WorldWideScience

Sample records for weak interaction studies

  1. Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico

  2. X-ray study of weak interactions in two flavonoids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Sharma; Vivek K Gupta; Goutam Brahmachari; Sadhan Mondal; Arindam Gangopadhyay

    2007-10-01

    X-ray diffraction studies were carried out on single crystals of two flavonoids, viz. 5-hydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone, C18H16O6, (I) and 5-hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone, C18H16O6, (II). Crystal structures of both the flavonoids were solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least-squares procedures. In both the molecules, the benzopyran moiety is planar. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the benzopyran portion is 5.50(4)° in (I) and 29.11(5)° in (II). In (I), the crystal packing is influenced by O–H…O hydrogen bonds, and weak C–H…O and $\\pi \\ldots \\pi$ interactions whereas in (II) the crystal structure is stabilized by the presence of four intermolecular short contacts of the type C–H…O. There is also one C–H$\\ldots \\pi$ hydrogen bond with H… centroid distance of < 2.7 Å. The molecules are further stabilized by – interactions.

  3. [Theoretical studies in weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions. Attachments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, S.

    1999-09-01

    The project covered a wide area of current research in theoretical high-energy physics. This included Standard Model (SM) as well as physics beyond the Standard Model. Specific topics included supersymmetry (SUSY), perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), a new weak interaction for the third family (called topflavor), neutrino masses and mixings, topcolor model, Pade approximation, and its application to perturbative QCD and other physical processes.

  4. Progress at the WITCH experiment towards weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, Michaël

    A measurement of the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$- decay is a good probe to search for physics beyond the Standard Model, independent of assumptions like parity, charge and time reversal violation. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for Charged Particles) experiment will measure this correlation with the aim of further constraining the possible existence of scalar currents in the weak interaction or find a positive indication. The setup is located at ISOLDE/CERN and consists of a double Penning trap system combined with a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions from the $\\beta$- decay. The shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum allows to determine the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation coefficient, $a$. Past experiments have allowed to measure this parameter with a precision of 0.5–1 %. The aim of the WITCH experiment is to measure $a$ with a precision of about 0.5 %.\\\\ A first step towards this goal has already been taken in 2006 with the measurement of a recoil ...

  5. Weak interaction studies with an on-line Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savard, G; Buchinger, F; Crawford, J E; Feng, X; Gulick, S; Hackman, G; Hardy, J C; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Sharma, K S; Uusitalo, J

    1999-01-01

    Superallowed beta-decays are a sensitive probe of the fundamental aspects of the weak interaction. Such decays are used to stringently test the CVC hypothesis, deduce a precise value of the weak vector coupling constant, test the unitarity of the CKM matrix and look for deviation from the V-A structure for the weak interaction. The ability to efficiently capture and store short-lived superallowed beta-emitters in ion traps will help to elucidate discrepancies in the most precise unitarity test of the CKM matrix and tighten the present limits on interactions outside the standard V-A form.

  6. Detecting weak interactions between Au- and gas molecules: a photoelectron spectroscopic and ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Huang, Wei; Woodford, Jeffrey; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2009-07-15

    We show that anion photoelectron spectroscopy can be a very sensitive probe for weak intermolecular interactions between gold anion and a noble-gas atom or other nonreactive molecule. High-level ab initio calculations support the measured trend of relatively weak intermolecular interactions among various gold anion-atom complexes. The interaction between Au(-) and H(2)O is much stronger, comparable to a strong hydrogen bond. The interaction between Au(-) and O(2) is weaker than that between Au(-) and a noble-gas atom (Ar, Kr, or Xe).

  7. Electromagnetism in nonleptonic weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, G. E-mail: ecker@doppler.thp.univie.ac.at; Isidori, G.; Mueller, G.; Neufeld, H.; Pich, A

    2000-12-18

    We construct a low-energy effective field theory that permits the complete treatment of isospin-breaking effects in nonleptonic weak interactions to next-to-leading order. To this end, we enlarge the chiral Lagrangian describing strong and {delta}S=1 weak interactions by including electromagnetic terms with the photon as additional dynamical degree of freedom. The complete and minimal list of local terms at next-to-leading order is given. We perform the one-loop renormalization at the level of the generating functional and specialize to K{yields}{pi}{pi} decays.

  8. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Second threshold in weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1977-01-01

    The point of view that weak interactions must have a second threshold below 300 – 600 GeV is developed. Above this threshold new physics must come in. This new physics may be the Higgs system, or some other nonperturbative system possibly having some similarities to the Higgs system. The limit of la

  10. Weak interactions from 1950-1960: a quantitative bibliometric study of the formation of a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative technique is illustrated which uses publication statistics from a bibliography of citations in the area of weak interactions to provide a view of trends and patterns in the development of the field during the period from 1950 to 1960. An overview is given of what the physicists working in weak interactions during this period were doing as indicated by an analysis of the subjects of their papers. The dominant problems and concerns are discussed. Focus is then turned to the events surrounding the emergence of the tau/theta particle puzzle, the discovery of parity nonconservation, and the resolution offered by the V-A theory. Displaying the data from the citation index in unusual ways highlights dominant issues of the period, especially the close relationship between theory and experiment in the latter half of the decade. 64 refs., 14 figs. (LEW)

  11. Very High Energy Electron-positron Colliding Beams for the Study of the Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, B

    1976-01-01

    We consider the design of very high energy electron-positron colliding-beam storage rings for use primarily as a tool for investigating the weak interactions. These devices appear to be a very powerful tool for determining the properties of these interactions. Experimental possibilities are described, a cost minimization technique is developed, and a model machine is designed to operate at centre-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV. Costs are discussed, and problems delineated that must be solved before such a machine can be finally designed.

  12. Spectrofluorimetric Study on the Weak Interaction between ATP and Nα-4-Tosyl-L-arginine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Yan-Qing; L(U),Gong-Xuan; LI,Ying; LIU,Shu-Hua; XIAN,Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some new results on the selective weak interaction between Nα-4-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (TAME) and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) have been reported. Fluorescence spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to investigate this kind of weak interaction. In fluorescence experiments, obvious fluorescence quenching phenomena were observed when TAME was added, which indicated the weak interactions between TAME and ATP. It has been identified by fluorescence titration experiments that TAME exhibited high selectivity to ATP over ADP and AMP. FT-IR spectral results showed that an ATP-TAME adduct was formed. The experimental results indicated that the interaction sites were the guanidinium group of TAME main-chain and the γ-phosphate group of ATP, and the interaction took place through hydrogen bonding and electrostatic force. In addition, the effects of metal ions on the weak interaction between ATP and TAME, or between ATP and analogues of L-arginine were studied.

  13. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  14. A universe without weak interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-08-01

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical “weakless universe” is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting standard model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the weakless universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multiparameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  15. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  16. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  17. Weak interactions and photoinitiated unimolecular decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylichenko, K.; Wittig, C.

    1998-04-01

    Numerical studies have been carried out to examine the applicability of the density of states measured just below dissociation threshold to transition state rate theory. The model system consists of two weakly interacting manifolds of levels, one of which is optically accessible. Both manifolds are coupled to dissociative continua. These studies demonstrate that immediately above reaction threshold, coupling to continua is relatively slow on the time scale of inter-manifold coupling, and it is the mixed manifolds which decay. At higher energies, couplings to continua exceed inter-manifold couplings, and it is the photoexcited bright states which undergo unimolecular decomposition.

  18. Weak interaction: past answers, present questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne' eman, Y.

    1977-02-01

    A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references. (JFP)

  19. Quantitative analysis of weak interactions by Lattice energy calculation, Hirshfeld surface and DFT studies of sulfamonomethoxine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinjal D.; Patel, Urmila H.

    2017-01-01

    Sulfamonomethoxine, 4-Amino-N-(6-methoxy-4-pyrimidinyl) benzenesulfonamide (C11H12N4O3S), is investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Pair of N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O intermolecular interactions along with π···π interaction are responsible for the stability of the molecular packing of the structure. In order to understand the nature of the interactions and their quantitative contributions towards the crystal packing, the 3D Hirshfeld surface and 2D fingerprint plot analysis are carried out. PIXEL calculations are performed to determine the lattice energies correspond to intermolecular interactions in the crystal structure. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) have been performed by B3LYP method, using 6-31G** basis set with the help of Schrodinger software. The computed geometrical parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The Mulliken charge distribution, calculated using B3LYP method to confirm the presence of electron acceptor and electron donor atoms, responsible for intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions hence the molecular stability.

  20. Weak interactions and gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1979-12-01

    The status of the electroweak gauge theory, also known as quantum asthenodynamics (QAD), is examined. The major result is that the standard WS-GIM model describes the data well, although one should still look for signs of further complexity and better tests of its gauge theory aspect. A second important result is that the measured values of the three basic coupling constants of present-energy physics, g/sub s/, g, and ..sqrt..(5/3)g' of SU(3)/sub c/ x SU(2)/sub 2/ x U(1), are compatible with the idea that these interactions are unified at high energies. Much of the paper deals with open questions, and it takes up the following topics: the status of QAD, the scalar meson spectrum, the fermion spectrum, CP violation, and decay dynamics. 118 references, 20 figures. (RWR)

  1. Parametric study of the solar wind interaction with the Hermean magnetosphere for a weak interplanetary magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, J; Moncuquet, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to simulate the interaction of the solar wind with the Hermean magnetosphere when the interplanetary magnetic field is weak, performing a parametric study for all the range of hydrodynamic values of the solar wind predicted on Mercury for the ENLIL + GONG WSA + Cone SWRC model: density from $12$ to $180$ cm$^{-3}$, velocity from $200$ to $500$ km/s and temperatures from $2 \\cdot 10^4$ to $18 \\cdot 10^4$ K, and compare the results with a real MESSENGER orbit as reference case. We use the code PLUTO in spherical coordinates and an asymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field. The study shows for all simulations a stand off distance larger than the Mercury radius and the presence of close magnetic field lines on the day side of the planet, so the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is not high enough to push the magnetopause on the planet surface if the interplanetary magnetic field is weak. The simulations with large dynamic pressure lead to a large compression of the H...

  2. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced pr

  3. Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...

  4. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.

  5. Thermal stability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fudian Men; Hui Liu; Houyu Zhu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the results derived from pseudopotential method and ensemble theory,thermal stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field is studied by using analytical method of thermodynamics.The exact analytical expressions of stability conditions at different temperatures are given,and the effects of interactions as well as magnetic field on the stability of the system are discussed.It is shown that there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the stability of the system at low temperatures,and there is an attractive dividing value at high temperatures.If attractive interaction is lower than the critical value,the stability of the system has no request for magnetic field,but if attractive interaction is higher than the dividing value,a lower-limit magnetic field exists for the stability of the system.

  6. Gravitational Interaction of Higgs Boson and Weak Boson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian

    2013-01-01

    With the LHC discovery of a 125GeV Higgs-like particle, we study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson via the unique dimension-4 operator involving Higgs doublet and scalar curvature, \\xi H^\\dag H R, with nonminimal coupling \\xi. This Higgs portal term can be transformed away in Einstein frame and induces gauge-invariant effective interactions in the Higgs sector. We study the weak boson scattering in Einstein frame, and explicitly demonstrate the longitudinal-Goldstone boson equivalence theorem in the presence of \\xi coupling. With these, we derive unitarity bound on the Higgs gravitational coupling \\xi in Einstein frame, which is stronger than that inferred from the LHC Higgs measurements. We further analyze \\xi-dependent weak boson scattering cross sections at TeV scale, and study the LHC probe of \\xi coupling via weak boson scattering experiments.

  7. The role of weakly polar and H-bonding interactions in the stabilization of the conformers of FGG, WGG, and YGG: an aqueous phase computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, József; Murphy, Richard F; Lovas, Sándor

    2008-11-01

    The energetics of intramolecular interactions on the conformational potential energy surface of the terminally protected N-Ac-Phe-Gly-Gly-NHMe (FGG), N-Ac-Trp-Gly-Gly-NHMe (WGG), and N-Ac-Tyr-Gly-Gly-NHMe (YGG) tripeptides was investigated. To identify the representative conformations, simulated annealing molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) methods were used. The interaction energies were calculated at the BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. In the global minima, 10%, 31%, and 10% of the stabilization energy come from weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. In the prominent cases 46%, 62%, and 46% of the stabilization energy is from the weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. On average, weakly polar interactions account for 15%, 34%, and 9% of the stabilization energies of the FGG, WGG, and YGG conformers, respectively. Thus, weakly polar interactions can make an important energetic contribution to protein structure and function.

  8. Synthesis of Diphenyl Pyridazinone-based flexible system for conformational studies through weak noncovalent interactions: Application in DNA binding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjeet Kumar; Praveen Singh; Archana Gaurav; Pratima Yadav; Ranjana S Khanna; Ashish Kumar Tewari

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports conformational studies of pyridazinone-based flexible dimer connected through diethylamine linker. The conformational studies have been done by X-ray crystal structure and DFT calculation. Further, after crystallization, the compound has shown two types of crystals, one is hydrated and another one is non-hydrated. The hydrated and non-hydrated crystals showed difference in their conformation due to the presence of water in crystal lattice of hydrated crystal. The difference in their conformation has been proved by crystallographic studies, DSC curves and detailed analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitating a comparison of intermolecular interactions. Along with conformational studies, this compound also showed DNA binding, as revealed in docking simulation studies.

  9. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  10. Moving Beyond Weak Identifiers for Proxemic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Identification of people and their position is essential in the design of proxemic interactions. The smartphone often plays an important role in positioning systems, due to its mobility, computational power and sensory capabilities. Studies however show that perceived proximity to our phone...

  11. Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene, Wilhelmstr. 3a, 79098 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2006-05-15

    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary.

  12. Spatial-domain interactions between ultra-weak optical beams

    CERN Document Server

    Khadka, Utsab; Xiao, Min

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the spatial interactions between two ultra-weak optical beams that are initially collinear and non-overlapping. The weak beams are steered towards each other by a spatially varying cross-Kerr refractive index waveguide written by a strong laser beam in a three-level atomic medium utilizing quantum coherence. After being brought together, the weak beams show controllable phase-dependent outcomes. This is the first observation of soliton-like interactions between weak beams and can be useful for all-optically tunable beam-combining, switching and gates for weak photonic signals.

  13. Collective transport of weakly interacting molecular motors with Langmuir kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Sameep; Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Muhuri, Sudipto

    2015-04-01

    Filament-based intracellular transport involves the collective action of molecular motor proteins. Experimental evidences suggest that microtubule (MT) filament bound motor proteins such as kinesins weakly interact among themselves during transport and with the surrounding cellular environment. Motivated by these observations we study a driven lattice gas model for collective unidirectional transport of molecular motors on open filament. This model incorporates short-range next-nearest-neighbour (NNN) interactions between the motors and couples the transport process on filament with surrounding cellular environment through adsorption-desorption Langmuir kinetics (LK) of the motors. We analyse this model within the framework of a mean-field (MF) theory in the limit of weak interactions between the motors. We point to the mapping of this model with the non-conserved version of the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn (KLS) model. The system exhibits rich phase behavior with a variety of inhomogeneous phases including localized shocks in the bulk of the filament. We obtain the steady-state density and current profiles, analyse their variation as a function of the strength of interaction and construct the non-equilibrium MF phase diagram. We compare these MF results with Monte Carlo simulations and find that the MF analysis shows reasonably good agreement with simulation results as long as the motors are weakly interacting. For sufficently strong NNN interaction between the motors, the mean-field results deviate significantly, and for very strong NNN interaction in the absence of LK, the current in the lattice is determined solely by the NNN interaction parameter and it becomes independent of entry and exit rates of motors at the filament boundaries.

  14. Quantum Butterfly Effect in Weakly Interacting Diffusive Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aavishkar A.; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Sachdev, Subir; Swingle, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We study scrambling, an avatar of chaos, in a weakly interacting metal in the presence of random potential disorder. It is well known that charge and heat spread via diffusion in such an interacting disordered metal. In contrast, we show within perturbation theory that chaos spreads in a ballistic fashion. The squared anticommutator of the electron-field operators inherits a light-cone-like growth, arising from an interplay of a growth (Lyapunov) exponent that scales as the inelastic electron scattering rate and a diffusive piece due to the presence of disorder. In two spatial dimensions, the Lyapunov exponent is universally related at weak coupling to the sheet resistivity. We are able to define an effective temperature-dependent butterfly velocity, a speed limit for the propagation of quantum information that is much slower than microscopic velocities such as the Fermi velocity and that is qualitatively similar to that of a quantum critical system with a dynamical critical exponent z >1 .

  15. The quenched generating functional for hadronic weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallante, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ultraviolet behaviour of the generating functional for hadronic weak interactions with |ΔS| = 1, 2 is investigated to one loop for a generic number of flavours and in the quenched approximation. New quenched chiral logarithms generated by the weak interactions can be accounted for via a redefin

  16. Weak intermolecular interactions in gas-phase NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Garbacz, Piotr; Jackowski, Karol; Moszynski, Robert; Jaszunski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Gas-phase NMR spectra demonstrating the effect of weak intermolecular forces on the NMR shielding constants of the interacting species are reported. We analyse the interaction of the molecular hydrogen isotopomers with He, Ne, and Ar, and the interaction in the He-CO_2 dimer. The same effects are studied for all these systems in the ab initio calculations. The comparison of the experimental and computed shielding constants is shown to depend strongly on the treatment of the bulk susceptibility effects, which determine in practice the pressure dependence of the experimental values. Best agreement of the results is obtained when the bulk susceptibility correction in rare gas solvents is evaluated from the analysis of the He-rare gas interactions, and when the shielding of deuterium in D_2-rare gas systems is considered.

  17. Weak interactions in trapped single radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wansbeek, L.; Willmann, L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    The electroweak theory has been confirmed to great precision in high-energy accelerator experiments. One of the outstanding successful predictions of the theory was the existence of the Z{sup 0} boson, that is mixed with the photon and mediates interactions that do not conserve parity. The mixing angle varies with sca le due to the polarization of the vacuum by particle-antiparticle pairs. This has only poorly been tested. Interference of Z{sup 0} and photon exchange between the electrons and quarks in an atom or ion results in a tiny breakdown of parity selection rules. A high-precision measurement of the electroweak mixing angle at low momentum scales is possible by monitoring quantum jumps in one single trapped Ra ion with precision laser and radiofrequency techniques combined. The proof of principle was recently given in pilot measurements at Seattle with one single Ba ion. A Ra{sup +} experiment can now be envisaged with a precision that, together wit h planned experiments at intermediate energy, can confirm the quantum structure of the electroweak theory over some five orders of magnitude in momentum scale. Such an experiment has been started at the TRI{mu}P facility of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, where the needed radioactive Ra isotopes can be produced online. The experiment uses will use a radiofrequency trap and is possible using several all solid state lasers in an elaborate time switching scheme.

  18. The instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the analytical expression of free energy expressed by small parameter r of a weakly interacting Fermi Based on the derived expression, the exact instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field at both high and low temperatures are given. From the instability conditions we get the following two results. (1) At the whole low-temperature extent, whether the interactions are repulsive or attractive with (αn + 4εF/3)(n and εF denote the particle-number density and the Fermi energy respectively, c = 4πah2/m, and a is s-wave scattering length) positive, there is a lower-limit magnetic field of instability; in addition, there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the system of attractive interactions with (αn + 4eF/3) negative. (2) At the whole high-temperature extent, the system with repulsive interactions is always stable, but for the system with attractive interactions, the greater the scattering length of attractive interactions |a| is, the stronger the magnetic field is and the larger the particle-number density is,the bigger the possibility of instability in the system will be.

  19. Unified properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    When the orbital motion and the spin motion of particles were considered simultaneously,the thermodynamic potential function of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field was derived using the thermodynamics method. Based on the derived expression,the analytical expressions of energy,heat capacity,chemical potential,susceptibility and stability conditions of the system were given,and the effects of the interparticle interactions as well as the magnetic field on the properties of the system were analyzed. It was shown that the magnetic field always causes energy and stability to decrease,while the chemical potential of the system to increase. The repulsive(attractive) interactions always increase(decrease) energy and stability,but decrease(increase) the chemical potential and paramagnetism. The repulsive(attractive) interactions decrease(increase) heat capacity of the system at high temperatures but increase(decrease) it at low temperatures.

  20. Quantum Butterfly Effect in Weakly Interacting Diffusive Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aavishkar A. Patel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study scrambling, an avatar of chaos, in a weakly interacting metal in the presence of random potential disorder. It is well known that charge and heat spread via diffusion in such an interacting disordered metal. In contrast, we show within perturbation theory that chaos spreads in a ballistic fashion. The squared anticommutator of the electron-field operators inherits a light-cone-like growth, arising from an interplay of a growth (Lyapunov exponent that scales as the inelastic electron scattering rate and a diffusive piece due to the presence of disorder. In two spatial dimensions, the Lyapunov exponent is universally related at weak coupling to the sheet resistivity. We are able to define an effective temperature-dependent butterfly velocity, a speed limit for the propagation of quantum information that is much slower than microscopic velocities such as the Fermi velocity and that is qualitatively similar to that of a quantum critical system with a dynamical critical exponent z>1.

  1. A comparison of weak-turbulence and PIC simulations of weak electron-beam plasma interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ratcliffe, Heather; Rozenan, Mohammed B Che; Nakariakov, Valery

    2014-01-01

    Quasilinear theory has long been used to treat the problem of a weak electron beam interacting with plasma and generating Langmuir waves. Its extension to weak-turbulence theory treats resonant interactions of these Langmuir waves with other plasma wave modes, in particular ion-sound waves. These are strongly damped in plasma of equal ion and electron temperatures, as sometimes seen in, for example, the solar corona and wind. Weak turbulence theory is derived in the weak damping limit, with a term describing ion-sound wave damping then added. In this paper we use the EPOCH particle-in-cell code to numerically test weak turbulence theory for a range of electron-ion temperature ratios. We find that in the cold ion limit the results agree well, but increasing ion temperature the three-wave resonance becomes broadened in proportion to the ion-sound wave damping rate. This may be important in, for example, the theory of solar radio bursts, where the spectrum of Langmuir waves is critical. Additionally we establish...

  2. Induced pseudoscalar coupling of the proton weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gorringe, T P; Gorringe, Tim; Fearing, Harold W.

    2004-01-01

    The induced pseudoscalar coupling $g_p$ is the least well known of the weak coupling constants of the proton's charged--current interaction. Its size is dictated by chiral symmetry arguments, and its measurement represents an important test of quantum chromodynamics at low energies. During the past decade a large body of new data relevant to the coupling $g_p$ has been accumulated. This data includes measurements of radiative and non radiative muon capture on targets ranging from hydrogen and few--nucleon systems to complex nuclei. Herein the authors review the theoretical underpinnings of $g_p$, the experimental studies of $g_p$, and the procedures and uncertainties in extracting the coupling from data. Current puzzles are highlighted and future opportunities are discussed.

  3. Relativistic thermodynamic properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui; Fan Zhao-Lan; Zhu Hou-Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper derives the analytical expression of free energy for a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field, by using the methods of quantum statistics as well as considering the relativistic effect. Based on the derived expression, the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and low temperatures are given and the relativistic effect on the properties of the system is discussed. It shows that, in comparison with a nonrelativistic situation,the relativistic effect changes the influence of temperature on the thermodynamic properties of the system at high temperatures, and changes the influence of particle-number density on them at extremely low temperature. But the relativistic effect does not change the influence of the magnetic field and inter-particle interactions on the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and extremely low temperatures.

  4. Weak interactions of quarks and leptons: experimental status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1984-09-01

    The present experimental status of weak interactions is discussed with emphasis on the problems and questions and on the possible lines of future investigations. Major topics include; (1) the quark mixing matrix, (2) CP violation, (3) rare decays, (4) the lepton sector, and (5) right handed currents. 118 references. (WHK)

  5. The balance of weak and strong interactions in genetic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Poyatos

    Full Text Available Genetic interactions are being quantitatively characterized in a comprehensive way in several model organisms. These data are then globally represented in terms of genetic networks. How are interaction strengths distributed in these networks? And what type of functional organization of the underlying genomic systems is revealed by such distribution patterns? Here, I found that weak interactions are important for the structure of genetic buffering between signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the strength of the association between two genes correlates with the number of common interactors they exhibit. I also determined that this network includes genetic cascades balancing weak and strong links, and that its hubs act as particularly strong genetic modifiers; both patterns also identified in Saccharomyces cerevisae networks. In yeast, I further showed a relation, although weak, between interaction strengths and some phenotypic/evolutionary features of the corresponding target genes. Overall, this work demonstrates a non-random organization of interaction strengths in genetic networks, a feature common to other complex networks, and that could reflect in this context how genetic variation is eventually influencing the phenotype.

  6. Search for the Scalar Component of Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Zakoucky, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Weak interactions ar e described by the Standard Model which postulates the basic assumption about the pure " V (ector) - A (xial vector)" character of the interaction. Nevertheless, even after half a century of development of the model and experimental testing of its fundamental i ngredients, experimental data still allow the existence of other types of weak interactions - e.g. scalar interactions are ruled out only on the 7% level. Experimental project WITCH ( W eak I nteraction T rap for CH arged particles) was set up at the isoto pe separator ISOLDE at CERN trying to probe the properties of the weak interaction in order to look for their forbidden (scalar, tensor) components or at least significantly improve their current experimental limits. Experimental setup consisting of a comb ination of 2 Penning traps and retardation spectrometer allows to catch the radioactive nuclei from ISOLDE separator, traps and cools them and lets them decay in rest and then probes the energy spectrum of recoiling nuclei whic...

  7. Light weakly interacting particles. Constraints and connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2013-07-15

    The so far unknown particle nature of dark matter is a main motivation for extending the Standard Model of particle physics. A recently promoted approach to solving this puzzle is the concept of hidden sectors. Since the interactions of such sectors with the visible sector are very weak, so are the current experimental bounds. Hidden sectors might even contain sub-GeV scale particles that have so far escaped detection. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs) as well as their connection to dark matter in different Standard Model extensions. In the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), a light CPodd Higgs, arising from spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries, represents an example of a WISP. Light gauge bosons of an extra U(1) symmetry in a hidden sector are other well motivated candidates for WISPs and called hidden photons. Such light hidden photons appear naturally in supersymmetry or string theory and might resolve the observed deviation in the muon anomalous magnetic moment from predictions. Moreover, scenarios in which hidden sector dark matter interacts via a light hidden photon with the visible sector exhibit appealing features in view of recent astrophysical anomalies. We study how the coupling of the CP-odd Higgs A{sup 0} to fermions can be constrained by current measurements for the case where the A{sup 0} is lighter than two muons. Analysing measurements of different rare and radiative meson decays, the muon anomalous magnetic moment as well as results from beam dump and reactor experiments, we severely constrain the CP-odd Higgs to be heavier than 210 MeV or to couple to fermions four orders of magnitude weaker than the Standard Model Higgs. These results apply more generally to the coupling of an axion-like particle to matter. Hidden photons can be constrained by experiments since they couple to charged Standard Model particles via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. We derive

  8. Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Widom, A.; Swain, J.; Srivastava, Y. N.

    2013-01-01

    Employing the weak interaction reaction wherein a heavy electron is captured by a proton to produce a neutron and a neutrino, the neutron production rate for neutral hydrogen gases and for fully ionized plasmas is computed. Using the Coulomb atomic bound state wave functions of a neutral hydrogen gas, our production rate results are in agreement with recent estimates by Maiani {\\it et al}. Using Coulomb scattering state wave functions for the fully ionized plasma, we find a substantially enha...

  9. Introduction to weak interaction theories with dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, K.D.; Peskin, M.E.

    1980-07-01

    A straightforward introduction to theories of the weak interactions with dynamical symmetry breaking-theories of technicolor or hypercolor is presented. The intent is to inform experimentalists, but also to goad theorists. The motivation for considering theories of this type is described. The structure that such a theory must possess, including new gauge interactions at mass scales of 1-100 TeV is then outlined. Despite their reliance on phenomena at such enormous energies, these theories contain new phenomena observable at currently accessible energies. Three such effects which are especially likely to be observed are described.

  10. Why does graphene behave as a weakly interacting system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Barnes, Edwin; Das Sarma, S

    2014-09-05

    We address the puzzling weak-coupling perturbative behavior of graphene interaction effects as manifested experimentally, in spite of the effective fine structure constant being large, by calculating the effect of Coulomb interactions on the quasiparticle properties to next-to-leading order in the random phase approximation (RPA). The focus of our work is graphene suspended in vacuum, where electron-electron interactions are strong and the system is manifestly in a nonperturbative regime. We report results for the quasiparticle residue and the Fermi velocity renormalization at low carrier density. The smallness of the next-to-leading order corrections that we obtain demonstrates that the RPA theory converges rapidly and thus, in contrast to the usual perturbative expansion in the bare coupling constant, constitutes a quantitatively predictive theory of graphene many-body physics for any coupling strength.

  11. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  12. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes ana

  13. Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2013-01-01

    Employing the weak interaction reaction wherein a heavy electron is captured by a proton to produce a neutron and a neutrino, the neutron production rate for neutral hydrogen gases and for fully ionized plasmas is computed. Using the Coulomb atomic bound state wave functions of a neutral hydrogen gas, our production rate results are in agreement with recent estimates by Maiani {\\it et al}. Using Coulomb scattering state wave functions for the fully ionized plasma, we find a substantially enhanced neutron production rate. The scattering wave function should replace the bound state wave function for estimates of the enhanced neutron production rate on water plasma drenched cathodes of chemical cells.

  14. All-atom Molecular Dynamic Simulations Combined with the Chemical Shifts Study on the Weak Interactions of Ethanol-water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rong; LUO San-Lai; WU Wen-Juan

    2008-01-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics(MD)simulation combined with chemical shifts was performed to investigate the interactions over the entire concentration range of the ethanol(EtOH)-water system.The results of the simulation were adopted to explain the NMR experiments by hydrogen bonding analysis.The strong hydrogen bonds and weak C-H…O contacts coexist in the mixtures through the analysis of the radial distribution functions.And the liquid structures in the whole concentration of EtOH-water mixtures can be classified into three regions by the statistic analysis of the hydrogen-bonding network in the MD simulations.Moreover,the chemical shifts of the hydrogen atom are in agreement witb the statistical results of the average number hydrogen bonds in the MD simulations.Interestingly,the excess relative extent Eηrel calculated by the MD simulations and chemical shifts in the EtOH aqueous solutions shows the largest deviation at XEtOH≈0.18.The excess properties present good agreement with the excess enthalpy in the concentration dependence.

  15. An Investigation of Human-Computer Interaction Approaches Beneficial to Weak Learners in Complex Animation Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Animation is one of the useful contemporary educational technologies in teaching complex subjects. There is a growing interest in proper use of learner-technology interaction to promote learning quality for different groups of learner needs. The purpose of this study is to investigate if an interaction approach supports weak learners, who have…

  16. A mathematical model for the Fermi weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, L; Guillot, J C

    2006-01-01

    We consider a mathematical model of the Fermi theory of weak interactions as patterned according to the well-known current-current coupling of quantum electrodynamics. We focuss on the example of the decay of the muons into electrons, positrons and neutrinos but other examples are considered in the same way. We prove that the Hamiltonian describing this model has a ground state in the fermionic Fock space for a sufficiently small coupling constant. Furthermore we determine the absolutely continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian and by commutator estimates we prove that the spectrum is absolutely continuous away from a small neighborhood of the thresholds of the free Hamiltonian. For all these results we do not use any infrared cutoff or infrared regularization even if fermions with zero mass are involved.

  17. Stroboscopic prethermalization in weakly interacting periodically driven systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovi, Elena; Kollar, Marcus; Eckstein, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Time-periodic driving provides a promising route toward engineering nontrivial states in quantum many-body systems. However, while it has been shown that the dynamics of integrable, noninteracting systems can synchronize with the driving into a nontrivial periodic motion, generic nonintegrable systems are expected to heat up until they display a trivial infinite-temperature behavior. In this paper we show that a quasiperiodic time evolution over many periods can also emerge in weakly interacting systems, with a clear separation of the timescales for synchronization and the eventual approach of the infinite-temperature state. This behavior is the analog of prethermalization in quenched systems. The synchronized state can be described using a macroscopic number of approximate constants of motion. We corroborate these findings with numerical simulations for the driven Hubbard model.

  18. n→π* Non-Covalent Interaction is Weak but Strong in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Das, Aloke

    2017-06-01

    n→π* interaction is a newly discovered non-covalent interaction which involves delocalization of lone pair (n) electrons of an electronegative atom into π* orbital of a carbonyl group or an aromatic ring. It is widely observed in materials, biomolecules (protein, DNA, RNA), amino acids, neurotransmitter and drugs. However, due to its weak strength and counterintuitive nature its existence is debatable. Such weak interactions are often masked by solvent effects in condense phase or physiological conditions thereby, making it difficult to prove the presence of such weak interactions. Therefore, we have used isolated gas phase spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations to study n→π* interaction in several molecules where, our molecular systems are free from solvent effects or any external forces. Herein I will be discussing two of the molecular systems (phenyl formate and salicin) where, we have observed the significance of n→π* interaction in determining the conformational specificity of the molecules. We have proved the existence of n→π* interaction for the first time through IR spectroscopy by probing the carbonyl stretching frequency of phenyl formate. Our study is further pursued on a drug named salicin where, we have observed that its conformational preferences is ruled by n→π* interaction even though a strong hydrogen bonding interaction is present in the molecule. Our results show that n→π* interaction, in spite of its weak strength, should not be overlooked as it existence can play an important role in governing the structures of molecules like other strong non-covalent interactions do.

  19. EFFECT OF WEAK INTERACTIONS ON PHENOL ADSORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY AMINATED POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ming Zhang; Jin-long Chen; Ai-min Li; Bing-cai Pan; Qun Chen; Ming-yang He; Quan-xing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption behaviors of phenol from aqueous solutions have been investigated in batch systems at 303 K and 318 K respectively, using hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent (CHA 111), aminated hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbents (NDA101, NDA 103, NDA105) and weakly basic polymeric adsorbent (D301) with a view to studying the effect of hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions between adsorbate and the adsorbent. All adsorption isotherms can be well fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Compared with D301 driven by hydrogen bonding interaction only and CHA111 driven by Van der Waals interaction only, phenol adsorption on aminated adsorbents driven by both hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions were apparently different, i.e., negative effect for NDA105, positive effect for NDA101 and synergistic effect for NDA103. In this synergistic action, some weak interactions would contribute more or less to the adsorption than they work individually.

  20. Weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.

    2014-06-01

    Background: A model-independent formulation of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleon scattering was recently developed in Galilean-invariant effective field theory. Purpose: Here we complete the embedding of this effective interaction in the nucleus, constructing the most general elastic nuclear cross section as a factorized product of WIMP and nuclear response functions. This form explicitly defines what can and cannot be learned about the low-energy constants of the effective theory—and consequently about candidate ultraviolet theories of dark matter—from elastic scattering experiments. Results: We identify those interactions that cannot be reliably treated in a spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation: For derivative- or velocity-dependent couplings, the SI/SD formulation generally mischaracterizes the relevant nuclear operator and its multipolarity (e.g., scalar or vector) and greatly underestimates experimental sensitivities. This can lead to apparent conflicts between experiments when, in fact, none may exist. The new nuclear responses appearing in the factorized cross section are related to familiar electroweak nuclear operators such as angular momentum l⃗(i) and the spin-orbit coupling σ⃗(i).l⃗(i). Conclusions: To unambiguously interpret experiments and to extract all of the available information on the particle physics of dark matter, experimentalists will need to (1) do a sufficient number of experiments with nuclear targets having the requisite sensitivities to the various operators and (2) analyze the results in a formalism that does not arbitrarily limit the candidate operators. In an appendix we describe a code that is available to help interested readers implement such an analysis.

  1. The Weak Interaction of Surfactants with Polymer Brushes and Its Impact on Lubricating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Ran; Ma, Shuanhong; Wei, Qiangbing; Ye, Qian; Yu, Bo; Gucht, Van Der Jasper; Zhou, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We study the weak interaction between polymers and oppositely charged surfactants and its effect on the lubricating behavior and wettability of polymer brush-covered surfaces. For cationic (PMETAC) and anionic (PSPMA) brushes, a gradual transition from ultralow friction to ultrahigh friction was

  2. Search for a tensor component in the weak interaction Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, Gergely

    The search for physics beyond the standard model can, besides in high-energy experiments such as the ones at the LHC accelerator, also be carried out at lower energies. Measurements of correlation coefficients in neutron and nuclear b decay constitute a reliable and model-independent method for such efforts. The topic of this thesis is the precision measurement of the beta asymmetry parameter A. It was measured in the decay of 67Cu, which proceeds via a pure Gamow-Teller b transition, thus its A parameter is sensitive to possible tensor type currents in the weak interaction. The experiment was performed at the NICOLE setup in ISOLDE (CERN), using the technique of low temperature nuclear orientation. The b particles were observed with custom made planar high purity germanium detectors operating at around 10 K. The beta asymmetry of 68Cu was measured on-line for normalization purposes. Geant4 simulations were used to gain control over systematic effects such as electron scattering on the particle detectors. As...

  3. 20F beta spectrum shape and weak interaction tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Chuna, Thomas; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Hughes, Max; Huyan, Xueying; Minamisono, Kei; Paulauskas, Stanley

    2016-09-01

    Precision measurements of the shape of beta spectra can test our understanding of the weak interaction. We are carrying out a measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of β particles from 20F decay. The primary motivation is to test the so-called strong form of the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis. The measurement should also enable us to place competitive limits on the contributions of exotic tensor couplings in beta decay. We aim to achieve a relative precision better than 3% on the linear contribution to the shape. This represents an order of magnitude improvement compared to previous experiments in 20F. In order to control systematic effects, we are using a technique that takes advantage of high energy radioactive beams at the NSCL to implant the decaying nuclei in scintillation detectors deeply enough that the emitted beta particles cannot escape. The β-particle energy is measured with the implantation detector after switching off the implantation beam. Ancillary detectors are used to identify the 1.633-MeV γ-rays following the 20F β decay for coincidence measurements in order to tag the transition of interest and to reduce backgrounds. We report on the status of the analysis. Supported in part with Awards from the NSCL PAC and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1506084.

  4. Weak self-interactions of globular proteins studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and structure-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kaieda, Shuji; Plivelic, Tomás S; Halle, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate protein-protein interactions in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and theoretical modeling. The structure factor for solutions of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), myoglobin (Mb), and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) is determined from SAXS measurements at multiple concentrations, from Monte Carlo simulations with a coarse-grained structure-based interaction model, and from analytic approximate solutions of two idealized colloidal interaction models without adjustable parameters. By combining these approaches, we find that the structure factor is essentially determined by hard-core and screened electrostatic interactions. Other soft short-ranged interactions (van der Waals and solvation-related) are either individually insignificant or tend to cancel out. The structure factor is also not significantly affected by charge fluctuations. For Mb and IFABP, with small net charge and relatively symmetric charge distribution, the structure factor is well described b...

  5. Weak interaction rates for Kr and Sr waiting-point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarriguren, P., E-mail: sarriguren@iem.cfmac.csic.e [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-12

    Weak interaction rates are studied in neutron deficient Kr and Sr waiting-point isotopes in ranges of densities and temperatures relevant for the rp process. The nuclear structure is described within a microscopic model (deformed QRPA) that reproduces not only the half-lives but also the Gamow-Teller strength distributions recently measured. The various sensitivities of the decay rates to both density and temperature are discussed. Continuum electron capture is shown to contribute significantly to the weak rates at rp-process conditions.

  6. Aspects of Weak Interactions between Folate and Glycine Betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojane, Purva P; Duff, Michael R; Bafna, Khushboo; Rimmer, Gabriella P; Agarwal, Pratul K; Howell, Elizabeth E

    2016-11-15

    Folate, or vitamin B9, is an important compound in one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have found weaker binding of dihydrofolate to dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of osmolytes. In other words, osmolytes are more difficult to remove from the dihydrofolate solvation shell than water; this shifts the equilibrium toward the free ligand and protein species. This study uses vapor-pressure osmometry to explore the interaction of folate with the model osmolyte, glycine betaine. This method yields a preferential interaction potential (μ23/RT value). This value is concentration-dependent as folate dimerizes. The μ23/RT value also tracks the deprotonation of folate's N3-O4 keto-enol group, yielding a pKa of 8.1. To determine which folate atoms interact most strongly with betaine, the interaction of heterocyclic aromatic compounds (as well as other small molecules) with betaine was monitored. Using an accessible surface area approach coupled with osmometry measurements, deconvolution of the μ23/RT values into α values for atom types was achieved. This allows prediction of μ23/RT values for larger molecules such as folate. Molecular dynamics simulations of folate show a variety of structures from extended to L-shaped. These conformers possess μ23/RT values from -0.18 to 0.09 m(-1), where a negative value indicates a preference for solvation by betaine and a positive value indicates a preference for water. This range of values is consistent with values observed in osmometry and solubility experiments. As the average predicted folate μ23/RT value is near zero, this indicates folate interacts almost equally well with betaine and water. Specifically, the glutamate tail prefers to interact with water, while the aromatic rings prefer betaine. In general, the more protonated species in our small molecule survey interact better with betaine as they provide a source of hydrogens (betaine is not a hydrogen bond donor). Upon deprotonation of the small molecule, the

  7. NUMERICAL STUDIES OF WEAKLY STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kowal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the e ects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection using three-dimensional numerical simulations.This is the rst attempt to test the model of fast magnetic reconnection proposed by Lazarian & Vishniac (1999, which assumes the presence of weak, small-scale magnetic eld structure near the current sheet. This a ects the rate of reconnection by reducing the transverse scale for reconnection ows and by allowing many independent ux reconnection events to occur simultaneously. We performed a number of simulations to test the dependencies of the reconnection speed, de ned as the ratio of the in ow velocity to the Alfv n speed, on the turbulence power, the injection scale and resistivity. Our results show that turbulence signi cantly a ects the topology of magnetic eld near the di usion region and increases the thickness of the out ow region. We con rm the predictions of the Lazarian & Vishniac model. In particular, we report the growth of the reconnection speed proportional to V 2 l , where Vl is the amplitude of velocity at the injection scale. It depends on the injection scale linj as (linj=L2=3, where L is the size of the system, which is somewhat faster but still roughly consistent with the theoretical expectations. We also show that for 3D reconnection the Ohmic resistivity is important in the local reconnection events only, and the global reconnection rate in the presence of turbulence does not depend on it.

  8. Strong and weak interactions in a simple field-theoretical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Léon van

    2006-01-01

    An exactly renormalizable model of quantum fields, introduced earlier by Th. W. Ruijgrok and the present author, is considered for large but finite cut-off. It gives rise to strong and weak interaction effects. In the limit of infinite cut-off the weak interactions vanish and the strong interactions

  9. Second-order corrections to mean-field evolution of weakly interacting Bosons, II

    CERN Document Server

    Grillakis, M; Margetis, D

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of a N-body weakly interacting system of Bosons. Our work forms an extension of our previous paper I, in which we derived a second-order correction to a mean-field evolution law for coherent states in the presence of small interaction potential. Here, we remove the assumption of smallness of the interaction potential and prove global existence of solutions to the equation for the second-order correction. This implies an improved Fock-space estimate for our approximation of the N-body state.

  10. Single crystal EPR study of the dinuclear Cu(II) complex [Cu(tda)(phen)](2)·H(2)tda (tda = thiodiacetate, phen = phenanthroline): influence of weak interdimeric magnetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Perec, Mireille; González, Pablo J; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2010-12-23

    We report powder and single crystal EPR measurements of [Cu(tda)(phen)](2)·H(2)tda (tda = thiodiacetate, phen = phenanthroline) at 9.7 GHz. This compound consists of centrosymmetric copper(II) ion dimers, weakly ferromagnetically exchange-coupled (J = +3.2 cm(-1)), in which the dimeric units are linked by hydrophobic chemical paths involving the phen molecules. EPR revealed that the triplet spectra are collapsed by interdimeric exchange interactions mediated by that chemical path. Analysis and simulation of the single crystal EPR spectra were performed using Anderson's exchange narrowing model, together with statistical arguments. This approach allowed us to interpret the spectra modulated by the interdimeric interactions in situations of weak, intermediate, and strong exchange. We evaluated an interdimeric exchange constant J' = 0.0070(3) cm(-1), indicating that hydrophobic paths can transmit weak exchange interactions between centers at relatively long distances of the order of ∼10 Å.

  11. Contribution of excited states to stellar weak-interaction rates in odd-A nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sarriguren, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Weak-interaction rates, including beta-decay and electron capture, are studied in several odd-A nuclei in the pf-shell region at various densities and temperatures of astrophysical interest. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution to these rates of thermally populated excited states in the decaying nucleus. The nuclear structure involved in the weak processes is studied within a quasiparticle random-phase approximation with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels on top of a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations. In the range of densities and temperatures considered, it is found that the total rates do not differ much from the rates of the ground state fully populated. In any case, the changes are not larger than the uncertainties due to the nuclear model dependence of the rates.

  12. Synergistic foaming and surface properties of a weakly interacting mixture of soy glycinin and biosurfactant stevioside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhi-Li; Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yuan, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2014-07-16

    The adsorption of the mixtures of soy glycinin (11S) with a biosurfactant stevioside (STE) at the air-water interface was studied to understand its relation with foaming properties. A combination of several techniques such as dynamic surface tension, dilatational rheology, fluorescence spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used. In the presence of intermediate STE concentrations (0.25-0.5%), the weak binding of STE with 11S in bulk occurred by hydrophobic interactions, which could induce conformational changes of 11S, as evidenced by fluorescence and ITC. Accordingly, the strong synergy in reducing surface tension and the plateau in surface elasticity for mixed 11S-STE layers formed from the weakly interacting mixtures were clearly observed. This effect could be explained by the complexation with STE, which might facilitate the partial dissociation and further unfolding of 11S upon adsorption, thus enhancing the protein-protein and protein-STE interfacial interactions. These surface properties were positively reflected in foams produced by the weakly interacting system, which exhibited good foaming capacity and considerable stability probably due to better response to external stresses. However, at high STE concentrations (1-2%), as a consequence of the interface dominated by STE due to the preferential adsorption of STE molecules, the surface elasticity of layers dramatically decreased, and the resultant foams became less stable.

  13. Biospecific protein immobilization for rapid analysis of weak protein interactions using self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengali, Aditya N; Tessier, Peter M

    2009-10-01

    "Reversible" protein interactions govern diverse biological behavior ranging from intracellular transport and toxic protein aggregation to protein crystallization and inactivation of protein therapeutics. Much less is known about weak protein interactions than their stronger counterparts since they are difficult to characterize, especially in a parallel format (in contrast to a sequential format) necessary for high-throughput screening. We have recently introduced a highly efficient approach of characterizing protein self-association, namely self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy (SINS; Tessier et al., 2008; J Am Chem Soc 130:3106-3112). This approach exploits the separation-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles to detect weak self-interactions between proteins immobilized on nanoparticles. A limitation of our previous work is that differences in the sequence and structure of proteins can lead to significant differences in their affinity to adsorb to nanoparticle surfaces, which complicates analysis of the corresponding protein self-association behavior. In this work we demonstrate a highly specific approach for coating nanoparticles with proteins using biotin-avidin interactions to generate protein-nanoparticle conjugates that report protein self-interactions through changes in their optical properties. Using lysozyme as a model protein that is refractory to characterization by conventional SINS, we demonstrate that surface Plasmon wavelengths for gold-avidin-lysozyme conjugates over a range of solution conditions (i.e., pH and ionic strength) are well correlated with lysozyme osmotic second virial coefficient measurements. Since SINS requires orders of magnitude less protein and time than conventional methods (e.g., static light scattering), we envision this approach will find application in large screens of protein self-association aimed at either preventing (e.g., protein aggregation) or promoting (e.g., protein crystallization) these

  14. Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance.......3(-0.8)(+1.0) x 10(-10) s for a rotation of the sublattice magnetization directions in the rhombohedral (111) plane. The corresponding median superparamagnetic blocking temperature is about 150 K. The dynamics of the second, dry sample, in which the particles are uncoated and thus allowed to aggregate, is slowed...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...

  15. Weak Gravity Conjecture and Holographic Dark Energy Model with Interaction and Spatial Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, we apply the weak gravity conjecture to the holographic quintessence model of dark energy.Three different holographic dark energy models are considered: without the interaction in the non-flat universe; with interaction in the flat universe; with interaction in the non-flat universe. We find that only in the models with the spatial curvature and interaction term proportional to the energy density of matter, it is possible for the weak gravity conjecture to be satisfied. And it seems that the weak gravity conjecture favors an open universe and the decaying of matter into dark energy.

  16. Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium: An investigation of weak interactions in solution using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy is ideal for studying weak interactions (formation enthalpy {le}20 kcal/mol) in solution. The metallocene bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium, Cp*{sub 2}Yb, is ideal for this purpose. cis-P{sub 2}PtH{sub 2}complexes (P = phosphine) were used to produce slow-exchange Cp*{sub 2}YbL adducts for NMR study. Reversible formation of (P{sub 2}PtH){sub 2} complexes from cis-P{sub 2}PtH{sub 2} complexes were also studied, followed by interactions of Cp*{sub 2}Yb with phosphines, R{sub 3}PX complexes. A NMR study was done on the interactions of Cp*{sub 2}Yb with H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, Xe, CO, silanes, stannanes, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and toluene.

  17. Sterile neutrino dark matter: A tale of weak interactions in the strong coupling epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Abazajian, Kevork N; Hirata, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the weak interactions of standard model neutrinos with the primordial plasma and their effect on the resonant production of sterile neutrino dark matter. Motivated by issues in cosmological structure formation on small scales, and reported X-ray signals that could be due to sterile neutrino decay, we consider $7$ keV-scale sterile neutrinos. Oscillation-driven production of such sterile neutrinos occurs at temperatures $T \\gtrsim 100$ MeV, where we study two significant effects of weakly charged species in the primordial plasma: (1) the redistribution of an input lepton asymmetry; (2) the opacity for active neutrinos. We calculate the redistribution analytically above and below the quark-hadron transition, and match with lattice QCD calculations through the transition. We estimate opacities due to tree level processes involving leptons and quarks above the quark-hadron transition, and the most important mesons below the transition. We report final sterile neutrino dark matter ph...

  18. Early history of gauge theories and weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumann, N. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with Weyl`s attempt to unify gravitation and electromagnetism, Weyl`s 1929 classic `Electron and gravitation`, Yang-Mills theory, parity violation and 2-component neutrino, chiral invariance and universal V-A interaction. 3 figs., 38 refs.

