increase was preceded by an increase of ClO. Model runs could reproduce these measurements only when the Stimpfle et al. (1979 rate constant for the reaction ClO+HO2→HOCl+O2 was used but not with the current JPL recommendation. At an altitude of 24 km, HOCl mixing ratios of up to 0.15 ppbv were detected. This HOCl enhancement, which is already visible in 18 September data, is attributed to heterogeneous chemistry, which is in agreement with observations of polar stratospheric clouds. The measurements were compared to a model run where no polar stratospheric clouds appeared during the observation period. The fact that HOCl still was produced in the model run suggests that a significant part of HOCl was generated from ClO rather than directly via heterogeneous reaction. Excess ClO, lower ClONO2 and earlier loss of HOCl in the measurements are

  9. HOCl chemistry in the Antarctic stratospheric vortex 2002, as observed with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the 2002 Antarctic polar vortex enhanced HOCl mixing ratios were detected by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding both at altitudes of around 35 km, where HOCl abundances are ruled by gas phase chemistry and at around 24 km, which belongs to the altitude domain where heterogeneous chlorine chemistry is relevant. At altitudes of 33 to 40 km, where in midlatitudinal and tropical atmospheres peak HOCl mixing ratios significantly above 0.2 ppbv (in terms of daily mean values are observed, polar vortex HOCl mixing ratios were found to be around 0.14 ppbv as long as the polar vortex was intact, centered at the pole, and thus received relatively little sunlight. After deformation and displacement of the polar vortex in the course of a major warming, ClO rich vortex air was more exposed to sunlight, where enhanced HOx abundances led to largely increased HOCl mixing ratios (up to 0.3 ppbv, exceeding typical midlatitudinal and tropical amounts significantly. The HOCl increase was preceded by an increase of ClO. Model runs could reproduce these measurements only when the Stimpfle et al. (1979 rate constant for the reaction ClO+HO2→HOCl+O2 was used but not with the current JPL recommendation. At an altitude of 24 km, HOCl mixing ratios of up to 0.15 ppbv were detected. This HOCl enhancement, which is already visible in 18 September data, is attributed to heterogeneous chemistry, which is in agreement with observations of polar stratospheric clouds. Comparison with a model run where no polar stratospheric clouds appeared during the observation period suggests that a significant part of HOCl was generated from ClO rather than directly via heterogeneous reaction. Excess ClO and HOCl in the measurements is attributed to ongoing heterogeneous chemistry which is not reproduced by the model. In the following days, a decay of HOCl abundances was observed and on 11 October, polar vortex mean daytime

  10. The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (Dst*≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (Dst corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.

  11. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  12. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication......Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  13. Numerical Study of Mechanism of U-shaped Vortex Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ping; Liu, Chaoqun

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates the mechanism of U-shaped vortex formation which is found both by experiment and DNS. The main goal of this paper is to explain how the U-shaped vortex is formed and further develops. According to the results obtained by our direct numerical simulation with high order accuracy, the U-shaped vortex is part of the coherent vortex structure and is actually the tertiary streamwise vortices induced by the secondary vortices. The new finding is quite different from existing theories which describe that the U-shaped vortex is newly formed as the head of young turbulence spot and finally break down to small pieces. In addition, we find that the U-shaped vortex has the same vorticity sign as the original {\\lambda}-shaped vortex tube legs and serves as a second neck to supply vorticity to the ringlike vortex when the original vortex tube is stretched and multiple rings are generated.

  14. Experimental Investigation of wing-tip vortex evolution in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sean; Ghimire, Hari

    2016-11-01

    Towing tank experiments were conducted to examine the evolution of a wing-tip vortex in grid-generated turbulence. Measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) were conducted of the velocity field generated by towing a semi-span symmetric wing oriented at 8 degree angle of attack. Turbulence of different kinetic energy and length scales was produced by simultaneously towing grids of different mesh sizes upstream of the wing. Results showed that wing-tip vortex wandering increased with the increase in turbulence kinetic energy, ultimately leading to spontaneous collapse of the vortex. During this process, a measurable diffusion of overall vortex circulation was observed, with the rate of diffusion leading to the collapse of the vortex dependent on the turbulence intensity. Interestingly, the radius of the vortex core remained largely unchanged during the diffusion process, Evidence suggests that the breakdown of vortex was enhanced by entrainment of fluid inside vortex core due to vortex stripping in presence of turbulence.

  15. Testing Lorentz invariance in weak decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytema, Auke; Dijck, Elwin; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Mueller, Stefan; Noordmans, Jacob; Onderwater, Gerco; Pijpker, Coen; Timmermans, Rob; Vos, Keri; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans [Van Swinderen Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Lorentz invariance is the invariance of physical laws under orientations and boosts. It is a key assumption in Special Relativity and the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Several theories unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics allow breaking of Lorentz invariance. At the Van Swinderen Institute in Groningen a theoretical and experimental research program was started to study Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in weak interactions. The theoretical work allowed a systematic approach to LIV in weak decays. Limits could be set on parameters that quantify LIV. A novel beta decay experiment was designed which tests rotational invariance with respect to the orientation of nuclear spin. In particular, using the isotope {sup 20}Na, the decay rate dependence on the nuclear polarization direction was measured. Searching for sidereal variations, systematic errors can be suppressed. The result of the experiment is presented.

