Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero
2009-01-01
We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...
Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero;
2009-01-01
We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...
Aspects of electrostatics in a weak gravitational field
Padmanabhan, Hamsa
2009-01-01
Several features of electrostatics of point charged particles in a weak, homogeneous, gravitational field are discussed using the Rindler metric to model the gravitational field. Some previously known results are obtained by simpler and more transparent procedures and are interpreted in an intuitive manner. Specifically: (i) We show that the electrostatic potential of a charge at rest in the Rindler frame is expressible as A_0=(q/l) where l is the affine parameter distance along the null geodesic from the charge to the field point. (ii) We obtain the sum of the electrostatic forces exerted by one charge on another in the Rindler frame and discuss its interpretation. (iii) We show how a purely electrostatic term in the Rindler frame appears as a radiation term in the inertial frame. (In part, this arises because charges at rest in a weak gravitational field possess additional weight due to their electrostatic energy. This weight is proportional to the acceleration and falls inversely with distance -- which are...
Discreteness of space from GUP in a weak gravitational field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soumen Deb
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Quantum gravity effects modify the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP. Earlier work showed that the GUP-induced corrections to the Schrödinger equation, when applied to a non-relativistic particle in a one-dimensional box, led to the quantization of length. Similarly, corrections to the Klein–Gordon and the Dirac equations, gave rise to length, area and volume quantizations. These results suggest a fundamental granular structure of space. In this work, it is investigated how spacetime curvature and gravity might influence this discreteness of space. In particular, by adding a weak gravitational background field to the above three quantum equations, it is shown that quantization of lengths, areas and volumes continue to hold. However, it should be noted that the nature of this new quantization is quite complex and under proper limits, it reduces to cases without gravity. These results suggest that quantum gravity effects are universal.
Discreteness of space from GUP in a weak gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deb, Soumen, E-mail: soumen.deb@uleth.ca [Theoretical Physics Group, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Das, Saurya, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.ca [Theoretical Physics Group, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Vagenas, Elias C., E-mail: elias.vagenas@ku.edu.kw [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)
2016-04-10
Quantum gravity effects modify the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Earlier work showed that the GUP-induced corrections to the Schrödinger equation, when applied to a non-relativistic particle in a one-dimensional box, led to the quantization of length. Similarly, corrections to the Klein–Gordon and the Dirac equations, gave rise to length, area and volume quantizations. These results suggest a fundamental granular structure of space. In this work, it is investigated how spacetime curvature and gravity might influence this discreteness of space. In particular, by adding a weak gravitational background field to the above three quantum equations, it is shown that quantization of lengths, areas and volumes continue to hold. However, it should be noted that the nature of this new quantization is quite complex and under proper limits, it reduces to cases without gravity. These results suggest that quantum gravity effects are universal.
Thermal corrections to the Casimir energy in a general weak gravitational field
Nazari, Borzoo
2016-12-01
We calculate finite temperature corrections to the energy of the Casimir effect of a two conducting parallel plates in a general weak gravitational field. After solving the Klein-Gordon equation inside the apparatus, mode frequencies inside the apparatus are obtained in terms of the parameters of the weak background. Using Matsubara’s approach to quantum statistical mechanics gravity-induced thermal corrections of the energy density are obtained. Well-known weak static and stationary gravitational fields are analyzed and it is found that in the low temperature limit the energy of the system increases compared to that in the zero temperature case.
Gravitational lensing beyond the weak-field approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perlick, Volker, E-mail: perlick@zarm.uni-bremen.de [ZARM, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)
2014-01-14
Gravitational lensing is considered in the full spacetime formalism of general relativity, assuming that the light rays are lightlike geodesics in a Lorentzian manifold. The review consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to spherically symmetric and static spacetimes. In particular, an exact lens map for this situation is discussed. The second part is on axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes. It concentrates on the investigation of the photon region, i.e., the region filled by spherical lightlike geodesics, in the Kerr spacetime. The photon region is of crucial relevance for the formation of a shadow. Finally, the third part briefly addresses two topics that apply to spacetimes without symmetry, namely Fermat’s principle and the exact lens map of Frittelli and Newman.
Harris, Edward G.
1991-05-01
Starting from the equations of general relativity, equations similar to those of electromagnetic theory are derived. It is assumed that the particles are slowly moving (v≪c), and the gravitational field is sufficiently weak that nonlinear terms in Einstein's field equations can be neglected. For static fields, the analogy to electrostatics and magnetostatics is very close. Results are compared with those of a previous derivation by Braginsky, Caves, and Thorne [Phys. Rev. D 15, 2047-2068 (1977)]. These results lead to very simple derivations of the Lense-Thirring precession [Phys. Z. 19, 156-163 (1918)] and the spin-curvature force of Papepetrou [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 209, 248-258 (1951)] and Pirani [Acta Phys. Pol. 15, 389-405 (1956)].
Multi-scale analysis of the electromagnetic self-force in a weak gravitational field
Pound, Adam
2007-01-01
We examine the motion of a charged particle in a weak gravitational field. In addition to the Newtonian gravity exerted by a large central body, the particle is subjected to an electromagnetic self-force that contains both a conservative piece and a radiation-reaction piece. This toy problem shares many of the features of the strong-field gravitational self-force problem, and it is sufficiently simple that it can be solved exactly with numerical methods, and approximately with analytical methods. We submit the equations of motion to a multi-scale analysis, and we examine the roles of the conservative and radiation-reaction pieces of the self-force. We show that the radiation-reaction force drives secular changes in the orbit's semilatus rectum and eccentricity, while the conservative force drives a secular regression of the periapsis and affects the orbital time function; neglect of the conservative term can hence give rise to an important phasing error. We next examine what might be required in the formulati...
Dixon's extended bodies and weak gravitational waves
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Ortolan, Antonello
2009-01-01
General relativity considers Dixon's theory as the standard theory to deal with the motion of extended bodies in a given gravitational background. We discuss here the features of the "reaction" of an extended body to the passage of a weak gravitational wave. We find that the body acquires a dipolar moment induced by its quadrupole structure. Furthermore, we derive the "world function" for the weak field limit of a gravitational wave background and use it to estimate the deviation between geodesics and the world lines of structured bodies. Measuring such deviations, due to the existence of cumulative effects, should be favorite with respect to measuring the amplitude of the gravitational wave itself.
Arminjon, M
2002-01-01
A simple example is given of the implementation of the usual method of asymptotic expansions for weak gravitational fields. A scalar, preferred-frame theory of gravitation is considered, but the method is general. The version used allows to account for propagation effects, also in the zone occupied by the system of bodies. As an application, it is shown that the retardation due to propagation at speed c has no dynamical effect below the second order, i.e., below the order 1/c^2; and that it does have dynamical effects at this order.
The generation of gravitational waves. 1. Weak-field sources: A plug-in-and-grind formalism
Thorne, K. S.; Kovacs, S. J.
1974-01-01
A plug-in-and-grind formalism is derived for calculating the gravitational waves emitted by any system with weak internal gravitational fields. If the internal fields have negligible influence on the system's motions, then the formalism reduces to standard linearized theory. Whether or not gravity affects the motions, if the motions are slow and internal stresses are weak, then the new formalism reduces to the standard quadrupole-moment formalism. In the general case the new formalism expresses the radiation in terms of a retarded Green's function for slightly curved spacetime, and then breaks the Green's-function integral into five easily understood pieces: direct radiation, produced directly by the motions of the sources; whump radiation, produced by the the gravitational stresses of the source; transition radiation, produced by a time-changing time delay (Shapiro effect) in the propagation of the nonradiative, 1/r field of the source; focussing radiation produced when one portion of the source focusses, in a time-dependent way, the nonradiative field of another portion of the source, and tail radiation, produced by backscatter of the nonradiative field in regions of focussing.
Schreck, M
2015-01-01
The current article shall contribute to understanding the classical analogue of the minimal photon sector in the Lorentz-violating Standard-Model Extension (SME). It is supposed to complement all studies performed on classical point-particle equivalents of SME fermions. The classical analogue of a photon is not a massive particle being described by a usual equation of motion, but a geometric ray underlying the eikonal equation. The first part of the paper will set up the necessary tools to understand this correspondence for interesting cases of the minimal SME photon sector. In conventional optics the eikonal equation follows from an action principle, which is demonstrated to work in most (but not all) Lorentz-violating cases as well. The integrands of the action functional correspond to Finsler structures, which establishes the connection to Finsler geometry. The second part of the article treats Lorentz-violating light rays in a weak gravitational background by implementing the principle of minimal coupling...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Fang-Yu; YANG Nan
2004-01-01
@@ We investigate the resonant interaction of a weak gravitational wave with a microwave beam in a coupling electromagnetic system, which consists of a Gaussian beam with double polarized transverse electric modes,a static magnetic field and fractal membranes. We find that under the synchroresonance condition, a highfrequency gravitational wave in amplitude 10-30 and frequency 3 GHz may produce the perturbative photon flux of 2.15 × 10 s- 1 in a surface of 10-2 m2. The perturbative photon flux can be pumped out from the background photon fluxes and one may obtain the amplified signal photon flux of2.15 × 104 s-1 by cascade fractal membranes.It is worth studying this effect for the detection of high-frequency relic gravitational waves in quintessential inflationary models and the high-frequency gravitational waves expected by possible laboratory schemes.
Weak gravitational lensing with the Square Kilometre Array
Brown, M L; Camera, S; Harrison, I; Joachimi, B; Metcalf, R B; Pourtsidou, A; Takahashi, K; Zuntz, J A; Abdalla, F B; Bridle, S; Jarvis, M; Kitching, T D; Miller, L; Patel, P
2015-01-01
We investigate the capabilities of various stages of the SKA to perform world-leading weak gravitational lensing surveys. We outline a way forward to develop the tools needed for pursuing weak lensing in the radio band. We identify the key analysis challenges and the key pathfinder experiments that will allow us to address them in the run up to the SKA. We identify and summarize the unique and potentially very powerful aspects of radio weak lensing surveys, facilitated by the SKA, that can solve major challenges in the field of weak lensing. These include the use of polarization and rotational velocity information to control intrinsic alignments, and the new area of weak lensing using intensity mapping experiments. We show how the SKA lensing surveys will both complement and enhance corresponding efforts in the optical wavebands through cross-correlation techniques and by way of extending the reach of weak lensing to high redshift.
Cluster mass reconstruction from weak gravitational lensing
Wilson, G; Frenk, C S; Wilson, Gillian; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S
1996-01-01
Kaiser & Squires have proposed a technique for mapping the dark matter in galaxy clusters using the coherent weak distortion of background galaxy images caused by gravitational lensing. We investigate the effectiveness of this technique under controlled conditions by creating simulated CCD frames containing galaxies lensed by a model cluster, measuring the resulting galaxy shapes, and comparing the reconstructed mass distribution with the original. Typically, the reconstructed surface density is diminished in magnitude when compared to the original. The main cause of this reduced signal is the blurring of galaxy images by atmospheric seeing, but the overall factor by which the reconstructed surface density is reduced depends also on the signal-to-noise ratio in the CCD frame and on both the sizes of galaxy images and the magnitude limit of the sample that is analysed. We propose a method for estimating a multiplicative compensation factor. We test our technique using a lensing cluster drawn from a cosmolo...
Baryons, Neutrinos, Feedback and Weak Gravitational Lensing
Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Viola, Massimo; Heymans, Catherine
2014-01-01
(Abridged) The effect of baryonic feedback on the dark matter mass distribution is generally considered to be a nuisance to weak gravitational lensing. Measurements of cosmological parameters are affected as feedback alters the cosmic shear signal on angular scales smaller than a few arcminutes. Recent progress on the numerical modelling of baryon physics has shown that this effect could be so large that, rather than being a nuisance, the effect can be constrained with current weak lensing surveys, hence providing an alternative astrophysical insight on one of the most challenging questions of galaxy formation. In order to perform our analysis, we construct an analytic fitting formula that describes the effect of the baryons on the mass power spectrum. This fitting formula is based on three scenarios of the OWL hydrodynamical simulations. It is specifically calibrated for $z<1.5$, where it models the simulations to an accuracy that is better than $2\\%$ for scales $k<10 h\\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$ and better than ...
Gravitational force in weakly correlated particle spatial distributions.
Gabrielli, Andrea; Masucci, Adolfo Paolo; Labini, Francesco Sylos
2004-03-01
We study the statistics of the gravitational (Newtonian) force in a particular class of weakly correlated spatial distributions of pointlike and unitary mass particles generated by the so-called Gauss-Poisson point processes. In particular we extend to these distributions the analysis that Chandrasekhar introduced for purely Poisson processes. In this way we can find the explicit asymptotic behavior of the probability density function of the force for both large and small values of the field as a generalization of the Holtzmark statistics. In particular, we show how the modifications at large fields depend on the density correlations introduced at small scales. The validity of the introduced approximations is positively tested through a direct comparison with the analysis of the statistics of the gravitational force in numerical simulations of Gauss-Poisson processes.
Redshift and the Rotating Gravitational Field
Christensen, Walter James
2010-01-01
Previously it was shown that if a weak gravitational field is modeled as a background of oscillating gravitons described by normal coordinates, then the field naturally exhibits rotational kinetic energy. The conformal metric associated with this oscillatory motion is given by g{\\mu}{\
Testing Einstein's weak equivalence principle with gravitational waves
Wu, Xue-Feng; Gao, He; Wei, Jun-Jie; Mészáros, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2016-07-01
A conservative constraint on Einstein's weak equivalence principle (WEP) can be obtained under the assumption that the observed time delay between correlated particles from astronomical sources is dominated by the gravitational fields through which they move. Current limits on the WEP are mainly based on the observed time delays of photons with different energies. It is highly desirable to develop more accurate tests that include the gravitational wave (GW) sector. The detection by the advanced LIGO/VIRGO systems of gravitational waves will provide attractive candidates for constraining the WEP, extending the tests to gravitational interactions with potentially higher accuracy. Considering the capabilities of the advanced LIGO/VIRGO network and the source direction uncertainty, we show that the joint detection of GWs and electromagnetic signals could probe the WEP to an accuracy down to 10-10 , which is one order of magnitude tighter than previous limits, and 7 orders of magnitude tighter than the multimessenger (photons and neutrinos) results by supernova 1987A.
The general theory of secondary weak gravitational lensing
Clarkson, Chris
2015-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing is normally assumed to have only two principle effects: a magnification of a source and a distortion of the sources shape in the form of a shear. However, further distortions are actually present owing to changes in the gravitational field across the scale of the ray bundle of light propagating to us, resulting in the familiar arcs in lensed images. This is normally called the flexion, and is approximated by Taylor expanding the shear and magnification across the image plane. However, the physical origin of this effect arises from higher-order corrections in the geodesic deviation equation governing the gravitational force between neighbouring geodesics - so involves derivatives of the Riemann tensor. We show that integrating the second-order geodesic deviation equation results in a 'Hessian map' for gravitational lensing, which is a higher-order addition to the Jacobi map. We derive the general form of the Hessian map in an arbitrary spacetime paying particular attention to the sep...
Gravitational Wave - Gauge Field Oscillations
Caldwell, R R; Maksimova, N A
2016-01-01
Gravitational waves propagating through a stationary gauge field transform into gauge field waves and back again. When multiple families of flavor-space locked gauge fields are present, the gravitational and gauge field waves exhibit novel dynamics. At high frequencies, the system behaves like coupled oscillators in which the gravitational wave is the central pacemaker. Due to energy conservation and exchange among the oscillators, the wave amplitudes lie on a multi-dimensional sphere, reminiscent of neutrino flavor oscillations. This phenomenon has implications for cosmological scenarios based on flavor-space locked gauge fields.
Weak 'Antigravity' Fields in General Relativity
Felber, F S
2005-01-01
Within the weak-field approximation of general relativity, new exact solutions are derived for the gravitational field of a mass moving with arbitrary velocity and acceleration. Owing to an inertial-pushing effect, a mass having a constant velocity greater than 3^-1/2 times the speed of light gravitationally repels other masses at rest within a narrow cone. At high Lorentz factors (gamma >> 1), the force of repulsion in the forward direction is about -8(gamma^5) times the Newtonian force, offering opportunities for laboratory tests of gravity at extreme velocities.
R. Vlokh; M. Kostyrko
2006-01-01
Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.
Gravitational perturbations of the Higgs field
Albareti, Franco D; Prada, Francisco
2016-01-01
We study the possible effects of classical gravitational fields on the Higgs vacuum expectation value through the modifications induced in the one-loop effective potential. We concentrate our study on the Higgs self-interactions contribution in a perturbed FRW background. For weak and slowly-varying gravitational fields, a complete set of mode solutions for the Klein-Gordon equation is obtained to leading order in the adiabatic approximation. The mode integrations are calculated using standard dimensional regularization techniques. As expected, the regularized effective potential contains the same divergences as in flat space-time, which can be renormalized without the need of additional counterterms. However, we find new finite non-local contributions which depend on the gravitational potentials, and introduce an explicit space-time dependence on the Higgs potential coefficients. Being finite, the new terms are free of renormalization ambiguities. Inhomogeneities in the effective potential translate into per...
Compact Groups analysis using weak gravitational lensing
Chalela, Martín; Johana Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Garcia Lambas, Diego; Foëx, Gael
2017-01-01
We present a weak lensing analysis of a sample of SDSS Compact Groups (CGs). Using the measured radial density contrast profile, we derive the average masses under the assumption of spherical symmetry, obtaining a velocity dispersion for the Singular Isothermal Spherical model, σV = 270 ± 40 km s-1, and for the NFW model, R_{200}=0.53± 0.10 h_{70}^{-1}Mpc. We test three different definitions of CGs centres to identify which best traces the true dark matter halo centre, concluding that a luminosity weighted centre is the most suitable choice. We also study the lensing signal dependence on CGs physical radius, group surface brightness, and morphological mixing. We find that groups with more concentrated galaxy members show steeper mass profiles and larger velocity dispersions. We argue that both, a possible lower fraction of interloper and a true steeper profile, could be playing a role in this effect. Straightforward velocity dispersion estimates from member spectroscopy yields σV ≈ 230 km s-1 in agreement with our lensing results.
Gravitational Interaction of Higgs Boson and Weak Boson Scattering
Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian
2013-01-01
With the LHC discovery of a 125GeV Higgs-like particle, we study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson via the unique dimension-4 operator involving Higgs doublet and scalar curvature, \\xi H^\\dag H R, with nonminimal coupling \\xi. This Higgs portal term can be transformed away in Einstein frame and induces gauge-invariant effective interactions in the Higgs sector. We study the weak boson scattering in Einstein frame, and explicitly demonstrate the longitudinal-Goldstone boson equivalence theorem in the presence of \\xi coupling. With these, we derive unitarity bound on the Higgs gravitational coupling \\xi in Einstein frame, which is stronger than that inferred from the LHC Higgs measurements. We further analyze \\xi-dependent weak boson scattering cross sections at TeV scale, and study the LHC probe of \\xi coupling via weak boson scattering experiments.
Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Dirac Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ning
2004-01-01
Gravitational interactions of Dirac field are studied in this paper. Based on gauge principle, quantum gauge theory of gravity, which is perturbatively renormalizable, is formulated in the Minkowski space-time. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, gravity is treated as a kind of fundamental interactions, which is transmitted by gravitational gauge tield, and Dirac field couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Based on this theory, we can easily explain gravitational phase effect, which has already been detected by COW experiment.
Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Various Matter Fields
Huang, Wung-Hong
2016-01-01
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed in recent by Lewkowycz and Maldacena [1] is extended to the systems of Boson fields, Fermion fields and Maxwell fields which have arbitrary frequency and mode numbers on the BTZ spacetime. We find the associated regular wave solution in each case and use it to calculate the exact gravitational entropy. The results show that there is a threshold frequency below which the Fermion fields could not contribute the generalized gravitational entropy. Al...
Weak gravitational lensing by fourth order gravity black holes
Horváth, Zsolt; Hobill, David; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2012-01-01
We discuss weak lensing characteristics for black holes in a fourth order f(R) gravity theory, characterized by a gravitational strength parameter $\\sigma $ and a distance scale $r_{c}$. Above $r_{c}$ gravity is strengthened and as a consequence weak lensing features are modified compared to the Schwarzschild case. We find a critical impact parameter (depending upon $r_{c}$) for which the behavior of the deflection angle changes. Using the Virbhadra-Ellis lens equation we improve the computation of the image positions, Einstein ring radii, magnification factors and the magnification ratio. We demonstrate that the magnification ratio as function of image separation has a different power-law dependence for each parameter $\\sigma $. As these are the lensing quantities most conveniently determined by direct measurements, future lensing surveys will be able to constrain the parameter $\\sigma $ based on this prediction.
Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Scalar Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WUNing
2003-01-01
Quantum gauge theory of gravity is formulated based on gauge principle. Because the Lagrangian has strict local gravitational gauge symmetry, gravitational gauge theory is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum theory. Gravitational gauge interactions of scalar field are studied in this paper. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, scalar field minimal couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Comparing the Lagrangian for scalar field in quantum gauge theory of gravity with the corresponding Lagrangian in quantum fields in curved space-time, the definition for metric in curved space-time in geometry picture of gravity can be obtained, which is expressed by gravitational gauge field. In classical level, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches are also discussed.
Weak gravitational lensing with the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey
Mandelbaum, Rachel; Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Collaboration
2017-01-01
Data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey on the Subaru telescope show great promise for weak gravitational lensing science. The unprecedented combination of area, depth, and imaging quality of this survey (with median i-band seeing of 0.6 arcsec) will enable a wide array of weak lensing measurements, with significant contributions from lenses up to redshift z~1. Applications include cosmological weak lensing measurements from shear-shear and galaxy-shear correlations, which will be especially powerful when combined with the overlapping SDSS-III spectroscopic datasets; and studies of the dark matter halos of galaxies and galaxy clusters. In this talk, I will demonstrate the imaging quality and the tests used to validate the weak lensing measurements. These include null tests internal to the data, comparisons with external datasets, and image simulation-based tests. I will also show the lensing mass profiles of spectroscopic galaxies from the SDSS-III, illustrating the current signal-to-noise ratio on small and large scales and demonstrating the potential for innovative galaxy and cosmological science with the complete survey area.
Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Scalar Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ning
2003-01-01
Quantum gauge theory of gravity is formulated based on gauge principle. Because the Lagrangian hasstrict local gravitational gauge symmetry, gravitational gauge theory is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum theory.Gravitational gauge interactions of scalar field are studied in this paper. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, scalar fieldminimal couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Comparing the Lagrangian forscalar field in quantum gauge theory of gravity with the corresponding Lagrangian in quantum fields in curved space-time, the definition for metric in curved space-time in geometry picture of gravity can be obtained, which is expressedby gravitational gauge field. In classical level, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches are also discussed.
The weak gravity conjecture and scalar fields
Palti, Eran
2017-08-01
We propose a generalisation of the Weak Gravity Conjecture in the presence of scalar fields. The proposal is guided by properties of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity, but can be understood more generally in terms of forbidding towers of stable gravitationally bound states. It amounts to the statement that there must exist a particle on which the gauge force acts more strongly than gravity and the scalar forces combined. We also propose that the scalar force itself should act on this particle stronger than gravity. This implies that generically the mass of this particle decreases exponentially as a function of the scalar field expectation value for super-Planckian variations, which is behaviour predicted by the Refined Swampland Conjecture. In the context of N=2 supergravity the Weak Gravity Conjecture bound can be tied to bounds on scalar field distances in field space. Guided by this, we present a general proof that for any linear combination of moduli in any Calabi-Yau compactification of string theory the proper field distance grows at best logarithmically with the moduli values for super-Planckian distances.
Quantum Lukewarm Black Holes and Weak Gravitational Lensing
Ghaffarnejad, H
2015-01-01
Aim of the paper is study gravitational lensing of quantum Lukewarm black hole (QLBL) and compare with results of gravitational lensing from classical Lukewarm black hole lens (CLBL). Applying numerical method, we evaluate deflection angle, image positions and magnifications in weak deflection limits. In CLBL case, bending light ray moves from both side of the lens but in QLBL case it moves from one side of the lens. Increasing amount of dimensionless cosmological parameter (quantum matter interaction parameter), rake of bending light ray is decreased in case of QLBL with respect to CLBL. Number and size of radius of Einstein rings rises in case of QLBL with respect to CLBL. Maximum number of rings is 3 in case of QLBL namely one more with respect to case of CLBL which is physically related to effects of quantum matter. There is two images (elementary and secondary) with maximum magnification which their locations are changed in case of QLBL with respect to case of CLBL. Also their locations changed by increa...
Gravitational Field Shielding by Scalar Field and Type II Superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang B. J.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The gravitational field shielding by scalar field and type II superconductors are theoret- ically investigated. In accord with the well-developed five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field, which unifies the Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory, the scalar field cannot only polarize the space as shown previously, but also flatten the space as indicated recently. The polariza- tion of space decreases the electromagnetic field by increasing the equivalent vacuum permittivity constant, while the flattening of space decreases the gravitational field by decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. In other words, the scalar field can be also employed to shield the gravitational field. A strong scalar field significantly shield the gravitational field by largely decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. According to the theory of gravitational field shielding by scalar field, the weight loss experimentally detected for a sample near a rotating ceramic disk at very low tempera- ture can be explained as the shielding of the Earth gravitational field by the Ginzburg- Landau scalar field, which is produced by the type II superconductors. The significant shielding of gravitational field by scalar field produced by superconductors may lead to a new spaceflight technology in future.
Weak gravitational lensing analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data
Mandelbaum, Rachel
Weak gravitational lensing, the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to gravitational deflection of light by more nearby masses, is a powerful tool that can address a wide variety of problems in astrophysics and cosmology. Observation of weak lensing requires large amounts of data since it can only be measured as an average over millions of galaxy shapes. This thesis focuses on lensing-related science that can be addressed using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), an excellent source of high-quality data. First, we discuss technical issues related to observing lensing in the data, with a description of our Reglens pipeline and constraints on systematic errors in current data. This is followed by a comparison of an analytical model known as the halo model (which can be used to relate the observed lensing signal to properties of the lens galaxies) against the lensing signal in N-body simulations. After these preliminaries, we address several very different science questions using our reductions of the SDSS data. The first is the question of intrinsic alignments of galaxies (alignments of galaxies on the sky due to local structure), which may be a contaminant for future lensing surveys that seek to determine the cosmological model to high precision. Second, we use a halo model analysis of the lensing signal to determine the relationship between galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, and halo mass, and to measure satellite fractions, all of which can help distinguish between models of galaxy formation. The third application we consider is methodology for the detection of dark matter halo ellipticity, including a first attempt at detecting it with SDSS lensing data, these results may be used to distinguish between cosmological models and learn more about galaxy intrinsic alignments. Finally, we measure the matter distributions around Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs), which not only teaches us about the properties of these galaxies, but also gives us information
Electromagnetic Effects in Superconductors in Gravitational Field
Ahmedov, B J
2005-01-01
The general relativistic modifications to the resistive state in superconductors of second type in the presence of a stationary gravitational field are studied. Some superconducting devices that can measure the gravitational field by its red-shift effect on the frequency of radiation are suggested. It has been shown that by varying the orientation of a superconductor with respect to the earth gravitational field, a corresponding varying contribution to AC Josephson frequency would be added by gravity. A magnetic flux (being proportional to angular velocity of rotation $\\Omega$) through a rotating hollow superconducting cylinder with the radial gradient of temperature $\
Weak gravitational field and Coriolis potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Z Y Turakulov
2009-03-01
In mechanics of the mass point passage from one frame of reference to another moving with velocity $\\vec{u}$ consists in subtracting this vector from the velocity of the particle. In general case the vector $\\vec{u}$ is not constant, as, for example, when passing through a rotating frame, this operation creates inertial forces. Analysis of this phenomenon from the point of view of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics is interesting from the general relativistic point of view due to Einstein's principle of equivalence. We show that the vector $\\vec{u}$ plays the role of vector potential which, however, essentially differs from vector potential known in classical electrodynamics. Comparative analysis of the two kinds of vector potentials is completed.
Strong field gravitational lensing by a charged Galileon black hole
Zhao, Shan-Shan
2016-01-01
Strong field gravitational lensings are dramatically disparate from those in the weak field by representing relativistic images due to light winds one to infinity loops around a lens before escaping. We study such a lensing caused by a charged Galileon black hole, which is expected to have possibility to evade no-hair theorem. We calculate the angular separations and time delays between different relativistic images of the charged Galileon black hole. All these observables can potentially be used to discriminate a charged Galileon black hole from others. We estimate the magnitudes of the observables for the closest suppermassive black hole Sgr A*. It is found that when the scalar filed in the Galileon is weakly coupled to the gravitational field and it is "low-speed", the charged Galileon black hole can possibly be distinguished from a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole.
Gravitational wave stress tensor from the linearised field equations
Balbus, Steven A
2016-01-01
A conserved stress energy tensor for weak field gravitational waves in standard general relativity is derived directly from the linearised wave equation alone, for an arbitrary gauge. The form of the tensor leads directly to the classical expression for the outgoing wave energy in any harmonic gauge. The method described here, however, is a much simpler, shorter, and more physically motivated approach than is the customary procedure, which involves a lengthy and cumbersome second-order (in wave-amplitude) calculation starting with the Einstein tensor. Our method has the added advantage of exhibiting the direct coupling between the outgoing energy flux in gravitational waves and the work done by the gravitational field on the sources. For nonharmonic gauges, the derived wave stress tensor has an index asymmetry. This coordinate artefact may be removed by techniques similar to those used in classical electrodynamics (where this issue also arises), but only by appeal to a more lengthy calculation. For any harmon...
Exact plane gravitational waves and electromagnetic fields
Montanari, E; Montanari, Enrico; Calura, Mirco
2000-01-01
The behaviour of a "test" electromagnetic field in the background of an exactgravitational plane wave is investigated in the framework of Einstein's generalrelativity. We have expressed the general solution to the de Rham equations asa Fourier-like integral. In the general case we have reduced the problem to aset of ordinary differential equations and have explicitly written the solutionin the case of linear polarization of the gravitational wave. We have expressedour results by means of Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC), which define the properreference frame of the laboratory. Moreover we have provided some "gedankenexperiments", showing that an external gravitational wave induces measurableeffects of non tidal nature via electromagnetic interaction. Consequently it isnot possible to eliminate gravitational effects on electromagnetic field, evenin an arbitrarily small spatial region around an observer freely falling in thefield of a gravitational wave. This is opposite to the case of mechanicalinteraction invo...
Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Fermion Fields
Huang, Wung-Hong
2016-01-01
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed in recent by Lewkowycz and Maldacena [1] is extended to the system of Fermion fields. We first find the regular wave solution of Fermion field which has arbitrary frequency and mode number on the BTZ spacetime, and then use it to calculate the exact gravitational entropy. The results show that there is a threshold frequency below which the Fermion fields could not contribute the generalized gravitational entropy. Also, the static and zero-mode solutions have not entropy, contrast to that in scalar field. We also found that the entropy of the static scalar fields and non-static fermions is an increasing function of mode number and, after arriving the maximum entropy it becomes a deceasing function and is derived to the asymptotic value.
Neutrino oscillations in the gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Godunov, S. I., E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru; Pastukhov, G. S., E-mail: grigoriypas@gmail.com [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)
2011-02-15
We calculate the gravitational correction to the phase difference between neutrino mass eigenstates for the spherically symmetric gravitational field described by the Schwarzschild metric. This correction was calculated in a number of works, but the results of these works differ from each other. Our result does not coincide with the results ever published. In this work, we make calculations in the simplest way and verify our result by several tests.
Exact plane gravitational waves and electromagnetic fields
Enrico MontanariUniversity of Ferrara and INFN sezione di Ferrara, Italy; Mirco Calura(University of Ferrara and INFN sezione di Ferrara, Italy)
2000-01-01
The behaviour of a "test" electromagnetic field in the background of an exact gravitational plane wave is investigated in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We have expressed the general solution to the de Rham equations as a Fourier-like integral. In the general case we have reduced the problem to a set of ordinary differential equations and have explicitly written the solution in the case of linear polarization of the gravitational wave. We have expressed our ...
Physical optics in a uniform gravitational field
Hacyan, Shahen
2012-01-01
The motion of a (quasi-)plane wave in a uniform gravitational field is studied. It is shown that the energy of an elliptically polarized wave does not propagate along a geodesic, but in a direction that is rotated with respect to the gravitational force. The similarity with the walk-off effect in anisotropic crystals or the optical Magnus effect in inhomogeneous media is pointed out.
Initial results from a laboratory emulation of weak gravitational lensing measurements
Seshadri, Suresh; Goodsall, Timothy; Fucik, Jason; Hirata, Christopher M; Rhodes, Jason; Rowe, Barnaby; Smith, Roger
2013-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing observations are a key science driver for the NASA Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). To validate the performance of the WFIRST infrared detectors, we have performed a laboratory emulation of weak gravitational lensing measurements. Our experiments used a custom precision projector system to image a target mask composed of a grid of pinholes, emulating stellar point sources, onto a 1.7 micron cut-off Teledyne HgCdTe/H2RG detector. We used a 880nm LED illumination source and f/22 pupil stop to produce undersampled point spread functions similar to those expected from WFIRST. We also emulated the WFIRST image reconstruction strategy, using the IMage COMbination (IMCOM) algorithm to derive oversampled images from dithered, undersampled input images. We created shear maps for this data and computed shear correlation functions to mimic a real weak lensing analysis. After removing only 2nd order polynomial fits to the shear maps, we found that the correlation functions could b...
Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wung-Hong Huang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.
Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field
Huang, Wung-Hong
2014-12-01
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.
Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Wung-Hong, E-mail: whhwung@mail.ncku.edu.tw
2014-12-12
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.
Electron-Lattice Systems in Weak Gravitation: The Schiff Dessler Problem
Datta, Timir; Yin, Ming
2009-01-01
The behavior of composite matter in external fields can be very reveling. The quantum mechanical problem of a material object (test mass) placed in a uniform (weak) gravitational field, g, was considered by many authors starting with Schiff [Phys. Rev. 151, 1067 (1966)]. Depending on the theoretical treatment opposing results of gravity induced (electric) field have been reported. In the Schiff model [L.I. Schiff, PRB, 1, 4649 (1970)] the field is predicted to be oriented anti-parallel (with reference to g). On the other hand it is found to be parallel in the elastic lattice model [A. J. Dessler et al, Phys.Rev, 168, 737, (1968); Edward Teller, PNAS, 74, 2664 (1977)]. Surprisingly, modern researchers have largely overlooked this interesting contradiction. Here an experimental test is suggested. We also reason that advanced density functional type calculations can provide valuable guidance.
Gravitational waves induced by spinor fields
Feng, Kaixi
2015-01-01
In realistic model-building, spinor fields with various masses are present. During inflation, spinor field may induce gravitational waves as a second order effect. In this paper, we calculate the contribution of single massive spinor field to the power spectrum of primordial gravitational wave by using retarded Green propagator. We find that the correction is scale-invariant and of order $H^4/M_P^4$ for arbitrary spinor mass $m_{\\psi}$. Additionally, we also observe that when $m_\\psi \\gtrsim H$, the dependence of correction on $m_\\psi/H$ is nontrivial.
The gravitational field and brain function
Mei, Lei; Zhou, Chuan-Dai; Lan, Jing-Quan; Wang, Zhi-Ging; Wu, Wen-Can; Xue, Xin-Min
The frontal cortex is recognized as the highest adaptive control center of the human brain. The principle of the ``frontalization'' of human brain function offers new possibilities for brain research in space. There is evolutionary and experimental evidence indicating the validity of the principle, including it's role in nervous response to gravitational stimulation. The gravitational field is considered here as one of the more constant and comprehensive factors acting on brain evolution, which has undergone some successive crucial steps: ``encephalization'', ``corticalization'', ``lateralization'' and ``frontalization''. The dominating effects of electrical responses from the frontal cortex have been discovered 1) in experiments under gravitational stimulus; and 2) in processes potentially relating to gravitational adaptation, such as memory and learning, sensory information processing, motor programing, and brain state control. A brain research experiment during space flight is suggested to test the role of the frontal cortex in space adaptation and it's potentiality in brain control.
Relativity in Combinatorial Gravitational Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mao Linfan
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A combinatorial spacetime $(mathscr{C}_G| uboverline{t}$ is a smoothly combinatorial manifold $mathscr{C}$ underlying a graph $G$ evolving on a time vector $overline{t}$. As we known, Einstein's general relativity is suitable for use only in one spacetime. What is its disguise in a combinatorial spacetime? Applying combinatorial Riemannian geometry enables us to present a combinatorial spacetime model for the Universe and suggest a generalized Einstein gravitational equation in such model. Forfinding its solutions, a generalized relativity principle, called projective principle is proposed, i.e., a physics law ina combinatorial spacetime is invariant under a projection on its a subspace and then a spherically symmetric multi-solutions ofgeneralized Einstein gravitational equations in vacuum or charged body are found. We also consider the geometrical structure in such solutions with physical formations, and conclude that an ultimate theory for the Universe maybe established if all such spacetimes in ${f R}^3$. Otherwise, our theory is only an approximate theory and endless forever.
Spin in an arbitrary gravitational field
Obukhov, Yuri N; Teryaev, Oleg V
2013-01-01
We study the quantum mechanics of a Dirac fermion on a curved spacetime manifold. The metric of the spacetime is completely arbitrary, allowing for the discussion of all possible inertial and gravitational field configurations. In this framework, we find the Hermitian Dirac Hamiltonian for an arbitrary classical external field (including the gravitational and electromagnetic ones). In order to discuss the physical content of the quantum-mechanical model, we further apply the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, and derive the quantum equations of motion for the spin and position operators. We analyse the semiclassical limit of these equations and compare the results with the dynamics of a classical particle with spin in the framework of the standard Mathisson-Papapetrou theory and in the classical canonical theory. The comparison of the quantum mechanical and classical equations of motion of a spinning particle in an arbitrary gravitational field shows their complete agreement.
Light clocks in strong gravitational fields
Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R
2009-01-01
We argue that the time measured by a light clock operating with photons rather than classical light requires a refinement of the standard clock postulate in general relativity. In the presence of a gravitational field, already the one-loop quantum corrections to classical Maxwell theory affect light propagation and the construction of observers' frames of reference. Carefully taking into account these kinematic effects, a concise geometric expression for the time shown by a light clock is obtained. This result has far-reaching implications for physics in strong gravitational fields.
Cosmological Electromagnetic Fields due to Gravitational Wave Perturbations
Marklund, M; Brodin, G; Marklund, Mattias; Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Brodin, Gert
2000-01-01
We consider the dynamics of electromagnetic fields in an almost-Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe using the covariant and gauge-invariant approach of Ellis and Bruni. Focusing on the situation where deviations from the background model are generated by tensor perturbations only, we demonstrate that the coupling between gravitational waves and a weak magnetic test field can generate electromagnetic waves. We show that this coupling leads to an initial pulse of electromagnetic waves whose width and amplitude is determined by the wavelengths of the magnetic field and gravitational waves. A number of implications for cosmology are discussed, in particular we calculate an upper bound of the magnitude of this effect using limits on the quadrapole anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background.
Effective gravitational fields in transplackian scattering
Betti, Luca S G
2014-01-01
After a short introduction to the general Quantum Gravity problem, we compare a result from the S-matrix description of gravitational interaction due to Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano (ACV) with classical General Relativity results. In Chapter 1, we introduce the metric produced by a massless particle moving at the speed of light. In Chapter 2, we review ACV's semiclassical approach to gravitation and show some of its result. In Chapter 3, we detail the computation of gravitational field expectation values in a high-energy scattering process, following ACV's prescriptions. In Chapter 4, we analyze our results. The main feature is that the leading contributions to the metric computed in terms of the Feynman diagrams deriving from ACV's model perfectly reproduce classical results.
Gravitation Field Dynamics in Jeans Theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A. A. Stupka
2008-09-01
Closed system of time equations for nonrelativistic gravitation field and hydrodynamic medium was obtained by taking into account binary correlations of the field, which is the generalization of Jeans theory. Distribution function of the systemwas built on the basis of the Bogolyubov reduced description method. Calculations were carried out up to the first order of a perturbation theory in interaction. Adiabatic and enthropic types of perturbations were corrected and two new types of perturbations were found.
Gravitation Field Dynamics in Jeans Theory
Stupka, A A
2016-01-01
Closed system of time equations for nonrelativistic gravitation field and hydrodynamic medium was obtained by taking into account binary correlations of the field, which is the generalization of Jeans theory. Distribution function of the systemwas built on the basis of the Bogolyubov reduced description method. Calculations were carried out up to the first order of a perturbation theory in interaction. Adiabatic and enthropic types of perturbations were corrected and two new types of perturbations were found.
Scalar field haloes as gravitational lenses
Schunck, F E; Mielke, E W
2006-01-01
A non-topological soliton model with a repulsive scalar self-interaction of the Emden type provides a constant density core,similarly as the empirical Burkert profile of dark matter haloes. As a further test, we derive the gravitational lens properties of our model, in particular, the demarcation curves between `weak' and `strong' lensing. Accordingly, strong lensing with typically three images is almost three times more probable for our solitonic model than for the Burkert fit. Moreover, some prospective consequences of a possible flattening of dark matter haloes are indicated.
Gravitational redshift from rotating body having intense magnetic field
Dubey, Anuj Kumar
2016-01-01
It is well known fact that gravitational field can alter the space-time structure and gravitational redshift is its one example. Electromagnetic field can also alter the space-time similar to gravitational field. So electromagnetic field can give rise to an additional effect on gravitational redshift. There are many objects in nature, like neutron stars, magnetars etc which have high amount of rotation and magnetic field. In the present paper we will derive the expression of gravitational redshift from rotating body having intense magnetic field by using the action function of the electromagnetic fields.
Generalized Gravitational Entropy of Interacting Scalar Field and Maxwell Field
Huang, Wung-Hong
2014-01-01
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena in recent is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the spacetime. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy. Our investigations have not found the unexpected anomalous surface term.