  19. Weak carbonyl-methyl intermolecular interactions in acetone clusters explored by IR plus VUV spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiwen [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu, Yongjun, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Xie, Min [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Bernstein, Elliot R. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1872 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl overtone of acetone clusters is observed by IR-VUV spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone molecules in the dimer are stacked with an antiparallel way. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of the acetone trimer and the tetramer are the cyclic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl groups would interact with the methyl groups in acetone clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These weak interactions are further confirmed by H/D substitution experiment. -- Abstract: Size-selected IR-VUV spectroscopy is employed to detect vibrational characteristics in the region 2850 {approx} 3550 cm{sup -1} of neutral acetone and its clusters (CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}){sub n} (n = 1-4). Features around 3440 cm{sup -1} in the spectra of acetone monomer and its clusters are assigned to the carbonyl stretch (CO) overtone. These features red-shift from 3455 to 3433 cm{sup -1} as the size of the clusters increases from the monomer to the tetramer. Based on calculations, the experimental IR spectra in the C=O overtone region suggest that the dominant structures for the acetone trimer and tetramer should be cyclic in the supersonic expansion sample. This study also suggests that the carbonyl groups interact with the methyl groups in the acetone clusters. These weak interactions are further confirmed by the use of deuterium substitution.

  20. Weak and strong interactions between dark solitons and dispersive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Oreshnikov, Ivan; Yulin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    The effect of mutual interaction between dark solitons and dispersive waves is investigated numerically and analytically. The condition of the resonant scattering of dispersive waves on dark solitons is derived and compared against the results of numerical simulations. It is shown that the interaction with intense dispersive waves affects the dynamics of the soltons strongly changing their frequencies and accelerating or decelerating the solitons. It is also demonstrated that two dark solitons can form a cavity for dispersive weaves bouncing between the two dark solitons. The differences of the resonant scattering of the dispersive waves on the dark and bright solitons are discussed. In particular we demonstrate that two dark solitons and dispersive wave bouncing in between them create solitonic cavity with convex "mirrors" unlike the concave "mirror" in case of the bright solitons.

  1. Infrared weak corrections to strongly interacting gauge bosons scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, P

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of electroweak corrections of infrared origin on longitudinal strongly interacting gauge bosons scattering, calculating all order resummed expressions at the double log level. As a working example, we consider the Standard model with a heavy Higgs. At energies typical of forthcoming experiments (LHC,ILC,CLIC), the corrections are in the 10-40 % range, the relative sign depending on the initial state considered and on whether or not additional gauge bosons emission is included.

  2. Constraining the interacting dark energy models from weak gravity conjecture and recent observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ximing; Pan, Nana; Gong, Yungui

    2010-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the weak gravity conjecture in constraining the dark energy by comparing with observations. For general dark energy models with plausible phenomenological interactions between dark sectors, we find that although the weak gravity conjecture can constrain the dark energy, the constraint is looser than that from the observations.

  3. Thermodynamic stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui; Zhu Hou-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theoretical results derived from pseudopotential method and local approximation,this paper studies the thermodynamic stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic potential by using analytical method of thermodynamics.The effects of the interparticle interactions as well as external potential on the thermodynamic stability of the system are discussed.It is shown that the system is stable as for the complete average,but as for local parts,the system is unstable anywhere.This instability shows that the stability conditions of mechanics cannot be satisfied anywhere,and the stability conditions of thermostatics cannot be satisfied somewhere.In addition,the interactions and external potential have direct effects on the local stability of the system.

  4. Critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation for weakly interacting bose gas in a potential trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Xuecai; YE; Yutang; WU; Yunfeng; XIE; Kang; CHENG; Lin

    2005-01-01

    The critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation at minimum momentum state for weakly interacting Bose gases in a power-law potential and the deviation of the critical temperature from ideal bose gas are studied. The effect of interaction on the critical temperature is ascribed to the ratiao α/λc, where α is the scattering length for s wave and λc is de Broglie wavelength at critical temperature. As α/λc<<1/(2π)2, the interaction is negligible. The presented deviation of the critical temperature for three dimensional harmonic potential is well in agreement with recent measurement of critical temperature for 87Rb bose gas trapped in a harmonic well.

  5. Global Weak Solutions for Kolmogorov-Vicsek Type Equations with Orientational Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Irene M.; Kang, Moon-Jin

    2016-10-01

    We study the global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to kinetic Kolmogorov-Vicsek models that can be considered as non-local, non-linear, Fokker-Planck type equations describing the dynamics of individuals with orientational interactions. This model is derived from the discrete Couzin-Vicsek algorithm as mean-field limit (Bolley et al., Appl Math Lett, 25:339-343, 2012; Degond et al., Math Models Methods Appl Sci 18:1193-1215, 2008), which governs the interactions of stochastic agents moving with a velocity of constant magnitude, that is, the corresponding velocity space for these types of Kolmogorov-Vicsek models is the unit sphere. Our analysis for L p estimates and compactness properties take advantage of the orientational interaction property, meaning that the velocity space is a compact manifold.

  6. Introduction to the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Iliopoulos, J

    2016-01-01

    These lectures notes cover the basic ideas of gauge symmetries and the phe- nomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking which are used in the construc- tion of the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions.

  7. Continuous Choreographies as Limiting Solutions of N-body Type Problems with Weak Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneira, Reynaldo; Padilla, Pablo; Sánchez-Morgado, Héctor

    2016-10-01

    We consider the limit Nto +∞ of N-body type problems with weak interaction, equal masses and -σ-homogeneous potential, 0absolute minimizer of the action functional among zero mean (travelling wave) loops of class H^1.

  8. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.

    1990-08-29

    This paper deals with research being conducted at the University of Arizona in the theory of strong and weak interactions. Topics in Quantum chromodynamics, quantum electrodynamics, symmetry principle, hadronic structure of the photon and other are discussed. (LSP)

  9. A toy model for weak interaction based on condensed gauge bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Kohyama, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We construct a toy model for weak interaction based on the assumption that gauge bosons form condensates. We then discuss the model predictions calculated from the effective Feynman rules which are derived through computing the effective action.

  10. Engineering of weak helper interactions for high-efficiency FRET probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Raik; Burnier, Julia V; Ferrar, Tony; Beltran-Sastre, Violeta; Stricher, François; van der Sloot, Almer M; Garcia-Olivas, Raquel; Mallabiabarrena, Arrate; Sanjuan, Xavier; Zimmermann, Timo; Serrano, Luis

    2013-10-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based detection of protein interactions is limited by the very narrow range of FRET-permitting distances. We show two different strategies for the rational design of weak helper interactions that co-recruit donor and acceptor fluorophores for a more robust detection of bimolecular FRET: (i) in silico design of electrostatically driven encounter complexes and (ii) fusion of tunable domain-peptide interaction modules based on WW or SH3 domains. We tested each strategy for optimization of FRET between (m)Citrine and mCherry, which do not natively interact. Both approaches yielded comparable and large increases in FRET efficiencies with little or no background. Helper-interaction modules can be fused to any pair of fluorescent proteins and could, we found, enhance FRET between mTFP1 and mCherry as well as between mTurquoise2 and mCitrine. We applied enhanced helper-interaction FRET (hiFRET) probes to study the binding between full-length H-Ras and Raf1 as well as the drug-induced interaction between Raf1 and B-Raf.

  11. Halogen Bonding: An AIM Analysis of the Weak Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Jian-Wei; LU, Yun-Xiang; YU, Qing-Sen; ZHANG, Hua-Xin; JIANG, Yong-Jun

    2006-01-01

    A series of complexes formed between halogen-containing molecules and ammonia have been investigated by means of the atoms in molecules (AIM) approach to gain a deeper insight into halogen bonding. The existence of the halogen bond critical points (XBCP) and the values of the electron density (ρb) and Laplacian of electron density (▽2pb) at the XBCP reveal the closed-shell interactions in these complexes. Integrated atomic properties such as charge, energy, polarization moment, volume of the halogen bond donor atoms, and the corresponding changes (△) upon complexation have been calculated. The present calculations have demonstrated that the halogen bond represents different AIM properties as compared to the well-documented hydrogen bond. Both the electron density and the Laplacian of electron density at the XBCP have been shown to correlate well with the interaction energy, which indicates that the topological parameters at the XBCP can be treated as a good measure of the halogen bond strength.In addition, an excellent linear relationship between the interatomic distance d(X…N) and the logarithm of ρb has been established.

  12. CEPC Precision of Electroweak Oblique Parameters and Weakly Interacting Dark Matter: the Fermionic Case

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Chengfeng; Zhang, Hong-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Future electroweak precision measurements in the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) project would significantly improve the precision of electroweak oblique parameters. We evaluate the expected precision through global fits, and study the corresponding sensitivity to weakly interacting fermionic dark matter. Three models with electroweak multiplets in the dark sector are investigated as illuminating examples. We find that the CEPC data can probe up to TeV scales and explore some regions where direct detection cannot reach, especially when the models respect the custodial symmetry.

  13. Concluding remarks and outlook: Europhysics conference on flavor-mixing in weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Some comments are offered on the present knowledge of the mixing matrix of Kobayashi and Maskawa and of the dynamics of nonleptonic decay. Also, remarks are made concerning CP violation. Plans for research from 1984 to 1989 are listed briefly. The history of studies on weak interactions is briefly reviewed, and several unanswered questions are stated, such as where are the truth particles, how may they be discovered, what is the mass-generating mechanism for the gauge bosons, how many Z/sup 0/'s and W's are there, do neutrinos have mass, and how long do protons live. (LEW)

  14. Weak Interactions Effect on the P-N Mass Splitting and the Principle of Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Chamoun, N

    2002-01-01

    We estimate the difference of nucleon matrix elements for the product of two weak currents operator in order to evaluate and include weak interactions effect on the individual nucleons contribution to the nucleus mass when analysing Eotvos experimental results. For this we use the Bag model and the constituent quark model as two extreme relativistic and non-relativistic representations of the quarks inside the nucleon. When compared to estimates considering only the binding energy contribution, we find both models agree on lowering the bound of a possible weak interactions violation to the equivalence principle by one order of magnitude from 1e-2 to 1e-3.

  15. Single Molecule Study of the Weak Biological Interactions Between P53 and DNA%纳米通道单分子检测P53蛋白与DNA的弱相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应佚伦; 张星; 刘钰; 薛梦竹; 李洪林; 龙亿涛

    2013-01-01

    Many important cellular events, including protein-DNA interactions, are attributed to weak interactions. Almost all of the known biological functions of P53 depend critically upon its DNA-binding properties via numerous weak interactions. At the single-molecule level, information about the weak interactions between each residue of the P53 DNA binding domain (P53 DBD) and DNA is essential for understanding the biological function of P53 and for anti-cancer drug design. Here, we used the a-hemolysin (α-HL) pore to detect the weak interaction between a peptide of the P53 DBD (P53-P) and a 40-bp double-stranded DNA (B40) that includes the p21 wafl/cipl DNA response element. The weak interactions in the complex of p53-P and B40 (p53-P:B40) produce a unique current trace through an a-HL nanopore with diagnostic ionic current blockages. Each current trace at a particular potential is related to the characterized behavior of captured p53-P:B40. Nanopore analysis indicates that the conformation of B40 might be changed by binding to p53-P, this change is confirmed by the molecule docking simulation. In the presence of the weak interactions between p53-P and B40, the analyte exhibits an increase in the rate constant of association with the nanopore vestibule. This reveals that the analyte-pore interactions could be enhanced by the weak interactions between p53-P and B40. The distorted B40 might be prone to translocate through the narrow constriction in the nanopore at the higher potential (> +120 mV). Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the structure of distorted B40 in p53-P:B40 could be broken by the electric force. Our results support the possibility of identifying the weak interaction between two biomolecules. In addition, the analyte-pore association rate constant could be used to estimate the weak binding energy between different parts of the p53 binding domain and the target sequence. The signatures of the current trace may assist in the prediction of the

  16. Weak interaction and nucleus: the relationship keeps on; Interaction faible et noyau: l'histoire continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, J. [Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Frere, J.M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Volpe, C.; Marteau, J.; Lhuillier, D.; Vignaud, D.; Legac, R.; Marteau, J.; Legac, R

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot-Curie international summer school in 2003 whose theme, that year, was the relationship between weak interaction and nucleus. There were 8 contributions whose titles are: 1) before the standard model: from beta decay to neutral currents; 2) the electro-weak theory and beyond; 3) testing of the standard model at low energies; 4) description of weak processes in nuclei; 5) 20.000 tonnes underground, an approach to the neutrino-nucleus interaction; 6) parity violation from atom to nucleon; 7) how neutrinos got their masses; and 8) CP symmetry.

  17. Self-consistent Keldysh approach to quenches in the weakly interacting Bose-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a nonequilibrium Green's-functional approach to study the dynamics following a quench in weakly interacting Bose-Hubbard model (BHM). The technique is based on the self-consistent solution of a set of equations which represents a particular case of the most general set of Hedin's equations for the interacting single-particle Green's function. We use the ladder approximation as a skeleton diagram for the two-particle scattering amplitude useful, through the self-energy in the Dyson equation, for finding the interacting single-particle Green's function. This scheme is then implemented numerically by a parallelized code. We exploit this approach to study the correlation propagation after a quench in the interaction parameter, for one and two dimensions. In particular, we show how our approach is able to recover the crossover from the ballistic to the diffusive regime by increasing the boson-boson interaction. Finally we also discuss the role of a thermal initial state on the dynamics both for one- and two-dimensional BHMs, finding that, surprisingly, at high temperature a ballistic evolution is restored.

  18. Isospin Symmetry of Transitions Probed by Weak and Strong Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    Roeckl, E

    2002-01-01

    Under the assumption that isospin is a good quantum number, isospin symmetry is expected for the transitions from the ground states of the pair of T = 1, T$_{z}$ = $\\pm$ 1 nuclei to excited states of the T = 0 nucleus situated in between the pair. In order to study the isospin symmetry of these transitions, we propose to perform an accurate comparison of Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions for the A = 58 system. This system is the heaviest for which such a comparison is possible. The $^{58}$Ni(T$_{z}$ = 1 ) $\\rightarrow^{58}$Cu(T$_{z}$ = 0 ) GT transitions are presently studied by using high-resolution charge exchange reaction at RNCP Osaka, while those of $^{58}$Zn(T$_{z}$ = -1) $\\rightarrow^{58}$Cu will be investigated in the $\\beta$-decay study at ISOLDE. Due to the large $Q\\scriptstyle_\\textrm{EC}$-value of $^{58}$Zn, GT transitions can be observed up to high excitation energies in $^{58}$Cu. In order to reach this goal, it is proposed to measure $\\beta$-delayed protons and $\\gamma$-rays by using a dedicated de...

  19. A quantitative analysis of weak intermolecular interactions & quantum chemical calculations (DFT) of novel chalcone derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Bhavin R.; Gandhi, Sahaj A.; Dubey, Rahul P.; Patel, Urmila H.; Barot, Vijay M.

    2016-05-01

    The novel chalcone derivatives have widespread applications in material science and medicinal industries. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to optimized the molecular structure of the three chalcone derivatives (M-I, II, III). The observed discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental (X-ray data) results attributed to different environments of the molecules, the experimental values are of the molecule in solid state there by subjected to the intermolecular forces, like non-bonded hydrogen bond interactions, where as isolated state in gas phase for theoretical studies. The lattice energy of all the molecules have been calculated using PIXELC module in Coulomb -London -Pauli (CLP) package and is partitioned into corresponding coulombic, polarization, dispersion and repulsion contributions. Lattice energy data confirm and strengthen the finding of the X-ray results that the weak but significant intermolecular interactions like C-H…O, Π- Π and C-H… Π plays an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing.

  20. Interaction of weakly bound antibiotics neomycin and lincomycin with bovine and human serum albumin: biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Neelam; Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand

    2010-07-01

    The thermodynamics of interaction of neomycin and lincomycin with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), in combination with UV-visible, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. Neomycin is observed to bind weakly to BSA and HSA whereas lincomycin did not show any evidence for binding with the native state of these proteins, rather it interacts in the presence of surfactants. The ITC results suggest 1 : 1 binding stoichiometry for neomycin in the studied temperature range. The values of the van't Hoff enthalpy do not agree with the calorimetric enthalpy in the case of neomycin, suggesting conformational changes in the protein upon ligand binding, as well as with the rise in the temperature. Experiments at different ionic strengths, and in the presence of tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and surfactants suggest the predominant involvement of electrostatic interactions in the complexation process of neomycin with BSA and HSA, and non-specific interaction behaviour of lincomycin with these proteins.

  1. Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium: An investigation of weak interactions in solution using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David Joel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy is ideal for studying weak interactions (formation enthalpy ≤20 kcal/mol) in solution. The metallocene bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium, Cp*2Yb, is ideal for this purpose. cis-P2PtH2complexes (P = phosphine) were used to produce slow-exchange Cp*2YbL adducts for NMR study. Reversible formation of (P2PtH)2 complexes from cis-P2PtH2 complexes were also studied, followed by interactions of Cp*2Yb with phosphines, R3PX complexes. A NMR study was done on the interactions of Cp*2Yb with H2, CH4, Xe, CO, silanes, stannanes, C6H6, and toluene.

  2. Study of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alpat, B.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Antreasyan, D.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Baschirotto, A.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Boucham, A.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Branson, J. G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brock, I. C.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Campanelli, M.; Capell, M.; Romeo, G. Cara; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chan, A.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A. P.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de La Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; de Boeck, H.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dorne, I.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Dutta, S.; Easo, S.; Efremenko, Yu.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Fenyi, B.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gentile, S.; Gerald, J.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldstein, J.; Gong, Z. F.; Gougas, A.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, G.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jenkes, K.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamrad, D.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirkby, J.; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Korolko, I.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krenz, W.; Kuijten, H.; Kunin, A.; de Guevara, P. Ladron; Landi, G.; Lapoint, C.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurikainen, P.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, E.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lieb, E.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, W.; Lu, Y. S.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mangla, S.; Marchesini, P.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; McNally, D.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; von der Mey, M.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A. J. W.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moore, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulik, T.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Muheim, F.; Nagy, E.; Nahn, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nippe, A.; Nisati, A.; Nowak, H.; Opitz, H.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Park, H. K.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Peach, D.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petrak, S.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Pinto, J. C.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Produit, N.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Ro, S.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sarkar, S.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, N.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shukla, J.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Soulimov, V.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Strauch, K.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Tang, X. W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tuchscherer, H.; Tung, K. L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Völkert, R.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xu, J.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yao, X. Y.; Ye, J. B.; Yeh, S. C.; You, J. M.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; Ziegler, F.

    1997-02-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69+/-0.07 (stat.)+/-0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40+/-17% of the produced mesons are light-flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the π0 multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays.

  3. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  4. Weak interactions involving organic fluorine: analysis of structural motifs in Flunazirine and Haloperidol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, M. D.; Row, T. N. Guru

    2001-05-01

    The crystal structure of Flunazirine, an anticonvulsant drug, is analyzed in terms of intermolecular interactions involving fluorine. The structure displays motifs formed by only weak interactions C-H⋯F and C-H⋯π. The motifs thus generated show cavities, which could serve as hosts for complexation. The structure of Flunazirine displays cavities formed by C-H⋯F and C-H⋯π interactions. Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, shows F⋯F interactions in the crystalline lattice in lieu of Cl⋯Cl interactions. However, strong O-H⋯N interactions dominate packing. The salient features of the two structures in terms of intermolecular interactions reveal, even though organic fluorine has lower tendency to engage in hydrogen bonding and F⋯F interactions, these interactions could play a significant role in the design of molecular assemblies via crystal engineering.

  5. First results of the CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search (CROWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, M; Gasior, M; Thumm, M; Rieger, S W

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search probes the existence of weakly interacting sub-eV particles like axions or hidden sector photons. It is based on the principle of an optical light shining through the wall experiment, adapted to microwaves. Critical aspects of the experiment are electromagnetic shielding, design and operation of low loss cavity resonators, and the detection of weak sinusoidal microwave signals. Lower bounds are set on the coupling constant g=4.5 x 10$^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$ for axionlike particles with a mass of m$_a$=7.2 $\\mu$eV. For hidden sector photons, lower bounds are set for the coupling constant $\\chi$=4.1 x 10$^{^-9}$ at a mass of m$\\gamma$=10.8 $\\mu$eV. For the latter we are probing a previously unexplored region in the parameter space.

  6. Weakly Hydrated Surfaces and the Binding Interactions of Small Biological Solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, J. W.; Tavagnacco, L.; Ehrlich, L.; Chen, M.; Schnupf, U.; Himmel, M. E.; Saboungi, M. L.; Cesaro, A.

    2012-04-01

    Extended planar hydrophobic surfaces, such as are found in the side chains of the amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, exhibit an affinity for the weakly hydrated faces of glucopyranose. In addition, molecular species such as these, including indole, caffeine, and imidazole, exhibit a weak tendency to pair together by hydrophobic stacking in aqueous solution. These interactions can be partially understood in terms of recent models for the hydration of extended hydrophobic faces and should provide insight into the architecture of sugar-binding sites in proteins.

  7. Direct and indirect effects of dispersion interactions on the electric properties of weakly bound complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medveď, Miroslav; Budzák, Šimon; Laurent, Adèle D; Jacquemin, Denis

    2015-03-26

    Direct (electronic) and indirect (geometrical) modifications of the molecular properties of weakly interacting complexes between the push-pull p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) molecule and the nonpolar benzene (Bz) have been studied with a large panel of wave function (WF) and density functional theory (DFT) based methods using carefully selected atomic basis sets. For pABA, both the canonical (pABA-c) and zwitterionic (pABA-z) forms have been investigated. Owing to strongly distinct charge distributions, the two forms of pABA enable us to mimic different interaction modes with Bz. In this work, we assessed the performances of dispersion-corrected DFT methods, as well as of long-range corrected exchange-correlation functionals. It follows from the SAPT analysis that both the structure and the interaction energy of the first complex (pABA-c···Bz) is mainly controlled by dispersion interactions whereas, in the second complex (pABA-z···Bz), electrostatic and induction forces play also an important role. Our results suggest that the (non)linear electric properties of push-pull and zwitterionic molecules can be significantly reduced by the presence of a nonpolar compound. We also show that even for a complex with stability strongly determined by dispersion forces, the direct dispersion contributions to its electric properties can be small. Nevertheless, the intersystem distance is influenced by dispersion forces, which, in turn indirectly tune the induced properties. The zwitterionic derivative appears to be more challenging in the context of molecular properties.

  8. A quantitative analysis of weak intermolecular interactions & quantum chemical calculations (DFT) of novel chalcone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Bhavin R., E-mail: chavdabhavin9@gmail.com; Dubey, Rahul P.; Patel, Urmila H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India); Gandhi, Sahaj A. [Bhavan’s Shri I.L. Pandya Arts-Science and Smt. J.M. shah Commerce College, Dakar, Anand -388001, Gujarat, Indian (India); Barot, Vijay M. [P. G. Center in Chemistry, Smt. S. M. Panchal Science College, Talod, Gujarat 383 215 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The novel chalcone derivatives have widespread applications in material science and medicinal industries. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to optimized the molecular structure of the three chalcone derivatives (M-I, II, III). The observed discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental (X-ray data) results attributed to different environments of the molecules, the experimental values are of the molecule in solid state there by subjected to the intermolecular forces, like non-bonded hydrogen bond interactions, where as isolated state in gas phase for theoretical studies. The lattice energy of all the molecules have been calculated using PIXELC module in Coulomb –London –Pauli (CLP) package and is partitioned into corresponding coulombic, polarization, dispersion and repulsion contributions. Lattice energy data confirm and strengthen the finding of the X-ray results that the weak but significant intermolecular interactions like C-H…O, Π- Π and C-H… Π plays an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing.

  9. The surprising influence of late charged current weak interactions on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.

    2016-10-01

    The weak interaction charged current processes (νe + n ↔ p +e-; νbare + p ↔ n +e+; n ↔ p +e- +νbare) interconvert neutrons and protons in the early universe and have significant influence on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) light-element abundance yields, particularly that for 4He. We demonstrate that the influence of these processes is still significant even when they operate well below temperatures T ∼ 0.7 MeV usually invoked for "weak freeze-out," and in fact down nearly into the alpha-particle formation epoch (T ≈ 0.1 MeV). This physics is correctly captured in commonly used BBN codes, though this late-time, low-temperature persistent effect of the isospin-changing weak processes, and the sensitivity of the associated rates to lepton energy distribution functions and blocking factors are not widely appreciated. We quantify this late-time influence by analyzing weak interaction rate dependence on the neutron lifetime, lepton energy distribution functions, entropy, the proton-neutron mass difference, and Hubble expansion rate. The effects we point out here render BBN a keen probe of any beyond-standard-model physics that alters lepton number/energy distributions, even subtly, in epochs of the early universe all the way down to near T = 100 keV.

  10. Thermodynamic identities and particle number fluctuations in weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, Fabrizio [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and INFM, Unita di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi SA (Italy); Navez, Patrick [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, Demokritos NCSR, POB 60228, 15310 Athens (Greece); Wilkens, Martin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany)

    1999-08-14

    We derive exact thermodynamic identities relating the average number of condensed atoms and the root-mean-square fluctuations determined in different statistical ensembles for the weakly interacting Bose gas confined in a box. This is achieved by introducing the concept of auxiliary partition functions for model Hamiltonians that do conserve the total number of particles. Exploiting such thermodynamic identities, we provide the first, completely analytical prediction of the microcanonical particle number fluctuations in the weakly interacting Bose gas. Such fluctuations, as a function of the volume V of the box are found to behave normally, in contrast with the anomalous scaling behaviour V{sup 4/3} of the fluctuations in the ideal Bose gas. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  11. Search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles with the OSQAR laser-based experiment: results and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pugnat, P.; Ballou, R.; Schott, M; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; M. Finger; Flekova, L.(Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic); J. Hosek; Jary, V.(Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic); Jost, R.(Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LIPhy, F-38000, Grenoble, France); Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.

    2014-01-01

    7 pages, 7 figures; International audience; Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over t...

  12. Global Existence of Weak Solutions to a Fractional Model in Magnetoelastic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriss Ellahiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with global existence of weak solutions to a one-dimensional mathematical model describing magnetoelastic interactions. The model is described by a fractional Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the magnetization field coupled to an evolution equation for the displacement. We prove global existence by using Faedo-Galerkin/penalty method. Some commutator estimates are used to prove the convergence of nonlinear terms.

  13. Randomly organized lipids and marginally stable proteins: a coupling of weak interactions to optimize membrane signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova.

  14. Weak Interaction Models with New Quarks and Right-handed Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Kingsley, R. L.; Treiman, S. B.

    1975-06-01

    We discuss various weak interaction issues for a general class of models within the SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory framework, with special emphasis on the effects of right-handed, charged currents and of quarks bearing new quantum numbers. In particular we consider the restrictions on model building which are imposed by the small KL - KS mass difference and by the .I = = rule; and we classify various possibilities for neutral current interactions and, in the case of heavy mesons with new quantum numbers, various possibilities for mixing effects analogous to KL - KS mixing.

  15. Early Career: The search for weakly interacting dark matter with liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Carter [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-08

    We report results from a search for weakly interacting dark matter particles obtained with the LUX experiment. LUX was located at a depth of 4850 feet at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota from 2013 through 2016. It found no evidence for dark matter particle interactions and set new constraints on the properties of such particles for masses between 6 GeV and 100 TeV. The work reported here also characterized the performance of such experiments by developing a new calibration technique based upon a tritium beta decay source.

  16. Lattice-Boltzmann simulation of laser interaction with weakly ionized helium plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huayu; Ki, Hyungson

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a lattice Boltzmann method for laser interaction with weakly ionized plasmas considering electron impact ionization and three-body recombination. To simulate with physical properties of plasmas, the authors' previous work on the rescaling of variables is employed and the electromagnetic fields are calculated from the Maxwell equations by using the finite-difference time-domain method. To calculate temperature fields, energy equations are derived separately from the Boltzmann equations. In this way, we attempt to solve the full governing equations for plasma dynamics. With the developed model, the continuous-wave CO2 laser interaction with helium is simulated successfully.

  17. Energetic electron precipitation in weak to moderate corotating interaction region-driven storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine Glesnes; Tyssøy, Hilde Nesse; Søraas, Finn; Stadsnes, Johan; Sandanger, Marit Irene

    2017-03-01

    High-energy electron precipitation from the radiation belts can penetrate deep into the mesosphere and increase the production rate of NOx and HOx, which in turn will reduce ozone in catalytic processes. The mechanisms for acceleration and loss of electrons in the radiation belts are not fully understood, and most of the measurements of the precipitating flux into the atmosphere have been insufficient for estimating the loss cone flux. In the present study the electron flux measured by the NOAA POES Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors 0° and 90° detectors is combined together with theory of pitch angle diffusion by wave-particle interaction to quantify the electron flux lost below 120 km altitude. Using this method, 41 weak and moderate geomagnetic storms caused by corotating interaction regions during 2006-2010 are studied. The dependence of the energetic electron precipitation fluxes upon solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices is investigated. Nine storms give increased precipitation of >˜750 keV electrons. Nineteen storms increase the precipitation of >˜300 keV electrons, but not the >˜750 keV population. Thirteen storms either do not change or deplete the fluxes at those energies. Storms that have an increase in the flux of electrons with energy >˜300 keV are characterized by an elevated solar wind velocity for a longer period compared to the storms that do not. Storms with increased precipitation of >˜750 keV flux are distinguished by higher-energy input from the solar wind quantified by the ɛ parameter and corresponding higher geomagnetic activity.

  18. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I., E-mail: igalsz@northwestern.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3100 (United States)

    2014-01-14

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  19. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  20. Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles in Non-supersymmetric SO(10) Grand Unified Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Natsumi; Zheng, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Non-supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories provide a framework in which the stability of dark matter is explained while gauge coupling unification is realized. In this work, we systematically study this possibility by classifying weakly interacting DM candidates in terms of their quantum numbers of $\\text{SU}(2)_L \\otimes \\text{U}(1)_Y$, $B-L$, and $\\text{SU}(2)_R$. We consider both scalar and fermion candidates. We show that the requirement of a sufficiently high unification scale to ensure a proton lifetime compatible with experimental constraints plays a strong role in selecting viable candidates. Among the scalar candidates originating from either a 16 or 144 of SO(10), only SU(2)$_L$ singlets with zero hypercharge or doublets with $Y=1/2$ satisfy all constraints for $\\text{SU}(4)_C \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_L \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_R$ and $\\text{SU}(3)_C \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_L \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_R \\otimes \\text{U}(1)_{B-L}$ intermediate scale gauge groups. Among fermion triplets with zero hypercharge, o...

  1. Optical response of a quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid interacting with a weak probe field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosionis, Spyridon G; Terzis, Andreas F; Sadeghi, Seyed M; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2013-01-30

    We study optical effects in a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot and a spherical metal nanoparticle that interacts with a weak probe electromagnetic field. We use modified nonlinear density matrix equations for the description of the optical properties of the system and obtain a closed-form expression for the linear susceptibilities of the quantum dot, the metal nanoparticle, and the total system. We then investigate the dependence of the susceptibility on the interparticle distance as well as on the material parameters of the hybrid system. We find that the susceptibility of the quantum dot exhibits optical transparency for specific frequencies. In addition, we show that there is a range of frequencies of the applied field for which the susceptibility of the semiconductor quantum dot leads to gain. This suggests that in such a hybrid system quantum coherence can reverse the course of energy transfer, allowing flow of energy from the metallic nanoparticle to the quantum dot. We also explore the susceptibility of the metal nanoparticle and show that it is strongly influenced by the presence of the quantum dot.

  2. Microstructure, local dynamics, and flow behavior of colloidal suspensions with weak attractive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Clara; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Dijkstra, Dick; Ranft, Meik; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    We present a comprehensive micro- and macrorheological study of the effect of weak depletion attraction (Ψdep ≈ 1-10 kBT) on dense colloidal suspensions stabilized by short-range repulsive interactions. We used aqueous polymer dispersions as model system and demonstrated the unique capabilities of multiple particle tracking (MPT) to disclose structural changes in such technically important systems exhibiting many characteristic features of hard sphere systems. Below the hard sphere freezing point ϕc, viscosity increases monotonically with increasing Ψdep due to the transition from a fluid to a fluid/crystalline and finally to a gel state. Above ϕc, increasing attraction strength first results in a viscosity reduction corresponding to the formation of large, permeable crystals and then in a viscosity increase when a network of dense, small crystals forms. The fraction of the fluid and crystal phase, particle concentration in each phase as well as the modulus of the micro-crystals are obtained, the latter decreases with Ψdep. Above the colloidal glass transition strong heterogeneities and different local particle mobility in the repulsive and attractive arrested states are found. Particles are trapped in the cage of neighboring particles rather than in an attractive potential well. The intermediate ergodic state exhibits uniform tracer diffusivity.

  3. Expanded calculation of weak-interaction mediated neutrino cooling rates due to $^{56}$Ni in stellar matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimate of the neutrino cooling rates is required in order to study the various stages of stellar evolution of massive stars. Neutrino losses from proto-neutron stars play a crucial role in deciding whether these stars would be crushed into black holes or explode as supernovae. Both pure leptonic and weak-interaction processes contribute to the neutrino energy losses in stellar matter. At low temperatures and densities, characteristic of the early phase of presupernova evolution, cooling through neutrinos produced via the weak-interaction is important. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently being used for calculation of stellar weak-interaction rates of $fp$-shell nuclide with success. The lepton-to-baryon ratio ($Y_{e}$) during early phases of stellar evolution of massive stars changes substantially alone due to electron captures on $^{56}$Ni. The stellar matter is transparent to the neutrinos produced during the presupernova evolution of massive star...

  4. Ion-mediated interactions between net-neutral slabs: Weak and strong disorder effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the effective interaction between two randomly charged but otherwise net-neutral, planar dielectric slabs immersed in an asymmetric Coulomb fluid containing a mixture of mobile monovalent and multivalent ions. The presence of charge disorder on the apposed bounding surfaces of the slabs leads to substantial qualitative changes in the way they interact, as compared with the standard picture provided by the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions. While, the latter predict purely attractive interactions between strictly neutral slabs, we show that the combined effects from surface charge disorder, image depletion, Debye (or salt) screening, and also, in particular, their coupling with multivalent ions, give rise to a more diverse behavior for the effective interaction between net-neutral slabs at nano-scale separations. Disorder effects show large variation depending on the properly quantified strength of disorder, leading either to non-monotonic effective interaction with both repulsive and attractive branches when the surface charges are weakly disordered (small disorder variance) or to a dominating attractive interaction that is larger both in its range and magnitude than what is predicted from the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions, when the surfaces are strongly disordered (large disorder variance).

  5. Ion-mediated interactions between net-neutral slabs: Weak and strong disorder effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the effective interaction between two randomly charged but otherwise net-neutral, planar dielectric slabs immersed in an asymmetric Coulomb fluid containing a mixture of mobile monovalent and multivalent ions. The presence of charge disorder on the apposed bounding surfaces of the slabs leads to substantial qualitative changes in the way they interact, as compared with the standard picture provided by the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions. While, the latter predict purely attractive interactions between strictly neutral slabs, we show that the combined effects from surface charge disorder, image depletion, Debye (or salt) screening, and also, in particular, their coupling with multivalent ions, give rise to a more diverse behavior for the effective interaction between net-neutral slabs at nano-scale separations. Disorder effects show large variation depending on the properly quantified strength of disorder, leading either to non-monotonic effective interaction with both repulsive and attractive branches when the surface charges are weakly disordered (small disorder variance) or to a dominating attractive interaction that is larger both in its range and magnitude than what is predicted from the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions, when the surfaces are strongly disordered (large disorder variance).

  6. Mobile devices and weak ties: a study of vision impairments and workplace access in Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Joyojeet; Lakshmanan, Meera

    2015-07-01

    To explore ways in which social and economic interactions are changed by access to mobile telephony. This is a mixed-methods study of mobile phone use among 52 urban professionals with vision impairments in Bangalore, India. Interviews and survey results indicated that mobile devices, specifically those with adaptive technology software, play a vital role as multi-purpose devices that enable people with disabilities to navigate economically and socially in an environment where accessibility remains a significant challenge. We found that mobile devices play a central role in enabling and sustaining weak ties, but also that these weak ties have important gender-specific implications. We found that women have less access to weak ties than men, which impacts women's access to assistive technology (AT). This has potential implications for women's sense of safety and independence, both of which are strongly related to AT access. Implications for Rehabilitation Adaptive technologies increase individuals' ability to keep in contact with casual connections or weak ties through phone calls or social media. Men tend to have stronger access to weak ties than women in India due to cultural impediments to independent access to public spaces. Weak ties are an important source of assistive technology (AT) due to the high rate of resale of used AT, typically through informal networks.

  7. Ultra-weak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Jae K; Murdoch, Stuart G; Coen, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    We report what we believe is the weakest interaction between solitons ever observed. Our experiment involves temporal optical cavity solitons recirculating in a coherently-driven passive optical fibre ring resonator. We observe two solitons, separated by up to 8,000 times their width, changing their temporal separation by a fraction of an attosecond per round-trip of the 100 m-long resonator, or equivalently 1/10,000 of the wavelength of the soliton carrier wave per characteristic dispersive length. The interactions are so weak that, at the speed of light, they require an effective propagation distance of the order of an astronomical unit to fully develop, i.e. tens of millions of kilometres. The interaction is mediated by transverse acoustic waves generated in the optical fibre by the propagating solitons through electrostriction.

  8. The role of multipoles in counterion-mediated interactions between charged surfaces: strong and weak coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanduc, M; Podgornik, R [Department of Theoretical Physics, J Stefan Institute, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Naji, A [Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Jho, Y S; Pincus, P A [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2009-10-21

    We present general arguments for the importance, or lack thereof, of structure in the charge distribution of counterions for counterion-mediated interactions between bounding symmetrically charged surfaces. We show that on the mean field or weak coupling level, the charge quadrupole contributes the lowest order modification to the contact value theorem and thus to the intersurface electrostatic interactions. The image effects are non-existent on the mean field level even with multipoles. On the strong coupling level the quadrupoles and higher order multipoles contribute additional terms to the interaction free energy only in the presence of dielectric inhomogeneities. Without them, the monopole is the only multipole that contributes to the strong coupling electrostatics. We explore the consequences of these statements in all their generality.

  9. Exact kinetic energy enables accurate evaluation of weak interactions by the FDE-vdW method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Debalina; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-08-28

    The correlation energy of interaction is an elusive and sought-after interaction between molecular systems. By partitioning the response function of the system into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE)-vdW method provides a computationally amenable nonlocal correlation functional based on the adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem applied to subsystem density functional theory. In reproducing potential energy surfaces of weakly interacting dimers, we show that FDE-vdW, either employing semilocal or exact nonadditive kinetic energy functionals, is in quantitative agreement with high-accuracy coupled cluster calculations (overall mean unsigned error of 0.5 kcal/mol). When employing the exact kinetic energy (which we term the Kohn-Sham (KS)-vdW method), the binding energies are generally closer to the benchmark, and the energy surfaces are also smoother.

  10. Exact kinetic energy enables accurate evaluation of weak interactions by the FDE-vdW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Debalina; Pavanello, Michele, E-mail: m.pavanello@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The correlation energy of interaction is an elusive and sought-after interaction between molecular systems. By partitioning the response function of the system into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE)-vdW method provides a computationally amenable nonlocal correlation functional based on the adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem applied to subsystem density functional theory. In reproducing potential energy surfaces of weakly interacting dimers, we show that FDE-vdW, either employing semilocal or exact nonadditive kinetic energy functionals, is in quantitative agreement with high-accuracy coupled cluster calculations (overall mean unsigned error of 0.5 kcal/mol). When employing the exact kinetic energy (which we term the Kohn-Sham (KS)-vdW method), the binding energies are generally closer to the benchmark, and the energy surfaces are also smoother.

  11. The direct and indirect detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis

    1995-01-01

    An ever-increasing body of evidence suggests that weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) constitute the bulk of the matter in the Universe. Experimental data, dimensional analysis and Standard Model particle physics are sufficient to evaluate and compare the performance of detectors searching for such particles either directly (e.g.\\ by their scattering in germanium detectors), or indirectly (e.g.\\ by observing their annihilation into neutrinos in underground detectors). We conclude that the direct method is superior if the WIMP interacts coherently and its mass is lower or comparable to the weak boson mass. In all other cases, i.e.\\ for relatively heavy WIMPs and for WIMPs interacting incoherently, the indirect method will be competitive or superior, but it is, of course, held hostage to the successful deployment of high energy neutrino telescopes with effective area in the \\sim10^4--10^5~m^2 range and with appropriately low threshold. The rule of thumb is that a kilogram of germanium is roughly equiva...

  12. Subsystem-DFT potential-energy curves for weakly interacting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüns, Danny; Klahr, Kevin; Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Visscher, Lucas; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2015-06-14

    Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT) within the local-density approximation (LDA) or the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) is known to fail for the correct description of London dispersion interactions. Often, not even bound potential-energy surfaces are obtained for van der Waals complexes, unless special correction schemes are employed. In contrast to that, there has been some evidence for the fact that subsystem-based density functional theory produces interaction energies for weakly bound systems which are superior to Kohn-Sham DFT results without dispersion corrections. This is usually attributed to an error cancellation between the approximate exchange-correlation and non-additive kinetic-energy functionals employed in subsystem DFT. Here, we investigate the accuracy of subsystem DFT for weakly interacting systems in detail, paying special attention to the shape of the potential-energy surfaces (PESs). Our test sets include the extensive S22x5 and S66x8 data sets. Our results indicate that subsystem DFT PESs strongly vary depending on the functional. LDA results are usually quite good, but behave differently from their KS counterparts. GGA results from the popular Perdew-Wang (PW91) set of functionals produce PESs that are often, but not in general overbinding. Results from Becke-Perdew (BP86) GGAs, by contrast, show the typical problems known from the corresponding KS results. We provide some preliminary results for empirical corrections for both PW91 and BP86 in subsystem DFT.

  13. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, Alan J.; Asai, M.; balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Beaty, John; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; DeVaney, D.; DeStefano, PC F.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hansen, S.; Harris, Harold R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hines, B. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenany, S.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, M.; Moffatt, R. A.; Nelson, R. H.; Novak, L.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Platt, M.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R. W.; Ricci, Y.; Ruschman, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, A.; Seitz, D.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Tomada, A.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-06-01

    We report a first search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. An exposure of 577 kg-days was analyzed for WIMPs with mass < 30 GeV/c2, with the signal region blinded. Eleven events were observed after unblinding. We set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1:2 10-42cm2 at 8 GeV/c2. This result is in tension with WIMP interpretations of recent experiments and probes new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses < 6 GeV/c2.

  14. On the Trail of WIMPs: Direct Detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pijushpani Bhattacharjee

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental particle nature of the Dark Matter (DM)that constitutes more than 80% of the gravitating matter inthe Universe is unknown. There is no suitable candidate forthis DM in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Theso-called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), predictedin many scenarios of possible new physics beyond theSM, are currently one of the most favoured candidates of theDM. A number of experiments worldwide are trying to directlydetect these WIMPs in underground laboratories. Herewe discuss the basic ideas behind the WIMP hypothesis andbriefly discuss the latest results of such experiments and futureprospects.

  15. Tripod molecules build molecular networks and open-dimer capsules by weak interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Three tripod molecules, tris(2-methoxy-5-nitrobenzyl)phosphine oxide (1), tris(2-butoxy-3-methyl-5-nitrobenzyl)phosphine oxide (2), and tris(3-nitrobenzyl)amine (TNBA), were synthesized and crystallized. The structures of 1, 2, and their comparison (TNBA) were determined by X-ray crystallography. It is noteworthy that compound 1 interacted with adjacent molecules via π-π stacking and C-H···π interactions to yield an open supramolecular network with the porosity P in 8.9%, whereas compound 2 gathered closely to form an open-dimer capsule by sixfold N-O···π and triple C-H···O interactions, which showed a rare example of a stable in, out-invertomer of phosphine inversion existing in open-dimers. A series of columns were built and arranged side by side by these weak interactions. By contrast, TNBA crystallized to form a 2D network maintained by C-H···O and C-H···πinteractions. It seems minor changes of the chemical structure may cause large differences in the crystal structure and interactions in crystal engineering.

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Turbulence, Weak and Strong

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, O

    1994-01-01

    The present volume comprises the contributions of some of the participants of the NATO Advance Studies Institute "Turbulence, Weak and Strong", held in Cargese, in August 1994. More than 70 scientists, from seniors to young students, have joined to­ gether to discuss and review new (and not so new) ideas and developments in the study of turbulence. One of the objectives of the School was to incorporate, in the same meeting, two aspects of turbulence, which are obviously linked, and which are often treated sep­ arately: fully developed turbulence (in two and three dimensions) and weak turbulence (essentially one and two-dimensional systems). The idea of preparing a dictionary rather than ordinary proceedings started from the feeling that the terminology of turbulence includes many long, technical, poorly evocative words, which are usually not understood by people exterior to the field, and which might be worth explaining. Students who start working in the field of turbulence face a sort of curious situation:...

  17. Preparation of a weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation using click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kailou; Yang, Fan; Xia, Hongjun; Wang, Fei; Song, Qingguo; Bai, Quan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 3-diethylamino-1-propyne was covalently bonded to the azide-silica by a click reaction to obtain a novel dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation with a ligand containing tertiary amine and two ethyl groups capable of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction functionalities, which can display hydrophobic interaction chromatography character in a high-salt-concentration mobile phase and weak anion exchange character in a low-salt-concentration mobile phase employed for protein separation. As a result, it can be employed to separate proteins with weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction modes, respectively. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange modes with standard proteins, respectively, which can be comparable to that of conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns. Therefore, the synthesized weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column can be used to replace two corresponding conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns to separate proteins. Based on this mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase, a new off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology using only a single dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column was developed. Nine kinds of tested proteins can be separated completely using the developed method within 2.0 h.

  18. Linear and weakly nonlinear aspects of free shear layer instability, roll-up, subharmonic interaction and wall influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, A. B.; Thompson, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    The growth of the momentum thickness and the modal disturbance energies are examined to study the nature and onset of nonlinearity in a temporally growing free shear layer. A shooting technique is used to find solutions to the linearized eigenvalue problem, and pseudospectral weakly nonlinear simulations of this flow are obtained for comparison. The roll-up of a fundamental disturbance follows linear theory predictions even with a 20 percent disturbance amplitude. A weak nonlinear interaction of the disturbance creates a finite-amplitude mean shear stress which dominates the growth of the layer momentum thickness, and the disturbance growth rate changes until the fundamental disturbance dominates. The fundamental then becomes an energy source for the harmonic, resulting in an increase in the growth rate of the subharmonic over the linear prediction even when the fundamental has no energy to give. Also considered are phase relations and the wall influence.

  19. High-affinity accumulation of a maytansinoid in cells via weak tubulin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmacher, Victor S; Audette, Charlene A; Guan, Yinghua; Sidhom, Eriene-Heidi; Shah, Jagesh V; Whiteman, Kathleen R; Kovtun, Yelena V

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule-targeting maytansinoids accumulate in cells and induce mitotic arrest at 250- to 1000-fold lower concentrations than those required for their association with tubulin or microtubules. To identify the mechanisms of this intracellular accumulation and exceptional cytotoxicity of maytansinoids we studied interaction of a highly cytotoxic maytansinoid, S-methyl DM1 and several other maytansinoids with cells. S-methyl DM1 accumulated inside the cells with a markedly higher apparent affinity than to tubulin or microtubules. The apparent affinities of maytansinoids correlated with their cytotoxicities. The number of intracellular binding sites for S-methyl DM1 in MCF7 cells was comparable to the number of tubulin molecules per cell (~ 4-6 × 10(7) copies). Efflux of 3[H]-S-methyl DM1 from cells was enhanced in the presence of an excess of non-labeled S-methyl DM1, indicating that re-binding of 3 [H]-S-methyl DM1 to intracellular binding sites contributed to its intracellular retention. Liposomes loaded with non-polymerized tubulin recapitulated the apparent high-affinity association of S-methyl DM1 to cells. We propose a model for the intracellular accumulation of maytansinoids in which molecules of the compounds diffuse into a cell and associate with tubulin. Affinities of maytansinoids for individual tubulin molecules are weak, but the high intracellular concentration of tubulin favors, after dissociation of a compound-tubulin complex, their re-binding to a tubulin molecule, or to a tip of a microtubule in the same cell, over their efflux. As a result, a significant fraction of microtubule tips is occupied with a maytansinoid when added to cells at sub-nanomolar concentrations, inducing mitotic arrest and cell death.

  20. The CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particle Search (CROWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael; Gasior, Marek; Thumm, Manfred

    The subject of this thesis is the design, implementation and first results of the ``CERN Resonant WISP Search'' (CROWS) experiment, which probes the existence of Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles (WISPs) using microwave techniques. Axion Like Particles and Hidden Sector Photons are two well motivated members of the WISP family. Their existence could reveal the composition of cold dark matter in the universe and explain a large number of astrophysical phenomena. Particularly, the discovery of an axion would solve a long standing issue in the standard model, known as the ``strong CP problem''. Despite their strong theoretical motivation, the hypothetical particles have not been observed in any experiment so far. One way to probe the existence of WISPs is to exploit their interaction with photons in a ``light shining through the wall'' experiment. A laser beam is guided through a strong magnetic field in the ``emitting region'' of the experiment. This provides photons, which can convert into hypothetical Axi...

  1. Applications of on-line weak affinity interactions in free solution capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Nissen, Mogens H; Chen, David D Y

    2002-01-01

    The impressive selectivity offered by capillary electrophoresis can in some cases be further increased when ligands or additives that engage in weak affinity interactions with one or more of the separated analytes are added to the electrophoresis buffer. This on-line affinity capillary...... enantiomers and on using capillary electrophoresis to characterize such interactions quantitatively. We describe the equations for binding isotherms, illustrate how selectivity can be manipulated by varying the additive concentrations, and show how the methods may be used to estimate binding constants. On......-line affinity capillary electrophoresis methods are especially valuable for enantiomeric separations and for functional characterization of the contents of biological samples that are only available in minute quantities....

  2. 'Trophic whales' as biotic buffers: weak interactions stabilize ecosystems against nutrient enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzmüller, Florian; Eisenhauer, Nico; Brose, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    Human activities may compromise biodiversity if external stressors such as nutrient enrichment endanger overall network stability by inducing unstable dynamics. However, some ecosystems maintain relatively high diversity levels despite experiencing continuing disturbances. This indicates that some intrinsic properties prevent unstable dynamics and resulting extinctions. Identifying these 'ecosystem buffers' is crucial for our understanding of the stability of ecosystems and an important tool for environmental and conservation biologists. In this vein, weak interactions have been suggested as stabilizing elements of complex systems, but their relevance has rarely been tested experimentally. Here, using network and allometric theory, we present a novel concept for a priori identification of species that buffer against externally induced instability of increased population oscillations via weak interactions. We tested our model in a microcosm experiment using a soil food-web motif. Our results show that large-bodied species feeding at the food web's base, so called 'trophic whales', can buffer ecosystems against unstable dynamics induced by nutrient enrichment. Similar to the functionality of chemical or mechanical buffers, they serve as 'biotic buffers' that take up stressor effects and thus protect fragile systems from instability. We discuss trophic whales as common functional building blocks across ecosystems. Considering increasing stressor effects under anthropogenic global change, conservation of these network-intrinsic biotic buffers may help maintain the stability and diversity of natural ecosystems.