  16. Vortex sound in confined flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmans, Gerardus Carolus Johannus

    The interaction of vortex structures with the acoustic velocity field is prerequisite for the production or absorption of acoustic energy. When the source region in which this interaction occurs is much smaller than the wavelength of the acoustic wave, it is possible to neglect wave propagation in the source region itself. Such a source region is called 'compact' and it results in a simplified description of the acoustic source. We have restricted ourselves to compact source regions. Three relevant applications have been studied: speech modelling, damping of acoustic waves by means of diaphragms, and the prediction of flow-induced resonances in bifurcated pipe systems with T-shaped junctions. Experimental as well as numerical work has been carried out for rigid in vitro models of the vocal folds. It was found that it is possible to use a simplified quasi- steady model, which describes the boundary-layer flow in the glottis, to reasonably predict the separation point during a part of one cycle of the vocal-fold movement. This results in a reasonable prediction of the source of sound in voiced speech. Furthermore, it was found that the instability of the jet, that is formed downstream of the glottis, can be a significant source of broad-band sound. A diaphragm used as a constriction in a pipe is a common element in mufflers. This configuration is investigated theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. Results of the quasi-steady flow model and of the numerical calculations are in good agreement with results of experiments. Theory also correctly describes the limit of high frequencies. For the intermediate frequencies we found some deviation between theory and experiments, which is not yet fully understood. The flow through T-joints, with sharp edges, has been numerically investigated as a function of the acoustic amplitude, the Strouhal number, and the flow configuration. In the limit of low frequencies the acoustic source in a T-joint can be described by means

  17. Weak Decay of Hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M

    2004-01-01

    The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...

  18. ICU-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L

    2016-11-01

    Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The turbulent decay of trailing vortex pairs in stably stratified environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Baumann, R.

    2000-03-01

    The decay of trailing vortex pairs in thermally stably stratified environments is investigated by means of large eddy simulations. Results of in-situ measurements in the wakes of different aircraft are used to find appropriate intitializations for the simulation of wake turbulence in the quiescent atmosphere. Furthermore, cases with weak atmospheric turbulence are investigated. It is shown that the early development of the vortices is not affected by turbulence and develops almost identically as in 2D simulations. In a quiescent atmosphere the subsequent vortex decay is controlled by the interaction of short-wave disturbances, owing to the aircraft induced turbulence, and baroclinic vorticity, owing to stable stratification. As a consequence, vertical vorticity streaks between the vortices are induced which are substantially intensified by vortex stretching and finally lead to rapid turbulent wake-vortex decay. When in addition also atmospheric turbulence is present, the long-wave instability is dominantly promoted. For very strong stratification (Fr < 1) it is observed that wake vortices may rebound but lose most of their strength before reaching the flight level. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the predictive capabilities of Greene's approximate model. (orig.)

  20. Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang [High Speed Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China); Luo, Xisheng, E-mail: xluo@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF{sub 6} surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.

  1. Complementary weak-value amplification with concatenated postselections

    CERN Document Server

    Viza, Gerardo I; Liu, Wei-Tao; Howell, John C

    2016-01-01

    We measure a transverse momentum kick in a Sagnac interferometer using weak-value amplification with two postselections. The first postselection is controlled by a polarization dependent phase mismatch between both paths of a Sagnac interferometer and the second postselection is controlled by a polarizer at the exit port. By monitoring the darkport of the interferometer, we study the complementary amplification of the concatenated postselections, where the polarization extinction ratio is greater than the contrast of the spatial interference. In this case, we find an improvement in the amplification of the signal of interest by introducing a second postselection to the system.

  2. Effects of surface anisotropy on magnetic vortex core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V., E-mail: engraver@univ.net.ua [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Sheka, Denis D. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-06-01

    The vortex core shape in the three dimensional Heisenberg magnet is essentially influenced by a surface anisotropy. We predict that depending of the surface anisotropy type there appears barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex core along the magnet thickness. Our theoretical study is well confirmed by spin–lattice simulations. - Highlights: • The shape of magnetic vortex core is essentially influenced by SA (surface anisotropy). • We predict barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex depending on SA. • The variational approach fully describes the vortex core deformation. • We performed spin–lattice simulations to detect SA influence on the vortex core.

  3. Sculptured 3D twister superlattices embedded with tunable vortex spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Jolly; Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam; Denz, Cornelia; Joseph, Joby

    2011-09-01

    We present diverse reconfigurable complex 3D twister vortex superlattice structures in a large area embedded with tunable vortex spirals as well as dark rings, threaded by vortex helices. We demonstrate these tunable complex chiral vortex superlattices by the superposition of relatively phase engineered plane waves. The generated complex 3D twister lattice vortex structures are computationally as well as experimentally analyzed using various tools to verify the presence of phase singularities. Our observation indicates the application-specific flexibility of our approach to tailor the transverse superlattice spatial irradiance profile of these longitudinally whirling vortex-cluster units and dark rings.

  4. Vortex loops entry into type-II superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Samokhvalov, A V

    1996-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution, the magnetic flux, and the free energy of an Abrikosov vortex loop near a flat surface of type--II superconductors are calculated in the London approximation. The shape of such a vortex line is a semicircle of arbitrary radius. The interaction of the vortex half--ring and an external homogeneous magnetic field applied along the surface is studied. The magnitude of the energy barrier against the vortex expansion into superconductor is found. The possibilities of formation of an equilibrium vortex line determined by the structure of the applied magnetic field by creating the expanding vortex loops near the surface of type--II superconductor are discussed.