Quantum Gravitational Contributions to Gauge Field Theoriest
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汤勇; 吴岳良
2012-01-01
We revisit quantum gravitational contributions to quantum gauge field theories in the gauge condition independent Vilkovisky-DeWitt formalism based on the background field method. With the advantage of Landau- DeWitt gauge, we explicitly obtain the gauge condition independent result for the quadratically divergent gravitational corrections to gauge couplings. By employing, in a general way, a scheme-independent regularization method that can preserve both gauge invariance and original divergent behavior of integrals, we show that the resulting gauge coupling is power-law running and asymptotically free. The regularization scheme dependence is clarified by comparing with results obtained by other methods. The loop regularization scheme is found to be applicable for a consistent calculation.
Large Field Inflation and Gravitational Entropy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaloper, Nemanja; Kleban, Matthew; Lawrence, Albion
2016-01-01
when we correctly renormalize models with many light species, taking the {\\it physical} Planck scale to be $M^2_{pl} \\gtrsim N {\\cal M}_{UV}^2$, where ${\\cal M}_{UV}$ is the cutoff for the QFT coupled to semiclassical quantum gravity. The number of light species then cancels out of the gravitational...... entropy of de Sitter or near-de Sitter backgrounds at leading order. Working in detail with $N$ scalar fields in de Sitter space, renormalized to one loop order, we show that the gravitational entropy automatically obeys the covariant entropy bound. Furthermore, while the axion decay constant is a strong......Large field inflation can be sensitive to perturbative and nonperturbative quantum corrections that spoil slow roll. A large number $N$ of light species in the theory, which occur in many string constructions, can amplify these problems. One might even worry that in a de Sitter background, light...
Speed of Light in Gravitational Fields
Tomozawa, Y
2003-01-01
A spherically symmetric and static metric that describes physical coordinates is introduced and determined by precision measurement of time delay experiments. Using this metric, the speed of light in a gravitational field is derived. This offers a fifth experimental test of general relativity in various contexts. The GPS (Global Positioning System) may be used for the test and the result may be utilized for improving its programming.
Dirac particles in a gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gosselin, Pierre [UFR de Mathematiques, Universite Grenoble I, BP74, Institut Fourier, UMR 5582 CNRS-UJF, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Mohrbach, Herve [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Groupe BioPhysStat, ICPMB-FR CNRS 2843, Metz Cedex 3 (France)
2011-09-15
The semiclassical approximation for the Hamiltonian of Dirac particles interacting with an arbitrary gravitational field is investigated. The time dependence of the metric leads to new contributions to the in-band energy operator in comparison to previous works in the static case. In particular we find a new coupling term between the linear momentum and the spin, as well as couplings that contribute to the breaking of the particle-antiparticle symmetry. (orig.)
Some results of Moon's gravitational field investigations
Haigel, Y. I.; Zazulyak, P. M.
2016-10-01
The task of studying the gravitational field of the moon is important for long-term planning of its research using manned and robotic spacecrafts. Determination of harmonic expansion coefficients of selenopotential may not be reliable because of their construction based on different data and different methods of mathematical processing. With mutual comparative assessment of selenopotential models we can get some information about the reliability determination harmonic coefficients.
Chaos in a gravitational field with dipoles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈菊华; 王永久
2003-01-01
In this paper we investigate the dyna nics of a test particle in the gravitational field with dipoles. At first we study the gravitational potential by numerical simulations, we find that, for appropriate parameters, there are two different cases in the potential curve: one is the one-well case with a stable critical point, and the other is the three-well case with three stable critical points and two unstable critical points. By performing Poincare sections for different values of the parameters and initial conditions, we find a regular motion and a chaotic motion. From these Poincare sections,we further confirm that the chaotic motion of the test particle originates mainly from the dipoles.
Towards weakly constrained double field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanghoon Lee
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Towards weakly constrained double field theory
Lee, Kanghoon
2016-08-01
We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Towards Weakly Constrained Double Field Theory
Lee, Kanghoon
2015-01-01
We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X- ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Gravitational collapse of charged scalar fields
Torres, Jose M
2014-01-01
In order to study the gravitational collapse of charged matter we analyze the simple model of an self-gravitating massless scalar field coupled to the electromagnetic field in spherical symmetry. The evolution equations for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon sector are derived in the 3+1 formalism, and coupled to gravity by means of the stress-energy tensor of these fields. To solve consistently the full system we employ a generalized Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation of General Relativity that is adapted to spherical symmetry. We consider two sets of initial data that represent a time symmetric spherical thick shell of charged scalar field, and differ by the fact that one set has zero global electrical charge while the other has non-zero global charge. For compact enough initial shells we find that the configuration doesn't disperse and approaches a final state corresponding to a sub-extremal Reissner-N\\"ordstrom black hole with $|Q|
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Joginder Singh Dhiman; Rajni Sharma
2016-03-01
The self-gravitating instability of an infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of viscoelastic medium permeated with non uniform magnetic field and rotation is studied for both the strongly coupled plasma (SCP) and weakly coupled plasma (WCP). The non uniform magnetic field and rotation are considered to act along the axial direction of the cylinder. The normal mode method of perturbations is applied to obtain the dispersion relation. The condition for the onset of gravitational instability has been derived from the dispersion relation under both strongly and weakly coupling limits. It is found that the Jeans criterion for gravitational collapse gets modified due to the presence of shear and bulk viscosities for the SCP, however, the magnetic field and rotation whether uniform or non uniform has no effect on the Jeans criterion of an infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of a self-gravitating viscoelastic medium.
KiDS-450 : cosmological parameter constraints from tomographic weak gravitational lensing
Hildebrandt, H.; Viola, M.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Kuijken, K.; Blake, C.; Erben, T.; Joachimi, B.; Klaes, D.; Miller, L.; Morrison, C. B.; Nakajima, R.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Amon, A.; Choi, A.; Covone, G.; de Jong, J.T.A.; Dvornik, A.; Fenech Conti, I.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Herbonnet, R.; Hoekstra, H.; Köhlinger, F.; McFarland, J.; Mead, A.; Merten, J.; Napolitano, N.; Peacock, J. A.; Radovich, M.; Schneider, P.; Simon, P.; Valentijn, E. A.; van den Busch, J. L.; van Uitert, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.
2017-01-01
We present cosmological parameter constraints from a tomographic weak gravitational lensing analysis of ~450deg$^2$ of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). For a flat $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology with a prior on $H_0$ that encompasses the most recent direct measurements, we find $S_8\\equiv\\sig
Massive to gauge field reduction and gravitational wave zone information
Deser, S
2016-01-01
We show explicitly that massive, Abelian, vector, just like (properly defined) massive tensor, fields limit smoothly to their massless, gauge, versions: they emit only maximal helicity radiation and mediate Coulomb and (special relativistic) Newtonian, forces between their (conserved) sources. Our main motivation, though, is to show that the recent gravitational wave detection probably cannot directly rule out very long-range gravity: Even though the waves were emitted in a strong field regime, their being detected in the weak field wave zone means the above equivalences apply. There remains the, not unlikely, possibility that no strong field generation of radiation in massive models can reproduce the observed ring-down patterns. Separately, the smooth linear limiting behaviors show that the discontinuity lies not in the mass alone, but rather in Abelian versus non-Abelian, Yang-Mills and General Relativity, regimes, whose respective massive versions are known to be non-physical.
Gravitational properties of light - The gravitational field of a laser pulse
Rätzel, Dennis; Menzel, Ralf
2015-01-01
The gravitational field of a laser pulse of finite lifetime, is investigated in the framework of linearized gravity. Although the effects are very small, they may be of fundamental physical interest. It is shown that the gravitational field of a linearly polarized light pulse is modulated as the norm of the corresponding electric field strength, while no modulations arise for circular polarization. In general, the gravitational field is independent of the polarization direction. It is shown that all physical effects are confined to spherical shells expanding with the speed of light, and that these shells are associated with the emission and absorption of the pulse. Nearby test particles at rest are attracted towards the pulse trajectory by the gravitational field due to the emission of the pulse, and they are repelled from the pulse trajectory by the gravitational field due to its absorption. Examples are given for the size of the attractive effect. It is recovered that massless test particles do not experien...
Large Field Inflation and Gravitational Entropy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaloper, Nemanja; Kleban, Matthew; Lawrence, Albion
2016-01-01
species will lead to a violation of the covariant entropy bound at large $N$. If so, requiring the validity of the covariant entropy bound could limit the number of light species and their couplings, which in turn could severely constrain axion-driven inflation. Here we show that there is no such problem...... entropy of de Sitter or near-de Sitter backgrounds at leading order. Working in detail with $N$ scalar fields in de Sitter space, renormalized to one loop order, we show that the gravitational entropy automatically obeys the covariant entropy bound. Furthermore, while the axion decay constant is a strong...... in this light, and show that they are perfectly consistent with the covariant entropy bound. Thus, while quantum gravity might yet spoil large field inflation, holographic considerations in the semiclassical theory do not obstruct it....
Energy of Gravitational Field of Static Spherically Symmetric Neutron Stars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WENDe-Hua; CHENWei; WANGXian-Ju; AIBao-Quan; LIUGuo-Tao; LIULiang-Gang
2003-01-01
By using the Einstein-Tolman expression of the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor, the energy density of the gravitational field of the static spherically symmetric neutron stars is calculated in the Cartesian coordinate system.It is exciting that the energy density of gravitational field is positive and rational The xmmerical results of the energy density of gravitational field of neutron stars are calculated. For neutron stars with M=2M, the ratio of the energy density of gravitational field to the energy density of pure matters would be up to 0.54 at the surface.
Symmetries in tetrad theories. [of gravitational fields and general relativity
Chinea, F. J.
1988-01-01
The isometry conditions for gravitational fields are given directly at the tetrad level, rather than in terms of the metric. As an illustration, an analysis of the curvature collineations and Killing fields for a twisting type-N vacuum gravitational field is made.
Plazas, Andrés A; Kannawadi, Arun; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rhodes, Jason D; Smith, Roger
2016-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing (WL) is one of the most powerful techniques to learn about the dark sector of the universe. To extract the WL signal from astronomical observations, galaxy shapes must be measured and corrected for the point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system with extreme accuracy. Future WL missions (such as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, WFIRST) will use a family of hybrid nearinfrared CMOS detectors (HAWAII-4RG) that are untested for accurate WL measurements. Like all image sensors, these devices are subject to conversion gain nonlinearities (voltage response to collected photo-charge) that bias the shape and size of bright objects such as reference stars that are used in PSF determination. We study this type of detector nonlinearity (NL) and show how to derive requirements on it from WFIRST PSF size and ellipticity requirements. We simulate the PSF optical profiles expected for WFIRST and measure the fractional error in the PSF size and the absolute error in the PSF elliptici...
Consequences of Coupled Electromagnetic-Gravitational Fields
Smalley, Larry
2002-01-01
In the late 1980s there was a flurry of activities involving the newly discovered high Tc superconductors in the development of new devices such as more efficient current transmission, transformers, generators, and motors. One such developmental project by Podkletnov in 1992 noted some small, anomalous gravitational behaviors. A following unpublished paper by Podkletnov 1995 provided data with larger effects using a larger (approx. 25 cm) superconducting disk. Unfortunately this disk was extremely fragile and was broken beyond repair. To date, these experiments have not been successfully repeated because of the difficulties of producing stable, durable (and fired) superconducting disks. This problem with firing these disks has been solved by Li. What remains is to install the disk in "motor", at superconducting temperatures in the presence of appropriately tailored magnetic fields.
Gravitational Goldstone fields from affine gauge theory
Tresguerres, R
2000-01-01
In order to facilitate the application of standard renormalization techniques, gravitation should be decribed, if possible, in pure connection formalism, as a Yang-Mills theory of a certain spacetime group, say the Poincare or the affine group. This embodies the translational as well as the linear connection. However, the coframe is not the standard Yang-Mills type gauge field of the translations, since it lacks the inhomogeneous gradient term in the gauge transformations. By explicitly restoring the "hidden" piece responsible for this behavior within the framework of nonlinear realizations, the usual geometrical interpretation of the dynamical theory becomes possible, and in addition one can avoid the metric or coframe degeneracy which would otherwise interfere with the integrations within the path integral. We claim that nonlinear realizations provide a general mathematical scheme clarifying the foundations of gauge theories of spacetime symmetries. When applied to construct the Yang-Mills theory of the aff...
Constraining stochastic gravitational wave background from weak lensing of CMB B-modes
Shaikh, Shabbir; Rotti, Aditya; Souradeep, Tarun
2016-01-01
A stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) will affect the CMB anisotropies via weak lensing. Unlike weak lensing due to large scale structure which only deflects photon trajectories, a SGWB has an additional effect of rotating the polarization vector along the trajectory. We study the relative importance of these two effects, deflection \\& rotation, specifically in the context of E-mode to B-mode power transfer caused by weak lensing due to SGWB. Using weak lensing distortion of the CMB as a probe, we derive constraints on the spectral energy density ($\\Omega_{GW}$) of the SGWB, sourced at different redshifts, without assuming any particular model for its origin. We present these bounds on $\\Omega_{GW}$ for different power-law models characterizing the SGWB, indicating the threshold above which observable imprints of SGWB must be present in CMB.
Constraining stochastic gravitational wave background from weak lensing of CMB B-modes
Shaikh, Shabbir; Mukherjee, Suvodip; Rotti, Aditya; Souradeep, Tarun
2016-09-01
A stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) will affect the CMB anisotropies via weak lensing. Unlike weak lensing due to large scale structure which only deflects photon trajectories, a SGWB has an additional effect of rotating the polarization vector along the trajectory. We study the relative importance of these two effects, deflection & rotation, specifically in the context of E-mode to B-mode power transfer caused by weak lensing due to SGWB. Using weak lensing distortion of the CMB as a probe, we derive constraints on the spectral energy density (ΩGW) of the SGWB, sourced at different redshifts, without assuming any particular model for its origin. We present these bounds on ΩGW for different power-law models characterizing the SGWB, indicating the threshold above which observable imprints of SGWB must be present in CMB.
Quantum Galileo's experiments and mass estimation in a gravitational field
Seveso, Luigi; Paris, Matteo G A
2016-01-01
We address the problem of estimating the mass of a (quantum) particle interacting with a classical gravitational field. In particular, we analyze in details the ultimate bounds to precision imposed by quantum mechanics and study the effects of gravity in a variety of settings. Our results show that the presence of a gravitational field generally leads to a precision gain, which can be significant in a regime half-way between the quantum and classical domains. We also address quantum enhancement to precision, i.e. the advantages coming from taking into account the quantum nature of the probe particle, and show that non-classicality is indeed a relevant resource for mass estimation. In particular, we suggest schemes for mass-sensing measurements using quantum probes and show that upon employing non-classical states like quantum coherent superpositions one may improve precisions by orders of magnitude. In addition, we discuss the compatibility of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) within the quantum regime usi...
Weak gravity conjecture and effective field theory
Saraswat, Prashant
2017-01-01
The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff Λ . If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true, then parametric violation of the WGC at low energy comes at the cost of nonminimal field content in the UV. I propose that only a very weak constraint is applicable to EFTs, Λ ≲(log 1/g )-1 /2Mpl , where g is the gauge coupling, motivated by entropy bounds. Remarkably, EFTs produced by Higgsing a theory that satisfies the WGC can saturate but not violate this bound.
Coincident-Frequency Entangled Photons in a Homogenous Gravitational Field - A Thought Experiment
de Matos, Clovis Jacinto
2010-01-01
Assuming that the Principle of energy conservation holds for coincident-frequency entangled photons propagating in a homogeneous gravitational field. It is argued that in this physical context, either Quantum entanglement or the weak equivalence principle are broken by the photons.
Large Field Inflation and Gravitational Entropy
Kaloper, Nemanja; Lawrence, Albion; Sloth, Martin S
2015-01-01
Large field inflation can be sensitive to perturbative and nonperturbative quantum corrections that spoil slow roll. A large number $N$ of light species in the theory, which occur in many string constructions, can amplify these problems. One might even worry that in a de Sitter background, light species will lead to a violation of the covariant entropy bound at large $N$. If so, requiring the validity of the covariant entropy bound could limit the number of light species and their couplings, which in turn could severely constrain axion-driven inflation. Here we show that there is no such problem when we correctly renormalize models with many light species, taking the {\\it physical} Planck scale to be $M^2_{pl} \\gtrsim N {\\cal M}_{UV}^2$, where ${\\cal M}_{UV}$ is the cutoff for the QFT coupled to semiclassical quantum gravity. The number of light species then cancels out of the gravitational entropy of de Sitter or near-de Sitter backgrounds at leading order. Working in detail with $N$ scalar fields in de Sitt...
Onthe static and spherically symmetric gravitational field
Gottlieb, Ioan; Maftei, Gheorghe; Mociutchi, Cleopatra
Starting from a generalization of Einstein 's theory of gravitation, proposed by one of the authors (Cleopatra Mociutchi), the authors study a particular spherical symmetric case. Among other one obtain the compatibility conditions for the existence of the static and spherically symmetruic gravitational filed in the case of extended Einstein equation.
Cosmic Electromagnetic Fields due to Perturbations in the Gravitational Field
Mongwane, Bishop; Osano, Bob
2012-01-01
We use non-linear gauge-invariant perturbation theory to study the interaction of an inflation produced seed magnetic field with density and gravitational wave perturbations in an almost Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime. We compare the effects of this coupling under the assumptions of poor conductivity, infinite conductivity and the case where the electric field is sourced via the coupling of velocity perturbations to the seed field in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regime, thus generalizing, improving on and correcting previous results. We solve our equations for long wavelength limits and numerically integrate the resulting equations to generate power spectra for the electromagnetic field variables, showing where the modes cross the horizon. We find that the rotation of the electric field dominates the power spectrum on small scales, in agreement with previous arguments.
SL(2,C) Gauge Theory of Gravitation and the Quantization of the Gravitational Field
Carmeli, M; Carmeli, Moshe; Malin, Shimon
1998-01-01
A new approach to quantize the gravitational field is presented. It is based on the observation that the quantum character of matter becomes more significant as one gets closer to the big bang. As the metric loses its meaning, it makes sense to consider Schrodinger's three generic types of manifolds - unconnected differentiable, affinely connected, and metrically connected - as a temporal sequence following the big bang. Hence one should quantize the gravitational field on general differentiable manifolds or on affinely connected manifolds. The SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation is employed to explore this possibility. Within this framework, the quantization itself may well be canonical.
An accurate and practical method for inference of weak gravitational lensing from galaxy images
Bernstein, Gary M; Krawiec, Christina; March, Marisa C
2015-01-01
We demonstrate recovery of weak gravitational lensing shear at parts-per-thousand accuracy using an implementation of the Bayesian Fourier Domain (BFD) method proposed by Bernstein \\& Armstrong (2014, BA14). The BFD formalism is rigorously correct for Nyquist-sampled, background-limited, uncrowded image of background galaxies. BFD does not assign shapes to galaxies, instead compressing the pixel data D into a vector of moments M, such that we have an analytic expression for the probability P(M|g) of obtaining the observations with gravitational lensing distortion g along the line of sight. We extend the BA14 formalism to include detection and selection of galaxies without inducing biases on the inferred g. We describe a practical algorithm for conducting BFD's integrations over the population of unlensed source galaxies. Our BFD implementation measures ~10 galaxies per second per core on current hardware, a speed that will be largely independent of the number of images taken of each target. Initial tests ...
Plazas, A. A.; Shapiro, C.; Kannawadi, A.; Mandelbaum, R.; Rhodes, J.; Smith, R.
2016-10-01
Weak gravitational lensing (WL) is one of the most powerful techniques to learn about the dark sector of the universe. To extract the WL signal from astronomical observations, galaxy shapes must be measured and corrected for the point-spread function (PSF) of the imaging system with extreme accuracy. Future WL missions—such as NASA’s Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)—will use a family of hybrid near-infrared complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detectors (HAWAII-4RG) that are untested for accurate WL measurements. Like all image sensors, these devices are subject to conversion gain nonlinearities (voltage response to collected photo-charge) that bias the shape and size of bright objects such as reference stars that are used in PSF determination. We study this type of detector nonlinearity (NL) and show how to derive requirements on it from WFIRST PSF size and ellipticity requirements. We simulate the PSF optical profiles expected for WFIRST and measure the fractional error in the PSF size (ΔR/R) and the absolute error in the PSF ellipticity (Δe) as a function of star magnitude and the NL model. For our nominal NL model (a quadratic correction), we find that, uncalibrated, NL can induce an error of ΔR/R = 1 × 10-2 and Δe 2 = 1.75 × 10-3 in the H158 bandpass for the brightest unsaturated stars in WFIRST. In addition, our simulations show that to limit the bias of ΔR/R and Δe in the H158 band to ˜10% of the estimated WFIRST error budget, the quadratic NL model parameter β must be calibrated to ˜1% and ˜2.4%, respectively. We present a fitting formula that can be used to estimate WFIRST detector NL requirements once a true PSF error budget is established.
The Weak Field Limit of Higher Order Gravity
Stabile, Arturo
2008-01-01
The Higher Order Theories of Gravity - $f(R, R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta})$ - theory, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar, $R_{\\alpha\\beta}$ is the Ricci tensor and $f$ is any analytic function - have recently attracted a lot of interest as alternative candidates to explain the observed cosmic acceleration, the flatness of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies and other relevant astrophysical phenomena. It is a crucial point testing these alternative theories in the so called weak field and newtonian limit of a $f(R, R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta})$ - theory. With this "perturbation technique" it is possible to find spherically symmetric solutions and compare them with the ones of General Relativity. On both approaches we found a modification of General Relativity: the behaviour of gravitational potential presents a modification Yukawa - like in the newtonian case and a massive propagation in the weak field case. When the modification of the theory is removed (i.e. $f(R, R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta}) = R$, Hil...
Wormholes, emergent gauge fields, and the weak gravity conjecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harlow, Daniel [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Physics Department, Harvard University,Cambridge MA, 02138 (United States)
2016-01-20
This paper revisits the question of reconstructing bulk gauge fields as boundary operators in AdS/CFT. In the presence of the wormhole dual to the thermofield double state of two CFTs, the existence of bulk gauge fields is in some tension with the microscopic tensor factorization of the Hilbert space. I explain how this tension can be resolved by splitting the gauge field into charged constituents, and I argue that this leads to a new argument for the “principle of completeness”, which states that the charge lattice of a gauge theory coupled to gravity must be fully populated. I also claim that it leads to a new motivation for (and a clarification of) the “weak gravity conjecture”, which I interpret as a strengthening of this principle. This setup gives a simple example of a situation where describing low-energy bulk physics in CFT language requires knowledge of high-energy bulk physics. This contradicts to some extent the notion of “effective conformal field theory”, but in fact is an expected feature of the resolution of the black hole information problem. An analogous factorization issue exists also for the gravitational field, and I comment on several of its implications for reconstructing black hole interiors and the emergence of spacetime more generally.
Searching in GaBoDS deep survey for clusters of galaxies by weak gravitational lensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Rahimi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present work is detection of galaxy clusters based on weak gravitational lensing method. We apply mass aperture statistics method to 0.32 square degrees data obtained with the WFI@MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope and detect mass peaks based on their mass not the luminosity. So by the application of proper filter function, shear profile and mass map are produced. Finally mass peaks with higher detection significance are extracted. In future works, redshift of these mass concentrations and so their mass can be obtained.
Fast Reconnection of Weak Magnetic Fields
Zweibel, Ellen G.
1998-01-01
Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids.
Weak Lensing Galaxy Cluster Field Reconstruction
Jullo, Eric; Jauzac, Mathilde; Kneib, Jean-Paul
2013-01-01
In this paper, we compare three methods to reconstruct galaxy cluster density fields with weak lensing data. The first method called FLens integrates an inpainting concept to invert the shear field with possible gaps, and a multi-scale entropy denoising procedure to remove the noise contained in the final reconstruction, that arises mostly from the random intrinsic shape of the galaxies. The second and third methods are based on a model of the density field made of a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions. In one case, the model parameters are computed with a linear inversion involving a singular value decomposition. In the other case, the model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian MCMC optimization implemented in the lensing software Lenstool. Methods are compared on simulated data with varying galaxy density fields. We pay particular attention to the errors estimated with resampling. We find the multi-scale grid model optimized with MCMC to provide the best results, but at high computational cost, ...
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
Acedo, L
2015-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The resulting gravitational time-dilation near these masses gives rise to a frequency change of any periodic process, including electromagnetic oscillations as the wave propagates across the gravitational field. This phenomenon can be tackled with classical electrodynamics assuming a curved spacetime background and Maxwell's equations in a generally covariant form. In the present paper, we show that in a classical field-theoretical context the gravitational redshift can be interpreted as the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a medium with corresponding conductivity $\\sigma=g/(\\mu_0 c^3)$, where $g$ is the gravitational acceleration and $\\mu_0$ is the vacuum magnetic p...
A New Detector for Perturbations in Gravitational Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smirnov V. N.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The paper presents design, principles of operation, and examples of registrations carried out by original device developed and constructed by V. N. Smirnov. The device manifested the possibility to register very weak gravitational perturbations of non-seismic kind both from celestial bodies and from the internal processed in the terrestrial globe.
Weak lensing from self-ordering scalar fields
Saga, Shohei; Horiguchi, Kouichirou; Ichiki, Kiyotomo
2017-06-01
Cosmological defects result from cosmological phase transitions in the early Universe and the dynamics reflects their symmetry-breaking mechanisms. These cosmological defects may be probed through weak lensing effects because they interact with ordinary matters only through the gravitational force. In this paper, we investigate global textures by using weak lensing curl and B modes. Nontopological textures are modeled by the nonlinear sigma model (NLSM) and induce not only the scalar perturbation but also vector and tensor perturbations in the primordial plasma due to the nonlinearity in the anisotropic stress of scalar fields. We show angular power spectra of curl and B modes from both vector and tensor modes based on the NLSM. Furthermore, we give the analytic estimations for curl and B-mode power spectra. The amplitude of weak lensing signals depends on a combined parameter ɛv2=N-1(v/mpl) 4 where N and v are the number of the scalar fields and the vacuum expectation value, respectively. We discuss the detectability of the curl and B modes with several observation specifications. In the case of the CMB lensing observation without including the instrumental noise, we can reach ɛv≈2.7 ×10-6 . This constraint is about 10 times stronger than the current one determined from the Planck. For the cosmic shear observation, we find that the signal-to-noise ratio depends on the mean redshift and the observing number of galaxies as ∝zm0.7 and ∝Ng0.2, respectively. In the study of textures using cosmic shear observations, the mean redshift would be one of the key design parameters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
For a special use a new modelling method of evaluating external disturbing potential is presented in this paper. Being different from classical methods in physical geodesy this method is grounded upon the theory of unified representation of gravitational field. The models created in this way are particularly satisfactory for a high-speed computation of gravitational field in low altitude because they take account of topographic effects and have their kernel functions with simple structure and weak singularity.
Weak lensing galaxy cluster field reconstruction
Jullo, E.; Pires, S.; Jauzac, M.; Kneib, J.-P.
2014-02-01
In this paper, we compare three methods to reconstruct galaxy cluster density fields with weak lensing data. The first method called FLens integrates an inpainting concept to invert the shear field with possible gaps, and a multi-scale entropy denoising procedure to remove the noise contained in the final reconstruction, that arises mostly from the random intrinsic shape of the galaxies. The second and third methods are based on a model of the density field made of a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions. In one case, the model parameters are computed with a linear inversion involving a singular value decomposition (SVD). In the other case, the model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain optimization implemented in the lensing software LENSTOOL. Methods are compared on simulated data with varying galaxy density fields. We pay particular attention to the errors estimated with resampling. We find the multi-scale grid model optimized with Monte Carlo Markov Chain to provide the best results, but at high computational cost, especially when considering resampling. The SVD method is much faster but yields noisy maps, although this can be mitigated with resampling. The FLens method is a good compromise with fast computation, high signal-to-noise ratio reconstruction, but lower resolution maps. All three methods are applied to the MACS J0717+3745 galaxy cluster field, and reveal the filamentary structure discovered in Jauzac et al. We conclude that sensitive priors can help to get high signal-to-noise ratio, and unbiased reconstructions.
Primordial Gravitational Waves Induced by Magnetic Fields in Ekpyrotic Scenario
Ito, Asuka
2016-01-01
Both inflationary and ekpyrotic scenarios can account for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe. It is often said that detecting primordial gravitational waves is the key to distinguish both scenarios. We show that this is not true if the gauge kinetic function is present in the ekpyrotic scenario. In fact, primordial gravitational waves sourced by the gauge field can be produced in an ekpyrotic universe. We also study scalar fluctuations sourced by the gauge field and show that it is negligible compared to primordial gravitational waves. This comes from the fact that the fast roll condition holds in ekpyrotic models.
Generalized plane gravitational waves of non-symmetric unified field theories in plane symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjiv R. Bhoyar
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigated the plane wave solutions of both the weak and strong non-symmetric unified field equations of Einstein and Bonner in a generalized plane symmetric space-time in the sense of Taub [Ann. Math. 53, 472 (1951] for plane gravitational waves. We show that the plane wave solutions of Einstein and Bonner field equations exist in plane symmetry.
Gravitational effects on the Higgs field within the Solar System
Albareti, Franco D; Prada, Francisco
2016-01-01
The Higgs mechanism predicts, apart from the existence of a new scalar boson, the presence of a constant Higgs field that permeates all of space. The vacuum expectation value (VEV) of this field is affected by quantum corrections which are mainly generated by the self-interactions and couplings of the Higgs field to gauge bosons and heavy quarks. In this work we show that gravity can affect, in a non-trivial way, these quantum corrections through the finite parts of the one-loop contributions to the effective potential. In particular, we consider the corrections generated by the Standard Model Higgs self-interactions in slowly-varying weak gravitational backgrounds. The obtained results amount to the existence of non-negligible inhomogeneities in the Higgs VEV. Such inhomogeneities translate into spatial variations of the particle masses, and in particular of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. We find that these Higgs perturbations in our Solar System are controlled by the Eddington parameter, and are absent ...
Demonstration of the Symmetry Properties of Gravitational Metric Fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵亮; H.NODA; 邵丹; 邵常贵
2002-01-01
We calculate some Wilson loop functionals in a static sphere-symmetrical diagonal metric field and a gravitational metric field established by a cosmic string. Using the direction change of vector when it is parallel transported in the metric field of cosmic string, the cone symmetry of the metric field is shown.
Magnetic fields of weak line T-Tauri stars
Hill, Colin A.; MaTYSSE Collaboration
2017-10-01
T-Tauri stars (TTS) are late-type pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars that are gravitationally contracting towards the MS. Those that possess a massive accretion disc are known as classical T-Tauri stars (cTTSs), and those that have exhausted the gas in their inner discs are known as weak-line T-Tauri stars (wTTSs). Magnetic fields largely dictate the angular momentum evolution of TTS and can affect the formation and migration of planets. Thus, characterizing their magnetic fields is critical for testing and developing stellar dynamo models, and trialling scenarios currently invoked to explain low-mass star and planet formation. The MaTYSSE programme (Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of close-in Exoplanets) aims to determine the magnetic topologies of ~30 wTTSs and monitor the long-term topology variability of ~5 cTTSs. We present several wTTSs that have been magnetically mapped thus far (using Zeeman Doppler Imaging), where we find a much wider range of field topologies compared to cTTSs and MS dwarfs with similar internal structures.
On the universality of MOG weak field approximation at galaxy cluster scale
De Martino, Ivan; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2017-07-01
In its weak field limit, Scalar-tensor-vector gravity theory introduces a Yukawa-correction to the gravitational potential. Such a correction depends on the two parameters, α which accounts for the modification of the gravitational constant, and μ * - 1 which represents the scale length on which the scalar field propagates. These parameters were found to be universal when the modified gravitational potential was used to fit the galaxy rotation curves and the mass profiles of galaxy clusters, both without Dark Matter. We test the universality of these parameters using the temperature anisotropies due to the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. In our model the intra-cluster gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium within the modified gravitational potential well and it is described by a polytropic equation of state. We predict the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich temperature anisotropies produced by Coma cluster, and we compare them with those obtained using the Planck 2013 Nominal maps. In our analysis, we find α and the scale length, respectively, to be consistent and to depart from their universal values. Our analysis points out that the assumption of the universality of the Yukawa-correction to the gravitational potential is ruled out at more than 3.5σ at galaxy clusters scale, while demonstrating that such a theory of gravity is capable to fit the cluster profile if the scale dependence of the gravitational potential is restored.
On the universality of MOG weak field approximation at galaxy cluster scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan De Martino
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In its weak field limit, Scalar-tensor-vector gravity theory introduces a Yukawa-correction to the gravitational potential. Such a correction depends on the two parameters, α which accounts for the modification of the gravitational constant, and μ⁎−1 which represents the scale length on which the scalar field propagates. These parameters were found to be universal when the modified gravitational potential was used to fit the galaxy rotation curves and the mass profiles of galaxy clusters, both without Dark Matter. We test the universality of these parameters using the temperature anisotropies due to the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect. In our model the intra-cluster gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium within the modified gravitational potential well and it is described by a polytropic equation of state. We predict the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich temperature anisotropies produced by Coma cluster, and we compare them with those obtained using the Planck 2013 Nominal maps. In our analysis, we find α and the scale length, respectively, to be consistent and to depart from their universal values. Our analysis points out that the assumption of the universality of the Yukawa-correction to the gravitational potential is ruled out at more than 3.5σ at galaxy clusters scale, while demonstrating that such a theory of gravity is capable to fit the cluster profile if the scale dependence of the gravitational potential is restored.
Magnetic Field in the Gravitationally Stratified Coronal Loops
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B. N. Dwivedi; A. K. Srivastava
2015-03-01
We study the effect of gravitational stratification on the estimation of magnetic fields in the coronal loops. By using the method of MHD seismology of kink waves for the estimation of magnetic field of coronal loops, we derive a new formula for the magnetic field considering the effect of gravitational stratification. The fast-kink wave is a potential diagnostic tool for the estimation of magnetic field in fluxtubes. We consider the eleven kink oscillation cases observed by TRACE between July 1998 and June 2001. We calculate magnetic field in the stratified loops (str) and compare them with the previously calculated absolute magnetic field (abs). The gravitational stratification efficiently affects the magnetic field estimation in the coronal loops as it affects also the properties of kink waves. We find ≈22% increment in the magnetic field for the smallest ( = 72 Mm) while ≈42% increment in the absolute magnetic field for the longest ( = 406 Mm) coronal loops. The magnetic fields str and abs also increase with the number density, if the loop length does not vary much. The increment in the magnetic field due to gravitational stratification is small at the lower number densities, however, it is large at the higher number densities. We find that damping time of kink waves due to phase-mixing is less in the case of gravitationally stratified loops compared to nonstratified ones. This indicates the more rapid damping of kink waves in the stratified loops. In conclusion, we find that the gravitational stratification efficiently affects the estimation of magnetic field and damping time estimation especially in the longer coronal loops.
Gravitational waves as exact solutions of Einstein field equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilasi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Salerno) (Italy)
2007-11-15
Exact solutions of Einstein field equations invariant for a non-Abelian 2-dimensional Lie algebra of Killing fields are described. A sub-class of these gravitational fields have a wave-like character; it is shown that they have spin-1.
Gravitational radiation resistance, radiation damping and field fluctuations
Schaefer, G.
1981-03-01
Application is made of two different generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorems and their derivations to the calculation of the gravitational quadrupole radiation resistance using the radiation-reaction force given by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and the usual tidal force on one hand and the tidal force and the free gravitational radiation field on the other hand. The quantum-mechanical version (including thermal generalizations) of the well known classical quadrupole radiation damping formula is obtained as a function of the radiation resistance.
Responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: enotsae@gmail.co, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2010-10-21
We study responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses of scalar field pulses using numerical simulations. Double-null formalism is employed to implement the numerical simulations. If we supply a scalar field pulse, it will asymptotically form a black hole via dynamical interactions of the Brans-Dicke field. Hence, we can observe the responses of the Brans-Dicke field by two different regions. First, we observe the late time behaviors after the gravitational collapse, which include formations of a singularity and an apparent horizon. Second, we observe the fully dynamical behaviors during the gravitational collapse and view the energy-momentum tensor components. For the late time behaviors, if the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater (or smaller) than -1.5, the Brans-Dicke field decreases (or increases) during the gravitational collapse. Since the Brans-Dicke field should be relaxed to the asymptotic value with the elapse of time, the final apparent horizon becomes time-like (or space-like). For the dynamical behaviors, we observed the energy-momentum tensors around {omega} {approx} -1.5. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater than -1.5, the T{sub uu} component can be negative at the outside of the black hole. This can allow an instantaneous inflating region during the gravitational collapse. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is less than -1.5, the oscillation of the T{sub vv} component allows the apparent horizon to shrink. This allows a combination that violates weak cosmic censorship. Finally, we discuss the implications of the violation of the null energy condition and weak cosmic censorship.
First test of Verlinde's theory of emergent gravity using weak gravitational lensing measurements
Brouwer, Margot M.; Visser, Manus R.; Dvornik, Andrej; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; Valentijn, Edwin A.; Bilicki, Maciej; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Buddelmeijer, Hugo; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klaes, Dominik; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; McFarland, John; Nakajima, Reiko; Sifón, Cristóbal; Taylor, Edward N.
2017-04-01
Verlinde proposed that the observed excess gravity in galaxies and clusters is the consequence of emergent gravity (EG). In this theory, the standard gravitational laws are modified on galactic and larger scales due to the displacement of dark energy by baryonic matter. EG gives an estimate of the excess gravity (described as an apparent dark matter density) in terms of the baryonic mass distribution and the Hubble parameter. In this work, we present the first test of EG using weak gravitational lensing, within the regime of validity of the current model. Although there is no direct description of lensing and cosmology in EG yet, we can make a reasonable estimate of the expected lensing signal of low-redshift galaxies by assuming a background Lambda cold dark matter cosmology. We measure the (apparent) average surface mass density profiles of 33 613 isolated central galaxies and compare them to those predicted by EG based on the galaxies' baryonic masses. To this end, we employ the ∼180 deg2 overlap of the Kilo-Degree Survey with the spectroscopic Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We find that the prediction from EG, despite requiring no free parameters, is in good agreement with the observed galaxy-galaxy lensing profiles in four different stellar mass bins. Although this performance is remarkable, this study is only a first step. Further advancements on both the theoretical framework and observational tests of EG are needed before it can be considered a fully developed and solidly tested theory.
An accurate and practical method for inference of weak gravitational lensing from galaxy images
Bernstein, Gary M.; Armstrong, Robert; Krawiec, Christina; March, Marisa C.
2016-07-01
We demonstrate highly accurate recovery of weak gravitational lensing shear using an implementation of the Bayesian Fourier Domain (BFD) method proposed by Bernstein & Armstrong, extended to correct for selection biases. The BFD formalism is rigorously correct for Nyquist-sampled, background-limited, uncrowded images of background galaxies. BFD does not assign shapes to galaxies, instead compressing the pixel data D into a vector of moments M, such that we have an analytic expression for the probability P(M|g) of obtaining the observations with gravitational lensing distortion g along the line of sight. We implement an algorithm for conducting BFD's integrations over the population of unlensed source galaxies which measures ≈10 galaxies s-1 core-1 with good scaling properties. Initial tests of this code on ≈109 simulated lensed galaxy images recover the simulated shear to a fractional accuracy of m = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10-3, substantially more accurate than has been demonstrated previously for any generally applicable method. Deep sky exposures generate a sufficiently accurate approximation to the noiseless, unlensed galaxy population distribution assumed as input to BFD. Potential extensions of the method include simultaneous measurement of magnification and shear; multiple-exposure, multiband observations; and joint inference of photometric redshifts and lensing tomography.
Magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field
Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2017-07-01
We obtain a family of exact solutions describing magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field. Locally the solutions can be interpreted as representing the near-horizon region of a black hole, which interacts with a surrounding matter distribution producing a strong magnetic field. Thus, the solutions reflect the influence of both a gravitational and an electromagnetic external potential in the strong field regime. The static members in the family are generalizations of the Schwarzschild solution in the described environment, while the rotating ones generalize the magnetized Reissner-Nordström solution when the influence of an external gravitational source is also taken into account. Technically, the solutions are obtained by means of a Harrison transformation, applied on the (electro-)vacuum distorted black holes constructed by Bretón et al. We examine the thermodynamical properties of the solutions, and compare them with the corresponding isolated black holes, and with the particular cases when the interaction with only one of the external potentials is taken into account. For the static black holes the influence of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is factorized in a sense, both affecting different properties, and leaving the rest intact. For the rotating solutions the external gravitational and magnetic fields are coupled through the conditions for avoiding conical singularities. The Meissner effect is observed for extremal rotating solutions only in the zero-charge limit, similar to the magnetized Reissner-Nordström black hole.
Orbital angular momentum of scalar field generated by gravitational scatterings
Nishikawa, Ryusuke; Masuda, Atsuki; Nambu, Yasusada; Ishihara, Hideki
2016-01-01
It has been expected that astronomical observations to detect the orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic waves may give us a new insight into astrophysics. Previous works pointed out the possibility that a rotating black hole can produce orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic waves through gravitational scattering, and the spin parameter of the black hole can be measured by observing them. However, the mechanism how the orbital angular momentum of the electromagnetic wave is generated by the gravitational scattering has not been clarified sufficiently. In this paper, in order to understand it from a point of view of gravitational lensing effects, we consider an emitter which radiates a spherical wave of the real massless scalar field and study the deformation of the scalar wave by the gravitational scattering due to a black hole by invoking the geometrical optics approximation. We show that the frame dragging caused by the rotating black hole is not a necessary condition for generating the orbital ang...
Using Gravitational Analogies to Introduce Elementary Electrical Field Theory Concepts
Saeli, Susan; MacIsaac, Dan
2007-01-01
Since electrical field concepts are usually unfamiliar, abstract, and difficult to visualize, conceptual analogies from familiar gravitational phenomena are valuable for teaching. Such analogies emphasize the underlying continuity of field concepts in physics and support the spiral development of student understanding. We find the following four…
Decoherence and coherence in gravitational, electric and strong nuclear fields
Silva, P R
2010-01-01
Inspired in the work of Erich Joos which appreciated the role played by matter in making the decoherence of the gravitational field, we developed an alternative way of treating the former problem. Besides this, we used the alternative approach to examine the decoherence of the electric field performed by the conduction electrons in metals. As a counterpoint, we studied the coherence of the electric color field inside nucleons, which renders the strong field a totally quantum character.