  3. Antiparallel Self-Association of a γ,α-Hybrid Peptide: More Relevance of Weak Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Paloth; Kishore, Raghuvansh

    2015-08-01

    To learn how a preorganized peptide-based molecular template, together with diverse weak non-covalent interactions, leads to an effective self-association, we investigated the conformational characteristics of a simple γ,α-hybrid model peptide, Boc-γ-Abz-Gly-OMe. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the existence of a fully extended β-strand-like structure stabilized by two non-conventional C-H⋅⋅⋅O=C intramolecular H-bonds. The 2D (1) H NMR ROESY experiment led us to propose that the flat topology of the urethane-γ-Abz-amide moiety is predominantly preserved in a non-polar environment. The self-association of the energetically more favorable antiparallel β-strand-mimic in solid-state engenders an unusual 'flight of stairs' fabricated through face-to-face and edge-to-edge Ar⋅⋅⋅Ar interactions. In conjunction with FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in chloroform, we highlight that conformationally semi-rigid γ-Abz foldamer in appositely designed peptides may encourage unusual β-strand or β-sheet-like self-association and supramolecular organization stabilized via weak attractive forces.

  4. A Role for Weak Electrostatic Interactions in Peripheral Membrane Protein Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hanif M; He, Tao; Fuglebakk, Edvin; Grauffel, Cédric; Yang, Boqian; Roberts, Mary F; Gershenson, Anne; Reuter, Nathalie

    2016-03-29

    Bacillus thuringiensis phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (BtPI-PLC) is a secreted virulence factor that binds specifically to phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers containing negatively charged phospholipids. BtPI-PLC carries a negative net charge and its interfacial binding site has no obvious cluster of basic residues. Continuum electrostatic calculations show that, as expected, nonspecific electrostatic interactions between BtPI-PLC and membranes vary as a function of the fraction of anionic lipids present in the bilayers. Yet they are strikingly weak, with a calculated ΔGel below 1 kcal/mol, largely due to a single lysine (K44). When K44 is mutated to alanine, the equilibrium dissociation constant for small unilamellar vesicles increases more than 50 times (∼2.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that interactions between K44 and lipids are not merely electrostatic. Comparisons of molecular-dynamics simulations performed using different lipid compositions reveal that the bilayer composition does not affect either hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic contacts between the protein interfacial binding site and bilayers. However, the occupancies of cation-π interactions between PC choline headgroups and protein tyrosines vary as a function of PC content. The overall contribution of basic residues to binding affinity is also context dependent and cannot be approximated by a rule-of-thumb value because these residues can contribute to both nonspecific electrostatic and short-range protein-lipid interactions. Additionally, statistics on the distribution of basic amino acids in a data set of membrane-binding domains reveal that weak electrostatics, as observed for BtPI-PLC, might be a less unusual mechanism for peripheral membrane binding than is generally thought.

  5. Conserving Gapless Mean-Field Theory for Weakly Interacting Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Takafumi

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a conserving gapless mean-field theory for weakly interacting Bose gases. We first construct a mean-field Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic functional in terms of the condensate wave function \\Psi and the Nambu Green’s function \\hat{G} for the quasiparticle field. Imposing its stationarity respect to \\Psi and \\hat{G} yields a set of equations to determine the equilibrium for general non-uniform systems. They have a plausible property of satisfying the Hugenholtz-Pines theorem to provide a gapless excitation spectrum. Also, the corresponding dynamical equations of motion obey various conservation laws. Thus, the present mean-field theory shares two important properties with the exact theory: “conserving” and “gapless.” The theory is then applied to a homogeneous weakly interacting Bose gas with s-wave scattering length a and particle mass m to clarify its basic thermodynamic properties under two complementary conditions of constant density n and constant pressure p. The superfluid transition is predicted to be first-order because of the non-analytic nature of the order-parameter expansion near Tc inherent in Bose systems, i.e., the Landau-Ginzburg expansion is not possible here. The transition temperature Tc shows quite a different interaction dependence between the n-fixed and p-fixed cases. In the former case Tc increases from the ideal gas value T0 as Tc/T0= 1+ 2.33 an1/3, whereas it decreases in the latter as Tc/T0= 1- 3.84a(m p/2π\\hbar2)1/5. Temperature dependences of basic thermodynamic quantities are clarified explicitly.

  6. Investigation of allosteric modulation mechanism of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 by molecular dynamics simulations, free energy and weak interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qifeng; Yao, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1), which belongs to class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), can be coupled with G protein to transfer extracellular signal by dimerization and allosteric regulation. Unraveling the dimer packing and allosteric mechanism can be of great help for understanding specific regulatory mechanism and designing more potential negative allosteric modulator (NAM). Here, we report molecular dynamics simulation studies of the modulation mechanism of FITM on the wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1 through weak interaction analysis and free energy calculation. The weak interaction analysis demonstrates that van der Waals (vdW) and hydrogen bonding play an important role on the dimer packing between six cholesterol molecules and mGlu1 as well as the interaction between allosteric sites T815, Y805 and FITM in wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1. Besides, the results of free energy calculations indicate that secondary binding pocket is mainly formed by the residues Thr748, Cys746, Lys811 and Ser735 except for FITM-bound pocket in crystal structure. Our results can not only reveal the dimer packing and allosteric regulation mechanism, but also can supply useful information for the design of potential NAM of mGlu1.

  7. The weak π − π interaction originated resonant tunneling and fast switching in the carbon based electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic transport properties of C60 based electronic device with different intermolecular interactions. It is found that the electronic transport properties vary with the types of the interaction between two C60 molecules. A fast electrical switching behavior based on negative differential resistance has been found when two molecules are coupled by the weak π − π interaction. Compared to the solid bonding, the weak interaction is found to induce resonant tunneling, which is responsible for the fast response to the applied electric field and hence the velocity of switching.

  8. Testing Lorentz invariance in the weak interaction using laser-polarized {sup 20}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijck, Elwin A.; Sytema, Auke; Mueller, Stefan E.; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Noordmans, Jacob P.; Onderwater, Gerco; Pijpker, Coen; Timmermans, Rob G.E.; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans W. [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Lorentz invariance is one of the fundamental principles underlying our current understanding of nature. In models aiming to unify the Standard Model with (quantum) gravity this symmetry may be broken. Few tests of Lorentz invariance in the weak interaction have been made. We have performed a novel test of rotational invariance by searching for variations in the decay rate of {sup 20}Na nuclei depending on the nuclear spin orientation with respect to a possible Lorentz symmetry breaking background field. Using optical pumping, the nuclei were alternately polarized in opposite vertical directions, while the absolute orientation of the spins changed with the rotation of the Earth. A polarization-dependent Lorentz symmetry violating effect was searched for, putting a 95% confidence limit on the amplitude of sidereal variations in the decay rate asymmetry at < 3 x 10{sup -3}. This result was analyzed in the framework of a recently developed theory that assumes a Lorentz symmetry breaking background field of tensor nature.

  9. Cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based axion and weakly interacting slim particle searches

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Stephen R; Ivanov, Eugene N; Tobar, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), such as axions, are highly motivated dark matter candidates. The most sensitive experimental searches for these particles exploit WISP-to-photon conversion mechanisms and use resonant cavity structures to enhance the resulting power signal. For WISPs to constitute Cold Dark Matter their required masses correspond to photons in the microwave spectrum. As such, searches for these types of WISPs are primarily limited by the thermal cavity noise and the broadband first-stage amplifier noise. In this work we propose and then verify two cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based WISP searches. These are two channel measurement schemes where the cross-spectrum is computed, rejecting uncorrelated noise sources while still retaining correlated signals such as those generated by WISPs. The first technique allows for the cavity thermal spectrum to be observed with an enhanced resolution. The second technique cross-correlates two individual cavity/amplifier system...

  10. Weak interactions with colliding lepton beams of energy (10/sup 2/-10 /sup 3/) GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D; Zakharov, V I

    1971-01-01

    Weak V-A interaction of colliding lepton beams at high energies is considered. It is assumed that the weak coupling constant G is the only parameter inherent to weak leptonic interactions so that terms of higher order become appreciable at total energy 2E=s/sup 1/2/ of order G/sup -1/2/. It is shown that for colliding lepton antilepton beams of 2*250 GeV the contribution of weak interactions to the differential cross section of elastic scattering at angle theta approximately=90 degrees prevails over that of electromagnetic interactions. The estimate of the weak cross section is based on the calculation of the imaginary part of the amplitude which is uniquely determined in the second order in G. Phenomenological description of the real part of the amplitude in the same approximation introduces a single unknown parameter. Provided the validity of dispersion relations with two subtractions is granted this parameter is related to the integral of total cross sections of ll and ll weak interactions. Terms of the th...

  11. FF domains of CA150 bind transcription and splicing factors through multiple weak interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Kulkarni, Sarang; Pawson, Tony

    2004-11-01

    The human transcription factor CA150 modulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene transcription and contains numerous signaling elements, including six FF domains. Repeated FF domains are present in several transcription and splicing factors and can recognize phosphoserine motifs in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Using mass spectrometry, we identify a number of nuclear binding partners for the CA150 FF domains and demonstrate a direct interaction between CA150 and Tat-SF1, a protein involved in the coupling of splicing and transcription. CA150 FF domains recognize multiple sites within the Tat-SF1 protein conforming to the consensus motif (D/E)(2/5)-F/W/Y-(D/E)(2/5). Individual FF domains are capable of interacting with Tat-SF1 peptide ligands in an equivalent and noncooperative manner, with affinities ranging from 150 to 500 microM. Repeated FF domains therefore appear to bind their targets through multiple weak interactions with motifs comprised of negatively charged residues flanking aromatic amino acids. The RNAPII CTD represents a consensus FF domain-binding site, contingent on generation of the requisite negative charges by phosphorylation of serines 2 and 5. We propose that CA150, through the dual recognition of acidic motifs in proteins such as Tat-SF1 and the phosphorylated CTD, could mediate the recruitment of transcription and splicing factors to actively transcribing RNAPII.

  12. Measurement of the parity nonconserving neutral weak interaction in atomic thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, P.H.

    1980-11-01

    This thesis describes an experiment to measure parity nonconservation in atomic thallium. A frequency doubled, flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the 6P/sub 1/2/(F = 0) ..-->.. 7P/sub 1/2/(F = 1) transition at 292.7 nm, with circularly polarized light. An electrostatic field E of 100 to 300 V/cm causes this transition to occur via Stark induced electric dipole. Two field free transitions may also occur: a highly forbidden magnetic dipole M, and a parity nonconserving electric dipole epsilon/sub P/. The latter is presumed to be due to the presence of a weak neutral current interaction between the 6p valence electron and the nucleus, as predicted by gauge theories which unite the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Both M and epsilon/sub P/ interfere with the Stark amplitude ..beta..E to produce a polarization of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state. This is measured with a circularly polarized infrared laser beam probe, tuned to the 7P/sub 1/2/ ..-->.. 8S/sub 1/2/ transition. This selectively excites m/sub F/ = +1 or -1 components of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state, and the polarization is seen as an asymmetry in 8S ..-->.. 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence when the probe helicity is reversed. The polarization due to M is ..delta../sub M/ = -2M/(BETAE). It is used to calibrate the analyzing efficiency. The polarization due to epsilon/sub P/ is ..delta../sub P/ = 2i epsilon/sub P//(..beta..E), and can be distinguished from ..delta../sub M/ by its properties under reversal of the 292.7 nm photon helicity and reversal of the laser direction. A preliminary measurement yielded a parity violation in agreement with the gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam.

  13. Characterization of a novel weak interaction between MUC1 and Src-SH3 using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekara, Nirosha [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 5B4.21 WCM Health Science Centre, 8440-112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7 (Canada); Sykes, Brian, E-mail: brian.sykes@ualberta.ca [Department of Biochemistry, 4-19B Medical Sciences Bldg., University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H7 (Canada); Hugh, Judith, E-mail: judithh@ualberta.ca [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 5B4.21 WCM Health Science Centre, 8440-112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7 (Canada)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1 binds the Src-SH3 domain potentially triggering Src dependent cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR Spectroscopy was used to monitor MUC1-CD and Src SH3 domain titrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1-CD peptides bind with a low affinity (K{sub d} of 2-3 mM) to a non-canonical site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak interactions may mediate dynamic processes like migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MUC1-CD and Src-SH3 interaction may be a prime target to inhibit cell migration. -- Abstract: Breast cancer causes death through cancer cell migration and subsequent metastasis to distant organs. In vitro, the MUC1 mucin can mediate breast cancer cell migration by binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This migration is dependent on MUC1 cytoplasmic domain (MUC1-CD) activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Src, possibly through competitive displacement of an inhibitory Src intramolecular SH3 binding. Therefore, we characterized the binding site and affinity of the MUC1-CD for Src-SH3 using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to monitor the titration of the {sup 15}N labeled Src-SH3 domain with synthetic native and mutant peptides of MUC1-CD. The results revealed that the dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for the interaction of the native MUC1-CD peptides and Src-SH3 domain was weak with a K{sub d} of 2-3 mM. Notably, the SH3 residues most perturbed upon peptide binding were located outside the usual hydrophobic binding cleft in a previously described alternate binding site on the Src-SH3, suggesting that MUC1-CD binds to a non-canonical site. The binding characteristics outlined here suggest that the interaction between Src-SH3 and MUC1-CD represents a novel weak electrostatic interaction of the type which is increasingly recognized as important in transient and dynamic protein complexes required for cell migration and signal transduction. As such, this

  14. Second order corrections to mean field evolution for weakly interacting Bosons in the case of 3-body interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuwen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Hamiltonian evolution of N weakly interacting Bosons. Assuming triple collisions with singular potentials, its mean field approximation is given by a quintic Hartree equation. We construct a second order correction to the mean field approximation using a kernel k(t,x,y) and derive an evolution equation for k. We show the global existence for the resulting evolution equation for the correction and establish an apriori estimate comparing the approximation to the exact Hamiltonian evolution. Our error estimate is global and uniform in time. Comparing with the work in [20,11,12] where the error estimate grows in time, our approximation tracks the exact dynamics for all time with an error of the order O(1/$\\sqrt{N}$).

  15. New Limits on Interactions between Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and Nucleons Obtained with CsI(Tl) Crystal Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S C; Choi, J H; Kang, W G; Kim, B H; Kim, H J; Kim, K W; Kim, S K; Kim, Y D; Lee, J; Lee, J H; Lee, J K; Lee, M J; Lee, S J; Li, J; Li, J; Li, X R; Li, Y J; Myung, S S; Olsen, S L; Ryu, S; Seong, I S; So, J H; Yue, Q

    2012-01-01

    New limits are presented on the cross section for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) nucleon scattering in the KIMS CsI(T) detector array at the Yangyang Underground Laboratory. The exposure used for these results is 24524.3 kg\\cdotdays. Nuclei recoiling from WIMP interactions are identified by a pulse shape discrimination method. A low energy background due to alpha emitters on the crystal surfaces is identified and taken into account in the analysis. The detected numbers of nuclear recoils are consistent with zero and 90% confidence level upper limits on the WIMP interaction rates are set for electron equivalent energies from 3 keV to 11 keV. The 90% upper limit of NR event rate for 3.6-5.8 keV corresponding to 2-4 keV in NaI(T) is 0.0098 counts/kg/keV/day which is below the annual modulation amplitude reported by DAMA. This is incompatible with interpretations that enhance the modulation amplitude such as inelastic dark matter models. We establish the most stringent cross section limits on spin-dep...

  16. Early annihilation and diffuse backgrounds in models of weakly interacting massive particles in which the cross section for pair annihilation is enhanced by 1/upsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Profumo, Stefano

    2008-12-31

    Recent studies have considered modifications to the standard weakly interacting massive particle scenario in which the pair annihilation cross section (times relative velocity v) is enhanced by a factor 1/upsilon to approximately 10(-3) in the Galaxy, enough to explain several puzzling Galactic radiation signals. We show that in these scenarios a burst of weakly interacting massive particle annihilation occurs in the first collapsed dark-matter halos. We show that severe constraints to the annihilation cross section derive from measurements of the diffuse extragalactic radiation and from ionization and heating of the intergalactic medium.

  17. Protein solvent and weak protein protein interactions in halophilic malate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Christine; Faou, Pierre; Zaccai, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    With the aim to correlate the solvation, stability and solubility properties of halophilic malate dehydrogenase, we characterized its weak interparticle interactions by small-angle neutron scattering in various solvents. The protein concentration dependence of the apparent radius of gyration and forward scattered intensity extrapolated from Guinier plots, and thus the second virial coefficient, A2, were determined for each solvent condition. In NaCl 1M+2-methylpentane-2,4-diol 30%, a solvent that promotes protein crystallization, A2 is negative, -0.4×10 -4 ml mol g -2 and indicating attractive interactions; in ammonium sulfate 3M, in which the protein precipitates at high concentrations, A2˜0. In 2-5M NaCl, 1-3.5M NaOAc, 1-4.5M KF or 1-2M (NH 4) 2SO 4, in which the protein is very soluble, A2 is positive with a value of the order of 0.4×10 -4 ml mol g -2 which decreases with increasing salt concentration. In MgCl 2 however, A2 increases with increasing salt concentration from 0.2 to 1.3M.

  18. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10-1 mbar methane or 10-5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10-5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  19. 卤键弱作用浅谈%Brief discussion on halogen bonding weak interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚琴; 邵群

    2015-01-01

    Halogen bonding, a noncovalent, int ermolecular weak interaction analogues to hydrogen bonding, exists between σ antibonding orbital of halogen atoms and atoms with lone-pair electron and πelectron system, which exerts unique effect in the field of desigh of functional materials and biomedicine. In this paper, the interaction essence of halogen bonding was simply introduced, the developing history of halogen bonding was elaborated and the basic character of halogen bonding was depicted, looking forward to much more comprehension toward halogen bonding.%卤键是与氢键相似的一种分子间非共价作用,存在于卤原子的σ反键轨道与具有孤电子对的原子或π电子体系之间,在功能材料与生物药物设计方面发挥了独特作用。介绍卤键的作用本质,阐述卤键发展简史,并描述卤键的基本特征。

  20. Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang [High Speed Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China); Luo, Xisheng, E-mail: xluo@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF{sub 6} surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.

  1. Conceptual foundations of the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Steven

    Our job in physics is to see things simply, to understand a great many complicated phenomena in a unified way, in terms of a few simple principles. At times, our efforts are illuminated by a brilliant experiment, such as the 1973 discovery of neutral current neutrino reactions. But even in the dark times between experimental breakthroughs, there always continues a steady evolution of theoretical ideas, leading almost imperceptibly to changes in previous beliefs. In this talk, I want to discuss the development of two lines of thought in theoretical physics. One of them is the slow growth in our understanding of symmetry, and in particular, broken or hidden symmetry. The other is the old struggle to come to terms with the infinities in quantum field theories. To a remarkable degree, our present detailed theories of elementary particle interactions can be understood deductively, as consequences of symmetry principles and of a principle of renormalizability which is invoked to deal with the infinities. I will also briefly describe how the convergence of these lines of thought led to my own work on the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For the most part, my talk will center on my own gradual education in these matters, because that is one subject on which I can speak with some confidence. With rather less confidence, I will also try to look ahead, and suggest what role these lines of thought may play in the physics of the future…

  2. Weak minimum aberration and maximum number of clear two-factor interactions in 2m-p Ⅳ designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guijun; LIU Minqian; ZHANG Runchu

    2005-01-01

    Both the clear effects and minimum aberration criteria are the important rules for the design selection. In this paper, it is proved that some 2m-p Ⅳ designs have weak minimum aberration, by considering the number of clear two-factor interactions in the designs.And some conditions are provided, under which a 2m-p Ⅳ design can have the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions and weak minimum aberration at the same time.Some weak minimum aberration 2m-p Ⅳ designs are provided for illustrations and two nonisomorphic weak minimum aberration 213-6 Ⅳ designs are constructed at the end of this paper.

  3. Continuum dynamics of the intention field under weakly cohesive social interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Merino-Aceituno, Sara; Tardiveau, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the long-time dynamics of an opinion formation model inspired by a work by Borghesi, Bouchaud and Jensen. Firstly, we derive a Fokker-Planck type equation under the assumption that interactions between individuals produce little consensus of opinion (grazing collision approximation). Secondly, we study conditions under which the Fokker-Planck equation has non-trivial equilibria and derive the macroscopic limit (corresponding to the long-time dynamics and spatially localized interactions) for the evolution of the mean opinion. Finally, we compare two different types of interaction rates: the original one given in the work of Borghesi, Bouchaud and Jensen (symmetric binary interactions) and one inspired from works by Motsch and Tadmor (non-symmetric binary interactions). We show that the first case leads to a conservative model for the density of the mean opinion whereas the second case leads to a non-conservative equation. We also show that the speed at which consensus is reached asymptotically ...

  4. Single crystal electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of Cu(II) ions in Cu(tyrosine)(2): a study of weak exchange interactions mediated by resonance assisted hydrogen bonds (RAHB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-García, Verónica; Santana, Ricardo C; Madrid, Rosa; Baldo, Bianca; Vega, Andrés; Spodine, Evgenia

    2012-09-01

    EPR measurements have been performed on single crystals of [Cu(L-tyrosine)(2)](∞) at 33.8 GHz and at room temperature. The EPR spectra display partially resolved EPR lines for most orientations of the magnetic field in the ab plane, and only one resonance for orientations close to the crystal axes, while only a single line is observed along any direction in the ca and cb crystal planes. This behavior is a result of the selective collapse of the resonances corresponding to the four copper sites in the unit cell produced by the exchange interactions between the copper ions. The magnitudes of the exchange interactions between the copper ions were evaluated from the angular variation of the line width and the collapse of the EPR lines. The value |J(AD)/k(B)|=0.8 K between neighboring copper atoms at 4.942 Å is assigned to a syn-anti equatorial-apical carboxylate bridge with a total bond length of 6.822 Å, while the small value |J(AB)/k(B)|=0.004 K is assigned to a long bridge of 11 atoms with a total bond length of 19.186 Å, that includes one resonance assisted hydrogen bond (RAHB). This finding is discussed in terms of values obtained for similar paths in other model compounds and in proteins.

  5. Weak minimum aberration and maximum number of clear two-factor interactions in 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Guijun

    2005-01-01

    [1]Wu, C. F. J., Chen, Y., A graph-aided method for planning two-level experiments when certain interactions are important, Technometrics, 1992, 34: 162-175.[2]Fries, A., Hunter, W, G., Minimum aberration 2к-p designs, Technometrics, 1980, 22: 601-608.[3]Chen, H., Hedayat, A. S., 2n-l designs with weak minimum aberration, Ann. Statist., 1996, 24: 2536-2548.[4]Chen, J., Some results on 2n-к fractional factorial designs and search for minimum aberration designs, Ann.Statist., 1992, 20: 2124-2141.[5]Chen, J., Intelligent search for 213-6 and 214-7 minimum aberration designs, Statist. Sinica, 1998, 8: 1265-1270.[6]Chen, J., Sun, D. X., Wu, C. F. J., A catalogue of two-level and three-level fractional factorial designs with small runs, Internat. Statist. Rev., 1993, 61: 131-145.[7]Chen, J., Wu, C. F. J., Some results on 2n-к fractional factorial designs with minimum aberration or optimal moments, Ann. Statist., 1991, 19: 1028-1041.[8]Cheng, C. S., Mukerjee, R., Regular fractional factorial designs with minimum aberration and maximum estimation capacity, Ann. Statist., 1998, 26: 2289-2300.[9]Cheng, C. S., Steinberg, D. M., Sun, D. X., Minimum aberration and model robustness for two-level fractional factorial designs, J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B, 1999, 61: 85-93.[10]Draper, N. R., Lin, D. K. J., Capacity consideration for two-level fractional factorial designs, J. Statist. Plann.Inference, 1990, 24: 25-35.[11]Fang, K. T., Mukerjee, R., A connection between uniformity and aberration in regular fractions of two-level factorial, Biometrika, 2000, 87: 193-198.[12]Tang, B., Wu, C. F. J., Characterization of minimum aberration 2n-к designs in terms of their complementary designs, Ann. Statist., 1996, 24: 2549-2559.[13]Chen, H., Hedayat, A. S., 2n-m designs with resolution Ⅲ or Ⅳ containing clear two-factor interactions, J.Statist. Plann. Inference, 1998, 75: 147-158.[14]Tang, B., Ma, F., Ingram, D., Wang, H., Bounds on the maximum numbers of clear two factor

  6. Improved Limits on Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles from Reanalysis of 2013 LUX Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4 ×104 kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c-2 , these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c-2 WIMP mass.

  7. Critical properties of weakly interacting Bose gases as modified by a harmonic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ayala, I.; Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Seman, J. A.; Romero-Rochín, V.

    2017-07-01

    The critical properties of the phase transition from a normal gas to a Bose-Einstein condensate (superfluid) of a harmonically confined Bose gas are addressed with the knowledge of an equation of state of the underlying homogeneous Bose fluid. It is shown that while the presence of the confinement trap arrests the usual divergences of the isothermal compressibility and heat capacities, the critical behavior manifests itself now in the divergence of derivatives of the mentioned susceptibilities. This result is illustrated with a mean-field like model of an equation of state for the homogeneous particle density as a function of the chemical potential and temperature of the gas. The model assumes the form of an ideal Bose gas in the normal fluid while in the superfluid state a function is proposed such that, both, asymptotically reaches the Thomas-Fermi solution of a weakly interacting Bose gas at large densities and low temperatures and, at the transition, matches the critical properties of the ideal Bose gas. With this model we obtain the global thermodynamics of the harmonically confined gas, from which we analyze its critical properties. We discuss how these properties can be experimentally tested.

  8. Precision muon decay measurements and improved constraints on the weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Hillairet, A; Bayes, R; Davydov, Yu I; Depommier, P; Faszer, W; Gagliardi, C A; Gaponenko, A; Gill, D R; Grossheim, A; Gumplinger, P; Hasinoff, M D; Henderson, R S; Hillairet, A; Hu, J; Koetke, D D; MacDonald, R P; Marshall, G M; Mathie, E L; Mischke, R E; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Openshaw, R; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Selivanov, V; Sheffer, G; Shin, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Tacik, R; Tribble, R E

    2011-01-01

    The TWIST collaboration has completed its measurement of the three muon decay parameters $\\rho$, $\\delta$, and $P_\\mu\\xi$. This paper describes our determination of $\\rho$, which governs the shape of the overall momentum spectrum, and $\\delta$, which controls the momentum dependence of the parity-violating decay asymmetry. The results are $\\rho=0.749\\,77\\pm 0.000\\,12(\\text{stat.})\\pm 0.000\\,23(\\text{syst.})$ and $\\delta = 0.750\\,49\\pm 0.000\\,21(\\text{stat.})\\pm 0.000\\,27(\\text{syst.})$. These are consistent with the value of 3/4 given for both parameters in the standard model, and each is over a factor of ten more precise than the measurements published prior to TWIST. Our final results on $\\rho$, $\\delta$, and $P_\\mu\\xi$ have been incorporated into a new global analysis of all available muon decay data, resulting in improved model-independent constraints on the possible weak interactions of right-handed particles.

  9. Searching for Tensor Currents in the Weak Interaction Using 8Li β Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, M. T.; Savard, G.; Segel, R. E.; Clark, J. A.; Scielzo, N. D.; Gallant, A. T.; Kolos, K.; Padgett, S. W.; Wang, B. S.; Hirsh, T.; Heckmaier, E.; Marley, S. T.; Morgan, G.; Orford, R.; Sharma, K. S.

    2017-01-01

    The weak interaction is framed in the Standard Model with a pure vector-axial vector structure. A high-precision measurement of the β - ν correlation coefficient (aβν) could reveal contributions from tensor or scalar currents and give insight into new physics. We utilize stopped 8Li in the Beta decay Paul Trap (BPT) at Argonne National Lab to measure aβν. The BPT is surrounded on 4 sides with double-sided silicon strip detectors backed by plastic scintillator detectors, which allow the kinematics of the 8Li decay products to be over-constrained. A previous measurement done by our collaboration resulted in the first improvement in over 50 years to the tensor limit of aβν in a nuclear setting and was recently published in PRL. We have since upgraded our system and obtained over ten times our previous statistics. Our goal is to achieve a limit of aβν with an uncertainty of 0.001. Analysis is ongoing. We acknowledge NSERC, Canada, App. No. 216974, the U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 [ANL] and DE-AC52-07NA27344 [LLNL], NSF Grant No. 1144082 and the ANL ATLAS facility

  10. Relaxation and coarsening of weakly-interacting breathers in a simplified DNLS chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iubini, Stefano; Politi, Antonio; Politi, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation displays a parameter region characterized by the presence of localized excitations (breathers). While their formation is well understood and it is expected that the asymptotic configuration comprises a single breather on top of a background, it is not clear why the dynamics of a multi-breather configuration is essentially frozen. In order to investigate this question, we introduce simple stochastic models, characterized by suitable conservation laws. We focus on the role of the coupling strength between localized excitations and background. In the DNLS model, higher breathers interact more weakly, as a result of their faster rotation. In our stochastic models, the strength of the coupling is controlled directly by an amplitude-dependent parameter. In the case of a power-law decrease, the associated coarsening process undergoes a slowing down if the decay rate is larger than a critical value. In the case of an exponential decrease, a freezing effect is observed that is reminiscent of the scenario observed in the DNLS. This last regime arises spontaneously when direct energy diffusion between breathers and background is blocked below a certain threshold.

  11. Parity-violating electric-dipole transitions in helium induced by the electron-electron neutral weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, J.G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nuez-Lagos, R.; Pacheco, A.F.

    1984-04-01

    The parity-violating E1 transitions between the n = 2 levels of atomic helium, induced by the electron-electron neutral weak interaction have been computed by using Coulomb-type wave functions and (up to 84 parameter) Hylleraas wave functions. The parity-violating matrix elements turn out to be of the same order of magnitude as those due to the electron-nucleus weak interaction, thus allowing one to conclude that the relative importance of both effects is to be traced to their corresponding effective coupling constants.

  12. Variational Study of Weakly Coupled Triply Heavy Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Y

    2006-01-01

    Baryons made of three heavy quarks become weakly coupled, when all the quarks are sufficiently heavy such that the typical momentum transfer is much larger than Lambda_QCD. We use variational method to estimate masses of the lowest-lying bcc, ccc, bbb and bbc states by assuming they are Coulomb bound states. Our predictions for these states are systematically lower than those made long ago by Bjorken.

  13. Electrophilic Ln(III) cations protected by C-F → Ln interactions and their coordination chemistry with weak σ- and π-donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haolin; Lewis, Andrew J; Carroll, Patrick; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-07-15

    A homoleptic cerium(III) amide complex, Ce(NPh(F)2)3 (1-Ce) (Ph(F) = pentafluorophenyl), in an unusual pseudo-trigonal planar geometry featuring six C-F → Ce interactions was prepared. The C-F → Ln interactions in solution were evident by comparison of the (19)F NMR shifts for the paramagnetic 1-Ce with those of the 4f(0) lanthanum(III) analogue. Coordination of weak σ- and π-donors, including ethers and neutral arene molecules, was achieved by the reversible displacement of the weak C-F → Ce interactions. Computational studies on Ce(NPh(F)2)3 and Ce(NPh(F)2)3(η(6)-C6H3Me3) provide information on the F → Ce interactions and Ce-η(6)-arene bonding.

  14. Search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles with the OSQAR laser-based experiment: results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugnat, P.; Ballou, R.; Schott, M.; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Jost, R.; Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.; Meissner, K. A.; Morville, J.; Romanini, D.; Siemko, A.; Slunecka, M.; Vitrant, G.; Zicha, J.

    2014-08-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of $2 \\times 14.3$ m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than $8.0\\times10^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of ALPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented.

  15. Results and Perspectives for Laboratory Search of Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles with the OSQAR Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pugnat, P.; Schott, M.; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Finger, M., Jr.; Finger, M.; Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Jost, R.; Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.; Meissner, K.A.; Morville, J.; Romanini, D.; Siemko, A.; Slunecka, M.; Vitrant, G.; Zicha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent intensive theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the standard model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for Light Shining through a Wall (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of 2 x 14.3 m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than 8.0 x 10-8 GeV-1. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of WISPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented.

  16. Weak interactions in clobazam-lactose mixtures examined by differential scanning calorimetry: Comparison with the captopril-lactose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscani, S. [Departement de Chimie - UMR 6226, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rennes 1, Batiment 10B, 263 avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Cornevin, L. [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Burgot, G., E-mail: Gwenola.burgot@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, EA 1274 ' Mouvement, sports, sante' , 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); CHGR Rennes, Pole Medico-Technique Pharmacie, F-35703 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of weak interactions in binary systems by DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy-barrier decrease for lactose dehydration induced by clobazam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recrystallisation of metastable liquid clobazam induced by anhydrous alpha lactose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease of lactose dehydration temperature in binary mixtures with captopril. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of lactose dehydration enthalpy in binary mixtures with captopril. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of binary mixtures of two drugs (clobazam and captopril, respectively) and a pharmaceutical excipient (lactose monohydrate) was measured with differential scanning calorimetry to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (dehydration and melting enthalpies and dehydration and glass-transition activation energies) which might be affected by intermolecular interactions. A kinetic study showed that lactose dehydration is not a single-step conversion and that clobazam contributed to reduce the energy barrier for the bulk dehydration of the excipient. On the other hand, the physical interactions between metastable liquid clobazam and crystalline anhydrous {alpha}-lactose obtained from monohydrate dehydration gave rise to the recrystallisation of clobazam. In the captopril-lactose system, the liquid captopril influenced the lactose dehydration: a sharp increase of the dehydration enthalpy and a concurrent reduction of the dehydration temperature were observed. Finally, it turned out that solid-phase transitions were enhanced by the contact with a liquid phase.

  17. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.

    1988-01-22

    This paper contains progress information on the following topics in High Energy Physics: strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions; aspects of quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays, and structure; the dynamical generation of a mass gap and the role and truthfulness of perturbation theory; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production; and realization of chiral symmetry and temperature effects in supersymmetric theories. (LSP)

  18. Weak antibody-cyclodextrin interactions determined by quartz crystal microbalance and dynamic/static light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Elisabeth; Dixit, Nitin; Besheer, Ahmed; Kalonia, Devendra; Winter, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    In a quest to elucidate the mechanism by which hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) stabilizes antibodies against shaking stress, two heavily debated hypotheses exist, namely that stabilization is due to HPβCD's surface activity, or due to specific interactions with proteins. In a previous study by Serno et al. (Pharm. Res. 30 (2013) 117), we could refute the first hypothesis by proving that, although HPβCD is slightly surface active, it does not displace the antibody at the air-water interface, and accordingly, its surface activity is not the underlying stabilizing mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of interactions between HPβCD and monoclonal antibodies as the potential stabilization mechanism using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and static as well as dynamic light scattering. In the presence of HPβCD, the adsorption of IgG antibodies in the native state (IgG A) and the unfolded state (IgG A and IgG B) on gold-coated quartz crystals was studied by QCM. Results show that HPβCD causes a reduction in protein adsorption in both the folded and the unfolded states, probably due to an interaction between the protein and the cyclodextrin, leading to a reduced hydrophobicity of the protein and consequently a lower extent of adsorption. These results were supported by investigation of the interaction between the native protein and HPβCD using static and dynamic light scattering experiments, which provide the protein-protein interaction parameters, B22 and kD, respectively. Both B22 and kD showed an increase in magnitude with increasing HPβCD-concentrations, indicating a rise in net repulsive forces between the protein molecules. This is further evidence for the presence of interactions between HPβCD and the studied antibodies, since an association of HPβCD on the protein surface leads to a change in the intermolecular forces between the protein molecules. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the previously observed

  19. Spin-Spin Interactions in Gauge Theory of Gravity, Violation of Weak Equivalence Principle and New Classical Test of General Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-Li; WU Ning; HU Juan-Mei; WU Feng-Min

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, it has been generally believed that spin-spin interactions can only exist in a theory where Lorentz symmetry is gauged, and a theory with spin-spin interactions is not perturbatively renormalizable. But this is not true. By studying the motion of a spinning particle in gravitational field, it is found that there exist spin-spin interactions in gauge theory of gravity. Its mechanism is that a spinning particle will generate gravitomagnetic field in space-time, and this gravitomagnetic field will interact with the spin of another particle, which will cause spin-spin interactions. So, spin-spin interactions are transmitted by gravitational field. The form of spin-spin interactions in post Newtonian approximations is deduced. This result can also be deduced from the Papapetrou equation. This kind of interaction will not affect the renormalizability of the theory. The spin-spin interactions will violate the weak equivalence principle, and the violation effects are detectable. An experiment is proposed to detect the effects of the violation of the weak equivalence principle.

  20. Simulations of Winds of Weak-Lined T Tauri Stars. II.: The Effects of a Tilted Magnetosphere and Planetary Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jatenco-Pereira, V; Gombosi, T I

    2010-01-01

    Based on our previous work (Vidotto et al. 2009a), we investigate the effects on the wind and magnetospheric structures of weak-lined T Tauri stars due to a misalignment between the axis of rotation of the star and its magnetic dipole moment vector. In such configuration, the system loses the axisymmetry presented in the aligned case, requiring a fully 3D approach. We perform 3D numerical MHD simulations of stellar winds and study the effects caused by different model parameters. The system reaches a periodic behavior with the same rotational period of the star. We show that the magnetic field lines present an oscillatory pattern and that by increasing the misalignment angle, the wind velocity increases. Our wind models allow us to study the interaction of a magnetized wind with a magnetized extra-solar planet. Such interaction gives rise to reconnection, generating electrons that propagate along the planet's magnetic field lines and produce electron cyclotron radiation at radio wavelengths. We find that a cl...

  1. pH-dependent drug-drug interactions for weak base drugs: potential implications for new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Wu, F; Lee, S C; Zhao, H; Zhang, L

    2014-08-01

    Absorption of an orally administered drug with pH-dependent solubility may be altered when it is coadministered with a gastric acid-reducing agent (ARA). Assessing a drug's potential for pH-dependent drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considering study design elements for such DDI studies, and interpreting and communicating study results in the drug labeling to guide drug dosing are important for drug development. We collected pertinent information related to new molecular entities approved from January 2003 to May 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration for which clinical DDI studies with ARAs were performed. On the basis of assessments of data on pH solubility and in vivo DDIs with ARAs, we proposed a conceptual framework for assessing the need for clinical pH-dependent DDI studies for weak base drugs (WBDs). Important study design considerations include selection of ARAs and timing of dosing of an ARA relative to the WBD in a DDI study. Labeling implications for drugs having DDIs with ARAs are also illustrated.

  2. Weak and saturable protein-surfactant interactions in the denaturation of apo-alpha-lactalbumin by acidic and lactonic sophorolipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kell K Andersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However knowledge of such interactions is limited. Here we present a study of the interactions between the model protein apo-alpha-lactalbumin and the biosurfactant sophorolipid (SL produced by the yeast Starmerella bombicola. SL occurs both as an acidic and a lactonic form; the lactonic form (lactSL is sparingly soluble and has a lower critical micelle concentration than the acidic form (acidSL. We show that acidSL affects apo-aLA in a similar way to the related glycolipid biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL, with the important difference that RL is also active below the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0-1 mM SL, it is only possible to observe interactions with monomeric acidSL at high apo-aLA concentrations. However, the denaturation kinetics of apo-aLA in the presence of acidSL are consistent with a collaboration between monomeric and micellar surfactant species, similar to RL and nonionic or zwitterionic surfactants. Inclusion of lactSL as mixed micelles with acidSL lowers the cmc and this effectively reduces the rate of unfolding, emphasizing that SL like other biosurfactants is a gentle anionic surfactant. Our data highlight the potential of these biosurfactants for future use in the detergent industry.

  3. Weak and Saturable Protein–Surfactant Interactions in the Denaturation of Apo-α-Lactalbumin by Acidic and Lactonic Sophorolipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kell K.; Vad, Brian S.; Roelants, Sophie; van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However, knowledge of such interactions is limited. Here, we present a study of the interactions between the model protein apo-α-lactalbumin (apo-aLA) and the biosurfactant sophorolipid (SL) produced by the yeast Starmerella bombicola. SL occurs both as an acidic and a lactonic form; the lactonic form (lactSL) is sparingly soluble and has a lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) than the acidic form [non-acetylated acidic sophorolipid (acidSL)]. We show that acidSL affects apo-aLA in a similar way to the related glycolipid biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL), with the important difference that RL is also active below the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0–1 mM SL), it is only possible to observe interactions with monomeric acidSL at high apo-aLA concentrations. However, the denaturation kinetics of apo-aLA in the presence of acidSL are consistent with a collaboration between monomeric and micellar surfactant species, similar to RL and non-ionic or zwitterionic surfactants. Inclusion of diacetylated lactonic sophorolipid (lactSL) as mixed micelles with acidSL lowers the cmc and this effectively reduces the rate of unfolding, emphasizing that SL like other biosurfactants is a gentle anionic surfactant. Our data highlight the potential of these biosurfactants for future use in the detergent and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27877155

  4. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of a Novel Pt(II) Complex with Weak Metal-metal Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Cheng-Yang; JIANG Fei-Long; FENG Rui; HONG Mao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    The title complex cis-bis(tetrahydrothiophene)-bis(nitrate) platinum(II), (tht)2Pt(NO3)2, was the reducing product from potassium hexachloroplatinate(IV) K2PtCl6 where the platinum is tetra-valenced. Crystal data for C8H16N2O6PtS2: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 9.8833(5), b = 8.6744(4), c = 18.6407(9) (A), β = 114.401(3)°, V = 1455.35(12) (A)3, Z = 4, Mr = 495.44, Dc = 2.261 g/cm3, F(000) = 944, μ = 9.950 mm-1, λ(MoKα) = 0.71073 (A), T = 293(2) K, 2θmax = 54.96o, GOOF = 1.033, R = 0.0350 and wR = 0.0785 for 2572 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the title complex has interesting weak metal-metal interactions and two molecules linked by metal-metal interaction exist as a group. Luminescent spectrum illuminates red emission of the complex at room temperature.

  5. A Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Molecular Study of a Weak Polyampholyte

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez, Arturo Martinez

    2016-05-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increasing interest in the study of charged polymers for applications such as desalination of water, flocculation, sewage treatment, and enhanced oil recovery. Polyelectrolyte chains containing both positively and negatively charged units (polyampholytes) have been recently studied as viscosity-control agents in enhanced oil recovery, and as entrapping macromolecules for protection and delayed release of enzymes in hydraulic fracturing. In this study we performed Monte Carlo molecular simulations in a grand canonical ensemble to study the behavior of a weak polyampholyte in a dilute regime. Weak polyampholytes have the ability to dissociate in a limited pH, which makes them interesting for applications that require a pH-triggerable response. The titration behaviors of diblock and random polyampholytes are simulated as a function of solvent quality, electrostatic strength, and salt concentration. For diblock polyampholyte chains in hydrophobic solvents, transition between tadpole-like and globule conformation occurs with variations in the solution pH. Random polyampholytes present extended, globule, and pearl-necklace conformations at different solvent conditions and pH values. At high ionic strength, electrostatic interactions in the polyampholytes become screened and the chains are mostly in globule state.

  6. Spin dynamics in weakly and strongly interacting NiO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Lefmann, Kim; Kuhn, Luise Theil;

    2006-01-01

    The spin dynamics of plate-shaped nanoparticles of NiO has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering and Mossbauer spectroscopy. A value of the in-plane anisotropy energy constant significantly larger than the bulk value has been measured. The temperature and field dependence of the energy...... of the antiferromagnetic resonance mode associated with this in-plane anisotropy has been studied. Both Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering data show that the magnetic fluctuations are strongly affected by the strength of interparticle interactions....

  7. Limit on right hand weak coupling parameters from inelastic neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; De Groot, J G H; Dydak, F; Eisele, F; Flottmann, T; Geweniger, C; Guyot, C; He, J T; Klasen, H P; Kleinknecht, K; Knobloch, J; Królikowski, J; May, J; Merlo, J P; Palazzi, P; Para, A; Peyaud, B; Pszola, B; Rander, J; Ranjard, F; Renk, B; Rothberg, J E; Ruan, T Z; Schlatter, W D; Schuller, J P; Steinberger, J; Taureg, H; Tittel, K; Turlay, René; von Rüden, Wolfgang; Wahl, H; Willutzki, H J; Wotschack, J; Wu, W M

    1982-01-01

    Right handed weak quark current coupled to the usual left handed weak lepton current would be seen in inclusive antineutrino scattering on nuclei as a contribution at large y with the quark (not antiquark) structure function. The authors do not see such a term, and can therefore put an upper limit on the relative strengths of such right handed currents: rho /sup 2/= sigma /sub R// sigma /sub L/ <0.009, 90% confidence. This measurement puts limits on the mixing angle of left- right symmetric models. In distinction to similar limits derived from muon decay or beta decay, our limits are also valid if the right handed neutrino is heavy.

  8. Turn: Weak Interactions and Rotational Barriers in Molecules-Insights from Substituted Butynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorodion, Oluwarotimi; Bober, Matthew; Donald, Kelling J

    2016-11-10

    The nature of the bonding and a definite preference for an eclipsed geometry in several substituted but-2-ynes, including certain novel derivatives are uncovered and examined. In particular, we consider the molecular species R3C-C≡C-CR3 (where R= H, F, Cl, Br, I, and CN), their R3C-B≡N-CR3 analogues, and a few novel exo-bridge systems with intramolecular hydrogen bonds running parallel to the C-C≡C-C chain. In some cases, the potential energy surfaces are remarkably flat-so flat, in fact, that free rotation is predicted for those molecules at very low temperatures. A systematic investigation of the bonding in the halogenated butynes demonstrates that the eclipsed conformation actually becomes more stable relative to the staggered form as R becomes larger and less electron-withdrawing. The rotational barriers (the differences in energy between the eclipsed and staggered geometries) are magnified significantly, however, in a special case where selected R groups at the ends of the R3C-C≡C-CR'3 molecule form hydrogen bonds parallel to the C-C≡C-C core. In those systems, the hydrogen bonds serve as a weak locking mechanism that favors the eclipsed conformation. A comparison of HF and uncorrected DFT methods versus the MP2(full), CCSD(T), and other dispersion-corrected methods confirms that correlation accounts to a significant extent for barriers in substituted butyne compounds. In the hydrogen-bonded systems, the barriers are comparable to and larger in some cases than the barriers observed for the more extensively studied ethane molecule.

  9. Interaction of a hydophobic weak polyelectrolyte star with an apolar surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, O.V.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Birshtein, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider star-like polymers with weak, that is, pH-dependent, hydrophobic polyelectrolyte arms. For low ionic strength conditions, a microphase-segregated quasimicellar structure is found, for which the star features a compact apolar core and a charged and swollen corona. This state is jump-like

  10. A Search for Light Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS and Applications to Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Adam J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical evidence indicates that 85% of the matter content of the universe is in the form of non-baryonic dark matter. A large number of experiments are currently undertaking searches for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the leading class of particle candidates for dark matter. This thesis describes the results of such a search with the SuperCDMS experiment, which uses Ge detectors cooled to 50 mK to detect ionization and phonons produced by particle interactions. We perform a blind analysis of 577 kg d of exposure on 7 detectors targeting WIMPs with masses < 30GeV/$c^{2}$, where anomalous results have been reported by previous experiments. No significant excess is observed and we set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1.2 x 10$^{-42}$ cm2 at 8 GeV/$c^{2}$ We also set constraints on dark matter interactions independent of the dark matter halo physics, as well as on annual modulation of a dark matter signal. Cryogenic detectors similar to SuperCDMS also have potential applications in neutrino physics. We study several configurations in which dark matter detectors could be used with an intense neutrino source to detect an unmeasured Standard Model process called coherent neutrino scattering. This process may be useful, for example, as a calibration for next-generation dark matter detectors, and for constraining eV-scale sterile neutrinos. In addition, small cryogenic X-ray detectors on sounding rockets with large fields-of-view have the unique ability to constrain sterile neutrino dark matter. We set limits on sterile neutrino dark matter using an observation by the XQC instrument, and discuss prospects for a future observation of the galactic center using the Micro-X instrument.

  11. Exact results for Casimir interactions between dielectric bodies: The weak-coupling or van der Waals Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Wagner, Jef

    2008-01-01

    In earlier papers we have applied multiple scattering techniques to calculate Casimir forces due to scalar fields between different bodies described by delta function potentials. When the coupling to the potentials became weak, closed-form results were obtained. We simplify this weak-coupling technique and apply it to the case of tenuous dielectric bodies, in which case the method involves the summation of van der Waals (Casimir-Polder) interactions. Once again exact results for finite bodies can be obtained. We present closed formulas describing the interaction between spheres and between cylinders, and between an infinite plate and a retangular slab of finite size. For such a slab, we consider the torque acting on it, and find non-trivial equilibrium points can occur.

  12. On the existence of weak solution to the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem for non-Newtonian shear-dependent fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Hundertmark-Zaušková, A.; Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Nečasová, Š. (Šárka)

    2016-01-01

    We study the existence of weak solution for unsteady fluid-structure interaction problem for shear-thickening flow. The time dependent domain has at one part a flexible elastic wall. The evolution of fluid domain is governed by the generalized string equation with action of the fluid forces. The power-law viscosity model is applied to describe shear-dependent non-Newtonian fluids.

  13. Effect of pepsin on maintaining the supersaturation of the HCl salt of a weakly basic drug: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnamaneni, Swathi; Rinaldi, Frank A; Jayawickrama, Dimuthu A; Li, Jinjiang; Dali, Mandar V

    2016-01-01

    The impact of pepsin on the maintenance of supersaturated solution of the HCl salt of a weakly basic drug was evaluated in simulated gastric fluid by monitoring the drug solubility in the absence and presence of pepsin. In the presence of pepsin, the HCl salt maintained its apparent solubility through 24 h, whereas, no such solubility advantage was seen in the absence of pepsin. Consequently, a minimum inhibitory concentration of pepsin is required for maintenance of supersaturation. In addition, NMR study seems to indicate a molecular level interaction between pepsin and HCl salt leading to a weak binding between the two. Therefore, for the HCl salts of weak bases having disproportionation potential, it is preferred that preformulation solubility studies are conducted in the presence of pepsin to reflect their in vivo behavior in maintaining supersaturation solubility.