  5. Precision phase estimation based on weak-value amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaodong; Xie, Linguo; Liu, Xiong; Luo, Lan; Li, Zhaoxue; Zhang, Zhiyou; Du, Jinglei

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, we propose a precision method for phase estimation based on the weak-value amplification (WVA) technique using a monochromatic light source. The anomalous WVA significantly suppresses the technical noise with respect to the intensity difference signal induced by the phase delay when the post-selection procedure comes into play. The phase measured precision of this method is proportional to the weak-value of a polarization operator in the experimental range. Our results compete well with the wide spectrum light phase weak measurements and outperform the standard homodyne phase detection technique.

  6. Multiply-interacting Vortex Streets

    CERN Document Server

    Oskouei, Babak G; Newton, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of an infinite array of (reverse) von K'arm'an streets. Our primary motivation is to model the wake dynamics in large fish schools. We ignore the fish and focus on the dynamic interaction of multiple wakes where each wake is modeled as a reverse von K'arm'an street. There exist configurations where the infinite array of vortex streets is in relative equilibrium, that is, the streets move together with the same translational velocity. We examine the topology of the streamline patterns in a frame moving with the same translational velocity as the streets which lends insight into fluid transport through the mid-wake region. Fluid is advected along different paths depending on the distance separating two adjacent streets. Generally, when the distance between the streets is large enough, each street behaves as a single von K'arm'an street and fluid moves globally between two adjacent streets. When the streets get closer to each other, the number of streets that enter into partnership in...

  7. Dynamics and chemistry of vortex remnants in late Arctic spring 1997 and 2000: Simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konopka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution simulations of the chemical composition of the Arctic stratosphere during late spring 1997 and 2000 were performed with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS. The simulations were performed for the entire northern hemisphere on two isentropic levels 450 K (~18 km and 585 K (~24 km. The spatial distribution and the lifetime of the vortex remnants formed after the vortex breakup in May 1997 display different behavior above and below 20 km. Above 20 km, vortex remnants propagate southward (up to 40°N and are "frozen in'' in the summer circulation without significant mixing. Below 20 km the southward propagation of the remnants is bounded by the subtropical jet. Their lifetime is shorter by a factor of 2 than that above 20 km, owing to significant stirring below this altitude. The behavior of vortex remnants formed in March 2000 is similar but, due to an earlier vortex breakup, dominated during the first 6 weeks after the vortex breakup by westerly winds, even above 20 km. Vortex remnants formed in May 1997 are characterized by large mixing ratios of HCl indicating negligible, halogen-induced ozone loss. In contrast, mid-latitude ozone loss in late boreal spring 2000 is dominated, until mid-April, by halogen-induced ozone destruction within the vortex remnants, and subsequent transport of the ozone-depleted polar air masses (dilution into the mid-latitudes. By varying the intensity of mixing in CLaMS, the impact of mixing on the formation of ClONO2 and ozone depletion is investigated. We find that the photochemical decomposition of HNO3 and not mixing with NOx-rich mid-latitude air is the main source of NOx within the vortex remnants in March and April 2000. Ozone depletion in the remnants is driven by ClOx photolytically formed from ClONO2. At the end of May 1997, the halogen-induced ozone deficit at 450 K poleward of 30°N amounts to ~12% with ~10% in the polar vortex and ~2% in well-isolated vortex remnants

  8. Weak Quantum Ergodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1998-01-01

    We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.

  9. Analysis of Vortex Line Cutting and Reconnection by a Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Curtis; Marshall, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    The essence of vortex reconnection involves the cutting of vortex lines originating from one region and reconnecting to vortex lines originating from another region via the diffusion-regulated annihilation of vorticity. Vortex cutting by a blade is a special case of the more general class of vortex reconnection problems, with an important difference being that vorticity is generated at the reconnection site. In this study, a series of Navier-Stokes simulations of orthogonal vortex cutting by a blade with different values of vortex strength are reported. The three phases of vortex reconnection identified in the literature are found to have counterparts for the vortex cutting problem. However numerous differences between the mechanics of vortex cutting and reconnection within each phase are discussed. In addition, comparisons are made between the temporal changes of the maximum and minimum components of vorticity for vortices of differing strength but still within the vortex cutting regime. The vortex cutting results are also compared with predictions of a simple analytical model that incorporates the key elements of a stretched vorticity field interacting with a solid surface, which is representative of the vortex cutting mechanism near the blade leading edge. Funded by National Science Foundation project DGE-1144388.