Gravity as a Higgs field; 2, fermion-gravitation complex
Sardanashvily, G
1994-01-01
Gravitation theory meets spontaneous symmetry breaking when the structure group of the principal linear frame bundle LX over a world manifold X^4 is reducible to the Lorentz group SO(3,1). The physical underlying reason of this reduction is Dirac fermion matter possessing only exact Lorentz symmetries. The associated Higgs field is a tetrad gravitational field h represented by a section of the quotient \\Si of LX by SO(3,1). The feature of gravity as a Higgs field issues from the fact that, in the presence of different tetrad fields, there are nonequivalent representations of cotangent vectors to X^4 by Dirac's matrices. It follows that fermion fields must be regarded only in a pair with a certain tetrad field. These pairs constitute the so-called fermion-gravitation complex and are represented by sections of the composite spinor bundle S\\to\\Si\\to X^4 where values of tetrad gravitational fields play the role of coordinate parameters, besides familiar world coordinates. In Part I of the work [gr-qc:9405013], ge...
THE DOUBLE COUPLING OF THE ASHTEKAR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD TO THE DIRAC SPINORAL FIELDS*
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴亚波; 桂元星
2001-01-01
By introducing the double spacetime manifold, the double gamma matrices and Dirac spinors, the action of theDirac spinoral fields is doubled. Furthermore, the double coupling of the Dirac fields to the Ashtekar gravitational fields is studied.
Measurements of weak localization of graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindvall, N.; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Yurgens, A.
2015-01-01
Weak localization in graphene is studied in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. To generate the inhomogeneous field, a thin film of type-II superconducting niobium is put in close proximity to graphene. A deviation from the ordinary quadratic weak localization behavior is observed at low fields. We...
Using Jupiter's gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo.
Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald
2016-03-23
Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection.
The intergalactic Newtonian gravitational field and the shell theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaninetti L.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The release of the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS with its 44599 galaxies allows the deduction of their masses in nearly complete sample. A cubic box with side of 37 Mpc containing 2429 galaxies is extracted and the Newtonian gravitational field is evaluated both at the center of the box as well as in 101 x 101 x 101 grid points of the box. The obtained results are then discussed in the light of the shell theorem which states that inside of a sphere the gravitational field is zero.
Reduced Description of Stellar Dynamics by Moments of Gravitation Field
Stupka, A A
2016-01-01
Because of absence of time derivatives from scalar potential as a generalized coordinate of gravitation field (GF) in action of nonrelativistic gravitating system, application of the Hamilton method for description of GF mechanics was impossible. In the paper a transformation of the generalized coordinate of GF, that is based on continuity equation and minimal action principle, is proposed. A potential vector is introduced that is similar to fixing of Hamilton gauge of the electromagnetic field. This transformation gives possibility of the calculation a Hamilton function, removes mathematical troubles of the Jeans theory (Jeans swindle) and allows to construct kinetic theory of GF using statistical mechanics methods.
Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lan-Xiang Tian
Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.
Noncommutative Field Theory on Homogeneous Gravitational Waves
Halliday, S; Halliday, Sam; Szabo, Richard J.
2006-01-01
We describe an algebraic approach to the time-dependent noncommutative geometry of a six-dimensional Cahen-Wallach pp-wave string background supported by a constant Neveu-Schwarz flux, and develop a general formalism to construct and analyse quantum field theories defined thereon. Various star-products are derived in closed explicit form and the Hopf algebra of twisted isometries of the plane wave is constructed. Scalar field theories are defined using explicit forms of derivative operators, traces and noncommutative frame fields for the geometry, and various physical features are described. Noncommutative worldvolume field theories of D-branes in the pp-wave background are also constructed.
Scalar field as a time variable during gravitational evolution
Nakonieczna, Anna
2015-01-01
Using a scalar field as an intrinsic 'clock' while investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems has been successfully pursued in various researches on the border between classical and quantum gravity. The objective of our research was to check explicitly whether the scalar field can serve as a time variable during dynamical evolution of the matter-geometry system, especially in regions of high curvature, which are essential from the perspective of quantum gravity. For this purpose, we analyzed a gravitational collapse of a self-interacting scalar field within the framework of general relativity. The obtained results indicated that the hypersurfaces of constant scalar field are spacelike in dynamical regions nearby the singularities formed during the investigated process. The scalar field values change monotonically in the areas, in which the constancy hypersurfaces are spacelike.
Effective action for hard thermal loops in gravitational fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.R. Francisco
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We examine, through a Boltzmann equation approach, the generating action of hard thermal loops in the background of gravitational fields. Using the gauge and Weyl invariance of the theory at high temperature, we derive an explicit closed-form expression for the effective action.
Relativistic Motion of Spinning Particles in a Gravitational Field
Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.; Punsly, B.
2005-01-01
The relative motion of a classical relativistic spinning test particle is studied with respect to a nearby free test particle in the gravitational field of a rotating source. The effects of the spin-curvature coupling force are elucidated and the implications of the results for the motion of rotating plasma clumps in astrophysical jets are discussed.
Relativistic motion of spinning particles in a gravitational field
Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.; Punsly, B.
2005-08-01
The relative motion of a classical relativistic spinning test particle is studied with respect to a nearby free test particle in the gravitational field of a rotating source. The effects of the spin-curvature coupling force are elucidated and the implications of the results for the motion of rotating plasma clumps in astrophysical jets are discussed.
Simon, Patrick
2012-01-01
The weak gravitational lensing distortion of distant galaxy images ("sources") probes the projected large-scale matter distribution in the Universe. The availability of redshift information in galaxy surveys also allows us to recover the radial matter distribution to a certain degree. To improve the S/N in the mass mapping, we combine the lensing information with the spatial clustering of a population of galaxies that trace the matter density with a known galaxy bias. We construct a minimum-variance estimator for the 3D matter density that incorporates the angular distribution of galaxy tracers, which are coarsely binned in redshift. Merely the second-order biasing of the tracers has to be known, which can in principle be self-consistently constrained in the data by lensing techniques. To study the new estimator, we generate a mock survey with galaxies that trace the matter density with a Gaussian linear stochastic bias. The filter smoothes and linearly mixes the individual lensing mass and tracer number dens...
KiDS-450: Cosmological parameter constraints from tomographic weak gravitational lensing
Hildebrandt, H; Heymans, C; Joudaki, S; Kuijken, K; Blake, C; Erben, T; Joachimi, B; Klaes, D; Miller, L; Morrison, C B; Nakajima, R; Kleijn, G Verdoes; Amon, A; Choi, A; Covone, G; de Jong, J T A; Dvornik, A; Conti, I Fenech; Grado, A; Harnois-Déraps, J; Herbonnet, R; Hoekstra, H; Köhlinger, F; McFarland, J; Mead, A; Merten, J; Napolitano, N; Peacock, J A; Radovich, M; Schneider, P; Simon, P; Valentijn, E A; Busch, J L van den; van Uitert, E; Van Waerbeke, L
2016-01-01
We present cosmological parameter constraints from a tomographic weak gravitational lensing analysis of ~450deg$^2$ of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). For a flat $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology with a prior on $H_0$ that encompasses the most recent direct measurements, we find $S_8\\equiv\\sigma_8\\sqrt{\\Omega_{\\rm m}/0.3}=0.745\\pm0.039$. This result is in good agreement with other low redshift probes of large scale structure, including recent cosmic shear results, along with pre-Planck cosmic microwave background constraints. A $2.3$-$\\sigma$ tension in $S_8$ and `substantial discordance' in the full parameter space is found with respect to the Planck 2015 results. We use shear measurements for nearly 15 million galaxies, determined with a new improved `self-calibrating' version of $lens$fit validated using an extensive suite of image simulations. Four-band $ugri$ photometric redshifts are calibrated directly with deep spectroscopic surveys. The redshift calibration is confirmed using two independent te...
CFHTLenS: Combined probe cosmological model comparison using 2D weak gravitational lensing
Kilbinger, Martin; Heymans, Catherine; Simpson, Fergus; Benjamin, Jonathan; Erben, Thomas; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Hoekstra, Henk; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kitching, Thomas D; Mellier, Yannick; Miller, Lance; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Benabed, Karim; Bonnett, Christopher; Coupon, Jean; Hudson, Michael J; Kuijken, Konrad; Rowe, Barnaby; Schrabback, Tim; Semboloni, Elisabetta; Vafaei, Sanaz; Velander, Malin
2012-01-01
We present cosmological constraints from 2D weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) which spans 154 square degrees in five optical bands. Using accurate photometric redshifts and measured shapes for 4.2 million galaxies between redshifts of 0.2 and 1.3, we compute the 2D cosmic shear correlation function over angular scales ranging between 0.8 and 350 arcmin. Using non-linear models of the dark-matter power spectrum, we constrain cosmological parameters by exploring the parameter space with Population Monte Carlo sampling. The best constraints from lensing alone are obtained for the small-scale density-fluctuations amplitude sigma_8 scaled with the total matter density Omega_m. For a flat LambdaCDM model we obtain sigma_8(Omega_m/0.27)^0.6 = 0.79+-0.03. We combine the CFHTLenS data with WMAP7, BOSS and an HST distance-ladder prior on the Hubble constant to get joint constraints. For a flat LambdaCDM model, we find Omega_m = 0.283+...
Measuring the Galaxy-Galaxy-Mass Three-point Correlation Function with Weak Gravitational Lensing
Johnston, D E
2006-01-01
We discuss the galaxy-galaxy-mass three-point correlation function and show how to measure it with weak gravitational lensing. The method entails choosing a large of pairs of foreground lens galaxies and constructing a mean shear map with respect to their axis, by averaging the ellipticities of background source galaxies. An average mass map can be reconstructed from this shear map and this will represent the average mass distribution around pairs of galaxies. We show how this mass map is related to the projected galaxy-galaxy-mass three-point correlation function. Using a large N-body dark matter simulation populated with galaxies using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) bias prescription, we compute these correlation functions, mass maps, and shear maps. The resultant mass maps are distinctly bimodal, tracing the galaxy centers and remaining anisotropic up to scales much larger than the galaxy separation. At larger scales, the shear is approximately tangential about the center of the pair but with small...
Non-Gaussian gravitational clustering field statistics
Kitaura, F S
2010-01-01
In this work we investigate the multivariate statistical description of the matter distribution in the nonlinear regime. We introduce the multivariate Edgeworth expansion of the lognormal distribution to model the cosmological matter field. Such a technique could be useful to generate and reconstruct three-dimensional nonlinear cosmological density fields with the information of higher order correlation functions. We explicitly calculate the expansion up to third order in perturbation theory making use of the multivariate Hermite polynomials up to sixth order. The probability distribution function for the matter field includes at this level the two-point, the three-point and the four-point correlation functions. We use the hierarchical model to formulate the higher order correlation functions based on combinations of the two-point correlation function. This permits us to find compact expressions for the skewness and kurtosis terms of the expanded lognormal field which can be efficiently computed. The method i...
A tilted plane as a gravitational field model
Hale, D. P.
1980-09-01
Gravitational models have been widely used to study the effects of fields on particle motion. The advantages of such models are: (1) They are often easier or cheaper to construct and use than the system which they represent. (2) Particle motion is readily seen and may be photographed. (3) Events lasting for a fraction of a microsecond as, for example, with electrons moving in electrostatic fields, may be demonstrated in models as events which take a few seconds. The article describes the use of a tilted plane as a two-dimensional, uniform gravitational field. It has been used successfully as a sixth-form physics experiment to demonstrate the motion of projectiles fairly close to the Earth over a limited range. Thus it shows the motion of artillery shells (ignoring air resistance) but not of artificial satellites or long-range rockets, for which a simple uniform field model is not valid.
Gravitational waves and large field inflation
Linde, Andrei
2016-01-01
According to the famous Lyth bound, one can confirm large field inflation by finding tensor modes with sufficiently large tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$. Here we will try to answer two related questions: Is it possible to rule out all large field inflationary models by not finding tensor modes with $r$ above some critical value, and what can we say about the scale of inflation by measuring $r$? However, in order to answer these questions one should distinguish between two different definitions of the large field inflation and three different definitions of the scale of inflation. We will examine these issues using the theory of cosmological $\\alpha$-attractors as a convenient testing ground.
Gravitational waves and large field inflation
Linde, Andrei
2017-02-01
According to the famous Lyth bound, one can confirm large field inflation by finding tensor modes with sufficiently large tensor-to-scalar ratio r. Here we will try to answer two related questions: is it possible to rule out all large field inflationary models by not finding tensor modes with r above some critical value, and what can we say about the scale of inflation by measuring r? However, in order to answer these questions one should distinguish between two different definitions of the large field inflation and three different definitions of the scale of inflation. We will examine these issues using the theory of cosmological α-attractors as a convenient testing ground.
Estimation of the Birefringence Change in Crystals Induced by Gravitation Field
Vlokh R.; Kostyrko M.
2007-01-01
The effect of gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the birefringent properties of crystals has been analysed. It has been shown that the gravitation field with spherical symmetry can lead to a change of birefringence in anisotropic media.
Diffusion of relativistic gas mixtures in gravitational fields
Kremer, Gilberto M
2013-01-01
A mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric is studied on the basis of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields. A BGK-type model equation of the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is used in order to compute the non-equilibrium distribution functions by the Chapman-Enskog method. The main focus of this work is to obtain Fick's law without the thermal-diffusion cross-effect. Fick's law has four contributions, two of them are the usual terms proportional to the gradients of concentration and pressure. The other two are of the same nature as those which appears in Fourier's law in the presence of gravitational fields and are related with an acceleration and gravitational potential gradient, but unlike Fourier's law these two last terms are of non-relativistic order. Furthermore, it is shown that the coefficients of diffusion depend on the gravitational potential and they become larger than those in the absence of it.
Gravitational closure of matter field equations
Schuller, F P; Wolz, F; Düll, M
2016-01-01
We show how to unlock the hidden information about gravity in one's choice of matter dynamics. Restricting attention to canonically quantizable matter field equations, but therefore being able to admit any tensorial background geometry, one is left with very little choice for the dynamics of the geometry. Indeed, the physical requirement that the common canonical evolution of matter and geometry can start and end on shared Cauchy surfaces imposes consistency conditions so strong that the Lagrangian for the geometry arises as the solution of a particular system of linear partial differential equations. Employing a suitable associated bundle to encode the canonical configuration degrees of freedom of the geometry, this system can be set up without additional constraints and with coefficient functions that indeed only depend on the causal structure of the chosen matter dynamics. Through these equations, the Lagrangian for the geometry is thus determined by the stipulated matter field dynamics, up to typically on...
Hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit
Suárez, Abril
2015-01-01
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with an arbitrary potential of the form $V(|\\varphi|^2)$. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit $c\\rightarrow +\\infty$.
Hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit
Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2015-11-01
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with an arbitrary potential of the form V(|ϕ|2). We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schrodinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit c → +∞.
Conflict between the Gravitational Field Energy and the Experiments
Vera, R A
2000-01-01
From local and nonlocal experiments in gravitational (G) fields it is concluded, as a General Principle (GP), that "all of the well-defined parts of a measuring system obey the same inertial and G laws". The absolute values of their basic parameters change in identical proportion after any common change of G potential. To relate quantities measured in different G potentials they must be previously transformed to some Lorenz frame in some well-defined potential. The transformations derived from G time dilation experiments are simultaneously consistent with all of the other 'gravitational tests'. However "they are not consistent with the presumed energy exchange between the field and the bodies". The lack of energy of the field is justified from the GP, according to which 'particles and quanta in stationary state obey same inertial and G laws'. Such particle model, made up of radiation, has been previously used to account for relativistic quantum-mechanical properties of particles.
Method and apparatus for measuring weak magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
1995-01-01
When measuring weak magnetic fields, a container containing a medium, such as a solution containing a stable radical, is placed in a polarising magnetic field, which is essentially at right angles to the field to be measured. The polarising field is interrupted rapidly, the interruption being...
Weakly coupled mean-field game systems
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-07-14
Here, we prove the existence of solutions to first-order mean-field games (MFGs) arising in optimal switching. First, we use the penalization method to construct approximate solutions. Then, we prove uniform estimates for the penalized problem. Finally, by a limiting procedure, we obtain solutions to the MFG problem. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Nbody Simulations and Weak Gravitational Lensing using new HPC-Grid resources: the PI2S2 project
Becciani, U.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Costa, A.; Comparato, M.
2008-08-01
We present the main project of the new grid infrastructure and the researches, that have been already started in Sicily and will be completed by next year. The PI2S2 project of the COMETA consortium is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research and will be completed in 2009. Funds are from the European Union Structural Funds for Objective 1 regions. The project, together with a similar project called Trinacria GRID Virtual Laboratory (Trigrid VL), aims to create in Sicily a computational grid for e-science and e-commerce applications with the main goal of increasing the technological innovation of local enterprises and their competition on the global market. PI2S2 project aims to build and develop an e-Infrastructure in Sicily, based on the grid paradigm, mainly for research activity using the grid environment and High Performance Computer systems. As an example we present the first results of a new grid version of FLY a tree Nbody code developed by INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, already published in the CPC program Library, that will be used in the Weak Gravitational Lensing field.
KiDS-450: cosmological parameter constraints from tomographic weak gravitational lensing
Hildebrandt, H.; Viola, M.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Kuijken, K.; Blake, C.; Erben, T.; Joachimi, B.; Klaes, D.; Miller, L.; Morrison, C. B.; Nakajima, R.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Amon, A.; Choi, A.; Covone, G.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Dvornik, A.; Fenech Conti, I.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Herbonnet, R.; Hoekstra, H.; Köhlinger, F.; McFarland, J.; Mead, A.; Merten, J.; Napolitano, N.; Peacock, J. A.; Radovich, M.; Schneider, P.; Simon, P.; Valentijn, E. A.; van den Busch, J. L.; van Uitert, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.
2017-02-01
We present cosmological parameter constraints from a tomographic weak gravitational lensing analysis of ˜450 deg2 of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). For a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology with a prior on H0 that encompasses the most recent direct measurements, we find S_8≡ σ _8√{Ω _m/0.3}=0.745± 0.039. This result is in good agreement with other low-redshift probes of large-scale structure, including recent cosmic shear results, along with pre-Planck cosmic microwave background constraints. A 2.3σ tension in S8 and 'substantial discordance' in the full parameter space is found with respect to the Planck 2015 results. We use shear measurements for nearly 15 million galaxies, determined with a new improved 'self-calibrating' version of lensFIT validated using an extensive suite of image simulations. Four-band ugri photometric redshifts are calibrated directly with deep spectroscopic surveys. The redshift calibration is confirmed using two independent techniques based on angular cross-correlations and the properties of the photometric redshift probability distributions. Our covariance matrix is determined using an analytical approach, verified numerically with large mock galaxy catalogues. We account for uncertainties in the modelling of intrinsic galaxy alignments and the impact of baryon feedback on the shape of the non-linear matter power spectrum, in addition to the small residual uncertainties in the shear and redshift calibration. The cosmology analysis was performed blind. Our high-level data products, including shear correlation functions, covariance matrices, redshift distributions, and Monte Carlo Markov chains are available at http://kids.strw.leidenuniv.nl.
Gravitational leptogenesis in axion inflation with SU(2) gauge field
Maleknejad, Azadeh
2016-12-01
We present an intrinsic leptogenesis mechanism in models of axion inflation with a classical SU(2) gauge field. The gauge field is coupled to the axion with a Chern-Simons interaction and comprises a tiny fraction of the total energy, ρYM/ρtot lesssim epsilon2. However, it has spin-2 fluctuations which breaks the parity and leads to the generation of chiral gravitational waves during inflation. By the gravitational anomaly in SM, it naturally creates a net lepton number density, sufficient to explain the matter asymmetry. We show that this mechanism can generate the observed value of baryon to photon number density in a natural range of parameters and yet has a small chiral tensor power spectrum on large scales.
On the gravitational field of compact objects in general relativity
Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo
2012-01-01
We study some exact and approximate solutions of Einstein's equations that can be used to describe the gravitational field of astrophysical compact objects in the limiting case of slow rotation and slight deformation. First, we show that none of the standard models obtained by using Fock's method can be used as an interior source for the approximate exterior Kerr solution. We then use Fock's method to derive a generalized interior solution, and also an exterior solution that turns out to be equivalent to the exterior Hartle-Thorne approximate solution that, in turn, is equivalent to an approximate limiting case of the exact Quevedo-Mashhoon solution. As a result we obtain an analytic approximate solution that describes the interior and exterior gravitational field of a slowly rotating and slightly deformed astrophysical object.
Thermodynamics of relativistic quantum fields: extracting energy from gravitational waves
Bruschi, David Edward
2016-01-01
We investigate the quantum thermodynamical properties of localised relativistic quantum fields that can be used as quantum thermal machines. We study the efficiency and power of energy transfer between the classical degrees of freedom, such as the energy input due to motion or to an impinging gravitational wave, and the excitations of the confined quantum field. We find that the efficiency of energy transfer depends dramatically on the input initial state of the system. Furthermore, we investigate the ability to extract the energy and to store it in a battery. This process is inefficient in optical cavities but is significantly enhanced when employing trapped Bose Einstein Condensates. Finally, we apply our techniques to a setup where an impinging gravitational wave excites the phononic modes of a Bose Einstein Condensate. We find that, in this case, the amount of energy transfer to the phonons increases with time and quickly approaches unity. These results suggest that, in the future, it might be possible to...
New symbolic tools for differential geometry, gravitation, and field theory
Anderson, I. M.; Torre, C. G.
2012-01-01
DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, spinor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors, algebraic classification of solutions of the Einstein equations, and symmetry reduction of field equations.
Gravitation Field Calculations on a Dynamic Lattice by Distributed Computing
Mähönen, Petri; Punkka, Veikko
A new method of calculating numerically time evolution of a gravitational field in General Relatity is introduced. Vierbein (tetrad) formalism, dynamic lattice and massively parallelized computation are suggested as they are expected to speed up the calculations considerably and facilitate the solution of problems previously considered too hard to be solved, such as the time evolution of a system consisting of two or more black holes or the structure of worm holes.
Gravitational field calculations on a dynamic lattice by distributed computing.
Mähönen, P.; Punkka, V.
A new method of calculating numerically time evolution of a gravitational field in general relativity is introduced. Vierbein (tetrad) formalism, dynamic lattice and massively parallelized computation are suggested as they are expected to speed up the calculations considerably and facilitate the solution of problems previously considered too hard to be solved, such as the time evolution of a system consisting of two or more black holes or the structure of worm holes.
Decoherence in quantum systems in a static gravitational field
Shariati, Ahmad; Loran, Farhang
2016-01-01
A small quantum system is studied which is a superposition of states localized in different positions in a static gravitational field. The time evolution of the correlation between different positions is investigated, and it is seen that there are two time scales for such an evolution (decoherence). Both time scales are inversely proportional to the red shift difference between the two points. These time scales correspond to decoherences which are linear and quadratic, respectively, in time.
Gravitational wave in Lorentz violating gravity
Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing, China)
2011-01-01
By making use of the weak gravitational field approximation, we obtain a linearized solution of the gravitational vacuum field equation in an anisotropic spacetime. The plane-wave solution and dispersion relation of gravitational wave is presented explicitly. There is possibility that the speed of gravitational wave is larger than the speed of light and the casuality still holds. We show that the energy-momentum of gravitational wave in the ansiotropic spacetime is still well defined and cons...
Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields
Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.
2017-07-01
Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org
Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants
Belyavskaya, N. A.
2004-01-01
Throughout the evolution process, Earth's magnetic field (MF, about 50 μT) was a natural component of the environment for living organisms. Biological objects, flying on planned long-term interplanetary missions, would experience much weaker magnetic fields, since galactic MF is known to be 0.1-1 nT. However, the role of weak magnetic fields and their influence on functioning of biological organisms are still insufficiently understood, and is actively studied. Numerous experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in weak magnetic field have shown that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during early germination stages in comparison with control. The proliferative activity and cell reproduction in meristem of plant roots are reduced in weak magnetic field. Cell reproductive cycle slows down due to the expansion of G 1 phase in many plant species (and of G 2 phase in flax and lentil roots), while other phases of cell cycle remain relatively stabile. In plant cells exposed to weak magnetic field, the functional activity of genome at early pre-replicate period is shown to decrease. Weak magnetic field causes intensification of protein synthesis and disintegration in plant roots. At ultrastructural level, changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells were observed in pea roots exposed to weak magnetic field. Mitochondria were found to be very sensitive to weak magnetic field: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix becomes electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to weak magnetic field show Ca 2+ over-saturation in all organelles and in cytoplasm unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to weak
A Michelson Interferometer in the Field of a Plane Gravitational Wave
Poplawski, N J
2006-01-01
In this paper we treat the problem of a Michelson interferometer in the field of a weak, monochromatic, plane gravitational wave in the framework of the general theory of relativity. The arms of the interferometer are regarded as world lines, whose motion is determined by the equations of geodesics in the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We find that interference appears in the second approximation. Moreover, the measurement of the light beam delay between both arms can be used for determining the wavelength of such a wave.
Thermal stability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fudian Men; Hui Liu; Houyu Zhu
2009-01-01
On the basis of the results derived from pseudopotential method and ensemble theory,thermal stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field is studied by using analytical method of thermodynamics.The exact analytical expressions of stability conditions at different temperatures are given,and the effects of interactions as well as magnetic field on the stability of the system are discussed.It is shown that there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the stability of the system at low temperatures,and there is an attractive dividing value at high temperatures.If attractive interaction is lower than the critical value,the stability of the system has no request for magnetic field,but if attractive interaction is higher than the dividing value,a lower-limit magnetic field exists for the stability of the system.
Primordial Gravitational Waves from Axion-Gauge Fields Dynamics
Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Fujita, Tomohiro
2016-01-01
Inspired by the chromo-natural inflation model of Adshead&Wyman, we reshape its scalar content to relax the tension with current observational bounds. Besides an inflaton, the setup includes a spectator sector in which an axion and SU(2) gauge fields are coupled via a Chern-Simons-type term. The result is a viable theory endowed with an alternative production mechanism for gravitational waves during inflation. The gravitational wave signal sourced by the spectator fields can be much larger than the contribution from standard vacuum fluctuations, it is distinguishable from the latter on the basis of its chirality and, depending on the theory parameters values, also its tilt. This production process breaks the well-known relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the energy scale of inflation. As a result, even if the Hubble rate is itself too small for the vacuum to generate a tensor amplitude detectable by upcoming experiments, this model still supports observable gravitational waves.
Primordial gravitational waves from axion-gauge fields dynamics
Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Fasiello, Matteo; Fujita, Tomohiro
2017-01-01
Inspired by the chromo-natural inflation model of Adshead&Wyman, we reshape its scalar content to relax the tension with current observational bounds. Besides an inflaton, the setup includes a spectator sector in which an axion and SU(2) gauge fields are coupled via a Chern-Simons-type term. The result is a viable theory endowed with an alternative production mechanism for gravitational waves during inflation. The gravitational wave signal sourced by the spectator fields can be much larger than the contribution from standard vacuum fluctuations, it is distinguishable from the latter on the basis of its chirality and, depending on the theory parameters values, also its tilt. This production process breaks the well-known relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the energy scale of inflation. As a result, even if the Hubble rate is itself too small for the vacuum to generate a tensor amplitude detectable by upcoming experiments, this model still supports observable gravitational waves.
Huygens' principle and radiation tails in a weak Schwarzschild fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piir, I. (Tartuskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))
1983-01-01
In approximation of a weak gravitational field the formula generalized Poisson formula for the wave equation is derived and the mechanism of tail aprearance of radial waves is discussed. It is shown that if the initial data of the Cauchy problem differ from zero in the two-connnected region of the initial hypersurface embracing by its internal boundary the Schwarzchild singularity there always arises the radiation tail through a linear approximation of the Huygens principle realized everywhere in a flat space-time.
Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle with supercluster Laniakea's gravitational field
Luo, Zhi-Xing; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng
2016-03-01
Comparing the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter γ values for different types of particles, or the same type of particles with different energies is an important method to test the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). Assuming that the observed time delays are dominated by the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, better results of EEP constraints can be obtained. In this paper, we apply photons from three kinds of cosmic transients, including TeV blazars, gamma-ray bursts as well as fast radio bursts to constrain EEP. With a gravitational field far more stronger than a single galaxy, we obtain 4-5 orders of magnitude more stringent than the previous results.
Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle with Supercluster Laniakea's Gravitational Field
Luo, Zhi-Xing; Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng
2016-01-01
Comparing the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ values for different types of particles, or the same type of particles with different energies is an important method to test the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). Assuming that the observed time delays are dominated by the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, better results of EEP constraints can be obtained. In this paper, we apply photons from three kinds of cosmic transients, including TeV blazars, gamma-ray bursts as well as fast radio bursts to constrain EEP. With a gravitational field far more stronger than a single galaxy, we obtain 4--5 orders of magnitude more stringent than the pervious results.
Nematic Ordering of Rigid Rods in a Gravitational Field
Baulin, V A; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.
1999-01-01
The isotropic-to-nematic transition in an athermal solution of long rigid rods subject to a gravitational (or centrifugal) field is theoretically considered in the Onsager approximation. The new feature emerging in the presence of gravity is a concentration gradient which coupled with the nematic ordering. For rodlike molecules this effect becomes noticeable at centrifugal acceleration g ~ 10^3--10^4 m/s^2, while for biological rodlike objects, such as tobacco mosaic virus, TMV, the effect is important even for normal gravitational acceleration conditions. Rods are concentrated near the bottom of the vessel which sometimes leads to gravity induced nematic ordering. The concentration range corresponding to phase separation increases with increasing g. In the region of phase separation the local rod concentration, as well as the order parameter, follow a step function with height.
Critical exact solutions for self-gravitating Dirac fields
Cianci, Roberto; Vignolo, Stefano
2016-01-01
We consider the Einstein-Dirac field equations describing a self-gravitating massive neutrino, looking for axially-symmetric exact solutions; in the search of general solutions, we find some that are specific and which have critical features, such as the fact that the space-time curvature turns out to be flat and the spinor field gives rise to a vanishing bi-linear scalar $\\overline{\\psi}\\psi=0$ with non-vanishing bi-linear pseudo-scalar $i\\overline{\\psi}\\gamma^5\\psi\
Acceleration of particles to high energy via gravitational repulsion in the Schwarzschild field
McGruder, Charles H.
2017-01-01
Gravitational repulsion is an inherent aspect of the Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein-Hilbert field equations of general relativity. We show that this circumstance means that it is possible to gravitationally accelerate particles to the highest cosmic ray energies.
Non-relativistic Limit of Dirac Equations in Gravitational Field and Quantum Effects of Gravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Based on unified theory of electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions, the non-relativistic limit of the equation of motion of a charged Dirac particle in gravitational field is studied. From the Schrodinger equation obtained from this non-relativistic limit, we can see that the classical Newtonian gravitational potential appears as a part of the potential in the Schrodinger equation, which can explain the gravitational phase effects found in COW experiments.And because of this Newtonian gravitational potential, a quantum particle in the earth's gravitational field may form a gravitationally bound quantized state, which has already been detected in experiments. Three different kinds of phase effects related to gravitational interactions are studied in this paper, and these phase effects should be observable in some astrophysical processes. Besides, there exists direct coupling between gravitomagnetic field and quantum spin, and radiation caused by this coupling can be used to directly determine the gravitomagnetic field on the surface of a star.
Electromagnetic and gravitational fields in a Schwarzschild space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porrill, J.; Stewart, J.M. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics)
1981-05-19
The propagation of electromagnetic fields and linearized perturbations of the vacuum Einstein equations on a Schwarzchild background space-time are discussed, and relations between the asymptotic form of the fields at null infinity and the data are established. Without suitable restrictions on the data, perturbations of a Schwarzschild space-time need not be weakly asymptotically simple.
MOG Weak Field Approximation: A Modified Gravity Compatible with Chandra X-ray Clusters
Moffat, J W
2013-01-01
We use the covariant Scalar-Vector-Tensor theory of gravity (so-called MOG), in the weak field approximation limit to study the dynamics of clusters of galaxies. The ionized gas density and the temperature profile of the clusters are our observables, which have been measured by the Chandra telescope for the nearby clusters. The MOG effective gravitational potential in the weak field approximation is composed of attractive Newtonian and repulsive Yukawa terms. Two parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\mu$ in the effective potential determine the asymptotic gravitational constant and the mass of the vector field, respectively. These parameters have been fixed by fitting MOG dynamics to the rotation curves of galaxies. Our analysis shows that the internal dynamics of clusters can be well explained within $1\\sigma$ with a virial theorem in the framework of MOG, such that the best fit for the ratio of the dynamical mass to the baryonic mass is: $M_{\\rm dyn}/M_{\\rm b} = 0.98^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$. This result means that MOG is a th...
Velandia, Nelson
2016-01-01
This paper formulates, via the Mathisson - Papapetrou - Dixon equations, the system of equations for a test particle with spin when it is orbiting a weak Kerr metric. We shall restrict ourselves to the case of circular orbits with the purpose of comparing our results with the results of the literature. In particular, we solve the set of equations of motion for the case of circular trajectories both spinless and spinning test particles around rotating bodies in equatorial plane. The results obtained are an important guideline for the study of the effects of the particles with spin in rotating gravitational fields such as Gravitomagnetics Effects or gravitational waves.
The Helmholtz decomposition of decreasing and weakly increasing vector fields
Petrascheck, D
2015-01-01
Helmholtz decomposition theorem for vector fields is presented usually with too strong restrictions on the fields. Based on the work of Blumenthal of 1905 it is shown that the decomposition of vector fields is not only possible for asymptotically weakly decreasing vector fields, but even for vector fields, which asymptotically increase sublinearly. Use is made of a regularizatin of the Greens function and the mathematics of the proof is formulated as simply as possible. We also show a few examples for the decomposition of vector fields including the electric dipole radiation.
Unified properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
When the orbital motion and the spin motion of particles were considered simultaneously,the thermodynamic potential function of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field was derived using the thermodynamics method. Based on the derived expression,the analytical expressions of energy,heat capacity,chemical potential,susceptibility and stability conditions of the system were given,and the effects of the interparticle interactions as well as the magnetic field on the properties of the system were analyzed. It was shown that the magnetic field always causes energy and stability to decrease,while the chemical potential of the system to increase. The repulsive(attractive) interactions always increase(decrease) energy and stability,but decrease(increase) the chemical potential and paramagnetism. The repulsive(attractive) interactions decrease(increase) heat capacity of the system at high temperatures but increase(decrease) it at low temperatures.
Relativity stability of quantum gas in a weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui; Fan Zhao-Lan; Zhu Hou-Yu
2009-01-01
Based on the analytical expression of relativistic free energy for a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field,by using the method of quantum statistics,the stability conditions of the system at both high and low temperatures axe given,and the effects of magnetic field and interpaxticle interactions on the stability of the system are analysed. It is shown that at high temperatures,the stability conditions of the system are completely the same,no matter whether it is the ultrarelativistic case or nonrelativistic case. At extremely low temperatures,the mechanical stability conditions of the system show a similar rule through a comparison between the ultrarelativistic case and nonrelativistic case. At the same time,thermal stability of a relativistic Bose gas in a weak magnetic field is discussed,and the influence of the effect of relativity on the thermal stability of the system is investigated.
Remarks on the energy of the gravitational field
Ferraris, Marco; Francaviglia, Mauro
The problem of coherently defining Noether's currents in general relativity is examined. The study is based on the existence of a whole family of first-order Lagrangians for general relativity and the results of Ferraris and Francaviglia (1985) concerning energy and conserved quantities in higher-order field theories. A family of global covariant superpotentials is generated, including the purely gravitational part from the Hilbert Lagrangian and a superpotential describing the energy relative to the background. The use of these superpotentials in the asymptotically flat case is demonstrated with an example of calculations for a charged black hole represented by the Kerr-Newmann solution.
Non-Gaussian distribution of galaxies gravitational fields
Stephanovich, V A
2016-01-01
We perform a theoretical analysis of the observational relation between angular momentum and mass (richness) of the galaxy clusters. For that we calculate the distribution function of astronomical objects (like galaxies and/or smooth halos of different kinds) gravitational fields due to their tidal interaction. Within the statistical method of Chandrasekhar we are able to show that the distribution function is determined by the form of interaction between objects and for multipole (tidal) interaction it is never Gaussian. Our calculation permits to demonstrate that alignment of galaxies angular momenta increases with the cluster richness. The specific form of the corresponding dependence is due to assumptions made about cluster morphology.
Saturn's gravitational field, internal rotation, and interior structure.
Anderson, John D; Schubert, Gerald
2007-09-07
Saturn's internal rotation period is unknown, though it must be less than 10 hours, 39 minutes, and 22 seconds, as derived from magnetic field plus kilometric radiation data. By using the Cassini spacecraft's gravitational data, along with Pioneer and Voyager radio occultation and wind data, we obtain a rotation period of 10 hours, 32 minutes, and 35 +/- 13 seconds. This more rapid spin implies slower equatorial wind speeds on Saturn than previously assumed, and the winds at higher latitudes flow both east and west, as on Jupiter. Our related Saturn interior model has a molecular-to-metallic hydrogen transition about halfway to the planet's center.
5th International School on Field Theory and Gravitation
Following the philosophy that the International School on Field Theory and Gravitation must be held each three years in different Brazilian Universities and, if possible, in different brazilian states, the next meeting will take place at Physics Institute of Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT, Cuiabá city on April, 20-24/2009 very close to the beautiful Pantanal and Chapada dos Guimarães area. The goal of the meeting is to promote a greater integration among many physicists from the local university, UFMT, Co-organizing institutions in Brasil and foreign countries such as Canada, USA, Italy, China, England, Swiss, Spain, Brazil and others; to stimulate the organization of scientific events in our physics Institute and thus contributing to local research activities; to exhibit different fields of physics and to stimulate new lines of theoretical research and technological developments in the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT. Finally, we make efforts to promote the development of advanced studies, taking it to the present core of research in a strong process of affirmation of new lines of theoretical studies in our Physics Institute. To this, we invite colleagues, collaborators, researchers, students, and friends to attend this fifth edition of International School on Field Theory and gravitation-2009.
Numerical computation of gravitational field for general axisymmetric objects
Fukushima, Toshio
2016-10-01
We developed a numerical method to compute the gravitational field of a general axisymmetric object. The method (i) numerically evaluates a double integral of the ring potential by the split quadrature method using the double exponential rules, and (ii) derives the acceleration vector by numerically differentiating the numerically integrated potential by Ridder's algorithm. Numerical comparison with the analytical solutions for a finite uniform spheroid and an infinitely extended object of the Miyamoto-Nagai density distribution confirmed the 13- and 11-digit accuracy of the potential and the acceleration vector computed by the method, respectively. By using the method, we present the gravitational potential contour map and/or the rotation curve of various axisymmetric objects: (i) finite uniform objects covering rhombic spindles and circular toroids, (ii) infinitely extended spheroids including Sérsic and Navarro-Frenk-White spheroids, and (iii) other axisymmetric objects such as an X/peanut-shaped object like NGC 128, a power-law disc with a central hole like the protoplanetary disc of TW Hya, and a tear-drop-shaped toroid like an axisymmetric equilibrium solution of plasma charge distribution in an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like tokamak. The method is directly applicable to the electrostatic field and will be easily extended for the magnetostatic field. The FORTRAN 90 programs of the new method and some test results are electronically available.
First test of Verlinde's theory of emergent gravity using weak gravitational lensing measurements
Brouwer, Margot M.; Visser, Manus R.; Dvornik, Andrej; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; Valentijn, Edwin A.; Bilicki, Maciej; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Buddelmeijer, Hugo; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klaes, Dominik; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; McFarland, John; Nakajima, Reiko; Sifón, Cristóbal; Taylor, Edward N.
2017-01-01
Verlinde proposed that the observed excess gravity in galaxies and clusters is the consequence of emergent gravity (EG). In this theory, the standard gravitational laws are modified on galactic and larger scales due to the displacement of dark energy by baryonic matter. EG gives an estimate of the e
Transmission of Electromagnetic Waves and Deflection of Light in Gravitational Fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘鹏鹏; 陆惠卿
2003-01-01
The gauge invariance of the electromagnetic field in gravitational field is an important question. We prove d' Alembert equation in gravitational field with gauge invariance under the Lorentz condition. Using the kinematic equation of photon in normal static and spherically symmetric gravitational fields, we deduce the orbital equation of photon. As a spceiel example, we explicate the deduction and discussion about the deviation angular of light in Reissner-Nordslx6m space-time.
The instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui
2006-01-01
In this paper the analytical expression of free energy expressed by small parameter r of a weakly interacting Fermi Based on the derived expression, the exact instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field at both high and low temperatures are given. From the instability conditions we get the following two results. (1) At the whole low-temperature extent, whether the interactions are repulsive or attractive with (αn + 4εF/3)(n and εF denote the particle-number density and the Fermi energy respectively, c = 4πah2/m, and a is s-wave scattering length) positive, there is a lower-limit magnetic field of instability; in addition, there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the system of attractive interactions with (αn + 4eF/3) negative. (2) At the whole high-temperature extent, the system with repulsive interactions is always stable, but for the system with attractive interactions, the greater the scattering length of attractive interactions |a| is, the stronger the magnetic field is and the larger the particle-number density is,the bigger the possibility of instability in the system will be.
Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere.
Zhang, T L; Baumjohann, W; Russell, C T; Luhmann, J G; Xiao, S D
2016-03-24
The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth's twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander.
Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere
Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Xiao, S. D.
2016-01-01
The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth’s twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander. PMID:27009234
Gravitational collapse of a homogeneous scalar field coupled kinematically to Einstein tensor
Koutsoumbas, George; Ntrekis, Konstantinos; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Tsoukalas, Minas
2017-02-01
We study the gravitational collapse of a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field that, besides its coupling to curvature, is also kinematically coupled to the Einstein tensor. This coupling is a part of the Horndeski theory and we investigate its effect on the collapsing process. We find that the time required for the scalar field to collapse depends on the value of the derivative coupling and the singularity is protected by a horizon. Matching the internal solution with an external Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter metric we show that a black hole is formed, while the weak energy condition is satisfied during the collapsing process. The scalar field takes on a finite value at the singularity.