  14. The RNA core weakly influences the interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 at key environmental interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the RNA core on interfacial interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 was investigated. After removal of the RNA core, empty intact capsids were characterized and compared to untreated MS2. Electron density of untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2 were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based small angle spectroscopy (SAXS). Suspensions of both particles exhibited similar electrophoretic mobility across a range of pH values. Similar effects were observed at pH 5.9 across a range of NaCl or CaCl2 concentrations. We compared key interfacial interactions (particle-particle and particle/air-water interface) between suspensions of each type of particle using time resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS) to observe and quantify aggregation kinetics and axisymmetric drop shape analysis to measure adsorption at the air-water interface. Both suspensions showed insignificant aggregation over 4 h in 600 mM NaCl solutions. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, aggregation of both types of particles was consistent with earlier aggregation studies and was characterized by both reaction-limited and diffusion-limited regimes occurring at similar [Ca2+]. However, the removal of the RNA from MS2 had no apparent effect on the aggregation kinetics of particles. Despite some differences in the kinetics of adsorption to the air-water interface, the changes in surface tension which result from particle adsorption showed no difference between the untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2. The interactions and structure of particles at the air-water interface were further probed using interfacial dilational rheology. The surface elasticity (E s) and surface viscosity (ηs) at the interface were low for both the untreated virus and the RNA-free capsid. This observation suggests that the factors that impact the adsorption kinetics are not important for an equilibrated interface. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Chirality of weakly bound complexes: The potential energy surfaces for the hydrogen-peroxide−noble-gas interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncaratti, L. F., E-mail: lz@fis.unb.br; Leal, L. A.; Silva, G. M. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Pirani, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210 Salvador (Brazil); Gargano, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Quantum Theory Project, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    We consider the analytical representation of the potential energy surfaces of relevance for the intermolecular dynamics of weakly bound complexes of chiral molecules. In this paper we study the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}−Ng (Ng=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) systems providing the radial and the angular dependence of the potential energy surface on the relative position of the Ng atom. We accomplish this by introducing an analytical representation which is able to fit the ab initio energies of these complexes in a wide range of geometries. Our analysis sheds light on the role that the enantiomeric forms and the symmetry of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule play on the resulting barriers and equilibrium geometries. The proposed theoretical framework is useful to study the dynamics of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule, or other systems involving O–O and S–S bonds, interacting by non-covalent forces with atoms or molecules and to understand how the relative orientation of the O–H bonds changes along collisional events that may lead to a hydrogen bond formation or even to selectivity in chemical reactions.

  16. Dynamics of crack penetration vs. branching at a weak interface: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Balamurugan M.; Tippur, Hareesh V.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the dynamic crack-interface interactions and the related mechanics of crack penetration vs. branching at a weak interface are studied experimentally. The interface is oriented perpendicular to the incoming mode-I crack in an otherwise homogeneous bilayer. The focus of this investigation is on the effect of interface location and the associated crack-tip parameters within the bilayer on the mechanics of the ensuing fracture behavior based on the optical methodologies laid down in Ref. Sundaram and Tippur (2016). Time-resolved optical measurement of crack-tip deformations, velocity and stress intensity factor histories in different bilayer configurations is performed using Digital Gradient Sensing (DGS) technique in conjunction with high-speed photography. The results show that the crack path selection at the interface and subsequently the second layer are greatly affected by the location of the interface within the geometry. Using optically measured fracture parameters, the mechanics of crack penetration and branching are explained. Counter to the intuition, a dynamically growing mode-I approaching a weak interface at a lower velocity and stress intensity factor penetrates the interface whereas a higher velocity and stress intensity factor counterpart gets trapped by the interface producing branched daughter cracks until they kink out into the next layer. An interesting empirical observation based on measured crack-tip parameters for crack penetration and branching is also made.

  17. Surface Fluxes and Wind-Wave Interactions in Weak Wind Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    science /abl/cblast LONG-TERM GOALS We will investigate air-sea transfer of momentum, heat, and moisture under weak wind conditions. We will...over the ASIT tower and the wind direction was good for the tower sonic performance (6 days in total). As we found last year that although the momentum...flux derived from the aircraft is flight- direction dependent, which was recently found to be a common problem for all aircraft flux measurements

  18. Weak interaction between germanene and GaAs(0001) by H intercalation: A route to exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-11-13

    Epitaxial germanene on a semiconducting GaAs(0001) substrate is studied by ab initio calculations. The germanene-substrate interaction is found to be strong for direct contact but can be substantially reduced by H intercalation at the interface. Our results indicate that it is energetically possible to take the germanene off the GaAs(0001) substrate. While mounted on the substrate, the electronic structure shows a distinct Dirac cone shift above the Fermi energy with a splitting of 175 meV. On the other hand, we find for a free standing sheet a band gap of 24 meV, which is due to the intrinsic spin orbit coupling.

  19. Search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles with the OSQAR laser-based experiment: results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugnat, P. [CNRS, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); Ballou, R. [CNRS, Institut Neel, Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut Neel, Grenoble (France); Schott, M. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Husek, T.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Slunecka, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Sulc, M.; Kunc, S. [Technical University of Liberec, Liberec (Czech Republic); Deferne, G.; Siemko, A. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva-23 (Switzerland); Duvillaret, L.; Vitrant, G. [Grenoble INP - Minatec and CNRS, IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble (France); Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Kral, M.; Macuchova, K.; Zicha, J. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Jost, R.; Romanini, D. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LIPhy, Grenoble (France); CNRS, LIPhy, Grenoble (France); Meissner, K.A. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Morville, J. [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Institut Lumiere Matiere, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, Institut Lumiere Matiere, Villeurbanne (France)

    2014-08-15

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for ''Light Shining through a Wall'' from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'', like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of 2 x 14.3 m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than 8.0 x 10{sup -8} GeV{sup -1}. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of ALPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented. (orig.)

  20. Impact of Weak Agostic Interactions in Nickel Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Christina M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; O’Hagan, Molly [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Bullock, R. Morris [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Appel, Aaron M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Wiedner, Eric S. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2017-06-08

    To understand how H2 binding and oxidation is influenced by [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ PR2NR'2 catalysts with H2 binding energies close to thermoneutral, two [Ni(PPh2NR'2)2]2+ (R = Me or C14H29) complexes with phenyl substituents on phosphorous and varying alkyl chain lengths on the pendant amine were studied. In the solid state, [Ni(PPh2NMe2)2]2+ exhibits an anagostic interaction between the Ni(II) center and the α-CH3 of the pendant amine, and DFT and variable-temperature 31P NMR experiments suggest than the anagostic interaction persists in solution. The equilibrium constants for H2 addition to these complexes was measured by 31P NMR spectroscopy, affording free energies of H2 addition (ΔG°H2) of –0.8 kcal mol–1 in benzonitrile and –1.6 to –2.3 kcal mol–1 in THF. The anagostic interaction contributes to the low driving force for H2 binding by stabilizing the four-coordinate Ni(II) species prior to binding of H2. The pseudo-first order rate constants for H2 addition at 1 atm were measured by variable scan rate cyclic voltammetry, and were found to be similar for both complexes, less than 0.2 s–1 in benzonitrile and 3 –6 s–1 in THF. In the presence of exogenous base and H2 , turnover frequencies of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation were measured to be less than 0.2 s–1 in benzonitrile and 4 –9 s–1 in THF. These complexes are slower electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation than previously studied [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ complexes due to a competition between H2 binding and formation of the anagostic interaction. However, the decrease in catalytic rate is accompanied by a beneficial 130 mV decrease in overpotential. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence

  1. Combustion-related studies using weakly-bonded complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudet, R.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Binary van der Waals complexes involving species of interest to combustion research are prepared in supersonic free-jet expansions, and their photochemical and photophysical properties are probed by using IR tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy. In the first phase, geometries and other molecular properties are being determined from vibration-rotational spectra. In the second phase, these complexes will be used as precursors to study photoinitiated reactions in precursor geometry limited environments. Two complementary classes of binary complexes are being investigated. The first involves molecular oxygen and hydrogen containing constituents (e.g. O{sub 2}-HCN, O{sub 2}-HF, O{sub 2}-HCl, O{sub 2}-HBr, O{sub 2}-HI and O{sub 2}-hydrocarbons). These species are interesting candidates for study since upon photodissociating the hydride portion, the reaction H and O{sub 2} via the vibrationally excited HO{sub 2} intermediate can conceivably be studied, (e.g. BrH-O{sub 2} + hv(193 nm) {yields} Br-H-O{sub 2} {yields} Br + HO{sub 2} {yields} Br + OH + O). High resolution IR spectroscopy of such complexes have not been obtained previously and the structural information deriving from IR spectra is certainly very useful for better designing and understanding photoinitiated reactions that occur in these complexes.

  2. Weak antilocalization and interaction-induced localization of Dirac and Weyl Fermions in topological insulators and semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2016-11-01

    Weak localization and antilocalization are quantum transport phenomena that arise from the quantum interference in disordered metals. At low temperatures, they can give distinct temperature and magnetic field dependences in conductivity, allowing the symmetry of the system to be explored. In the past few years, they have also been observed in newly emergent topological materials, including topological insulators and topological semimetals. In contrast from the conventional electrons, in these new materials the quasiparticles are described as Dirac or Weyl fermions. In this article, we review our recent efforts on the theories of weak antilocalization and interaction-induced localization for Dirac and Weyl fermions in topological insulators and topological semimetals. Project supported by the National Key R & D Program, China (Grant No. 2016YFA0301700), the Research Grant Council, University Grants Committee, Hong Kong, China (Grant No. 17303714), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574127), and the National Thousand-Young-Talents Program of China.

  3. Weak competing interactions control assembly of strongly bonded TCNQ ionic acceptor molecules on silver surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changwon; Rojas, Geoffrey A.; Jeon, Seokmin; Kelly, Simon J.; Smith, Sean C.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Yoon, Mina; Maksymovych, Petro

    2014-09-01

    The energy scales of interactions that control molecular adsorption and assembly on surfaces can vary by several orders of magnitude, yet the importance of each contributing interaction is not apparent a priori. Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) is an archetypal electron acceptor molecule and it is a key component of organic metals. On metal surfaces, this molecule also acts as an electron acceptor, producing negatively charged adsorbates. It is therefore rather intriguing to observe attractive molecular interactions in this system that were reported previously for copper and silver surfaces. Our experiments compared TCNQ adsorption on noble metal surfaces of Ag(100) and Ag(111). In both cases we found net attractive interactions down to the lowest coverage. However, the morphology of the assemblies was strikingly different, with two-dimensional islands on Ag(100) and one-dimensional chains on Ag(111) surfaces. This observation suggests that the registry effect governed by the molecular interaction with the underlying lattice potential is critical in determining the dimensionality of the molecular assembly. Using first-principles density functional calculations with a van der Waals correction scheme, we revealed that the strengths of major interactions (i.e., lattice potential corrugation, intermolecular attraction, and charge-transfer-induced repulsion) are all similar in energy. The van der Waals interactions, in particular, almost double the strength of attractive interactions, making the intermolecular potential comparable in strength to the diffusion potential and promoting self-assembly. However, it is the anisotropy of local intermolecular interactions that is primarily responsible for the difference in the topology of the molecular islands on Ag(100) and Ag(111) surfaces. We anticipate that the intermolecular potential will become more attractive and dominant over the diffusion potential with increasing molecular size, providing new design strategies for the

  4. Sensitivity of shock boundary-layer interactions to weak geometric perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Eaton, John K.

    2016-11-01

    Shock-boundary layer interactions can be sensitive to small changes in the inlet flow and boundary conditions. Robust computational models must capture this sensitivity, and validation of such models requires a suitable experimental database with well-defined inlet and boundary conditions. To that end, the purpose of this experiment is to systematically document the effects of small geometric perturbations on a SBLI flow to investigate the flow physics and establish an experimental dataset tailored for CFD validation. The facility used is a Mach 2.1, continuous operation wind tunnel. The SBLI is generated using a compression wedge; the region of interest is the resulting reflected shock SBLI. The geometric perturbations, which are small spanwise rectangular prisms, are introduced ahead of the compression ramp on the opposite wall. PIV is used to study the SBLI for 40 different perturbation geometries. Results show that the dominant effect of the perturbations is a global shift of the SBLI itself. In addition, the bumps introduce weaker shocks of varying strength and angles, depending on the bump height and location. Various scalar validation metrics, including a measure of shock unsteadiness, and their uncertainties are also computed to better facilitate CFD validation. Ji Hoon Kim is supported by an OTR Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  5. Weak hyperon-nucleon interaction in a quark model and application to the pn {yields} {lambda}p scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Kenji; Oka, Makoto [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Takeuchi, Sachiko [Japan College of Social Work, Kiyose, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The weak {lambda}N {r_reversible} NN (and {sigma}N {r_reversible} NN) transition is studied, in which the quark substructure of the baryons are taken into account. The short-range part of the transition potential is induced by the direct quark (DQ) mechanism, while the long-range part is described by the meson ({pi} and K) exchanges. The transition potential is calculated and is applied to the decay of hypernuclei and the weak {lambda} production in the proton-neutron scattering. We show that the short-range DQ transition plays a significant role in these processes. (author)

  6. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  7. Landau pole in the Standard Model with weakly interacting scalar fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Hamada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Standard Model with a new scalar field X which is an nX representation of the SU(2L with a hypercharge YX. The renormalization group running effects on the new scalar quartic coupling constants are evaluated. Even if we set the scalar quartic coupling constants to be zero at the scale of the new scalar field, the coupling constants are induced by the one-loop effect of the weak gauge bosons. Once non-vanishing couplings are generated, the couplings rapidly increase by renormalization group effect of the quartic coupling constant itself. As a result, the Landau pole appears below Planck scale if nX≥4. We find that the scale of the obtained Landau pole is much lower than that evaluated by solving the one-loop beta function of the gauge coupling constants.

  8. Weak and Saturable Protein-Surfactant Interactions in the Denaturation of Apo-α-Lactalbumin by Acidic and Lactonic Sophorolipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell K; Vad, Brian S; Roelants, Sophie;

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However...... the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0-1 mM SL), it is only possible...

  9. Ultra-cold weakly interacting massive particles: relics of non-standard pre-big-bang-nucleosynthesis cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmini, Graciela B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gondolo, Paolo, E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu, E-mail: paolo@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) constitute one of very few probes of cosmology before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). We point out that in scenarios in which the Universe evolves in a non-standard manner during and after WIMP kinetic decoupling, the horizon mass scale at decoupling can be smaller and the dark matter WIMPs can be colder than in standard cosmology. This would lead to much smaller first objects in hierarchical structure formation. In low reheating temperature scenarios the effect may be large enough to noticeably enhance indirect detection signals in GLAST and other detectors, by up to two orders of magnitude.

  10. New Results from the Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with the CDMS Low Ionization Threshold Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Aramaki, T.; Asai, M.; Baker, W.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Ghaith, M.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Mast, N.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Underwood, R.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2016-02-01

    The CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) uses cryogenic germanium detectors operated at a relatively high bias voltage to amplify the phonon signal in the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Results are presented from the second CDMSlite run with an exposure of 70 kg day, which reached an energy threshold for electron recoils as low as 56 eV. A fiducialization cut reduces backgrounds below those previously reported by CDMSlite. New parameter space for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section is excluded for WIMP masses between 1.6 and 5.5 GeV/c^2.

  11. Four-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with weakly invasive contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Hugo; Arrachea, Liliana; Naón, Carlos

    2011-11-30

    We analyze the behavior of the four-terminal resistance, relative to the two-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with an impurity, taking into account the invasiveness of the voltage probes. We consider a one-dimensional Luttinger model of spinless fermions for the wire. We treat the coupling to the voltage probes perturbatively, within the framework of non-equilibrium Green function techniques. Our investigation unveils the combined effect of impurities, electron-electron interactions and invasiveness of the probes on the possible occurrence of negative resistance.

  12. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  13. Experimental observation of structures with subtle balance between strong hydrogen bond and weak n → π* interaction: Gas phase laser spectroscopy of 7-azaindole⋯fluorosubstituted pyridines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh K.; Vaishnav, Jamuna K.; Das, Aloke

    2016-09-01

    In this study, interplay between a strong hydrogen bond and a very weak n → π* interaction has been probed through experiment for the first time. We have used resonant 2-photon ionization, Infrared-ultraviolet double resonance spectroscopy, and quantum chemistry calculation to determine the structures of 7-azaindole⋯2,6-difluoropyridine and 7-azaindole⋯2,3,5,6-tetrafluororpyridine complexes, which are stabilized by both hydrogen bonding and n → π* interaction. The structures of the complexes studied in the present work have been compared with the double hydrogen bonded (N-H⋯N and C-H⋯N) planar structure of 7-azaindole⋯2-fluoropyridine. It has been found that the strength of the N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in the 7-azaindole⋯2,6-substituted fluoropyridines is affected due to several factors. The main reason for huge reduction in the strength of this N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in these complexes is due to loss of the C-H⋯N hydrogen bond, through substitution of fluorine atoms in 2 and 6 positions, which induces major structural changes by bending the hydrogen bond and introducing the n → π* interaction. Effect of fluorination as well as presence of the n → π* interaction in these complexes also contributes to the reduction of the strength of the N-H⋯N interaction. Although it is difficult to quantify the role of the n → π* interaction to affect the strength of the hydrogen bond, observation of the structures, where a strong hydrogen bond and a weak n → π* interaction co-exist, is confirmed.

  14. A real-time de-noising method applied for transient and weak biomolecular interaction analysis in surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuyue; Shi, Chunfei; Ou, Huichao; Song, Hong; Wang, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing technology will likely become a type of label-free technology for transient and weak biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA); however, it needs some improvement with regard to high-speed and high-resolution measurement. We studied a type of real-time de-noising (RD) data processing method for SPR sensorgrams based on moving average; it can immediately distinguish ultra-weak signals during the process of experiment, and can display a low-noise sensorgram in real time. A flow injection analysis experiment and a CM5 sensorchip affinity experiment are designed to evaluate the characteristics of the RD method. High noise suppression ability and low signal distortion risks of the RD method have been proved. The RD method does not significantly distort signals of the sensorgram in the molecular affinity experiment, and K D values of the RD method essentially coincide with those of the raw sensorgram with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Meanwhile, by the RD method denoising the sensorgram with an ultralow SNR that is closer to the condition of the transient and weak molecular interactions, the kinetic constant can be more accurately analyzed, whereas it cannot be realized for the raw sensorgram. The crucial function and significance of the RD method are primarily embodied in the measurement limit of SPR sensing.

  15. Weak Interactions and CO_2 Microsolvation in the CIS-1,2-DIFLUOROETHYLENE...CO_2 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendell, William; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.

    2017-06-01

    The need for a deep understanding of CO_2 interactions is significant given the importance of supercritical CO_2 (sc-CO_2) as a green solvent. Fluorinated compounds often have higher solubility in sc-CO_2 than their hydrocarbon analogs, and the reasons for this are not well understood. Investigations of dimers of one CO_2 molecule with a simple fluorinated hydrocarbon provide an initial step towards understanding the complex balance of forces that is likely to be present as a larger solvation shell of sc-CO_2 is built. The weakly bound dimer cis-1,2-difluoroethylene...CO_2 is the latest in a series of complexes of CO_2 with fluorinated ethylenes that has recently been studied using chirped-pulse (CP) Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. Unlike all previous members of the series, the observed structure of cis-1,2-difluoroethylene...CO_2 is nonplanar, with CO_2 sitting above the ethylene plane and crossed relative to the C=C bond. This nonplanar arrangement is consistent with predictions made using symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT), where the dispersion energy of the nonplanar structure is significantly more favorable than for a structure where CO_2 lies in the same plane as the ethylene moiety. Observed transitions are doubled as a result of CO_2 tunneling between equivalent positions above and below the ethylene plane, leading to inversion of the μ_c dipole moment component. Observed transitions for the most abundant isotopologue have been fitted to a two state Hamiltonian to give an energy difference between tunneling states of Δ E ≈ 333 MHz, and analysis using Meyer's one dimensional model to determine the barrier to inversion is presently in progress.

  16. Supramolecular assembly of 2,4,5-trifluorobenzoate complex based on weak interactions involving fluorine atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Ge; Rui Zhang; Ping Fan; Xiang-Dong Zhang; Li-Juan Wang; Fang-Fang Wang

    2013-01-01

    The complex [Cd(tfbz)2(phen)]2 (1) (tfbz =2,4,5-trifluorobenzoate,phen =1,10-phenanthro-line) was synthesized using trifluorobenzoic acid ligand.The single-crystal structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray crystallography.The packing structure is characterized by the formation of an intricate three-dimensional supramolecular network that depends on the C-H…F,F…F, F(lp)…π (lp =lone pair) interactions.

  17. Four-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with weakly invasive contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Aita, Hugo; Arrachea, Liliana; Naón, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of the four-terminal resistance, relative to the two-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with an impurity, taking into account the invasiveness of the voltage probes. We consider a one-dimensional Luttinger model of spinless fermions for the wire. We treat the coupling to the voltage probes perturbatively, within the framework of non-equilibrium Green function techniques. Our investigation unveils the combined effect of impurities, electron-electron inte...

  18. Different supramolecular architectures mediated by different weak interactions in the crystals of three N-aryl-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakuntala, K; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Suchetan, P A; Abdoh, M

    2017-10-01

    The synthesis and evaluation of the pharmacological activities of molecules containing the sulfonamide moiety have attracted interest as these compounds are important pharmacophores. The crystal structures of three closely related N-aryl-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamides, namely N-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamide, C14H13Cl2NO4S, (I), N-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamide, C14H13Cl2NO4S, (II), and N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamide, C16H19NO4S, (III), are described. The asymmetric unit of (I) consists of two symmetry-independent molecules, while those of (II) and (III) contain one molecule each. The molecular conformations are stabilized by different intramolecular interactions, viz. C-H...O interactions in (I), N-H...Cl and C-H...O interactions in (II), and C-H...O interactions in (III). The crystals of the three compounds display different supramolecular architectures built by various weak intermolecular interactions of the types C-H...O, C-H...Cl, C-H...π(aryl), π(aryl)-π(aryl) and Cl...Cl. A detailed Hirshfeld surface analysis of these compounds has also been conducted in order to understand the relationship between the crystal structures. The dnorm and shape-index surfaces of (I)-(III) support the presence of various intermolecular interactions in the three structures. Analysis of the fingerprint plots reveals that the greatest contribution to the Hirshfeld surfaces is from H...H contacts, followed by H...O/O...H contacts. In addition, comparisons are made with the structures of some related compounds. Putative N-H...O hydrogen bonds are observed in 29 of the 30 reported structures, wherein the N-H...O hydrogen bonds form either C(4) chain motifs or R2(2)(8) rings. Further comparison reveals that the characteristics of the N-H...O hydrogen-bond motifs, the presence of other interactions and the resultant supramolecular architecture is largely decided by the position of the substituents on the

  19. Upgraded LHC experiments as a check of non-perturbative effects of the Electro-Weak Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbuzov Boris A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported diphoton excesse at LHC is interpreted to be connected with heavy WW zero spin resonances. The resonances appears due to the wouldbe anomalous triple interaction of the weak bosons, which is defined by coupling constant λ. The γγ 750GeV anomaly is considered to correspond to weak isotopic spin 0 pseudoscalar state. We obtain estimates for the effect, which qualitatively agree with ATLAS data. Effects are predicted in a production of W+W−, (Z, γ(Z, γ via resonance XPS with MPS ≃ 750GeV, which could be reliably checked at the upgraded LHC at √s = 13TeV. In coupling constant of the triple anomalous interaction is estimated to be λ = −0.010 ± 0.005 in an agreement with existing restrictions. Specific predictions of the hypothesis are significant effects in decay channels XPS → γ l+ l−, XPS → l+ l− l+ l− (l = e, μ.

  20. The role of weak intermolecular C-H…F interactions in supramolecular assembly: Structural investigations on 3,5- dibenzylidene-piperidin-4-one and database analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Rathore; N S Karthikeyan; Y Alekhya; K Sathiyanarayanan; P G Aravindan

    2011-07-01

    The fluorinated and non-fluorinated dibenzylidene-4-piperidones were synthesized and their structures examined using X-ray crystallography. Interestingly, the para-fluorosubstituted dibenzylidene compound, in contrast to other analogs, is characterized by C-H…F bonded one-dimensional packing motif. To evaluate the ability of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors for forming interactions, in general and competitive situation, we have defined statistical descriptors. Analysis of Cambridge Structural Database using these newly defined parameters reveals high propensity of C-H…F interactions in organic crystals. The present structural study suggests much larger role of fluorine driven intermolecular interactions that are even though weak, but possess significant ability to direct and alter the packing.

  1. Topics in phenomenology of unified gauge theories of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y.S.

    1982-11-01

    Three phenomenological analyses on the current unification theories of elementary particle interactions are presented. In Chapter I, the neutral current phenomenology of a class of supersymmetric SU(2) x U(1) x U tilde(1) models is analyzed. A model with the simplest fermion and Higgs structure allowing a realistic mass spectrum is considered first. Its neutral current sector is parametrized in terms of two mixing angles and the strength of the new U tilde(1) interactions. Expressions for low-energy model-independent parameters are derived and compared with those of the standard model. Bounds on the neutral gauge boson masses are obtained from the data for various neutrino interactions, eD scattering, and the asymmetry in e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/. In Chapter II, the evolution of fermion mass in grand unified theories is reexamined. In particular, the question of gauge invariance of mass ratios in left-right asymmetric theories is considered. A simple expression is derived for the evolution of the Higgs-fermion-fermion coupling which essentially governs the scale dependence of fermion mass. At the one loop level the expression is gauge invariant and involves only the representation content of left- and right-handed fermions but not that of Higgs. The corresponding expression for supersymmetric theories is also given. In Chapter III, the production and the subsequent decays of a heavy lepton pair L/sup + -/ near the Z peak in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation are considered as a test of the standard model. The longitudinal polarization is derived from the spin-dependent production cross-section, and the decays L ..-->.. ..pi.. nu and L ..-->.. l nu nu are used as helicity analyzers.

  2. Disclosing the multi-faceted world of weakly interacting inorganic systems by means of NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchigiani, Luca; Macchioni, Alceo

    2016-02-21

    The potential of NMR spectroscopy to investigate inorganic systems assembled by, or whose reactivity is affected by, non-covalent interactions is described. Subjects that have received particular attention in recent years (halogen bonding and Frustrated Lewis Pairs) and more classical subjects that remain under-explored (self-aggregation of ion pairs in low polar solvents, behavior of MAO containing metallocenium ion pairs, and hydrogen bonding/ion pairing effects in Au(i) catalysis) are considered, using an innovative approach, always focusing on the crucial information that can be provided by NMR.

  3. Formation of dilute adhesion domains driven by weak elasticity-mediated interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Dharan, Nadiv

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is established by specific binding of receptor and ligand proteins. The adhesion bonds attract each other and often aggregate into large clusters that are central to many biological processes. One possible origin of attractive interactions between adhesion bonds is the elastic response of the membranes to their deformation by the bonds. Here, we analyze these elasticity-mediated interactions using a novel mean-field approach. Analysis of systems at different densities of bonds, $\\phi$, reveals that the phase diagram exhibits a nearly-universal behavior when the temperature $T$ is plotted vs. the scaled density $x=\\phi \\xi^2$, where $\\xi$ is the linear size of the membrane's region affected by a single bond. The critical point $(\\phi_c,T_c)$ is located at very low densities and slightly below $T_c$ we identify phase coexistence between two low-density phases. Dense domains are observed only when the height by which the bonds deform the membranes, $h_0$, is much larger than their thermal roug...

  4. Electric dipole moment of $^{225}$Ra due to P- and T-violating weak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Yashpal

    2015-01-01

    We report rigorous calculations of electric dipole moment (EDM) in $^{225}$Ra due to parity and time-reversal violating tensor-pseudotensor (T-PT) and nuclear Schiff moment (NSM) interactions between the electrons and nucleus by employing the relativistic all order coupled-cluster (RCC) methods at various levels of approximation. The most accurate EDM ($d_A$) results are obtained as $d_A=-10.04\\times 10^{-20} C_T |e|cm$ and $d_A^{NSM}=-6.79 \\times 10^{-17} S (|e|fm^3)^{-1} |e|cm$ with $C_T$ and $S$ are the T-PT coupling constant and NSM respectively. Due to exhaustive treatment of the electron correlation effects in these calculations, the EDM results for the corresponding T-PT and NSM interactions reduce by about 45\\% and 23\\%, respectively, from the previously known values. Nonetheless they are still found to be 2-3 times larger than the $^{199}$Hg results. Validity of the RCC results are countenanced by comparing our calculations at the zeroth order Dirac-Fock method and all order random-phase approximatio...

  5. Weak interaction corrections to hadronic top quark pair production; Korrekturen der schwachen Wechselwirkung zur hadronischen Topquark-Paarproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuecker, M.

    2007-05-15

    This thesis presents the calculation of the Standard Model weak-interaction corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} to hadronic top-quark pair production. The one-loop weak corrections to top antitop production due to gluon fusion and uark antiquark annihilation are computed. Also the order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} corrections to top antitop production due to quark gluon and antiquark gluon scattering in the Standard Model are calculated. In this complete weak-corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} to gg, q anti q, gq, and g anti q induced hadronic t anti t production the top and antitop polarizations and spin-correlations are fully taken into account. For the Tevatron and the LHC the weak contributions to the cross section, to the transverse top-momentum (p{sub T}) distributions, and to the top antitop invariant mass (M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}) distributions are analyzed. At the LHC the corrections to the distributions can be of the order of -10 percent compared with the leading-order results, for p{sub T}>1500 GeV and M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>3000 GeV, respectively. At the Tevatron the corrections are -4 percent for p{sub T}>600 GeV and M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV. This thesis also considers parity-even top antitop spin correlations of the form d{sigma}(++)+d{sigma}(--)-d{sigma}(+-)-d{sigma}(-+), where the first and second argument denotes the top and antitop spin projection onto a given reference axis. This spin asymmetries are computed as a function of M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}. At the LHC the weak corrections are of order of -10 percent for M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV for all analyzed reference axes. At the Tevatron the corrections are in the range of 5 percent at threshold and -5 percent for M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV. Apart from parity-even spin asymmetries also the Standard Model predictions for parity violating effects in topquark pair production are calculated. This thesis analyzes parity

  6. Aliphatic C-H---Anion Hydrogen Bonds: Weak Contacts or Strong Interactions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Pedzisa, Lee [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations, MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ, are used to determine C H---Cl hydrogen bond energies for a series of XCH3 donor groups in which the electron-withdrawing ability of X is varied over a wide range of values. When attached to polarizing substituents, aliphatic CH groups are moderate to strong hydrogen bond donors, exhibiting interaction energies comparable to those obtained with O H and N H groups. The results explain why aliphatic C H donors are observed to function as competitive binding sites in solution and suggest that such C H---anion contacts should be considered as possible contributors when evaluating the denticity of an anion receptor.

  7. Second-order corrections to mean field evolution for weakly interacting Bosons. I

    CERN Document Server

    Grillakis, Manoussos G; Margetis, Dionisios

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by the works of Rodnianski and Schlein and Wu, we derive a new nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation that describes a second-order correction to the usual tensor product (mean-field) approximation for the Hamiltonian evolution of a many-particle system in Bose-Einstein condensation. We show that our new equation, if it has solutions with appropriate smoothness and decay properties, implies a new Fock space estimate. We also show that for an interaction potential $v(x)= \\epsilon \\chi(x) |x|^{-1}$, where $\\epsilon$ is sufficiently small and $\\chi \\in C_0^{\\infty}$, our program can be easily implemented locally in time. We leave global in time issues, more singular potentials and sophisticated estimates for a subsequent part (part II) of this paper.

  8. Is the cosmic microwave background telling us that dark matter is weaker than weakly interacting?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan

    2013-10-18

    If moduli, or other long-lived heavy states, decay in the early universe in part into light and feebly interacting particles (such as axions), these decay products could account for the additional energy density in radiation that is suggested by recent measurements of the CMB. These moduli decays will also, however, alter the expansion history of the early universe, potentially diluting the thermal relic abundance of dark matter. If this is the case, then dark matter particles must annihilate with an even lower cross section than required in the standard thermal scenario (sigma v < 3x10^-26 cm^3/s) if they are to make up the observed density of dark matter. This possibility has significant implications for direct and indirect searches for dark matter.

  9. Temperature dependence of the effective interdimer exchange interaction in a weakly coupled antiferromagnetic dimer copper compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Rafael; Santana, Vinicius T.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.

    2017-08-01

    We report a variation with temperature T of the effective interdimeric interaction Jeff' in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) copper dimeric organic compound Cu2[TzTs] 4 (N -thiazol-2-yl-toluenesulfonamidate CuII). This T dependence was obtained from measurements of the effects in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the proposed quantum phase transition associated with the exchange-narrowing processes. Cu2[TzTs] 4 contains exchange-coupled pairs of CuII spins SA and SB (S =1 /2 ), with intradimeric AFM exchange coupling J0=(-115 ±1 ) cm-1 (Hex=-J0SA.SB ). The variation of the EPR linewidth of single crystals with field orientation around a "magic angle" where the transitions intersect and the integrated signal intensity of the so-called U peak of the powder spectrum were measured as a function of T . Modeling these data using arguments of exchange narrowing in the adiabatic regime considering the angular variation of the single-crystal spectra and a geometric description, we find that the effective interdimeric coupling | Jeff'| associated with the exchange frequency ωex is negligible for T ≪| J0/kB| when the units are uncoupled and | Jeff'|=(0.080 ±0.005 ) cm-1 (| Jeff'/J0|=7.0 × 10-4 ) at 298 K. Within this T interval, two ranges of | Jeff'| with linear temperature variation but different slopes, with a kink at ˜80 K, are observed and discussed. This T dependence arises from the growing population of the triplet state, and its relevance to the properties of various arrays of dimeric units is discussed. Our experimental procedures and results are compared with those of previous works in ion radical salts and dimeric metal compounds. The relation between the effective coupling | Jeff'| and the real interdimeric exchange coupling | J'| related to the chemical paths connecting neighbor units is discussed.

  10. Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven T.; Huang, Xinqun; Cramer, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial simulator Aspen Chromatography was employed to study and optimize an important new industrial separation process, weak partitioning chromatography. This case study on antibody purification was implemented in a chromatographic separations course. Parametric simulations were performed to investigate the effect of operating parameters…

  11. Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven T.; Huang, Xinqun; Cramer, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial simulator Aspen Chromatography was employed to study and optimize an important new industrial separation process, weak partitioning chromatography. This case study on antibody purification was implemented in a chromatographic separations course. Parametric simulations were performed to investigate the effect of operating parameters…

  12. Bayesian Reconstruction of the Velocity Distribution of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles from Direct Dark Matter Detection Data

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Chung-Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we extended our earlier work on the reconstruction of the (time-averaged) one-dimensional velocity distribution of Galactic Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and introduce the Bayesian fitting procedure to the theoretically predicted velocity distribution functions. In this reconstruction process, the (rough) velocity distribution reconstructed by using raw data from direct Dark Matter detection experiments directly, i.e. measured recoil energies, with one or more different target materials, has been used as "reconstructed-input" information. By assuming a fitting velocity distribution function and scanning the parameter space based on the Bayesian analysis, the astronomical characteristic parameters, e.g. the Solar and Earth's orbital velocities, will be pinned down as the output results. Our Monte-Carlo simulations show that this Bayesian scanning procedure could reconstruct the true (input) WIMP velocity distribution function pretty precisely with negligible systematic deviations ...

  13. Kinematic Reconstruction of Tau Leptons and Test for Lepton Universality in Charged Weak Interactions with the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sauerland, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) postulates the universal coupling of the three lepton families to the weak current. The most precise measurement of lepton universality in W decays comes from the four experiments at the Large Electon-Positron Collider (LEP). If one compares the couplings of muons and tau leptons to the charged weak current, there is a discrepancy of nearly three standard deviations w.r.t. the SM expectation. There are models beyond the SM, which could explain the violation of lepton universality with new physics processes, if it is more than a statistical fluctuation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) offers a great opportunity to study decays of the charged-weak gauge bosons at very high event rates and at unmatched collision energies. This thesis presents an analysis strategy to test lepton universality with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the LHC. The analysis focusses on the decays of the W boson to particles of the second and third lepton family. For this purpose d...

  14. Studies of weak capture-gamma-ray resonances via coincidence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, C; Champagne, A E; Dummer, A K; Fitzgerald, R; Harley, E C T; Mosher, J; Runkle, R

    2002-01-01

    A method for measuring weak capture-gamma-ray resonances via gamma gamma-coincidence counting techniques is described. The coincidence apparatus consisted of a large-volume germanium detector and an annular NaI(Tl) crystal. The setup was tested by measuring the weak E sub R =227 keV resonance in sup 2 sup 6 Mg(p,gamma) sup 2 sup 7 Al. Absolute germanium and NaI(Tl) counting efficiencies for a range of gamma-ray energies and for different detector-target geometries are presented. Studies of the gamma-ray background in our spectra are described. Compared to previous work, our method improves the detection sensitivity for weak capture-gamma-ray resonances by a factor of approx 100. The usefulness of the present technique for investigations of interest to nuclear astrophysics is discussed.

  15. Study of changes in the physiological state of cyanobacteria caused by weak ultrasonic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, V. A.; Grigor'eva, N. Yu.; Chistyakova, L. V.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of weak ultrasonic radiation with a frequency of 60 kHz on photosynthetic activity of living cells of cyanobacteria was studied using microspectrometric methods for the first time. An inhibitory effect on the physiological state of separate cells and the whole culture was demonstrated. A high efficiency of the method developed by the authors of this article for determination of the viability of cyanobacterial cultures in vivo for the purpose of operational environmental monitoring of the results of weak external influences was demonstrated.

  16. {mu}{sup +}-SR studies of the weak ferromagnets CoCO{sub 3} and NiCO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.; Blundell, S.J.; Pratt, F.L.; Kurmoo, M

    2003-02-01

    We present the results of zero-field {mu}{sup +}-SR measurements on CoCO{sub 3} and NiCO{sub 3}. Both compounds are rhombohedral antiferromagnets which exhibit a spontaneous weak magnetisation below 22.2 and 17.2 K, respectively. This arises due to an anisotropic superexchange (Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya) interaction. We have studied the temperature dependence of the internal field in the ordered state and the magnetic fluctuations in the paramagnetic state. We describe the possible muon-site obtained from dipolar-field calculations.

  17. Structure factor of model bidisperse ferrofluids with relatively weak interparticle interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Ekaterina; Pyanzina, Elena; Ivanov, Alexey [Institute of Mathematics, Department of Mathematical Physics, Ural Federal University, Lenin av. 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Minina, Elena [Institute for Computational Physics, Universiät Stuttgart, Allmandring 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kantorovich, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.kantorovich@univie.ac.at [Institute of Mathematics, Department of Mathematical Physics, Ural Federal University, Lenin av. 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Computational Physics, University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-14

    In the present manuscript we develop a theoretical approach to describe the pair correlation function of bidisperse magnetic dipolar hard- and soft-spheres. We choose bidisperse system as the first step to allow for polydispersity when studying thermodynamics of magnetic fluids. Using diagram technique we calculate the virial expansion of the pair correlation function up to the first order in density and fourth order in the dipolar strength. Even though, the radial distribution functions are extremely sensitive to the steric potential, we show that the behaviour of the isotropic centre-centre structure factor is almost indifferent to the type of the short-range repulsion. We extensively compare our theoretical results to the data of molecular dynamics simulations, which helps us to understand the range of validity of the virial expansion both on density and magnetic dipolar strength. We also investigate the influence of the granulometric composition on the height, width, and position of the structure factor first peak in order to clarify whether it is possible to extract structural information from experimentally measured small angle neutron scattering intensities.

  18. Peano Corto and Peano Basso : A Study of local induction in the context of weak theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study local induction w.r.t. Σ1-formulas over the weak arithmetic PA- The local induction scheme, which was introduced in, says roughly this: for any virtual class X that is progressive, i.e., is closed under zero and successor, and for any non-empty virtual class Y that is definabl

  19. Effects of weak transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on brain activity – a review of known mechanisms from animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eReato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic neuronal activity is ubiquitous in the human brain. These rhythms originate from a variety of different network mechanisms, which give rise to a wide-ranging spectrum of oscillation frequencies. In the last few years an increasing number of clinical research studies have explored transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS with weak current as a tool for affecting brain function. The premise of these interventions is that tACS will interact with ongoing brain oscillations. However, the exact mechanisms by which weak currents could affect neuronal oscillations at different frequency bands are not well known and this, in turn, limits the rational optimization of human experiments. Here we review the available in vitro and in vivo animal studies that attempt to provide mechanistic explanations. The findings can be summarized into a few generic principles, such as periodic modulation of excitability, shifts in spike timing, modulation of firing rate, and shifts in the balance of excitation and inhibition. These effects result from weak but simultaneous polarization of a large number of neurons. Whether this can lead to an entrainment or a modulation of brain oscillations, or whether AC currents have no effect at all, depends entirely on the specific dynamic that gives rise to the different brain rhythms, as discussed here for slow wave oscillations (~1 Hz and gamma oscillations (~30 Hz. We conclude with suggestions for further experiments to investigate the role of AC stimulation for other physiologically relevant brain rhythms.

  20. Quadriceps Weakness, Patella Alta and Structural Features of Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanik, Joshua J.; Guermazi, Ali; Zhu, Yanyan; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Gross, K. Douglas; Clancy, Margaret; Lynch, John A.; Segal, Neil A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Roemer, Frank W.; Powers, Christopher M.; Felson, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between quadriceps weakness and cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ), and if this relationship is modified by patella alta. Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is a cohort study of persons aged 50–79 years with or at risk for knee OA. Concentric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Patella alta was measured using the Insall-Salvati ratio (ISR) on the lateral radiograph, and cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) were graded on MRI in the PFJ. We determined the association between quadriceps weakness with cartilage damage and BMLs in the PFJ among those knees with (ISR≥1.2) and without patella alta (ISRpatella alta in the lateral PFJ. Conclusion Quadriceps weakness was associated with PFJ cartilage damage and BMLs. While both patella alta and quadriceps weakness are associated with PFJ damage, the combination of the two was not associated with more damage than either of these factors alone. PMID:21702087

  1. Molecular change signal-to-noise criteria for interpreting experiments involving exposure of biological systems to weakly interacting electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy E; Weaver, James C

    2005-05-01

    We describe an approach to aiding the design and interpretation of experiments involving biological effects of weakly interacting electromagnetic fields that range from steady (dc) to microwave frequencies. We propose that if known biophysical mechanisms cannot account for an inferred, underlying molecular change signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)gen, of a observed result, then there are two interpretation choices: (1) there is an unknown biophysical mechanism with stronger coupling between the field exposure and the ongoing biochemical process, or (2) the experiment is responding to something other than the field exposure. Our approach is based on classical detection theory, the recognition that weakly interacting fields cannot break chemical bonds, and the consequence that such fields can only alter rates of ongoing, metabolically driven biochemical reactions, and transport processes. The approach includes both fundamental chemical noise (molecular shot noise) and other sources of competing chemical change, to be compared quantitatively to the field induced change for the basic case that the field alters a single step in a biochemical network. Consistent with pharmacology and toxicology, we estimate the molecular dose (mass associated with field induced molecular change per mass tissue) resulting from illustrative low frequency field exposures for the biophysical mechanism of voltage gated channels. For perspective, we then consider electric field-mediated delivery of small molecules across human skin and into individual cells. Specifically, we consider the examples of iontophoretic and electroporative delivery of fentanyl through skin and electroporative delivery of bleomycin into individual cells. The total delivered amount corresponds to a molecular change signal and the delivery variability corresponds to generalized chemical noise. Viewed broadly, biological effects due to nonionizing fields may include animal navigation, medical applications, and environmental

  2. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  3. Anomalous time delays of an optical pulse interacting with a micro-resonator: a quantum weak-measurement approach

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, M; Bliokh, Y P; Kofman, A G; Zhao, G; Ikuta, R; Yamamoto, T; Kivshar, Y S; Yang, L; Imoto, N; Ozdemir, S K; Nori, F

    2016-01-01

    We study inelastic resonant scattering of a Gaussian pulse with the parameters close to a zero of the complex scattering coefficient. We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that such near-zero scattering can result in anomalously-large time delays and frequency shifts of the scattered pulse. Furthermore, we reveal a close analogy of these anomalous shifts with the spatial and angular Goos-Hanchen optical beam shifts, which are amplified via quantum weak measurements. However, in contrast to other beam-shift and weak-measurement systems, we deal with a one-dimensional scalar wave without any intrinsic degrees of freedom. It is the non-Hermitian nature of the system that produces its rich and non-trivial behaviour. Our results are generic for any scattering problem, either quantum or classical. As an example, we consider the transmission of an optical pulse through a nano-fiber with a side-coupled toroidal micro-resonator. The zero of the transmission coefficient corresponds to the critical coup...

  4. Ruling out the light weakly interacting massive particle explanation of the Galactic 511 keV line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Vincent, Aaron C.; BÅ`hm, Céline; McCabe, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Over the past few decades, an anomalous 511 keV gamma-ray line has been observed from the center of the Milky Way. Dark matter (DM) in the form of light (≲10 MeV ) weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilating into electron-positron pairs has been one of the leading hypotheses of the observed emission. Given the small required cross section, ⟨σ v ⟩˜1 0-30 cm3 s-1 , a further coupling to lighter particles is required to produce the correct relic density. Here, we derive constraints from the Planck satellite on light WIMPs that were in equilibrium with either the neutrino or electron sector in the early universe. For the neutrino sector, we obtain a lower bound on the WIMP mass of 4 MeV for a real scalar and 10 MeV for a Dirac fermion DM particle, at 95% C.L. For the electron sector, we find even stronger bounds of 7 and 11 MeV, respectively. Using these results, we show that, in the absence of additional ingredients such as dark radiation, the light thermally produced WIMP explanation of the 511 keV excess is strongly disfavored by the latest cosmological data. This suggests an unknown astrophysical or more exotic DM source of the signal.

  5. The prevalence and predictive value of weak language skills in children with very low birth weight--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Lind, Annika; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2014-06-01

    Previous findings regarding the prevalence and predictive value of weak language skills in preterm children with very low birth weight (VLBW) are unclear. This study analysed the prevalence of weak language skills, the predictive value of early weak language skills on later weak language skills, and the sensitivity and specificity of cognitive scores for identifying concurrent weak language skills in a longitudinal sample of VLBW children (n = 141) and their full-term controls (n = 146). Data on language skills and cognitive development were gathered at two and five years of age. Weak language skills were defined by the 10th percentile value of the controls. In VLBW children, the prevalence of weak language skills varied between 16% and 18% at 2 years of age (controls: 8 to 10%) and between 20% and 27% at 5 years of age (controls: 10%). Early weak language skills predicted later weak language skills in VLBW children. Cognitive scores were specific, but their sensitivity for identifying concurrent weak language skills was low. The prevalence of weak language skills in VLBW children increased during the follow-up period and was higher than the controls. Language-sensitive methods should be used in the clinical follow-up of VLBW children.

  6. Kinematic reconstruction of tau leptons and test for lepton universality in charged weak interactions with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerland, Philip

    2011-04-15

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) postulates the universal coupling of the three lepton families to the weak current. The most precise measurement of lepton universality in W decays comes from the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). If one compares the couplings of muons and tau leptons to the charged weak current, there is a discrepancy of nearly three standard deviations w.r.t. the SM expectation. There are models beyond the SM, which could explain the violation of lepton universality with new physics processes, if it is more than a statistical fluctuation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) offers a great opportunity to study decays of the charged-weak gauge bosons at very high event rates and at unmatched collision energies. This thesis presents an analysis strategy to test lepton universality with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the LHC. The analysis focusses on the decays of the W{sup {+-}} boson to particles of the second and third lepton family. For this purpose detector-simulated proton-proton events are used. The identification and reconstruction of tau leptons is a difficult task at the LHC. The reconstruction is often restricted by the limited precision of the commonly used collinear approximation. The application of a kinematic fit to particular tau-decay modes can improve the experimental resolution and provides an efficient background suppression. The development of such a fit with kinematic constraints derived from the topology of the decay {tau} {yields} 3{pi}{sup {+-}} + {nu}{sub {tau}} is described. The kinematic fit of tau leptons is not limited to the test for lepton universality, but can be deployed by various physics analyses in a broad energy range of the tau leptons. The event topology of W{sup {+-}} decays with leptonic final states is studied. Two event selections are developed: one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {tau}{nu} and one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{nu} decay. A common online

  7. Study of weak vacuum polarization in $Z \\to 2l \\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Zhabin, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the work was to perform a search of weak vacuum polarization in the channel $Z \\to 2l \\gamma$ using $20 \\text{ fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2012 at 8 TeV. The ratio of the distribution of an invariant mass of $l\\gamma$ obtained from experimental data to the MC distribution from the experimental data was used for the search of the effect. Total significance of weak vacuum polarization signal in the invariant mass distribution of $l \\gamma$ in only one of four channels has some significance. First studies indicate that an evidence of about $3.5 \\sigma$ can be reached. The parameters, amplitude and phase, determined from the fit are different in each channel and thus inconclusive.

  8. Weak antiferromagnetic order and superconductivity in UPt 3 studied by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, N. H.; Rodière, P.; Fåk, B.; Huxley, A.; Flouquet, J.

    2002-07-01

    The heavy-fermion superconductor UPt 3 is one of the best-studied examples of systems that show unconventional superconductivity. Below a transition temperature of Tc=0.55 K a complex phase diagram with three different superconducting phases is observed as a function of temperature, magnetic field, and pressure. The weak antiferromagnetic order ( TN=6 K) with an ordered moment of only 0.02 μB/U atom is believed to play a crucial role in the existence of multiple superconducting phases, as it can act as a symmetry-breaking field for the vector order parameter of the unconventional superconductivity. We review recent progress in neutron scattering measurements on the weak antiferromagnetic order as a function of magnetic field, pressure, and Pd doping and on the superconducting flux-line lattice. The relation between the magnetic and superconducting properties is discussed.

  9. Resonant Interaction Between a Weak Gravitational Wave and a Microwave Beam in the Double Polarized States Through a Static Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-Yu; YANG Nan

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigate the resonant interaction of a weak gravitational wave with a microwave beam in a coupling electromagnetic system, which consists of a Gaussian beam with double polarized transverse electric modes,a static magnetic field and fractal membranes. We find that under the synchroresonance condition, a highfrequency gravitational wave in amplitude 10-30 and frequency 3 GHz may produce the perturbative photon flux of 2.15 × 10 s- 1 in a surface of 10-2 m2. The perturbative photon flux can be pumped out from the background photon fluxes and one may obtain the amplified signal photon flux of2.15 × 104 s-1 by cascade fractal membranes.It is worth studying this effect for the detection of high-frequency relic gravitational waves in quintessential inflationary models and the high-frequency gravitational waves expected by possible laboratory schemes.