  10. Polarizing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  11. Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, Maziar Sam

    Flow control strategies often require knowledge of unmeasurable quantities, thus presenting a need to reconstruct flow states from measurable ones. In this thesis, the modeling, simulation, and estimator design aspects of flow reconstruction are considered. First, a vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation paradigm is developed to design a wake sensing algorithm for aircraft formation flight missions. The method assimilates wing distributed pressure measurements with a vortex-based wake model to better predict the state of the flow. The study compares Kalman-type algorithms with particle filtering algorithms, demonstrating that the vortex nonlinearities require particle filters to yield adequate performance. Furthermore, the observability structure of the wake is shown to have a negative impact on filter performance regardless of the algorithm applied. It is demonstrated that relative motions can alleviate the filter divergence issues associated with this observability structure. In addition to estimator development, the dissertation addresses the need for an efficient unsteady multi-body aerodynamics testbed for estimator and controller validation studies. A pure vortex particle implementation of a vortex panel-particle method is developed to satisfy this need. The numerical method is demonstrated on the impulsive startup of a flat plate as well as the impulsive startup of a multi-wing formation. It is clear, from these validation studies, that the method is able to accommodate the unsteady wake effects that arise in formation flight missions. Lastly, successful vortex-based estimation is highly dependent on the reliability of the low-order vortex model used in representing the flow of interest. The present treatise establishes a systematic framework for vortex model improvement, grounded in optimal control theory and the calculus of variations. By minimizing model predicted errors with respect to empirical data, the shortcomings of the baseline vortex model

  12. Vortex-based line beam optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-10-01

    A vortex-based line beam, which has a straight-line shape of intensity and possesses phase gradient along the line trajectory is developed and applied for optical manipulation in this paper. The intensity and phase distributions of the beam in the imaging plane of the Fourier transform are analytically studied. Simulation results show that the length of the line and phase gradient possessed by a vortex-based line beam are dependent on the topological charge and the azimuthal proportional constant. A superposition of multiple phase-only holograms with elliptical azimuthal phases can be used to generate an array of vortex-based line beams. Optical trapping with the vortex-based line beams has been implemented. Furthermore, the automatic transportation of microparticles along the line trajectory perpendicular to the optical axis is realized with an array of the beams. The generation method for the vortex-based line beam is simple. The beam would have potential applications in fields such as optical trapping, laser machining, and so on.

  13. Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. M.; Marchant, N. G.; O’Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.

    2017-03-01

    The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross–Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas–Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition.

  14. Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The Kadomtsev--Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes `scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are `ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e.,...

  15. Optical torque on a magneto-dielectric Rayleigh absorptive sphere by a vector Bessel (vortex) beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renxian; Yang, Ruiping; Ding, Chunying; Mitri, F. G.

    2017-04-01

    The optical torque exerted on an absorptive megneto-dielectric sphere by an axicon-generated vector Bessel (vortex) beam with selected polarizations is investigated in the framework of the dipole approximation. The total optical torque is expressed as the sum of orbital and spin torques. The axial orbital torque component is calculated from the z-component of the cross-product of the vector position r and the optical force exerted on the sphere F. Depending on the beam characteristics (such as the half-cone angle and polarization type) and the physical properties of the sphere, it is shown here that the axial orbital torque vanishes before reversing sign, indicating a counter-intuitive orbital motion in opposite handedness of the angular momentum carried by the incident waves. Moreover, analytical formulas for the spin torque, which is divided into spin torques induced by electric and magnetic dipoles, are derived. The corresponding components of both the optical spin and orbital torques are numerically calculated, and the effects of polarization, the order of the beam, and half-cone angle are discussed in detail. The left-handed (i.e., negative) optical torque is discussed, and the conditions for generating optical spin and orbital torque sign reversal are numerically investigated. The transverse optical spin torque has a vortex-like character, whose direction depends on the polarization, the half-cone angle, and the order of the beam. Numerical results also show that the vortex direction depends on the radial position of the particle in the transverse plane. This means that a sphere may rotate with different directions when it moves radially. Potential applications are in particle manipulation and rotation, single beam optical tweezers, and other emergent technologies using vector Bessel beams on a small magneto-dielectric (nano) particle.

  16. Transport, mixing and ozone loss in the 2010 Arctic vortex region from in-situ tracer observations during RECONCILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösen, E.; Volk, C. M.; vom Scheidt, M.; Wintel, J.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Grooß, J. U.; Günther, G.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-04-01

    The 2009/2010 Arctic stratospheric vortex was dynamically very active, splitting and reforming twice, first in mid December and then again in mid February. We use in-situ measurements of tracers and ozone both in- and outside the Arctic vortex during the 2010 RECONCILE campaign to investigate isentropic transport and irreversible mixing in the vortex region and to assess chemical ozone loss. N2O and CFC-11, along with CO2, CFC-12, H-1211, CH4, SF6 and H2 were simultanously measured by the High Altitude Gas Analyser (HAGAR) during 13 Geophysica flights between mid January and mid March. Ozone was measured onboard the M55 Geophysica aircraft by the Fast Ozone Analyser (FOZAN). Early winter reference profiles for a number of tracers are provided by the satellite instrument ACE-FTS. We derive an empirical "vortex index" from the observed isentropic distribution of N2O as an altitude-independent tracer of origin with respect to the vortex. This index is used to identify the origin of the observed air masses and to diagnose recent transport of air between distinct regions. Irreversible mixing of air masses, typically following such transport, is diagnosed from the evolution of the CFC-11/N2O correlation. Simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) are used for comparison and to better understand the meteorological context of the observed transport and mixing. Intrusions of extra-vortex air into the vortex are evident already during January, however much stronger effects are observed after the vortex split in late February and its reformation in early March. The N2O-derived "vortex index" suggests strong transport of subtropical air into the polar region above 470 K and a corresponding shift of the CFC-11/N2O correlation indicates that this air has already mixed irreversibly with high-latitude air. A further partial shift of the correlation is evidence for irreversible mixing of mid-latitude air inside the newly formed vortex. The CLa