Relativistic thermodynamic properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui; Fan Zhao-Lan; Zhu Hou-Yu
2009-01-01
This paper derives the analytical expression of free energy for a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field, by using the methods of quantum statistics as well as considering the relativistic effect. Based on the derived expression, the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and low temperatures are given and the relativistic effect on the properties of the system is discussed. It shows that, in comparison with a nonrelativistic situation,the relativistic effect changes the influence of temperature on the thermodynamic properties of the system at high temperatures, and changes the influence of particle-number density on them at extremely low temperature. But the relativistic effect does not change the influence of the magnetic field and inter-particle interactions on the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and extremely low temperatures.
Gravitational Lensing and the New Method in Weak Gravitational Lensing%引力透镜和弱引力透镜的新方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨晓峰
2011-01-01
Gravitational lensing is one of the most powerful tools in astrophysics. In particular it is significant in the explorations of extra-solar planets, in the investigations of the dark universe (dark matter and dark energy), and in testing gravity at cosmological scales. The great advantage of gravitational lensing is that it is directly dependent on gravity only, and does not depend on the nature of dark matter or complicated baryonic physics.First, we review the fundamental theory and approximations of gravitational lensing in which matter distribution (such as a stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters or large scale structure (LSS)) bends light propagating between a distant source and the observer. We discuss three types of gravitational lensing based on the scale of the lensing system: micro, weak, and strong lensing and their applications in extra-solar planet searches (micro lensing) and constraining density profile of dark matter halos (strong lensing). Then we report and review new progresses in gravitational lensing and introduce a new interpretation of gravitational lensing by employing the split of wavefront.Second, we discuss the use of weak lensing in cosmology. Gravitational lensing can be split into convergence and shear terms. The convergence magnifies the fluxes of background galaxies by increasing their sizes, while the shear stretches them tangentially around the foreground mass. Since the distortion of the shape and size of the galaxies is weak and tiny, significant shear effects can only be detected statistically using large number of background galaxies. This effect is known as cosmic shear. In the past decade, there are a number of works focusing on using cosmic shear effect to study the LSS and to constrain cosmological parameters. However, weak lensing measurements through cosmic shear still suffers from observational uncertainties and systematics such as the intrinsic alignment and the shapeerror of galaxies.Finally, we introduce a new method to
Gravitation field algorithm and its application in gene cluster
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Ming
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Searching optima is one of the most challenging tasks in clustering genes from available experimental data or given functions. SA, GA, PSO and other similar efficient global optimization methods are used by biotechnologists. All these algorithms are based on the imitation of natural phenomena. Results This paper proposes a novel searching optimization algorithm called Gravitation Field Algorithm (GFA which is derived from the famous astronomy theory Solar Nebular Disk Model (SNDM of planetary formation. GFA simulates the Gravitation field and outperforms GA and SA in some multimodal functions optimization problem. And GFA also can be used in the forms of unimodal functions. GFA clusters the dataset well from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Conclusions The mathematical proof demonstrates that GFA could be convergent in the global optimum by probability 1 in three conditions for one independent variable mass functions. In addition to these results, the fundamental optimization concept in this paper is used to analyze how SA and GA affect the global search and the inherent defects in SA and GA. Some results and source code (in Matlab are publicly available at http://ccst.jlu.edu.cn/CSBG/GFA.
On the Electrodynamics of Moving Particles in Gravitational Fields
Nassif, Claudio
2007-01-01
We will look for an implementation of new symmetries in the space-time structure, which allows us to find a unified vision for electrodynamics and gravitation. We will atempt to develop a simple model of the electromagnetic nature of the electron such that the influence of the gravitational field over the electrodynamics in subatomic scales leads us to a reformulation in our comprehention of the space-time structure through the elimination of the classical idea of rest. This will lead to a reformulation of the relativistic theory by introducing the idea about a universal minimum limit of speed in the space-time. Such limit, unattainable by the particles, represents a perfect and absolute inertial reference frame associated to a universal background field (a kind of non-local vacuum energy), enabling a fundamental understanding of the quantum uncertainties. The structure of space-time becomes extended due to such vacuum energy density which leads to a negative pressure in cosmological scales like a cosmologica...
Pionic dispersion relations in presence of weak magnetic field
Adhya, Souvik Priyam; Biswas, Subhrajyoti; Roy, Pradip K
2016-01-01
In this work, dispersion relations of $\\pi^0$ and $\\pi^{\\pm}$ have been studied in vacuum in the limit of weak external magnetic field using a phenomenological pion-nucleon $(\\pi N)$ Lagrangian. For our purpose, we have calculated the results up to one loop order in self energy diagrams with the pseudoscalar $(PS)$ and pseudovector $(PV)$ pion-nucleon interactions. By assuming weak external magnetic field it is seen that the effective mass of pion gets explicit magnetic field dependence and it is modified significantly for the case of PS coupling. However, for the PV coupling, only a modest increase in the effective mass is observed. These modified dispersion relations due to the presence of the external field can have substantial influence in the phenomenological aspect of the mesons both in the context of neutron stars as well as relativistic heavy ion collisions.
Fate of Extended States and Localization Transition at Weak Fields
Yang, Kun
1997-03-01
The reconciliation between the nonexistence of extended states in two dimensions in zero magnetic field, and the existence of critical energies in the high field limit, first addressed qualitatively (D. E. Khmelnitskii, Phys. Lett. A 106), 182 (1984); R. B. Laughlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2304 (1984). a decade ago, has reemerged as a subject of considerable interest and debate, following experimental investigations in the two dimensional electron gas at low fields. We have addressed the problem on two fronts. For strong magnetic fields, where Landau level mixing effects are weak, we have developed a systematic analytic expansion in powers of 1\\over B. (F. D. M. Haldane and Kun Yang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), to appear. We find the dominant level repulsion effect (of order 1\\over B^2), lowers the energies of typical states in a Landau band. The critical energies, however, are not affected at this order. In contrast, we find that, the extended state energies levitates to order 1\\over B^3, thus reconciling levitation of extended states with level repulsion due to Landau level mixing. In the regime of weak magnetic field and strong Landau level mixing, where the perturbative approach is not applicable, we have performed a numerical study on lattice models, (Kun Yang and R. N. Bhatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 1316 (1996). which provides evidence for this levitation at weak magnetic field. Furthermore, we obtain a localization transition to an insulating phase at weak field, and a finite size scaling analysis shows that the localization length diverges at this transition with an exponent that is the same as that of the plateau transitions in the strong field regime, ν≈ 2.3. Relations between our theoretical results and experimental findings will be discussed.
Modeling and analysis of magnetic dipoles in weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The magnetic leakage field distribution resulting from linear defects of a tube sample in the geomagnetic field is modeled according to the magnetic dipole theory.The formula to compute the normal component of the weak magnetic field is deduced based on the spatial distribution of the magnetic dipole.The shape and characteristics of the zero line (an important criterion for magnetic memory testing) of the normal field is analyzed under different longitudinal magnetizations.Results show that the characteristics of the zero line should be considered when the metal magnetic memory testing method is used to find and locate the defect.
Einstein's first gravitational field equation 101 years latter
Betancort-Rijo, Juan
2014-01-01
We review and strengthen the arguments given by Einstein to derive his first gravitational field equation for static fields and show that, although it was ultimately rejected, it follows from General Relativity (GR) for negligible pressure. Using this equation and considerations folowing directly from the equivalence principle (EP), we show how Schwarzschild metric and other vacum metrics can be obtained immediately. With this results and some basic principles, we obtain the metric in the general spherically symmetric case and the corresponding hydrostatic equilibrium equation. For this metrics we obtain the motion equations in a simple and exact manner that clearly shows the three sources of difference (implied by various aspects of the EP) with respect to the Newtonian case and use them to study the classical tests of GR. We comment on the origin of the problems of Einstein first theory of gravity and discuss how, by removing it the theory could be made consistent and extended to include rotations, we also ...
Determining Symmetry Properties of Gravitational Fields of Terrestrial Group Planets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.A. Kascheev
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Numerous models of gravity fields of the Solar system bodies have been constructed recently owing to successful space missions. These models are sets of harmonic coefficients of gravity potential expansion in series of spherical functions, which is Laplace series. The sets of coefficients are different in quantity of numerical parameters, sources and composition of the initial observational data, methods to obtain and process them, and, consequently, in a variety of properties and accuracy characteristics. For this reason, the task of comparison of different models of celestial bodies considered in the paper is of interest and relevant. The main purpose of this study is comparison of the models of gravitational potential of the Earth, Moon, Mars, and Venus with the quantitative criteria of different types of symmetries developed by us. It is assumed that some particular symmetry of the density distribution function of the planetary body causes similar symmetry of its gravitational potential. The symmetry of gravitational potential, in its turn, imposes additional conditions (restrictions, which must be satisfied by the harmonic coefficients. The paper deals with seven main types of symmetries: central, axial, two symmetries specular relative to the equatorial planes and prime meridian, as well as three rotational symmetries (at π angle around the coordinate system axes. According to the results of calculations carried out for the Earth, Moon, Mars, and Venus, the values of the criteria vary considerably for different types of symmetries and for different planets. It means that the specific value of each criterion corresponding to a particular celestial body is indicative of the properties and internal structure characteristics of the latter and, therefore, it can be used as a tool for comparative planetology. On the basis of the performed calculations, it is possible to distinguish two groups of celestial bodies having similar properties of
Gravitational field self-limitation and its role in the Universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gershtein, Semen S; Logunov, Anatolii A; Mestvirishvili, Mirian A [State Research Center ' Institute of High Energy Physics' , Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
2006-11-30
It is shown that according to the relativistic theory of gravity, the gravitational field slows down the rate of time flow but stops doing so when the field is strong, thus displaying its tendency toward self-limitation of the gravitational potential. This property of the gravitational field prevents massive bodies from collapsing and allows a homogeneous isotropic universe to evolve cyclically. (physics of our days)
Higuchi, Yuichi
2016-01-01
We study the effect of $f(R)$ gravity on the statistical properties of various large-scale structures which can be probed in weak gravitational lensing measurements. A set of ray-tracing simulations of gravitational lensing in $f(R)$ gravity enables us to explore cosmological information on (i) stacking analyses of weak lensing observables and (ii) peak statistics in reconstructed lensing mass maps. For the $f(R)$ model proposed by Hu & Sawicki, the measured lensing signals of dark matter haloes in the stacking analysis would show a $\\simlt10\\%$ difference between the standard $\\Lambda$CDM and the $f(R)$ model when the additional degree of freedom in $f(R)$ model would be $|f_{\\rm R0}|\\sim10^{-5}$. Among various large-scale structures to be studied in stacking analysis, troughs, i.e, underdensity regions in projected plane of foreground massive haloes, could be promising to constrain the model with $|f_{\\rm R0}|\\sim10^{-5}$, while stacking analysis around voids is found to be difficult to improve the cons...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Felice, Antonio, E-mail: antoniod@nu.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); TPTP and NEP, The Institute for Fundamental Study, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 65000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)
2011-12-06
In the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories the equations of scalar density perturbations are derived in the presence of non-relativistic matter minimally coupled to gravity. Under a quasi-static approximation on sub-horizon scales we obtain the effective gravitational coupling G{sub eff} associated with the growth rate of matter perturbations as well as the effective gravitational potential {Phi}{sub eff} relevant to the deviation of light rays. We then apply our formulas to a number of modified gravitational models of dark energy - such as those based on f(R) theories, Brans-Dicke theories, kinetic gravity braidings, covariant Galileons, and field derivative couplings with the Einstein tensor. Our results are useful to test the large-distance modification of gravity from the future high-precision observations of large-scale structure, weak lensing, and cosmic microwave background.
De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2011-01-01
In the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories the equations of scalar density perturbations are derived in the presence of non-relativistic matter minimally coupled to gravity. Under a quasi-static approximation on sub-horizon scales we obtain the effective gravitational coupling $G_{eff}$ associated with the growth rate of matter perturbations as well as the effective gravitational potential $\\Phi_{eff}$ relevant to the deviation of light rays. We then apply our formulas to a number of modified gravitational models of dark energy--such as those based on f(R) theories, Brans-Dicke theories, kinetic gravity braidings, covariant Galileons, and field derivative couplings with the Einstein tensor. Our results are useful to test the large-distance modification of gravity from the future high-precision observations of large-scale structure, weak lensing, and cosmic microwave background.
Critical exact solutions for self-gravitating Dirac fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cianci, Roberto; Fabbri, Luca; Vignolo, Stefano [Universita di Genova, DIME Sez. Metodi e Modelli Matematici, Genova (Italy)
2016-11-15
We consider the Einstein-Dirac field equations describing a self-gravitating massive neutrino, looking for axially symmetric exact solutions; in the search of general solutions, we find some that are specific and which have critical features, such as the fact that the space-time curvature turns out to be flat and the spinor field gives rise to a vanishing bi-linear scalar ψψ =0 with non-vanishing bi-linear pseudo-scalar iψγ{sup 5}ψ ≠ 0: because in quantum-field theory general computational methods are built on plane-wave solutions, for which the bi-linear pseudo-scalar vanishes while the bi-linear scalar does not vanish, then the solutions we found cannot be treated with the usual machinery of quantum-field theory. This means that for the Einstein-Dirac system there exist admissible solutions which nevertheless cannot be quantized with the common prescriptions; we regard this situation as yet another issue of tension between Einstein gravity and quantum principles. Possible ways to quench this tension can be seen either in enlarging the validity of quantum-field theory or by restricting the space of the solutions of the Einstein-Dirac system of field equations. (orig.)
Constants of motion in stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields
Markakis, C.
2014-07-01
The motion of test particles in stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields is generally non-integrable unless a non-trivial constant of motion, in addition to energy and angular momentum along the symmetry axis, exists. The Carter constant in Kerr-de Sitter space-time is the only example known to date. Proposed astrophysical tests of the black hole no-hair theorem have often involved integrable gravitational fields more general than the Kerr family, but the existence of such fields has been a matter of debate. To elucidate this problem, we treat its Newtonian analogue by systematically searching for non-trivial constants of motion polynomial in the momenta and obtain two theorems. First, solving a set of quadratic integrability conditions, we establish the existence and uniqueness of the family of stationary axisymmetric potentials admitting a quadratic constant. As in Kerr-de Sitter space-time, the mass moments of this class satisfy a `no-hair' recursion relation M2l +2 = a2M2l, and the constant is Noether related to a second-order Killing-Stäckel tensor. Second, solving a new set of quartic integrability conditions, we establish non-existence of quartic constants. Remarkably, a subset of these conditions is satisfied when the mass moments obey a generalized `no-hair' recursion relation M2l +4 = (a2 + b2)M2l +2 - a2b2M2l. The full set of quartic integrability conditions, however, cannot be satisfied non-trivially by any stationary axisymmetric vacuum potential.
Coupling of a Linearized Gravitational Wave to Electromagnetic Fields and Relevant Noise Issues
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李芳昱; 吴张晗; 张义
2003-01-01
According to electrodynamic equations in curved spacetime we consider the coupling of a linearized weak gravitational wave(GW)to a Gaussian beam passing through a static magnetic field.It is found that unlike the properties of the "left-circular" and "right-circular" waves of the tangential perturbative photon fluxes in the cylindrical polar coordinates,the resultant effect of the tangential and radial perturbations can produce a unique nonvanishing photon flux propagating along the direction of the electric field of the Gaussian beam.This result might provide a larger detecting space for the high-frequency GWs in GHz band.Moreover,we also discuss the relevant noise issues.
Weak and strong field approximations and circular orbits of Kehagias-Sfetsos space-time
Dwornik, M; Gergely, L Á
2013-01-01
The Kehagias-Sfetsos asymptotically flat black hole and naked singularity solutions of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity are investigated both in the weak-field and strong-field regimes. In the weak-field limit the gravitational field generated by the Kehagias-Sfetsos spherically symmetric solution is weaker then in the case of the Schwarzschild black hole of general relativity. In the strong-field regime naked singularities with $\\omega_{0} \\ll 1 $ display an unusual distance dependence: gravity becomes weaker when approaching the singularity. The stability of circular orbits is also analyzed. While in the black hole case the square of the angular momentum should be larger than a certain finite, non-zero minimal value, in the naked singularity case there are stable circular orbits for any non-zero value of the angular momentum. In this regime we prove the existence of an infimum of the allowed radii of circular orbits (corresponding to vanishing angular momentum).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹旭波; 许晶波; 高孝纯; 符建
2001-01-01
We adopt a dynamical algebraic approach to study the system of a two-level atom moving in a quantized travelling light field and a gravitational field with a multiphoton interaction. The exact solution of the system is obtained and used to discuss the influence of the gravitational field on the collapses and revivals of atomic population, sub-Poissonian statistics.
Dynamics of a bubble rising in gravitational field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
De Bernardis Enrico
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The rising motion in free space of a pulsating spherical bubble of gas and vapour driven by the gravitational force, in an isochoric, inviscid liquid is investigated. The liquid is at rest at the initial time, so that the subsequent flow is irrotational. For this reason, the velocity field due to the bubble motion is described by means of a potential, which is represented through an expansion based on Legendre polynomials. A system of two coupled, ordinary and nonlinear differential equations is derived for the vertical position of the bubble center of mass and for its radius. This latter equation is a modified form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, including a term proportional to the kinetic energy associated to the translational motion of the bubble.
Geodesics in the field of a rotating deformed gravitational source
Boshkayev, Kuantay; Abutalip, Marzhan; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Suleymanova, Sharara
2015-01-01
We investigate equatorial geodesics in the gravitational field of a rotating and deformed source described by the approximate Hartle-Thorne metric. In the case of massive particles, we derive within the same approximation analytic expressions for the orbital angular velocity, the specific angular momentum and energy, and the radii of marginally stable and marginally bound circular orbits. Moreover, we calculate the orbital angular velocity and the radius of lightlike circular geodesics. We study numerically the frame dragging effect and the influence of the quadrupolar deformation of the source on the motion of test particles. We show that the effects originating from the rotation can be balanced by the effects due to the oblateness of the source.
Geodesics in the field of a rotating deformed gravitational source
Boshkayev, K. A.; Quevedo, H.; Abutalip, M. S.; Kalymova, Zh. A.; Suleymanova, Sh. S.
2016-01-01
We investigate equatorial geodesics in the gravitational field of a rotating and deformed source described by the approximate Hartle-Thorne metric. In the case of massive particles, we derive within the same approximation analytic expressions for the orbital angular velocity, the specific angular momentum and energy, and the radii of marginally stable and marginally bound circular orbits. Moreover, we calculate the orbital angular velocity and the radius of lightlike circular geodesics. We study numerically the frame dragging effect and the influence of the quadrupolar deformation of the source on the motion of test particles. We show that the effects originating from the rotation can be balanced by the effects due to the oblateness of the source.
Monopoles for Gravitation and for Higher Spin Fields
Bunster, C W; Henneaux, M; Portugues, R
2006-01-01
We consider massless higher spin gauge theories with both electric and magnetic sources, with a special emphasis on the spin two case. We write the equations of motion at the linear level (with conserved external sources) and introduce Dirac strings so as to derive the equations from a variational principle. We then derive a quantization condition that generalizes the familiar Dirac quantization condition, and which involves the conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries for higher spins. Next we discuss briefly how the result extends to the non linear theory. This is done in the context of gravitation, where the Taub-NUT solution provides the exact solution of the field equations with both types of sources. We rederive, in analogy with electromagnetism, the quantization condition from the quantization of the angular momentum. We also observe that the Taub-NUT metric is asymptotically flat at spatial infinity in the sense of Regge and Teitelboim (including their parity conditions). It follows...
Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production
Ben-Dayan, Ido
2016-01-01
We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \\tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\\cal P}^s_T\\sim ({\\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a...
Scalar mesostatic field with regard for gravitational effects
Fisher, I Z
1948-01-01
(Foreword by translator.) The aim of present translation is to clarify the historically important question who was the pioneer in obtaining of exact static solutions of Einstein equations minimally coupled with scalar field. Usually, people cite the works by Janis, Newman, Winicour (Phys. Rev. Lett. 20 (1968) 878) and others authors whereas it is clear that JNW rediscovered (in other coordinates) the Fisher's solution which was obtained 20 years before, in 1947. Regrettably, up to now I continue to meet many papers (even very fresh ones) whose authors evidently do not know about the Fisher's work, so I try to remove this gap by virtue of present translation and putting it into the LANL e-print archive. (Original Abstract.) It is considered the scalar mesostatic field of a point source with the regard for spacetime curvature caused by this field. For the field with $\\mass = 0$ the exact solution of Einstein equations was obtained. It was demonstrated that at small distance from a source the gravitational effec...
Gravitational waves in bouncing cosmologies from gauge field production
Ben-Dayan, Ido
2016-09-01
We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to Ftilde F term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, Script PsT ~ (Script PvT)2, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to F2 term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), nT gtrsim 0, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.
Without gravity, you would float into space. Gravity pulls matter together: it holds us onto the Earth, it holds the Earth in orbit around the sun and it holds our solar system in orbit about the centre of the galaxy. Everything with mass feels the attraction of gravity. The strength of the attraction between 2 objects depends on their masses. Despite its omnipresence, gravity is the weakest of the 4 forces. It is insignificant at the scale of human beings: when a group of visitors walks past, gravity doesn't pull you towards them! At even smaller scales, the gravitational pull between the electron and the proton is about 1040 times weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them. Text for the interactive: Why does the same mass weigh more on the Earth than on the moon ?
Symmetry restoration at finite temperature with weak magnetic fields
Navarro, Jorge; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena; Ayala, Alejandro; Piccinelli, Gabriella
2010-01-01
We study symmetry restoration at finite temperature in the standard model during the electroweak phase transition in the presence of a weak magnetic field. We compute the finite temperature effective potential up to the contribution of ring diagrams, using the broken phase degrees of freedom, and keep track of the gauge parameter dependence of the results. We show that under these conditions, the phase transition becomes stronger first order.
Cross-correlation of CMB with large-scale structure: weak gravitational lensing
Hirata, C M; Seljak, U; Schlegel, D J; Brinkmann, J; Hirata, Christopher M.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seljak, Uros; Schlegel, David; Brinkmann, Jonathan
2004-01-01
We present the results of a search for gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in cross-correlation with the projected density of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The CMB lensing reconstruction is performed using the first year of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, and the galaxy maps are obtained using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. We find no detection of lensing; our constraint on the galaxy bias derived from the galaxy-convergence cross-spectrum is $b_g=1.81\\pm 1.92$ ($1\\sigma$, statistical), as compared to the expected result of $b_g\\sim 1.7$ for this sample. We discuss possible instrument-related systematic errors and show that the Galactic foregrounds are not important. We do not find any evidence for point source or thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect contamination.
Balbus, Steven A
2016-10-18
A conserved stress energy tensor for weak field gravitational waves propagating in vacuum is derived directly from the linearized general relativistic wave equation alone, for an arbitrary gauge. In any harmonic gauge, the form of the tensor leads directly to the classical expression for the outgoing wave energy. The method described here, however, is a much simpler, shorter, and more physically motivated approach than is the customary procedure, which involves a lengthy and cumbersome second-order (in wave-amplitude) calculation starting with the Einstein tensor. Our method has the added advantage of exhibiting the direct coupling between the outgoing wave energy flux and the work done by the gravitational field on the sources. For nonharmonic gauges, the directly derived wave stress tensor has an apparent index asymmetry. This coordinate artifact may be straightforwardly removed, and the symmetrized (still gauge-invariant) tensor then takes on its widely used form. Angular momentum conservation follows immediately. For any harmonic gauge, however, the stress tensor found is manifestly symmetric from the start, and its derivation depends, in its entirety, on the structure of the linearized wave equation.
Nonlinear gravitational self-force: Field outside a small body
Pound, Adam
2012-10-01
A small extended body moving through an external spacetime gαβ creates a metric perturbation hαβ, which forces the body away from geodesic motion in gαβ. The foundations of this effect, called the gravitational self-force, are now well established, but concrete results have mostly been limited to linear order. Accurately modeling the dynamics of compact binaries requires proceeding to nonlinear orders. To that end, I show how to obtain the metric perturbation outside the body at all orders in a class of generalized wave gauges. In a small buffer region surrounding the body, the form of the perturbation can be found analytically as an expansion for small distances r from a representative worldline. Given only a specification of the body’s multipole moments, the field obtained in the buffer region suffices to find the metric everywhere outside the body via a numerical puncture scheme. Following this procedure at first and second order, I calculate the field in the buffer region around an arbitrarily structured compact body at sufficiently high order in r to numerically implement a second-order puncture scheme, including effects of the body’s spin. I also define nth-order (local) generalizations of the Detweiler-Whiting singular and regular fields and show that in a certain sense, the body can be viewed as a skeleton of multipole moments.
Saturn's fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness
Helled, Ravit; Kaspi, Yohai
2015-01-01
The alignment of Saturn's magnetic pole with its rotation axis precludes the use of magnetic field measurements to determine its rotation period. The period was previously determined from radio measurements by the Voyager spacecraft to be 10h 39m 22.4s. When the Cassini spacecraft measured a period of 10h 47m 6s, which was additionally found to change between sequential measurements, it became clear that the radio period could not be used to determine the bulk planetary rotation period. Estimates based upon Saturn's measured wind fields have increased the uncertainty even more, giving numbers smaller than the Voyager rotation period, and at present Saturn's rotation period is thought to be between 10h 32m and 10h 47m, which is unsatisfactory for such a fundamental property. Here we report a period of 10h 32m 45s +- 46s, based upon an optimization approach using Saturn's measured gravitational field and limits on the observed shape and possible internal density profiles. Moreover, even when solely using the co...
Gravitational spectra from direct measurements. [of surface field
Wagner, C. A.; Colombo, O. L.
1979-01-01
A simple rapid method is described for determining the spectrum of a surface field (in spherical harmonics) from harmonic analysis of direct (in situ) measurements along great circle arcs. The method is shown to give excellent overall trends (smoothed spectra) to very high degree from even a few short arcs of satellite data. Three examples are taken with perfect measurements of satellite tracking over a planet made up of hundreds of point masses using (1) altimetric heights from a low-orbiting spacecraft, (2) velocity (range rate) residuals between a low and a high satellite in circular orbits, and (3) range rate data between a station at infinity and a satellite in a highly eccentric orbit. In particular, the smoothed spectrum of the earth's gravitational field is determined to about degree 400(50-km half wavelength) from 1 x 1 deg gravimetry and the equivalent of 11 revolutions of GEOS 3 and Skylab altimetry. This measurement shows that there is about 46 cm of geoid height (rms worldwide) remaining in the field beyond degree 180.
Gravity Effects of Solar Eclipse and Inducted Gravitational Field
Tang, K.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, H.; Hua, C.; Peng, F.; Hu, K.
2003-12-01
During solar eclipses in recent decades, gravity anomalies were observed and difficult to be explained by Newton's gravitational theory. During the solar eclipse of 1995, India scientists Mishra et al. recorded a gravity valley in amplitude of 12 μ Gal; they interpreted that qualitatively as atmospheric effects. During the total solar eclipse of March 1997, we conducted a comprehensive geophysical observation at Mohe geophysical observatory of China (with latitude of 53.490 N and longitude of 122.340 E. From the data we recorded, we found two valleys about 5 to 7 μ Gal. Unnikrishnan et al. inferred this gravity anomaly was caused by the environment changes. We know that the observation had been conducting in a room inside a small building with a stable coal heating system; the temperature variation inside the experimental room was less 10C during the eclipse. Moreover, the measured atmospheric pressure change was less 1hPa during the eclipse. It is reasonable to believe that surrounding environment of the observatory excluded the significant gravity variations caused by temperature, pressure variation and local moving of persons and vehicles. To further study the gravity effects related to solar eclipses, our scientific team took more observations during Zambia total solar eclipse of June 2001 and Australia total solar eclipse of December 2002. After data corrections, we found respectively two gravity anomalies, with 3 to 4μ Gal for Zambia eclipse and 1.5μ Gal for Australia eclipse. As many scientists have pointed out that pressure-gravity factor is lower than 0.3μ Gal/hPa, it means that any gravity anomaly great than 0.5μ Gal could not be inferred as the results of atmospheric pressure change. The two more gravity anomalies recorded during the solar eclipses provided us strong evidences that some gravity anomalies could not simply be inferred as atmospheric pressure change. We have tried to explain those anomalies by the induced gravitational field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Federrath, Christoph; Smith, Rowan J. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schleicher, Dominik R. G. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitaet, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Sur, Sharanya, E-mail: tpeters@physik.uzh.ch [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivnagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)
2012-12-01
Stars form by the gravitational collapse of interstellar gas. The thermodynamic response of the gas can be characterized by an effective equation of state. It determines how gas heats up or cools as it gets compressed, and hence plays a key role in regulating the process of stellar birth on virtually all scales, ranging from individual star clusters up to the galaxy as a whole. We present a systematic study of the impact of thermodynamics on gravitational collapse in the context of high-redshift star formation, but argue that our findings are also relevant for present-day star formation in molecular clouds. We consider a polytropic equation of state, P = k{rho}{sup {Gamma}}, with both sub-isothermal exponents {Gamma} < 1 and super-isothermal exponents {Gamma} > 1. We find significant differences between these two cases. For {Gamma} > 1, pressure gradients slow down the contraction and lead to the formation of a virialized, turbulent core. Weak magnetic fields are strongly tangled and efficiently amplified via the small-scale turbulent dynamo on timescales corresponding to the eddy-turnover time at the viscous scale. For {Gamma} < 1, on the other hand, pressure support is not sufficient for the formation of such a core. Gravitational contraction proceeds much more rapidly and the flow develops very strong shocks, creating a network of intersecting sheets and extended filaments. The resulting magnetic field lines are very coherent and exhibit a considerable degree of order. Nevertheless, even under these conditions we still find exponential growth of the magnetic energy density in the kinematic regime.
Sadhukhan, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Sagar
2016-01-01
We have performed systemmatic local linear stability analysis on a radially stratified infinite self-gravitating cylinder of rotating plasma under the influence of magnetic field. In order to render the system analytically tractable, we have focussed solely on the axisymmetric modes of perturbations. Using cylindrical coordinate system, we have derived the critical linear mass density of a non-rotating filament required for gravitational collapse to ensue in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field. Moreover, for such filaments threaded by axial magnetic field, we show that the growth rates of the modes having non-zero radial wavenumber are reduced more strongly by the magnetic field than that of the modes having zero radial wavenumber. More importantly, our study contributes to the understanding of the stability property of rotating astrophysical filaments that are more often than not influenced by magnetic fields. In addition to complementing many relevant numerical studies reported the literature, our resu...
Magnetophoresis of diamagnetic microparticles in a weak magnetic field.
Zhu, Gui-Ping; Hejiazan, Majid; Huang, Xiaoyang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung
2014-12-21
Magnetic manipulation is a promising technique for lab-on-a-chip platforms. The magnetic approach can avoid problems associated with heat, surface charge, ionic concentration and pH level. The present paper investigates the migration of diamagnetic particles in a ferrofluid core stream that is sandwiched between two diamagnetic streams in a uniform magnetic field. The three-layer flow is expanded in a circular chamber for characterisation based on imaging of magnetic nanoparticles and fluorescent microparticles. A custom-made electromagnet generates a uniform magnetic field across the chamber. In a relatively weak uniform magnetic field, the diamagnetic particles in the ferrofluid move and spread across the chamber. Due to the magnetization gradient formed by the ferrofluid, diamagnetic particles undergo negative magnetophoresis and move towards the diamagnetic streams. The effects of magnetic field strength and the concentration of diamagnetic particles are studied in detail.
Gravitational collapse of massless scalar field in $f(R)$ gravity
Zhang, Cheng-Yong; Wang, Bin
2016-01-01
We study the spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of massless scalar matter field in asymptotic flat spacetime in $f(R)$ gravity. In the Einstein frame of $f(R)$ gravity, an additional scalar field arises due to the conformal transformation. We find that besides the usual competition between gravitational energy and kinetic energy in the process of gravitational collapse, the new scalar field brought by the conformal transformation adds one more competing force in the dynamical system. The dynamical competition can be controlled by tuning the amplitudes of the initial perturbations of the new scalar field and the matter field. To understand the physical reasons behind these phenomena, we analyze the gravitational potential behavior and calculate the Ricci scalar at center with the change of initial amplitudes of perturbations. We find rich physics on the formation of black holes through gravitational collapse in $f(R)$ gravity.
Plocková, Jana; Matulík, Frantisek; Chmelík, Josef
2002-04-26
Force field programming provided increased speed of separation with an improved resolution and detection capability in many field-flow fractionation (FFF) techniques. Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) uses the Earth's gravitational field to cause the settlement of particles towards the channel accumulation wall. Although this field is constant and relatively weak, there are different ways to implement force field programming in GFFF. Because hydrodynamic lift forces (HLF) participate in the separation process in focusing (hyperlayer) elution mode, they can control the resulting force field acting on particles via changes in flow-velocity. These changes can be accomplished by a programmable pump or with channels of non-constant cross-sections. This work is focused on flow-velocity programming accomplished with channels of non-constant cross-sections. Three trapezoidal channels of decreasing breadth and two channels of decreasing height (along the longitudinal axis) are tested as tools for optimization of the separation of a model silica gel particle mixture. The trapezoidal channels yielded reduced separation times. However, taking into account both speed of separation and resolution, the optimization effect was lower compared with the flow-rate gradients generated by a programmable pump. The channels of non-constant height did not yield advantageous separations.
Neutron star mass-radius relation with gravitational field shielding by a scalar field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bo-Jun Zhang; Tian-Xi Zhang; Padmaja Guggilla; Mostafa Dokhanian
2013-01-01
The currently well-developed models for equations of state (EoSs) have been severely impacted by recent measurements of neutron stars with a small radius and/or large mass.To explain these measurements,the theory of gravitational field shielding by a scalar field is applied.This theory was recently developed in accordance with the five-dimensional (5D) fully covariant Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory that has successfully unified Einstein's general relativity and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory.It is shown that a massive,compact neutron star can generate a strong scalar field,which can significantly shield or reduce its gravitational field,thus making it more massive and more compact.The mass-radius relation developed under this type of modified gravity can be consistent with these recent measurements of neutron stars.In addition,the effect of gravitational field shielding helps explain why the supernova explosions of some very massive stars (e.g.,40 M⊙ as measured recently) actually formed neutron stars rather than black holes as expected.The EoS models,ruled out by measurements of small radius and/or large mass neutron stars according to the theory of general relativity,can still work well in terms of the 5D fully covariant KK theory with a scalar field.
Numerical Tests of Fast Reconnection in Weakly Stochastic Magnetic Fields
Kowal, G; Vishniac, E T; Otmianowska-Mazur, K
2009-01-01
We study the effects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection using 3D numerical simulations. This is the first attempt to test a model of fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of weak turbulence proposed by Lazarian & Vishniac (1999). This model predicts that weak turbulence, generically present in most of astrophysical systems, enhances the rate of reconnection by reducing the transverse scale for reconnection events and by allowing many independent flux reconnection events to occur simultaneously. As a result the reconnection speed becomes independent of Ohmic resistivity and is determined by the magnetic field wandering induced by turbulence. To quantify the reconnection speed we use both an intuitive definition, i.e. the speed of the reconnected flux inflow, as well as a more sophisticated definition based on a formally derived analytical expression. Our results confirm the predictions of the Lazarian & Vishniac model. In particular, we find that Vrec Pinj^(1/2), as predicted by the model. The...
Quark deconfinement and gluon condensate in a weak magnetic field
Ayala, Alejandro; Hernandez, L A; Loewe, M; Rojas, Juan Cristobal; Villavicencio, Cristian
2015-01-01
We study QCD finite energy sum rules (FESR) for the axial-vector current correlator in the presence of a magnetic field, in the weak field limit and at zero temperature. We find that the perturbative QCD as well as the hadronic contribution to the sum rules get explicit magnetic field-dependent corrections and that these in turn induce a magnetic field dependence on the deconfinement phenomenological parameter s_0 and on the gluon condensate. The leading corrections turn out to be quadratic in the field strength. We find from the dimension d=2 first FESR that the magnetic field dependence of s_0 is proportional to the absolute value of the light-quark condensate. Hence, it increases with increasing field strength. This implies that the parameters describing chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement behave similarly as functions of the magnetic filed. Thus, at zero temperature the magnetic field is a catalysing agent of both chiral symmetry breaking and confinement. From the dimension d=4 second FESR we ob...
Weak magnetic fields in early-type stars: failed fossils
Braithwaite, Jonathan
2012-01-01
Weak magnetic fields have recently been detected in Vega and Sirius. Here, we explore the possibility that these fields are the remnants of some field inherited or created during or shortly after star formation and, unlike true fossil fields, are still evolving as we observe them. The timescale of this evolution is given in terms of the Alfven timescale and the rotation frequency by tau_evol ~ tau_A^2 Omega, which would be comparable to the age of the star. It is shown that it is likely that all intermediate- and high-mass stars contain fields of at least the order of the strength found so far in Vega and Sirius. Faster rotators are expected to have stronger magnetic fields. Stars may experience an increase in field strength during their early main-sequence, but for most of their lives field strength will decrease slowly. The length scale of the magnetic structure on the surface may be small in very young stars but should quickly increase to at least very approximately a fifth of the stellar radius.
Spherical collapse of dark matter haloes in tidal gravitational fields
Reischke, Robert; Pace, Francesco; Meyer, Sven; Schäfer, Björn Malte
2016-11-01
We study the spherical collapse model in the presence of external gravitational tidal shear fields for different dark energy scenarios and investigate the impact on the mass function and cluster number counts. While previous studies of the influence of shear and rotation on δc have been performed with heuristically motivated models, we try to avoid this model dependence and sample the external tidal shear values directly from the statistics of the underlying linearly evolved density field based on first-order Lagrangian perturbation theory. Within this self-consistent approach, in the sense that we restrict our treatment to scales where linear theory is still applicable, only fluctuations larger than the scale of the considered objects are included into the sampling process which naturally introduces a mass dependence of δc. We find that shear effects are predominant for smaller objects and at lower redshifts, i. e. the effect on δc is at or below the percent level for the ΛCDM model. For dark energy models we also find small but noticeable differences, similar to ΛCDM. The virial overdensity ΔV is nearly unaffected by the external shear. The now mass dependent δc is used to evaluate the mass function for different dark energy scenarios and afterwards to predict cluster number counts, which indicate that ignoring the shear contribution can lead to biases of the order of 1σ in the estimation of cosmological parameters like Ωm, σ8 or w.
Addendum. Relation for the Light Absorption in the Presence of Gravitation Field
R. Vlokh; M. Kostyrko
2005-01-01
We argue for the validity of relation for electromagnetic wave electric field derived by us earlier. It includes an imaginary part responsible for the absorption induced by gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass.
Jet deflection by very weak guide fields during magnetic reconnection.
Goldman, M V; Lapenta, G; Newman, D L; Markidis, S; Che, H
2011-09-23
Previous 2D simulations of reconnection using a standard model of initially antiparallel magnetic fields have detected electron jets outflowing from the x point into the ion outflow exhausts. Associated with these jets are extended "outer electron diffusion regions." New PIC simulations with an ion to electron mass ratio as large as 1836 (an H(+) plasma) now show that the jets are strongly deflected and the outer electron diffusion region is broken up by a very weak out-of-plane magnetic guide field, even though the diffusion rate itself is unchanged. Jet outflow and deflection are interpreted in terms of electron dynamics and are compared to recent measurements of jets in the presence of a small guide field in Earth's magnetosheath.
Cubic ideal ferromagnets at low temperature and weak magnetic field
Hofmann, Christoph P.
2017-04-01
The low-temperature series for the free energy density, pressure, magnetization and susceptibility of cubic ideal ferromagnets in weak external magnetic fields are discussed within the effective Lagrangian framework up to three loops. The structure of the simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic lattice is taken into account explicitly. The expansion involves integer and half-integer powers of the temperature. The corresponding coefficients depend on the magnetic field and on low-energy effective constants that can be expressed in terms of microscopic quantities. Our formulas may also serve as efficiency or consistency check for other techniques like Green's function methods, where spurious terms in the low-temperature expansion have appeared. We explore the sign and magnitude of the spin-wave interaction in the pressure, magnetization and susceptibility, and emphasize that our effective field theory approach is fully systematic and rigorous.
Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S; Banerjee, Robi; Federrath, Christoph; Smith, Rowan J; Sur, Sharanya
2012-01-01
Stars form by the gravitational collapse of interstellar gas. The thermodynamic response of the gas can be characterized by an effective equation of state. It determines how gas heats up or cools as it gets compressed, and hence plays a key role in regulating the process of stellar birth on virtually all scales, ranging from individual star clusters up to the galaxy as a whole. We present a systematic study of the impact of thermodynamics on gravitational collapse in the context of high-redshift star formation, but argue that our findings are also relevant for present-day star formation in molecular clouds. We consider a polytropic equation of state, P = k rho^Gamma, with both sub-isothermal exponents Gamma 1. We find significant differences between these two cases. For Gamma > 1, pressure gradients slow down the contraction and lead to the formation of a virialized, turbulent core. Weak magnetic fields are strongly tangled and efficiently amplified via the small-scale turbulent dynamo on timescales correspo...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan Miller
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of quantum field theory, a graviton interacts locally with a quantum state having definite mass, that is, the gravitational mass eigenstate, while a weak boson interacts with a state having definite flavor, that is, the flavor eigenstate. An interaction of a neutrino with an energetic graviton may trigger the collapse of the neutrino to a definite mass eigenstate with probability expressed in terms of PMNS mixing matrix elements. Thus, gravitons would induce quantum decoherence of a coherent neutrino flavor state similarly to how weak bosons induce quantum decoherence of a neutrino in a definite mass state. We demonstrate that such an essentially quantum gravity effect may have strong consequences for neutrino oscillation phenomena in astrophysics due to relatively large scattering cross sections of relativistic neutrinos undergoing large angle radiation of energetic gravitons in gravitational field of a classical massive source (i.e., the quasi-classical case of gravitational Bethe-Heitler scattering. This graviton-induced decoherence is compared to decoherence due to propagation in the presence of the Earth matter effect. Based on this study, we propose a new technique for the indirect detection of energetic gravitons by measuring the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos.