  10. Weak C-H$\\cdots$F-C interactions in carboxylate anion binding: Synthesis, spectroscopic and X-ray structural studies of [Co(phen)2CO3]2 (C7H3O2FCl)Cl$\\cdots$11H2O and [Co(phen)2CO3](C7H3NO4Cl)$\\cdot$6H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Singh; R P Sharma; T Aree; P Venugopalan

    2010-09-01

    Two new complex salts containing 2,5-substituted benzoate ions, [Co(phen)2CO3]2 (C7H3O2FCl)Cl$\\cdot$11H2O (1) and [Co(phen)2CO3](C7H3NO4Cl)$\\cdot$6H2O (2) (where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, C7H3O2FCl = 2-chloro-5-fluorobenzoate (cfbz) and C7H3NO4Cl = 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate(cnbz)) were synthesized by reacting carbonatobis(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride with appropriate salts in aqueous medium. A detailed packing analysis has been undertaken to delineate the role of second sphere C-H$\\cdots$F and C-H$\\cdots$O interactions amid other heteroatom interactions. The complex salts have been characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic studies (IR, UV/Visible, multinuclear NMR), conductance and solubility product measurements. Single crystal X-ray structure determination revealed ionic structures of both the complex salts having discrete ions along with lattice water molecules. Crystal lattice is stabilized by a variety of hydrogen bonding interactions, i.e. O-H$\\cdots$O, C-H$\\cdots$O and C-H$\\cdots$F involving second sphere coordination besides - interaction. Furthermore, packing analyses reveal that C-H…F interactions can manifest even in the presence of a large number of heteroatom interactions.

  11. Strengthening institutions or institutionalising weaknesses? : interactions between aid and institutions in Huíla Province, Angola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research analyses the interaction between aid interventions and local institutions through which people address needs during crisis. These include state and non- state institutions involved in social assistance and in the delivery of basic services such as healthcare. The study focuses on the c

  12. Using the DFT-D method to describe dispersion interactions in systems of weakly-bonded Xe-aromatic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriichenko, N. N.; Ermilov, A. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    The optimum version of the DFT-D class of methods (BHHLYP-D2, 6-31G*) is chosen to describe binding in a Xe-phenol system with the aim of subsequent KM/MM calculations for complex Xe-containing protein systems. It is shown that the stability of the Xe-phenol system is due to weak dispersion interactions not described in conventional approaches using the density functional. The MP2 approach using the (aug)-cc-pVTZ basis and Stuttgart pseudopotential, which yield the best reproduction of the characteristics of a Xe2 xenon dimer, is chosen as the reference standard. It is noted that the 2010 DFT-D3 methods underestimate the binding energy by a factor of nearly three, while DFT methods without dispersion corrections do not reproduce the stability of Xe2 and Xe-phenol systems. It is found that in the best version of calculations, BHHLYP-D2, the binding energy in Xe-phenol complex is estimated to be 2.7 kcal/mol versus the 3.1 kcal/mol found using the comparative approach. It is concluded that BHHLYP-D2 adequately reproduces the difference between the two conformers of the Xe-phenol complex and trend toward an increase in binding energy in the series of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). DFT-D can also indicate the existence of excess conformers that are missing in systems according to more precise descriptions (MP2/(aug)-cc-pVTZ).

  13. Weak lensing study of 16 DAFT/FADA clusters: Substructures and filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Clowe, Douglas; Durret, Florence; Adami, Christophe; Acebrón, Ana; Hernandez-García, Lorena; Márquez, Isabel; Guennou, Loic; Sarron, Florian; Ulmer, Mel

    2016-05-01

    While our current cosmological model places galaxy clusters at the nodes of a filament network (the cosmic web), we still struggle to detect these filaments at high redshifts. We perform a weak lensing study for a sample of 16 massive, medium-high redshift (0.4 detection with noise resampling techniques. Taking advantage of the large field of view of our data, we study cluster environment, adding information from galaxy density maps at the cluster redshift and from X-ray images when available. We find that clusters show a large variety of weak lensing maps at large scales and that they may all be embedded in filamentary structures at megaparsec scale. We classify these clusters in three categories according to the smoothness of their weak lensing contours and to the amount of substructures: relaxed (~7%), past mergers (~21.5%), and recent or present mergers (~71.5%). The fraction of clusters undergoing merging events observationally supports the hierarchical scenario of cluster growth, and implies that massive clusters are strongly evolving at the studied redshifts. Finally, we report the detection of unusually elongated structures in CLJ0152, MACSJ0454, MACSJ0717, A851, BMW1226, MACSJ1621, and MS1621. This study is based on observations obtained with MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/IRFU, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. The study is also based on archive data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. This research made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive provided by the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) and data obtained from the XMM-Newton Data Archive provided by the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA).

  14. Cornell Alliance for Science Evaluation of Consensus on Genetically Modified Food Safety: Weaknesses in Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Michael N; Robinson, Claire J

    2017-01-01

    Cornell Alliance for Science has launched an initiative in which "citizen scientists" are called upon to evaluate studies on health risks of genetically modified (GM) crops and foods. The purpose is to establish whether the consensus on GM food safety claimed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is supported by a review of the scientific literature. The Alliance's citizen scientists are examining more than 12,000 publication abstracts to quantify how far the scientific literature supports the AAAS's statement. We identify a number of fundamental weaknesses in the Alliance's study design, including evaluation is based only on information provided in the publication abstract; there is a lack of clarity as to what material is included in the 12,000 study abstracts to be reviewed, since the number of appropriately designed investigations addressing GM food safety are few; there is uncertainty as to whether studies of toxic effects arising from GM crop-associated pesticides will be included; there is a lack of clarity regarding whether divergent yet equally valid interpretations of the same study will be taken into account; and there is no definition of the cutoff point for consensus or non-consensus on GM food safety. In addition, vital industry proprietary biosafety data on GM crops and associated pesticides are not publicly available and is thus cannot inform this project. Based on these weaknesses in the study design, we believe it is questionable as to whether any objective or meaningful conclusion can be drawn from the Alliance's initiative.

  15. The General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) study: protocol for a cohort study on recovery on walking function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Mückel, Simone; Oehmichen, Frank; Pohl, Marcus

    2014-10-24

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are common complications of critical illness that frequently occur together. Both cause so called intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. This weakness of limb muscles increases morbidity and delay rehabilitation and recovery of walking ability. Although full recovery has been reported people with severe weakness may take months to improve walking. Focused physical rehabilitation of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness is therefore of great importance. However, although physical rehabilitation is common, detailed knowledge about the pattern and the time course of recovery of walking function are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) study is to describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in these patients. We conduct a prospective cohort study of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness with defined diagnosis of CIM or CIP. Based on our sample size calculation, approximately 150 patients will be recruited from the ICU of our hospital in Germany. Amount and content of physical rehabilitation, clinical tests for example, muscle strength and motor function and neuropsychological assessments will be used as independent variables. The primary outcomes will include recovery of walking function and mobility. Secondary outcomes will include global motor function, activities in daily life and participation. The study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and conducted with the approval of the local medical Ethics Committee (Landesärztekammer Sachsen, Germany, reference number EK-BR-32/13-1) and with the understanding and written consent of each patient's guardian. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the medical society and general public. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  16. Study on the ${\\Upsilon}(1S)$ ${\\to}$ $B_{c}M$ weak decays

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Junfeng; Wang, Na; Chang, Qin; Huang, Jinshu; Yang, Yueling

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the prospects of the potential ${\\Upsilon}(1S)$ particle at high-luminosity heavy-flavor experiments, we studied the ${\\Upsilon}(1S)$ ${\\to}$ $B_{c}M$ weak decays, where $M$ $=$ ${\\pi}$, ${\\rho}$, $K^{(\\ast)}$. The nonfactorizable contributions to hadronic matrix elements are taken into consideration with the QCDF approach. It is found that the CKM-favored ${\\Upsilon}(1S)$ ${\\to}$ $B_{c}{\\rho}$ decay has branching ratio of ${\\cal O}(10^{-10})$, which might be measured promisingly by the future experiments.

  17. First results about recovery of walking function in patients with intensive care unit-acquired muscle weakness from the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Mückel, Simone; Oehmichen, Frank; Pohl, Marcus

    2015-12-23

    To describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. This is a cohort study. We included critically ill patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Post-acute ICU and rehabilitation units in Germany. We measured walking function, muscle strength, activities in daily living, motor and cognitive function. We recruited 150 patients (30% female) who fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome recovery of walking function was achieved after a median of 28.5 days (IQR=45) after rehabilitation onset and after a median of 81.5 days (IQR=64) after onset of illness. Our final multivariate model for recovery of walking function included two clinical variables from baseline: the Functional Status Score ICU (adjusted HR=1.07 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and the ability to reach forward in cm (adjusted HR=1.02 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.04). All secondary outcomes but not pain improved significantly in the first 8 weeks after study onset. We found good recovery of walking function for most patients and described the recovery of walking function of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Sächsische Landesärztekammer EK-BR-32/13-1; DRKS00007181, German Register of Clinical Trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Weak lensing study of 16 DAFT/FADA clusters: substructures and filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Martinet, Nicolas; Durret, Florence; Adami, Christophe; Acebrón, Ana; Hernandez-García, Lorena; Márquez, Isabel; Guennou, Loic; Sarron, Florian; Ulmer, Mel

    2016-01-01

    While our current cosmological model places galaxy clusters at the nodes of a filament network (the cosmic web), we still struggle to detect these filaments at high redshifts. We perform a weak lensing study for a sample of 16 massive, medium-high redshift (0.4studies. We compute convergence maps and select structures within, securing their detection with noise re-sampling techniques. Taking advantage of the large field of view of our data, we study cluster environment, adding information from galaxy density maps at the cluster redshift and from X-ray images when available. We find that clusters show a large variety of weak lensing maps at large scale...

  19. Recovery of sit-to-stand function in patients with intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness: Results from the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simone; Burridge, Jane H; Pohl, Marcus; Oehmichen, Frank; Mehrholz, Jan

    2016-10-12

    To describe the time course of recovery of sit-to-stand function in patients with intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness and the impact of recovery. A cohort study in post-acute intensive care unit and rehabilitation units. Patients with chronic critical illness and intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness were included. Sit-to-stand function was measured daily, using a standardized chair height, defined as 120% of the individual's knee height. A total of 150 patients were recruited according to the selection criteria. The primary outcome of independent sit-to-stand function was achieved by a median of 56 days (interquartile range Q1-Q3 = 32-90 days) after rehabilitation onset and a median of 113 days (Q1-Q3=70-148 days) after onset of illness. The final multivariate model for recovery of sit-to-stand function included 3 variables: age (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.99), duration of ventilation (HR=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00) and Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit (FSS-ICU) (adjusted HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.08-1.16)). Rapid recovery of sit-to-stand function for most patients with intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness were seen. The variables older age and longer duration of ventilation decreased, and higher FSS-ICU increased the chance of regaining independent sit-to-stand function.

  20. Topic Detection Based on Weak Tie Analysis: A Case Study of LIS Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Based on the weak tie theory, this paper proposes a series of connection indicators of weak tie subnets and weak tie nodes to detect research topics, recognize their connections, and understand their evolution. Design/methodology/approach: First, keywords are extracted from article titles and preprocessed. Second, high-frequency keywords are selected to generate weak tie co-occurrence networks. By removing the internal lines of clustered sub-topic networks, we focus on the analysis of weak tie subnets' composition and functions and the weak tie nodes' roles. Findings: The research topics' clusters and themes changed yearly; the subnets clustered with technique-related and methodology-related topics have been the core, important subnets for years; while close subnets are highly independent, research topics are generally concentrated and most topics are application-related; the roles and functions of nodes and weak ties are diversified. Research limitations: The parameter values are somewhat inconsistent; the weak tie subnets and nodes are classified based on empirical observations, and the conclusions are not verified or compared to other methods. Practical implications: The research is valuable for detecting important research topics as well as their roles, interrelations, and evolution trends. Originality/value: To contribute to the strength of weak tie theory, the research translates weak and strong ties concepts to co-occurrence strength, and analyzes weak ties' functions. Also, the research proposes a quantitative method to classify and measure the topics' clusters and nodes.

  1. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  2. Study on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Agricultural Climate Resources during Summer Drought in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; YU; Xiaoping; GU; Hua; XIONG

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantitatively assess the objective impact of light,heat and water agricultural climate resources on food crops during summer drought,this paper uses the assessment methods for light and temperature potential productivity,and light,temperature and water potential productivity of food crops,performs the comparative analysis of the difference between the food production potential and the average climate state during summer drought,and objectively analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of agricultural climate resources in Guizhou Province during summer drought. Studies show that under summer drought in Guizhou Province,the light and temperature potential productivity of rice and corn is generally about 10% higher than in normal climate years,and the strengths of light and heat resources are obvious; the light,temperature and water potential productivity of rice and corn is generally 30% to 40% lower than in normal climate years,and the weaknesses of water resources hamper the crop growth. Rational development and efficient use of water resources and good light and heat conditions for crops during drought,are more conducive to agricultural production.

  3. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Keiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.

  4. Study on the Characteristic Energy Factor of the Deep Rock Mass Under Weak Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyang; Li, Jie; Ma, Linjian; Huang, Houxu

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the characteristic energy factor of the deep rock mass deformation subjected to the disturbance induced by excavation or explosion. Based on the well-known rock hierarchical structure, the equivalent average kinetic energy of the deep rock mass under weak disturbance is first introduced. The characteristic energy factor that reflects the instable deformation of the deep rock mass is derived using the principle of variation. The relationship between the characteristic energy factor and the energy hierarchical sequence of the deep rock mass deformation and failure has also been illustrated. We believe that the characteristic energy factor is closely related to the characteristic scientific phenomena of deep rock mass in essence, which can provide a new approach for the study of deep rock mass in the fields of nonlinear mechanics, statistic physical mechanics, and mechanics of explosion and geophysics.

  5. A Study of the Weak Shock Wave Propagating over a Porous Wall/Cavity System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.D.KIM; S.J.JUNG; T.AOKI; T.SETOGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    The present computational study addresses the attenuation of the shock wave propagating in a duct, using a porous wall/cavity system. In the present study, a weak shock wave propagating over the porous wall/cavity system is investigated with computational fluid dynamics. A total variation diminishing scheme is employed to solve the unsteady, two-dimensional, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations. The Mach number of an initial shock wave is changed in the range from 1.02 to 1.12. Several different types of porous wall/cavity systems are tested to investigate the passive control effects. The results show that wall pressure strongly fluctuates due to diffraction and reflection processes of the shock waves behind the incident shock wave. From the results, it is understood that for effective alleviation of tunnel impulse waves, the length of the perforated region should be sufficiently long.

  6. Adaptation of the TH Epsilon Mu formalism for the analysis of the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak and electroweak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The TH epsilon mu formalism, used in analyzing equivalence principle experiments of metric and nonmetric gravity theories, is adapted to the description of the electroweak interaction using the Weinberg-Salam unified SU(2) x U(1) model. The use of the TH epsilon mu formalism is thereby extended to the weak interactions, showing how the gravitational field affects W sub mu (+ or -1) and Z sub mu (0) boson propagation and the rates of interactions mediated by them. The possibility of a similar extension to the strong interactions via SU(5) grand unified theories is briefly discussed. Also, using the effects of the potentials on the baryon and lepton wave functions, the effects of gravity on transition mediated in high-A atoms which are electromagnetically forbidden. Three possible experiments to test the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak interactions, which are technologically feasible, are then briefly outline: (1) K-capture by the FE nucleus (counting the emitted X-ray); (2) forbidden absorption transitions in high-A atoms' vapor; and (3) counting the relative Beta-decay rates in a suitable alpha-beta decay chain, assuming the strong interactions obey the equivalence principle.

  7. Critical Temperature Associated to Symmetry Breaking of Klein--Gordon fields versus Condensation Temperature in a Weakly interacting Bose--Einstein Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Castellanos, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We deduce the relation between the critical temperature associated to the U(1) symmetry breaking of scalar fields with one--loop correction potential immersed in a thermal bath, and the condensation temperature of the aforementioned system in the thermodynamic limit, within the semiclassical approximation for a weakly interacting bosonic gas with a positive coupling constant. Additionally, we show that the shift in the condensation temperature caused by the coupling constant is independent of the thermal bath.

  8. Earth’s Interaction Region: Plasma-Neutral Interactions in the Weakly Ionized gas of Earth’s High Latitude Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Vicki

    2015-04-01

    The high-latitude regions of Earth’s upper atmosphere are strongly influenced by plasma-neutral interactions. These interactions couple electrodynamic processes of the ionosphere with hydrodynamic processes of the more abundant thermosphere neutral gas, consequently connecting the high-latitude upper atmosphere to distant regions of the geoplasma environment. This produces a complex spatial and temporal interplay of competing processes that results in a myriad of physical and chemical responses and a rich array of neutral and plasma morphologies that constitute the high-latitude thermosphere and ionosphere. The altitude extent from the lower thermosphere to the upper ionosphere (90km - 1000km) can be considered Earth’s space-atmosphere interaction region - likened to the solar chromosphere’s interaction region where radiative processes and hydrodynamic waves from the dense lower atmosphere produce a cold lower boundary that quickly transitions over a few 100 kilometers to neutral and plasma temperatures that are five times hotter. A thousand or more kilometers further in altitude, Earth's upper atmosphere becomes a hot, collisionless, geomagnetically controlled protonosphere whose neutral and plasma population originates from the thermosphere and ionosphere. A grand challenge in the study of Earth’s interaction region is how the collision-dominated thermosphere/ionosphere system exchanges energy, mass and momentum with the collisionless magnetosphere. This talk will focus primarily on collision-dominated processes of the high-latitude ionosphere and the electromagnetic energy transfer processes that lead to frictional heating of ions and neutrals, and plasma instability phenomenon that leads to extreme electron heating. Observations of the ionosphere response to these processes will be illustrated using incoherent scatter radar measurements. Relevance to the solar chromosphere will be identified where appropriate and outstanding issues in Earth

  9. Study on long distance transmission technique of weak photocurrent signal in laser gas sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming Wang; Yujun Zhang; Hongbin Li; Yi Zhou; Kun You; Ying He; Wenqing Liu

    2012-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of H2S gas concentration is a common problem in natural gas desulfurization process technology.Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a preferred technology for continuous monitoring of gas in industrial sites,because of its high selectivity,high sensitivity,and fast response.We discuss the technical solutions of on-line monitoring of H2S in natural gas desulfurization process technology based on TDLAS,and study the security design of monitoring system in inflammable and explosive areas.We also design a weak photocurrent signal converting circuit and perform experiments on transmission characteristics of different distances.The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of laser absorption spectrum does not decrease after the 1 500-m transmission.The detection limit is 300 ppb.The system can be operated stably and reliably,and satisfies the need for continuous monitoring of the H2S in natural gas desulfurization process.

  10. An independent quark model study of weak leptonic decays of pseudoscalar mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, S. N.; Nanda, P. K.; Sahoo, S.; Panda, S.

    2015-05-01

    An independent quark model with a relativistic power-law potential is used to study the weak leptonic decays of light and heavy pseudoscalar mesons. The partial decay width and the decay constant for the weak leptonic decay are derived from the quark-antiquark momentum distribution amplitude which is obtained from the bound quark eigenfunction with the assumption of a strong correlation existing between quark-antiquark momenta inside the decaying meson in its rest frame. The model parameters are first determined from the application of the model to study the ground state hyperfine splitting of ρ, K, D, Ds, B, Bs and Bc mesons. The same model with no adjustable parameters is then used to evaluate the decay constants fM and the decay widths of pseudoscalar mesons. The model predictions agree quite well with the available experimental data as well as with those of several other models. The decay constant for pion and kaon are obtained as fπ = 132 MeV and fk = 161 MeV which closely agree with experimental values. But in case of heavier mesons for which experimental data are not yet available, the present model gives its predictions as fBC > fBS > fB, fDS > fD, fD > fB and fπ > fB which are in conformity with most of other model predictions. The model predictions of the corresponding decay widths and the branching ratios for the (l\\bar {ν }l) and (τ \\bar {ν }τ ) decay modes are in close agreement with the available experimental data.

  11. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Qiao, E-mail: fanzuhui@pku.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-03-20

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ν ≥ 3 is ∼11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ∼7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg{sup 2}, the bias in (Ω {sub m}, σ{sub 8}) is already intolerably large and close to 3σ. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter

  12. CH-{\\pi} interaction-induced deep orbital deformation in a benzene-methane weak binding system

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jianfu

    2015-01-01

    The nonbonding interaction between benzene and methane, called CH-{\\pi} interaction, plays an important role in physical, chemical, and biological fields. CH-{\\pi} interaction can decrease the system total energy and promote the formation of special geometric configurations. This work investigates systemically the orbital distribution and composition of the benzene-methane complex for the first time using ab initio calculation based on different methods and basis sets. Surprisingly, we find strong deformation in HOMO-4 and LUMO+2 induced by CH-{\\pi} interaction, extending the general view that nonbonding interaction does not cause orbital change of molecules.

  13. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.

  14. Impact of weak interactions of free nucleons on the r-process in dynamical ejecta from neutron-star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Goriely, Stephane; Just, Oliver; Pllumbi, Else; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate beta-interactions of free nucleons and their impact on the electron fraction (Y_e) and r-process nucleosynthesis in ejecta characteristic of binary neutron star mergers (BNSMs). For that we employ trajectories from a relativistic BNSM model to represent the density-temperature evolutions in our parametric study. In the high-density environment, positron captures decrease the neutron richness at the high temperatures predicted by the hydrodynamic simulation. Circumventing the complexities of modelling three-dimensional neutrino transport, (anti)neutrino captures are parameterized in terms of prescribed neutrino luminosities and mean energies, guided by published results and assumed as constant in time. Depending sensitively on the adopted neutrino-antineutrino luminosity ratio, neutrino processes increase Y_e to values between 0.25 and 0.40, still allowing for a successful r-process compatible with the observed solar abundance distribution and a significant fraction of the ejecta consisting of r...

  15. Study of molecular interactions with 13C DNP-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Mathilde H; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille R; Baumann, Herbert; Petersen, Bent O; Karlsson, Magnus; Duus, Jens Ø; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H

    2010-03-01

    NMR spectroscopy is an established, versatile technique for the detection of molecular interactions, even when these interactions are weak. Signal enhancement by several orders of magnitude through dynamic nuclear polarization alleviates several practical limitations of NMR-based interaction studies. This enhanced non-equilibrium polarization contributes sensitivity for the detection of molecular interactions in a single NMR transient. We show that direct (13)C NMR ligand binding studies at natural isotopic abundance of (13)C gets feasible in this way. Resultant screens are easy to interpret and can be performed at (13)C concentrations below muM. In addition to such ligand-detected studies of molecular interaction, ligand binding can be assessed and quantified with enzymatic assays that employ hyperpolarized substrates at varying enzyme inhibitor concentrations. The physical labeling of nuclear spins by hyperpolarization thus provides the opportunity to devise fast novel in vitro experiments with low material requirement and without the need for synthetic modifications of target or ligands.

  16. Recovery of weak factor loadings when adding the mean structure in confirmatory factor analysis: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eXiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends previous research on the recovery of weak factor loadings in confirmatory factor analysis by exploring the effects of adding the mean structure. This issue has not been examined in previous research. This study is based on the framework of Yung and Bentler (1999 and aims to examine the conditions that affect the recovery of weak factor loadings when the model includes the mean structure, compared to analyzing the covariance structure alone. A simulation study was conducted in which several constraints were defined for one-, two-, and three-factor models. Results show that adding the mean structure improves the recovery of weak factor loadings and reduces the asymptotic variances for the factor loadings, particularly for the models with a smaller number of factors and a small sample size. Therefore, under certain circumstances, modeling the means should be seriously considered for covariance models containing weak factor loadings.

  17. Electrical modulation of weak-antilocalization and spin-orbit interaction in dual gated Ge/Si core/shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Deacon, R. S.; Yao, J.; Lieber, C. M.; Ishibashi, K.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic transport of holes in Ge/Si core/shell nanowires (NWs) is investigated under the control of dual electrical gating. The strength of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is analyzed from the weak-antilocalization (WAL) of the magnetoconductance (MC) as a function of a perpendicular magnetic field. By superimposing a small alternating signal on the voltage offset of both gates the universal conductance fluctuations are largely removed from the averaged MC traces, enabling a good fitting to WAL theory models. The tuning of both spin lifetime and the SOI strength is observed in the NWs with dual gating while the carrier density is kept constant. We observe an enhancement of spin lifetime with the mean free path due to the effect of geometrical confinement. The measured SOI energy of 1-6 meV may arise from the dipole coupled Rashba SOI, which is predicted to be one order of magnitude larger than the conventional Rashba coefficient in the Ge/Si core/shell NW system. A clear electrostatic modulation of SOI strength by a factor of up to three implies that Ge/Si NWs are a promising platform for the study of helical states, Majorana fermions and spin-orbit qubits.

  18. Study of Various Techniques for Improving Weak and Compressible Clay Soil under a High Earth Embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein A.K. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of three soil improvement techniques for the construction of a high earth embankment on thick weak and highly compressible clay soil. The eastern approach embankment of Alhalfaya Bridge on the River Nile linking Khartoum North and Omdurman cities was chosen as a case study and a comprehensive site investigation program was carried out to determine the properties the subsurface soils. The study results showed that unless the subsurface soils have been improved they may fail or undergo excessively large settlements due to the embankment construction. Three ground improvement techniques based on the principles of the “staged construction method, SCM”, “vertical sand drain, VSD” and “sand compaction piles, SCP” of embankment foundation soil treatment are discussed and evaluated. Embankment design options based on applications of the above methods have been proposed for foundation treatment to adequately support embankment loads. A method performance evaluation based on the improvement of soil properties achieved; the time required for construction and compared estimated costs criteria was made to assess the effectiveness and expected overall performance. Adoption of any of the soil improvement techniques considered depends mainly on the most critical and decisive factor governing the embankment design. Based on the overall performance for the embankment case studied, the sand drains is considered as the most appropriate improvement method followed by the sand compaction piles technique whereas the staged construction method showed the poorest overall performance.

  19. Regenerative medicine in Huntington's disease: Strengths and weaknesses of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, A M; Popoli, P; Calamandrei, G

    2017-02-20

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by impairment in motor, cognitive and psychiatric domains. Currently, there is no specific therapy to act on the onset or progression of HD. The marked neuronal death observed in HD is a main argument in favour of stem cells (SCs) transplantation as a promising therapeutic perspective to replace the population of lost neurons and restore the functionality of the damaged circuitry. The availability of rodent models of HD encourages the investigation of the restorative potential of SCs transplantation longitudinally. However, the results of preclinical studies on SCs therapy in HD are so far largely inconsistent; this hampers the individuation of the more appropriate model and precludes the comparative analysis of transplant efficacy on behavioural end points. Thus, this review will describe the state of the art of in vivo research on SCs therapy in HD, analysing in a translational perspective the strengths and weaknesses of animal studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cell transplantation on HD progression.

  20. Dip-Hump Temperature Dependence of Specific Heat and Effects of Pairing Fluctuations in the Weak-Coupling Side of a P-Wave Interacting Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotani, Daisuke; van Wyk, Pieter; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the specific heat CV at constant volume in the normal state of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas. Including p-wave pairing fluctuations within the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that, in the weak-coupling side, CV exhibits a dip-hump behavior as a function of the temperature. While the dip is associated with the pseudogap phenomenon near Tc, the hump structure is found to come from the suppression of Fermi quasiparticle scattering into a p-wave molecular state in the Fermi degenerate regime. Since the latter phenomenon does not occur in the ordinary s-wave interacting Fermi gas, it may be viewed as a characteristic phenomenon associated with a p-wave pairing interaction.

  1. Spin-Dependent Weakly-Interacting-Massive-Particle-Nucleon Cross Section Limits from First Data of PandaX-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changbo; Cui, Xiangyi; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Han, Ke; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ren, Xiangxiang; Tan, Andi; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Ning; PandaX-II Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    New constraints are presented on the spin-dependent weakly-interacting-massive-particle- (WIMP-)nucleon interaction from the PandaX-II experiment, using a data set corresponding to a total exposure of 3.3 ×104 kg day . Assuming a standard axial-vector spin-dependent WIMP interaction with Xe 129 and Xe 131 nuclei, the most stringent upper limits on WIMP-neutron cross sections for WIMPs with masses above 10 GeV /c2 are set in all dark matter direct detection experiments. The minimum upper limit of 4.1 ×10-41 cm2 at 90% confidence level is obtained for a WIMP mass of 40 GeV /c2 . This represents more than a factor of 2 improvement on the best available limits at this and higher masses. These improved cross-section limits provide more stringent constraints on the effective WIMP-proton and WIMP-neutron couplings.

  2. A Study on the Interactive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fang Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available “Hopscotch” is a world-wide game for children to play since the times in the ancient Roman Empire andChina. Here we present a study mainly focused on the research and discussion of the application on thechildren’s well-know edutainment via the physical interactive design to provide the sensing of the timesfor the conventional hopscotch, which is a new type of experiment for the technology aided edutainment.The innovated hopscotch music game involves the sound samples of various animals and the charactersof cartoon, and the algorithmic composition via the development of the music technology basedinteractive game, to gradually make the children perceive the world of digits, sound, and music. It canguide the growing children’s personality and character from disorder into clarity. Furthermore, thetraditional teaching materials can be improved via the implementation of the electrical sensing devices,electrical I/O module, and the computer music program Max/MSP, to integrate the interactive computermusic with the interactive and immersive soundscapes composition, and the teaching tool witheducational gaming is completely accomplished eventually.

  3. The structure of the weak neutral current an analysis of the hadronic energy distribution from neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Deden, H; Baruzzi, V; Beuselinck, R; Bloch, M; Clayton, E F; Cundy, Donald C; Davis, C L; Deutschmann, Martin; Emans, H; Figiel, J; Fritze, P; Geich-Gimbel, C; Grant, A; Grässler, Herbert; Grossmann, P; Haidt, D; Hartmann, R; Hasert, F J; Hulth, P O; Keller, A; Kocher, D J; Kokott, T P; McGow, R; Miller, D B; Morfin, J; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Mulvey, J H; Myatt, G; Nellen, B; Pagiola, E; Pape, L; Pech, R; Perkins, Donald Hill; Peterson, V; Peyrou, Charles; Pons, R; Porth, Paul; Powell, K J; Radojicic, D; Renton, P B; Sacquin, Yu; Saitta, B; Schmid, P; Schulte, R; Schultze, K; Scott, W G; Seyfert, H; Stenger, V; Tallini, B; Vignaud, D; Wachsmuth, H W; Wernhard, Karl-Ludwig

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the distribution of hadronic energy in neutrino and antineutrino neutral current interactions occurring in BEBC, filled with a neon-hydrogen mixture and exposed to the CERN-SPS narrow-band neutrino beam. This shows that the contributions by scalar or pseudo-scalar forms of the interaction are consistent with zero and pure V, A and V+A are excluded; there is good agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model. (10 refs).

  4. Interfacial elastic fingering in Hele-Shaw cells: A weakly nonlinear study

    KAUST Repository

    Carvalho, Gabriel D.

    2013-11-11

    We study a variant of the classic viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells where the interface separating the fluids is elastic, and presents a curvature-dependent bending rigidity. By employing a second-order mode-coupling approach we investigate how the elastic nature of the interface influences the morphology of emerging interfacial patterns. This is done by focusing our attention on a conventionally stable situation in which the fluids involved have the same viscosity. In this framework, we show that the inclusion of nonlinear effects plays a crucial role in inducing sizable interfacial instabilities, as well as in determining the ultimate shape of the pattern-forming structures. Particularly, we have found that the emergence of either narrow or wide fingers can be regulated by tuning a rigidity fraction parameter. Our weakly nonlinear findings reinforce the importance of the so-called curvature weakening effect, which favors the development of fingers in regions of lower rigidity. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  5. Studies of instability and transport in tokamak plasmas with very weak magnetic shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J.Q.; Zhang, Y.Z. [Southwestern Inst. of Physics, Chengdu (China)]|[International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mahajan, S.M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1997-04-01

    Ion temperature gradient (ITG or {eta}{sub i}) driven microinstabilities are studied, using kinetic theory, for tokamak plasmas with very weak (positive or negative) magnetic shear (VWS). The gradient of magnetic shear as well as the effects of parallel and perpendicular velocity shear (v{prime}{sub {parallel}} and v{prime}{sub E}) are included in the defining equations. Two eigenmodes: the double (D) and the global (G) are found to coexist. Parametric dependence of these instabilities, and of the corresponding quasilinear transport is systematically analyzed. It is shown that, in VWS plasmas, a parallel velocity shear (PVS) may stabilize or destabilize the modes, depending on the individual as well as the relative signs of PVS and of the gradient of magnetic shear. The quasilinear transport induced by the instabilities may be significantly reduced with PVS in VWS plasmas. The v{prime}{sub E} values required to completely suppress the instabilities are much lower in VWS plasmas than they are in normal plasmas. Possible correlations with tokamak experiments are discussed.

  6. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats: Computational Studies of Mn- and Fe-Catalyzed Epoxidations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Teixeira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of epoxides as synthetic intermediates in a number of highly added-value chemicals, as well as the search for novel and more sustainable chemical processes have brought considerable attention to the catalytic activity of manganese and iron complexes towards the epoxidation of alkenes using non-toxic terminal oxidants. Particular attention has been given to Mn(salen and Fe(porphyrin catalysts. While the former attain remarkable enantioselectivity towards the epoxidation of cis-alkenes, the latter also serve as an important model for the behavior of cytochrome P450, thus allowing the exploration of complex biological processes. In this review, a systematic survey of the bibliographical data for the theoretical studies on Mn- and Fe-catalyzed epoxidations is presented. The most interesting patterns and trends are reported and finally analyzed using an evaluation framework similar to the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis performed in enterprise media, with the ultimate aim to provide an overview of current trends and areas for future exploration.

  7. Impact of weak interactions of free nucleons on the r-process in dynamical ejecta from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriely, S.; Bauswein, A.; Just, O.; Pllumbi, E.; Janka, H.-Th.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate β-interactions of free nucleons and their impact on the electron fraction (Ye) and r-process nucleosynthesis in ejecta characteristic of binary neutron star mergers (BNSMs). For that we employ trajectories from a relativistic BNSM model to represent the density-temperature evolutions in our parametric study. In the high-density environment, positron captures decrease the neutron richness at the high temperatures predicted by the hydrodynamic simulation. Circumventing the complexities of modelling three-dimensional neutrino transport, (anti)neutrino captures are parametrized in terms of prescribed neutrino luminosities and mean energies, guided by published results and assumed as constant in time. Depending sensitively on the adopted νe-bar{ν }_e luminosity ratio, neutrino processes increase Ye to values between 0.25 and 0.40, still allowing for a successful r-process compatible with the observed solar abundance distribution and a significant fraction of the ejecta consisting of r-process nuclei. If the νe luminosities and mean energies are relatively large compared to the bar{ν }_e properties, the mean Ye might reach values >0.40 so that neutrino captures seriously compromise the success of the r-process. In this case, the r-abundances remain compatible with the solar distribution, but the total amount of ejected r-material is reduced to a few per cent, because the production of iron-peak elements is favoured. Proper neutrino physics, in particular also neutrino absorption, have to be included in BNSM simulations before final conclusions can be drawn concerning r-processing in this environment and concerning observational consequences like kilonovae, whose peak brightness and colour temperature are sensitive to the composition-dependent opacity of the ejecta.

  8. Resonance energy transfer (RET)-Induced intermolecular pairing force: a tunable weak interaction and its application in SWNT separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyong; Chen, Hui; Wang, Wei Zhi; Ng, Siu Choon; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2011-07-21

    This paper explores evidence of an optically mediated interaction that is active in the separation mechanism of certain selective agents through consideration of the contrasting selective behaviors of two conjugated polymers with distinct optical properties. The involvement of a RET-induced intermolecular pairing force is implied by the different illumination response behaviors. The magnitude of this interaction scales with the external stimulus parameter, the illumination irradiance (I), and thus is tunable. This suggests a facile technique to modify the selectivity of polymers toward specific SWNT species by altering the polymer structure to adjust the corresponding intermolecular interaction. This is the first experimental verification and application of a RET-induced intermolecular pairing force to SWNT separation. With this kind of interaction taken into account, reasonable interpretation of some conflicting data, especially PLE maps, can be easily made. The above conclusion can be applied to other substances as long as they are electrically neutral and there is photon-induced RET between them. The significant magnitude of this interaction makes direct manipulation of molecules/particles possible and is expected to have applications in molecular engineering.

  9. A weak interaction between the U2A' protein and U2 snRNA helps to stabilize their complex with the U2B" protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Boelens, W; Scherly, D; Beijer, R P; Jansen, E J; Dathan, N A; Mattaj, I W; van Venrooij, W J

    1991-01-01

    The U2 snRNP complex contains two specific proteins, U2B" and U2A'. We have analysed the interaction of U2A' with U2B" and with U2 RNA. U2A' can form an weak but detectable RNA-protein complex with U2 RNA and a stable protein complex with U2B". This protein-protein complex binds efficiently and specifically to U2 RNA. Binding experiments with mutant forms of U2A' shows that the region of U2A' essential for binding to U2B" is extensive, being located between amino acid position 1-164. The beha...

  10. Preparation of a novel weak cation exchange/hydrophobic interaction chromatography dual-function polymer-based stationary phase for protein separation using "thiol-ene click chemistry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Bai, Quan; Zhao, Kailou; Gao, Dong; Tian, Lei

    2015-02-01

    A novel dual-function mixed-mode stationary phase based on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) microspheres was synthesized by thiol-ene click chemistry and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The new system displays both hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) character in a high salt concentration mobile phase, and weak cation exchange (WCX) chromatography character in a low salt concentration mobile phase. It can be used to separate proteins in both ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) mode and HIC mode. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both HIC mode and IEC mode using protein standards. In comparison with the conventional WCX and HIC columns, the results were satisfactory and acceptable. Protein mass and bioactivity recoveries of more than 96% can be achieved in both HIC mode and IEC mode using this column. The results indicate that the novel dual-function mixed-mode column in many cases can replace the use of two individual WCX and HIC columns. In addition, the effects on protein separation of different ligand structures in the dual-function stationary phase and the pH of the mobile phase used were also investigated in detail. The results show that electrostatic interaction of the ligand with proteins must match the hydrophobicity of the ligand, which is an important factor to prepare the dual-function stationary phase. On the basis of this dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology with a single column system was also developed in this study, and was used to renature and purify recombinant human interferon-γ from inclusion bodies. The mass recovery, purity, and specific bioactivity obtained for the purified recombinant human interferon-γ were 87.2%, 92.4%, and 2.8 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in IEC mode, and 83.4%, 95.2%, and 4.3 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in HIC mode. The results indicate that the

  11. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Gulhan, Doga Can [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Milhano, José Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pablos, Daniel [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rajagopal, Krishna [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  12. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Gulhan, Doga Can; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-12-01

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  13. Equation of state and hybrid star properties with the weakly interacting light U-boson in relativistic models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dong-Rui; Wei, Si-Na; Yang, Rong-Yao; Xiang, Qian-Fei

    2016-01-01

    It has been a puzzle whether quarks may exist in the interior of massive neutron stars, since the hadron-quark phase transition softens the equation of state (EOS) and reduce the neutron star (NS) maximum mass very significantly. In this work, we consider the light U-boson that increases the NS maximum mass appreciably through its weak coupling to fermions. The inclusion of the U-boson may thus allow the existence of the quark degrees of freedom in the interior of large mass neutron stars. Unlike the consequence of the U-boson in hadronic matter, the stiffening role of the U-boson in the hybrid EOS is not sensitive to the choice of the hadron phase models. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of the effective QCD correction on the hybrid EOS. This correction may reduce the coupling strength of the U-boson that is needed to satisfy NS maximum mass constraint. While the inclusion of the U-boson also increases the NS radius significantly, we find that appropriate in-medium effects of the U-boson may...

  14. Equation of state and hybrid star properties with the weakly interacting light U-boson in relativistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong-Rui; Jiang, Wei-Zhou; Wei, Si-Na; Yang, Rong-Yao [Southeast University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Xiang, Qian-Fei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    It has been a puzzle whether quarks may exist in the interior of massive neutron stars, since the hadron-quark phase transition softens the equation of state (EOS) and reduce the neutron star (NS) maximum mass very significantly. In this work, we consider the light U-boson that increases the NS maximum mass appreciably through its weak coupling to fermions. The inclusion of the U-boson may thus allow the existence of the quark degrees of freedom in the interior of large mass neutron stars. Unlike the consequence of the U-boson in hadronic matter, the stiffening role of the U-boson in the hybrid EOS is not sensitive to the choice of the hadron phase models. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of the effective QCD correction on the hybrid EOS. This correction may reduce the coupling strength of the U-boson that is needed to satisfy NS maximum mass constraint. While the inclusion of the U-boson also increases the NS radius significantly, we find that appropriate in-medium effects of the U-boson may reduce the NS radii significantly, satisfying both the NS radius and mass constraints well. (orig.)

  15. Direct Shear Mapping: Prospects for weak lensing studies of individual galaxy-galaxy lensing systems

    CERN Document Server

    de Burgh-Day, Catherine O; Webster, Rachel L; Hopkins, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated, using both a theoretical and an empirical approach, the frequency of low redshift galaxy-galaxy lensing systems in which the signature of weak lensing might be directly detectable. We find good agreement between these two approaches. In order to make a theoretical estimate of the weak lensing shear, $\\gamma$, for each galaxy in a catalogue, we have made an estimate of the asymptotic circular velocity from the stellar mass using three different approaches: from a simulation based relation, from an empirically-derived relation, and using the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Using data from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly redshift survey we estimate the frequency of detectable weak lensing at low redshift. We find that to a redshift of $z\\sim 0.6$, the probability of a galaxy being weakly lensed by at least $\\gamma = 0.02$ is $\\sim 0.01$. A scatter in the $M_*-M_h$ relation results in a shift towards higher measured shears for a given population of galaxies. Given this, and the good probability...

  16. A study of fracture in brittle laminar composites that contain weak interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colin Stuart

    Ceramics have material properties that make them useful for many industrial applications. They are strong, hard, and chemically inert. Their refractoriness gives them an advantage over metals and polymers for use at high temperature. Unfortunately, the inherent brittleness of ceramics limits their use in structural applications. One way to improve the toughness of ceramics is to combine them with other materials to make composites. The correct combination of materials can lead to synergism, and a significant improvement in properties. In this work, brittle laminates that contain weak interlayers are considered. The weak interlayers lead to crack deflection, and can result in non-catastrophic failure of the material. The requirements for consistent crack deflection and non-catastrophic failure are not fully understood. This work is an attempt to explain the observed fracture behaviour in brittle laminar composites that contain weak interlayers. A combination of experimental work, fracture mechanics modeling and finite element modeling has been used to predict the requirements necessary for non-catastrophic failure. The work shows the size of flaws in the surface of the composite, in the weak interlayer, and in subsequent strong layers in the material, all play an important role in the fracture behaviour. Control and understanding of the effect of the various flaw sizes can be used to achieve non-catastrophic failure and increased work of fracture in these composites.

  17. Study on Design and Safety Evaluation Methods of Mechanical-Thermal Weak-Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 张方晓

    2012-01-01

    In an abnormal high-temperature fire environment, a structure with mechanical-thermal weak-link can be used to predict the permanent failure before the failure of some strong-links, such as explosive initiator,thus to protect the latter. An effective design can be defined as that the weak-link fails before the failure of the strong-link, and the system is safe; while an unsuccessful design means that the weak-link fails after the failure of the strong-link, and the system loses in safe- ty. The probability of safety failure exists due to the uncertain failure temperatures of the weak-link and strong-link. In order to obtain the probability of safety failure, a statistical method was used to deal with the uncertainty of the failure tem- peratures. The integral method and stochastic simulation method were used in calculations. Finally, a sample was given to verify the consistence of the results given by two methods.

  18. A Study of the Use of the Weak Forms of English Grammatical Words ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    English sentences into tapes and a perceptual analysis of the data was done. It was discovered ... sound / ə / which is the commonest vowel found in the weak forms of English ..... only as the appropriate [ð ] 24% of the instances of production.

  19. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this paper, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage- assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for 10 live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170 eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c2.

  20. Limits on light weakly interacting massive particles from the CDEX-1 experiment with a p -type point-contact germanium detector at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q.; Zhao, W.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Liu, S. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wong, H. T.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We report results of a search for light dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory, based on 53.9 kg-days of data from a p -type point-contact germanium detector enclosed by a NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator as anti-Compton detector. The event rate and spectrum above the analysis threshold of 475 eVee are consistent with the understood background model. Part of the allowed regions for WIMP-nucleus coherent elastic scattering at WIMP mass of 6-20 GeV are probed and excluded. Independent of interaction channels, this result contradicts the interpretation that the anomalous excesses of the CoGeNT experiment are induced by dark matter, since identical detector techniques are used in both experiments.

  1. A Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-27

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c2.

  2. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize Talk: The Search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle Dark Matter: Science Motivation and CDMS strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoulet, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    For the last 25 years, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) have remained one of the favored candidates to explain the ubiquitous dark matter in the universe. We will review the generic aspects of this class of models, and describe the complementarity between three observational approaches: the direct detection of terrestrial interactions of the halo WIMPs, the search for WIMP annihilation products in the cosmos and the attempt to produce these particles at the Large Hadron Collider. After a rapid review of the current status of these three searches, we will focus on the experimental strategy pursued by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search as one of the leading direct detection effort in the world. We will conclude with the CDMS results obtained so far, in particular for low mass dark matter particles. In an accompanying talk, Blas Cabrera will describe the basic technology that we are using and the promise of our new generation of detectors.

  3. Weak Interactions between Salmonella enterica FlhB and Other Flagellar Export Apparatus Proteins Govern Type III Secretion Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L McMurry

    Full Text Available The bacterial flagellum contains its own type III secretion apparatus that coordinates protein export with assembly at the distal end. While many interactions among export apparatus proteins have been reported, few have been examined with respect to the differential affinities and dynamic relationships that must govern the mechanism of export. FlhB, an integral membrane protein, plays critical roles in both export and the substrate specificity switching that occurs upon hook completion. Reported herein is the quantitative characterization of interactions between the cytoplasmic domain of FlhB (FlhBC and other export apparatus proteins including FliK, FlhAC and FliI. FliK and FlhAC bound with micromolar affinity. KD for FliI binding in the absence of ATP was 84 nM. ATP-induced oligomerization of FliI induced kinetic changes, stimulating fast-on, fast-off binding and lowering affinity. Full length FlhB purified under solubilizing, nondenaturing conditions formed a stable dimer via its transmembrane domain and stably bound FliH. Together, the present results support the previously hypothesized central role of FlhB and elucidate the dynamics of protein-protein interactions in type III secretion.

  4. Information Design for “Weak Signal” detection and processing in Economic Intelligence: A case study on Health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbi Sidhom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The topics of this research cover all phases of “Information Design” applied to detect and profit from weak signals in economic intelligence (EI or business intelligence (BI. The field of the information design (ID applies to the process of translating complex, unorganized or unstructured data into valuable and meaningful information. ID practice requires an interdisciplinary approach, which combines skills in graphic design (writing, analysis processing and editing, human performances technology and human factors. Applied in the context of information system, it allows end-users to easily detect implicit topics known as “weak signals” (WS. In our approach to implement the ID, the processes cover the development of a knowledge management (KM process in the context of EI. A case study concerning information monitoring health resources is presented using ID processes to outline weak signals. Both French and American bibliographic databases were applied to make the connection to multilingual concepts in the health watch process.

  5. Experimental study on the bolt-cable combined supporting technology for the extraction roadways in weakly cemented strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingbin; Han Lijun; Sun Jingwu; Min Fengqing; Feng Wei; Zhou Xing

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the characteristics of the poor steady ability, the short stable time and severe deformation behavior of weakly cemented soft surrounding rock around extraction roadway, a bolt–cable combined supporting technology was proposed. Numerical simulation was performed by using FLAC3D software to study the effects of different supporting systems. The simulation result proves that those supporting systems have good practical values. Based on real-time monitoring and analysis of the deformation of surrounding rock and the stress of supporting structure, real time information of deformation of sur-rounding rock and stress state of supporting structure of extraction roadway within weakly cemented strata was obtained. Monitoring results show that large deformation and failure of surrounding rock of extraction roadway within weakly cemented strata can be effectively controlled by the bolt–cable com-bined supporting technology, which ensures the long-term stability and safety of surrounding rock and supporting structure.

  6. Dinuclear Silver(Ⅰ) Complex Based on 1-Picolyl-3-propylbenzimidazolium Salt: Crystal Structure and Weak Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shan; GE Shu-Sheng; WANG Xiu-Guang; LIU Qing-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    1-Picolyl-3-propylbenzimidazolium bromide (LBr) was prepared from benzimida- zole by alkylation with 2-chloromethyl-pyridine in the presence of NaH, followed by quaternization with 1-bromopropane. Ligand LBr was treated with AgBr in CH2Cl2 to afford a dinuclear silver(I) complex L2Ag2Br4 (1). In complex 1, a 2-D supramolecular layer is formed through two types of π-π stacking interactions. Fluorescent emission spectra of ligand LBr and complex 1 are described.

  7. Anderson localization in the multi-particle tight-binding model at low energies or with weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ekanga, Trésor

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multi-particle lattice Anderson model with an i.i.d. random external potential and a short-range interaction. Using the multi-particle multiscale analysis (MPMSA) developed by Chulaevsky and Suhov (2009), we prove spectral localization for such Hamiltonians at low energies under the assumption of log-H\\"{o}lder continuity of the marginal probability distribution of the random potential. Under a stronger assumption of H\\"older continuity, Anderson localization for such systems at low energies was established earlier by Aizenman and Warzel (2009) with the help of the multi-particle Fractional-Moment Method.

  8. Study of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL detectors for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The results are described of a study of three commercially available LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL materials aiming at using this phosphor for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations. Due to the high radiation sensitivity of the material it is suitable for application as thin detectors which...... are necessary for monitoring weakly penetrating radiations. Furthermore, the good energy response characteristics of the material for exposure to photons makes it also attractive for monitoring strongly penetrating radiations. Results are given on glow curve analyses of the LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL phosphor and data...

  9. Theoretical studies of molecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, W.A. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

  10. WEAK EFFICIENCY ON THE STOCK EXCHANGE MARKET: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON ISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SİBEL DUMAN ATAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Markets which returns of share certificate are reflected completely whole information, describe as effective. In a weak-form efficiency market, all past price activity were reflected with current price and it isn’t obtaining an above the normal return to use with past price activity in markets. In this paper, we aim to provide the efficiency level of ISE market using fifteen minutes and session frequency data for the 03 January 2003 – 30 December 2005 period. In order to test the efficiency of ISE we use firstly ADF and KPSS unit root tests and secondly ELW fractionally integrated estimator developed by Shimotsu and Philips (2005. According to application we found that ISE is weakly efficient market.