  17. Controlling of magnetic vortex chirality and p olarity by spin-p olarized current%电流调控磁涡旋的极性和旋性∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明娟; 刘要稳

    2015-01-01

    For a nanodisk, magnetic vortex characterized by a curling magnetization is an energetically stable state. The magnetization in the center of the magnetic vortex is directed upward or downward, namely, the vortex core polarity p=+1 or p=−1 refers to up or down, respectively. The curling direction of magnetization, namely, the vortex chirality, is either counter-clockwise or clockwise. Thus, different combinations of chirality and polarity in a vortex structure demonstrate four stable magnetic states, which can be used to design a multibit memory cell. Such a multibit memory application requires the independent controlling of both the vortex chirality and vortex polarity, which has received considerable attention recently. Switching the vortex polarity has been achieved by using either a magnetic field or a current. The vortex chirality can be controlled by introducing asymmetric geometry of nanodisks. In this article, by using micromagnetic simulations, we present an effective method to simultaneously control the vortex chirality and polarity in a spin valve structure, in which the fixed spin polarizer layer is magnetized in the film plane when the free layer has a magnetic vortex configuration. The free layer is designed into a ladder shape with the right part being thicker than the left part. Our simulations indicate that a combination of desirable vortex chirality and polarity can be easily controlled by a Gaussian current pulse with proper strength and pulse duration through the spin-transfer torque effect. The insight into physical mechanism of the controllable vortex is demonstrated by a series of snapshots. If the magnetic moment of the free layer is saturated in the direction of 0<θ<πduring the current pulse, whereθis the angle between the magnetization and +x axis, the vortex with the counter-clockwise chirality will be generated after the pulse. In contrast, if the free layer magnetization is saturated along the directionπ<θ<2π, after the pulse

  18. Trajectory and frequency of vortex gyration in a multi-nanocontact geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化南; 柳艳; 贾敏; 杜安

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear vortex gyrotropic motion in a three-nanocontacts system is investigated by micromagnetic simulations and analytical calculations. Three out-of-plane spin-polarized currents are injected into a nanodisk through a centered nanocontact and two off-centered nanocontacts, respectively. For current combination (ip1, ip0, ip2)=(−1,1,−1), the trajectory of the vortex core is a peanut-like orbit, but it is an elliptical orbit for (ip1, ip0, ip2)=(1, 1,−1). Moreover, the gyrotropic frequency displays peaks for both current combinations. Analytical calculations based on the Thiele equation show that the changes of frequency can be ascribed mainly to the forces generated by the Oersted field accompanying the currents. We also demonstrate a dependence of eigenfrequency shifts on the direction and distance of the applied currents.

  19. Micromagnetic simulation of vortex-antivortex magnetization in permalloy nano particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnama, B.; Muhammady, S.; Suharyana

    2017-02-01

    A process of vortex-antivortex magnetization reversal in a Permalloy nano particle with uniform polarity of magnetization has been investigated numerically. Micromagnetic simulation is performed using the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. A short field pulse is applied in a film plane anti parallel to magnetization direction. Sequences of simulation of reversals mechanism are evaluated for thickness of nano particle. As the results in the case of thickness of 20 nm thin layer, magnetization reversal realizes through a creation-annihilation of Neel-Bloch wall pair. Contrarily, reversal mechanism via a creation-annihilation process of vortex-antivortex pair occurs for thickness of 60 nm thin layer. By analyzing barrier energy of the sample, we find that a maximum barrier energy reaches a threshold value (e.g., ∼ 2.6×106 erg/cm3 for Permalloy in this simulation).

  20. Possibility of spontaneous vortex phase in ErNi_2^11B_2C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano-Furukawa, Hazuki; Habuta, Emi; Nagata, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2001-03-01

    Recently, a possible coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity was proposed in ErNi_2^11B_2C [P. C. Canfield et. al., Physica C 262, 249 (1996)]. Following this finding, we have performed unpolarized and polarized neutron diffraction experiments on a ^11B substituted large single crystal, and confirmed microscopically that such an exotic phase is realized below T_WFM=2.75K [H. Kawano et al., The Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 60 (1999) 1053]. In the present study, we aim to search a possibility of the spontaneous vortex phase in this material by means of magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. After the zero field cooled procedure the magnetization curve shows diamagnetic behavior even below T_WFM, indicating that there is no spontaneous vortex phase in this condition. The data in the field cooled condition, on the other hand, indicates H_c1 becomes zero below T_WFM.

  1. Weak Cat-Operads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2010-01-01

    An operad (this paper deals with non-symmetric operads) may be conceived as a partial algebra with a family of insertion operations, Gerstenhaber's circle-i products, which satisfy two kinds of associativity, one of them involving commutativity. A Cat-operad is an operad enriched over the category Cat of small categories, as a 2-category with small hom-categories is a category enriched over Cat. The notion of weak Cat-operad is to the notion of Cat-operad what the notion of bicategory is to the notion of 2-category. The equations of operads like associativity of insertions are replaced by isomorphisms in a category. The goal of this paper is to formulate conditions concerning these isomorphisms that ensure coherence, in the sense that all diagrams of canonical arrows commute. This is the sense in which the notions of monoidal category and bicategory are coherent. The coherence proof in the paper is much simplified by indexing the insertion operations in a context-independent way, and not in the usual manner. ...