Revealing Saturn's Rotation Period from its Gravitational Field
Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai
2015-04-01
Knowledge of the rotation period of a giant planet is fundamental for constraining its internal structure and atmosphere dynamics. Until the arrival of the Cassini spacecraft to Saturn, Saturn's rotation period was set to the Voyager 2 radio period, 10h 39m 22.4s that was derived from the periodicity in Saturn's kilometric radiation (SKR). Surprisingly, Cassini's SKR measured a rotation period of 10h 47m 6s using the exact same method. It was then realized that Saturn's rotation period is unknown to within a few minutes. We show that Saturn's rotation period can be determined from its measured gravitational field. We find that without imposing any constraints on the planetary shape and internal density profile the rotation rate can be determined to within several minutes, and is 10h 43m 10s ± 4m. If we include limits based on the observed shape and possible internal density profiles, the rotation period is found to be 10h 32m 45s ± 46s. The success of our method is confirmed by applying it for Jupiter and reproducing exactly its measured rotation period that is well constrained.
Gravitational Waves from Abelian Gauge Fields and Cosmic Strings at Preheating
Dufaux, Jean-Francois; Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2010-01-01
Primordial gravitational waves provide a very important stochastic background that could be detected soon with interferometric gravitational wave antennas or indirectly via the induced patterns in the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The detection of these waves will open a new window into the early Universe, and therefore it is important to characterize in detail all possible sources of primordial gravitational waves. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical methods to study the production of gravitational waves from out-of-equilibrium gauge fields at preheating. We then consider models of preheating after hybrid inflation, where the symmetry breaking field is charged under a local U(1) symmetry. We analyze in detail the dynamics of the system in both momentum and configuration space, and show that gauge fields leave specific imprints in the resulting gravitational wave spectra, mainly through the appearence of new peaks at characteristic frequencies that are related to...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ulrich K. W. Neumann
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The first two parts of this article series dealt with the questions: What is a quark? and What is mass? While the present models lead to a physical idea of the mass, the geometrical theory of the general relativity only shows the effect of mass. From the physical idea of mass, from the idea of the resultant vector (EV as electric flux and from the ideas relating to the magnetic monopole (MMP it follows that the gravitational field is an electrical field. The share of the electrical gravitational flux on the entire electrical flux of a quark is determined from Newton's empirical gravitational constant. The superposition of the fluxes of two quark collectives produces the gravitational force effect between two quark collectives. Gravitational fields reach infinitely far according to our current ideas. Connected with the quark oscillations hinted in the Parts I and II this results in the idea of the flux spreading with infinite speed, having enormous consequences.
Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields
Veltman, M.J.G.; Dam, H. van
1970-01-01
Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields are considered. It is found that there is a discrete difference between the zero-mass theories and the very small, but non-zero mass theories. In the case of gravitation, comparison of massive and mass-less theories with experiment, in
Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields
Veltman, M.J.G.; Dam, H. van
1970-01-01
Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields are considered. It is found that there is a discrete difference between the zero-mass theories and the very small, but non-zero mass theories. In the case of gravitation, comparison of massive and mass-less theories with experiment, in partic
Weak magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae?
Steffen, M; Todt, H; Schöller, M; Hamann, W -R; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D
2014-01-01
It is not yet clear whether magnetic fields play an essential role in shaping planetary nebulae (PNe), or whether stellar rotation alone and/or a close binary companion can account for the variety of the observed nebular morphologies. In a quest for empirical evidence verifying or disproving the role of magnetic fields in shaping PNe, we follow up on previous attempts to measure the magnetic field in a representative sample of PN central stars. We obtained low-resolution polarimetric spectra with FORS 2 at VLT for a sample of twelve bright central stars of PNe with different morphology, including two round nebulae, seven elliptical nebulae, and three bipolar nebulae. Two targets are Wolf-Rayet type central stars. For the majority of the observed central stars, we do not find any significant evidence for the existence of surface magnetic fields. However, our measurements may indicate the presence of weak mean longitudinal magnetic fields of the order of 100 Gauss in the central star of the young elliptical pla...
The Electric Field of a Weakly Electric Fish
Rasnow, Brian K.
Freshwater fish of the genus Apteronotus (family Gymnotidae) generate a weak, high frequency electric field (electroreception. Temporal jitter of the periodic field is less than 1 musec. However, electrocyte activity is not globally synchronous along the fish's electric organ. The propagation of electrocyte activation down the fish's body produces a rotation of the electric field vector in the caudal part of the fish. This may assist the fish in identifying nonsymmetrical objects, and could also confuse electrosensory predators that try to locate Apteronotus by following its fieldlines. The propagation also results in a complex spatiotemporal pattern of the EOD potential near the fish. Visualizing the potential on the same and different fish over timescales of several months suggests that it is stable and could serve as a unique signature for individual fish. Measurements of the electric field were used to calculate the effects of simple objects on the fish's electric field. The shape of the perturbation or "electric image" on the fish's skin is relatively independent of a simple object's size, conductivity, and rostrocaudal location, and therefore could unambiguously determine object distance. The range of electrolocation may depend on both the size of objects and their rostrocaudal location. Only objects with very large dielectric constants cause appreciable phase shifts, and these are strongly dependent on the water conductivity.
A weak combined magnetic field changes root gravitropism
Kordyum, E. L.; Bogatina, N. I.; Kalinina, Ya. M.; Sheykina, N. V.
Although gravitropism has been studied for many decades, many questions on plant gravitropism, including the participation of Ca 2+ ions in graviperception and signal transduction, remain open and require new experiments. We have studied gravistimulation and root gravitropism in the presence of the weak, alternating magnetic field that consisted of a sinusoidal frequency of 32 Hz inside a μ-metal shield. We discovered that this field changes normally positively gravitropic cress root to exhibit negative gravitropism. Because the combined magnetic field was adjusted to the cyclotron frequency of Ca 2+ ions, the obtained data suggest that calcium ion participate in root gravitropism. Simultaneous application of the oscillating magnetic field of the same frequency ion induce oscillation of Ca 2+ ions and can change the rate and/or the direction of Ca 2+ ion flux in roots. Control and magnetic field-exposed roots were examined for change in the distribution of amyloplasts and cellular organelles by light, electron, and confocal laser microscopy.
Continuum dynamics and the electromagnetic field in the scalar ether theory of gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arminjon Mayeul
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An alternative, scalar theory of gravitation has been proposed, based on a mechanism/interpretation of gravity as being a pressure force: Archimedes’ thrust. In it, the gravitational field affects the physical standards of space and time, but motion is governed by an extension of the relativistic form of Newton’s second law. This implies Einstein’s geodesic motion for free particles only in a constant gravitational field. In this work, equations governing the dynamics of a continuous medium subjected to gravitational and non-gravitational forces are derived. Then, the case where the non-gravitational force is the Lorentz force is investigated. The gravitational modification of Maxwell’s equations is obtained under the requirement that a charged continuous medium, subjected to the Lorentz force, obeys the equation derived for continuum dynamics under external forces. These Maxwell equations are shown to be consistent with the dynamics of a “free” photon, and thus with the geometrical optics of this theory. However, these equations do not imply local charge conservation, except for a constant gravitational field.
Continuum dynamics and the electromagnetic field in the scalar ether theory of gravitation
Arminjon, Mayeul
2016-01-01
An alternative, scalar theory of gravitation has been proposed, based on a mechanism/interpretation of gravity as being a pressure force: Archimedes' thrust. In it, the gravitational field affects the physical standards of space and time, but motion is governed by an extension of the relativistic form of Newton's second law. This implies Einstein's geodesic motion for free particles only in a constant gravitational field. In this work, equations governing the dynamics of a continuous medium subjected to gravitational and non-gravitational forces are derived. Then, the case where the non-gravitational force is the Lorentz force is investigated. The gravitational modification of Maxwell's equations is obtained under the requirement that a charged continuous medium, subjected to the Lorentz force, obeys the equation derived for continuum dynamics under external forces. These Maxwell equations are shown to be consistent with the dynamics of a "free" photon, and thus with the geometrical optics of this theory. However, these equations do not imply local charge conservation, except for a constant gravitational field.
The Weak Gravity Conjecture and Effective Field Theory
Saraswat, Prashant
2016-01-01
The Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff $\\Lambda$. If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model-building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true then parametric violation of t...
Weak confinement in the three-state Potts Field Theory
Rutkevich, Sergei
Kink topological excitations are quite common in one-dimensional quantum ferromagnetic systems with the spontaneously broken discrete symmetry. Application of the external magnetic field h induces the long-range attractive force between kinks leading to their confinement. While in the Ising Field Theory the particle sector in the confinement regime contains only the two-kink bound states (''the mesons''), in the three-state Potts Field Theory (PFT) the three-kink bound states (''the baryons'') can exist as well. In the weak confinement regime, which is realized at small external magnetic fields, the meson masses in the PFT can be determined analytically in the leading order in h by means of the solution of a quantum-mechanical problem for two non-relativistic particles interacting with a linear attractive potential, and my means of the WKB method. The masses of lightest baryons in the three-state PFT were calculated by the numerical solution of a three-particle quantum-mechanical problem. The obtained mass spectra for the PFT mesons and baryons were confirmed recently by Lencés and Takács in numerical calculations based on the truncated conformal space approach.
Quasinormal modes of gravitational field perturbation of regular phantom black holes
Li, Jin; Wen, Hao
2016-01-01
We study the gravitational quasi-normal modes (QNMs) for a kind of regular black hole named as phantom black hole (BH), which is a solution of a self-gravitating minimally coupled scalar field with an arbitrary potential.The parameter conditions of such BH are investigated in asymptotically flat, de sitter (dS), and anti de sitter (AdS) spacetimes separately. Considering the standard odd parity and even parity of gravitational perturbation, the corresponding master equations are derived and quasi-normal perturbation are discussed in asymptotically flat and dS spacetimes. The dynamic evolution of the perturbation field indicates the stability of gravitational perturbation directly. On the whole in asymptotically flat and dS spacetimes, the gravitational perturbations have the similar characteristics for odd and even parities. The decay speed of perturbation is strongly dependent on the scale $b$. Furthermore through the analysis of Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of such regular phantom black hole is als...
Rivera, Susana
Throughout the last century, since the last decades of the XIX century, until present day, there had been many attempts to achieve the unification of the Forces of Nature. First unification was done by James Clerk Maxwell, with his Electromagnetic Theory. Then Max Plank developed his Quantum Theory. In 1905, Albert Einstein gave birth to the Special Relativity Theory, and in 1916 he came out with his General Relativity Theory. He noticed that there was an evident parallelism between the Gravitational Force, and the Electromagnetic Force. So, he tried to unify these forces of Nature. But Quantum Theory interposed on his way. On the 1940’s it had been developed the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), and with it, the unified field theory had an arise interest. On the 60’s and 70’s there was developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Along with these theories came the discovery of the strong interaction force and weak interaction force. And though there had been many attempts to unify all these forces of the nature, it could only be achieved the Unification of strong interaction, weak interaction and Electromagnetic Force. On the late 80”s and throughout the last two decades, theories such as “super-string theory”, “or the “M-theory”, among others, groups of Scientists, had been doing grand efforts and finally they came out with the unification of the forces of nature, being the only limitation the use of more than 11 dimensions. Using an ingenious mathematical tool known as the super symmetries, based on the Kaluza - Klein work, they achieve this goal. The strings of these theories are in the rank of 10-33 m. Which make them undetectable. There are many other string theories. The GEUFT theory is based on the existence of concentrated energy lines, which vibrates, expands and contracts, submitting and absorbing energy, matter and antimatter, and which yields a determined geometry, that gives as a result the formation of stars, galaxies, nebulae, clusters
Classical Gravitational Interactions and Gravitational Lorentz Force
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
In quantum gauge theory of gravity, the gravitational field is represented by gravitational gauge field.The field strength of gravitational gauge field has both gravitoelectric component and gravitomagnetic component. In classical level, gauge theory of gravity gives classical Newtonian gravitational interactions in a relativistic form. Besides,it gives gravitational Lorentz force, which is the gravitational force on a moving object in gravitomagnetic field The direction of gravitational Lorentz force is not the same as that of classical gravitational Newtonian force. Effects of gravitational Lorentz force should be detectable, and these effects can be used to discriminate gravitomagnetic field from ordinary electromagnetic magnetic field.
Pollux: a stable weak dipolar magnetic field but no planet ?
Auriere, Michel; Espagnet, Olivier; Petit, Pascal; Roudier, Thierry; Charbonnel, Corinne; Donati, Jean-Francois; Wade, Gregg A
2013-01-01
Pollux is considered as an archetype of a giant star hosting a planet: its radial velocity (RV) presents sinusoidal variations with a period of about 590 d, which have been stable for more than 25 years. Using ESPaDOnS and Narval we have detected a weak (sub-gauss) magnetic field at the surface of Pollux and followed up its variations with Narval during 4.25 years, i.e. more than for two periods of the RV variations. The longitudinal magnetic field is found to vary with a sinusoidal behaviour with a period close to that of the RV variations and with a small shift in phase. We then performed a Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) investigation from the Stokes V and Stokes I least-squares deconvolution (LSD) profiles. A rotational period is determined, which is consistent with the period of variations of the RV. The magnetic topology is found to be mainly poloidal and this component almost purely dipolar. The mean strength of the surface magnetic field is about 0.7 G. As an alternative to the scenario in which Pollux h...
Lee, D S; Ng, Y J; Shovkovy, I A
1999-01-01
The effective potential for the composite fields responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in weakly coupled QED in a magnetic field is derived. The global minimum of the effective potential is found to acquire a non-vanishing expectation value of the composite fields that leads to generating the dynamical fermion mass by an external magnetic field. The results are compared with those for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model.
Wang, Wenting; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Henriques, Bruno; Anderson, Michael E; Han, Jiaxin
2015-01-01
We use weak gravitational lensing to measure mean mass profiles around Locally Brightest Galaxies (LBGs). These are selected from the SDSS/DR7 spectroscopic and photometric catalogues to be brighter than any neighbour projected within 1.0 Mpc and differing in redshift by $ 83\\%$) are expected to be the central galaxies of their dark matter halos. Previous stacking analyses have used this LBG sample to measure mean Sunyaev-Zeldovich flux and mean X-ray luminosity as a function of LBG stellar mass. In both cases, a simulation of the formation of the galaxy population was used to estimate effective halo mass for LBGs of given stellar mass, allowing the derivation of scaling relations between the gas properties of halos and their mass. By comparing results from a variety of simulations to our lensing data, we show that this procedure has significant model dependence reflecting: (i) the failure of any given simulation to reproduce observed galaxy abundances exactly; (ii) a dependence on the cosmology underlying th...
Propagation of electromagnetic waves through magnetized plasmas in arbitrary gravitational fields
Breuer, R; Ehlers, J.
1981-01-01
A generalized JWBK-method for high-frequency waves traveling through inhomogeneous, moving plasmas imbedded in arbitrary relativistic gravitational fields is reported. In particular, a generalization of the standard formula for Faraday rotation is given.
Perihelion Precession in Gravitational Field of Center Mass with Electric Charge and Magnetic Moment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jun; WANG Yong-Jiu
2005-01-01
With a perfect mathematical method by us, we obtain some expressions of the orbital effect for a test particle and some meaningful results in the gravitational field of the center mass with electric charge and magnetic moment.
On the Residual Symmetries of the Gravitational Field
Ayón-Beato, Eloy
2015-01-01
We develop a geometric criterion that unambiguously characterizes the residual symmetries of a gravitational ansatz. It also provides a systematic and effective computational procedure for finding all the residual symmetries of any gravitational ansatz. We apply the criterion to several examples starting with the Collinson ansatz for circular stationary axisymmetric spacetimes. In this case we derive the residual symmetries already pointed out by Collinson himself which include as particular case a conformal symmetry. We also consider the noncircular generalization of this ansatz and show how the noncircular contributions breaks this conformal invariance. As another application of the method, the well-known conjugate transformation between gravitational potentials introduced by Chandrasekhar that makes possible the derivation of the Kerr black hole from a trivial solution of the Ernst equations is deduced as a special point of the general residual symmetry of the Papapetrou ansatz. In this derivation we empha...
Primordial gravitational waves induced by magnetic fields in an ekpyrotic scenario
Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro
2017-08-01
Both inflationary and ekpyrotic scenarios can account for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe. It is often said that detecting primordial gravitational waves is the key to distinguish both scenarios. We show that this is not true if the gauge kinetic function is present in the ekpyrotic scenario. In fact, primordial gravitational waves sourced by the gauge field can be produced in an ekpyrotic universe. We also study scalar fluctuations sourced by the gauge field and show that it is negligible compared to primordial gravitational waves. This comes from the fact that the fast roll condition holds in ekpyrotic models.
Gravitational Field of the Early Universe; 1, Non-linear Scalar Field as the Source
Chervon, S V
1997-01-01
In this review article we consider three most important sources of the gravitational field of the Early Universe: self-interacting scalar field, chiral field and gauge field. The correspondence between all of them are pointed out. More attention is payed to nonlinear scalar field source of gravity. The progress in finding the exact solutions in inflationary universe is reviewed. The basic idea of `fine turning of the potential' method is discussed and computational background is presented in details. A set of new exact solutions for standard inflationary model and conformally-flat space-times are obtained. Special attention payed to relations between `fine turning of the potential' and Barrow's approaches. As the example of a synthesis of both methods new exact solution is obtained.
Masalovich, S
2014-01-01
An extraordinary focusing property of a parabolic mirror for ultracold neutrons in the presence of the gravitational field was first reported by A. Steyerl and co-authors. It was shown that all neutrons emitted from the focus of the mirror will be reflected back upon the same focus point passing, in between, a point of return in the gravitational field. The present note offers a complementary geometric proof of this feature and discusses some implications.
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
Acedo, Luis; Tung, Michael M.
2012-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The…
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
Acedo, Luis; Tung, Michael M.
2012-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The…
Ghosh, Shaon; Bloemen, Steven; Nelemans, Gijs; Groot, Paul J.; Price, Larry R.
2016-08-01
Aims: Binary neutron stars are among the most promising candidates for joint gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy. The goal of this work is to investigate various observing strategies that telescopes with wide field of view might incorporate while searching for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational-wave triggers. Methods: We examined various strategies of scanning the gravitational-wave sky localizations on the mock 2015-16 gravitational-wave events. First, we studied the performance of the sky coverage using a naive tiling system that completely covers a given confidence interval contour using a fixed grid. Then we propose the ranked-tiling strategy where we sample the localization in discrete two-dimensional intervals that are equivalent to the telescope's field of view and rank them based on their sample localizations. We then introduce an optimization of the grid by iterative sliding of the tiles. Next, we conducted tests for all the methods on a large sample of sky localizations that are expected in the first two years of operation of the Laser interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors. We investigated the performance of the ranked-tiling strategy for telescope arrays and compared their performance against monolithic telescopes with a giant field of view. Finally, we studied the ability of optical counterpart detection by various types of telescopes. Results: Our analysis reveals that the ranked-tiling strategy improves the localization coverage over the contour-covering method. The improvement is more significant for telescopes with larger fields of view. We also find that while optimizing the position of the tiles significantly improves the coverage compared to contour-covering tiles. For ranked-tiles the same procedure leads to negligible improvement in the coverage of the sky localizations. We observed that distributing the field of view of the telescopes into arrays of multiple telescopes significantly
A well-balanced unified gas-kinetic scheme for multiscale flow transport under gravitational field
Xiao, Tianbai; Cai, Qingdong; Xu, Kun
2017-03-01
The gas dynamics under gravitational field is usually associated with multiple scale nature due to large density variation and a wide variation of local Knudsen number. It is challenging to construct a reliable numerical algorithm to accurately capture the non-equilibrium physical effect in different regimes. In this paper, a well-balanced unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) for all flow regimes under gravitational field will be developed, which can be used for the study of non-equilibrium gravitational gas system. The well-balanced scheme here is defined as a method to evolve an isolated gravitational system under any initial condition to a hydrostatic equilibrium state and to keep such a solution. To preserve such a property is important for a numerical scheme, which can be used for the study of slowly evolving gravitational system, such as the formation of star and galaxy. Based on the Boltzmann model with external forcing term, the UGKS uses an analytic time-dependent (or scale-dependent) solution in the construction of the discretized fluid dynamic equations in the cell size and time step scales, i.e., the so-called direct modeling method. As a result, with the variation of the ratio between the numerical time step and local particle collision time, the UGKS is able to recover flow physics in different regimes and provides a continuous spectrum of gas dynamics. For the first time, the flow physics of a gravitational system in the transition regime can be studied using the UGKS, and the non-equilibrium phenomena in such a gravitational system can be clearly identified. Many numerical examples will be used to validate the scheme. New physical observation, such as the correlation between the gravitational field and the heat flux in the transition regime, will be presented. The current method provides an indispensable tool for the study of non-equilibrium gravitational system.
Corrected Born-Infeld theory of electroweak and gravitational fields
Palatnik, D
1996-01-01
This paper suggests a correction to the theory presented in quant-ph/9511021. The theory is a direct generalization of the Born--Infeld theory of electromagnetism (1932) on the case of electroweak and gravitational interactions. The main notions of the model are the Dirac matrices and connections, given in a spinorial multiplet's representation. The action is symmetric with respect to linear transformations imposed on pairs of corresponding Dirac matrices, $\\gamma_{a}$, and dimensionless `momentum' operators, $\\pi_{a} = - iL(\\partial_{a} - \\Gamma_{a})$, where $\\Gamma_{a}$ are connections and $L$ is a characteristic length of order $10^{-32}$ cm. Claiming this symmetry as fundamental, one arrives at the most natural co-existance between gravitational and electroweak action terms.
Heap, Michael J.; Byrne, Paul K.; Mikhail, Sami
2017-01-01
Surface gravitational acceleration (surface gravity) on Mars, the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, is much lower than that on Earth. A direct consequence of this low surface gravity is that lithostatic pressure is lower on Mars than on Earth at any given depth. Collated published data from deformation experiments on basalts suggest that, throughout its geological history (and thus thermal evolution), the Martian brittle lithosphere was much thicker but weaker than that of present-day Earth as a function solely of surface gravity. We also demonstrate, again as a consequence of its lower surface gravity, that the Martian lithosphere is more porous, that fractures on Mars remain open to greater depths and are wider at a given depth, and that the maximum penetration depth for opening-mode fractures (i.e., joints) is much deeper on Mars than on Earth. The result of a weak Martian lithosphere is that dykes-the primary mechanism for magma transport on both planets-can propagate more easily and can be much wider on Mars than on Earth. We suggest that this increased the efficiency of magma delivery to and towards the Martian surface during its volcanically active past, and therefore assisted the exogeneous and endogenous growth of the planet's enormous volcanoes (the heights of which are supported by the thick Martian lithosphere) as well as extensive flood-mode volcanism. The porous and pervasively fractured (and permeable) nature of the Martian lithosphere will have also greatly assisted the subsurface storage of and transport of fluids through the lithosphere throughout its geologically history. And so it is that surface gravity, influenced by the mass of a planetary body, can greatly modify the mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of its lithosphere with manifest differences in surface topography and geomorphology, volcanic character, and hydrology.
Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle with Supercluster Laniakea's Gravitational Field
Luo, Zhi-Xing; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng
2016-01-01
Comparing the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ values for different types of particles, or the same type of particles with different energies is an important method to test the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). Assuming that the observed time delays are dominated by the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, better results of EEP constraints can be obtained. In this paper, we apply photons from three kinds of cosmic transients, including TeV blaza...
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems.
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.
Vacaru, Olivia
2013-01-01
Using $3+1$ spacetime fibrations on Lorentz manifolds, we define an analogous W--entropy for gravitational fields. Such F- and W-functionals were introduced in the Ricci flow theory of three dimensional Riemannian metrics by G. Perelman, arXiv: math.DG/0211159. The main goal of this paper is to solve and study one of the mentioned there problems: how associated statistical thermodynamical functions could reproduce in a relativistic manner the black hole thermodynamics and, in a more general context, provide a thermodynamic description of gravitational interactions? In our approach, the gravitational W--entropy characterizes the geometric evolution of three dimensional (3-d) hypersurface metrics nonoholonomically imbedded into certain classes of 4-d solutions of gravitational field equations. A geometric method for generating generic off-diagonal exact solutions for Einstein manifolds of pseudo-Euclidean signature determined by relativistic Ricci flow evolution of 3-d Riemannian metrics is applied. To relate s...
Quantum entropies of electromagnetic and gravitational fields on Taub-NUT black hole background
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Xiao-ying; XIAO Shi-fa; LI Fang-yu
2005-01-01
The main characteristics and Petrov type of Taub-NUT spacetime are studied, and the quantum entropy of Taub-NUT black hole due to electromagnetic and gravitational fields is calculated via brick-wall model. It is shown that the quantum entropy has both the linearly and the logarithmically divergent terms. For electromagnetic field, these terms depend on the characteristic of the black hole; while for gravitational field, they depend not only on the characteristic of the black hole but also on the spin of the fields.
Physics of Gravitational Interaction: Geometry of Space or Quantum Field in Space?
Baryshev, Y
2006-01-01
Gravity theory is the basis of modern cosmological models. Thirring-Feynman's tensor field approach to gravitation is an alternative to General Relativity (GR). Though Field Gravity (FG) approach is still developing subject, it opens new understanding of gravitational interaction, stimulates novel experiments on the nature of gravity and gives possibility to construct new cosmological models in Minkowski space. According to FG, the universal gravity force is caused by exchange of gravitons - the quanta of gravity field. Energy of this field is well-defined and excludes the singularity. All classical relativistic effects are the same as in GR, though there are new effects, such as free fall of rotating bodies, scalar gravitational radiation, surface of relativistic compact bodies, which may be tested experimentally. The intrinsic scalar (spin 0) part of gravity field corresponds to "antigravity" and only together with the pure tensor (spin 2) part gives the usual Newtonian force. Laboratory and astrophysical e...
Gravitational Hertz experiment with electromagnetic radiation in a strong magnetic field
Kolosnitsyn, N I
2015-01-01
Brief review of principal ideas in respect of the high frequency gravitational radiation generated and detected in the laboratory condition is presented. Interaction of electro-magnetic and gravitational waves into a strong magnetic field is considered as a more promising variant of the laboratory GW-Hertz experiment. The formulae of the direct and inverse Gertsenshtein-Zeldovich effect are derived. Numerical estimates are given and a discussion of a possibility of observation of these effects in a lab is carried out.
Space-time algebra for the generalization of gravitational field equations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Süleyman Demir
2013-05-01
The Maxwell–Proca-like field equations of gravitolectromagnetism are formulated using space-time algebra (STA). The gravitational wave equation with massive gravitons and gravitomagnetic monopoles has been derived in terms of this algebra. Using space-time algebra, the most generalized form of gravitoelectromagnetic Klein–Gordon equation has been obtained. Finally, the analogy in formulation between massive gravitational theory and electromagnetism has been discussed.
Gravitational Waves from a Pseudo-Newtonian Kerr Field with Halos
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王颖; 伍歆
2011-01-01
A close relation between gravitational waveforms and the types of trajectories in a superposed field between a pseudo-Newtonian Kerr black hole and quadrupolar halos is shown in detail The gravitational waveforms emitted from circular, KAM tori and chaotic orbits must be periodic, quasiperiodic and stochastic, respectively. The chaotic motion can maximally enhance both the amplitudes and the energy emission rates of the waves.
Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants
Belyavskaya, N.
In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron
Suárez, Abril
2015-01-01
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a $\\lambda|\\varphi|^4$ potential. We study the evolution of the homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while pertubations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model ...
Quasistationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around collapsing stars
Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Montero, Pedro J; Font, José A; Mewes, Vassilios
2015-01-01
Recent work has shown that scalar fields around black holes can form long-lived, quasistationary configurations surviving for cosmological timescales. With this requirement, scalar fields cannot be discarded as viable candidates for dark matter halo models in galaxies around central supermassive black holes (SMBH). One hypothesis for the formation of most SMBHs at high redshift is the gravitational collapse of supermassive stars (SMS) with masses of $\\sim10^5 \\rm {M_{\\odot}}$. Therefore, a constraint for the existence of quasi-bound states of scalar fields is their survival to such dynamic events. To answer this question we present in this paper the results of a series of numerical relativity simulations of gravitationally collapsing, spherically symmetric stars surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We use an ideal fluid equation of state with adiabatic index $\\Gamma=4/3$ which is adequate to simulate radiation-dominated isentropic SMSs. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, se...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chifu E. N.
2009-07-01
Full Text Available General Relativistic metric tensors for gravitational fields exterior to homogeneous spherical mass distributions rotating with constant angular velocity about a fixed di- ameter are constructed. The coeffcients of affine connection for the gravitational field are used to derive equations of motion for test particles. The laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum are deduced using the generalized Lagrangian. The law of conservation of angular momentum is found to be equal to that in Schwarzschild’s gravitational field. The planetary equation of motion and the equation of motion for a photon in the vicinity of the rotating spherical mass distribution have rotational terms not found in Schwarzschild’s field.
Palenzuela, Carlos; Yoshida, Shin
2009-01-01
In addition to producing loud gravitational waves (GW), the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic (EM) radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.
The gravitational time delay in the field of a slowly moving body with arbitrary multipoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soffel, Michael H., E-mail: michael.soffel@tu-dresden.de [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Lohmann Observatory, Helmholtzstrasse 10, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Han, Wen-Biao, E-mail: wbhan@shao.ac.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China)
2015-02-06
We calculate the time delay of light in the gravitational field of a slowly moving body with arbitrary multipoles (mass and spin multipole moments) by the Time-Transfer-Function (TTF) formalism. The parameters we use, first introduced by Kopeikin for a gravitational source at rest, make the integration of the TTF very elegant and simple. Results completely coincide with expressions from the literature. The results for a moving body (with constant velocity) with complete multipole-structure are new, according to our knowledge. - Highlights: • The Time-Transfer-Function (TTF) is used to calculate the gravitational time delay. • The time delay for a body with arbitrary multipoles at rest is calculated in a very simply manner. • The gravitational time delay induced by a slowly moving body with arbitrary multipoles is derived for the first time.
Short guide to direct gravitational field modelling with Hotine's equations
Sebera, Josef; Wagner, Carl A.; Bezděk, Aleš; Klokočník, Jaroslav
2013-03-01
This paper presents a unified approach to the least squares spherical harmonic analysis of the acceleration vector and Eötvös tensor (gravitational gradients) in an arbitrary orientation. The Jacobian matrices are based on Hotine's equations that hold in the Earth-fixed Cartesian frame and do not need any derivatives of the associated Legendre functions. The implementation was confirmed through closed-loop tests in which the simulated input is inverted in the least square sense using the rotated Hotine's equations. The precision achieved is at the level of rounding error with RMS about 10^{-12}{-}10^{-14} m in terms of the height anomaly. The second validation of the linear model is done with help from the standard ellipsoidal correction for the gravity disturbance that can be computed with an analytic expression as well as with the rotated equations. Although the analytic expression for this correction is only of a limited accuracy at the submillimeter level, it was used for an independent validation. Finally, the equivalent of the ellipsoidal correction, called the effect of the normal, has been numerically obtained also for other gravitational functionals and some of their combinations. Most of the numerical investigations are provided up to spherical harmonic degree 70, with degree 80 for the computation time comparison using real GRACE data. The relevant Matlab source codes for the design matrices are provided.
Was Newton right? A search for non-Newtonian behavior of weak-field gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boynton Paul
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Empirical tests of Einstein’s metric theory of gravitation, even in the non-relativistic, weak-field limit, could play an important role in judging theory-driven extensions of the current Standard Model of fundamental interactions. Guided by Galileo's work and his own experiments, Newton formulated a theory of gravity in which the force of attraction between two bodies is independent of composition and proportional to the inertia of each, thereby transparently satisfying Galileo's empirically informed conjecture regarding the Universality of Free Fall. Similarly, Einstein honored the manifest success of Newton’s theory by assuring that the linearized equations of GTR matched the Newtonian formalism under “classical” conditions. Each of these steps, however, was explicitly an approximation raised to the status of principle. Perhaps, at some level, Newtonian gravity does not accurately describe the physical interaction between uncharged, unmagnetized, macroscopic bits of ordinary matter. What if Newton were wrong? Detecting any significant deviation from Newtonian behavior, no matter how small, could provide new insights and possibly reveal new physics. In the context of physics as an empirical science, for us this yet unanswered question constitutes sufficient motivation to attempt precision measurements of the kind described here. In this paper we report the current status of a project to search for violation of the Newtonian inverse square law of gravity.
Radiation from relativistic particles in nongeodesic motion in a strong gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aliev, A.N. (AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Abastumani. Abastumanskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya); Galtsov, D.V. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Teoreticheskoj Fiziki)
1981-10-01
The scalar and electromagnetic radiation emitted by relativistic particles moving along the stable nongeodesic trajectories in the Kerr gravitational field are described. Two particular models of the nongeodesic motion are developed involving a slightly charged rotating black hole and a rotating black hole immersed in an external magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarayakar, R.V. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Mathematics)
1982-07-01
Using the methods of Choquet-Bruhat, Fischer and Marsden and using weighted Sobolev spaces developed recently by Christodoulou and Choquet-Bruhat, it is proved that the Einstein field equations coupled with self-gravitating scalar fields are linearization stable in asymptotically flat space-times.
Correlation between the Earth's Magnetic Field and the Gravitational Mass of the Outer Core
De Aquino, Fran
2013-01-01
The theory accepted today for the origin of the Earth's magnetic field is based on convection currents created in the Earth's outer core due to the rotational motion of the planet Earth around its own axis. In this work, we show that the origin of the Earth's magnetic field is related to the gravitational mass of the outer core.
Emergent of non-gravitational fields in dimensional reduction of 4d spin foam models
Fani, Somayeh
2011-01-01
We consider a Kaluza-Klein like approach for a 4d spin foam model. We apply this approach to a 4d TOCY model based on group field theory; and using the Peter-Weyl expansion of the gravitational field we will find a mechanism for gen- eration of matter and new dimensions from pure gravity.
Roy, S. R.; Banerjee, S. K.
1992-11-01
A homogeneous Bianchi type VIh cosmological model filled with perfect fluid, null electromagnetic field and streaming neutrinos is obtained for which the free gravitational field is of the electric type. The barotropic equation of statep = (γ-1)ɛ is imposed in the particular case of Bianchi VI0 string models. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.
Mapping Gravitational and Magnetic Fields with Children 9-11: Relevance, Difficulties and Prospects
Bradamante, F.; Viennot, L.
2007-01-01
This paper presents an investigation centered on a guided conceptual path concerning magnetic and gravitational fields, proposed for children aged 9-11. The goal is to appreciate to what extent the idea of "mapping" two fields of interaction is accessible and fruitful for children of that age. The conceptual target is to link magnetic and…
Spectral expressions for modelling the gravitational field of the Earth’s crust density structure
Tenzer, R.; Novak, P.; Hamayun; Vajda, P.
2011-01-01
We derive expressions for computing the gravitational field (potential and its radial derivative) generated by an arbitrary homogeneous or laterally varying density contrast layer with a variable depth and thickness based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of gravity field.
Primordial non-Gaussianities of gravitational waves in the most general single-field inflation model
Gao, Xian; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2011-01-01
We completely clarify the feature of primordial non-Gaussianities of tensor perturbations in generalized G-inflation, i.e., the most general single-field inflation model with second order field equations. It is shown that the most general cubic action for the tensor perturbation (gravitational wave) $h_{ij}$ is composed only of two contributions, one with two spacial derivatives and the other with one time derivative on each $h_{ij}$. The former is essentially identical to the cubic term that appears in Einstein gravity and predicts a squeezed shape, while the latter newly appears in the presence of the kinetic coupling to the Einstein tensor and predicts an equilateral shape. Thus, only two shapes appear in the graviton bispectrum of the most general single-field inflation model, which could open a new clue to the identification of inflationary gravitational waves in observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as direct gravitational wave detection experiments.
Models for Quarks and Elementary Particles. Part III: What is the Nature of the Gravitational Field?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neumann U. K. W.
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The first two parts of this article series dealt with the questions: What is a quark? and What is mass? While the present models lead to a physical idea of the mass, the geometrical theory of the general relativity only shows the effect of mass. From the physical idea of mass, from the idea of the resultant vector (EV as electric flux and from the ideas relating to the magnetic monopole (MMP it follows that the gravitational field is an electrical field. The share of the electrical gravitational flux on the entire electrical flux of a quark is determined from Newton’s empirical gravitational constant G . The superposition of the < fluxes of two quark collectives produces the gravitational force effect between two quark collectives. Gravitational fields reach infinitely far according to our current ideas. Connected with the quark oscillations hinted in the Parts I and II this results in the idea of the < - < flux spreading with infinite speed, having enormous consequences.
Effects of Electromagnetic Field on The Collapse and Expansion of Anisotropic Gravitating Source
Abbas, G
2013-01-01
This paper is devoted to study the effects of electromagnetic on the collapse and expansion of anisotropic gravitating source. For this purpose, we have evaluated the generating solutions of Einstein-Maxwell field equations with spherically symmetric anisotropic gravitating source. Such solutions exit only due to the absence of heat flux in the source. We found that a single function generates the various anisotropic solutions. In this case every generating function involves an arbitrary function of time which can be chosen to fit several astrophysical time profiles. Two physical phenomenon occur, one is gravitational collapse and other is the cosmological expanding solution. In both cases electromagnetic field effects the anisotropy of the model. For collapse the anisotropy is increased while for expansion it deceases from maximum value to finite positive value. In case of collaps there exits two horizons like in case of Reissner-Nordstr$\\ddot{o}$m metric.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qin, Hong [PPPL; Burby, Joshua W [PPPL; Davidson, Ronald C [PPPL
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed that energy-momentum conservation is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., Klimontovich-Maxwell and Klimontovich- Poisson systems, such a connection hasn't been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. To establish the connection, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation needs to be generalized to a weak form. Using this technique, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived.
Measurement of field-free molecular alignment by balanced weak field polarization technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Peng
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate the measurement of field-free molecular alignment of air can be realized by combining the weak field polarization technique (WFPT with a balanced detection system. The measured signal is proportional to the alignment parameter. Periodic revival structures of the transient alignment and permanent alignment between revivals can be detected clearly by a single measurement with high sensitivity. Fourier transform spectrum of the measured signal agrees well with the calculation result and provides information of the populations of different J states in the rotational wave packet.
Stuchlík, Zdeněk
2015-01-01
To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study dynamics of charged test particles in vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes od the charged particle dynamics provides mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is larg...
A Well-Balanced Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Multiscale Flow Transport Under Gravitational Field
Xiao, Tianbai; Xu, Kun
2016-01-01
The gas dynamics under gravitational field is usually associated with the multiple scale nature due to large density variation and a wide range of local Knudsen number. It is chal- lenging to construct a reliable numerical algorithm to accurately capture the non-equilibrium physical effect in different regimes. In this paper, a well-balanced unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) for all flow regimes under gravitational field will be developed, which can be used for the study of non-equilibrium gravitational gas system. The well-balanced scheme here is defined as a method to evolve an isolated gravitational system under any initial condition to an isothermal hydrostatic equilibrium state and to keep such a solution. To preserve such a property is important for a numerical scheme, which can be used for the study of slowly evolving gravitational system, such as the formation of star and galaxy. Based on the Boltzmann model with external forcing term, an analytic time evolving (or scale-dependent) solution is constru...
Gravitational waves from the first order phase transition of the Higgs field at high energy scales
Jinno, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Kazunori; Takimoto, Masahiro
2016-02-01
In a wide class of new physics models, there exist scalar fields that obtain vacuum expectation values of high energy scales. We study the possibility that the standard model Higgs field has experienced first order phase transition at the high energy scale due to the couplings with these scalar fields. We estimate the amount of gravitational waves produced by the phase transition, and discuss observational consequences.
Gravitational Waves from the First Order Phase Transition of the Higgs Field at High Energy Scales
Jinno, Ryusuke; Takimoto, Masahiro
2015-01-01
In a wide class of new physics models, there exist scalar fields which obtain vacuum expectation values of high energy scales. We study the possibility that the standard model Higgs field has experienced first-order phase transition at the high energy scale due to the couplings with these scalar fields.We estimate the amount of gravitational waves produced by the phase transition, and discuss observational consequences.
Using Gravitational Waves to put limits on Primordial Magnetic Fields
Garrison, David
2016-01-01
We describe a technique for using simulated tensor perturbations in order to place upper limits on the intensity of magnetic fields in the early universe. As an example, we apply this technique to the beginning of primordial nucleosynthesis. We determined that any magnetic seed fields that existed before that time were still in the process of being amplified. In the future, we plan to apply this technique to a wider range of initial magnetic fields and cosmological epochs.
Fall of Elastic Bar in Central Gravitational Field: I. Newtonian Gravity
Kokarev, Sergey S
2008-01-01
Within some reasonable approximations we calculate deformation of an elastic bar, falling on the source of central gravitational field. We consider both elastic deformations and plastic flow together with destroying of the bar. Concrete calculations for a number of materials are presented.
Possibility for a fourth test of general relativity in earth's gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Yuan-zhong
1982-10-01
In this work, the effect of Earth's gravitational field on a interferometer is calculated in general relativity. The result is that an expected fringe shift, about 10/sup -10/, will occur when the interferometer is rotated through 90/sup 0/ if the length of arms are 1 meter and wavelength of light is 1 ..mu..m.
The use of weak magnetic fields in collisions of polarized atoms
Meijer, H.A.J.; Zeegers, Th.; Pelgrim, T.J.C.; Heideman, H.G.M.; Morgenstern, R.
1989-01-01
We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the behavior of excited Na atoms under the combined influence of resonant laser light and a weak magnetic field. The use of weak magnetic fields gives another possibility to vary the polarization of the atoms, additional to variation of the polar
Higgs and gravitational scalar fields together induce Weyl gauge
Scholz, Erhard
2015-02-01
A common biquadratic potential for the Higgs field and an additional scalar field , non minimally coupled to gravity, is considered in a locally scale symmetric approach to standard model fields in curved spacetime. A common ground state of the two scalar fields exists and couples both fields to gravity, more precisely to Weyl geometric scalar curvature . In Einstein gauge (, often called "Einstein frame"), also is scaled to a constant. This condition makes perfect sense, even in the general case, in the Weyl geometric approach. There it has been called Weyl gauge, because it was first considered by Weyl in the different context of his original scale geometric theory of gravity of 1918. Now it may get new meaning as a combined effect of electroweak theory and gravity, and their common influence on atomic frequencies.