  11. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  12. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, M.; Sun, M.; Wijk, E. van; Wietmarschen, H. van; Wijk, R. van; Wang, Z.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2016-01-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal

  13. An Analytical Study for Controlling Chaos in Duffing Oscillator with Weak Periodic Perturbation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Shu; HAI Wen-Hua; ZHANG Xi-Li

    2001-01-01

    We obtain a general unstable periodic solution near the homoclinic orbit of the Duffing oscillator with weak periodic perturbation by using the direct perturbation technique. Theoretical analysis reveals that the stable periodic orbits are embedded in the Melnikov chaotic attractor. The corresponding numerical results show that fitting control parameters into the stability conditions can control chaos in the system, and the phase difference between the two sinusoidal forces added to the Duffing equation plays an important role in controlling chaos.

  14. The subtle balance of weak supramolecular interactions: The hierarchy of halogen and hydrogen bonds in haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Raatikainen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The series of haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts: 4-IPhNH3Cl (1, 4-IPhNH3Br (5, 4-IPhNH3H2PO4 (6, 4-ClPhNH3H2PO4 (8, 3-IPyBnCl (9, 3-IPyHCl (10 and 3-IPyH-5NIPA (3-iodopyridinium 5-nitroisophthalate, 13, where hydrogen or/and halogen bonding represents the most relevant non-covalent interactions, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This series was further complemented by extracting some relevant crystal structures: 4-BrPhNH3Cl (2, CCDC ref. code TAWRAL, 4-ClPhNH3Cl (3, CURGOL, 4-FPhNH3Cl (4, ANLCLA, 4-BrPhNH3H2PO4, (7, UGISEI, 3-BrPyHCl, (11, CIHBAX and 3-ClPyHCl, (12, VOQMUJ from Cambridge Structural Database for sake of comparison. Based on the X-ray data it was possible to highlight the balance between non-covalent forces acting in these systems, where the relative strength of the halogen bonding C–X···A− (X = I, Br or Cl and the ratio between the halogen and hydrogen bonds [C–X···A− : D–H···A−] varied across the series.

  15. The subtle balance of weak supramolecular interactions: The hierarchy of halogen and hydrogen bonds in haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatikainen, Kari; Cametti, Massimo; Rissanen, Kari

    2010-01-15

    THE SERIES OF HALOANILINIUM AND HALOPYRIDINIUM SALTS: 4-IPhNH₃Cl (1), 4-IPhNH₃Br (5), 4-IPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (6), 4-ClPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (8), 3-IPyBnCl (9), 3-IPyHCl (10) and 3-IPyH-5NIPA (3-iodopyridinium 5-nitroisophthalate, 13), where hydrogen or/and halogen bonding represents the most relevant non-covalent interactions, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This series was further complemented by extracting some relevant crystal structures: 4-BrPhNH₃Cl (2, CCDC ref. code TAWRAL), 4-ClPhNH₃Cl (3, CURGOL), 4-FPhNH₃Cl (4, ANLCLA), 4-BrPhNH₃H₂PO₄, (7, UGISEI), 3-BrPyHCl, (11, CIHBAX) and 3-ClPyHCl, (12, VOQMUJ) from Cambridge Structural Database for sake of comparison. Based on the X-ray data it was possible to highlight the balance between non-covalent forces acting in these systems, where the relative strength of the halogen bonding C-X...A⁻ (X = I, Br or Cl) and the ratio between the halogen and hydrogen bonds [C-X...A⁻ : D-H...A⁻] varied across the series.

  16. Quantum Brownian Motions and Navier-Stokes Weakly Turbulence — a Path Integral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Luiz C. L.

    In this paper, we present a new method to solve exactly the Schrödinger Harmonic oscillator wave equation in the presence of time-dependent parameter. We also apply such technique to solve exactly the problem of random frequency averaged quantum propagator of a harmonic oscillator with white-noise statistics frequency. We still apply our technique to solve exactly the Brownian Quantum Oscillator in the presence of an electric field. Finally, we use these quantum mechanic techniques to solve exactly the Statistical-Turbulence of the Navier-Stokes in a region of fluid random stirring weakly (analytical) coupling through time-dependent Euclidean-Quantum oscillators path-integrals.

  17. Comparative study on sample stacking by moving reaction boundary formed with weak acid and weak or strong base in capillary electrophoresis: II. Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Liuyin; Shao, Jing; Li, Si; Li, Shan; Cao, Chengxi

    2011-04-15

    To demonstrate the theoretic method on the stacking of zwitterion with moving reaction boundary (MRB) in the accompanying paper, the relevant experiments were performed. The experimental results quantitatively show that (1) MRB velocity, including the comparisons between MRB and zwitterionic velocities, possesses key importance to the design of MRB stacking; (2) a much long front alkaline plug without sample should be injected before the sample injection for a complete stacking of zwitterion if sample buffer is prepared with strong base, conversely no such plug is needed if using a weak base as the sample buffer with proper concentration and pH value; (3) the presence of salt in MRB system holds dramatic effect on the MRB stacking if sample solution is a strong base, but has no effect if a weak alkali is used as sample solution; (4) all of the experiments of this paper, including the previous work, quantitatively manifest the theory and predictions shown in the accompanying paper. In addition, the so-called derivative MRB-induced re-stacking and transient FASI-induced re-stacking were also observed during the experiments, and the relevant mechanisms were briefly demonstrated with the results. The theory and its calculation procedures developed in the accompanying paper can be well used for the predictions to the MRB stacking of zwitterion in CE.

  18. Results on the Spin-Dependent Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles on Nucleons from the Run 3 Data of the LUX Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4 ×104 kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σn=9.4 ×10-41 cm2 (σp=2.9 ×10-39 cm2 ) at 33 GeV /c2 . The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date.

  19. Structural Insight into Specificity of Interactions between Nonconventional Three-finger Weak Toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Paramonov, Alexander S; Chugunov, Anton O; Janickova, Helena; Dolejsi, Eva; Dolezal, Vladimir; Utkin, Yuri N; Tsetlin, Victor I; Arseniev, Alexander S; Efremov, Roman G; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2015-09-25

    Weak toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) belongs to the group of nonconventional "three-finger" snake neurotoxins. It irreversibly inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and allosterically interacts with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Using site-directed mutagenesis, NMR spectroscopy, and computer modeling, we investigated the recombinant mutant WTX analogue (rWTX) which, compared with the native toxin, has an additional N-terminal methionine residue. In comparison with the wild-type toxin, rWTX demonstrated an altered pharmacological profile, decreased binding of orthosteric antagonist N-methylscopolamine to human M1- and M2-mAChRs, and increased antagonist binding to M3-mAChR. Positively charged arginine residues located in the flexible loop II were found to be crucial for rWTX interactions with all types of mAChR. Computer modeling suggested that the rWTX loop II protrudes to the M1-mAChR allosteric ligand-binding site blocking the entrance to the orthosteric site. In contrast, toxin interacts with M3-mAChR by loop II without penetration into the allosteric site. Data obtained provide new structural insight into the target-specific allosteric regulation of mAChRs by "three-finger" snake neurotoxins.

  20. Structural Insight into Specificity of Interactions between Nonconventional Three-finger Weak Toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Paramonov, Alexander S.; Chugunov, Anton O.; Janickova, Helena; Dolejsi, Eva; Dolezal, Vladimir; Utkin, Yuri N.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Efremov, Roman G.; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.

    2015-01-01

    Weak toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) belongs to the group of nonconventional “three-finger” snake neurotoxins. It irreversibly inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and allosterically interacts with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Using site-directed mutagenesis, NMR spectroscopy, and computer modeling, we investigated the recombinant mutant WTX analogue (rWTX) which, compared with the native toxin, has an additional N-terminal methionine residue. In comparison with the wild-type toxin, rWTX demonstrated an altered pharmacological profile, decreased binding of orthosteric antagonist N-methylscopolamine to human M1- and M2-mAChRs, and increased antagonist binding to M3-mAChR. Positively charged arginine residues located in the flexible loop II were found to be crucial for rWTX interactions with all types of mAChR. Computer modeling suggested that the rWTX loop II protrudes to the M1-mAChR allosteric ligand-binding site blocking the entrance to the orthosteric site. In contrast, toxin interacts with M3-mAChR by loop II without penetration into the allosteric site. Data obtained provide new structural insight into the target-specific allosteric regulation of mAChRs by “three-finger” snake neurotoxins. PMID:26242733

  1. Injury of the corticoreticular pathway in patients with proximal weakness following cerebral infarct: diffusion tensor tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kyung Hee; Yeo, Sang Seok; Lee, Jun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-06-24

    The corticoreticular pathway (CRP) innervates mainly the proximal muscles of extremities. Identification of the CRP by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in the human brain has recently become possible. However, little is known about the relation between proximal weakness and injury of the CRP in stroke patients. In this study, we attempted to investigate the usefulness of DTT for elucidation of the relation between proximal motor weakness and injury of the CRP in patients with cerebral infarct. Among 247 consecutive patients with cerebral infarct, four hemiparetic patients who showed more severe weakness in proximal joints (shoulder and hip) than distal joints (finger and ankle) of the affected extremities were recruited for this study. Evaluation of motor function, DTT, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for evaluation of the corticospinal tract state by analysis of the characteristics of the motor-evoked potential were performed at the early stage of cerebral infarct (mean: 17.0 days; range: 11-29). The integrity of the CST on DTT findings in the affected hemisphere was preserved in all four patients and TMS findings in terms of latency and amplitude showed within normal range (one patient) and partial injuries (three patients) of the corticospinal tract. By contrast, on DTT of the CRP in the affected hemispheres, we observed Wallerian degeneration in two patients and discontinuations at infarct level in two patients. The injury of the CRP appeared to attribute the proximal weakness of the shoulder and hip observed in these four patients. Therefore, DTT of the CRP would be useful for elucidating the relation between proximal weakness and injury of the CRP in patients with cerebral infarct.

  2. Multi-modal applicability of a reversed-phase/weak-anion exchange material in reversed-phase, anion-exchange, ion-exclusion, hydrophilic interaction and hydrophobic interaction chromatography modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmerhofer, Michael; Nogueira, Raquel; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    We recently introduced a mixed-mode reversed-phase/weak anion-exchange type separation material based on silica particles which consisted of a hydrophobic alkyl strand with polar embedded groups (thioether and amide functionalities) and a terminal weak anion-exchange-type quinuclidine moiety. This stationary phase was designed to separate molecules by lipophilicity and charge differences and was mainly devised for peptide separations with hydroorganic reversed-phase type elution conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the extraordinary flexibility of this RP/WAX phase, in particular for peptide separations, by illustrating its applicability in various chromatographic modes. The column packed with this material can, depending on the solute character and employed elution conditions, exploit attractive or repulsive electrostatic interactions, and/or hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions as retention and selectivity increments. As a consequence, the column can be operated in a reversed-phase mode (neutral compounds), anion-exchange mode (acidic compounds), ion-exclusion chromatography mode (cationic solutes), hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode (polar compounds), and hydrophobic interaction chromatography mode (e.g., hydrophobic peptides). Mixed-modes of these chromatographic retention principles may be materialized as well. This allows an exceptionally flexible adjustment of retention and selectivity by tuning experimental conditions. The distinct separation mechanisms will be outlined by selected examples of peptide separations in the different modes.

  3. Weak lensing reconstructions in 2D & 3D: implications for cluster studies

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Adrienne; Starck, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    We compare the efficiency with which 2D and 3D weak lensing mass mapping techniques are able to detect clusters of galaxies using two state-of-the-art mass reconstruction techniques: MRLens in 2D and GLIMPSE in 3D. We simulate otherwise-empty cluster fields for 96 different virial mass-redshift combinations spanning the ranges $3\\times10^{13}h^{-1}M_\\odot \\le M_{vir}\\le 10^{15}h^{-1}M_\\odot$ and $0.05 \\le z_{\\rm cl} \\le 0.75$, and for each generate 1000 realisations of noisy shear data in 2D and 3D. For each field, we then compute the cluster (false) detection rate as the mean number of cluster (false) detections per reconstruction over the sample of 1000 reconstructions. We show that both MRLens and GLIMPSE are effective tools for the detection of clusters from weak lensing measurements, and provide comparable quality reconstructions at low redshift. At high redshift, GLIMPSE reconstructions offer increased sensitivity in the detection of clusters, yielding cluster detection rates up to a factor of $\\sim 10\\...

  4. Study of the weak annihilation contributions in charmless \\varvec{B_s→ VV} decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qin; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Xin-Qiang; Sun, Junfeng

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, in order to probe the spectator-scattering and weak annihilation contributions in charmless B_s→ VV (where V stands for a light vector meson) decays, we perform the χ ^2-analyses for the endpoint parameters within the QCD factorization framework, under the constraints from the measured \\bar{B}s→ ρ ^0φ , φ K^{*0}, φ φ and K^{*0}\\bar{K}^{*0} decays. The fitted results indicate that the endpoint parameters in the factorizable and nonfactorizable annihilation topologies are non-universal, which is also favored by the charmless B→ PP and PV (where P stands for a light pseudo-scalar meson) decays observed in previous work. Moreover, the abnormal polarization fractions f_{L,\\bot }(\\bar{B}s→ K^{*0}\\bar{K}^{*0})=(20.1± 7.0)%,(58.4± 8.5)% measured by the LHCb collaboration can be reconciled through the weak annihilation corrections. However, the branching ratio of \\bar{B}s→ φ K^{*0} decay exhibits a tension between the data and theoretical result, which dominates the contributions to χ _min^2 in the fits. Using the fitted endpoint parameters, we update the theoretical results for the charmless B_s→ VV decays, which will be further tested by the LHCb and Belle-II experiments in the near future.

  5. Stability of Large Parallel Tunnels Excavated in Weak Rocks: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiuli; Weng, Yonghong; Zhang, Yuting; Xu, Tangjin; Wang, Tuanle; Rao, Zhiwen; Qi, Zufang

    2017-09-01

    Diversion tunnels are important structures for hydropower projects but are always placed in locations with less favorable geological conditions than those in which other structures are placed. Because diversion tunnels are usually large and closely spaced, the rock pillar between adjacent tunnels in weak rocks is affected on both sides, and conventional support measures may not be adequate to achieve the required stability. Thus, appropriate reinforcement support measures are needed, and the design philosophy regarding large parallel tunnels in weak rocks should be updated. This paper reports a recent case in which two large parallel diversion tunnels are excavated. The rock masses are thin- to ultra-thin-layered strata coated with phyllitic films, which significantly decrease the soundness and strength of the strata and weaken the rocks. The behaviors of the surrounding rock masses under original (and conventional) support measures are detailed in terms of rock mass deformation, anchor bolt stress, and the extent of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ), as obtained from safety monitoring and field testing. In situ observed phenomena and their interpretation are also included. The sidewall deformations exhibit significant time-dependent characteristics, and large magnitudes are recorded. The stresses in the anchor bolts are small, but the extents of the EDZs are large. The stability condition under the original support measures is evaluated as poor. To enhance rock mass stability, attempts are made to reinforce support design and improve safety monitoring programs. The main feature of these attempts is the use of prestressed cables that run through the rock pillar between the parallel tunnels. The efficacy of reinforcement support measures is verified by further safety monitoring data and field test results. Numerical analysis is constantly performed during the construction process to provide a useful reference for decision making. The calculated deformations are in

  6. Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  7. Study on Water-Induced Ultra-Weak Luminescence Value of Wheat Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitao Liang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The wheat kernels were processed by moistened in water. The spontaneous and water-induced luminescence data (photon counts were noted with an ultra-weak luminescence (UWL detector. The following was the features of the data analyzed by the statistical parameters of the spontaneous luminescence and the fitting curves of the water-induced luminescence. The results show that the UWL intensity rises with the moistened time prolonged. It is concluded that the intensity depends on the moistened time mainly. If the moistened kernels owned a more porous structure, in the initial phase of imbibition, a higher UWL emission would be noted. Consequently, the further quantitative research of the relevant could lead a novel testing method about the wheat’s activity and quality.  

  8. The 2 Degrees of Freedom facility in Firenze for the study of weak forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, L.; Stanga, R.; Lorenzini, M.; Grimani, C.; Bassan, M.; Pucacco, G.; Di Fiore, L.; De Rosa, R.; Garufi, F.; Milano, L.

    2010-05-01

    The LISA test-mass (TM) is sensitive to weak forces along all 6 Degrees of Freedom (DoFs). Extensi ve ground test ing is required in order to evaluate the influence of cross-talks of read-outs and actuators operating on different DoFs. To best represent the flight conditions, we developed in Firenze a facility with 2 soft DoFs. Using this facility we measure the forces and stiffnesses acting simultaneously along the 2 soft DoFs, and, more specifically, we will be able to de b ug residual couplings between the TM and the capacitive position sensor that reads the TM position, and to measure actuation cross talks with closed feedback loop. The facility is now ready, and here we report on the co mmi ssioning test s, and on the first measurements.

  9. Weakly swirling flow in a model of blood vessel with stenosis: Numerical and experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov A. Gataulin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of weakly swirling flow in a model of a blood vessel with asymmetrical stenosis has been performed using both experimental flow measurement techniques (ultrasound Doppler and computational fluid dynamics methods. A special attention is paid to getting data for the length of the reverse-flow zone occurring past the stenosis. It has been established that the laminar steady-state flow model is acceptable for numerical analysis of flow past the given-geometry stenosis at Reynolds number values less than 300. At higher values of this parameter, application of the semi-empirical k-ω SST turbulence model is preferable. It has been shown that flow swirl can lead to an increase of the reverse-flow zone.

  10. Weak Formulation Study For Thermoelastic Buckling Analysis Of Thick Laminated Cylindrical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewei Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Weak formulations of mixed state equations of closed laminated cylindrical shells are presented in the Hamilton System. The Hamilton canonical equation of closed cylindrical shell is established. By means of applying the transfer matrix method and taking the advantage of Hamiltonian matrix in the calculation, a unified approach and three-dimensional thermoelastic solutions are obtained for the buckling analysis of closed thick laminated cylindrical shells. All equations of elasticity can be satisfied and all elastic constants can be taken into account. Numerical results are given to compare with those of FEM calculated using SAP5. The principle and method suggested here have clear physical concepts. The equations and boundary conditions proposed in this paper are weakened. The solutions and results given here may serve as a benchmark for other numerical procedures.

  11. Study on optical electron polarimeter and measurement of the relative Stokes parameters of weak light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮存军; 庞文宁; 高君芳; 尚仁成

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the research on an optical electron polarimeter, which is used to determine the polarizationof an incident electron beam by measuring the relative Stokes paraneters of the fluorescence emitted from the He gasfollowing the impact excitation with the electron beam. The fundamental theory of the optical electron polarimeter isdiscussed with the 33p→23S transition of He. The structure and performance of the instrument are described, whichare different in some aspects from previous works.The arrangement of the experiment for measuring the relativeStokes parameters of linearly polarized weak light is also investigated, which actually involves the same processes as thepolarization measurement with the incident electron beam. The results obtained are in agreement with the theoreticalprediction.

  12. Theoretical study on phase conjugation in weakly injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei-Li; Pan Wei; Luo Bin; Li Xiao-Feng; Zou Xi-Hua; Wang Meng-Yao

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed theoretical investigation on phase conjugation induced by nearly degenerate fourwave mixing in single mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with~weak optical injection.Considering VCSELs that can work in linearly polarized or elliptically polarized states,it derives the theoretical expression of the conjugated field by small signal analysis based on the vectoral rate equations--the spin-flip model.For linearly polarized state,VCSELs show similar conjugate spectra to edge-emitting semiconductor lasers.For the eUiptically polarized state,dichroism and birefringence parameters as well as the spin-flip rate can change the conjugate spectra.Especially,when frequency detuning of the probe and pump waves is between the positive and negative relaxation oscillation frequency,changes are evident.For specific values of parameters,conjugate efficiency between 20 dB to 40 dB are obtained.

  13. Study of the weak annihilation contributions in charmless B{sub s} → VV decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Qin [Henan Normal University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Henan (China); Central China Normal University, Institute of Particle Physics and Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE), Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Xiaonan; Sun, Junfeng [Henan Normal University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Henan (China); Li, Xin-Qiang [Central China Normal University, Institute of Particle Physics and Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE), Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, in order to probe the spectator-scattering and weak annihilation contributions in charmless B{sub s} → VV (where V stands for a light vector meson) decays, we perform the χ{sup 2}-analyses for the endpoint parameters within the QCD factorization framework, under the constraints from the measured anti B{sub s} → ρ{sup 0}φ, φK{sup *0}, φφ and K{sup *0} anti K{sup *0} decays. The fitted results indicate that the endpoint parameters in the factorizable and nonfactorizable annihilation topologies are non-universal, which is also favored by the charmless B → PP and PV (where P stands for a light pseudo-scalar meson) decays observed in previous work. Moreover, the abnormal polarization fractions f{sub L,} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} (anti B{sub s} → K{sup *0} anti K{sup *0}) = (20.1±7.0)%, (58.4±8.5)% measured by the LHCb collaboration can be reconciled through the weak annihilation corrections. However, the branching ratio of anti B{sub s} → φK{sup *0} decay exhibits a tension between the data and theoretical result, which dominates the contributions to χ{sub min}{sup 2} in the fits. Using the fitted endpoint parameters, we update the theoretical results for the charmless B{sub s} → VV decays, which will be further tested by the LHCb and Belle-II experiments in the near future. (orig.)

  14. Hardware development for the "Weak ionization lead lepton interaction for air-shower investigations in Romania"- WILLI-AIR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bǎlǎceanu, A.; Brancus, I. M.; Dumitriu, D.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Haungs, A.; Mathes, H.-J.; Munteanu, A.; Mitrica, B.; Mosu, T.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Saftoiu, A.; Stanca, D.

    2017-06-01

    WILLI-AIR experiment is designed to study the muon charge ratio in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by primary cosmic particles with energy lower than 1015 eV. It consists in two parts represented by two existing experiments, WILLI detector and AIR mini-array. The WILLI calorimeter has been built with the aim to measure the atmospheric muons and to discriminate between µ+ and µ-. The experimental method is based on different behavior of negative and positive muons after stopping in the matter. The EAS are measured by the AIR array, composed of 24 stations, each with a detection surface of 1m2 read out by two photomultipliers. In order to use as best as we can the properties of both capabilities, the array configuration was previously established through CORSIKA simulations, being placed at about 50 m from WILLI electromagnetic calorimeter. Fast and integrated electronics have been developed in order to process the signals from PMT's. An MBS system was chosen as a fast DAQ. This document is presenting the evolution of the work on hardware and the current results regarding the electronics capability.

  15. A comparative study of interaction of ibuprofen with biocompatible polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iqrar A; Anjum, Kahkashan; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Kabir-ud Din

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we are reporting the interaction of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBF) with various biocompatible polymers. Being amphiphilic, the drug interacts with the polymers similar to the interaction of surfactants and polymers. Therefore, we have considered the polymer-amphiphile interaction approach using conductimetry. The polymers of different charges (cationic, anionic, and nonionic) have been taken for the study. It was found that the critical aggregation concentration (cac) decreases on increasing the polymer concentrations of cationic as well as nonionic polymers whereas it increases for anionic polymers. The results imply that anionic IBF interacts with cationic and nonionic polymers more strongly as compared to the anionic polymers. A possible anionic-anionic repulsion is responsible for the weak interaction of IBF with anionic polymers. On the other side, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) increases for all polymers which is a usual indication of the interaction between amphiphiles and polymers. Free energies of aggregation (ΔG(agg)) and micellization (ΔG(mic)) were also computed with the help of degrees of micelle ionization obtained from the specific conductivity - [IBF] isotherms.

  16. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarita; Rani, Pooja

    2016-05-01

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO2 (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO2 has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=-21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  17. A combined experimental and theoretical study of the supramolecular self-assembly of Cu(II) malonate complex assisted by various weak forces and water dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Prankrishna [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ray Choudhury, Somnath [Central Chemical Laboratory, Geological Survey of India, 15 A and B Kyd Street, Kolkata 700 016 (India); Mitra, Monojit [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Kumar Seth, Saikat [Department of Physics, M. G. Mahavidyalaya, Bhupatinagar, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal 721 425 (India); Helliwell, Madeleine [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bauzá, Antonio [Departament de Química, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. de Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Baleares) (Spain); Frontera, Antonio, E-mail: toni.frontera@uib.es [Departament de Química, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. de Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Baleares) (Spain); Mukhopadhyay, Subrata, E-mail: smukhopadhyay@chemistry.jdvu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2014-12-15

    A Cu(II) malonate complex with formula [Cu(C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4})(C{sub 6}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O (1) [C{sub 6}H{sub 8}N{sub 2}=2-picolylamine, C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}=malonate dianion] has been synthesized by mixing the reactants in their stoichiometric proportion and its crystal structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In 1, monomeric neutral metal malonate units [Cu(C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4})(C{sub 6}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)] are interlinked with each other through hydrogen bonds, weak lone pair⋯π and cuprophilic interactions to generate supramolecular dimers, which in turn further associated through hydrogen bonding to form infinite 1D chains. Water dimers, through series of hydrogen bonds and weak π–stacking forces are found to be responsible for interconnection of 1D chains, which resulted in a 3D network. A density functional (DFT) study of the energetic features of several noncovalent interactions observed in the solid state have been analyzed and characterized using Bader's theory of “atoms-in-molecules”. We also present here Hirshfeld surface analysis to investigate the close intermolecular contacts. - Graphical Abstract: Interplay of weak forces like hydrogen bonding, lone pair⋯π, Cu⋯Cu and π–stacking interactions leading to the formation of supramolecular network in [Cu(C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4})(C{sub 6}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O complex. - Highlights: • A complex of Cu(II) with malonate and 2-picolylamine is synthesized and X-ray characterized. • We report a density functional study of the energetic features of several noncovalent interactions • We perform Hirshfeld surface analysis to investigate the close intermolecular contacts.

  18. Residual stress measurement on propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy and study on its weak spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Li, Huan; Li, Jianxiong; Luo, Chuanguang; Ni, Yanbing [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2017-05-15

    This paper presented residual stress measurement on two circumferential Variable polarity plasma arc welding (VPPAW) joints and one circular closed Friction stir welding (FSW) joint on the propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy using the indentation strain-gauge method. Quite large tensile residual stresses were attached to the center and inner areas of the circular closed FSW joint. There were very large tensile stresses in some points of the two circumferential VPPAW joints, among these points, the maximum value was +253 MPa, which was about 63 % of the yield strength of 410 MPa measured in the base material. In addition, the peak of compressive residual stress was about -160 MPa. Above all, there were two typical peaks of residual stress in the circumferential VPPAW joints, one was located in the middle part while the other one was near the start/end position of the joints. Combining the result of residual stress measurement with the characteristics of the tank structure, it can be concluded that circular closed FSW joint around the flange was a weak spot on the propellant tank. And the most vulnerable point on the circular closed FSW joint has also been found.

  19. Double degree of freedom pendulum facility for the study of weak forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, R [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Florence (Italy); Marconi, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C [Istituto di Fisica, Universita degli studi di Urbino, Urbino (Italy); Bassan, M; Pucacco, G; Reali, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Simonetti, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Finetti, N, E-mail: marconi@fi.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi dell' Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Gruppo Collegato dell' Aquila (Italy)

    2009-03-01

    The LISA Test-Mass (TM) is sensitive to weak forces along all 6 Degrees of Freedom (DoFs). Extensive ground testing is required in order to evaluate the influence of crosstalks of various read-outs and actuators operating on different DoFs. To this purpose, and to better represent the flight conditions, we are developing a facility with 2 soft DoFs which consists of two stage roto-translational pendulum. This facility will measure the forces and stiffnesses simultaneously acting on the Test Mass along 2 different soft DoFs. The advantages with respect to a single DoF test bench are a more effective identification and debug of spurious effects between the TM and the capacitive position sensor surrounding it and the possibility to test actuation crosstalk with closed feedback loop. In particular, it allows us to measure the residual disturbance along one DoF when we close the control loop on the other one.

  20. Subaru Weak Lensing Study of Seven Merging Clusters: Distributions of Mass and Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, N; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2007-01-01

    We present and compare projected distributions of mass, galaxies, and the intracluster medium (ICM) for a sample of merging clusters of galaxies based on the joint weak-lensing, optical, and X-ray analysis. Our sample comprises seven nearby Abell clusters ($0.0542 \\le z \\le 0.279$), for which we have conducted systematic, deep imaging observations with Suprime-Cam on Subaru telescope. Our seven target clusters, representing various merging stages and conditions, allow us to investigate in details the physical interplay between dark matter, ICM, and galaxies associated with cluster formation and evolution. A1750 and A1758 are binary systems consisting of two cluster-sized components, A520, A754, A1758, and A1914 are on-going cluster mergers, and A2034 and A2142 are cold-front clusters. In the binary clusters, which are presumably in an early phase of mergers, the projected mass, optical light, and X-ray distributions are overall similar and regular without significant substructures. On-going merging clusters, ...

  1. Overview of the JYFLTRAP mass measurements and high-precision -values for weak interaction studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Eronen; Jyfltrap

    2010-08-01

    The JYFLTRAP Penning trap set-up at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, is a Penning trap facility that has provided high-precision atomic mass values for short-lived nuclides since 2003. Until now, masses of more than 250 short-lived nuclides have been measured. Since JYFLTRAP is coupled to the chemically insensitive IGISOL mass separator, any element can be accessed. So far, a huge mass surface extending from magnesium ( = 12) to lead ( = 82) has been covered.

  2. Study of weak corrections to Drell-Yan, top-quark pair, and dijet production at high energies with MCFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John M.; Wackeroth, Doreen; Zhou, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Electroweak (EW) corrections can be enhanced at high energies due to the soft or collinear radiation of virtual and real W and Z bosons that result in Sudakov-like corrections of the form αWllogn(Q2/MW,Z 2) , where αW=α /(4 π sin2θW) and n ≤2 l -1 . The inclusion of EW corrections in predictions for hadron colliders is, therefore, especially important when searching for signals of possible new physics in distributions probing the kinematic regime Q2≫MV2. Next-to-leading order (NLO) EW corrections should also be taken into account when their size [O (α )] is comparable to that of QCD corrections at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) [O (αs2)]. To this end, we have implemented the NLO weak corrections to the neutral-current Drell-Yan process, top-quark pair production and dijet production in the parton-level Monte Carlo program MCFM. This enables a combined study with the corresponding QCD corrections at NLO and NNLO. We provide both the full NLO weak corrections and their Sudakov approximation since the latter is often used for a fast evaluation of weak effects at high energies and can be extended to higher orders. With both the exact and approximate results at hand, the validity of the Sudakov approximation can be readily quantified.

  3. Spectroscopic and computational studies of a Ru(II) terpyridine complex: the importance of weak intermolecular forces to photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Claudio; Gobetto, Roberto; Nervi, Carlo; Salassa, Luca; Rosenberg, Edward; Ross, J B Alexander; Chu, Xi; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; Sabatini, Cristiana

    2007-10-15

    The complex [Ru(tpy)(CO)(2)TFA]+[PF(6)]- (where tpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine and TFA = CF(3)CO(2)-) (1) has been synthesized and fully characterized spectroscopically. The X-ray structure of the complex has been determined. The photopysical properties of the ruthenium complex and the free ligand tpy have been investigated at room temperature and at 77 K in acetonitrile solution and in the solid state. Their electronic spectra are highly influenced by intermolecular stacking interactions, both in solution and in the solid state. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations have been performed to characterize the electronic structure and the excited states of [Ru(tpy)(CO)(2)TFA]+[PF(6)]- and tpy. TDDFT calculations on three different conformations of free ligand have been performed as well. Absorption and emission spectra of tpy have been studied at different temperatures and concentrations in order to have a better understanding of this ruthenium derivative's properties. The absorption spectrum of 1 is characterized by metal-perturbed ligand-centered (LC) bands in the UV region. No metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands are observed in the visible for the complex. Only at high concentrations (10(-4) M) does a very weak band appear at 470 nm. At 77 K and low concentrations, solutions of 1 exhibit a major 3LC emission band centered at 468 nm (21.4 x 10(-3) cm(-1)). When the concentration of the complex is increased, an unstructured narrow emission at 603 nm (16.6 x 10(-3) cm(-1)), with a lifetime of 10 micros, dominates the emission spectrum in glassy acetonitrile. This emission originates from a pi-pi stacked dimeric (or oligomeric) species. TDDFT calculations performed on a tail-to-tail dimer structure, similar to that seen in the solid state, ascribe the transition to a triplet excited state, where intermolecular metal (d) --> ligand (pi*, polypyridine) charge transfer occurs. A good estimate of the transition energy is also

  4. The voltammetric responses of nanometer-sized electrodes in weakly supported electrolyte: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuwen; Zhang Qianfan [Hubei Electrochemical Power Sources Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen Shengli, E-mail: slchen@whu.edu.c [Hubei Electrochemical Power Sources Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2010-11-30

    The effect of the supporting electrolyte concentration on the interfacial profiles and voltammetric responses of nanometer-sized disk electrodes have been investigated theoretically by combining the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) theory and Butler-Volmer (BV) equation. The PNP-theory is used to treat the nonlinear couplings of electric field, concentration field and dielectric field at electrochemical interface without the electroneutrality assumption that has been long adopted in various voltammetric theories for macro/microelectrodes. The BV equation is modified by using the Frumkin correction to account for the effect of the diffuse double layer potential on interfacial electron-transfer (ET) rate and by including a distance-dependent ET probability in the expression of rate constant to describe the radial heterogeneity of the ET rate constant at nanometer-sized disk electrodes. The computed voltammetric responses for disk electrodes larger than 200 nm in radii in the absence of the excess of the supporting electrolyte using the present theoretical scheme show reasonable agreements with the predications of the conventional microelectrode voltammetric theory which uses the combined Nernst-Planck equation and electroneutrality equation to describe the mixed electromigration-diffusion mass transport without including the possible effects of the diffuse double layer (Amatore et al. ). For electrodes smaller than 200 nm, however, the voltammetric responses predicated by the present theory exhibit significant deviation from the microelectrode theory. It is shown that the deviations are mainly resulted from the overlap between the diffuse double layer and the concentration depletion layer (CDL) at nanoscale electrochemical interfaces in weakly supported media, which will result in the invalidation of the electroneutrality condition in CDL, and from the radial inhomogeneity of ET probability at nanometer-sized disk electrodes.

  5. Identification of weak points of hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitors using surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based interaction kinetic analysis and genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn Gustafsson, Sofia; Ehrenberg, Angelica; Schmuck, Benjamin; Anwar, Muhammad Ikram; Danielson, U Helena

    2014-03-13

    To aid the design of next generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, the kinetics of the interactions between NS3 protease inhibitors and enzyme from genotypes 1a, 1b, and 3a have been characterized. The linear mechanism-based inhibitors VX-950 (telaprevir) and SCH 503034 (boceprevir) benefited from covalent adduct formation. However, the apparent affinities were rather weak (VX-950, K(D)* of 340, 8.5, and 1000 nM for genotypes 1a, 1b and 3a, respectively; SCH 503034, K(D)* of 90 and 3.9 nM for 1b and 3a, respectively). The non-mechanism-based macrocyclic inhibitors BILN-2016 (ciluprevir) and ITMN-191 (danoprevir) had faster association and slower dissociation kinetics, indicating that rigidification is kinetically favorable. ITMN-191 had nanomolar affinities for all genotypes (K(D)* of 0.13, 1.6, and 0.52 nM), suggesting that a broad spectrum drug is conceivable. The data show that macrocyclic scaffolds and mechanism-based inhibition are advantageous but that there is considerable room for improvement of the kinetics of HCV protease targeted drugs.

  6. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly-interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs (120 - 140 GeV) to a pair of weakly-interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb${^-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly-interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.

  7. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abouzeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Akiyama, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Aubert, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Bachy, G; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Barbaro Galtieri, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bendel, M; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, F; 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Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tappern, G P; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Tatarkhanov, M; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teinturier, M; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Thadome, J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thioye, M; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokunaga, K; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, G; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torchiani, I; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, T N; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trivedi, A; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuggle, J M; Turala, M; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Uhrmacher, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Underwood, D G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Usai, G; Uslenghi, M; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valenta, J; Valente, P; Valentinetti, S; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Poel, E; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vandoni, G; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vegni, G; Veillet, J J; Vellidis, C; Veloso, F; Veness, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinek, E; Vinogradov, V B; Virchaux, M; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vlasov, N; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobiev, A P; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Voss, T T; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Wakabayashi, J; Walbersloh, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, J C; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Warsinsky, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M; Weber, M S; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wellenstein, H; Wells, P S; Wen, M; Wenaus, T; Wendler, S; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Weydert, C; Whalen, K; Wheeler-Ellis, S J; Whitaker, S P; White, A; White, M J; Whitehead, S R; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicek, F; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, C; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wunstorf, R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xie, S; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, G; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ybeles Smit, G V; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Youssef, S; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaets, V G; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zanello, L; Zarzhitsky, P; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeller, M; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zinonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, S; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zieminska, D; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zolnierowski, Y; Zsenei, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2012-06-22

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs boson (120-140 GeV) to a pair of weakly interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.

  8. Literature survey of high-impact journals revealed reporting weaknesses in abstracts of diagnostic accuracy studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, Daniël A; Cohen, Jérémie F; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Informative journal abstracts are crucial for the identification and initial appraisal of studies. We aimed to evaluate the informativeness of abstracts of diagnostic accuracy studies. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: PubMed was searched for reports of studies that had evaluated the diagnostic

  9. A study of the weak boson fusion, with H->tau tau and tau->e(mu)

    CERN Document Server

    Klute, Markus

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment for a discovery of the SM Higgs boson in the weak boson fusion qqH with H to tau tau and tau to e,mu is studied. The tagging of two high energy forward jets and a veto of soft jets in the central region of the detector provide powerful tools for background suppression. In addition the two lepton final state with missing energy allows the reconstruction of the Higgs mass with a resolution of 10 %. Signal and background rates as well as the final signal significance are evaluated for a SM Higgs boson in the mass range between 110 and 150 GeV.

  10. A membrane - foulant interaction study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontyn, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis the problem of membrane fouling has been considered from different points of view. The aim of the study is to gather information on the physical and chemical mechanisms of membrane fouling, so that selective solutions can be introduced to overcome or to diminish the problem.Anti-foami

  11. Gamow-Teller strength distributions and stellar weak-interaction rates for ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se using the deformed pn-QRPA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Ishfaq, Mavra

    2016-07-01

    We calculate Gamow-Teller strength distributions for β β-decay nuclei ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se using the deformed pn-QRPA model. We use a deformed Nilsson basis and consider pairing correlations within the deformed BCS theory. Ground state correlations and two-particle and two-hole mixing states were included in our pn-QRPA model. Our calculated strength distributions were compared with experimental data and previous calculation. The total Gamow-Teller strength and centroid placement calculated in our model compares well with the measured value. We calculate β-decay and positron capture rates on ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se in supernovae environments and compare them to those obtained from experimental data and previous calculation. Our study shows that positron capture rates command the total weak rates at high stellar temperatures. We also calculate energy rates of β-delayed neutrons and their emission probabilities.

  12. Literature survey of high-impact journals revealed reporting weaknesses in abstracts of diagnostic accuracy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Daniël A; Cohen, Jérémie F; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2015-06-01

    Informative journal abstracts are crucial for the identification and initial appraisal of studies. We aimed to evaluate the informativeness of abstracts of diagnostic accuracy studies. PubMed was searched for reports of studies that had evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a test against a clinical reference standard, published in 12 high-impact journals in 2012. Two reviewers independently evaluated the information contained in included abstracts using 21 items deemed important based on published guidance for adequate reporting and study quality assessment. We included 103 abstracts. Crucial information on study population, setting, patient sampling, and blinding as well as confidence intervals around accuracy estimates were reported in items per abstract was 10.1 of 21 (standard deviation 2.2). The mean number of reported items was significantly lower for multiple-gate (case-control type) studies, in reports in specialty journals, and for studies with smaller sample sizes and lower abstract word counts. No significant differences were found between studies evaluating different types of tests. Many abstracts of diagnostic accuracy study reports in high-impact journals are insufficiently informative. Developing guidelines for such abstracts could help the transparency and completeness of reporting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weakly coordinating anions: crystallographic and NQR studies of halogen-metal bonding in silver, thallium, sodium, and potassium halomethanesulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfsberg, Gary; Parks, Katherine D; Rutherford, Richard; Jackson, Debra Jones; Jones, Frank E; Derrick, Dana; Ilsley, William; Strauss, Steven H; Miller, Susie M; Anderson, Oren P; Babushkina, T A; Gushchin, S I; Kravchenko, E A; Morgunov, V G

    2002-04-22

    35Cl, (79,81)Br, and (127)I NQR (nuclear quadrupole resonance) spectroscopy in conjunction with X-ray crystallography is potentially one of the best ways of characterizing secondary bonding of metal cations such as Ag(+) to halogen donor atoms on the surfaces of very weakly coordinating anions. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of Ag(O(3)SCH(2)Cl) (a = 13.241(3) A; b = 7.544(2) A; c = 4.925(2) A; orthorhombic; space group Pnma; Z = 4) and compared it with the known structure of Ag(O(3)SCH(2)Br) (Charbonnier, F.; Faure, R.; Loiseleur, H. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 1978, 34, 3598-3601). The halogen atom in each is apical (three-coordinate), being weakly coordinated to two silver ions. (127)I NQR studies on Ag(O(3)SCH(2)I) show the expected NQR consequences of three-coordination of iodine: substantially reduced NQR frequencies nu(1) and nu(2) and a fairly small NQR asymmetry parameter eta. The reduction of the halogen NQR frequency of the coordinating halogen atom in Ag(O(3)SCH(2)X) becomes more substantial in the series X = Cl < Br < I, indicating that the coordination to Ag(+) strengthens in this series, as expected from hard-soft acid-base principles. The numbers of electrons donated by the organic iodine atom to Ag(+) have been estimated; these indicate that the bonding to the cation is weak but not insignificant. We have not found any evidence for the bonding of these organohalogen atoms to another soft-acid metal ion, thallium. A scheme for recycling of thallium halide wastes is included.

  14. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  15. Genome sequence of the highly weak-acid-tolerant Zygosaccharomyces bailii IST302, amenable to genetic manipulations and physiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Margarida; Münsterkötter, Martin; Peça, João; Güldener, Ulrich; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2017-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most problematic spoilage yeast species found in the food and beverage industry particularly in acidic products, due to its exceptional resistance to weak acid stress. This article describes the annotation of the genome sequence of Z. bailii IST302, a strain recently proven to be amenable to genetic manipulations and physiological studies. The work was based on the annotated genomes of strain ISA1307, an interspecies hybrid between Z. bailii and a closely related species, and the Z. bailii reference strain CLIB 213T. The resulting genome sequence of Z. bailii IST302 is distributed through 105 scaffolds, comprising a total of 5142 genes and a size of 10.8 Mb. Contrasting with CLIB 213T, strain IST302 does not form cell aggregates, allowing its manipulation in the laboratory for genetic and physiological studies. Comparative cell cycle analysis with the haploid and diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains BY4741 and BY4743, respectively, suggests that Z. bailii IST302 is haploid. This is an additional trait that makes this strain attractive for the functional analysis of non-essential genes envisaging the elucidation of mechanisms underlying its high tolerance to weak acid food preservatives, or the investigation and exploitation of the potential of this resilient yeast species as cell factory. © FEMS 2017.

  16. Weak interference in the high-signal regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juan P; Puentes, Graciana; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose

    2012-08-13

    Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on: a) the existence of a weak interaction which couples a property of a system (the system) with a separate degree of freedom (the pointer), and b) the measurement of an anomalously large mean value of the pointer state (weak mean value), after appropriate pre-and post-selection of the state of the system. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits its applicability. However, we will show here that since weak amplification is essentially the result of an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference (weak interference) to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime).

  17. Study of an electrodynamic system consisting of a laser cavity and an external weakly reflecting element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatrov, A. D.; Dubrov, M. N.; Aleksandrov, D. V.

    2016-12-01

    The behaviour of the electromagnetic field in a three-mirror laser cavity is described using the method of integral equations. The results of numerical calculations and experimental studies for particular examples implementing the considered configuration are presented. The conditions for optimal tuning of a laser interferometer-deformograph with a three-mirror cavity are determined. The contribution of the reflected and scattered light and arising additional seismic noises to the resulting error of laser gravitational wave detectors is studied.

  18. Studies on phytoplankton-bacterial interactions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.

    Given the sheer range of phytoplankton-bacterial interactions, some intriguing aspects have been addressed in this study. Firstly, the role of bacteria in influencing phytoplankton communities at the system level was examined. The seasonal changes...

  19. Scaling Relations and Overabundance of Massive Clusters at z>~1 from Weak-Lensing Studies with HST

    CERN Document Server

    Jee, M J; Hoekstra, H; Perlmutter, S; Rosati, P; Brodwin, M; Suzuki, N; Koester, B; Postman, M; Lubin, L; Meyers, J; Stanford, S A; Barbary, K; Barrientos, F; Eisenhardt, P; Ford, H C; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A; Harris, D W; Huang, X; Lidman, C; Rykoff, E S; Rubin, D; Spadafora, A L

    2011-01-01

    We present weak gravitational lensing analysis of 22 high-redshift (z >~1) clusters based on Hubble Space Telescope images. Most clusters in our sample provide significant lensing signals and are well detected in their reconstructed two-dimensional mass maps. Combining the current results and our previous weak-lensing studies of five other high-z clusters, we compare gravitational lensing masses of these clusters with other observables. We revisit the question whether the presence of the most massive clusters in our sample is in tension with the current LambdaCDM structure formation paradigm. We find that the lensing masses are tightly correlated with the gas temperatures and establish, for the first time, the lensing mass-temperature relation at z >~ 1. For the power law slope of the M-TX relation (M propto T^{\\alpha}), we obtain \\alpha=1.54 +/- 0.23. This is consistent with the theoretical self-similar prediction \\alpha=3/2 and with the results previously reported in the literature for much lower redshift s...

  20. Weak network efficiency in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2016-10-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is particularly suited for the young population and ecological measurement. However, thus far, not enough effort has been given to the clinical diagnosis of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by using fNIRS. The current study provided some insights into the quantitative analysis of functional networks in young children (ages 4.8-8.0years old) with and without ASD and, in particular, investigated the network efficiency and lobe-level connectivity of their functional networks while watching a cartoon. The main results included that: (i) Weak network efficiency was observed in young children with ASD, even for a wide range of threshold for the binarization of functional networks; (ii) A maximum classification accuracy rate of 83.3% was obtained for all participants by using the k-means clustering method with network efficiencies as the feature parameters; and (iii) Weak lobe-level inter-region connections were uncovered in the right prefrontal cortex, including its linkages with the left prefrontal cortex and the bilateral temporal cortex. Such results indicate that the right prefrontal cortex might make a major contribution to the psychopathology of young children with ASD at the functional network architecture level, and at the functional lobe-connectivity level, respectively.

  1. Refined Study of ECR Wave Propagation and Absorption in the Weakly Relativistic Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBingren; LONGYongxin

    2001-01-01

    The ECR wave heating is now a routine method for plasma heating and profile control in fusion devices and also in plasma applications. Theoretical study of ECR wave propagation and absorption began very early in 1950's. Basic theoretical work had accomplished in 1970~1980. For toroidal devices like the tokamak, the fundamental O-mode and X-mode with nearly perpendicular propagation were used very often. For pure O-mode and X-mode with kx=O,

  2. A Monte Carlo study of temperature-programmed desorption spectra with attractive lateral interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, A P J

    1995-01-01

    We present results of a Monte Carlo study of temperature-programmed desorption in a model system with attractive lateral interactions. It is shown that even for weak interactions there are large shifts of the peak maximum temperatures with initial coverage. The system has a transition temperature below which the desorption has a negative order. An analytical expression for this temperature is derived. The relation between the model and real systems is discussed.

  3. Mapping of coma anisotropies to plasma structures of weak comets: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gortsas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coma anisotropies on the plasma environment of comets have been studied by means of a 3-D hybrid model which treats electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas ion dynamics are covered by a kinetic approach. From Earth-based observations as well as from in-situ spacecraft measurements the shape of the coma of many comets is ascertained to be anisotropic. However, most plasma simulation studies deploy a spherically symmetric activity pattern. In this paper anisotropy is studied by considering three different coma shape models. The first model is derived from the Haser model and is characterised by spherically symmetry. This reference model is then compared with two different neutral gas shape models: the dayside restricted model with no nightside activity and a cone shaped model with opening angle of π/2. In all models the integrated surface activity is kept constant. The simulations have been done for the Rosetta target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two heliocentric distances, 1.30 AU and 3.25 AU. It is found that shock formation processes are modified as a result of increasing spatial confinement. Characteristic plasma structures of comets such as the bow shock, magnetic barrier region and the ion composition boundary exhibit a shift towards the sun. In addition, the cone shaped model leads to a strong increase of the mass-loaded region which in turn leads to a smooth deceleration of the solar wind flow and an increasing degree of mixture between the solar wind and cometary ion species. This creates an additional transport channel of the magnetic field from the magnetic barrier region away which in turn leads to a broadening of this region. In addition, it leads to an ion composition boundary which is only gradually developed.

  4. Identifying service quality strengths and weaknesses using SERVQUAL: a study of dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldenberg, D; Becker, B W; Browne, B A; Browne, W G

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine responses among dental patients to the most recent version of SERVQUAL, and to evaluate that instrument as a tool for measuring satisfaction in a dental practice. Items on the reliability and responsiveness dimensions produced the lowest satisfaction ratings, while improvements in providing services as promised and instilling confidence have the greatest potential for producing higher satisfaction among patients. Finally, using open-ended questions, we identified a number of patient events or experiences which caused either high or low scores on individual SERVQUAL items.

  5. Rommel’s Desert Campaigns, February 1941 - September 1942: A Study in Operational Level Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-21

    British when they attempted to make a stand at Mersa Matruh. General Ritchie’s decision to stand and fight to the end at Mersa Matruh was rejected by his...against Rommel’s ports and 1500 mile supply lines vitually dried up the flow of replacements and critical war supplies. Rommel’s hasty attack at Mersa ...panZerarmee initiate battle, and if so when and where? A careful study of this question might have supported plans for operations up to Mersa Matruh

  6. Weak Galois and Weak Cocleft Coextensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.N. Alonso (A)lvarez; J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; A.B. Rodríguez Raposo

    2007-01-01

    For a weak entwining structure (A, C,ψ) living in a braided monoidal category with equalizers and coequalizers, we formulate the notion of weak A-Galois coextension with normal basis and we show that these Galois coextensions are equivalent to the weak A-cocleft coextensions introduced by the authors.

  7. A study of the sensitivity of shape measurements to the input parameters of weak lensing image simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Henk; Herbonnet, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in the accuracy of shape measurements are essential to exploit the statistical power of planned imaging surveys that aim to constrain cosmological parameters using weak lensing by large-scale structure. Although a range of tests can be performed using the measurements, the performance of the algorithm can only be quantified using simulated images. This yields, however, only meaningful results if the simulated images resemble the real observations sufficiently well. In this paper we explore the sensitivity of the multiplicative bias to the input parameters of Euclid-like image simulations.We find that algorithms will need to account for the local density of sources. In particular the impact of galaxies below the detection limit warrants further study, because magnification changes their number density, resulting in correlations between the lensing signal and multiplicative bias. Although achieving sub-percent accuracy will require further study, we estimate that sufficient archival Hubble Space Te...