  2. Explosive-driven shock wave and vortex ring interaction with a propane flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannuzzi, P. M.; Hargather, M. J.; Doig, G. C.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments were performed to analyze the interaction of an explosively driven shock wave and a propane flame. A 30 g explosive charge was detonated at one end of a 3-m-long, 0.6-m-diameter shock tube to produce a shock wave which propagated into the atmosphere. A propane flame source was positioned at various locations outside of the shock tube to investigate the effect of different strength shock waves. High-speed retroreflective shadowgraph imaging visualized the shock wave motion and flame response, while a synchronized color camera imaged the flame directly. The explosively driven shock tube was shown to produce a repeatable shock wave and vortex ring. Digital streak images show the shock wave and vortex ring propagation and expansion. The shadowgrams show that the shock wave extinguishes the propane flame by pushing it off of the fuel source. Even a weak shock wave was found to be capable of extinguishing the flame.

  3. Experimental research of a novel vortex generator for solar absorption chiller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; YU Jian; MA ChongFang

    2009-01-01

    this study, a novel generator for the single-effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller using solar energy was investigated. A dual-chamber vortex generator (DCVG) consisted of a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The hot weak LiBr-H2O liquid entered the lower chamber tangentially through a small nozzle to create a strong vortex flow. Due to the rotating flow, the pressure was reduced toward the central portion of the lower chamber. Experiments were conducted under different solution flow rates and temperatures. The experimental results showed that the lower pressure developed in the lower cham-ber could reduce the saturated temperature and help the evaporation in the generator that is more heat could be utilized to generate more refrigerant vapor. When the inlet temperature was 90℃, the COP of a solar absorption chiller using the DCVG could reach 0.83, which was higher than of the conventional absorption chiller by 22%.

  4. Three-dimensional instability of a multipolar vortex in a rotating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dizès, Stéphane

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, the elliptic instability is generalized to account for Coriolis effects and higher order symmetries. We consider, in a frame rotating at the angular frequency Ω, a stationary vortex which is described near its center r=0 by the stream function written in polar coordinates Ψ=-(r2/2)+p(rn/n)cos(nθ), where the integer n is the order of the azimuthal symmetry, and p is a small positive parameter which measures the strength of the nonaxisymmetric field. Based on the Lifschitz and Hameiri [Phys. Fluids A 3, 2644-2651 (1991)] theory, the local stability analysis of the streamline Ψ=-1/2 is performed in the limit of small p. As for the elliptic instability [Bayly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2160-2163 (1986)], the instability is shown to be due to a parametric resonance of inertial waves when the inclination angle ξ of their wave vector with respect to the rotation axis takes a particular value given by cos ξ=±4/(n(1+Ω)). An explicit formula for the maximum growth rate of the inertial wave is obtained for arbitrary ξ, Ω, and n. As an immediate consequence, it is shown that a vortex core of relative vorticity Wr (assumed positive) is locally unstable if Ω(-1+n/4-p(n-1)/2)Wr/2. The predictive power of the local theory is demonstrated on several vortex examples by comparing the local stability predictions with global stability results. For both the Kirchhoff vortex and Moore and Saffman vortex, it is shown how global stability results can be derived from the local stability analysis using the dispersion relation of normal (Kelvin) modes. These results are compared to those obtained by global methods and a surprisingly good agreement is demonstrated. The local results are also applied to rotating Stuart vortices and compared to available numerical data.

  5. Acoustic scattering of a Bessel vortex beam by a rigid fixed spheroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Partial-wave series representation of the acoustic scattering field of high-order Bessel vortex beams by rigid oblate and prolate spheroids using the modal matching method is developed. The method, which is applicable to slightly elongated objects at low-to-moderate frequencies, requires solving a system of linear equations which depends on the partial-wave index n and the order of the Bessel vortex beam m using truncated partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs), and satisfying the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface in the least-squares sense. This original semi-analytical approach developed for Bessel vortex beams is demonstrated for finite oblate and prolate spheroids, where the mathematical functions describing the spheroidal geometry are written in a form involving single angular (polar) integrals that are numerically computed. The transverse (θ = π / 2) and 3D scattering directivity patterns are evaluated in the far-field for both prolate and oblate spheroids, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid) not exceeding 3:1, the half-cone angle β and order m of the Bessel vortex beam, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kr0. Periodic oscillations in the magnitude plots of the far-field scattering form function are observed, which result from the interference of the reflected waves with the circumferential (Franz') waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3D directivity patterns illustrate the far-field scattering from the spheroid, that vanishes in the forward (θ = 0) and backward (θ = π) directions. Particular applications in underwater acoustics and scattering, acoustic levitation and the detection of submerged elongated objects using Bessel vortex waves to name a few, would benefit from the results of the present investigation.

  6. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Amit; Senthilkumaran, P; Joseph, Joby

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  7. Scattering by a draining bathtub vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Sam R.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.