Higgs and gravitational scalar fields together induce Weyl gauge
Scholz, Erhard
2014-01-01
A common biquadratic potential for the Higgs field $h$ and an additional scalar field $\\phi$, non minimally coupled to gravity, is considered in locally scale symmetric approaches to standard model fields in curved spacetime. A common ground state of the two scalar fields exists and couples both fields to gravity, more precisely to scalar curvature $R$. In Einstein gauge ($\\phi = const$, often called "Einstein frame"), also $R$ is scaled to a constant. This condition makes perfect sense, even in the general case, in the Weyl geometric approach. There it has been called {\\em Weyl gauge}, because it was first considered by Weyl in the different context of his original scale geometric theory of gravity of 1918. Now it seems to get new meaning as a combined effect of electroweak theory and gravity, and their common influence on atomic frequencies.
Fukushima, Toshio
2016-08-01
We present a method to integrate the gravitational field for general three-dimensional objects. By adopting the spherical polar coordinates centered at the evaluation point as the integration variables, we numerically compute the volume integral representation of the gravitational potential and of the acceleration vector. The variable transformation completely removes the algebraic singularities of the original integrals. The comparison with exact solutions reveals around 15 digits accuracy of the new method. Meanwhile, the 6 digit accuracy of the integrated gravitational field is realized by around 106 evaluations of the integrand per evaluation point, which costs at most a few seconds at a PC with Intel Core i7-4600U CPU running at 2.10 GHz clock. By using the new method, we show the gravitational field of a grand design spiral arm structure as an example. The computed gravitational field shows not only spiral shaped details but also a global feature composed of a thick oblate spheroid and a thin disc. The developed method is directly applicable to the electromagnetic field computation by means of Coulomb's law, the Biot-Savart law, and their retarded extensions. Sample FORTRAN 90 programs and test results are electronically available.
Fukushima, Toshio
2016-12-01
We present a method to integrate the gravitational field for general three-dimensional objects. By adopting the spherical polar coordinates centred at the evaluation point as the integration variables, we numerically compute the volume integral representation of the gravitational potential and of the acceleration vector. The variable transformation completely removes the algebraic singularities of the original integrals. The comparison with exact solutions reveals around 15 digits accuracy of the new method. Meanwhile, the six digit accuracy of the integrated gravitational field is realized by around 106 evaluations of the integrand per evaluation point, which costs at most a few seconds at a PC with Intel Core i7-4600U CPU running at 2.10 GHz clock. By using the new method, we show the gravitational field of a grand design spiral arm structure as an example. The computed gravitational field shows not only spiral shaped details but also a global feature composed of a thick oblate spheroid and a thin disc. The developed method is directly applicable to the electromagnetic field computation by means of Coulomb's law, the Biot-Savart law, and their retarded extensions. Sample FORTRAN 90 programs and test results are electronically available.
Gravitating Non-Abelian Solitons and Black Holes with Yang-Mills Fields
Volkov, M S; Volkov, Mikhail S.; Galtsov, Dmitri V.
1999-01-01
We present a review of gravitating particle-like and black hole solutions with non-Abelian gauge fields. The emphasis is given to the description of the structure of the solutions and to the connection with the results of flat space soliton physics. We describe the Bartnik-McKinnon solitons and the non-Abelian black holes arising in the Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, and consider their various generalizations. These include axially symmetric and slowly rotating configurations, solutions with higher gauge groups, $\\Lambda$-term, dilaton, and higher curvature corrections. The stability issue is discussed as well. We also describe the gravitating generalizations for flat space monopoles, sphalerons, and Skyrmions.
The gravitational time delay in the field of a slowly moving body with arbitrary multipoles
Soffel, Michael H
2014-01-01
We calculate the time delay of light in the gravitational field of a slowly moving body with arbitrary multipoles (mass and spin multipole moments) by the time-transfer-function (TTF) formalism. The parameters we use, first introduced by Kopeikin for a gravitational source at rest, make the integration of the TTF very elegant and simple. Results completely coincide with expressions from the literature. The results for a moving body (with constant velocity) with complete multipole-structure are new, according to our knowledge.
Krechet, V. G.; Oshurko, V. B.; Lodi, M. N.
2016-12-01
A gravitational interaction of a scalar field with conformal coupling nR/6{φ}^2 (n = const) is considered within the framework of the affine-metric theory of gravitation, with the interaction with torsion and nonmetricity taken into account. It is shown that for different values of the constant n different forms of nonlinearities are induced in the scalar field and, in particular, for n = -1 a nonlinearity corresponding to the potential of the axion field is induced. Possible astrophysical consequences of such an effect are considered.
Magnetohydrodynamic channel flows with weak transverse magnetic fields.
Rothmayer, A P
2014-07-28
Magnetohydrodynamic flow of an incompressible fluid through a plane channel with slowly varying walls and a magnetic field applied transverse to the channel is investigated in the high Reynolds number limit. It is found that the magnetic field can first influence the hydrodynamic flow when the Hartmann number reaches a sufficiently large value. The magnetic field is found to suppress the steady and unsteady viscous flow near the channel walls unless the wall shapes become large.
Effective Field Equations of the Quantum Gravitational Back-Reaction on Inflation
Woodard, R P
2001-01-01
Quantum gravitational back-reaction offers the potential of simultaneously resolving the problem of the cosmological constant and providing a natural model of inflation in which scalars play no special role. In this model inflation begins because the cosmological constant is not unnaturally small. It ends through the accumulated gravitational interaction between virtual gravitons which are ripped apart by the inflationary expansion. Although perturbative techniques can be used to study the effect as long as it remains weak, they break down when back-reaction begins to exert an appreciable effect on the expansion rate. In this talk I argue that the end of inflation is sudden and that there is actually an overshoot into deflation. (This incidentally provides a very efficient mechanism for reheating.) The subsequent evolution can be understood in terms of a competition between the opening of the past light cone and the formation of a thermal barrier to the persistence of correlations from during the period of in...
Teleportation of atomic states with a weak coherent cavity field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Shi-Biao
2005-01-01
A scheme is proposed for the teleportation of an unknown atomic state. The scheme is based on the resonant interaction of atoms with a coherent cavity field. The mean photon-number of the cavity field is much smaller than one and thus the cavity decay can be effectively suppressed. Another adwntage of the scheme is that only one cavity is required.
Vacuum solutions of the gravitational field equations in the brane world model
Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.
2004-03-01
We consider some classes of solutions of the static, spherically symmetric gravitational field equations in the vacuum in the brane world scenario, in which our Universe is a three-brane embedded in a higher dimensional space-time. The vacuum field equations on the brane are reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations, which describe all the geometric properties of the vacuum as functions of the dark pressure and dark radiation terms (the projections of the Weyl curvature of the bulk, generating nonlocal brane stresses). Several classes of exact solutions of the vacuum gravitational field equations on the brane are derived. In the particular case of a vanishing dark pressure, the integration of the field equations can be reduced to the integration of an Abel type equation. A perturbative procedure, based on the iterative solution of an integral equation, is also developed for this case. Brane vacuums with particular symmetries are investigated by using Lie group techniques. In the case of a static vacuum brane admitting a one-parameter group of conformal motions, the exact solution of the field equations can be found, with the functional form of the dark radiation and pressure terms uniquely fixed by the symmetry. The requirement of the invariance of the field equations with respect to the quasihomologous group of transformations also imposes a unique, linear proportionality relation between the dark energy and dark pressure. A homology theorem for the static, spherically symmetric gravitational field equations in the vacuum on the brane is also proven.
Strong gravitational lensing --- A probe for extra dimensions and Kalb-Ramond field
Chakraborty, Sumanta
2016-01-01
Strong field gravitational lensing in the context of both higher spacetime dimensions and in presence of Kalb-Ramond field have been studied. After developing proper analytical tools to analyze the problem we consider gravitational lensing in three distinct black hole spacetimes --- (a) four dimensional black hole in presence of Kalb-Ramond field, (b) brane world black holes with Kalb-Ramond field and finally (c) black hole solution in $f(T)$ gravity. In all the three situations we have depicted the behavior of three observables: the asymptotic position approached by the relativistic images, the angular separation and magnitude difference between the outermost images with others packed inner ones, both numerically and analytically. Difference between these scenarios have also been discussed along with possible observational signatures.
Gravitational self-force in non-vacuum spacetimes: an effective field theory derivation
Zimmerman, Peter
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the motion of small compact objects in non-vacuum spacetimes using methods from effective field theory in curved spacetime. Although a vacuum formulation is sufficient in many astrophysical contexts, there are applications such as the role of the self-force in enforcing cosmic-censorship in the context of the overcharging problem, which necessitate an extension into the non-vacuum regime. The defining feature of the self-force problem in non-vacuum spacetimes is the coupling between gravitational and non-gravitational field perturbations. The formulation of the self-force problem for non-vacuum spacetimes was recently provided in simultaneous papers by Zimmerman and Poisson [1] and Linz, Friedmann, Wiseman [2]. Here we distinguish ourselves by working with the effective action rather than the field equations. The formalism utilizes the multi-index notation developed by Zimmerman and Poisson [1] to accommodate the coupling between the different fields. Using dimensional regularizat...
Stress-energy-momentum tensors in Lagrangian field theory; 2, gravitational superpotential
Giachetta, G
1995-01-01
Our investigation of differential conservation laws in Lagrangian field theory is based on the first variational formula which provides the canonical decomposition of the Lie derivative of a Lagrangian density by a projectable vector field on a bundle (Part 1: gr-qc/9510061). If a Lagrangian density is invariant under a certain class of bundle isomorphisms, its Lie derivative by the associated vector fields vanishes and the corresponding differential conservation laws take place. If these vector fields depend on derivatives of parameters of bundle transformations, the conserved current reduces to a superpotential. This Part of the work is devoted to gravitational superpotentials. The invariance of a gravitational Lagrangian density under general covariant transformations leads to the stress-energy-momentum conservation law where the energy-momentum flow of gravity reduces to the corresponding generalized Komar superpotential. The associated energy-momentum (pseudo) tensor can be defined and calculated on solu...
Kotake, K; Sato, K; Sumiyoshi, K; Ono, H; Suzuki, H; Kotake, Kei; Yamada, Shoichi; Sato, Katsuhiko; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Ono, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki
2004-01-01
We perform a series of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the rotational collapse of a supernova core. In order to calculate the waveforms of the gravitational wave, we derive the quadrupole formula including the contributions from the electromagnetic fields. Recent stellar evolution calculations imply that the magnetic fields of the toroidal components are much stronger than those of the poloidal ones at the presupernova stage. Thus, we systematically investigate the effects of the toroidal magnetic fields on the amplitudes and waveforms. Furthermore, we employ the two kinds of the realistic equation of states, which are often used in the supernova simulations. Then, we investigate the effects of the equation of states on the gravitational wave signals. With these computations, we find that the peak amplitudes are lowered by an order of 10% for the models with the strongest toroidal magnetic fields. However, the peak amplitudes are mostly within sensitivity range of laser inter...
Effects of Interaction Between Gravitation and Nonlinear Electrodynamics On Scalar Field Evolution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ju-Hua; WANG Yong-Jiu
2011-01-01
In this paper we investigate the scalar field evolution in the dyadosphere spacetime by using the third-order WKB approximation.We find that the coupling term between the gravitation and the nonlinear electrodynamics makes the scalar field decay more quickly and it also makes the scalar field oscillate more slowly.On the other words, this coupling term takes effect on the scalar field evolution as a damping factor.At the same time these effects become more obvious for the scalar field with higher angle quantum number.
Giambó, R; Magli, G
2008-01-01
The gravitational collapse of a wide class of self-interacting homogeneous scalar fields models is analyzed. The class is characterized by certain general conditions on the scalar field potential, which, in particular, include both asymptotically polynomial and exponential behaviors. Within this class, we show that the generic evolution is always divergent in a finite time, and then make use of this result to construct radiating star models of the Vaidya type. It turns out that blackholes are generically formed in such models.
Mechanosensory hairs in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) detect weak electric fields.
Sutton, Gregory P; Clarke, Dominic; Morley, Erica L; Robert, Daniel
2016-06-28
Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) use information from surrounding electric fields to make foraging decisions. Electroreception in air, a nonconductive medium, is a recently discovered sensory capacity of insects, yet the sensory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigate two putative electric field sensors: antennae and mechanosensory hairs. Examining their mechanical and neural response, we show that electric fields cause deflections in both antennae and hairs. Hairs respond with a greater median velocity, displacement, and angular displacement than antennae. Extracellular recordings from the antennae do not show any electrophysiological correlates to these mechanical deflections. In contrast, hair deflections in response to an electric field elicited neural activity. Mechanical deflections of both hairs and antennae increase with the electric charge carried by the bumblebee. From this evidence, we conclude that sensory hairs are a site of electroreception in the bumblebee.
Mechanosensory hairs in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) detect weak electric fields
Sutton, Gregory P.; Clarke, Dominic; Morley, Erica L.; Robert, Daniel
2016-01-01
Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) use information from surrounding electric fields to make foraging decisions. Electroreception in air, a nonconductive medium, is a recently discovered sensory capacity of insects, yet the sensory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigate two putative electric field sensors: antennae and mechanosensory hairs. Examining their mechanical and neural response, we show that electric fields cause deflections in both antennae and hairs. Hairs respond with a greater median velocity, displacement, and angular displacement than antennae. Extracellular recordings from the antennae do not show any electrophysiological correlates to these mechanical deflections. In contrast, hair deflections in response to an electric field elicited neural activity. Mechanical deflections of both hairs and antennae increase with the electric charge carried by the bumblebee. From this evidence, we conclude that sensory hairs are a site of electroreception in the bumblebee. PMID:27247399
Gravitational self-force in nonvacuum spacetimes: An effective field theory derivation
Zimmerman, Peter
2015-09-01
In this paper we investigate the motion of small compact objects in nonvacuum spacetimes using methods from effective field theory in curved spacetime. Although a vacuum formulation is sufficient in many astrophysical contexts, there are applications such as the role of the self-force in enforcing cosmic censorship in the context of the overcharging problem, which necessitate an extension into the nonvacuum regime. The defining feature of the self-force problem in nonvacuum spacetimes is the coupling between gravitational and nongravitational field perturbations. The formulation of the self-force problem for nonvacuum spacetimes was recently provided in simultaneous papers by Zimmerman and Poisson [Gravitational self-force in nonvacuum spacetimes, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084030 (2014)] and Linz, Friedmann, and Wiseman [Combined gravitational and electromagnetic self-force on charged particles in electrovac spacetimes, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084031 (2014)]. Here we distinguish ourselves by working with the effective action rather than the field equations. The formalism utilizes the multi-index notation developed by Zimmerman and Poisson [Gravitational self-force in nonvacuum spacetimes, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084030 (2014) to accommodate the coupling between the different fields. Using dimensional regularization, we arrive at a finite expression for the local self-force expressed in terms of multi-index quantities evaluated in the background spacetime. We then apply the formalism to compute the coupled gravitational self-force in two explicit cases. First, we calculate the self-force on a massive particle possessing scalar charge and moving in a scalarvac spacetime. We then derive an expression for the self-force on an electrically charged, massive particle moving in an electrovac spacetime. In both cases, the force is expressed as a sum of local terms involving tensors defined in the background spacetime and evaluated at the current position of the particle, as well as tail integrals
Weak Lensing PSF Correction of Wide-field CCD Mosaic Images (SULI Paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cevallos, Marissa; /Caltech /SLAC
2006-01-04
Gravitational lensing provides some of the most compelling evidence for the existence of dark matter. Dark matter on galaxy cluster scales can be mapped due to its weak gravitational lensing effect: a cluster mass distribution can be inferred from the net distortion of many thousands of faint background galaxies that it induces. Because atmospheric aberration and defects in the detector distort the apparent shape of celestial objects, it is of great importance to characterize accurately the point spread function (PSF) across an image. In this research, the PSF is studied in images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), whose camera is divided into 12 CCD chips. Traditional weak lensing methodology involves averaging the PSF across the entire image: in this work we investigate the effects of measuring the PSF in each chip independently. This chip-by-chip analysis was found to reduce the strength of the correlation between star and galaxy shapes, and predicted more strongly the presence of known galaxy clusters in mass maps. These results suggest correcting the CFHT PSF on an individual chip basis significantly improves the accuracy of detecting weak lensing.
Pradhan, Anirudh; Jotania, Kanti
2009-01-01
A new class of LRS Bianchi type ${\\rm VI}_{0}$ cosmological models with free gravitational fields and a variable cosmological term is investigated in presence of perfect fluid as well as bulk viscous fluid. To get the deterministic solution we have imposed the two different conditions over the free gravitational fields. In first case we consider the free gravitational field as magnetic type whereas in second case `gravitational wrench' of unit `pitch" is supposed to be present in free gravitational field. The viscosity coefficient of bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. The cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ is found to be a decreasing function of time and positive which is corroborated by results from recent supernovae Ia observations. The physical and geometric aspects of the models are discussed.
强激光脉冲产生的引力法拉第效应%Gravitational Faraday effect in curved space -time induced by high -power lasers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周华; 季沛勇
2006-01-01
Gravitational field produced by high-power laser is calculated according to the linearized Einstein field equation in weak field approximation. Gravitational Faraday effect of electromagnetic wave propagating in the above gravitational field is studied and the rotation angle of polarization plane of electromagnetic wave is derived. The result is discussed and estimated under the condition of present experiment facility.
$\\mathrm H_2^+$ in a weak magnetic field
Cobaxin, Héctor Medel; Vieyra, Juan Carlos López; Turbiner, Alexander V
2014-01-01
The electronic energy of $\\mathrm H_2^+$ in magnetic fields of up to $B=0.2B_0$ (or 4.7 $\\times 10^4$ Tesla) is investigated. Numerical values of the magnetic susceptibility for both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic contributions are reported for arbitrary orientations of the molecule in the magnetic field. It is shown that both diamagnetic and paramagnetic susceptibilities grow with inclination, while paramagnetic susceptibility is systematically much smaller than the diamagnetic one. Accurate two-dimensional Born-Oppenheimer surfaces are obtained with special trial functions. Using these surfaces, vibrational and rotational states are computed and analysed for the isotopologues $\\mathrm H_2^+$ and $\\mathrm D_2^+$.
Reheating signature in the gravitational wave spectrum from self-ordering scalar fields
Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2015-01-01
We investigate the imprint of reheating on the gravitational wave spectrum produced by self-ordering of multi-component scalar fields after a global phase transition. The equation of state of the Universe during reheating, which usually has different behaviour from that of a radiation-dominated Universe, affects the evolution of gravitational waves through the Hubble expansion term in the equations of motion. This gives rise to a different power-law behavior of frequency in the gravitational wave spectrum. The reheating history is therefore imprinted in the shape of the spectrum. We perform $512^3$ lattice simulations to investigate how the ordering scalar field reacts to the change of the Hubble expansion and how the reheating effect arises in the spectrum. We also compare the result with inflation-produced gravitational waves, which has a similar spectral shape, and discuss whether it is possible to distinguish the origin between inflation and global phase transition by detecting the shape with future direc...
Gravitational lensing in the strong field limit for Kar's metric
Benavides, Carlos A; Larranaga, Alexis
2014-01-01
In this paper we calculate the strong field limit deflection angle for a light ray passing near a scalar charged spherically symmetric object described by metric which comes from the low-energy limit of heterotic string theory. Then, we compare the expansion parameters of our results with the obtained in the Einstein's canonical frame, obtained by a conformal transformation, and we show that, at least at first order, the results do not agree.
Duality for symmetric second rank tensors. II. The linearized gravitational field
Casini, H; Urrutia, L F; Urrutia, Luis F.
2003-01-01
The construction of dual theories for linearized gravity in four dimensions is considered. Our approach is based on the parent Lagrangian method previously developed for the massive spin-two case, but now considered for the zero mass case. This leads to a dual theory described in terms of a rank two symmetric tensor, analogous to the usual gravitational field, and an auxiliary antisymmetric field. This theory has an enlarged gauge symmetry, but with an adequate partial gauge fixing it can be reduced to a gauge symmetry similar to the standard one of linearized gravitation. We present examples illustrating the general procedure and the physical interpretation of the dual fields. The zero mass case of the massive theory dual to the massive spin-two theory is also examined, but we show that it only contains a spin-zero excitation.
Vasilev, B V
2003-01-01
The equilibrium of a hot dense plasma in a gravitational field is considered. From the standard equilibrium equations, the energy minimum at density about $10^{25}$ particles per $cm^3$ and temperature about $10^7 K$ was found. This effect plays an important role for astrophysics. It enables to explain the mechanism of the star magnetic field generation and to make a prediction for the spectrum of a star mass with a wholly satisfactory agreement for the observation data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdukerim Nuriman; XIE Bai-Song; LI Zi-Liang; Dulat Sayipjamal
2013-01-01
Electron-positron pair production in a strong laser field enhanced by an assisted high frequency weak field is investigated by solving the quantum Vlasov equation.The average and residual pair number densities are obtained for sinusoid electric field and it is found that the high frequency assisted weak field will enhance pair production significantly.There exists an optimal frequency of assisted field that makes the pair production number density get a maximum one,which is a few orders of higher than that without assisted field.We also discuss the other possible assisted fields.
Nature of the Gravitational Field and its Legitimate Energy-Momentum Tensor
Rodrigues, Waldyr A
2011-01-01
In this paper we show how a gravitational field generated by a given energy-momentum distribution (for all realistic cases) can be represented by distinct geometrical structures (Lorentzian, teleparallel and non null nonmetricity spacetimes) or that we even can dispense all those geometrical structures and simply represent the gravitational field as a field, in the Faraday's sense, living in Minkowski spacetime. The explicit Lagrangian density for this theory is given and the field equations (which are a set of four Maxwell's like equations) are shown to be equivalent to Einstein's equations. We also analyze if the teleparallel formulation can give a mathematical meaning to "Einstein's most happy thought", i.e. the equivalence principle. Moreover we discuss the Hamiltonian formalism for for our theory and its relation to one of the possibles concepts for energy of the gravitational field which emerges from it and the concept of ADM energy. One of the main results of the paper is the identification in our theo...
On the usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field
Soffel, Michael; Frutos, Francisco
2016-12-01
The usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field is investigated. A variety of exact vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations (Schwarzschild, Erez and Rosen, Gutsunayev and Manko, Hernández-Pastora and Martín, Kerr, Quevedo, and Mashhoon) are investigated in that respect. It is argued that because of their multipole structure and influences from external bodies, all these exact solutions are not really useful for the central problem. Then, approximate space-times resulting from an MPM or post-Newtonian approximation are considered. Only in the DSX formalism that is of the first post-Newtonian order, all aspects of the problem can be tackled: a relativistic description (a) of the Earth's gravity field in a well-defined geocentric reference system (GCRS), (b) of the motion of solar system bodies in a barycentric reference system (BCRS), and (c) of inertial and tidal terms in the geocentric metric describing the external gravitational field. A relativistic SLR theory is also discussed with respect to our central problem. Orders of magnitude of many effects related to the Earth's gravitational field and SLR are given. It is argued that a formalism with accuracies better than of the first post-Newtonian order is not yet available.
Scalar Field Model of Dark Energy In the Double Complex Symmetric Gravitational Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Ying; GUI Yuan-Xing; WANG Wei
2006-01-01
The scalar field model of dark energy is established in the double complex symmetric gravitational theory. The universe we live in is taken as the real part of double complex space M4C(J). The two cases of scalar field (ordinary and phantom scalar field) are discussed in a unified way. Not only can the double Friedmann equations be obtained, but also the equation of state for dark energy, potential V(φ) and scalar field φ can be expressed. Hence, a new method is proposed to study dark energy and the evolution of the universe.
Quadrupolar gravitational fields described by the $q-$metric
Quevedo, Hernando; Yerlan, Aimuratov
2013-01-01
We investigate the Zipoy-Voorhees metric ($q-$metric) as the simplest static, axially symmetric solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations that possesses as independent parameters the mass and the quadrupole moment. In accordance with the black holes uniqueness theorems, the presence of the quadrupole completely changes the geometric properties of the corresponding spacetime that turns out to contain naked singularities for all possible values of the quadrupole parameter. The naked singularities, however, can be covered by interior solutions that correspond to perfect fluid sources with no specific equations of state. We conclude that the $q-$metric can be used to describe the entire spacetime generated by static deformed compact objects.
Dark sector impact on gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakonieczna, Anna [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin (Poland); Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Nakonieczny, Łukasz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)
2015-11-04
Dark matter and dark energy are dominating components of the Universe. Their presence affects the course and results of processes, which are driven by the gravitational interaction. The objective of the paper was to examine the influence of the dark sector on the gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field. A phantom scalar field was used as a model of dark energy in the system. Dark matter was modeled by a complex scalar field with a quartic potential, charged under a U(1)-gauge field. The dark components were coupled to the electrically charged scalar field via the exponential coupling and the gauge field-Maxwell field kinetic mixing, respectively. Complete non-linear simulations of the investigated process were performed. They were conducted from regular initial data to the end state, which was the matter dispersal or a singularity formation in a spacetime. During the collapse in the presence of dark energy dynamical wormholes and naked singularities were formed in emerging spacetimes. The wormhole throats were stabilized by the violation of the null energy condition, which occurred due to a significant increase of a value of the phantom scalar field function in its vicinity. The square of mass parameter of the dark matter scalar field potential controlled the formation of a Cauchy horizon or wormhole throats in the spacetime. The joint impact of dark energy and dark matter on the examined process indicated that the former decides what type of an object forms, while the latter controls the amount of time needed for the object to form. Additionally, the dark sector suppresses the natural tendency of an electrically charged scalar field to form a dynamical Reissner-Nordström spacetime during the gravitational collapse.
Strong and weak interactions in a simple field-theoretical model
Hove, Léon van
2006-01-01
An exactly renormalizable model of quantum fields, introduced earlier by Th. W. Ruijgrok and the present author, is considered for large but finite cut-off. It gives rise to strong and weak interaction effects. In the limit of infinite cut-off the weak interactions vanish and the strong interactions
Fukushima, Toshio
2017-10-01
In order to obtain the gravitational field of a general finite body inside its Brillouin sphere, we developed a new method to compute the field accurately. First, the body is assumed to consist of some layers in a certain spherical polar coordinate system and the volume mass density of each layer is expanded as a Maclaurin series of the radial coordinate. Second, the line integral with respect to the radial coordinate is analytically evaluated in a closed form. Third, the resulting surface integrals are numerically integrated by the split quadrature method using the double exponential rule. Finally, the associated gravitational acceleration vector is obtained by numerically differentiating the numerically integrated potential. Numerical experiments confirmed that the new method is capable of computing the gravitational field independently of the location of the evaluation point, namely whether inside, on the surface of, or outside the body. It can also provide sufficiently precise field values, say of 14–15 digits for the potential and of 9–10 digits for the acceleration. Furthermore, its computational efficiency is better than that of the polyhedron approximation. This is because the computational error of the new method decreases much faster than that of the polyhedron models when the number of required transcendental function calls increases. As an application, we obtained the gravitational field of 433 Eros from its shape model expressed as the 24 × 24 spherical harmonic expansion by assuming homogeneity of the object.
Propagator of a scalar field on a stationary slowly varying gravitational background
Kazinski, P O
2012-01-01
The propagator of a scalar field on a stationary slowly varying in space gravitational background is derived retaining only the second derivatives of the metric. The corresponding one-loop effective action is constructed. The propagator and the effective action turn out to depend nontrivially on the Killing vector defining the vacuum state and the Hamiltonian of a scalar field. The Hawking particle production is described in the quasiclassical approximation and the quasiclassical formula for the Hawking temperature is derived. The behaviour of the Unruh detector on a curved background is considered and the quasiclassical formula for the Unruh acceleration determining the Unruh temperature is derived. The radiation reaction problem on a curved background is discussed in view of the new approximate expression for the propagator. The correction to the mass squared of a scalar particle on a stationary gravitational background is obtained. This correction is analogous to the quantum correction to the particle mass...
Lambiase, G
2004-01-01
The origin of high velocities of pulsars is studied by considering the spin-flip conversion of neutrinos propagating in a gravitational field of a protoneutron star. For a rotating gravitational source (such as pulsars) with angular velocity ${\\bm \\omega}$, one finds that the spin connections (entering in the Dirac equation written in curved space time) induce an additional contribution to neutrino energy which is proportional to ${\\bm \\omega}\\cdot {\\bf p}$, with ${\\bf p}$ the neutrino momentum. Such a coupling (spin-gravity coupling) can be responsible of pulsar kicks being the asymmetry of the neutrino emission generated by the relative orientation of the neutrino momentum ${\\bf p}$ with respect to the angular velocity ${\\bm \\omega}$. As a consequence, the mechanism suggests that the motion of pulsars is correlated to their angular velocity ${\\bm \\omega}$. In this work we consider neutrinos propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field. As in the usual approaches,spin flip conversion is generated via the c...
Chaotic Dynamics of Test Particle in the Gravitational Field with Magnetic Dipoles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ju-Hua; WANG Yong-Jiu
2003-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of the test particle in the gravitational field with magnetic dipoles in thispaper. At first we study the gravitational potential by numerical simulations. We find, for appropriate parameters, thatthere are two different cases in the potential curve, one of which is the one-well case with a stable critical point, and theother is the three-well case with three stable critical points and two unstable ones. As a consequence, the chaotic motionwill rise. By performing the evolution of the orbits of the test particle in the phase space, we find that the orbits of thetest particle randomly oscillate without any periods, even sensitively depending on the initial conditions and parameters.chaotic motion of the test particle in the field with magnetic dipoles becomes even obvious as the value of the magneticdipoles increases.
Dynamical Behavior of Core 3 He Nuclear Reaction-Diffusion Systems and Sun's Gravitational Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DU Jiulin; SHEN Hong
2005-01-01
The coupling of the sun's gravitational field with processes of diffusion and convection exerts a significant influence on the dynamical behavior of the core 3He nuclear reaction-diffusion system. Stability analyses of the system are made in this paper by using the theory of nonequilibrium dynamics. It is showed that, in the nuclear reaction regions extending from the center to about 0.38 times of the radius of the sun, the gravitational field enables the core 3He nuclear reaction-diffusion system to become unstable and, after the instability, new states to appear in the system have characteristic of time oscillation. This may change the production rates of both 7Be and 8B neutrinos.
Equation of Motion of a Spinning Test Particle in Gravitational Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chang-Yong; WU Ning
2008-01-01
Based on the coupling between the spin of a particle and gravitoelectromagnetic field, the equation of motion of a spinning test particle in gravitational field is deduced. From this equation of motion, it is found that the motion of a spinning particle deviates from the geodesic trajectory, and this deviation originates from the coupling between the spin of the particle and gravitoelectromagnetie field, which is also the origin of Lense-Thirring effects. In post-Newtonian approximations, this equation gives the same results as those of Mathisson-Papapetrou equation. Effect of the deviation of geodesic trajectory is detectable.
PERIODIC MOTIONS OF SPINNING RIGID SPACECRAFT UNDER INFLUENCE OF GRAVITATIONAL AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yehia A. Abdel-aziz; M.H. Yehia; F. A. Abd El-Salam; M. Radwan
2006-01-01
The motion of a magnetized axisymmetric spacecraft about its center of mass in a circular orbit is considered, taking the gravitational and magnetic effects of the central body into account. Equations of motion of the reduced system are transformed to equations of plane motion of a charged particle under the action of electric and magnetic fields. Stationary motions of the system are determined and periodic motions near to them are constructed using the Lyapounoff theorem of the holomorphic integral.
Improved dynamics and gravitational collapse of tachyon field coupled with a barotropic fluid
Marto, Joao; Moniz, Paulo Vargas
2013-01-01
We consider a spherically symmetric gravitational collapse with a tachyon field coupled with a barotropic fluid, as matter source. The tachyonic potential is assumed to be of an inverse square form. By employing the holonomy correction imported from loop quantum gravity, we study the dynamics of the collapse within a semiclassical description. We find that the classical black hole and naked singularities, appearing in the corresponding standard general relativistic collapse, are avoided by quantum gravity induced effects.
Metric of the gravitational field outside the neutron star
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Yongjiu
2001-01-01
［1］Vogeley, M. S., Szalay, A. S., Eigenmode analysis of galaxy redsh ift surveys. I. theory and methods, ApJ, 1996, 465: 34-53.［2］Fang, L. Z., Pando, J., Large-scale structures revealed by wavel et decomposition, The 5th Current Topics of Astrofundamental Physics (eds. Sanch ez, N., Zichichi, A.), Singapore: World Scientific, 1997.［3］Pando, J., Fang, L. Z., Detecting the non-Gaussian spectrum of Q SO's Lyalpha absorption line distribution, A&A, 1998, 340: 335-342.［4］Xu, W., Fang, L. Z., Deng, Z. G., Scale invariance of rich cluste r abundance: A possible test for models of structure formation, ApJ, 1998, 508: 472-482.［5］Pando, J., Valls-Gabaud, D., Fang, L. Z., Evidence for scale-sc ale correlations in the cosmic microwave background radiation, PRL, 1998, 81: 45 68-4571.［6］Feng, L. L., Fang, L. Z., Non-Gaussianity and the recovery of th e mass power spectrum from the Lyα forest, ApJ, 2000, 535: 519-529.［7］Feng, L. L., Deng, Z. G., Fang, L. Z., Breaking degeneracy of dar k matter models by the scale-scale correlations of galaxies, ApJ, 2000, 530: 53 -61.［8］Fang, L. Z., Feng, L. L., Measuring the galaxy power spectrum and scale-scale correlations with multiresolution-decomposed covariance-I. metho d, ApJ, 2000, 539: 9-22.［9］Tegmark, M., Hamilton, A. J. S., Vogeley, M. S. et al., Measuring the galaxy power spectrum with future redshift surveys, ApJ, 1998, 499: 555-57 6.［10］Bardeen, J. M., Bond, J. R., Kaiser, N. et al., The statistics of peak s of Gauss random fields, ApJ, 1986, 304: 15-61.［11］Peacock, J. A., Dodds, S. J., Linear power spectrum of cosmological ma ss fluctuations, MNRAS, 1994, 267: 1020-1034.［12］White, S. D. M., Efstathiou, G., Frenk, C. S., The amplitude of mass f luctuations in the universe, MNRAS, 1993, 262: 1023-1028.［13］Peacock, J. A., Dodds, S. J., Non-linear evolution of cosmological po wer spectra, MNRAS, 1996, 280: L19-L26.［14］Loveday, J., Peterson, B. A., Efstathiou, G. et al., The
Voorhies, Coerte V.
2004-01-01
As Earth's main magnetic field weakens, our magnetic shield against the onslaught of the solar wind thins. And the field strength needed to fend off battering by solar coronal mass ejections is decreasing, just when the delicate complexity of modem, vulnerable, electro-technological systems is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Recently, a working group of distinguished scientist from across the nation has asked NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards program a key question: What are the dynamics of Earth s magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system? Paleomagnetic studies of crustal rocks magnetized in the geologic past reveal that polarity reversals have occurred many times during Earth s history. Networked super-computer simulations of core field and flow, including effects of gravitational, pressure, rotational Coriolis, magnetic and viscous forces, suggest how this might happen in detail. And space-based measurements of the real, time-varying magnetic field help constrain estimates of the speed and direction of fluid iron flowing near the top of the core and enable tests of some hypotheses about such flow. Now scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have developed and applied methods to test the hypotheses of narrow scale flow and of a dynamically weak magnetic field near the top of Earth s core. Using two completely different methods, C. V. Voorhies has shown these hypotheses lead to specific theoretical forms for the "spectrum" of Earth s main magnetic field and the spectrum of its rate of change. Much as solar physicists use a prism to separate sunlight into its spectrum, from long wavelength red to short wavelength blue light, geophysicists use a digital prism, spherical harmonic analysis, to separate the measured geomagnetic field into its spectrum, from long to short wavelength fields. They do this for the rate of change of the field as well.
Grigoryan, L. S.; Saakyan, G. S.
1984-09-01
The existence of a special gravitational vacuum is considered in this paper. A phenomenological method differing from the traditional Einsteinian formalization is utilized. Vacuum, metric and matter form a complex determined by field equations and at great distances from gravitational masses vacuum effects are small but could be large in powerful fields. Singularities and black holes justify the approach as well as the Ambartsmyan theory concerning the existence of supermassive and superdense prestallar bodies that then disintegrate. A theory for these superdense bodies is developed involving gravitational field equations that describe the vacuum by an energy momentum tensor and define the field and mass distribution. Computations based on the theory for gravitational radii with incompressible liquid models adequately reflecting real conditions indicate that a gravitational vacuum could have considerable effects on superdense stars and could have radical effects for very large masses.
The Effect of Weak Combined Magnetic Field on Root Gravitropism and a Role of Ca2+ Ions Therein
Kordyum, Elizabeth; Bogatina, Nina; Kondrachuk, A.
At present, magnetic fields of different types are widely used to study gravity sensing in plants. For instance, magnetic levitation of amyloplasts caused by high gradient magnetic field enables us to alter the effective gravity sensed by plant cells. For the first time we showed that a weak combined magnetic field (CMF), that is the sum of collinear permanent and alternating magnetic fields ( 0.5 gauss, 0-100 Hz), changes a cress and pea root positive gravitropic reaction on a negative one. This effect has the form of resonance and occurs at the frequency of cyclotron resonance of calcium ions. What is especially interesting is that under gravistimulation in the CMF, the displacement of amylopasts in the root cap statocytes is directed to the upper wall of a cell, i.e. in the direction opposite to the gravitational vector. The displacement of amyloplasts, which contain the abundance of free Ca2+ ions in the stroma, is accompanied by Ca2+ redistribution in the same direction, and increasing in the cytosol around amyloplasts near ten times in the CMF in comparison with the state magnetic field. Earlier, we also observed the Ca2+ accumulation in the upper site of a root curvature in the elongation zone in the CMF unlike a positive gravitropic reaction. Thus, it should be stressed that a root is bending in the same direction in which amyloplasts are displacing: downwards when gravitropism is positive and upwards when gravitropism is negative. The obtained data confirm the amyloplast statolithic function and give another striking demonstration of a leading role of Ca2+ ions in root gravitropism. But these data bring the question: what forces can promote amyloplast displacement against gravity? The possible explanation of the effect found is discussed. It is based on the ion cyclotron resonance in biosystems proposed by Liboff.. The original approach based on the use of a weak CMF may be helpful for understanding the mechanisms of plant gravisensing
Nonsymmetric unified theory of gravitation, electromagnetism and Yang-Mills field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ragusa, S [Departamento de Fisica e Informatica, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)
2002-12-07
The recently studied new variation of Einstein's metric nonsymmetric unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is enlarged to include the Yang-Mills field theory. It is shown that the antisymmetric part of the metric tensor, now a 2x2 matrix, can be made to describe both a field obeying Maxwell's equations and a field obeying Yang-Mills's field equations in the flat space linear approximation, thereby making its identification with the sum of a generalized electromagnetic and isotopic field strength tensors a possibly consistent procedure. The theory is shown to be free of unphysical ghost-negative energy radiative modes even when expanded on a curved Riemannian background. The Einstein-Maxwell-Yang-Mills theory is contained in the first approximation of the field equations on a curved general relativity background.
Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Bryan, Mara B; Teeter, John; Bedore, Christine N; Li, Weiming
2008-06-01
We characterized the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses of adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) to weak electric fields. Adult sea lampreys, captured during upstream spawning migration, exhibited limited active behaviors during exposure to weak electric fields and spent the most time attached to the wall of the testing arena near the cathode (-). For adult male sea lampreys, exposure to weak electric fields resulted in increased lamprey (l) GnRH-I mRNA expression but decreased lGnRH-I immunoreactivities in the forebrain, and decreased Jun (a neuronal activation marker) mRNA levels in the brain stem. Similar effects were not observed in the brains of female sea lampreys after weak electric field stimulation. The influence of electroreception on forebrain lGnRH suggests that electroreception may modulate the reproductive systems in adult male sea lampreys. The changes in Jun expression may be associated with swimming inhibition during weak electric field stimulation. The results for adult sea lampreys are the opposite of those obtained using parasitic-stage sea lampreys, which displayed increased activity during and after cathodal stimulation. Our results demonstrate that adult sea lampreys are sensitive to weak electric fields, which may play a role in reproduction. They also suggest that electrical stimuli mediate different behaviors in feeding-stage and spawning-stage sea lampreys.
Numerical estimation of the curvature of a light wavefront in a weak gravitational field
Miguel, A San; Pascual-Sanchez, J -F
2009-01-01
The geometry of a light wavefront evolving in the 3--space associated with a post-Newtonian relativistic spacetime from a flat wavefront is studied numerically by means of the ray tracing method. For a discretization of the bidimensional wavefront the surface fitting technique is used to determine the curvature of this surface at each vertex of the mesh. The relationship between the curvature of a wavefront and the change of the arrival time at different points on the Earth is also numerically discussed.
Statistical connection of peak counts to power spectrum and moments in weak-lensing field
Shirasaki, Masato
2017-02-01
The number density of local maxima of weak-lensing field, referred to as weak-lensing peak counts, can be used as a cosmological probe. However, its relevant cosmological information is still unclear. We study the relationship between the peak counts and other statistics in weak-lensing field by using 1000 ray-tracing simulations. We construct a local transformation of lensing field K to a new Gaussian field y, named local-Gaussianized transformation. We calibrate the transformation with numerical simulations so that the one-point distribution and the power spectrum of K can be reproduced from a single Gaussian field y and monotonic relation between y and K. Therefore, the correct information of two-point clustering and any order of moments in weak-lensing field should be preserved under local-Gaussianized transformation. We then examine if local-Gaussianized transformation can predict weak-lensing peak counts in simulations. The local-Gaussianized transformation is insufficient to explain weak-lensing peak counts in the absence of shape noise. The prediction by local-Gaussianized transformation underestimates the simulated peak counts with a level of ˜20-30 per cent over a wide range of peak heights. Local-Gaussianized transformation can predict the weak-lensing peak counts with an ˜10 per cent accuracy in the presence of shape noise. Our analyses suggest that the cosmological information beyond power spectrum and its moments would be necessary to predict the weak-lensing peak counts with a percent-level accuracy, which is an expected statistical uncertainty in upcoming wide-field galaxy surveys.