  8. Magnetoresistive study of the antiferromagnetic-weak ferromagnetic transition in single-crystal La2CuO4+δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevtsev, B. I.; Dalakova, N. V.; Savitsky, V. N.; Panfilov, A. S.; Braude, I. S.; Bondarenko, A. V.

    2004-05-01

    Resistive measurements were made to study the magnetic field-induced antiferromagnetic (AF)—weak ferromagnetic (WF) transition in the La2CuO4 single crystal. The magnetic field (dc or pulsed) was applied normally to the CuO2 layers. The transition manifested itself in a drastic decrease of the resistance in critical fields of 5-7 T. The study is the first to display the effect of the AF-WF transition on the conductivity of the La2CuO4 single crystal in the direction parallel to the CuO2 layers. The results provide support for the three-dimensional nature of the hopping conduction of this layered oxide.

  9. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY ON ADSORPTION OF AROMATIC SULFONIC ACIDS ONTO MACROPOROUS WEAK BASE ANION EXCHANGER FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Long; Quan-xing Zhang; Ai-min Li; Jin-long Chen

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of three aromatic sulfonic acid compounds, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, ptoluenesulfonic acid and p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid, from aqueous solutions by macroporous weak base anion exchanger within the temperature range of 293 K-313 K were obtained. Several isotherm equations were correlated with the equilibrium data, and the experimental data was found to fit the three-parameter Redlich-Peterson equation best within the entire range of concentrations. The study showed that the hydrophobicity of solute has distinct influence on adsorption capacity of the anion exchanger for the aromatic sulfonic acid. Moreover, estimations of the isosteric enthalpy, free energy,and entropy change of adsorption were also reported. The positive isosteric enthalpy and entropy change for adsorption indicate an endothermic and entropy driven process in the present study.

  10. Slacklining and stroke: A rehabilitation case study considering balance and lower limb weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Charles P; Rando, Natalie; Melloh, Markus

    2016-08-18

    To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting. The introduction of slacklining as an adjunct therapy was made 12 mo post incident. Slacklining involves balance retention on a tightened band where external environmental changes cause a whole-body dynamic response to retain equilibrium. It is a complex neuromechanical task enabling individualized self-developed response strategies to be learned and adapted. This facilitates the innate process of balance retention, lower-limb and core muscle activation, and stable posture through a combination of learned motor skills and neurological system down regulation. Individuals adopt and follow established sequential motor learning stages where the acquired balance skills are achieved in a challenging composite-chain activity. Slacklining could be considered an adjunct therapy for lower limb stroke rehabilitation where function is compromised due to decreased muscle recruitment, decreased postural control and compromised balance. Initial inpatient rehabilitation involved one-month acute-care, one-month rehabilitation, and one-month transitional care prior to home discharge. A further six months of intensive outpatient rehabilitation was provided with five hourly sessions per week including:supervised and self-managed hydrotherapy, plus one individual and two group falls' prevention sessions. These were supported by daily home exercises. At 12 mo post incident, recovery plateaued, then regressed following three falls. Rehabilitation was subsequently modified

  11. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne Hamish R; Quinlan John F; Allison Garry T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...

  12. Weak Total Resolvability In Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casel Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A vertex v ∈ V (G is said to distinguish two vertices x, y ∈ V (G of a graph G if the distance from v to x is di erent from the distance from v to y. A set W ⊆ V (G is a total resolving set for a graph G if for every pair of vertices x, y ∈ V (G, there exists some vertex w ∈ W − {x, y} which distinguishes x and y, while W is a weak total resolving set if for every x ∈ V (G−W and y ∈ W, there exists some w ∈ W −{y} which distinguishes x and y. A weak total resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a weak total metric basis of G and its cardinality the weak total metric dimension of G. Our main contributions are the following ones: (a Graphs with small and large weak total metric bases are characterised. (b We explore the (tight relation to independent 2-domination. (c We introduce a new graph parameter, called weak total adjacency dimension and present results that are analogous to those presented for weak total dimension. (d For trees, we derive a characterisation of the weak total (adjacency metric dimension. Also, exact figures for our parameters are presented for (generalised fans and wheels. (e We show that for Cartesian product graphs, the weak total (adjacency metric dimension is usually pretty small. (f The weak total (adjacency dimension is studied for lexicographic products of graphs.

  13. Computational Study on the Stacking Interaction in Catechol Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Laura; Otero, Nicolás; Mosquera, Ricardo A.

    2009-09-01

    The stability and electron density topology of catechol complexes (dimers and tetramer) were studied using the MPW1B95 functional. The QTAIM analysis shows that both dimers (face to face and C-H/π one) display a different electronic origin. The formation of the former is accompanied by a significant change in the values of atomic electron dipole and quadrupole components, flattening the most diffuse part of the electron density distribution toward the molecular plane. A small electron population transfer is observed between catechol monomers connected by C-H/π interactions, whose QTAIM characterization does not differ from that of a weak hydrogen bond. Cooperative effects in the tetramer on binding energies are small and negligible for bond properties and charge transfer. Nevertheless, they are significant on atomic electron populations.

  14. Scaling Relations and Overabundance of Massive Clusters at z >~ 1 from Weak-lensing Studies with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, M. J.; Dawson, K. S.; Hoekstra, H.; Perlmutter, S.; Rosati, P.; Brodwin, M.; Suzuki, N.; Koester, B.; Postman, M.; Lubin, L.; Meyers, J.; Stanford, S. A.; Barbary, K.; Barrientos, F.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ford, H. C.; Gilbank, D. G.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A.; Harris, D. W.; Huang, X.; Lidman, C.; Rykoff, E. S.; Rubin, D.; Spadafora, A. L.

    2011-08-01

    We present weak gravitational lensing analysis of 22 high-redshift (z >~ 1) clusters based on Hubble Space Telescope images. Most clusters in our sample provide significant lensing signals and are well detected in their reconstructed two-dimensional mass maps. Combining the current results and our previous weak-lensing studies of five other high-z clusters, we compare gravitational lensing masses of these clusters with other observables. We revisit the question whether the presence of the most massive clusters in our sample is in tension with the current ΛCDM structure formation paradigm. We find that the lensing masses are tightly correlated with the gas temperatures and establish, for the first time, the lensing mass-temperature relation at z >~ 1. For the power-law slope of the M-TX relation (MvpropT α), we obtain α = 1.54 ± 0.23. This is consistent with the theoretical self-similar prediction α = 3/2 and with the results previously reported in the literature for much lower redshift samples. However, our normalization is lower than the previous results by 20%-30%, indicating that the normalization in the M-TX relation might evolve. After correcting for Eddington bias and updating the discovery area with a more conservative choice, we find that the existence of the most massive clusters in our sample still provides a tension with the current ΛCDM model. The combined probability of finding the four most massive clusters in this sample after the marginalization over cosmological parameters is less than 1%. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, under program 9290, 9919, and 10496.

  15. Alecto 2 - interaction studies; Alecto 2 - etudes d'interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J.P.; Clouet d' Orval, Ch.; Mougniot, J.C.; Penet, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Weak interactions were experimentally studies with the tank of the critical assembly Alecto II and one, two or three bottles containing solutions of various concentrations. In particular, was studied the validity of certain classical assumptions, shielding effects, screening and semi-reflexion effects, importance of thermal coupling. The method of the 'k{sub eff}, solid angle' is shown to apply to such a system. The determination by divergence and pulsed neutron technique of the reactivity related to a millimeter of solution level affords the obtention of critical heights in terms of reactivity. (authors) [French] Une etude experimentale d'interactions faibles a ete faite entre la cuve de l'experience critique ALECTO II et une, deux ou trois bouteilles contenant des concentrations variees. On etudie, en particulier, la validite de certaines hypotheses classiques, effets d'ombre, d'ecrans, de semi-reflexion, importance du couplage thermique. On montre d'autre part que la methode du 'K{sub eff}, angle solide' peut s'appliquer a un tel systeme. La determination par divergence et neutrons pulses de la reactivite liee au millimetre de solution permet de traduire les hauteurs critiques obtenues, en terme de reactivite. (auteurs)

  16. Study of Carbon Nanotube-Substrate Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline S. Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental effects are very important in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This work reviews the importance of the substrate in single-wall carbon nanotube properties. Contact with a substrate can modify the nanotube properties, and such interactions have been broadly studied as either a negative aspect or a solution for developing carbon nanotube-based nanotechnologies. This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental studies where the interaction between the carbon nanotubes and the substrate affects the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of the tubes.

  17. Soluble TNF-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis as a New Marker in Preeclampsia: A Pilot Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kayaoglu Yildirim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. All findings of preeclampsia appear as the clinical consequences of diffuse endothelial dysfunction. Soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK was recently introduced as a TNF related cytokine in various inflammatory and noninflammatory disorders. sTWEAK was found to be related to endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease. In our study we aimed to compare sTWEAK levels in women with preeclampsia to corresponding levels in a healthy pregnant control group. Materials and Methods. The study was undertaken with 33 patients with preeclampsia and 33 normal pregnant women. The concentration of sTWEAK in serum was calculated with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results. Serum creatinine, uric acid, LDH levels, and uPCR were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group. sTWEAK levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic patients (332 ± 144 pg/mL than in control subjects (412 ± 166 pg/mL (p=0.04. Discussion. Our study demonstrates that sTWEAK is decreased in patients with preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnant women. There is a need for further studies to identify the role of sTWEAK in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and to determine whether it can be regarded as a predictor of the development of preeclampsia.

  18. Soluble TNF-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis as a New Marker in Preeclampsia: A Pilot Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Zeynep Kayaoglu; Sumnu, Abdullah; Bademler, Neslihan; Kilic, Elif; Sumnu, Gulay; Karadag, Serhat; Gursu, Meltem; Ozel, Aysegul; Batmaz, Gonca; Ates, Seda; Dane, Banu; Ozturk, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. All findings of preeclampsia appear as the clinical consequences of diffuse endothelial dysfunction. Soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) was recently introduced as a TNF related cytokine in various inflammatory and noninflammatory disorders. sTWEAK was found to be related to endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease. In our study we aimed to compare sTWEAK levels in women with preeclampsia to corresponding levels in a healthy pregnant control group. Materials and Methods. The study was undertaken with 33 patients with preeclampsia and 33 normal pregnant women. The concentration of sTWEAK in serum was calculated with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. Serum creatinine, uric acid, LDH levels, and uPCR were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group. sTWEAK levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic patients (332 ± 144 pg/mL) than in control subjects (412 ± 166 pg/mL) (p = 0.04). Discussion. Our study demonstrates that sTWEAK is decreased in patients with preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnant women. There is a need for further studies to identify the role of sTWEAK in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and to determine whether it can be regarded as a predictor of the development of preeclampsia. PMID:26989294

  19. Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2015-05-01

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  20. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  1. Comparative study of the effect of taping on scapular stability and upper limb function in recovering hemiplegics with scapular weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhwanit Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemiplegia is the commonest form of paralysis, involving arm, leg and sometimes the face on one side of the body. Shoulder girdle in chronic hemiplegic suffers from two sorts of problems (a spasticity of elevators and retractors, which pull the scapula into a fixed elevated and retracted position. (b weakness of the opposite group of scapular muscles, i.e., depressors and protectors. This leads to instability of the scapulothoracic joint resulting in impaired functional use of the upper limb, taping is a method of maintaining orientation of the scapula by means of proprioceptive biofeedback to the patient. Aim of this study is to check the effect of taping on scapular stability and upper limb function in recovering hemiplegics. Objectives of the Study: (1 To study the effect of taping on functional performance of the hemiplegic upper extremity. (2 To compare the effect of taping combined with physiotherapeutic exercises v/s physiotherapeutic exercises alone on functional independence of the hemiplegic upper extremity. Subjects: All the 37 chronic hemiplegic patients with scapular weakness were taken and divided into two groups: Group A (Experimental group and Group B (Control group. Materials and Methods: All the 37 chronic hemiplegic patients were evaluated by Fugl Meyer Physical Performance Assessment Scale for hemiplegic upper extremity before starting the treatment. Group A patients received scapular taping combined with physiotherapeutic exercises and Group B patients received only physiotherapeutic exercises for the period of 2 weeks. After 2 weeks both Group A and B patients were re-evaluated on Fugl Meyer Physical Performance Assessment Scale for hemiplegic upper extremity. Results: There was a significant improvement between the pre- and post-treatment scores of Group A patients on the Fugl Meyer Physical Performance Assessment Scale of hemiplegic upper extremity, whereas Group B patients score on the same scale was

  2. Lattice Studies for hadron spectroscopy and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Sinya

    2014-01-01

    Recent progresses of lattice QCD studies for hadron spectroscopy and interactions are briefly reviewed. Some emphasis are given on a new proposal for a method, which enable us to calculate potentials between hadrons. As an example of the method, the extraction of nuclear potential in lattice QCD is discussed in detail.

  3. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  4. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  5. [Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Dulce Maria; Portella, Jean Cristtus; Bianchi e Silva, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this experience report is to present the Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions (Laboratório de Estudos Semióticos nas Interações de Cuidado - LESIC). The lab was set up at the Nursing School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil in 2010. It has the purpose of providing didactic and pedagogical updates, based on the Theory developed by the Paris School of Semiotics, that enable the increase of knowledge and interactive/observational skills regarding the nature and mastery of human care.

  6. A Study of Multiplicities in Hadronic Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Tristan, Nora Patricia; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2006-02-01

    Using data from the SELEX (Fermilab E781) experiment obtained with a minimum-bias trigger, we study multiplicity and angular distributions of secondary particles produced in interactions in the experimental targets. We observe interactions of {Sigma}{sup -}, proton, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +}, at beam momenta between 250 GeV/c and 650 GeV/c, in copper, polyethylene, graphite, and beryllium targets. We show that the multiplicity and angular distributions for meson and baryon beams at the same momentum are identical. We also show that the mean multiplicity increases with beam momentum, and presents only small variations with the target material.

  7. On Weak Regular *-semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.

  8. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Eduard; van Wietmarschen, Herman; van Wijk, Roeland; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-04-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal models published from 1979 through 1998. The research fields can be categorized as follows: (1) human physiological states measured using UPE; (2) characteristics of human UPE in relation to various pathological states; and (3) the relationship between diagnosis (e.g., Chinese syndromes) and the dynamics of UPE in animal models. We conclude that UPE has clear potential in terms of understanding the systems view on health and disease as described using Chinese medicine-based diagnostics, particularly from a biochemistry-based regulatory perspective. Linking UPE with metabolomics can further bridge biochemistry-based Western diagnostics with the phenomenology-based Chinese diagnostics, thus opening new avenues for studying systems diagnostics in the early stage of disease, for prevention-based strategies, as well as for systems-based intervention in chronic disease.

  9. Study of Σ~*-Δ Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Lian-rong; BAI Li-hui; ZHANG He; LIU Jia; FU Yao; TONG De-xin

    2009-01-01

    We study the Σ~*-Δ interaction in the chiral SU(3) quark model and in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model.In these two models,the short-range interaction mechanism are totally different,one is from the one-gluon exchange and another is from the vector meson exchange.The possible reasons of forming strangeness-1 bound states are given.Comparisons between the cases with and without quark exchange effect are made.The results show the quark exchange effect does give attractions to (Σ~*Δ)_(ST)=0 5/2 and (Σ~*Δ)_(ST)=3 1/2 systems,which means the special symmetry is important.Also,we make some analysis on chiral field effect,our results show that the σ exchange dominantly provides the attractive interaction for these two states.

  10. Weak Decay of Hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M

    2004-01-01

    The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...

  11. Study of metallothionein-quantum dots interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tmejova, Katerina; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Krizkova, Sona; Blazkova, Iva; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles have gained increasing interest in medical and in vivo applications. Metallothionein (MT) is well known as a maintainer of metal ions balance in intracellular space. This is due to high affinity of this protein to any reactive species including metals and reactive oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to determine the metallothionein-quantum dots interactions that were investigated by spectral and electrochemical techniques. CuS, CdS, PbS, and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were analysed. The highest intensity was shown for CdTe, than for CdS measured by fluorescence. These results were supported by statistical analysis and considered as significant. Further, these interactions were analysed using gel electrophoresis, where MT aggregates forming after interactions with QDs were detected. Using differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction, QDs and MT were studied. This method allowed us to confirm spectral results and, moreover, to observe the changes in MT structure causing new voltammetric peaks called X and Y, which enhanced with the prolonged time of interaction up to 6 h.

  12. Spectroscopic study of Mg(II) ion influence on the autoxidation of gallic acid in weakly alkaline aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, G. M.; Veselinović, A. M.; Nikolić, R. S.; Mitić, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Gallic acid autoxidation in weakly alkaline aqueous solutions was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and ESR spectroscopy under various conditions. Lowering the pH value from 10 to 8.5 probably changes the mechanism of the autoxidation reaction as evidenced by the different time variations of UV-Vis spectra of solutions. The presence of Mg(II) ions greatly influences the autoxidation reaction at pH 8.5. Although the UV-Vis spectral changes with time follow the similar pattern during the gallic acid autoxidation at pH 10 and at pH 8.5 in the presence of Mg(II) ions, some small differences indicate that Mg(II) ions not only affect the electron density of absorbing species but also influence the overall mechanism of the autoxidation reaction. ESR spectra of free radials formed during the initial stage of gallic acid autoxidation at pH 8.5 in the presence of Mg(II) ions were recorded. Computer simulation of ESR spectra allows partial characterization of these free radicals.

  13. Weak-lensing shear estimates with general adaptive moments, and studies of bias by pixellation, PSF distortions, and noise

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In weak gravitational lensing, weighted quadrupole moments of the brightness profile in galaxy images are a common way to estimate gravitational shear. We employ general adaptive moments (GLAM) to study causes of shear bias on a fundamental level and for a practical definition of an image ellipticity. For GLAM, the ellipticity is identical to that of isophotes of elliptical images, and this ellipticity is always an unbiased estimator of reduced shear. Our theoretical framework reiterates that moment-based techniques are similar to a model-based approach in the sense that they fit an elliptical profile to the image to obtain weighted moments. As a result, moment-based estimates of ellipticities are prone to underfitting bias. The estimation is fundamentally limited mainly by pixellation which destroys information on the original, pre-seeing image. We give an optimized estimator for the pre-seeing GLAM ellipticity and its bias for noise-free images. To deal with images where pixel noise is prominent, we conside...

  14. Possible weakly first-order superconducting transition induced by magnetic excitations in the YBCO system: A fluctuation conductivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hneda, Marlon Luiz; da Silva Berchon, Luciano; Pureur, Paulo; das Neves Vieira, Valdemar; Jaeckel, Sandra Teixeira; Dias, Fábio Teixeira; Menegotto Costa, Rosângela

    2017-04-01

    Fluctuation conductivity is experimentally studied in the genuine critical region near the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7 - δ, YBa2Cu2.985Fe0.015O7 - δ and Y0.95Ca0.05Ba2Cu3O7 - δ single crystal samples. Two fluctuation regimes where the electrical conductivity diverges as a power-law of the reduced temperature were systematically observed. In the first regime, farther from the critical temperature Tc, the transition behaves as predicted by the thermodynamics of the three dimensional-XY (3D-XY) universality class characteristic of a second-order phase transition. In the asymptotic regime closer to Tc a power-law regime characterized by a much smaller exponent is observed. The smallest value ever reported for the fluctuation conductivity exponent in the high-Tc superconductors is obtained for the Fe- and Ca-doped systems. We suggest that the regime beyond 3D-XY is a crossover towards a weakly first-order transition induced by internal magnetic excitations.

  15. Study of nonleptonic $B_{q}^{\\ast}$ ${\\to}$ $D_{q}V$ and $P_{q} D^*$ weak decays

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Qin; Sun, Junfeng; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Yueling

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the powerful capability of measurement for the $b$-flavored hadron rare decays at LHC and SuperKEKB/Belle-II, the nonleptonic $\\bar{B}^{\\ast}$ ${\\to}$ $D\\bar{D}^{\\ast}$, $D{\\rho^-}$, $DK^{\\ast-}$, ${\\pi}D^{\\ast}$ and $KD^{\\ast}$ weak decays are studied in detail. With the amplitudes calculated with factorization approach and the form factors of $B^{\\ast}$ transition into pseudoscalar meson evaluated with the BSW model, branching fractions and polarization fractions are firstly presented. Numerically, the CKM-favored $\\bar{B}_{q}^{\\ast}$ ${\\to}$ $D_{q}D_{s}^{{\\ast}-}$ and $D_{q}{\\rho}^{-}$ decays have large branching fractions, $\\sim$ $10^{-8}$, which should be sought for with priority and firstly observed by LHC and Belle-II experiments. The $\\bar{B}^{\\ast}_q$ ${\\to}$ $D_qK^{\\ast}$ and $D_q{\\rho}$ decays are dominated by the longitudinal polarization states. While, the parallel polarization fractions of $\\bar{B}^{\\ast}_q$ ${\\to}$ $D_q\\bar{D}^{\\ast}$ decays are comparable with the longitudinal one...

  16. A Study of Influencing Factors on the Tensile Response of a Titanium Matrix Composite With Weak Interfacial Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    The generalized method of cells micromechanics model is utilized to analyze the tensile stress-strain response of a representative titanium matrix composite with weak interfacial bonding. The fiber/matrix interface is modeled through application of a displacement discontinuity between the fiber and matrix once a critical debonding stress has been exceeded. Unidirectional composites with loading parallel and perpendicular to the fibers are examined, as well as a cross-ply laminate. For each of the laminates studied, analytically obtained results are compared to experimental data. The application of residual stresses through a cool-down process was found to have a significant effect on the tensile response. For the unidirectional laminate with loading applied perpendicular to the fibers, fiber packing and fiber shape were shown to have a significant effect on the predicted tensile response. Furthermore, the interface was characterized through the use of semi-emperical parameters including an interfacial compliance and a "debond stress;" defined as the stress level across the interface which activates fiber/matrix debonding. The results in this paper demonstrate that if architectural factors are correctly accounted for and the interface is appropriately characterized, the macro-level composite behavior can be correctly predicted without modifying any of the fiber or matrix constituent properties.

  17. Francium sources and traps for fundamental interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancari, G.; Atutov, S. N.; Calabrese, R.; Corradi, L.; Dainelli, A.; de Mauro, C.; Khanbekyan, A.; Mariotti, E.; Minguzzi, P.; Moi, L.; Sanguinetti, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Veronesi, S.

    2007-11-01

    Francium is one of the best candidates for atomic parity nonconservation (APNC) and for the search of permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs). APNC measurements test the weak force between electrons and nucleons at very low momentum transfers. They also represent a unique way to detect weak nucleon-nucleon interactions. EDMs are instead related to the time-reversal symmetry. Preliminary to these fundamental measurements are precision studies in atomic spectroscopy and the development of magneto-optical traps (MOT), which partially compensate for the lack of stable Fr isotopes. At LNL Legnaro, francium is produced by fusion of 100-MeV 18O with 197Au in a thick target, followed by evaporation of neutrons from the compound nucleus. Francium diffuses inside the hot target (1200 K) and is surface ionized for injection at 3 keV in an electrostatic beamline. Typically, we produce 1×106 (210Fr ions)/s for a primary flux of 1.5×1012 particles/s. We have studied Fr yields as a function of primary beam energy, intensity, and target temperature. Information on the efficiency of bulk diffusion, surface desorption and ionization is deduced. The beam then enters a Dryfilm-coated cell, where it is neutralized on a heated yttrium plate. The escape time of neutral Fr (diffusion + desorption) is approximately 20 s at 950 K, as measured with a dedicated setup. In the MOT, we use 6 orthogonal Ti:sapphire laser beams for the main pumping transition and 6 beams from a stabilized diode repumper. Fluorescence from trapped atoms is observed with a cooled CCD camera, in order to reach noise levels from stray light equivalent to approximately 50 atoms. Systematic tests are being done to improve the trapping efficiency. We plan to further develop Fr traps at LNL; in parallel, we will study APNC and EDM techniques and systematics with stable alkalis at Pisa, Siena, and Ferrara.

  18. New experimental possibility to search for the ratio of a possible T-violating amplitude to the weak-interaction amplitude in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target

    CERN Document Server

    Lukashevich, V V; Dallman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a spin-dependent neutron interaction with optical potentials (fields) from the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and an assumed T-violating interaction. The vector sum of these fields and their interferences determines an effective field of the target with an angular position in space due to polar and azimuthal angles. The phase of the azimuthal component is found to be the sum of two angles. The tangent of the first angle is equal to the ratio of the T-violating forward-scattering amplitude D to the weak-interaction amplitude C. The quantity is of interest. The tangent of the second angle depends on the spin rotation in the residual pseudomagnetic field of the target, and it can be treated as a background effect. This paper shows that the second angle has different signs in measurements with polarized and unpolarized neutrons; thus, two measurements allow it to be compensated for. In addition, the use of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields for measurement of the neu...

  19. H7N9 influenza viruses interact preferentially with α2,3-linked sialic acids and bind weakly to α2,6-linked sialic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Irene; Krammer, Florian; Hai, Rong; Aguilera, Domingo; Bernal-Rubio, Dabeiba; Steel, John; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2013-11-01

    The recent human outbreak of H7N9 avian influenza A virus has caused worldwide concerns. Receptor binding specificity is critical for viral pathogenicity, and still not thoroughly studied for this emerging virus. Here, we evaluated the receptor specificity of the haemagglutinin (HA) of two human H7N9 isolates (A/Shanghai/1/13 and A/Anhui/1/13) through a solid-phase binding assay and a flow cytometry-based assay. In addition, we compared it with those from several HAs from human and avian influenza viruses. We observed that the HAs from the novel H7 isolates strongly interacted with α2,3-linked sialic acids. Importantly, they also showed low levels of binding to α2,6-linked sialic acids, but significantly higher than other avian H7s.

  20. DNA Interaction Studies of Selected Polyamine Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szumilak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of polyamine conjugates with DNA double helix has been studied. Binding properties were examined by ethidium bromide (EtBr displacement and DNA unwinding/topoisomerase I/II (Topo I/II activity assays, as well as dsDNA thermal stability studies and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Genotoxicity of the compounds was estimated by a comet assay. It has been shown that only compound 2a can interact with dsDNA via an intercalative binding mode as it displaced EtBr from the dsDNA-dye complex, with Kapp = 4.26 × 106 M−1; caused an increase in melting temperature; changed the circular dichroism spectrum of dsDNA; converted relaxed plasmid DNA into a supercoiled molecule in the presence of Topo I and reduced the amount of short oligonucleotide fragments in the comet tail. Furthermore, preliminary theoretical study has shown that interaction of the discussed compounds with dsDNA depends on molecule linker length and charge distribution over terminal aromatic chromophores.

  1. DNA Interaction Studies of Selected Polyamine Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumilak, Marta; Merecz, Anna; Strek, Malgorzata; Stanczak, Andrzej; Inglot, Tadeusz W.; Karwowski, Boleslaw T.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of polyamine conjugates with DNA double helix has been studied. Binding properties were examined by ethidium bromide (EtBr) displacement and DNA unwinding/topoisomerase I/II (Topo I/II) activity assays, as well as dsDNA thermal stability studies and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Genotoxicity of the compounds was estimated by a comet assay. It has been shown that only compound 2a can interact with dsDNA via an intercalative binding mode as it displaced EtBr from the dsDNA-dye complex, with Kapp = 4.26 × 106 M−1; caused an increase in melting temperature; changed the circular dichroism spectrum of dsDNA; converted relaxed plasmid DNA into a supercoiled molecule in the presence of Topo I and reduced the amount of short oligonucleotide fragments in the comet tail. Furthermore, preliminary theoretical study has shown that interaction of the discussed compounds with dsDNA depends on molecule linker length and charge distribution over terminal aromatic chromophores. PMID:27657041

  2. The effect of thin filament activation on the attachment of weak binding cross-bridges: A two-dimensional x-ray diffraction study on single muscle fibers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, T; Xu, S.; Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1999-01-01

    To study possible structural changes in weak cross-bridge attachment to actin upon activation of the thin filament, two-dimensional (2D) x-ray diffraction patterns of skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle were recorded at low and high calcium concentration in the presence of saturating concentrations of MgATPgammaS, a nucleotide analog for weak binding states. We also studied 2D x-ray diffraction patterns recorded under relaxing conditions at an ionic strength above and below 50 mM, because...

  3. Study of vehicular interactions in heterogeneous traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasan, V.T.; Krishnamurthy, K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras, Chennai (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-07-01

    In planning, design and operation of road systems, knowledge of traffic flow characteristics and the associated analytical techniques is necessary. Traffic flow represents the traffic load on the road and the interaction between these loadings and the facility capacity determines the operational performance of the system. This paper presented the results of a study that examined the basic characteristics of heterogeneous traffic flow on Indian city roads through extensive traffic surveys; revalidated the indigenously developed simulation model of heterogeneous traffic flow on mid block sections of urban roads for application of the model to study the interaction between vehicles over a wide range of traffic flow conditions; and, quantified the vehicular interactions in terms of Passenger Car Units (PCU) by applying the validated simulation model for a wide range of traffic flow conditions. The paper provided some background information on road traffic in India and discussed the simulation model and input variables. It also discussed model validation and application. It was concluded that the simulation model of heterogeneous traffic, when validated, replicated the field observed traffic flow to a satisfactory extent and that the Passenger Car Unit value of different types of vehicles varied significantly with variation in traffic volume. 9 refs., 6 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Molecular interaction studies using microscale thermophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Wienken, Chistoph J; Braun, Dieter; Baaske, Philipp; Duhr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Abstract The use of infrared laser sources for creation of localized temperature fields has opened new possibilities for basic research and drug discovery. A recently developed technology, Microscale Thermophoresis (MST), uses this temperature field to perform biomolecular interaction studies. Thermophoresis, the motion of molecules in temperature fields, is very sensitive to changes in size, charge, and solvation shell of a molecule and thus suited for bioanalytics. This review focuses on the theoretical background of MST and gives a detailed overview on various applications to demonstrate the broad applicability. Experiments range from the quantification of the affinity of low-molecular-weight binders using fluorescently labeled proteins, to interactions between macromolecules and multi-component complexes like receptor containing liposomes. Information regarding experiment and experimental setup is based on the Monolith NT.115 instrument (NanoTemper Technologies GmbH).

  5. Binding of hydrocarbons and other extremely weak ligands to transition metal complexes that coordinate hydrogen: Investigation of cis-interactions and delocalized bonding involving sigma bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubas, G.J.; Eckert, J.; Luo, X.L. [and others

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). At the forefront of chemistry are efforts to catalytically transform the inert C-H bonds in alkanes to more useful products using metal compounds. The goal is to observe binding and cleavage of alkane C-H bonds on metals or to use related silane Si-H bonding as models, analogous to the discovery of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) binding to metals. Studies of these unique sigma complexes (M{hor_ellipsis}H-Y; Y{double_bond}H, Si, C) will aid in developing new catalysts or technologies relevant to DOE interest, e.g., new methods for tritium isotope separation. Several transition metals (Mo, W, Mn, and Pt) were found to reversibly bind and cleave H{sub 2}, silanes, and halocarbons. The first metal-SiH{sub 4} complexes, thus serving as a model for methane reactions. A second goal is to study the dynamics and energetics of H-Y bonds on metals by neutron scattering, and evidence for interactions between bound H-Y and nearby H atoms on metal complexes has been found.

  6. First-principles study of the interaction and charge transfer between graphene and metals

    OpenAIRE

    Khomyakov, P.A.; Giovannetti, G.; Rusu, P. C.; Brocks, G.; Brink, J.G.J. van den; Kelly, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the transport of electrons through a graphene sheet necessarily involves contacting it with metal electrodes. We study the adsorption of graphene on metal substrates using first-principles calculations at the level of density functional theory. The bonding of graphene to Al, Ag, Cu, Au and Pt(111) surfaces is so weak that its unique "ultrarelativistic" electronic structure is preserved. The interaction does, however, lead to a charge transfer that shifts the Fermi level by up to 0.5...

  7. A fluvoxamine-caffeine interaction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, U; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1996-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a very potent inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP1A2, which is the major P450 catalysing the biotransformation of caffeine. Thus, a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken with the purpose of documenting a drug-drug interaction between fluvoxam......The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a very potent inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP1A2, which is the major P450 catalysing the biotransformation of caffeine. Thus, a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken with the purpose of documenting a drug-drug interaction between...... fluvoxamine and caffeine. The study was carried out as a randomized, in vivo, cross-over study including eight healthy volunteers. In Period A of the study, each subject took 200 mg caffeine orally, and in Period B, the subjects took fluvoxamine 50 mg per day for 4 days and 100 mg per day for 8 days. On day 8...... in Period B, the subjects again ingested 200 mg caffeine. After caffeine intake, blood and urine were sampled at regular intervals. Caffeine and its three primary demethylated metabolites, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline in plasma and the same four compounds plus 11 more metabolites in urine were...

  8. GENERALIZED WEAK FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁夏畦; 罗佩珠

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.

  9. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  10. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  11. Freely decaying weak turbulence for sea surface gravity waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Resio, D; Pushkarev, A; Zakharov, V E; Brandini, C

    2002-09-30

    We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of [k](-2.5). We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results.

  12. The Power-weakness Ratios (PWR as a Journal Indicator: Testing the “Tournaments” Metaphor in Citation Impact Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loet Leydesdorff

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ramanujacharyulu developed the Power-weakness Ratio (PWR for scoring tournaments. The PWR algorithm has been advocated (and used for measuring the impact of journals. We show how such a newly proposed indicator can empirically be tested. Design/methodology/approach: PWR values can be found by recursively multiplying the citation matrix by itself until convergence is reached in both the cited and citing dimensions; the quotient of these two values is defined as PWR. We study the effectiveness of PWR using journal ecosystems drawn from the Library and Information Science (LIS set of the Web of Science (83 journals as an example. Pajek is used to compute PWRs for the full set, and Excel for the computation in the case of the two smaller sub-graphs: (1 JASIST+ the seven journals that cite JASIST more than 100 times in 2012; and (2 MIS Quart+ the nine journals citing this journal to the same extent. Findings: A test using the set of 83 journals converged, but did not provide interpretable results. Further decomposition of this set into homogeneous sub-graphs shows that—like most other journal indicators—PWR can perhaps be used within homogeneous sets, but not across citation communities. We conclude that PWR does not work as a journal impact indicator; journal impact, for example, is not a tournament. Research limitations: Journals that are not represented on the “citing” dimension of the matrix—for example, because they no longer appear, but are still registered as “cited” (e.g. ARIST—distort the PWR ranking because of zeros or very low values in the denominator. Practical implications: The association of “cited” with “power” and “citing” with “weakness” can be considered as a metaphor. In our opinion, referencing is an actor category and can be Metaphor in Citation Impact Studies in terms of behavior, whereas “citedness” is a property of a document with an expected dynamics very different from that of

  13. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K−pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K−p atom leading to a hadronic shift ϵ1s and a hadronic broadening Γ1s of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated constrained by the SIDDHARTA data on kaonic hydrogen. For the extraction of the isospin-dependent scattering lengths a measurement of the hadronic shift and width of kaonic deuterium is necessary. Therefore, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. Many improvements in the experimental setup will allow to measure kaonic deuterium which is challenging due to the anticipated low X-ray yield. Especially important are the data on the X-ray yields of kaonic deuterium extracted from a exploratory experiment within SIDDHARTA.

  14. Elucidating the Weak Protein-Protein Interaction Mechanisms behind the Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of a mAb Solution by Different Types of Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoliang; Wang Co-First, Shujing; Tian, Zhou; Zhang, Ning; Sheng, Han; Dai, Weiguo; Qian, Feng

    2017-07-25

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has long been observed during the physical stability investigation of therapeutic protein formulations. The buffer conditions and the presence of various excipients are thought to play important roles in the formulation development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In this study, the effects of several small-molecule excipients (histidine, alanine, glycine, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, sorbitol and sucrose) with diverse physical-chemical properties on LLPS of a model IgG1 (JM2) solutions were investigated by multiple techniques, including UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry/fluorimetry, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering. The LLPS of JM2 was confirmed to be a thermodynamic equilibrium process with no structural changes or irreversible aggregation of proteins. Phase diagrams of various JM2 formulations were constructed, suggesting that the phase behavior of JM2 was dependent on the solution pH, ionic strength and the presence of other excipients such as glycine, alanine, sorbitol and sucrose. Furthermore, we demonstrated that for this mAb, the interaction parameter (kD) determined at low protein concentration appeared to be a good predictor for the occurrence of LLPS at high concentration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Weak language lateralization affects both verbal and spatial skills: an fMRI study in 297 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, E; Zago, L; Jobard, G; Crivello, F; Petit, L; Joliot, M; Mazoyer, B; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N

    2014-12-01

    The present study reappraised the relationship between hemispheric specialization strength and cognitive skills in a sample of 297 individuals including 153 left-handers. It additionally assessed the interaction with manual laterality factors, such as handedness, asymmetry of hand motor skills, and familial sinistrality. A Hemispheric Functional Lateralization Index (HFLI) for language was derived from fMRI. Through mixture Gaussian modeling, three types of language hemispheric lateralization were defined: typical (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI), ambilateral (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0), and strongly-atypical (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values). Three cognitive scores were derived from 12 tests covering various aspects of verbal and spatial cognition. Compared to both typical and strongly-atypical participants, those ambilateral for language production had lower performances in verbal and non-verbal domains, indicating that hemispheric specialization and cognitive skills are related in adults. Furthermore, this relationship was independent from handedness and asymmetry for motor skills, as no interaction was observed between these factors. On the other hand, the relationship between familial sinistrality and cognitive skills tended to differ according to language lateralization type. In contrast to previous reports in children, in the present adult population, we found no linear correlation between HFLI and cognitive skills, regardless of lateralization type. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Power Production Losses Study by Frequency Regulation in Weak-Grid-Connected Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Muñoz-Cruzado-Alba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, an increasing penetration of utility-scale photovoltaic plants (USPVPs leads to a change in dynamic and operational characteristics of the power distribution system. USPVPs must help to maintain the system stability and reliability while implementing minimum technical requirements (MTRs imposed by the utility grid. One of the most significant requirements is about frequency regulation (FR. Overall production of USPVPs is reduced significantly by applying FR curves, especially in weak grids with high rate of frequency faults. The introduction of a battery energy storage system (BESS reduces losses and improves the grid system reliability. Experimental frequency and irradiance data of several weak grids have been used to analyse USPVPs losses related to FR requirements and benefits from the introduction of a BESS. Moreover, its economic viability is showen without the need for any economic incentives.

  17. Dynamic Resource Management under Weak Property Rights : A Tale of Thieves and Trespassers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio; Smulders, Sjak

    2016-01-01

    Using a dynamic framework with strategic interactions, we study the management of a non-renewable natural resource when property rights are generally weak. Under generally weak property rights both the resource stock and the revenues from exploiting it are imperfectly protected, due to trespassing a

  18. A Study of Strengths and Weaknesses of Descriptive Assessment from Principals, Teachers and Experts Points of View in Chaharmahal and Bakhteyari Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharief, Mostafa; Naderi, Mahin; Hiedari, Maryam Shoja; Roodbari, Omolbanin; Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of current study is to determine the strengths and weaknesses of descriptive evaluation from the viewpoint of principals, teachers and experts of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. A descriptive survey was performed. Statistical population includes 208 principals, 303 teachers, and 100 executive experts of descriptive evaluation scheme in…

  19. The Impact Study of a Statcom on Commutation Failures in an HVDC Inverter Feeding a Weak AC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatir, Mohamed; Zidi, Sid-Ahmed; Fellah, Mohammed-Karim; Hadjeri, Samir; Flitti, Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) devices are pure power electronics devices that use voltage source, IGBT, IGCT or GTO based converters to generate reactive current. This paper illustrates the effect of STATCOM connected whit an HVDC inverter feeding a weak AC network, on the recovery from commutation failures following AC side disturbances. MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation results have demonstrated the robust performance of the proposed system based on the first CIGRÉ HVDC Benchmark model against commutation failures.

  20. Human Dynactin-Associated Protein Transforms NIH3T3 Cells to Generate Highly Vascularized Tumors with Weak Cell-Cell Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Kunoh

    Full Text Available Human dynactin-associated protein (dynAP is a transmembrane protein that promotes AktSer473 phosphorylation. Here, we report the oncogenic properties of dynAP. In contrast to control NIH3T3 cells expressing LacZ (NIH3T3LacZ, NIH3T3dynAP cells vigorously formed foci in two-dimensional culture, colonies on soft agar, and spheroids in anchorage-deficient three-dimensional culture. NIH3T3dynAP cells injected into nude mice produced tumors with abundant blood vessels and weak cell-cell contacts. Expression of dynAP elevated the level of rictor (an essential subunit of mTORC2 and promoted phosphorylation of FOXO3aSer253. FOXO3a is a transcriptional factor that stimulates expression of pro-apoptotic genes and phosphorylation of FOXO3a abrogates its function, resulting in promoted cell survival. Knockdown of rictor in NIH3T3dynAP cells reduced AktSer473 phosphorylation and formation of foci, colony in soft agar and spheroid, indicating that dynAP-induced activation of the mTORC2/AktSer473 pathway for cell survival contributes to cell transformation. E-cadherin and its mRNA were markedly reduced upon expression of dynAP, giving rise to cells with higher motility, which may be responsible for the weak cell-cell adhesion in tumors. Thus, dynAP could be a new oncoprotein and a target for cancer therapy.

  1. Combustion of Interacting Droplet Arrays Being Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    The combustion of liquid fuels is a major source of energy in the world today, and the majority of these fuels are burned in the form of a spray. This droplet combustion project at the NASA Glenn Research Center has the overall goal of providing a better understanding of spray combustion by extending existing studies of single droplets to a regime where droplet interactions are important (as occurs in a practical spray). The Combustion of Interacting Droplet Arrays is a collaborative effort between Glenn and the National Center for Microgravity Research. The group at Glenn also collaborates with scientists at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Hokkaido, Japan. The project is studying the combustion of a small number of droplets suspended on small quartz fibers in a 0.1-atm combustion chamber. Data consist primarily of video images of the flames and droplets. The tests are being conducted in Glenn's reduced-gravity facilities (2.2-sec and 5.2-sec drop towers) and in the Japan Microgravity Center's 10-sec drop tower (JAMIC).

  2. Testing Lorentz invariance in weak decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytema, Auke; Dijck, Elwin; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Mueller, Stefan; Noordmans, Jacob; Onderwater, Gerco; Pijpker, Coen; Timmermans, Rob; Vos, Keri; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans [Van Swinderen Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Lorentz invariance is the invariance of physical laws under orientations and boosts. It is a key assumption in Special Relativity and the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Several theories unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics allow breaking of Lorentz invariance. At the Van Swinderen Institute in Groningen a theoretical and experimental research program was started to study Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in weak interactions. The theoretical work allowed a systematic approach to LIV in weak decays. Limits could be set on parameters that quantify LIV. A novel beta decay experiment was designed which tests rotational invariance with respect to the orientation of nuclear spin. In particular, using the isotope {sup 20}Na, the decay rate dependence on the nuclear polarization direction was measured. Searching for sidereal variations, systematic errors can be suppressed. The result of the experiment is presented.

  3. Weak Quasi-elastic Production of Hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S K

    2006-01-01

    The quasielastic weak production of $\\Lambda$ and $\\Sigma$ hyperons from nucleons and nuclei induced by antineutrinos is studied in the energy region of some ongoing neutrino oscillation experiments in the intermediate energy region. The hyperon nucleon transition form factors determined from neutrino nucleon scattering and an analysis of high precision data on semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry have been used. The nuclear effects due to Fermi motion and final state interaction effects due to hyperon nucleon scattering have also been studied. The numerical results for differential and total cross sections have been presented.

  4. Interactivity with the interactive whiteboard in traditional and innovative primary schools: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koster, S.; Volman, M.; Kuiper, E.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main affordances of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) is its potential for increasing classroom interactivity, yet little is known about the interactivity it supports in schools with different educational concepts. In this study we analysed what types of whole-class interactivity the IWB s

  5. Attention on Weak Ties in Social and Communication Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Lilian; Perra, Nicola; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Granovetter's weak tie theory of social networks is built around two central hypotheses. The first states that strong social ties carry the large majority of interaction events; the second maintains that weak social ties, although less active, are often relevant for the exchange of especially important information (e.g., about potential new jobs in Granovetter's work). While several empirical studies have provided support for the first hypothesis, the second has been the object of far less scrutiny. A possible reason is that it involves notions relative to the nature and importance of the information that are hard to quantify and measure, especially in large scale studies. Here, we search for empirical validation of both Granovetter's hypotheses. We find clear empirical support for the first. We also provide empirical evidence and a quantitative interpretation for the second. We show that attention, measured as the fraction of interactions devoted to a particular social connection, is high on weak ties --- po...

  6. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  7. Photon interaction studies using 241Am -rays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Ramachandran; K Karunakaran Nair; K K Abdullah; K M Varier

    2006-09-01

    We have carried out some photon interaction measurements using 59.54 keV -rays from a 241Am source. These include attenuation studies as well as photoelectric absorption studies in various samples. The attenuation studies have been made using leaf and wood samples, samples like sand, sugar etc., which contain particles of varying sizes as well as pellets and aqueous solutions of rare earth compounds. In the case of the leaf and wood samples, we have used the -ray attenuation technique for the determination of the water content in fresh and dried samples. The variation of the attenuation coefficient with particle size has been investigated for sand and sugar samples. The attenuation studies as well as the photoelectric studies in the case of rare earth elements have been carried out on samples containing such elements whose K-absorption edge energies lie below and close to the -energy used. Suitable compounds of the rare earth elements have been chosen as mixture absorbers in these investigations. A narrow beam good geometry set-up was used for the attenuation measurements. A well-shielded scattering geometry was used for the photoelectric measurements. The mixture rule was invoked to extract the values of the mass attenuation coefficients for the elements from those of the corresponding compounds. The results are consistent with theoretical values derived from the XCOM package.

  8. The effect of thin filament activation on the attachment of weak binding cross-bridges: A two-dimensional x-ray diffraction study on single muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, T; Xu, S; Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1999-03-01

    To study possible structural changes in weak cross-bridge attachment to actin upon activation of the thin filament, two-dimensional (2D) x-ray diffraction patterns of skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle were recorded at low and high calcium concentration in the presence of saturating concentrations of MgATPgammaS, a nucleotide analog for weak binding states. We also studied 2D x-ray diffraction patterns recorded under relaxing conditions at an ionic strength above and below 50 mM, because it had been proposed from solution studies that reducing ionic strength below 50 mM also induces activation of the thin filament. For this project a novel preparation had to be established that allows recording of 2D x-ray diffraction patterns from single muscle fibers instead of natural fiber bundles. This was required to minimize substrate depletion or product accumulation within the fibers. When the calcium concentration was raised, the diffraction patterns recorded with MgATPgammaS revealed small changes in meridional reflections and layer line intensities that could be attributed in part to the effects of calcium binding to the thin filament (increase in I380, decrease in first actin layer line intensity, increase in I59) and in part to small structural changes of weakly attached cross-bridges (e.g., increase in I143 and I72). Calcium-induced small-scale structural rearrangements of cross-bridges weakly attached to actin in the presence of MgATPgammaS are consistent with our previous observation of reduced rate constants for attachment and detachment of cross-bridges with MgATPgammaS at high calcium. Yet, no evidence was found that weakly attached cross-bridges change their mode of attachment toward a stereospecific conformation when the actin filament is activated by adding calcium. Similarly, reducing ionic strength to less than 50 mM does not induce a transition from nonstereospecific to stereospecific attachment.

  9. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on chlorambucil interaction with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Sonika; Shandilya, Manish; Tyagi, Gunjan; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2012-11-01

    Chlorambucil (CMB) is an anticancer drug used for the treatment of variety of cancers. Structural and conformational changes associated with DNA after binding with CMB were explored using spectroscopic techniques to get insight into the mechanism of action of CMB at molecular level. Different molar ratios of CMB-DNA complex were prepared with constant DNA concentration under physiological conditions. FTIR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, CD spectroscopy and molecular docking studies were employed to determine the binding site and binding constant of CMB with DNA. The results show CMB binds DNA through nitrogenous bases (thymine, guanine and cytosine). The binding constant was calculated to be 1.3 × 10³ M⁻¹, which suggests weak binding of CMB with DNA double helix. FTIR and CD results show that CMB do not disturb native B-conformation of DNA and it continues to remain in its B conformation even at higher concentrations of CMB. The molecular docking results are in corroboration with our experimental results and provides structural insight into the interaction site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A liposomal fluorescence assay to study permeation kinetics of drug-like weak bases across the lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Klaus; Paech, Franziska; Schuler, Friedrich; Kuhn, Phillip; Kissner, Reinhard; Belli, Sara; Dittrich, Petra S; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2014-01-10

    Lipid bilayer permeation is considered the major route for in vivo barrier passage of drugs. Despite this fact, no technique is currently available to measure the kinetics of permeation across a single lipid bilayer of structurally unrelated drug-like solutes. We developed a liposomal fluorescence assay capable to determine permeation kinetics of basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The assay is based on the hypothesis that permeation of a weak base along a concentration gradient results in net proton release at the cis-side and net proton capture at the trans-side of the bilayer. The resulting pH changes were monitored with pH-sensitive fluorophores: Test compounds were incubated with liposomes containing a pH-sensitive fluorophore at the bilayer surfaces or in the aqueous lumen and fluorescence changes were monitored with a stopped-flow apparatus in solution or by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with surface-captured liposomes on a microfluidic platform. Incubation with lipophilic basic drugs resulted in the expected fluorescence changes while incubation with compounds without basic functionality or high polarity did not affect fluorescence. Kinetics of fluorescence changes followed bi-exponential functions. Logarithmic permeation coefficients (logPermapp) determined in solution and by microfluidics technology showed a good correlation (r(2)=0.94, n=7) and logPermapp increased with increasing lipophilicity. Neither diffusion in the aqueous phase nor partitioning into the bilayer was rate-limiting. PEGylation of 2% of the liposomal lipids reduced Permapp by a factor ~300. In conclusion, the presented liposomal fluorescence assay is capable to determine permeation kinetics of weak basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The method is adaptable to microfluidics technology for high-throughput measurements and can potentially be modified to work for weak acid solutes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Weakly first-order behavior in ferromagnetic transition of UCoGe revealed by {sup 59}Co-NQR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, T., E-mail: t.hattori@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.j [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-802 (Japan); Ishida, K.; Nakai, Y. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-802 (Japan); Ohta, T.; Deguchi, K.; Sato, N.K. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Satoh, I. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    We have performed {sup 59}Co nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements on ferromagnetic (FM) superconductor UCoGe, in which ferromagnetism occurs at T{sub Curie} {approx} 2.5 K. By measuring NQR spectrum at various temperatures, we investigated the development of local magnetic moment around T{sub Curie}, and suggest that FM transition possesses weakly first-order character. This first-order behavior is consistent with the theoretical prediction that the low temperature FM transition in itinerant magnets is generically of first-order.