    2013-06-01

    We present an analysis of scattering by a fluid-mechanical “black hole analogue,” known as the draining bathtub vortex: a two-dimensional flow that possesses both a sonic horizon and an ergoregion. We consider the scattering of a plane wave of fixed frequency impinging upon the vortex. At low frequency, we encounter a modified Aharonov-Bohm effect. At high frequencies, we observe regular “orbiting” oscillations in the scattering length, due to interference between contra-orbiting rays. We present approximate formulas for both effects and a selection of numerical results obtained by summing partial-wave series. Finally, we examine interference patterns in the vicinity of the vortex and highlight the prospects for experimental investigation.

  8. Scattering by a draining bathtub vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Sam R

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of scattering by a fluid-mechanical `black hole analogue', known as the draining bathtub (DBT) vortex: a two-dimensional flow which possesses both a sonic horizon and an ergoregion. We consider the scattering of a plane wave of fixed frequency impinging upon the vortex. At low frequency, we encounter a modified Aharonov-Bohm effect. At high frequencies, we observe regular `orbiting' oscillations in the scattering length, due to interference between contra-orbiting rays. We present approximate formulae for both effects, and a selection of numerical results obtained by summing partial-wave series. Finally, we examine interference patterns in the vicinity of the vortex, and highlight the prospects for experimental investigation.

  9. Alternate powers in Serrin's swirling vortex solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bělík, Pavel; Scholz, Kurt; Shvartsman, Mikhail M

    2012-01-01

    We consider a modification of the fluid flow model for a swirling vortex developed by J. Serrin, where velocity decreases as the reciprocal of the distance from the vortex axis. Recent studies, based on radar data of selected severe weather events, indicate that the angular momentum in a tornado may not be constant with the radius, and thus suggest a different scaling of the velocity/radial distance dependence. Motivated by this suggestion, we consider Serrin's approach with the assumption that the velocity decreases as the reciprocal of the distance from the vortex axis to the power b with a general b>0. This leads to a boundary-value problem for a system of nonlinear differential equations. We analyze this problem for particular cases, both with nonzero and zero viscosity, discuss the question of existence of solutions, and use numerical techniques to describe those solutions that we cannot obtain analytically.

  10. Holographic Vortex Pair Annihilation in Superfluid Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Yiqiang; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2014-01-01

    We make a first principles investigation of the dynamical evolution of vortex number in a two-dimensional (2D) turbulent superfluid by holography through numerically solving its highly non-trivial gravity dual. With the randomly placed vortices and antivortices prepared as initial states, we find that the temporal evolution of the vortex number can be well fit statistically by two-body decay due to the vortex pair annihilation featured relaxation process remarkably from a very early time on. In particular, subtracted by the universal offset, the power law fit indicates that our holographic turbulent superfluid exhibits an apparently different decay pattern from the superfluid recently experimented in highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensates.

  11. Vortex knots in tangled quantum eigenfunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    Tangles of string typically become knotted, from macroscopic twine down to long-chain macromolecules such as DNA. Here we demonstrate that knotting also occurs in quantum wavefunctions, where the tangled filaments are vortices (nodal lines/phase singularities). The probability that a vortex loop is knotted is found to increase with its length, and a wide gamut of knots from standard tabulations occur. The results follow from computer simulations of random superpositions of degenerate eigenstates of three simple quantum systems: a cube with periodic boundaries, the isotropic 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the 3-sphere. In the latter two cases, vortex knots occur frequently, even in random eigenfunctions at relatively low energy, and are constrained by the spatial symmetries of the modes. The results suggest that knotted vortex structures are generic in complex 3-dimensional wave systems, establishing a topological commonality between wave chaos, polymers and turbulent Bose-Einstein condensates.

  12. Vortex noise from nonrotating cylinders and airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.; Fink, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental study of vortex-shedding noise was conducted in an acoustic research tunnel over a Reynolds-number range applicable to full-scale helicopter tail-rotor blades. Two-dimensional tapered-chord nonrotating models were tested to simulate the effect of spanwise frequency variation on the vortex-shedding mechanism. Both a tapered circular cylinder and tapered airfoils were investigated. The results were compared with data for constant-diameter cylinder and constant-chord airfoil models also tested during this study. Far-field noise, surface pressure fluctuations, and spanwise correlation lengths were measured for each configuration. Vortex-shedding noise for tapered cylinders and airfoils was found to contain many narrowband-random peaks which occurred within a range of frequencies corresponding to a predictable Strouhal number referenced to the maximum and minimum chord. The noise was observed to depend on surface roughness and Reynolds number.

  13. Convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez; Cabello, I; Domingo, V

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered small whirlpools in the Sun, with a size similar to the terrestrial hurricanes (<~0.5 Mm). The theory of solar convection predicts them, but they had remained elusive so far. The vortex flows are created at the downdrafts where the plasma returns to the solar interior after cooling down, and we detect them because some magnetic bright points (BPs) follow a logarithmic spiral in their way to be engulfed by a downdraft. Our disk center observations show 0.009 vortexes per Mm^2, with a lifetime of the order of 5 min, and with no preferred sense of rotation. They are not evenly spread out over the surface, but they seem to trace the supergranulation and the mesogranulation. These observed properties are strongly biased by our type of measurement, unable to detect vortexes except when they are engulfing magnetic BPs.

  14. Downstream Thermal Evolution of Vortex Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barea, A.; Herrada, M. A.; Pérez-Saborid, M.; Barrero, A.