Oscillations of weakly viscous conducting liquid drops in a strong magnetic field
Priede, Jānis
2010-01-01
We analyse small-amplitude oscillations of weakly viscous and electrically conducting liquid drop in a strong uniform DC magnetic field. An asymptotic solution is obtained showing that magnetic field does not affect the shape eigenmodes, which remain the spherical harmonics as in the non-magnetic case. Strong magnetic field, however, constrains the liquid flow associated with the oscillations and, thus, it reduces the oscillations frequency by increasing the apparent inertia of the liquid. In such a field, liquid oscillates in a two-dimensional (2D) way as solid columns aligned with the field. Two types of oscillations are possible: longitudinal and transversal to the field. Such oscillations are weakly damped by strong magnetic field. The stronger the field, the weaker the damping, except for the axisymmetric transversal modes, which are magnetically overdamped because they are not kinematically compatible with 2D flow. Because magnetic damping decreases inversely with the square of the field strength, visco...
Leauthaud, A; Civano, F; Coil, A L; Bundy, K; Massey, R; Schramm, M; Schulze, A; Capak, P; Elvis, M; Kulier, A; Rhodes, J
2014-01-01
Understanding the relationship between galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dark matter halos in which they reside is key to constraining how black-hole fueling is triggered and regulated. Previous efforts have relied on simple halo mass estimates inferred from clustering, weak gravitational lensing, or halo occupation distribution modeling. In practice, these approaches remain uncertain because AGN, no matter how they are identified, potentially live a wide range of halo masses with an occupation function whose general shape and normalization are poorly known. In this work, we show that better constraints can be achieved through a rigorous comparison of the clustering, lensing, and cross-correlation signals of AGN hosts to a fiducial stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) derived for all galaxies. Our technique exploits the fact that the global SHMR can be measured with much higher accuracy than any statistic derived from AGN samples alone. Using 382 moderate luminosity X-ray AGN at z<1 fro...
Recent results on the mass, gravitational field and moments of inertia of the moon.
Michael, W. H., Jr.; Blackshear, W. T.
1972-01-01
Use of Doppler tracking data from the Lunar Orbiter series of spacecraft in an analysis of the spherical harmonic coefficients of the lunar gravitational field through thirteenth degree and order. The value obtained for the mass of the moon, GM = 4902.84 cu km/sec/sec, is in good agreement with previous results and with results obtained by alternate procedures. Acceleration contour plots, derived from the gravitational coefficients, show correlations with surface features on the near side of the moon, but are of questionable validity for the far side because of the lack of direct tracking data on the far side. Based on the most recent gravitational field data, the current estimate for the polar moment of inertia of the moon is C/Ma squared = 0.4019 super + 0.004 sub - 0.002. This value indicates that the interior of the moon can be homogeneous, but some results presented strongly suggest that the moon is differentiated, with an excess of mass in the direction toward the earth.
The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI
Titov, O
2015-01-01
The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4 mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.
Evolution of geodesic congruences in a gravitationally collapsing scalar field background
Shaikh, Rajibul; DasGupta, Anirvan
2014-01-01
The evolution of timelike and null geodesic congruences in a non-static, inhomogeneous spacetime representing the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field, is investigated in detail. We show explicitly how the initial values of the expansion, rotation and shear of a congruence, as well as the spacetime curvature along the congruence, influence the evolution and focusing of trajectories in different ways. The role of initial conditions on the focusing time is explored and highlighted. In certain specific cases, the expansion scalar is found to exhibit a finite jump (from negative to positive value) before focusing. The issue of singularity formation and the effect of the central inhomogeneity in the spacetime, on the evolution of the kinematic variables, is discussed. In summary, our analysis does seem to throw some light on how a family of trajectories evolve in a specific model of gravitational collapse.
Legreneur, Pierre; Bels, Vincent; Monteil, Karine; Laurin, Michel
2013-05-01
In this paper, we demonstrated that interarticular coordination of terrestrial tetrapods emerges from an environment highly constrained by friction and the gravitational field. We briefly review recent works on the jumping behavior in squamates, lemurs and amphibians. We then explore previously published work as well as some unpublished experimental data on human jumping. Finally, we end by inferring locomotion in some of the first limbed vertebrates using a simulation procedure. All these data show that despite changes in shape, structure, and motor controls of taxa, the same spatio-temporal sequence of joint displacements always occurs when the movement is executed in a terrestrial environment. Comparison with aquatic locomotion argues for the hypothesis that this pattern emerged in early terrestrial tetrapods as a response to the gravitational constraint and the terrestrial frictional environment.
Gravitational waves induced by massless vector fields with non-minimal coupling to gravity
Feng, Kaixi
2016-01-01
In this paper, we calculate the contribution of the late time mode of a massless vector field to the power spectrum of the primordial gravitational wave using retarded Green's propagator. We consider a non-trivial coupling between gravity and the vector field. We find that the correction is scale-invariant and of order $\\frac{H^4}{M_P^4}$. The non-minimal coupling leads to a dependence of $\\frac{H^2}{M^2}$, which can amplify the correlation function up to the level of $\\frac{H^2}{M^2_P}$.
Abele, H; Leeb, H; Schmiedmayer, J
2009-01-01
We propose to apply Ramsey's method of separated oscillating fields to the spectroscopy of the quantum states in the gravity potential above a vertical mirror. This method allows a precise measurement of quantum mechanical phaseshifts of a Schr\\"odinger wave packet bouncing off a hard surface in the gravitational field of the earth. Measurements with ultra-cold neutrons will offer a sensitivity to Newton's law or hypothetical short-ranged interactions, which is about 21 orders of magnitude below the energy scale of electromagnetism.
Self-gravitating systems in Extended Gravity
Stabile, A
2014-01-01
Starting from the weak field limit, we discuss astrophysical applications of Extended Theories of Gravity where higher order curvature invariants and scalar fields are considered by generalizing the Hilbert-Einstein action linear in the Ricci curvature scalar $R$. Results are compared to General Relativity in the hypothesis that Dark Matter contributions to the dynamics can be neglected thanks to modified gravity. In particular, we consider stellar hydrostatic equilibrium, galactic rotation curves, and gravitational lensing. Finally, we discuss the weak field limit in the Jordan and Einstein frames pointing out how effective quantities, as gravitational potentials, transform from one frame to the other and the interpretation of results can completely change accordingly.
Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2015-07-01
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a λ |φ |4 potential. We study the evolution of the spatially homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding Universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schrödinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit c →+∞. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while perturbations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model is substantially faster than in the cold dark matter model. When the wavelength of the perturbations approaches the cosmological horizon (Hubble length), a relativistic treatment is mandatory. In that case, we find that relativistic effects attenuate or even prevent the growth of perturbations. This paper exposes the general formalism and provides illustrations in simple cases. Other applications of our formalism will be considered in companion papers.
Statistical connection of peak counts to power spectrum and moments in weak lensing field
Shirasaki, Masato
2016-01-01
The number density of local maxima of weak lensing field, referred to as weak-lensing peak counts, can be used as a cosmological probe. However, its relevant cosmological information is still unclear. We study the relationship between the peak counts and other statistics in weak lensing field by using 1000 ray-tracing simulations. We construct a local transformation of lensing field $\\cal K$ to a new Gaussian field $y$, named local-Gaussianized transformation. We calibrate the transformation with numerical simulations so that the one-point distribution and the power spectrum of $\\cal K$ can be reproduced from a single Gaussian field $y$ and monotonic relation between $y$ and $\\cal K$. Therefore, the correct information of two-point clustering and any order of moments in weak lensing field should be preserved under local-Gaussianized transformation. We then examine if local-Gaussianized transformation can predict weak-lensing peak counts in simulations. The local-Gaussianized transformation is insufficient to ...
Bashinsky, Sergei
2015-01-01
We study a finite basic structure that possibly underlies the observed elementary quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interactions. Realistic wave functions of locally interacting quantum fields emerge naturally as fitting functions for the generic distribution of many quantifiable properties of arbitrary static objects. We prove that in any quantum theory with the superposition principle, evolution of a current state of fields unavoidably continues along alternate routes with every conceivable Hamiltonian for the fields. This applies to the emergent quantum fields too. Yet the Hamiltonian is unambiguous for isolated emergent systems with sufficient local symmetry. The other emergent systems, without specific physical laws, cannot be inhabitable. The acceptable systems are eternally inflating universes with reheated regions. We see how eternal inflation perpetually creates new short-scale physical degrees of freedom and why they are initially in the ground state. In the emergent quantum worlds probabi...
Updated gravitational-wave upper limits on the internal magnetic field strength of recycled pulsars
Mastrano, Alpha
2011-01-01
Recent calculations of the hydromagnetic deformation of a stratified, non-barotropic neutron star are generalized to describe objects with superconducting interiors, whose magnetic permeability \\mu is much smaller than the vacuum value \\mu_0. It is found that the star remains oblate if the poloidal magnetic field energy is \\gtrsim 40% of total magnetic field energy, that the toroidal field is confined to a torus which shrinks as \\mu decreases, and that the deformation is much larger (by a factor \\sim \\mu_0/\\mu) than in a non-superconducting object. The results are applied to the latest direct and indirect upper limits on gravitational-wave emission from Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and radio pulse timing (spin-down) observations of 81 millisecond pulsars, to show how one can use these observations to infer the internal field strength. It is found that the indirect spin-down limits already imply astrophysically interesting constraints on the poloidal-toroidal field ratio and diama...
[Effect of weak static magnetic fields on the excitability of a neuron].
Novikov, S M; Maksimov, G V; Volkov, V V; Shalygin, A N
2008-01-01
Changes in the excitability of the neuron (amplitude, excitability threshold, rate of action potential transduction), as well as changes in the viscosity of the plasma membrane of the nerve and membranes of subcellular organelles, induced by the action of a weak magnetic field, have been studied by the methods of extracellular registration of membrane potential and combination scattering. It was found that only the threshold of excitability in intact nervous fibers increases by the action of this field. It was proven that the conformation of C40 carotenoids localized not only in plasma membranes but also in subcellular membranes of the neuron changes in a weak magnetic field. It is assumed that the changes in the excitability of the neuron by the action of weak magnetic field are due to changes in the orderliness of membrane lipids and the content of oxygen in the cytoplasm.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K. N. Nagendra; H. Frisch; M. Faurobert-Scholl; F. Paletou
2000-09-01
We present an application of the PALI (Polarized Approximate Lambda Iteration) method to the resonance scattering in spectral lines formed in the presence of weak magnetic fields. The method is based on an operator perturbation approach, and can efficiently give solutions for oriented vector magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere.
Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.
2005-10-01
A class of exact solutions of the gravitational field equations in the vacuum on the brane are obtained by assuming the existence of a conformal Killing vector field, with non-static and non-central symmetry. In this case, the general solution of the field equations can be obtained in a parametric form in terms of the Bessel functions. The behavior of the basic physical parameters describing the non-local effects generated by the gravitational field of the bulk (dark radiation and dark pressure) is also considered in detail, and the equation of state satisfied at infinity by these quantities is derived. As a physical application of the obtained solutions we consider the behavior of the angular velocity of a test particle moving in a stable circular orbit. The tangential velocity of the particle is a monotonically increasing function of the radial distance and, in the limit of large values of the radial coordinate, tends to a constant value, which is independent on the parameters describing the model. Therefore, a brane geometry admitting a one-parameter group of conformal motions may provide an explanation for the dynamics of the neutral hydrogen clouds at large distances from the galactic center, which is usually explained by postulating the existence of the dark matter.
A comprehensive simulation of weak-light phase-locking for space-borne gravitational wave antenna
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG YuHui; LIU HeShan; LUO ZiRen; LI YuQiong; JIN Gang
2016-01-01
A comprehensive simulation was performed to better understand the impacts and effects of the additional technical noises on weak-light phase-locking for LISA.The result showed that the phase of the slave laser tracked well with the received transmitting light under different noise level,and the locking precision was limited by the phase readout noise when the laser frequency noise and clock jitter noise were removed.This result was then confirmed by a benchtop experimental test.The required LISA noise floor was recovered from the simulation which proved the validity of the simulation program.In order to convert the noise function into real time data with random characteristics,an algorism based on Fourier transform was also invented.
Luyten, P. J.
1988-02-01
The oscillations and stability of a homogeneous self-gravitating rotating cylinder in a toroidal magnetic field are investigated. It is assumed that the field is proportional to the distance to the axis of the cylinder. We show the existence of four infinite discreta spectra of magnetic (or rotational) modes. Rotation stabilizes the magnetic m = 1 instability. The magnetic field decreases the growth rate of rotational instability and reduces the interval of unstable wavenumbers. If m = 1, instability always occurs with the exception of the equipartition state. If m> 1, the instability can be suppressed by a sufficiently large magnetic field. Resistivity decreases the growth rate of magnetic instability, but increases the growth rate of rotational instability. For zero wavenumber perturbations secular instability occurs due to the action of resistivity before a neutral point is attained where a second secular instabiliity initiates due to the action of resistivity
Extremely weak magnetic field exposure may inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis of Sprague Dawley rats
Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Xu, H.; Pan, Y.
2016-12-01
Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals brains and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors. Lines of evidences have shown that the magnetic field is an important physics environmental factor influencing many animals' growth and development, and extremely weak magnetic field exposures have been proved having serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in some animals, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we experimentally examined the extremely weak magnetic field effects on neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, an extremely weak magnetic field (≤ 0.5μT) and the geomagnetic fields (strength 31-58μT) as controls. Thirty-two SD rats (3-weeks old) were used in this study. New cell survival in hippocampus was assessed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days after a 7-day intraperitoneal injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Meanwhile, the amounts of immature neurons and mature neurons which are both related to hippocampal neurogenesis, as documented by labeling with doublecortin (DCX) and neuron (NeuN), respectively, were also analyzed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days. Compared with geomagnetic field exposure groups, numbers of BrdU-, DCX-positive cells of DG of hippocampus in tested rats reduces monotonously and more rapidly after 14 days, and NeuN-positive cells significantly decreases after 28days when exposed in the extremely weak magnetic field condition. Our data suggest that the exposure to an extremely weak magnetic field may suppress the neurogenesis in DG of SD rats.
Evolution of the Schr\\"odinger--Newton system for a self--gravitating scalar field
Guzman, F S
2004-01-01
Using numerical techniques, we study the collapse of a scalar field configuration in the Newtonian limit of the spherically symmetric Einstein--Klein--Gordon (EKG) system, which results in the so called Schr\\"odinger--Newton (SN) set of equations. We present the numerical code developed to evolve the SN system and topics related, like equilibrium configurations and boundary conditions. Also, we analyze the evolution of different initial configurations and the physical quantities associated to them. In particular, we readdress the issue of the gravitational cooling mechanism for Newtonian systems and find that all systems settle down onto a 0--node equilibrium configuration.
Lu, Xu; Xie, Yi
2016-01-01
We analyse strong gravitational field time delay for photons coupled to the Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole. By making use of the method of strong deflection limit, we find that these time delays between relativistic images are significantly affected by polarization directions of such a coupling. A practical problem about determination of the polarization direction by observations is investigated. It is found that if the first and second relativistic images can be resolved, the measurement of time delay can more effectively improve detectability of the polarization direction.
Simulation of the Earth's gravitational field recovery from GRACE using the energy balance approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Wei; LU Xiaolei; HSU Houtse; SHAO Chenggang; LUO Jun; WANG Nengchao
2005-01-01
Based on the measurement principles of GRACE satellites, the observation equations are set up using the energy balance approach. The Earth's gravitational field complete up to degree and order 120 is recovered applying the preconditioning conjugate gradient iterative approach by numerical simulation. Assuming an accuracy of 1?m/s in range-rate measurements of the K-band microwave ranging system, the matching relationships of accuracies of K-band microwave ranging system, SuperSTAR Accelerometer, position vector and velocity vector measurements are investigated.
Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation Devices Fabricated via a Hot Embossing/Thermal Bonding Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaijun Yang
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A novel hot embossing/low temperature ethanol solvent bonding method for the fabrication of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA field flow fractionation devices has been developed. The separation channel on a PMMA substrate was generated by a hot embossing process without vacuum. Special temperature-pressure profiles were used to analyze the influence of the hot embossing parameters. After the hot embossing process, ethanol solvent bonding was used to seal the separation channel on the PMMA substrate. The experimental results show that the bonding strength with ethanol solvent bonding at 35 °C (aspect ratio (depth/width: 0.043 is 3.05 MPa, and the deformation percentage is very low (0.54%. A burst pressure test indicated that the as-prepared PMMA gravitational field flow fractionation device has a very high burst pressure. Furthermore, the higher resolution of the as-prepared PMMA gravitational field flow fractionation device in the separation of wheat and starch particles shows that the hot embossing/low temperature ethanol solvent bonding technique will have potential commercial value.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chifu E. N.
2009-10-01
Full Text Available In this article, we formulate solutions to Einstein's geometrical field equations derived using our new approach. Our field equations exterior and interior to the mass distribution have only one unknown function determined by the mass or pressure distribution. Our obtained solutions yield the unknown function as generalizations of Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Thus, our solution puts Einstein's geometrical theory of gravity on same footing with Newton's dynamical theory; with the dependence of the field on one and only one unknown function comparable to Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Our results in this article are of much significance as the Sun and planets in the solar system are known to be more precisely oblate spheroidal in geometry. The oblate spheroidal geometries of these bodies have effects on their gravitational fields and the motions of test particles and photons in these fields.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘鹏鹏; 陆惠卿
2003-01-01
The gauge invariance of the electromagnetic field in gravitational field is an important question. We prove d' Alembert equation in gravitational field with gauge invariance under the Lorentz condition. Using the kinematic equation of photon in normal staticand spherically symmetric gravitational fields, we deduce the orbital equation of photon. As a spceial example, we explicate the deduction and discussion about the deviation angular of light in Reissner-Nordstrom space-time.
Can Surface Flux Transport Account for the Weak Polar Field in Cycle 23?
Jiang, Jie; Cameron, Robert H.; Schmitt, Dieter; Schüssler, Manfred
2013-06-01
To reproduce the weak magnetic field on the polar caps of the Sun observed during the declining phase of cycle 23 poses a challenge to surface flux transport models since this cycle has not been particularly weak. We use a well-calibrated model to evaluate the parameter changes required to obtain simulated polar fields and open flux that are consistent with the observations. We find that the low polar field of cycle 23 could be reproduced by an increase of the meridional flow by 55% in the last cycle. Alternatively, a decrease of the mean tilt angle of sunspot groups by 28% would also lead to a similarly low polar field, but cause a delay of the polar field reversals by 1.5 years in comparison to the observations.
Can surface flux transport account for the weak polar field in cycle 23?
Jiang, Jie; Schmitt, Dieter; Schuessler, Manfred
2011-01-01
To reproduce the weak magnetic field on the polar caps of the Sun observed during the declining phase of cycle 23 poses a challenge to surface flux transport models since this cycle has not been particularly weak. We use a well-calibrated model to evaluate the parameter changes required to obtain simulated polar fields and open flux that are consistent with the observations. We find that the low polar field of cycle 23 could be reproduced by an increase of the meridional flow by 55% in the last cycle. Alternatively, a decrease of the mean tilt angle of sunspot groups by 28% would also lead to a similarly low polar field, but cause a delay of the polar field reversals by 1.5 years in comparison to the observations.
A Novel Electrostatic Guiding Scheme for Cold Polar Molecules in Weak-Field-Seeking States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Lian-Zhong; XIA Yong; YIN Jian-Ping
2005-01-01
@@ We propose a novel electrostatic guiding scheme for cold polar molecules in weak-field-seeking states using a single charged wire half embanked in a ceramic substrate (i.e., a chip) and a homogeneous bias electric field, which is produced by a capacitor composed of two large parallel metal plates. We calculate the spatial distribution of the electrostatic fields generated by the combination of the charged wire and the plate capacitor and the corresponding trapping potentials for CO molecules, and analyse the relationships between the electric field and the parameters of the charged-wire layout. Our study shows that the proposed scheme with a single charged-wire can be used to guide cold polar molecules in the weak-field-seeking states, and has some potential applications in construction of various molecule-optical elements.
On observation of neutron quantum states in the Earth's gravitational field
Vankov, Anatoli Andrei
2010-03-01
Observation of neutron gravitational quantum states En=mgzn in the peV energy range (z1 is about 10μm in the vertical direction) in the experiment conducted at Laue-Langevin Institute, Grenoble, with ultracold neutrons was recently reported in a series of publications. The purpose of the present work is to analyze the experiment. The experimental apparatus is designed to measure a transmission function T(za), namely, a horizontal flux of relatively fast neutrons (k≫kz in wavelength terms) passing through a slit of variable height za of upper absorbing wall. The quantum states in question are defined by the so-called Airy functions, which are solutions to the stationary 1D equation for a neutron “bouncing” above the perfect mirror in a linear potential field. The Airy functions describe the quantum bouncer (QB), the concept of which is subject to theoretical study of toy 1D models of gravitationally bound particles in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (QM). This is essentially different from the 3D nonstationary QM object, “the running QB,” investigated in the experiment. The authors assume that there is a connection between T(za) and the probability density distribution P(z,za) for QB states. They devised the “phenomenological model,” in which the quantum pattern should be visible in the transmission curve. We argue, however, that the measured curve T(za) is not sensitive to QB states. Instead, it is sensitive to dynamics of neutron horizontal transport inside the absorbing slit for neutrons of energy values about 105 times greater than eigenvalues En. The latter are related to the neutron transverse mode kz and cannot be termed “energies of neutron gravitational quantum states.” We conclude that the experiment setup and real conditions are not adequate to the claimed objective, and the methodology of measured data treatment is flawed. The authors’ claim that “neutron gravitational quantum states are observed” is neither theoretically nor
Gorbatenko, M V; Popov, E Yu
2015-01-01
The domain of wave functions and effective potentials of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for quantum-mechanical particles in static centrally symmetric gravitational fields are analyzed by taking into account the Hilbert causality condition. For all the explored metrics, assuming existence of event horizons, the conditions of a "fall" of a particle to the appropriate event horizons are implemented. The exclusion is one of the solutions for the Reissner-Nordstroem extreme field with the single event horizon. In this case, while fulfilling the condition found by V.I.Dokuchaev, Yu.N.Yeroshenko, the normalization integral is convergent and the wave functions become zero on the event horizon. This corresponds to the Hilbert causality condition. In our paper, due to the analysis of the effective potential for the Reissner-Nordstroem extreme field with real radial wave functions of the Dirac equation, the impossibility is demonstrated for the bound stationary state existence of quantum-mechanical particles, wit...
The Model for Final Stage of Gravitational Collapse Massless Scalar Field
Gladush, V. D.; Mironin, D. V.
It is known that in General relativity, for some spherically symmetric initial conditions, the massless scalar field (SF) experience the gravitational collapse (Choptuik, 1989), and arise a black hole (BH). According Bekenstein, a BH has no "hair scalar", so the SF is completely under the horizon. Thus, the study of the final stage for the gravitational collapse of a SF is reduced to the construction of a solution of Einstein's equations describing the evolution of a SF inside the BH. In this work, we build the Lagrangian for scalar and gravitationalfields in the spherically symmetric case, when the metric coefficients and SF depends only on the time. In this case, it is convenient to use the methods of classical mechanics. Since the metric allows an arbitrary transformation of time, then the corresponding field variable (g00) is included in the Lagrangian without time derivative. It is a non-dynamic variable, and is included in the Lagrangian as a Lagrange multiplier. A variation of the action on this variable gives the constraint. It turns out that Hamiltonian is proportional to the constraint, and so it is zero. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation easily integrated. Hence, we find the relation between the SF and the metric. To restore of time dependence we using an equation dL / dq' = dS / dq After using a gauge condition, it allows us to find solution. Thus, we find the evolution of the SF inside the BH, which describes the final stage of the gravitational collapse of a SF. It turns out that the mass BH associated with a scalar charge G of the corresponding SF inside the BH ratio M = G/(2√ κ).
Spacetime, Geometry and Gravitation
Sharan, Pankaj
2009-01-01
This introductory textbook on the general theory of relativity presents a solid foundation for those who want to learn about relativity. The subject is presented in a physically intuitive, but mathematically rigorous style. The topic of relativity is covered in a broad and deep manner. Besides, the aim is that after reading the book a student should not feel discouraged when she opens advanced texts on general relativity for further reading. The book consists of three parts: An introduction to the general theory of relativity. Geometrical mathematical background material. Topics that include the action principle, weak gravitational fields and gravitational waves, Schwarzschild and Kerr solution, and the Friedman equation in cosmology. The book is suitable for advanced graduates and graduates, but also for established researchers wishing to be educated about the field.
Formation of graded vanadium oxide (V–O compound) under strong gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Tokuda, Makoto; Ogata, Yudai; Januszko, Kamila; Mashimo, Tsutomu, E-mail: mashimo@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nishiyama, Tadao; Yoshiasa, Akira [Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)
2015-05-14
Sedimentation of atoms induced under strong gravitational field gives a tool for controlling elemental compositions in condensed matter. We performed a strong-gravity experiment (0.397 × 10{sup 6 }G at 400 °C for 24 h) on a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} polycrystal using the high-temperature ultracentrifuge to examine the composition change and further the structure change. The graded composition structure of V and O was formed along gravity direction, where V increases and O decreases with gravity. It was found by the x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering method that VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases appeared and the amounts increased, while one of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase decreased gradually along gravity direction. The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra analysis identified the chemical valency decrease (+5 to +3). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy addressed the shifting in center of major absorption peak to longer wavelength (red shift) with the increase in gravitational field. The tail absorption peak (band gap 2.09 eV) at strong gravity region in the graded structure showed transparent conductive oxide.
Diffusion phenomenon at the interface of Cu-brass under a strong gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogata, Yudai; Tokuda, Makoto; Januszko, Kamila; Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Mashimo, Tsutomu, E-mail: mashimo@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Iguchi, Yusuke [Department of Solid State Physics, Debrecen University, 4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Ono, Masao [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)
2015-03-28
To investigate diffusion phenomenon at the interface between Cu and brass under a strong gravitational field generated by ultracentrifuge apparatus, we performed gravity experiments on samples prepared by electroplating with interfaces normal and parallel to the direction of gravity. For the parallel-mode sample, for which sedimentation cannot occur thorough the interface, the concentration change was significant within the lower gravity region; many pores were observed in this region. Many vacancies arising from crystal strain due to the strong gravitational field moved into the lower gravity region, and enhanced the atoms mobilities. For the two normal-mode samples, which have interface normal to the direction of gravity, the composition gradient of the brass-on-Cu sample was steeper than that for Cu-on-brass. This showed that the atoms of denser Cu diffuse in the direction of gravity, whereas Zn atoms diffuse in the opposite direction by sedimentation. The interdiffusion coefficients became higher in the Cu-on-brass sample, and became lower in the brass-on-Cu sample. This rise may be related to the behavior of the vacancies.
Where else is null the gravitational field between two massive spheres?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lima, F M S [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, PO Box 04455, 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)], E-mail: fabio@fis.unb.br
2009-07-15
To find the point between two massive spherical bodies at which their gravitational fields cancel is an apparently simple problem usually found in introductory physics textbooks. However, by noting that such a point does not exist when the distance between the spheres is small and one of the masses is much smaller than the other-e.g., between the Earth and a billiard ball near the ground-I develop here a simple analysis for establishing existence conditions for this point. Unexpectedly, I have found that the net gravitational field can be null also in certain points inside each sphere. The position of these 'inner' points can be determined by solving a cubic equation via the standard method, known as Cardan's solution. However, when the discriminant of this equation is negative one has the irreducible case, for which Cardan's solution 'fails', but a trigonometric method proposed recently yields exact closed-form expressions. Interestingly, it is shown that these 'inner points' do occur in the Earth-Moon system, in which they are determined just by solving irreducible cubic equations.
Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Behrens, Manja; Eriksson, Stefanie; Topgaard, Daniel; Olsson, Ulf; Wennerström, Håkan
2016-07-07
It is shown that the ternary system heavy water-heptane-hexadecyl hexaethylene oxide (C16E6) has a stable bicontinuous microemulsion phase down to an exceptionally low concentration at the balanced temperature of 26.8 °C. It is further demonstrated that the ambient gravitational field has an influence on the observed phase equilibria for typical sample sizes (∼1 cm). Direct measurements using a nuclear magnetic resonance imaging technique demonstrate that sample compositions vary with the height in the vials. It is furthermore found that some samples show four phases at equilibrium in apparent violation of Gibbs' phase rule. It is pointed out that Gibbs' phase rule strictly applies only when effects of gravity are negligible. A further consequence of the ambient gravitational field is that, for the system studied, the microemulsion one-phase samples are not observed, when using standard size vials, that is, sample heights on the order of a centimeter. Quantitative determinations of concentration profiles can be used to determine parameters of the free-energy density for the system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Zheng; Chenggang Shao; Jun Luo; Houze Xu
2008-01-01
In this paper,the GRACE Earth's gravitational field complete up to degree and order 120 is recovered based on the combination of different inclinations using the energy conservation principle.The results show that because different inclinations of satellite are sensitive to the geopotential coefficients with different degrees/and orders m.the design of GRACE exploiting 89° inclination can effectively improve the accuracy of geopotential zonal harmonic coefficients.However,it is less sensitive to the geopotential tesseral harmonic coefficients.Accordingly.the second group of GRACE exploiting lower inclination is required to determine high-accurately the geopotential tesseral harmonic coefficients and cover the shortage of the single group of GRACE exploiting 89° inclination.Two groups of GRACE individually exploiting 89°+(82°-84°)inclinations are the optimal combination of the Earth'S gravitational field recovery complete up to degree and order 120.In the degree 120,the joint accuracy of cumulative geoid height based on two groups of GRACE individually exploiting 89° and 83° inclinations is averagely two times higher than the accuracy of a group of GRACE exploiting 89° inclination.
Gravitational field of a hedgehog and the evolution of vacuum bubbles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guendelman, E.I. (Department of Nuclear Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)); Rabinowitz, A. (Department of Physics, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel))
1991-11-15
The gravitational field produced by a spherically symmetric hedgehog'' configuration in scalar field theories with global SO(3) symmetry (or higher) is studied in the limit in which these models become nonlinear {sigma} models. The same gravitational effect can be generated by a set of cosmic strings intersecting at a point, in the limit that one considers a continuous distribution of such intersecting strings in a spherically symmetric configuration (to be referred to as the string hedgehog''). When the energy densities associated with the hedgehog are small, we obtain a static geometry, but for higher values, the resulting geometry is that of an anisotropic cosmology. The evolution of bubbles joining two phases, one of which contains a hedgehog (as defined above) is investigated. The role of such configurations in processes that lead to classical false-vacuum destabilization and in the evolution of inflationary bubbles is discussed. The generalization of our results to the gauged case, i.e., to magnetic-monopole hedgehogs, is discussed.
Chaotic Dynamics of Test Particle in the Gravitational Field with Magnetic Dipoles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENJu-Hua; WANGYong-Jiu
2003-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of the test particle in the gravitational field with magnetic dipoles in this paper. At first we study the gravitational potential by numerical simulations. We find, for appropriate parameters, that there are two different cases in the potential curve, one of which is the one-well case with a stable critical point, and the other is the three-well case with three stable critical points and two unstable ones. As a consequence, the chaotic motion will rise. By performing the evolution of the orbits of the test particle in the phase space, we find that the orbits of the test particle randomly oscillate without any periods, even sensitively depending on the initial conditions and parameters.By performing Poincaré sections for different values of the parameters and initial conditions, we further conform that the chaotic motion of the test particle in the field with magnetic dipoles becomes even obvious as the value of the magnetic dipoles increases.
Gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and a rotating mass ring
Sano, Yasumichi
2014-01-01
The linear perturbation of the Kerr black hole has been discussed by using the Newman--Penrose and the perturbed Weyl scalars, $\\psi_0$ and $\\psi_4$ can be obtained from the Teukolsky equation. In order to obtain the other Weyl scalars and the perturbed metric, a formalism was proposed by Chrzanowski and by Cohen and Kegeles (CCK) to construct these quantities in a radiation gauge via the Hertz potential. As a simple example of the construction of the perturbed gravitational field with this formalism, we consider the gravitational field produced by a rotating circular ring around a Schwarzschild black hole. In the CCK method, the metric is constructed in a radiation gauge via the Hertz potential, which is obtained from the solution of the Teukolsky equation. Since the solutions $\\psi_0$ and $\\psi_4$ of the Teukolsky equations are spin-2 quantities, the Hertz potential is determined up to its monopole and dipole modes. Without these lower modes, the constructed metric and Newman--Penrose Weyl scalars have unph...
Gas-Phase Influence on Quasisteady "Liquid Flames" in Gravitational Fields
Shkadinsky, K. G.; Shkadinskaya, G. V.; Matkowsky, B. J.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We consider the SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) process for synthesizing materials. In this process a powder mixture of reactants is cold pressed into a sample, which is ignited at one end. A high temperature combustion wave then propagates through the sample converting reactants to the desired product material. In this process, melting of some or all the components is often observed. Therefore, we study combustion waves propagating through a high caloricity inorganic powder mixture whose combustion temperature exceeds the melting temperatures of many components. The solid matrix is thus destroyed by the propagating combustion wave due to melting ahead of the reaction zone, and a liquid bath is formed which contains gaseous bubbles. The waves propagate in the presence of a gravitational field. Due to the effect of gravity, there is relative motion between the rising bubbles and the descending bath, which affects the composition of the medium, its thermophysical properties, the 'liquid flame' structure, and the propagation velocity. To enhance our understanding of phenomena associated with the interaction of the relative motion with the propagating combustion wave we formulate and analyze a relatively simple mathematical model of liquid flames in a gravitational field. We describe the wave structure and combustion characteristics including the combustion velocity. We compare our results to existing experimental observations and suggest new experiments to be performed. We consider the effects of gravity and, in particular, examine both microgravity and large gravity conditions.
Explaining atomic clock behavior in a gravitational field with only 1905 Relativity
Hidalgo-Gato, Rafael A Valls
2010-01-01
Supported only in the two 1905 Einstein's papers on Relativity and a very rigid respect for the historical context, an analysis is done of the derivation of the universal mass-energy relationship. It is found, contrary to the today accepted Physics knowledge, that a body's Rest Mass measures its Potential Energy in the 1905 context. After emphasizing the difference between 1905 Relativity (1905R) and Special Relativity (SR), the developing of a 1905R relativistic gravity is started for a small mass m material point moving in the central gravitational field of a great mass M one. A formula for the rest mass m_0 as a function of its distance r from M is obtained. Finally, those results are applied to an atomic clock in a gravitational field, reaching a factor to obtain the clock time rate change very close to the GR one. The factors from 1905R and GR are compared, emphasizing the absent of a singularity in 1905R. In the conclusions, a new road for the development of a 1905R relativistic mechanics is declared, r...
Weak electromagnetic field admitting integrability in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes
Kolar, Ivan
2015-01-01
We investigate properties of higher-dimensional generally rotating black-hole spacetimes, so called Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes, as well as a family of related spaces which share the same explicit and hidden symmetries. In these spaces, we study a particle motion in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field and compare it with its operator analogies. First, we find general commutativity conditions for classical observables and for their operator counterparts, then we investigate a fulfillment of these conditions in the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS and related spaces. We find the most general form of the weak electromagnetic field compatible with the complete integrability of the particle motion and the comutativity of the field operators. For such a field we solve the charged Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations by separation of variables.
Coherent Control of Photofragment Distributions Using Laser Phase Modulation in the Weak-Field Limit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia-Vela, Alberto; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2015-01-01
The possibility of quantum interference control of the final state distributions of photodissociation fragments by means of pure phase modulation of the pump laser pulse in the weak-field regime is demonstrated theoretically for the first time. The specific application involves realistic wave pac...
Laser-pulse-shape control of photofragmentation in the weak-field limit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Dey, Diptesh; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2014-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically that laser-induced coherent quantum interference control of asymptotic states of dissociating molecules is possible even in the (one-photon) weak-field limit starting from a single vibrational eigenstate. Thus, phase dependence in the interaction with a fixed energy...
Sanz, Ramsés; Puignou, Lluís; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Zattoni, Andrea; Melucci, Dora
2004-08-01
This work continues the project on field-flow fractionation characterisation of whole wine-making yeast cells reported in previous papers. When yeast cells are fractionated by gravitational field-flow fractionation and cell sizing of the collected fractions is achieved by the electrosensing zone technique (Coulter counter), it is shown that yeast cell retention depends on differences between physical indexes of yeast cells other than size. Scanning electron microscopy on collected fractions actually shows co-elution of yeast cells of different size and shape. Otherwise, the observed agreement between the particle size distribution analysis obtained by means of the Coulter counter and by flow field-flow fractionation, which employs a second mobile phase flow as applied field instead of Earth's gravity, indicates that yeast cell density can play a major role in the gravitational field-flow fractionation retention mechanism of yeast cells, in which flow field-flow fractionation retention is independent of particle density. Flow field-flow fractionation is then coupled off-line to gravitational field-flow fractionation for more accurate characterisation of the doubly-fractionated cells. Coupling gravitational and flow field-flow fractionation eventually furnishes more information on the multipolydispersity indexes of yeast cells, in particular on their shape and density polydispersity.
Konovalov, V. V.; Lyubimov, D. V.; Lyubimova, T. P.
2017-06-01
This study is concerned with the linear stability of the horizontal interface between thick layers of a viscous heat-conducting liquid and its vapor in a gravitational field subject to phase transition. We consider the case when the hydrostatic base state is consistent with a balanced heat flux at the liquid-vapor interface. The corrections to the growth rate of the most dangerous perturbations and cutoff wave number, characterizing the influence of phase transition on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, are found to be different from the data in the literature. Most of the previous results were obtained in the framework of a quasiequilibrium approximation, which had been shown to conform to the limit of thin media layers under equality of the interface temperature to a saturation temperature. The main difference from the results obtained with the quasiequilibrium approach is new values of the proportionality coefficients that correlate our corrections with the intensity of weak heating. Moreover, at large values of the heat flux rate, when deviations from the approximate linear law are important, the effect of phase transition is limited and does not exceed the size of the vapor viscosity effect.
Magnetic-Field-Induced Weak Order in Nematic Liquid Crystals Formed by Biaxial Molecules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Zhi-Dong; ZHANG De-Xian; SUN Yu-Bao
2000-01-01
Nematic liquid crystal system of interacting biaxial particles via dispersion forces is studied. The molecular orienting potential form in a magnetic field is given for the first time. Weakly ordered isotropic phase is treated in the two-particle cluster approximation. Taking account of the molecular biaxiality, it is found that the ratio of the lowest supercooling temperature T* to the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature TC approaches the observed value, and the validity of the mean field theory is clarified.
First-order correction terms in the weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trinh, Vinh H.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Madsen, Lars Bojer
2013-01-01
The weak-field asymptotic theory (WFAT) of tunneling ionization in a static electric field is developed to the next order in field. The first-order corrections to the ionization rate and transverse momentum distribution of the ionized electrons are derived. This extends the region of applicability...... of the WFAT at the quantitative level toward stronger fields, practically up to the boundary between tunneling and over-the-barrier regimes of ionization. The results apply to any atom or molecule treated in the single-active-electron and frozen-nuclei approximations. The theory is illustrated by calculations...... for hydrogen and noble-gas atoms....
First-order correction terms in the weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trinh, Vinh H.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Madsen, Lars Bojer;
2013-01-01
The weak-field asymptotic theory (WFAT) of tunneling ionization in a static electric field is developed to the next order in field. The first-order corrections to the ionization rate and transverse momentum distribution of the ionized electrons are derived. This extends the region of applicability...... of the WFAT at the quantitative level toward stronger fields, practically up to the boundary between tunneling and over-the-barrier regimes of ionization. The results apply to any atom or molecule treated in the single-active-electron and frozen-nuclei approximations. The theory is illustrated by calculations...
Sur, Sharanya; Schleicher, Dominik R G; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S
2012-01-01
We study the influence of initial conditions on the magnetic field amplification during the collapse of a magnetised gas cloud. We focus on the dependence of the growth and saturation level of the dynamo generated field on the turbulent properties of the collapsing cloud. In particular, we explore the effect of varying the initial strength and injection scale of turbulence and the initial uniform rotation of the collapsing magnetised cloud. In order to follow the evolution of the magnetic field in both the kinematic and the nonlinear regime, we choose an initial field strength of $\\simeq 1\\,\\mkG$ with the magnetic to kinetic energy ratio, $E_{\\rm m}/E_{\\rm k} \\sim 10^{-4}$. Both gravitational compression and the small-scale dynamo initially amplify the magnetic field. Further into the evolution, the dynamo-generated magnetic field saturates but the total magnetic field continues to grow because of compression. The saturation of the small-scale dynamo is marked by a change in the slope of $B/\\rho^{2/3}$ and by...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Li
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A Ni-based superalloy CMSX-6 was directionally solidified at various drawing speeds (5–20 μm·s−1 and diameters (4 mm, 12 mm under a 0.5 T weak transverse magnetic field. The results show that the application of a weak transverse magnetic field significantly modified the solidification microstructure. It was found that if the drawing speed was lower than 10 μm·s−1, the magnetic field caused extensive macro-segregation in the mushy zone, and a change in the mushy zone length. The magnetic field significantly decreases the size of γ’ and the content of γ-γ’ eutectic. The formation of macro-segregation under a weak magnetic field was attributed to the interdendritic solute transport driven by the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC. The γ’ phase refinement could be attributed to a decrease in nucleation activation energy owing to the magnetic field during solid phase transformation. The change of element segregation is responsible for the content decrease of γ-γ’ eutectic.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van, E-mail: e.segarceanu@antoniusziekenhuis.nl [Department of Internal Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A. [Department of Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Pillen, Sigrid [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Donders Center for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Biesma, Douwe H. [Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Vogels, Oscar J.M. [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Alfen, Nens van [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Donders Center for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2012-02-01
Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.
van Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; Pillen, Sigrid; Biesma, Douwe H; Vogels, Oscar J M; van Alfen, Nens
2012-02-01
To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Classical field theory on electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories and gravitation
Scheck, Florian
2012-01-01
The book describes Maxwell's equations first in their integral, directly testable form, then moves on to their local formulation. The first two chapters cover all essential properties of Maxwell's equations, including their symmetries and their covariance in a modern notation. Chapter 3 is devoted to Maxwell theory as a classical field theory and to solutions of the wave equation. Chapter 4 deals with important applications of Maxwell theory. It includes topical subjects such as metamaterials with negative refraction index and solutions of Helmholtz' equation in paraxial approximation relevant for the description of laser beams. Chapter 5 describes non-Abelian gauge theories from a classical, geometric point of view, in analogy to Maxwell theory as a prototype, and culminates in an application to the U(2) theory relevant for electroweak interactions. The last chapter 6 gives a concise summary of semi-Riemannian geometry as the framework for the classical field theory of gravitation. The chapter concludes wit...