  12. Augmented weak forms and element-by-element preconditioners: Efficient iterative strategies for structural finite elements. A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A.; Hughes, T. J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A weak formulation in structural analysis that provides well conditioned matrices suitable for iterative solutions is presented. A mixed formulation ensures the proper representation of the problem and the constitutive relations are added in a penalized form. The problem is solved by a double conjugate gradient algorithm combined with an element by element approximate factorization procedure. The double conjugate gradient strategy resembles Uzawa's variable-length type algorithms the main difference is the presence of quadratic terms in the mixed variables. In the case of shear deformable beams these terms ensure that the proper finite thickness solution is obtained.

  13. On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING

    2011-01-01

    A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 (←→) aα(b) = 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.

  14. Interaction Between Flames and Electric Fields Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between flames and electric fields has long been an interesting research subject that has theoretical importance as well as practical significance. Many of the reactions in a flame follow an ionic pathway: that is, positive and negative ions are formed during the intermediate steps of the reaction. When an external electric field is applied, the ions move according to the electric force (the Coulomb force) exerted on them. The motion of the ions modifies the chemistry because the reacting species are altered, it changes the velocity field of the flame, and it alters the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame will change its shape and location to meet all thermal, chemical, and electrical constraints. In normal gravity, the strong buoyant effect often makes the flame multidimensional and, thus, hinders the detailed study of the problem.

  15. Direct determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid, in fruits and vegetables by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Xue; Cao, Zhao-Yun; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Zhi-Wei

    2013-01-11

    A novel method was developed for the direct, sensitive, and rapid determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in fruit and vegetable samples by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography (HILIC/WAX) coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Homogenized samples were extracted with water, without derivatization or further clean-up, and the extracts were injected directly onto the Asahipak NH2P-50 4E column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). The best results were obtained when the column was operated under mixed-mode HILIC/WAX elution conditions. An initial 10-min washing step with acetonitrile/water (10:90, v/v) in HILIC mode was used to remove potentially interfering compounds, and then the analytes were eluted in WAX mode with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1 molL(-1) ammonium hydroxide under gradient elution for the ESI analysis in negative ion mode. Limits of quantification of glyphosate and AMPA were 5 μgkg(-1) and 50 μgkg(-1), respectively, with limits of detection as low as 1.2 μgkg(-1) for glyphosate and 15 μgkg(-1) for AMPA. The linearity was satisfactory, with correlation coefficients (r)>0.9966. Recovery studies were carried out on spiked matrices (6 vegetables, 3 fruits) with glyphosate at four concentrations and AMPA at three concentrations. The mean recoveries for glyphosate and AMPA were 75.3-110% and 76.1-110%, respectively, with relative standard deviations in the range of 1.1-13.8%. The intra-day precision (n=7) for glyphosate and AMPA in vegetable and fruit samples spiked at an intermediate level between 5.9% and 7.5%, and the inter-day precision over 11 days (n=11) was between 7.0% and 13%.

  16. Study of electron-positron interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Philonen, L.

    1990-09-15

    For the past seven years, this group has been interested in the study of tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions. The program has centered about the AMY experiment which examines the nature of the final state products in electron-positron collisions in the center of mass energy range near 60 GeV. Results of these measurements have shown a remarkable consistency with the predictions of the minimal model of 3 quark and lepton generations and single charged and neutral intermediate bosons. No new particles or excited states have been observed nor has any evidence for departures in cross sections or angular asymmetries from expectations been observed. These conclusions have been even more firmly established by the higher energy results from the LEP and SLC colliders at center of mass energies of about 90 GeV. Our focus is shifting to the neutrino as a probe to electroweak interactions. The relative merit of attempting to observe neutrinos from point sources versus observing neutrinos generally is not easy to predict. The improved ability to interpret is offset by the probably episodic nature of the emission and irreproducibility of the results. In this phase of development, it is best to be sensitive to both sources of neutrinos. As a second phase of our program at Virginia Tech, we are studying the feasibility of detecting cosmic ray neutrinos in a proposed experiment which we have called NOVA. the results of the test setup will be instrumental in developing an optimum design. A third program we are involved in is the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, an experiment to place a limit on the rate of muon decay to electron plus photon which is forbidden by the Standard Model.

  17. Chaos in extended linear arrays of Josephson weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerenberg, M.A.H.; Spiteri, R.J. (Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5B9 (CA)); Blackburn, J.A. (Department of Physics and Computing, Wilfred Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5 (CA))

    1989-12-01

    Extended linear arrays of interacting Josephson weak links are studied by numerical simulation using the resistively shunted junction model. The minimum coupling strength for chaotic behavior is determined as a function of the number of links. This strength is found to diminish steadily with increasing number, despite the inclusion of only nearest-neighbor interaction. The implications for Josephson technology are briefly discussed. Mathematically, the results are confirmation of the Ruelle-Takens scenario for chaos.

  18. The Evolution of and Risk Factors for Neck Muscle Atrophy and Weakness in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: A Retrospective Study in an Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-Lu; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Tang, Ling-Long; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Lin, Li; Yao, Ji-Jin; Ma, Jun; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) atrophy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and the relationship between SCM atrophy and neck weakness.Data were retrospectively analyzed from 223 biopsy-proven NPC patients with no distant metastasis who underwent IMRT with or without chemotherapy. The volume of SCM was measured on pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRIs were conducted 1, 2, and 3 years after the completion of IMRT. Change in SCM volume was calculated and classified using the late effects of normal tissues-subjective, objective, management, and analytic system. The grade of neck muscle weakness, classified by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V 3.0, was measured 3 years after the completion of IMRT.The average SCM atrophy ratio was -10.97%, -18.65%, and -22.25% at 1, 2, and 3 years postirradiation, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated N stage and the length of time after IMRT were independent prognostic variables. There were significant associations between the degree of SCM atrophy and neck weakness.Radical IMRT can cause significant SCM atrophy in NPC patients. A more advanced N stage was associated with more severe SCM atrophy, but no difference was observed between N2 and N3. SCM atrophy progresses over time during the 3 years following IMRT. Grade of SCM atrophy is significantly associated with neck weakness.

  19. On fuzzy weakly-closed sets

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, J.; P. K. Das

    2012-01-01

    A new class of fuzzy closed sets, namely fuzzy weakly closed set in a fuzzy topological space is introduced and it is established that this class of fuzzy closed sets lies between fuzzy closed sets and fuzzy generalized closed sets. Alongwith the study of fundamental results of such closed sets, we define and characterize fuzzy weakly compact space and fuzzy weakly closed space.

  20. Twisting theory for weak Hopf algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ju-zhen; ZHANG Yan; WANG Shuan-hong

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study the twisting theory of weak Hopf algebras and give an equivalence between the (braided) monoidal categories of weak Hopf bimodules over the original and the twisted weak Hopf algebra to generalize the result from Oeckl (2000).

  1. Studies of removal of palladium(II) ions from chloride solutions on weakly and strongly basic anion exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicki, Z; Wołowicz, A; Leszczyńska, M

    2008-11-30

    Palladium and its compounds find wide application in industry as a catalytic agent in different manufacture processes. Recovery of precious metals from industrial wastes is difficult and time consuming but in spite of these disadvantages it becomes profitable. Palladium(II) ions sorption from various chloride solutions of the composition: 0.1-6.0M HCl-0.00056 M Pd(II), 1.0M ZnCl(2)-0.1M HCl-0.00056 M Pd(II), 1.0M AlCl(3)-0.1M HCl-0.00056 M Pd(II) on the weakly and strongly basic anion exchangers (Varion ATM, Varion ADM and Varion ADAM) was discussed. The sorption research of Pd(II) ions on these resins was carried out by means of static and dynamic methods. The dynamic processes were applied in order to determine the breakthrough curves of Pd(II) ions. Moreover, the working ion-exchange capacities as well as the weight and bed distribution coefficients were determined from the Pd(II) breakthrough curves. The recovery factors of Pd(II) ions (% R) depending on the phase contact time were obtained by means of static methods. The highest ion-exchange capacities for the 0.1-6.0M HCl-0.00056 M Pd(II) systems were obtained for the weakly basic ion-exchange resin Varion ADAM.

  2. Spectroscopic study of the competitive interaction between streptomycin and Evans blue to bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jü-qin; Lv, Qing-luan; Wang, Huai You

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism of the competitive interaction of streptomycin and Evans blue (EB) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by using both fluorimetry and spectrophtometry. Effects of pH, streptomycin and concentration of EB on the competitive interaction of streptomycin and EB were examined. A static fluorescence quenching process was confirmed in the light of Stern-Volmer plot. The test result showed that there were strong and weak binding sites on BSA molecule and the binding constant of EB-BSA complex and the number of binding site n were obtained. These facts revealed that the competitive interaction was occurred between EB and streptomycin, which can possibly provide useful message in investigation of the interaction of antibiotic with BSA.

  3. Experimental study of three-wave interactions among capillary-gravity surface waves

    CERN Document Server

    Haudin, Florence; Deike, Luc; Jamin, Timothée; Falcon, Eric; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In propagating wave systems, three or four-wave resonant interactions constitute a classical non-linear mechanism exchanging energy between the different scales. Here we investigate three-wave interactions for gravity-capillary surface waves in a closed laboratory tank. We generate two crossing wave-trains and we study their interaction. Using two optical methods, a local one (Laser Doppler Vibrometry) and a spatio-temporal one (Diffusive Light Photography), a third wave of smaller amplitude is detected, verifying the three-wave resonance conditions in frequency and in wavenumber. Furthermore, by focusing on the stationary regime and by taking into account viscous dissipation, we directly estimate the growth rate of the resonant mode. The latter is then compared to the predictions of the weakly non-linear triadic resonance interaction theory. The obtained results confirm qualitatively and extend previous experimental results obtained only for collinear wave-trains. Finally, we discuss the relevance of three-w...

  4. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  6. Prevalence of Joint Gait Patterns Defined by a Delphi Consensus Study Is Related to Gross Motor Function, Topographical Classification, Weakness, and Spasticity, in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Schless, Simon-Henri; De Laet, Tinne; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    During a Delphi consensus study, a new joint gait classification system was developed for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This system, whose reliability and content validity have previously been established, identified 49 distinct joint patterns. The present study aims to provide a first insight toward the construct validity and clinical relevance of this classification system. The retrospective sample of convenience consisted of 286 patients with spastic CP (3-18 years old, GMFCS levels I-III, 166 with bilateral CP). Kinematic and kinetic trials from three-dimensional gait analysis were classified according to the definitions of the Delphi study, and one classified trial was randomly selected for each included limb (n = 446). Muscle weakness and spasticity were assessed for different muscle groups acting around the hip, knee, and ankle. Subsequently, Pearson Chi square tests, Cramer's V, and adjusted standardized residuals were calculated to explore the strength and direction of the associations between the joint patterns, and the different patient-specific characteristics (i.e., age, GMFCS level, and topographical classification) or clinical symptoms (muscle weakness and spasticity). Patient-specific characteristics showed several significant associations with the patterns of different joints, but the strength of most identified associations was weak. Apart from the knee during stance phase and the pelvis in the sagittal plane, the results systematically showed that the patterns with "minor gait deviations" were the most frequently observed. These minor deviations were found significantly more often in limbs with a lower level of spasticity and good muscle strength. Several other pathological joint patterns were moderately associated with weakness or spasticity, including but not limited to "outtoeing" for weakness and "intoeing" for spasticity. For the joints in the sagittal plane, significantly stronger associations were found with muscle weakness and

  7. Dark Sectors and New, Light, Weakly-Coupled Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Essig, R; Wester, W; Adrian, P Hansson; Andreas, S; Averett, T; Baker, O; Batell, B; Battaglieri, M; Beacham, J; Beranek, T; Bjorken, J D; Bossi, F; Boyce, J R; Cates, G D; Celentano, A; Chou, A S; Cowan, R; Curciarello, F; Davoudiasl, H; deNiverville, P; De Vita, R; Denig, A; Dharmapalan, R; Dongwi, B; Döbrich, B; Echenard, B; Espriu, D; Fegan, S; Fisher, P; Franklin, G B; Gasparian, A; Gershtein, Y; Graham, M; Graham, P W; Haas, A; Hatzikoutelis, A; Holtrop, M; Irastorza, I; Izaguirre, E; Jaeckel, J; Kahn, Y; Kalantarians, N; Kohl, M; Krnjaic, G; Kubarovsky, V; Lee, H-S; Lindner, A; Lobanov, A; Marciano, W J; Marsh, D J E; Maruyama, T; McKeen, D; Merkel, H; Moffeit, K; Monaghan, P; Mueller, G; Nelson, T K; Neil, G R; Oriunno, M; Pavlovic, Z; Phillips, S K; Pivovaroff, M J; Poltis, R; Pospelov, M; Rajendran, S; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Ritz, A; Ruz, J; Saenboonruang, K; Schuster, P; Shinn, M; Slatyer, T R; Steffen, J H; Stepanyan, S; Tanner, D B; Thaler, J; Tobar, M E; Toro, N; Upadye, A; Van de Water, R; Vlahovic, B; Vogel, J K; Walker, D; Weltman, A; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zhang, S; Zioutas, K

    2013-01-01

    Dark sectors, consisting of new, light, weakly-coupled particles that do not interact with the known strong, weak, or electromagnetic forces, are a particularly compelling possibility for new physics. Nature may contain numerous dark sectors, each with their own beautiful structure, distinct particles, and forces. This review summarizes the physics motivation for dark sectors and the exciting opportunities for experimental exploration. It is the summary of the Intensity Frontier subgroup "New, Light, Weakly-coupled Particles" of the Community Summer Study 2013 (Snowmass). We discuss axions, which solve the strong CP problem and are an excellent dark matter candidate, and their generalization to axion-like particles. We also review dark photons and other dark-sector particles, including sub-GeV dark matter, which are theoretically natural, provide for dark matter candidates or new dark matter interactions, and could resolve outstanding puzzles in particle and astro-particle physics. In many cases, the explorat...

  8. A Novel Method for Fundamental Interaction Studies with Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Vaintraub, S; Aviv, O; Heber, O; Mardor, I

    2010-01-01

    Trapped radioactive atoms present exciting opportunities for the study of fundamental interactions and symmetries. For example, detecting beta decay in a trap can probe the minute experimental signal that originates from possible tensor or scalar terms in the weak interaction. Such scalar or tensor terms affect, e.g., the angular correlation between a neutrino and an electron in the beta-decay process, thus probing new physics of "beyond-the-standard-model" nature. In particular, this article focuses on a novel use of an innovative ion trapping device, the Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT). Such a trap has not been previously considered for Fundamental Interaction studies and exhibits potentially very significant advantages over other schemes. These advantages include improved injection efficiency of the radionuclide under study, an extended field-free region, ion-beam kinematics for better efficiency and ease-of-operation and the potential for a much larger solid angle for the electron and recoiling atom co...

  9. Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997

  10. Interactions: A Study of Office Reference Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lederer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this study was to analyze the data from a referencestatistics-gathering mechanism at Colorado State University (CSU Libraries. It aimedprimarily to better understand patron behaviours, particularly in an academic librarywith no reference desk.Methods – The researchers examined data from 2007 to 2010 of College LiaisonLibrarians’ consultations with patrons. Data were analyzed by various criteria,including patron type, contact method, and time spent with the patron. Theinformation was examined in the aggregate, meaning all librarians combined, andthen specifically from the Liberal Arts and Business subject areas.Results – The researchers found that the number of librarian reference consultationsis substantial. Referrals to librarians from CSU’s Morgan Library’s one public servicedesk have declined over time. The researchers also found that graduate students arethe primary patrons and email is the preferred contact method overall.Conclusion – The researchers found that interactions with patrons in librarians’ offices – either in person or virtually – remain substantial even without a traditional reference desk. The data suggest that librarians’ efforts at marketing themselves to departments, colleges, and patrons have been successful. This study will be of value to reference, subject specialist, and public service librarians, and library administrators as they consider ways to quantify their work, not only for administrative purposes, but in order to follow trends and provide services and staffing accordingly.

  11. K to \\pi\\pi decays and the K to \\sigma weak amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimenkoff, N N

    2012-01-01

    We use a twice-subtracted partial-wave dispersion relation in the elastic unitarity approximation for final-state interactions to study the amplitude for the delta I = 1/2 CP-conserving weak process K+spurion->pi+pi. We use a simple parameterization to approximate the low energy I = 0 S-wave pipi->pipi scattering phase shift and extract the residue of the sigma pole in the weak amplitude obtained from the dispersion relation. Using this residue, we relate the K->pipi decay amplitude, the weak amplitude at the soft pion point and the K->sigma weak amplitude.

  12. Quantum Monte Carlo study of strange correlator in interacting topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han-Qing; He, Yuan-Yao; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    Distinguishing the nontrivial symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase from the trivial insulator phase in the presence of electron-electron interaction is an urgent question to the study of topological insulators. In this work, we demonstrate that the strange correlator is a sensitive diagnosis to detect SPT states in interacting systems. Employing large-scale quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations, we investigate the interaction-driven quantum phase transition in the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The transition from the quantum spin Hall insulator at weak interaction to an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at strong interaction can be readily detected by the momentum space behavior of the strange correlator in single-particle, spin, and pairing sectors. The interaction e?ects on the symmetry-protected edge states in various sectors are well captured in the QMC measurements of strange correlators. Moreover, we demonstrate that the strange correlator is technically easier to implement in QMC and more robust in performance than other proposed numerical diagnoses for interacting topological states, as only static correlations are needed. The attempt in this work paves the way for using the strange correlator to study interaction-driven topological phase transitions.

  13. The students' voice: Strengths and weaknesses of an undergraduate medical curriculum in a developing country, a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramasinghe Ruwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In medical education, feedback from students' is essential in course evaluation and development. Students at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka complete a five year medical curriculum comprising of five different streams. We aimed to evaluate the five year medical curriculum at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methods A qualitative research was conducted among recent graduates of the faculty. Students' opinions on strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum were collected via questionnaires, which were analysed and classified into common themes. A focus group discussion (FGD based on these themes was conducted among two student groups, each comprising of a facilitator, two observers and nine students selected as a representative sample from questionnaire respondents. FGDs were conducted using a semi-structured set of open-ended questions to guide participants and maintain consistency between groups. The FGD evaluated the reasons behind students' perceptions, attitudes, emotions and perceived solution. Verbal and non-verbal responses were transcribed and analysed. Results Questionnaire response rate was 82% (153/186. Students highlighted 68 and 135 different responses on strengths and weaknesses respectively. After analysis of both questionnaire and FGD results the following themes emerged: a well organized module system, increased frequency of assessments, a good variety in clinical appointments, lack of specific objectives and assessments at clinical appointments, community and behavioural sciences streams beneficial but too much time allocation, lengthy duration of course, inadequate knowledge provided on pharmacology and pathology. Conclusion We demonstrate how a brief qualitative method could be efficiently used to evaluate a curriculum spanning a considerable length of time. This method provided an insight into the students' attitudes and perceptions of the present faculty

  14. NMR and molecular dynamics studies of the interaction of melatonin with calmodulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjanski, Adrián G.; Estrin, Darío A.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.; McCormick, John E.; Martin, Stephen R.; Pastore, Annalisa; Biekofsky, Rodolfo R.; Martorana, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Pineal hormone melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is thought to modulate the calcium/calmodulin signaling pathway either by changing intracellular Ca2+ concentration via activation of its G-protein–coupled membrane receptors, or through a direct interaction with calmodulin (CaM). The present work studies the direct interaction of melatonin with intact calcium-saturated CaM both experimentally, by fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, and theoretically, by molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the interaction is calcium-dependent. The affinity, as obtained from monitoring 15N and 1H chemical shift changes for a melatonin titration, is weak (in the millimolar range) and comparable for the N- and C-terminal domains. Partial replacement of diamagnetic Ca2+ by paramagnetic Tb3+ allowed the measurement of interdomain NMR pseudocontact shifts and residual dipolar couplings, indicating that each domain movement in the complex is not correlated with the other one. Molecular dynamics simulations allow us to follow the dynamics of melatonin in the binding pocket of CaM. Overall, this study provides an example of how a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches can shed light on a weakly interacting system of biological and pharmacological significance. PMID:15498938

  15. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  16. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between ranitidine and metoclopramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucuţa, Adrian; Vlase, Laurian; Farcău, Dorin; Nanulescu, Mircea

    2004-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of metoclopramide in healthy volunteers was evaluated to determine if previously repeated doses of ranitidine inhibit the metabolism of the gastrointestinal prokinetic drug. Metoclopramide 20 mg (tablets) in combination with ranitidine 150 mg (tablets) were administered to 14 healthy human volunteers in a two treatment study design, separated by 5 days in which the ranitidine alone was administrated in single p.o. doses twice daily. Plasma concentrations of metoclopramide were determined during a 24 hour period following drug administration. Metoclopramide plasma concentrations were determined by a validated RP-HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with compartmental and non-compartmental analysis. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations Cmax were 44 ng/ml (metoclopramide alone) and 49.2 ng/ml (metoclopramide and ranitidine). The time taken to reach the peak, Tmax, was 1.15 hrs, and 1.21 hrs, respectively. The total areas under the curve (AUC) was 314.3 ng.hr/ml and 354.06 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The half-life (T 1/2) was 5.6 hr and 6.7 hr. A statistically significant difference was observed for both AUC and half-life of metoclopramide when administered alone or after 5 days of treatment with ranitidine. The experimental data proved the pharmacokinetic interaction between ranitidine of metoclopramide, and suggest monitoring adverse effects in patients.

  17. The Preventive Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Weak Bones Caused by the Interaction of Exercise and Food Restriction in Young Female Rats During the Period from Acquiring Bone Mass to Maintaining Bone Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Aikawa, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Kakutani, Yuya; Kato, Shoyo; Noma, Yuichi; Hattori, Satoshi; Ogata, Hitomi; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing calcium (Ca) intake is important for female athletes with a risk of weak bone caused by inadequate food intake. The aim of the present study was to examine the preventive effect of Ca supplementation on low bone strength in young female athletes with inadequate food intake, using the rats as an experimental model. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the sedentary and ad libitum feeding group (SED), voluntary running exercise and ad libitum feedi...

  18. Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  19. Weakly asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of "weakly asymptotically hyperbolic" geometries whose sectional curvatures tend to $-1$ and are $C^0$, but are not necessarily $C^1$, conformally compact. We subsequently investigate the rate at which curvature invariants decay at infinity, identifying a conformally invariant tensor which serves as an obstruction to "higher order decay" of the Riemann curvature operator. Finally, we establish Fredholm results for geometric elliptic operators, extending the work of Rafe Mazzeo and John M. Lee to this setting. As an application, we show that any weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric is conformally related to a weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric of constant negative curvature.

  20. Minimal Standard Model self-energies at finite temperature in the presence of weak magnetic fields: towards a full symmetry restoration study

    CERN Document Server

    Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria E; Sanchez, Angel; Piccinelli, Gabriella; Ayala, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The study of the universe's primordial plasma at high temperature plays an important role when tackling different questions in cosmology, such as the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. In the Minimal Standard Model (MSM) neither the amount of CP violation nor the strength of the phase transition are enough to produce and preserve baryon number during the Electroweak Phase Transition (EWPT), which are two of the three ingredients needed to develop baryon asymmetry. In this talk we present the first part of the analysis done within a scenario where it is viable to have improvements to the aforementioned situation: we work with the degrees of freedom in the broken symmetry phase of the MSM and analyze the development of the EWPT in the presence of a weak magnetic field. More specifically, we calculate the particle self-energies that include the effects of the weak magnetic field, needed for the MSM effective potential up to ring diagrams.

  1. Weakly Distributive Modules. Applications to Supplement Submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Engin Büyükaşik; Yilmaz M Demirci

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of Ganesan and Vanaja. We prove that -projective duo modules, in particular commutative rings, are weakly distributive. Using this result we obtain that in a commutative ring supplements are unique. This generalizes a result of Camillo and Lima. We also prove that any weakly distributive $\\oplus$-supplemented module is quasi-discrete.

  2. Broadband Microwave Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study Intermolecular Interactions in the Diphenyl Ether - Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Mariyam; Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    Many biological processes, such as chemical recognition and protein folding, are mainly controlled by the interplay of hydrogen bonds and dispersive forces. This interplay also occurs between organic molecules and solvent water molecules. Broadband rotational spectroscopy studies of weakly bound complexes are able to accurately reveal the structures and internal dynamics of molecular clusters isolated in the gas phase. Amongst them, water clusters with organic molecules are of particular interest. In this work, we investigate the interplay between different types of weak intermolecular interactions and how it controls the preferred interaction sites of aromatic ethers, where dispersive interactions may play a significant role. We present our results on diphenyl ether (C_{12}H_{10}O, 1,1'-Oxydibenzene) complexed with up to three molecules of water. Diphenyl ether is a flexible molecule, and it offers two competing binding sites for water: the ether oxygen and the aromatic π system. In order to determine the structure of the diphenyl ether-water complexes, we targeted transitions in the 2-8 GHz range using broadband rotational spectroscopy. We identify two isomers with one water, one with two water, and one with three water molecules. Further analysis from isotopic substitution measurements provided accurate structural information. The preferred interactions, as well as the observed structural changes induced upon complexation, will be presented and discussed.

  3. How a single particle simultaneously modifies the physical reality of two distant others: a quantum nonlocality and weak value study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Canabarro, Askery; Azevedo, Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    The concept of wave-particle duality, which is a key element of quantum theory, has been remarkably found to manifest itself in several experimental realizations as in the famous double-slit experiment. In this specific case, a single particle seems to travel through two separated slits simultaneously. Nevertheless, it is never possible to measure it in both slits, which naturally appears as a manifestation of the collapse postulate. In this respect, one could as well ask if it is possible to “perceive” the presence of the particle at the two slits simultaneously, once its collapse could be avoided. In this article, we use the recently proposed entanglement mediation protocol to provide a positive answer to this question. It is shown that a photon which behaves like a wave, i.e., which seems to be present in two distant locations at the same time, can modify two existing physical realities in these locations. Calculations of the “weak trace” left by such photon also enforce the validity of the present argumentation.

  4. Strange Weak Values

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Akio

    2010-01-01

    We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.

  5. Theoretical Studies on the Hydrogen-bonding and π-Stacking Interactions in the m-Nisoldipine Polymorphism Dimers%Theoretical Studies on the Hydrogen-bonding and π-Stacking Interactions in the m-Nisoldipine Polymorphism Dimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu, Min; Meng, Lingpeng; Zheng, Shijun; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Yanli

    2012-01-01

    The intermolecular interactions in the dimers of m-nisoldipine polymorphism were studied by B3LYP calculations and quantum theory of "atoms in molecules" (QTAIM) studies. Four geometries of dimers were obtained: dimer I (a:dimer, O…H--N), dimer II (b-dimer, O…H--N), dimer III (b-dimer, n-stacking-c), and dimer IV (b-dimer, n-stacking-p). The interaction energies of the four dimers are along the sequence of II〉I〉III〉IV. The intermolecular distance of the interactions follows the order: I (O…H--N)〈II (O…H--N), and III (n-stacking)〈 IV (n-stacking). Both the O…H--N hydrogen-bonding and n-stacking interactions belong to weak non-covalent interactions. The O…H--N hydrogen-bonding interactions with more electrostatic characters are stronger than the n-stacking interactions. The strength of the weak interactions decreases in the order: I〉II〉III〉IV, and the electrostatic character decreases along the sequence: I〉II〉III〉IV.

  6. Crossover from Weakly to Strongly Correlated Regions in the Two-dimensional Hubbard Model — Off-diagonal Wave Function Monte Carlo Studies of Hubbard Model II —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    The ground state of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model is investigated by adopting improved wave functions that take into account intersite electron correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. The ground-state energy is lowered considerably, giving the best estimate of the ground-state energy for the 2D Hubbard model. There is a crossover from weakly to strongly correlated regions as the on-site Coulomb interaction U increases. The antiferromagnetic correlation induced by U is reduced for hole doping when U is large, being greater than the bandwidth, thus increasing the kinetic energy gain. The spin and charge fluctuations are induced in the strongly correlated region. These antiferromagnetic and kinetic charge fluctuations induce electron pairings, which results in high-temperature superconductivity.

  7. Weak bond detection in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Taru; Kim, Eunho; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-05-01

    We experimentally investigate a diagnostic technique for identifying a weak bond in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs). We set up a one-dimensional chain of granular crystals, consisting of spherical particles with nonlinear interactions, to generate HNSWs. These solitary wave packets are transmitted into an inspection area of composites by making a direct contact with the chain. We demonstrate that a strong type of solitary waves injected to the weak bond area can break the weak bond of laminates, thereby causing delamination. Then, to identify the creation of the delamination, we transmit a weak type of solitary waves by employing the same apparatus, and measure the solitary waves reflected from the specimens. By analyzing these reflected solitary waves, we differentiate the weak bond samples with the pristine bond ones in an efficient and fast manner. The diagnostic results based on the proposed method are compared with the strength and energy release rate at bond interfaces, which are measured via standard testing methods such as three point bending and end notched flexure tests. This study shows the potential of solitary wave-based detection of weak bonds for hot spot monitoring of composite-based structures.

  8. Weak interference in the high-signal regime

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Juan P; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose

    2012-01-01

    Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on the existence of a special type of interaction which couples a property of a system, i.e., polarization or which-path information, with a separate degree of freedom, i.e., transverse position or frequency. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits the applicability of the weak amplification concept. However, we will show here that since the weak measurement concept is essentially an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime). This can widen the range of systems where the weak measurement concept can be applied. In this scenario, which can be called generally weak i...

  9. 基于随机共振的微弱信号检测研究%Study on weak signal detection based on stochastic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秀华

    2014-01-01

    Weak signal is a small signal,which is drowned in the noise,and generally with low SNR. Detection of weak signals is very important in engineering application,especially in the fields of physics,electronics and biomedicine. According to the theory of stochastic resonance,noise under certain conditions is conducive to detection of weak signals. The principle of stochastic resonance,stochastic resonance phenomenon in bistable systems and applied research status of stochastic resonance are studied in this paper.%微弱信号是淹没在噪声中的小信号,且一般其信噪比比较低。微弱信号的检测在物理、电子和生物医学方面都具有重要的意义。依据随机共振理论,噪声在一定的条件下有利于微弱信号的检测。研究了随机共振的原理、双稳态系统中的随机共振现象及随机共振的应用研究现状。

  10. Weak disorder in Fibonacci sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Naim, E [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Department of Physics and Center for Molecular Cybernetics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-05-19

    We study how weak disorder affects the growth of the Fibonacci series. We introduce a family of stochastic sequences that grow by the normal Fibonacci recursion with probability 1 - {epsilon}, but follow a different recursion rule with a small probability {epsilon}. We focus on the weak disorder limit and obtain the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the typical growth of the sequence elements, using perturbation theory. The limiting distribution for the ratio of consecutive sequence elements is obtained as well. A number of variations to the basic Fibonacci recursion including shift, doubling and copying are considered. (letter to the editor)

  11. Watt-level, all-fiber, ultrafast Er/Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser mode-locked by reduced graphene oxide interacting with a weak evanescent field

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Li, Yujia

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Watt-level, all-fiber, ultrafast Er/Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser passively mode-locked by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) interacting with a weak evanescent field of photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The rGO solution is filled into the cladding holes of the PCF based on total reflection, and after evaporation, the rGO flakes bear only 1/107 of the total energy in laser system, which enhances the thermal damage threshold and decreases the accumulated nonlinearity. By incorporating the saturable absorber into an Er/Yb-codoped fiber ring cavity, stable conventional soliton with a duration of 573 fs is generated, and a average output power up to 1.14 W is obtained.

  12. Structural insight into the role of Gln293Met mutation on the Peloruside A/Laulimalide association with αβ-tubulin from molecular dynamics simulations, binding free energy calculations and weak interactions analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Matías A; Alderete, Joel B; Jaña, Gonzalo A; Jiménez, Verónica A

    2017-07-01

    Peloruside A (PLA) and Laulimalide (LAU) are novel microtubule-stabilizing agents with promising properties against different cancer types. These ligands share a non-taxoid binding site at the outer surface of β-tubulin and promote microtubule stabilization by bridging two adjacent αβ-tubulin dimers from parallel protofilaments. Recent site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed the existence of a unique β-tubulin site mutation (Gln293Met) that specifically increased the activity of PLA and caused resistance to LAU, without affecting the stability of microtubules in the absence of the ligands. In this work, fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to examine the PLA and LAU association with native and mutated αβ-tubulin in the search for structural and energetic evidence to explain the role of Gln293Met mutation on determining the activity of these ligands. Our results revealed that Gln293Met mutation induced the loss of relevant LAU-tubulin contacts but exerted negligible changes in the interaction networks responsible for PLA-tubulin association. Binding free energy calculations (MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA), and weak interaction analysis (aNCI) predicted an increased affinity for PLA, and a weakened association for LAU after mutation, thus suggesting that Gln293Met mutation exerts its action by a modulation of drug-tubulin interactions. These results are valuable to increase understanding about PLA and LAU activity and to assist the future design of novel agents targeting the PLA/LAU binding pocket.

  13. Study of atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma as surface compatibilization technique for improved plastic composites loaded with cellulose based fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William Pimakouon

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have gained considerable interest from researchers recently for their unique prospective of engineering surfaces with plasma without the need of vacuum systems. They offer the advantage of low energy consumption, minimal capital cost and their simplicity as compared to conventional low pressure plasmas make them easy to upscale from laboratory to industry size. The present dissertation summarizes results of our attempt at applying atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma (APWIP) to the engineering of plastic composites filled with cellulose based substrates. An APWIP reactor was designed and built based on a multipoint-to-grounded ring and screen configurations. The carrier gas was argon and acetylene serves as the precursor molecule. The APWIP reactors showed capability of depositing plasma polymerized coating rich in carbon on substrates positioned within the electrode gap as well as downstream of the plasma discharge into the afterglow region. Our findings show that films grow by forming islands which for prolonged deposition time grow into thin films showing nodules, aggregates of nodules and microspheres. They also show chemical structure similar to films deposited from hydrocarbons with other conventional plasma techniques. The plasma polymerized deposits were used on substrates to modify their surface properties. Results show the surface of wood veneer and wood flour can be finely tuned from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. It was achieved by altering the topography of the surfaces along with their chemical composition. The wettability of wood veneer was investigated with contact angle measurements on capacitive drops and the capillary effect was utilized to assess surface properties of wood flour exposed to the discharges.

  14. Virus-membrane interactions: spectroscopic studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datema, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some new aspects of the infection process of nonenveloped viruses are reported. The interaction of a rod-shaped (TMV) and three spherical (CCMV, BMV, SBMV) plant viruses, of the filamentous bacteriophage M13, and of their coat proteins with membranes have been investigated. A comparis

  15. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Beer, G; Berucci, C; Bosnar, D; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; d'Uffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Sandri, P Levi; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Quaglia, R; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2016-01-01

    The strong interaction of antikaons with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAFNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound kaonic hydrogen atom leading to a hadronic shift and a hadronic broadening of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated ...

  16. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Beer, G; Berucci, C; Bosnar, D; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; d'Uffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Sandri, P Levi; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Quaglia, R; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    The strong interaction of antikaons (K-) with nucleons and nuclei in the low energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K-pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DA?NE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K-p atom leading to a hadronic shift and a hadronic broadening of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering le...

  17. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  18. Structural Analysis of DNA Interactions with Magnesium Ion Studied by Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ponkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the present study, FT Raman spectroscopy had been used to extend our knowledge about Magnesium ion - DNA interactions at various volume ratios (1:50, 1:20, 1:10 and 1:5. Approach: The analysis of FT Raman data supported the existence of structural specificities in the interaction and also the stability of DNA secondary structure. Results: Results from the Raman spectra clearly indicate that the interaction of Magnesium ion with DNA is mainly through the phosphate groups of DNA with negligible change of the B-conformation of DNA at all the volume ratios studied. For example, band at 1079 cm-1 assigned to the symmetrical stretching vibration of the nucleic acid phosphodioxy (PO-2 group. This band in the order 1079¨ 1075¨ 1070¨ 1066¨ 1063 cm-1 at all Magnesium ion DNA concentrations studied. Similarly, Raman band at 845 cm-1 due to antisymmetrical phosphodiester (O-P-O stretching of DNA. Conclusion: Magnesium ion interaction with the DNA phosphate is weak in comparison to interactions with the bases. On the other hand, the Raman signature of B-DNA is largely unperturbed by magnesium ion, suggesting much weaker interactions.

  19. Submanifolds Weakly Associated with Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Carriazo; L M Fernández; A Rodríguez-Hidalgo

    2009-06-01

    We establish an interesting link between differential geometry and graph theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low dimensions or belonging to some special families.

  20. Engineering molecular crystals with abnormally weak cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Kenneth E; Gagnon, Eric; Wuest, James D

    2011-05-14

    Adding astutely placed methyl groups to hexaphenylbenzene increases molecular weight but simultaneously weakens key C-H···π interactions, thereby leading to decreased enthalpies of sublimation and showing that materials with abnormally weak cohesion can be made by identifying and then obstructing interactions that help control association.

  1. Experimental study of complex mixed-mode oscillations generated in a Bonhoeffer-van der Pol oscillator under weak periodic perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kuniyasu, E-mail: kuniyasu.shimizu@it-chiba.ac.jp [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino 275-0016 (Japan); Sekikawa, Munehisa [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Bifurcations of complex mixed-mode oscillations denoted as mixed-mode oscillation-incrementing bifurcations (MMOIBs) have frequently been observed in chemical experiments. In a previous study [K. Shimizu et al., Physica D 241, 1518 (2012)], we discovered an extremely simple dynamical circuit that exhibits MMOIBs. Our model was represented by a slow/fast Bonhoeffer-van der Pol circuit under weak periodic perturbation near a subcritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation point. In this study, we experimentally and numerically verify that our dynamical circuit captures the essence of the underlying mechanism causing MMOIBs, and we observe MMOIBs and chaos with distinctive waveforms in real circuit experiments.

  2. Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulianos, Konstantin [The Rockefeller University

    2013-07-31

    that the CMSSM is not a viable model. Expressing our results in terms of simple topologies, we exclude squark masses below 0.75 TeV and gluino masses below 1.1 TeV. Astrophysical measurements suggest that about 80% of the matter density of the Universe is non-luminous. One of the theories on dark matter attributes it to Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). We searched for WIMPs in 7 TeV and 8 TeV collisions at CMS and set limits on WIMP production rates, which are competitive and complementary to those of direct detection experiments. Searching for monojets (events with only one jet), which in a popular model could be produced by a jet paired by a gravitino that escapes into extra dimensions, we significantly improved the previously set limit. Our results have been used to set limits on Higgs decay to invisible particles and on production of top squarks in compressed SUSY scenarios. Statistics. We computed Bayesian reference priors for several types of measurement and used them in the analysis of CMS data; investigated the applicability of bootstrap methods to HEP measurements; studied several issues associated with simple-versus-simple hypothesis testing and applied the resulting methods to the measurement of some properties of the top quark and Higgs boson.

  3. Atomic homodyne detection of weak atomic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Mevan; Elliott, D S

    2007-01-26

    We have developed a two-color, two-pathway coherent control technique to detect and measure weak optical transitions in atoms by coherently beating the transition amplitude for the weak transition with that of a much stronger transition. We demonstrate the technique in atomic cesium, exciting the 6s(2)S(1/2) --> 8s(2)S(1/2) transition via a strong two-photon transition and a weak controllable Stark-induced transition. We discuss the enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for this measurement technique over that of direct detection of the weak transition rate, and project future refinements that may further improve its sensitivity and application to the measurement of other weak atomic interactions.

  4. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  5. Flicker Interaction Studies and Flickermeter Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Rong

    2009-06-04

    types are made in the PQ lab of TUE since the human eye is sensitive to the light color. The measurement results are analyzed by FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and the wavelength contributions to flicker of different lamp types are presented in this thesis. It provides important information on the light color variation of different lamp types under flicker conditions. Weighting factors of various lamp types are obtained by the corresponding wavelength contribution to the flicker weighted with the CIE photopic luminosity curve. These weighting factors indicate the human eye flicker response from the human eye spectrum sensitivity point of view. Then it is possible to develop a simplified flicker measurement method for different lamp types by adding an eye-brain flicker response model. A discussion about the simplified flicker measurement method and the eye-brain model is given in this thesis. Finally, the interaction between flicker and dimmers (the phase controlled dimmer and reverse phase controlled dimmer) is studied based on experimental work. The measurement results show that the phase controlled dimmer will increase the flicker problem. Solutions to avoid the flicker influence of dimmers are discussed in this thesis.

  6. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions with Minimal Neutrino Energy Dependence -- A NuWro Truth Study

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Luke

    2016-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo truth study examining nuclear effects in charged-current neutrino interactions using observables constructed in the transverse plane. Three distributions are introduced that show very weak dependence on neutrino flux and its associated uncertainty. Measurements comparing these distributions between quasi-elastic-like and single charged pion final states will provide new constraints of nuclear effects. It is suggested that the on-axis position in the NuMI beam provides the correct flux to take advantage of this reduced energy dependence in measuring nuclear effect-generated transverse imbalances.

  7. Quantum Monte Carlo study of the Bose-polaron problem in a one-dimensional gas with contact interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, L.; Giorgini, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical study based upon quantum Monte Carlo methods of the Bose polaron in one-dimensional systems with contact interactions. In this instance of the problem of a single impurity immersed in a quantum bath, the medium is a Lieb-Liniger gas of bosons ranging from the weakly interacting to the Tonks-Girardeau regime, whereas the impurity is coupled to the bath via a different contact potential, producing both repulsive and attractive interactions. Both the case of a mobile impurity, having the same mass as the particles in the medium, and the case of a static impurity with infinite mass are considered. We make use of numerical techniques that allow us to calculate the ground-state energy of the impurity, its effective mass, and the contact parameter between the impurity and the bath. These quantities are investigated as a function of the strength of interactions between the impurity and the bath and within the bath. In particular, we find that the effective mass rapidly increases to very large values when the impurity gets strongly coupled to an otherwise weakly repulsive bath. This heavy impurity hardly moves within the medium, thereby realizing the "self-localization" regime of the Landau-Pekar polaron. Furthermore, we compare our results with predictions of perturbation theory valid for weak interactions and with exact solutions available when the bosons in the medium behave as impenetrable particles.

  8. Strong and weak compatibility of services interacting under a specific environment and its reachable analysis%给定环境下服务接口交互的强弱相容性及可达性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波

    2011-01-01

    组合服务的接口交互行为的分析和检测是服务计算领域的一个重要课题。本文以接口自动机为组合服务接口模型,引入组合环境的因素,提出了在给定的组合环境下服务接口交互强弱相容性的概念,并给出了相容性判定的判据表达式。通过遍历组合服务接口模型进行可达性分析,并通过检测判据表达式是否满足来判定服务接口交互的相容性,同时实现了服务与环境交互相容性的判定。%Analysis and verification of composite services interacting with an interface is an important issue in service computing.The interface automata are taken as the model of composite services interacting in this paper.By introducing an environment factor into analysis,the concept of strong and weak compatibility of service interacting under specific environment is proposed,and the expression of criterion for compatibility checking is presented.In order to check the compatibility of service interfaces,the interacting model of composite services is traversed with the reachable analysis,and the compatibility of service with environment has been checked.

  9. The Study of Electron Coherence Effects in Metallic Systems with High Frequency AC Electric Fields: Weak Localization and Mesoscopic Photovoltaic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin

    We have studied the effect of a high-frequency microwave electric field on electron phase coherence in thin Sb films and wires. The phase coherence is monitored through the effect of weak localization on the conductance. Through careful experimental design, we were able to calibrate the high frequency electric field. The ac effect was separated from the Joule heating with either dc measurements or the application of a magnetic field. This has made it possible to make a detailed, quantitative comparison with the theory with no free parameters. We have found good agreements between the experiments and the theory for both one and two dimensional cases. We have used the simple dc heating experiment to study the electron heating effects in Sb films. The electron temperature was reflected in the resistance, as an especially striking manner, to be quite different from the lattice temperature. This experiment was also used to study the electron-phonon scattering time in thin Sb films in the temperature range 1-4K. The magnitude of the scattering time is in reasonable accord with the theory, while the temperature dependence is of the form tau_{E_{ph}} ~ T^{-alpha }, with alpha ~ 1.4. The value of alpha appears to be significantly smaller than predicted by the theory, and is not understood. We have also studied the high frequency heating effects of thin AuPd, AuFe, and Au films at low temperatures. The analysis of the experiments yield consistent results with the theory for AuPd films with high values of the sheet resistance. However, for low-sheet-resistance films of AuPd, AuFe, and Au, the analysis suggests either that Joule heating is suppressed at microwave frequencies (as compared with that found for the same field strength at lower frequencies), or that a microwave field enhances the contribution of electron-electron interactions to the resistance. Either of these results would be at odds with current theories. Another experiment in which we were involved was the

  10. Multivalent ligand presentation as a central concept to study intricate carbohydrate-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Narayanaswamy

    2009-12-01

    Studying the weak binding affinities between carbohydrates and proteins has been a central theme in sustained efforts to uncover intricate details of this class of biomolecular interaction. The amphiphilic nature of most carbohydrates, the competing nature of the surrounding water molecules to a given protein receptor site and the receptor binding site characteristics led to the realization that carbohydrates are required to exert favorable interactions, primarily through clustering of the ligands. The clustering of sugar ligands has been augmented using many different innovative molecular scaffolds. The synthesis of clustered ligands also facilitates fine-tuning of the spatial and topological proximities between the ligands, so as to allow the identification of optimal molecular features for significant binding affinity enhancements. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters have been delineated in many instances, thereby allowing an ability to correlate the multivalent presentation and the observed ligand-receptor interaction profiles. This critical review presents various multivalent ligands, synthetic and semisynthetic, and mechanisms by which the weak binding affinities are overcome, and the ligand-receptor complexation leads to significantly enhanced binding affinities (157 references).

  11. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schönning Karin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  12. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  13. Destabilization of free convection by weak rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfgat, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This study offers an explanation of a recently observed effect of destabilization of free convective flows by weak rotation. After studying several models where flows are driven by a simultaneous action of convection and rotation, it is concluded that the destabilization is observed in the cases where centrifugal force acts against main convective circulation. At relatively low Prandtl numbers this counter action can split the main vortex into two counter rotating vortices, where the interaction leads to instability. At larger Prandtl numbers, the counter action of the centrifugal force steepens an unstable thermal stratification, which triggers Rayleigh-B\\'enard instability mechanism. Both cases can be enhanced by advection of azimuthal velocity disturbances towards the axis, where they grow and excite perturbations of the radial velocity. The effect was studied considering a combined convective/rotating flow in a cylinder with a rotating lid and a parabolic temperature profile at the sidewall. Next, explana...

  14. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Hamish R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ≥ 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N to 202 N (p Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications.

  15. A Study on the Input Hypothesis and Interaction Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪清

    2016-01-01

    In Second Language Acquisition theory, input and interaction are considered as two key factors greatly influencing the learners’acquisition rate and quality, and therefore input and interaction research has been receiving increasing attention in re-cent years. Among the large amount of research, Krashen’s input hypothesis and Long’s interaction hypothesis are perhaps most influential theories, from which most of input and interaction studies have developed. Input hypothesis claims that compre-hensible input is the only one way to acquire language, whereas interaction hypothesis argues that interaction is necessary for language acquisition. Therefore,this thesis attempts to conduct a descriptive analysis between input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis, based on their basic ideas, theoretical basis, comparisons and empirical work. It concludes that input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis succeed in interpreting the process of language acquisition to some extent, and offer both theoretical and practical inspirations on second language teaching.

  16. A simple model for studying interacting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2011-03-01

    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  17. Intermolecular interaction studies of glyphosate with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manon, Priti; Juglan, K. C.; Kaur, Kirandeep; Sethi, Nidhi; Kaur, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (U) of glyphosate with water have been measured on different ultrasonic frequency ranges from 1MHz, 2MHz, 3MHz & 5MHz by varying concentrations (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, & 0.40%) at 30°C. The specific gravity bottle, Ostwald's viscometer and quartz crystal interferometer were used to determine density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (U). These three factors contribute in evaluating the other parameters as acoustic impedance (Z), adiabatic compressibility (β), relaxation time (τ), intermolecular free length (Lf), free volume (Vf), ultrasonic attenuation (α/f2), Rao's constant (R), Wada's constant (W) and relative strength (R). Solute-solvent interaction is confirmed by ultrasonic velocity and viscosity values, which increases with increase in concentration indicates stronger association between solute and solvent molecules. With rise in ultrasonic frequency the interaction between the solute and solvent particles decreases. The linear variations in Rao's constant and Wada's constant suggest the absence of complex formation.

  18. A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop impacting on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, Mohamad

    2014-05-01

    ABSTRACT A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop Impacting on a Superheated Pool Mohamad Alchalabi The interactions between two immiscible liquids of different temperatures can be violent to the extent of causing harm to individuals, or damage to equipment, especially when used in the industry. Only a few studies investigated these interactions but they could not produce the violent interactions often reported by the industry, and therefore their results did not help much to develop clear understanding of the dynamics of these interactions. In this work, a high speed imaging system operated at 100,000 frames per second was utilized to record the events and phenomena taking place upon the impact of Perfluorohexane droplet at room temperature onto a hot soybean oil pool at temperatures as high as 300 ºC. The impact velocity was varied by varying the height of the droplet before it pinches off under its own weight. The recorded events identified the occurrence of vortex ring vapor explosions, weak and strong nucleate boiling, and film boiling. An impact velocity vs. oil temperature diagram identifying the regions in which each of these phenomena takes place was generated, and the dynamics driving their occurrences were explored. The vortex ring vapor explosions were found to become less violent as the impact velocity was increased, which was attributed to the existence of a smaller amount of liquid Perfluorohexane within the rings at high speed impacts, which does evaporate but does not expand violently. Weak nucleate boiling occurred at very high impact velocities relatively. As the temperature is increased, however, they start 5 turning into strong nucleate boiling. The strong nucleate boiling usually starts right upon impact, and when the temperature of the oil at one impact velocity is increased, it starts turning into film boiling, in which the liquid Perfluorohexane is covered by a vapor layer of its own vapor.

  19. On the Path Towards Universal Weak Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershtein, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    I will always remember my first meeting with YaB REFID="9789814436571_0009FN001">. In the autumn of 1951, after my graduation from Moscow State University, I ended up as a teacher of physics and mathematics in a high school in a village called Belousovo in the Kaluga Region, 105 km from Moscow. Sitting in the evenings at dinner with the old peasant woman who kindly took care of me, and in whose izba (loghouse) I lived, I looked at my university notes and, listening to the rain beating on the window, beyond which was pitch darkness, I consciously bade farewell to the scientific activity for which I had prepared at university.

  20. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...