    1999-11-01

    The downstream evolution of the total temperature field in a quasi-incompressible axisymmetric vortex core has been computed. Starting at an initial station (z=0) with velocity profiles of the Burgers type and given temperature distributions, the numerical results of the evolution show that, according to experimental results, the total temperature in the near-axis region decreases substantially due to the work done by pressure and viscous forces together with the effect of both convection and conduction of heat. Depending on the values of the parameters characterizing the initial profiles and on the value of the Prandtl number, the vortex either breaks down or eventually reaches a self-similar regime. The results obtained shed light on the basic physics involved in the thermal separation phenomenon which appears inside Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes.

  15. Introduction to vortex filaments in equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    This book presents fundamental concepts and seminal results to the study of vortex filaments in equilibrium. It also presents new discoveries in quasi-2D vortex structures with applications to geophysical fluid dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics in plasmas.  It fills a gap in the vortex statistics literature by simplifying the mathematical introduction to this complex topic, covering numerical methods, and exploring a wide range of applications with numerous examples. The authors have produced an introduction that is clear and easy to read, leading the reader step-by-step into this topical area. Alongside the theoretical concepts and mathematical formulations, interesting applications are discussed. This combination makes the text useful for students and researchers in mathematics and physics.

  16. Vortex ventilation in the laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenzahl, Lawrence R

    2014-01-01

    Assured containment at low airflow has long eluded the users of ventilated enclosures including chemical fume hoods used throughout industry. It is proposed that containment will be enhanced in a hood that has a particular interior shape that causes a natural vortex to occur. The sustained vortex improves the containment of contaminants within the enclosure at low airflow. This hypothesis was tested using the ASHRAE 110 tracer gas test. A known volume of tracer gas was emitted in the hood. A MIRAN SapphIRe infrared spectrometer was used to measure the concentration of tracer gas that escapes the enclosure. The design of the experiment included a written operating procedure, data collection plan, and statistical analysis of the data. A chemical fume hood of traditional design was tested. The hood interior was then reconstructed to enhance the development of a vortex inside the enclosure. The hood was retested using the same method to compare the performance of the traditional interior shape with the enhanced vortex shape. In every aspect, the vortex hood showed significant improvement over the traditional hood design. Use of the Hood Index characterizing the dilution of gas in an air stream as a logarithmic function indicates a causal relationship between containment and volumetric airflow through an enclosure. Use of the vortex effect for ventilated enclosures can provide better protection for the user and lower operating cost for the owner. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a data collection spreadsheet, data analysis, and data collection procedure.].

  17. Vortex lattice theory: A linear algebra approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, George C.

    Vortex lattices are prevalent in a large class of physical settings that are characterized by different mathematical models. We present a coherent and generalized Hamiltonian fluid mechanics-based formulation that reduces all vortex lattices into a classic problem in linear algebra for a non-normal matrix A. Via Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), the solution lies in the null space of the matrix (i.e., we require nullity( A) > 0) as well as the distribution of its singular values. We demonstrate that this approach provides a good model for various types of vortex lattices, and makes it possible to extract a rich amount of information on them. The contributions of this thesis can be classified into four main points. The first is asymmetric equilibria. A 'Brownian ratchet' construct was used which converged to asymmetric equilibria via a random walk scheme that utilized the smallest singular value of A. Distances between configurations and equilibria were measured using the Frobenius norm ||·||F and 2-norm ||·||2, and conclusions were made on the density of equilibria within the general configuration space. The second contribution used Shannon Entropy, which we interpret as a scalar measure of the robustness, or likelihood of lattices to occur in a physical setting. Third, an analytic model was produced for vortex street patterns on the sphere by using SVD in conjunction with expressions for the center of vorticity vector and angular velocity. Equilibrium curves within the configuration space were presented as a function of the geometry, and pole vortices were shown to have a critical role in the formation and destruction of vortex streets. The fourth contribution entailed a more complete perspective of the streamline topology of vortex streets, linking the bifurcations to critical points on the equilibrium curves.

  18. Reactive Flow Control of Delta Wing Vortex (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Passive vortex control devices such as vortex generators and winglets attach to the wing and require no energy input. Passive vortex control...width. The dynamic test parameters are summarized in Table 2. The composite duty cycle input signal is denoted ( ) ( )ou t u u tδ= + in which ou

  19. Acoustics of finite-aperture vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mitri, F G

    2014-01-01

    A method based on the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld surface integral is provided, which makes it feasible to rigorously model, evaluate and compute the acoustic scattering and other mechanical effects of finite-aperture vortex beams such as the acoustic radiation force and torque on a viscoelastic sphere in various applications in acoustic tweezers and microfluidics, particle entrapment, manipulation and rotation. Partial-wave series expansions are derived for the incident field of acoustic spiraling (vortex) beams, comprising high-order Bessel and Bessel-Gauss beams.

  20. Characterization of Vortex Generator Induced Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika

    The aim of this thesis is the characterization and modeling of the longitudinal structures actuated by vortex generators. Results from generic studies performed at low Reynolds numbers have shown that the device induced vortices possess helical structure of the vortex core. Further, their ability...... to control separation and downstream evolution across the chord of a circular sector have been studied. Similar flow structures to the ones found in the generic experiments have been found in a higher Reynolds number setting, more applicable to realistic cases common to, e.g., aeronautical applications...