Equilibrium of a system of superconducting rings in a uniform gravitational field
Bishaev, A. M.; Bush, A. A.; Gavrikov, M. B.; Gordeev, I. S.; Denisyuk, A. I.; Kamentsev, K. E.; Kozintseva, M. V.; Savel'ev, V. V.; Sigov, A. S.
2013-05-01
To construct a plasma trap with levitating magnetic coils in the thin ring approximation, we derive the expression for the potential energy of a system of several superconducting rings (one of which is fixed) capturing the preset flows in the uniform gravitational field as a function of the coordinates of the free ring (or rings). Calculations performed in the Mathcad system show that the potential energy of such a system has a local minimum for certain values of parameters. Stable levitation of a superconducting ring in the position corresponding to calculations is realized in the field of another superconducting ring, and this leads to the conclusion that a magnetic Galatea trap can be prepared on the basis of a levitating quadrupole.
A Spectroscopic Survey of the Fields of 28 Strong Gravitational Lenses: The Redshift Catalog
Momcheva, Ivelina; Cool, Richard J; Keeton, Charles R; Zabludoff, Ann I
2015-01-01
We present the spectroscopic redshift catalog from a wide-field survey of the fields of 28 galaxy-mass strong gravitational lenses. We discuss the acquisition and reduction of the survey data, collected over 40 nights of 6.5m MMT and Magellan time, employing four different multi-object spectrographs. We determine that no biases are introduced by combining datasets obtained with different instrument/spectrograph combinations. Special care is taken to determine redshift uncertainties using repeat observations. The redshift catalog consists of 9768 new and unique galaxy redshifts. 82.4% of the catalog redshifts are between z=0.1 and z=0.7, and the catalog median redshift is z=0.36. The data from this survey will be used to study the lens environments and line-of-sight structures to gain a better understanding of the effects of large scale structure on lens statistics and lens-derived parameters.
The gravitational field equations in Rastall gravity and the first law of thermodynamics
Moradpour, Hooman
2016-01-01
The restrictions on the Rastall theory due to apply the Newtonian limit to the theory are derived. In addition, we use the Rastall field equations in a spherically symmetric static spacetime as well as the Misner-Sharp mass to investigate the relationship between the Rastall theory and the thermodynamics first law leading to an expression for the horizon entropy in this theory. Moreover, we show that the energy and work changes due to apply a hypothetical displacement to the horizon in the Rastall frame work differ from their counterparts in the theories in which the geometry and matter fields coupled to each other in a minimal way, such as the Einstein theory. The latter shows that the Misner-Sharp mass is probably not a comprehensive definition for the gravitational energy, confined to the horizon, in the Rastall theory. The Schwarzschild and de-Sitter back holes entropy in the Rastall frame work are also addressed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Xiao-fan; YANG Xue-dong; CHEN Zhi-lai
2007-01-01
The redshift and the blueshift of spectral lines in gravitational fields of photon stars are studied when the observing and emitting points of the spectral lines locate at different positions. And the motion of masspoints is also studied. The studies show that the redshift and the blueshift of spectral lines in gravitational fields of photon stars can be arbitrarily positive, and the motion of mass-points in gravitational fields of photon stars can be used to determine the mass of photon stars.
Ermakov, A M; Lednev, V V
2010-01-01
The effects of weak combined magnetic fields adjusted to the parametric resonance for Ca2+ and K+ and extremely weak alternating magnetic field on the metamorphosis of the meal-worm beetle Tenebrio molitor have been studied. It was shown that the exposure of pupas of insects to all above-indicated types of fields stimulates the metamorphosis. However, after the exposure to weak combined magnetic fields adjusted to the parametric resonance for Ca2+ and K+, the number of insects with anomalies increases, which is not observed by the action of the weak alternating magnetic field.
Dimension dependence of the critical phenomena in gravitational collapse of massless scalar field
Bland, Jason Bryan
2007-12-01
A study of the critical behaviour which is observed in numerical calculations of spherically symmetric scalar field collapse has been performed. The gravitational collapse calculations are carried out using the field equations of Einstein's general theory of relativity in the context of a two dimensional dilaton gravity theory. The problem is formulated by considering a spherically symmetric matter distribution in an arbitrary number of space-time dimensions greater than three. A spherical distribution will only depend on two space-time coordinates, therefore, the action of the model can be reduced to a specific case of a 1 + 1 dilaton gravity theory. The evolution equations of the problem are simplified by carrying out a conformal transformation of the metric field. The number of space-time dimensions then appears as an input parameter of the field equations. Initial data is defined on a discrete space-time grid and numerical simulations of gravitational collapse are carried out. The computer code is optimized to increase numerical stability near the critical solutions. Discrete self-similarity and mass scaling in the near critical solutions are observed for each of the dimensions studied. The critical phenomena are described with a high level of confidence by smooth functions of space-time dimension. It is hypothesized that the critical solution of the theory at the limit of large dimension is discretely self-similar with a period of 5/2 and contains critical scaling with a constant of 1/2. Evidence will also be presented which suggests the critical solution in three dimensions with zero cosmological constant is not discretely self-similar but contains a critical scaling constant of approximately 0.11.
Very weak solutions of wave equation for Landau Hamiltonian with irregular electromagnetic field
Ruzhansky, Michael; Tokmagambetov, Niyaz
2017-04-01
In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem for the Landau Hamiltonian wave equation, with time-dependent irregular (distributional) electromagnetic field and similarly irregular velocity. For such equations, we describe the notion of a `very weak solution' adapted to the type of solutions that exist for regular coefficients. The construction is based on considering Friedrichs-type mollifier of the coefficients and corresponding classical solutions, and their quantitative behaviour in the regularising parameter. We show that even for distributional coefficients, the Cauchy problem does have a very weak solution, and that this notion leads to classical or distributional-type solutions under conditions when such solutions also exist.
Control of resonant weak-light solitons via a periodic modulated control field.
Qi, Yihong; Niu, Yueping; Xiang, Yang; Jin, Shiqi; Gong, Shangqing
2010-07-01
We investigate propagation and control of weak-light spatial solitons in a resonant three-level atomic system with a periodic modulated control field. It is shown that the periodic modulation acts like periodic potential which resists the propagation of the soliton in transverse direction. The soliton could be trapped by the periodic potential in the input channel. When the modulation is canceled, the soliton propagates in its initial incident direction. The periodic modulation of control field could be used to control the propagation of the weak-light probe soliton. Due to the good localization efficiency of the periodic potential, an excellent switching is realized for the probe soliton. These properties may have potential applications in all-optical switching, optical information processing and other fields.
Weak and Strong Field Dynamos: from the Earth to the stars
Morin, J; Schrinner, M; Donati, J -F
2011-01-01
Observations of magnetism in very low mass stars recently made important progress, revealing characteristics that are now to be understood in the framework of dynamo theory. In parallel, there is growing evidence that dynamo processes in these stars share many similarities with planetary dynamos. We investigate the extent to which the weak \\emph{vs} strong field bistability predicted for the geodynamo can apply to recent observations of two groups of very low mass fully-convective stars sharing similar stellar parameters but generating radically different types of magnetic fields. Our analysis is based on previously published spectropolarimetric and spectroscopic data. We argue that these can be interpreted in the framework of weak and strong field dynamos.
Novikov, V V; Sheĭman, I M; Iablokova, E V; Fesenko, E E
2014-01-01
It is shown that an exposure of pupae of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor to the combined static (42 μT) and very weak alternating (250 nT) magnetic fields exerts different influence, depending on the frequency of the alternating magnetic field, on duration of metamorphosis processes in these insects. For instance, an exposure of pupae to weak combined magnetic fields, adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for glutaminic acid (4,4 Hz), stimulates metamorphosis process--a transitional stage from pupae to imago lasts shorter. An inhibiting effect was observed when adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for Ca2 (32,2 Hz). At some frequencies this effect is not seen. For instance, an exposure at a frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for K+ (16,5 Hz) exerts no noticeable effect on the duration of the pupal metamorphosis stage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza, Rafael S. de, E-mail: Rafael@astro.iag.usp.br [IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Opher, Reuven, E-mail: Opher@astro.iag.usp.br [IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2011-11-17
The origin of magnetic fields in astrophysical objects is a challenging problem in astrophysics. Throughout the years, many scientists have suggested that non-minimal gravitational-electromagnetic coupling (NMGEC) could be the origin of the ubiquitous astrophysical magnetic fields. We investigate the possible origin of intense magnetic fields by NMGEC near rotating black holes, connected with quasars and gamma-ray bursts. Whereas these intense magnetic fields are difficult to explain astrophysically, we find that they are easily explained by NMGEC.
Weak cosmic censorship, dyonic Kerr-Newman black holes and Dirac fields
Zsolt Tóth, Gábor
2016-06-01
It was investigated recently, with the aim of testing the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, whether an extremal Kerr black hole can be converted into a naked singularity by interaction with a massless classical Dirac test field, and it was found that this is possible. We generalize this result to electrically and magnetically charged rotating extremal black holes (i.e. extremal dyonic Kerr-Newman black holes) and massive Dirac test fields, allowing magnetically or electrically uncharged or nonrotating black holes and the massless Dirac field as special cases. We show that the possibility of the conversion is a direct consequence of the fact that the Einstein-Hilbert energy-momentum tensor of the classical Dirac field does not satisfy the null energy condition, and is therefore not in contradiction with the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. We give a derivation of the absence of superradiance of the Dirac field without making use of the complete separability of the Dirac equation in the dyonic Kerr-Newman background, and we determine the range of superradiant frequencies of the scalar field. The range of frequencies of the Dirac field that can be used to convert a black hole into a naked singularity partially coincides with the superradiant range of the scalar field. We apply horizon-penetrating coordinates, as our arguments involve calculating quantities at the event horizon. We describe the separation of variables for the Dirac equation in these coordinates, although we mostly avoid using it.
Influence of a Weak DC Electric Field on Root Meristem Architecture
Wawrecki, Wojciech; Zagórska-Marek, Beata
2007-01-01
Background and Aims Electric fields are an important environmental factor that can influence the development of plants organs. Such a field can either inhibit or stimulate root growth, and may also affect the direction of growth. Many developmental processes directly or indirectly depend upon the activity of the root apical meristem (RAM). The aim of this work was to examine the effects of a weak electric field on the organization of the RAM. Methods Roots of Zea mays seedlings, grown in liquid medium, were exposed to DC electric fields of different strengths from 0·5 to 1·5 V cm−1, with a frequency of 50 Hz, for 3 h. The roots were sampled for anatomical observation immediately after the treatment, and after 24 and 48 h of further undisturbed growth. Key Results DC fields of 1 and 1·5 V cm−1 resulted in noticeable changes in the cellular pattern of the RAM. The electric field activated the quiescent centre (QC): the cells of the QC penetrated the root cap junction, disturbing the organization of the closed meristem and changing it temporarily into the open type. Conclusions Even a weak electric field disturbs the pattern of cell divisions in plant root meristem. This in turn changes the global organization of the RAM. A field of slightly higher strength also damages root cap initials, terminating their division. PMID:17686761
Influence of a weak DC electric field on root meristem architecture.
Wawrecki, Wojciech; Zagórska-Marek, Beata
2007-10-01
Electric fields are an important environmental factor that can influence the development of plants organs. Such a field can either inhibit or stimulate root growth, and may also affect the direction of growth. Many developmental processes directly or indirectly depend upon the activity of the root apical meristem (RAM). The aim of this work was to examine the effects of a weak electric field on the organization of the RAM. Roots of Zea mays seedlings, grown in liquid medium, were exposed to DC electric fields of different strengths from 0.5 to 1.5 V cm(-1), with a frequency of 50 Hz, for 3 h. The roots were sampled for anatomical observation immediately after the treatment, and after 24 and 48 h of further undisturbed growth. DC fields of 1 and 1.5 V cm(-1) resulted in noticeable changes in the cellular pattern of the RAM. The electric field activated the quiescent centre (QC): the cells of the QC penetrated the root cap junction, disturbing the organization of the closed meristem and changing it temporarily into the open type. Even a weak electric field disturbs the pattern of cell divisions in plant root meristem. This in turn changes the global organization of the RAM. A field of slightly higher strength also damages root cap initials, terminating their division.
Extinction of photoemission of Mn-Doped ZnS nanofluid in weak magnetic field
Vu, Anh-Tuan; Bui, Hong-Van; Pham, Van-Ben; Le, Van-Hong; Hoang, Nam-Nhat
2016-08-01
The observation of extinction of photoluminescence of Mn-doped ZnS nanofluid under applying of weak magnetic field is reported. At a constant field of 270 Gauss and above, the exponential decays of photoluminescent intensity was observed in disregard of field direction. About 50% extinction was achieved after 30 minute magnetization and a total extinction after 1 hour. The memory effect preserved for more than 2 hours at room temperature. This extinction was observed in a system with no clear ferromagnetic behavior.
Magnetic field mapping of the UCNTau magneto-gravitational trap: design study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Libersky, Matthew Murray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-09-04
The beta decay lifetime of the free neutron is an important input to the Standard Model of particle physics, but values measured using different methods have exhibited substantial disagreement. The UCN r experiment in development at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plans to explore better methods of measuring the neutron lifetime using ultracold neutrons (UCNs). In this experiment, UCNs are confined in a magneto-gravitational trap formed by a curved, asymmetric Halbach array placed inside a vacuum vessel and surrounded by holding field coils. If any defects present in the Halbach array are sufficient to reduce the local field near the surface below that needed to repel the desired energy level UCNs, loss by material interaction can occur at a rate similar to the loss by beta decay. A map of the magnetic field near the surface of the array is necessary to identify any such defects, but the array's curved geometry and placement in a vacuum vessel make conventional field mapping methods difficult. A system consisting of computer vision-based tracking and a rover holding a Hall probe has been designed to map the field near the surface of the array, and construction of an initial prototype has begun at LANL. The design of the system and initial results will be described here.
Improved mapping of planetary gravitational field with an electrostatic accelerometer/gradiometer
Foulon, Bernard; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Liorzou, Francoise; Christophe, Bruno; Hardy, Emilie; Boulanger, Damien; Lebat, Vincent; Perrot, Eddy
2015-04-01
ONERA has a proven record spanning several years in developing the most accurate accelerometers for geodesy missions. They are still operational in the GRACE mission and their successors for the GRACE-FO mission will fly in 2017. Finally, the GOCE mission has shown the benefit of using a gradiometer for the direct measurement of the gravity field. Now, ONERA proposes a new accelerometer design, MicroSTAR, for interplanetary missions. This design based on the same technology as for the GRACE and GOCE space missions, with the notable addition of a bias rejection system, has a reduced mass and consumption. The accelerometer is embarked on Uranus Pathfinder (mission proposal for Cosmic M4) as up-scope instrument to achieve two scientific objectives: 1) to determine the gravity fields of Uranus and the satellites, allowing for a better understanding of the planet interior composition, 2) to test gravity at the largest possible length scales to search for deviations from General Relativity. The success of using accelerometer for geodesy mission could be imported in the planetary science field. The poster details the accuracy which can be achieved on the gravity potential field according to different accelerometer configurations. It describes the instrument and its integration inside an interplanetary probe. Finally, it explains the benefit of using this electrostatic accelerometer complementary to radio science technology for improved planetary gravitational field measurements.
Monarkha, V. Yu.; Paschenko, V. A.; Timofeev, V. P.
2013-02-01
The dynamics of Abrikosov vortices and their bundles was experimentally investigated in weak constant magnetic fields, in the range of Earth's magnetic field. Characteristics of the isothermal magnetization relaxation in YBCO single-crystal samples with strong pinning centers were studied for different sample-field orientation. The obtained values of normalized relaxation rate S allowed us to estimate the effective pinning potential U in the bulk of the YBCO sample and its temperature dependence, as well as the critical current density Jc. A comparison between the data obtained and the results of similar measurements in significantly higher magnetic fields was performed. To compare different techniques for evaluation of Jc, the magnetization loop measurements M(H), which relate the loop width to the critical current, were carried out. These measurements provided important parameters of the samples under study (penetration field Hp and first critical field Hc1), which involve the geometrical configuration of the samples.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ning; ZHANG Da-Hua
2007-01-01
A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field.First,by using Mathematica,a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained,which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution.Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion,the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced.Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field,we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity,including the deflection of light by the sun,the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun.It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.
Discovery of a very weak magnetic field on the Am star Alhena
Blazère, Aurore; Petit, Pascal
2016-01-01
Alhena ($\\gamma$ Gem) was observed in the frame of the BRITE (BRIght Target Explorer) spectropolarimetric survey, which gathers high resolution, high signal-to-noise, high sensitivity, spectropolarimetric observations of all stars brighter than V=4 to combine seismic and spectropolarimetric studies of bright stars. We present here the discovery of a very weak magnetic field \\textbf{on} the Am star Alhena, thanks to very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data obtained with Narval at T\\'elescope Bernard Lyot (TBL). All previously studied Am stars show the presence of ultra-weak (sub-Gauss) fields with Zeeman signatures with an unexpected prominent positive lobe. However, Alhena presents a slightly stronger (but still very weak, only a few Gauss) field with normal Zeeman signatures with a positive and negative lobe, as found in stronger field (hundreds or thousands of Gauss) stars. It is the first detection of a normal magnetic signature in an Am star. Alhena is thus a very interesting object, which might...
Astronomers Use X-Rays To Probe Gravitational Field Of A Neutron Star
2002-06-01
With NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers have detected features that may be the first direct evidence of the effect of gravity on radiation from a neutron star. This finding, if confirmed, could enable scientists to measure the gravitational field of neutron stars and determine whether they contain exotic forms of matter not seen on Earth. A team led by George Pavlov of Penn State University in University Park observed 1E 1207.4-5209, a neutron star in the center of a supernova remnant about 7,000 light years from Earth. The results were presented on June 6, 2002, at the American Astronomical Society in Albuquerque, NM. Pavlov's group found two dips, or absorption features, in the spectrum of X-rays from the star. If these dips are due to the absorption of X-rays near the star by helium ions in a strong magnetic field, they indicate that the gravitational field reduces the energies of X-rays escaping from near the surface of a neutron star. "This interpretation is consistent with the data," said Pavlov, "but the features may be a blend of many other features. More precise measurements, preferably with Chandra's grating spectrometer, are needed." "These absorption features may be the first evidence of the effect of gravity on radiation near the surface of an isolated neutron star," said Pavlov. "This is particularly important because it would allow us to set limits on the type of matter that comprises this star." Neutron stars are formed when a massive star runs out of fuel and its core collapses. A supernova explosion occurs and the collapsed core is compressed to a hot object about 12 miles in diameter, with a thin atmosphere of hydrogen and possibly heavier ions in a gravitational field 100 billion times as strong as Earth's. These objects, which have a density of more than 1 billion tons per teaspoonful, are called neutron stars because they have been thought to be composed mostly of neutrons. Although neutron stars have been studied extensively for
Detection of ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: β Ursae Majoris and θ Leonis
Blazère, A.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Ballot, J.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C. P.; Gaurat, M.; Jouve, L.; Lopez Ariste, A.; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.
2016-02-01
Context. An extremely weak circularly polarized signature was recently discovered in spectral lines of the chemically peculiar Am star Sirius A. A weak surface magnetic field was proposed to account for the observed polarized signal, but the shape of the phase-averaged signature, dominated by a prominent positive lobe, is not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. Aims: We aim at verifying the presence of weak circularly polarized signatures in two other bright Am stars, β UMa and θ Leo, and investigating the physical origin of Sirius-like polarized signals further. Methods: We present here a set of deep spectropolarimetric observations of β UMa and θ Leo, observed with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter. We analyzed all spectra with the least squares deconvolution multiline procedure. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio and detect extremely weak signatures in Stokes V profiles, we co-added all available spectra of each star (around 150 observations each time). Finally, we ran several tests to evaluate whether the detected signatures are consistent with the behavior expected from the Zeeman effect. Results: The line profiles of the two stars display circularly polarized signatures similar in shape and amplitude to the observations previously gathered for Sirius A. Our series of tests brings further evidence of a magnetic origin of the recorded signal. Conclusions: These new detections suggest that very weak magnetic fields may well be present in the photospheres of a significant fraction of intermediate-mass stars. The strongly asymmetric Zeeman signatures measured so far in Am stars (featuring a dominant single-sign lobe) are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect and may be linked to sharp vertical gradients in photospheric velocities and magnetic field strengths.
The prevalence of weak magnetic fields in Herbig Ae stars: The case of PDS2
Hubrig, S; Schöller, M; Ilyin, I
2015-01-01
Models of magnetically driven accretion and outflows reproduce many observational properties of T Tauri stars, but the picture is much less clear for the Herbig Ae/Be stars, due to the poor knowledge of their magnetic field strength and topology. The Herbig Ae star PDS2 was previously included in two magnetic studies based on low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Only in one of these studies the presence of a weak mean longitudinal magnetic field was reported. In the present study, for the first time, high-resolution HARPS spectropolarimetric observations of PDS2 are used to investigate the presence of a magnetic field. A firm detection of a weak longitudinal magnetic field is achieved using the multi-line singular value decomposition method for Stokes profile reconstruction (=33+-5G). To gain better knowledge of typical magnetic field strengths in late Herbig Be and Herbig Ae stars, we compiled previous magnetic field measurements, revealing that only very few stars have fields stronger than 200G,...
Time of flight and range of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Karkantzakos
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the classical problem of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field under the influenceof a retarding force proportional to the velocity. Specifically, we express the time of flight, the time of fall and the range ofthe motion as a function of the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile. We also prove that the time of fall isgreater than the time of rise with the exception of the case of zero constant of resistance where we have equality. Finally weprove a formula from which we can compute the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile from time of flight andrange of the motion when the acceleration due to gravity and the initial velocity of the projectile are known.
Sanz, R; Torsello, B; Reschiglian, P; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T
2002-08-09
Performance of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) is improved here with respect to the ability to fractionate and distinguish different varieties of wine-making yeast from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A new GFFF channel with non-polar walls has been employed to enhance fractionation selectivity and reproducibility. Since GFFF retention depends from first principles on particle size, Coulter counter measurements were performed in order to compare size distribution profiles with GFFF profiles. From such a comparison, GFFF was shown to be able to reveal differences in yeast cells other than size. This could make use of GFFF for screening different varieties of wine-making yeast towards future quality assessment procedures based on a possible correlation between yeast cell morphology indexes and quality indexes.
Petrovskaya, M. S.
The conventional approach to the recovery of the Earth's gravitational field from satellite gradiometry observations is based on constructing, from the start, several boundary value (BV) relations, each of them corresponding to a separate observable component of the gravity gradient (GG) tensor or a certain combination of them. In particular, one of such projects, the ARISTOTELES mission, assumes that only the radial and across-track components are accessible (by technical reasons). The purpose of the present paper is mainly to discuss the principle aspects of the problem of the Earth's potential recovering from satellite gradiometry, to give an optimal formulation of the problem and derive the basic boundary value equation in different forms.
Transit time of a freely falling quantum particle in a background gravitational field
Davies, P. C. W.
2004-12-01
Using a model quantum clock, I evaluate an expression for the time of a non-relativistic quantum particle to transit a piecewise geodesic path in a background gravitational field with small spacetime curvature (gravity gradient), in the case in which the apparatus is in free fall. This calculation complements and extends an earlier one (Davies 2004) in which the apparatus is fixed to the surface of the Earth. The result confirms that, for particle velocities not too low, the quantum and classical transit times coincide, in conformity with the principle of equivalence. I also calculate the quantum corrections to the transit time when the de Broglie wavelengths are long enough to probe the spacetime curvature. The results are compared with the calculation of Chiao and Speliotopoulos (2003), who propose an experiment to measure the foregoing effects.
Transit time of a freely falling quantum particle in a background gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davies, P C W [Australian Centre for Astrobiology, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109 (Australia)
2004-12-21
Using a model quantum clock, I evaluate an expression for the time of a non-relativistic quantum particle to transit a piecewise geodesic path in a background gravitational field with small spacetime curvature (gravity gradient), in the case in which the apparatus is in free fall. This calculation complements and extends an earlier one (Davies 2004) in which the apparatus is fixed to the surface of the Earth. The result confirms that, for particle velocities not too low, the quantum and classical transit times coincide, in conformity with the principle of equivalence. I also calculate the quantum corrections to the transit time when the de Broglie wavelengths are long enough to probe the spacetime curvature. The results are compared with the calculation of Chiao and Speliotopoulos (2003), who propose an experiment to measure the foregoing effects.
Gravitational Field Excitation from the First Term of Quantum Wilson Loop
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Liang; SHAO Dan; SHAO Chang-Gui; H. Noda; CHEN Yi-Han
2006-01-01
In 4-dimensional R-gravity, using the linear and square terms of the expanding expression of the space-time connection, we calculate the possible curvature excitation (order k4) of gravitational field, which is given by the first term of quantum Wilson loop 〈w〉 through two-point Green's function of the connection. At the same time using the tree diagram propagators of gravitons, the lowest order (k4) correction to 〈w〉 is also calculated through the graviton self-energy in the term. Under the accuracy condition up to order k4, we have obtained a complete expression of the excitation contributed from the leading term 〈w(2)〉 of 〈w〉.
Coupling Between Spin and Gravitational Field and Equation of Motion of Spin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In general relativity, the equation of motion of the spin is given by the equation of parallel transport, which is a result of the space-time geometry. Any result of the space-time geometry cannot be directly applied to gauge theory of gravity. In gauge theory of gravity, based on the viewpoint of the coupling between the spin and gravitational field,an equation of motion of the spin is deduced. In the post Newtonian approximation, it is proved that this equation gives the same result as that of the equation of parallel transport. So, in the post Newtonian approximation, gauge theory of gravity gives out the same prediction on the precession of orbiting gyroscope as that of general relativity.
Bulk gravitational field and dark radiation on the brane in dilatonic brane world
Yoshiguchi, H; Yoshiguchi, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Kazuya
2004-01-01
We discuss the connection between the dark radiation on the brane and the bulk gravitational field in a dilatonic brane world model proposed by Koyama and Takahashi where the exact solutions for the five dimensional cosmological perturbations can be obtained analytically. It is shown that the dark radiation perturbation is related to the non-normalizable Kaluza-Klein (KK) mode of the bulk perturbations. For the de Sitter brane in the anti-de Sitter bulk, the squared mass of this KK mode is $2 H^2$ where $H$ is the Hubble parameter on the brane. This mode is shown to be connected to the excitation of small black hole in the bulk in the long wavelength limit. The exact solution for an anisotropic stress on the brane induced by this KK mode is found, which plays an important role in the calculation of cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies in the brane world.
Wave convection regimes in a binary mixture in a modulated gravitational field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myznikova, B. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mechanics of Continuous Media, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Smorodin, B. L., E-mail: bsmorodin@yandex.ru [Perm State University (Russian Federation)
2011-03-15
Nonlinear wave convection regimes are studied in a horizontal layer of an incompressible binary mixture with anomalous thermal diffusion in the gravitational field modulated with an arbitrary amplitude and finite frequency. Oscillation regimes are numerically simulated by the finite difference method for the case of a layer with impenetrable rigid boundaries, which better corresponds to experimental laboratory conditions. A qualitative difference is found in the dynamics of nonlinear quasi-periodic and subharmonic oscillations appearing in the initially stratified mixture and behaving as modulated and regular standing waves. The dependences of the intensity of convective flows on the modulation amplitude are obtained. The results of nonlinear calculations are compared with data on the boundaries of the equilibrium stability found from the linear theory. It is shown that a region of parameters exists where alternating action suppresses the convective motion.
Stability of naked singularity arising in gravitational collapse of Type I matter fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sanjay B Sarwe; R V Saraykar
2005-07-01
Considering gravitational collapse of Type I matter fields, we prove that, given an arbitrary 2-mass function (, ) and a 1-function ℎ(, ) (through the corresponding 1-metric function (, )), there exist infinitely many choices of energy distribution function () such that the `true’ initial data (, ℎ(, )) leads the collapse to the formation of naked singularity. We further prove that the occurrence of such a naked singularity is stable with respect to small changes in the initial data. We remark that though the initial data leading to both black hole (BH) and naked singularity (NS) form a `big' subset of the true initial data set, their occurrence is not generic. The terms `stability' and `genericity’ are appropriately defined following the theory of dynamical systems. The particular case of radial pressure () has been illustrated in details to get a clear picture of how naked singularity is formed and how, it is stable with respect to initial data.
Conformal field theory of a space-filling string of gravitational ancestry
Bunster, Claudio
2016-01-01
We present a classical conformal field theory on an arbitrary two-dimensional spacetime background. The dynamical object is a space-filling string, and the evolution may be thought as occurring on the manifold of the conformal group. The theory is a "descendant" of the theory of gravitation in two-dimensional spacetime. The discussion is based on the relation of the deformations of the space-filling string with conformal transformations. The realization of the conformal algebra in terms of surface deformations possesses a classical central charge. The action principle, the conformal and Weyl invariances of the action, and the equations of motion are studied. The energy-momentum tensor, the coupling to Liouville matter, and the cancellation of anomalies are analyzed. The quantum theory is not discussed.
Figueroa, Daniel G; Torrentí, Francisco
2016-01-01
During or towards the end of inflation, the Standard Model (SM) Higgs forms a condensate with a large amplitude. Following inflation, the condensate oscillates, decaying non-perturbatively into the rest of the SM species. The resulting out-of-equilibrium dynamics converts a fraction of the energy available into gravitational waves (GW). We study this process using classical lattice simulations in an expanding box, following the energetically dominant electroweak gauge bosons $W^\\pm$ and $Z$. We characterize the GW spectrum as a function of the running couplings, Higgs initial amplitude, and post-inflationary expansion rate. As long as the SM is decoupled from the inflationary sector, the generation of this background is universally expected, independently of the nature of inflation. Our study demonstrates the efficiency of GW emission by gauge fields undergoing parametric resonance. The initial energy of the Higgs condensate represents however, only a tiny fraction of the inflationary energy. Consequently, th...
Anomalies of Density, Stresses, and the Gravitational Field in the Interior of Mars
Chuikova, N A; Maksimova, T G; 10.3103/S0027134912020075
2012-01-01
We determined the possible compensation depths for relief harmonics of different degrees and orders. The relief is shown to be completely compensated within the depth range of 0 to 1400 km. The lateral distributions of compensation masses are determined at these depths and the maps are constructed. The possible nonisostatic vertical stresses in the crust and mantle of Mars are estimated to be 64 MPa in compression and 20 MPa in tension. The relief anomalies of the Tharsis volcanic plateau and symmetric feature in the eastern hemisphere could have arisen and been maintained dynamically due to two plumes in the mantle substance that are enriched with fluids. The plumes that originate at the core of Mars can arise and be maintained by the anomalies of the inner gravitational field achieving +800 mGal in the region of plume formation, - 1200 mGal above the lower mantle-core transition layer, and -1400 mGal at the crust.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohammadi, M [Physics Department, Science and Research Campus Azad University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, M H [Quantum Optics Group, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanolkotabi, M [Quantum Optics Group, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2006-09-01
We present a theoretical scheme based on an su(2) dynamical algebraic structure to investigate the influence of a homogeneous gravitational field on the quantum-nondemolition measurement of atomic momentum in the dispersive Jaynes-Cummings model. In the dispersive Jaynes-Cummings model, when detuning is large and the atomic motion is in a propagating light wave, we consider a two-level atom interacting with the quantized cavity field in the presence of a homogeneous gravitational field. We derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the dispersive atom-field interaction in the presence of the gravitational field. We investigate the influence of the gravitational field on both the momentum filter and momentum distribution. Particularly, we find that the gravitational field decreases both the tooth spacing of momentum and the tooth width of momentum.
Influence of the Galactic Gravitational Field on the Positional Accuracy of Extragalactic Sources
Larchenkova, Tatiana I.; Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Lyskova, Natalya S.
2017-01-01
We investigate the influence of random variations of the Galactic gravitational field on the apparent celestial positions of extragalactic sources. The basic statistical characteristics of a stochastic process (first-order moments, an autocorrelation function and a power spectral density) are used to describe a light ray deflection in a gravitational field of randomly moving point masses as a function of the source coordinates. We map a 2D distribution of the standard deviation of the angular shifts in positions of distant sources (including reference sources of the International Celestial Reference Frame) with respect to their true positions. For different Galactic matter distributions the standard deviation of the offset angle can reach several tens of μas (microarcsecond) toward the Galactic center, decreasing down to 4–6 μas at high galactic latitudes. The conditional standard deviation (“jitter”) of 2.5 μas is reached within 10 years at high galactic latitudes and within a few months toward the inner part of the Galaxy. The photometric microlensing events are not expected to be disturbed by astrometric random variations anywhere except the inner part of the Galaxy as the Einstein–Chvolson times are typically much shorter than the jittering timescale. While a jitter of a single reference source can be up to dozens of μas over some reasonable observational time, using a sample of reference sources would reduce the error in relative astrometry. The obtained results can be used for estimating the physical upper limits on the time-dependent accuracy of astrometric measurements.
Molecular alignment and filamentation: comparison between weak and strong field models
Berti, N; Wolf, J -P; Faucher, O
2014-01-01
The impact of nonadiabatic laser-induced molecular alignment on filamentation is numerically studied. Weak and strong field model of impulsive molecular alignment are compared in the context of nonlinear pulse propagation. It is shown that the widely used weak field model describing the refractive index modification induced by impulsive molecular alignment accurately reproduces the propagation dynamics providing that only a single pulse is involved during the experiment. On the contrary, it fails at reproducing the nonlinear propagation experienced by an intense laser pulse traveling in the wake of a second strong laser pulse. The discrepancy depends on the relative delay between the two pulses and is maximal for delays corresponding to half the rotational period of the molecule.
An effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects in the post-Newtonian scheme
Levi, Michele
2015-01-01
An effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects in the post-Newtonian approximation is formulated in the context of the binary inspiral problem. We aim at an effective action, where all field modes below the orbital scale are integrated out. We spell out the relevant degrees of freedom, in particular the rotational ones, and the associated symmetries. Building on these symmetries, we introduce the minimal coupling part of the point particle action in terms of gauge rotational variables. We then proceed to construct the spin-induced nonminimal couplings, where we obtain the leading order couplings to all orders in spin for the first time. We specify to a gauge for the rotational variables, where the unphysical degrees of freedom are eliminated already from the Feynman rules, and all the orbital field modes are conveniently integrated out. The equations of motion of spin are then directly obtained via a proper variation of the action, and they take on a simple form. We implement this effective field ...
Piecewise flat gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van de Meent, Maarten, E-mail: M.vandeMeent@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2011-04-07
We examine the continuum limit of the piecewise flat locally finite gravity model introduced by 't Hooft. In the linear weak field limit, we find the energy-momentum tensor and metric perturbation of an arbitrary configuration of defects. The energy-momentum turns out to be restricted to satisfy certain conditions. The metric perturbation is mostly fixed by the energy-momentum except for its lightlike modes which reproduce linear gravitational waves, despite no such waves being present at the microscopic level.
Hashino, Katsuya; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Kanemura, Shinya; Ko, Pyungwon; Matsui, Toshinori
2017-03-01
We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katsuya Hashino
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.
Gravitational waves and spinning test particles
Mohseni, M
2000-01-01
The motion of a classical spinning test particle in the field of a weak plane gravitational wave is studied. It is found that the characteristic dimensions of the particle's orbit is sensitive to the ratio of the spin to the mass of the particle. The results are compared with the corresponding motion of a particle without spin.
Dark-field hyperlens: Super-resolution imaging of weakly scattering objects
Repän, Taavi; Zhukovsky, Sergei V
2015-01-01
We propose and numerically demonstrate a technique for subwavelength imaging based on a metal-dielectric multilayer hyperlens designed in such a way that only the large-wavevector waves are transmitted while all propagating waves from the image area are blocked by the hyperlens. As a result, the image plane only contains scattered light from subwavelength features of the objects and is free from background illumination. Similar in spirit to conventional dark-field microscopy, the proposed dark-field hyperlens is promising for optical imaging of weakly scattering subwavelength objects, such as optical nanoscopy of label-free biological objects.
Detection of ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: beta UMa and theta Leo
Blazère, A; Lignières, F; Aurière, M; ballot, J; Böhm, T; Folsom, C P; Gaurat, M; Jouve, L; Ariste, A Lopez; Neiner, C; Wade, G A
2016-01-01
An extremely weak circularly polarized signature was recently discovered in spectral lines of the chemically peculiar Am star Sirius A. A weak surface magnetic field was proposed to account for the observed polarized signal, but the shape of the phase-averaged signature, dominated by a prominent positive lobe, is not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. We aim at verifying the presence of weak circularly polarized signatures in two other bright Am stars, beta UMa and theta Leo, and investigating the physical origin of Sirius-like polarized signals further. We present here a set of deep spectropolarimetric observations of beta UMa and theta Leo, observed with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter. We analyzed all spectra with the Least Squares Deconvolution multiline procedure. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio and detect extremely weak signatures in Stokes V profiles, we co-added all available spectra of each star (around 150 observations each time). Finally, we ran several tests to evaluate wheth...
Weak cosmic censorship, dyonic Kerr-Newman black holes and Dirac fields
Toth, Gabor Zsolt
2015-01-01
It was investigated recently, with the aim of testing the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, whether an extremal Kerr black hole can be converted into a naked singularity by interaction with a massless classical Dirac test field, and it was found that this is possible. We generalize this result to electrically and magnetically charged rotating extremal black holes (i.e. extremal dyonic Kerr-Newman black holes) and massive Dirac test fields, allowing magnetically or electrically uncharged or nonrotating black holes and the massless Dirac field as special cases. We show that the possibility of the conversion is a direct consequence of the fact that the Einstein-Hilbert energy-momentum tensor of the classical Dirac field does not satisfy the null energy condition, and is therefore not in contradiction with the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. We give a derivation of the absence of superradiance of the Dirac field without making use of the complete separability of the Dirac equation in dyonic Kerr-Newman backgr...
[Mechanism of action of combined extremely weak magnetic field on aqueous solution of amino acid].
Zhadin, M N; Bakharev, B V; Bobkova, N V
2014-01-01
The fundamental physical mechanisms of resonance action of an extremely weak (40 nT) alternating magnetic field at the cyclotron frequency combined with a weak (40 μT) static magnetic field, on living systems are analyzed in the present work. The experimental effects of such sort of magnetic fields were described in different papers: the very narrow resonant peaks in electrical conductivity of the aqueous solutions in the in vitro experiments and the biomedical in vivo effects on living animals of magnetic fields with frequencies tuned to some amino acids. The existing experimental in vitro data had a good repeatability in different laboratories and countries. Unfortunately, for free ions such sort of effects are absolutely impossible because the dimensions of an ion rotation radius should be measured by meters at room temperature and at very low static magnetic fields used in all the above experiments. Even for bound ions these effects should be also absolutely impossible from the positions of classic physics because of rather high viscosity of biological liquid media (blood plasma, cerebrospinal liquid, cytoplasm). Only modern quantum electrodynamics of condensed media opens the new ways for solving these problems. The proposed article is devoted to analysis of quantum mechanisms of these effects.
Devyatisil'nyi, A. S.
2016-09-01
A model for recognizing inertial and satellite data on an object's motion that are delivered by a set of distributed onboard sensors (newtonmeters, gyros, satellite receivers) has been described. Specifically, the model is capable of estimating the parameters of the gravitational field.
Hydrodynamic time correlation functions in the presence of a gravitational field
2003-01-01
This paper shows that the ordinary Brillouin spectrum peaks associated to scattered radiation off acoustic modes in a fluid suffer a shift in their values due to gravitational effects. The approach is based in the ordinary linearized Navier-Stokes equations for a fluid coupled to a Newtonian gravitational potential. The formalism leads to a dispersion relation that contains both gravitational and dissipative effects. It is also shown that the Brillouin peaks tend to condense into a single pea...
Christophe, B.; Lebat, V.; Foulon, B.; Liorzou, F.; Perrot, E.; Boulanger, D.; Hardy, E.
2014-12-01
ONERA has developed since several years the most accurate accelerometers for the geodesy mission. The accelerometers are still operational in the GRACE mission. Their successors for the GRACE-FO mission are under manufacturing and will fly in 2017. Finally, the GOCE mission has proved the interest of gradiometer for a direct measurement of the gravity field.Now, ONERA proposes a new design of accelerometer, MicroSTAR, for interplanetary mission. It inherits of the same technology but with reduced mass and consumption. It has been proposed in several missions towards outer planets in order to test the deviation to the relativity general over large distance to the sun (with the addition of a bias rejection system). But the same instrument could be interesting to improve our knowledge of the planetary gravitational potential field, allowing a better understanding of the planet interior composition. The success of using accelerometer for geodesy mission could be imported in the planetary science.The paper will present the accuracy achievable on the gravity potential field according to different accelerometer configurations (one accelerometer, one gradiometer arm or a complete 3-axis gradiometer). Then, the instrument will be described and the integration of the instrument inside an interplanetary probe will be evoked.
Gravitational Field equations near an Arbitrary Null Surface expressed as a Thermodynamic Identity
Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T
2015-01-01
Previous work has demonstrated that the gravitational field equations in all Lanczos-Lovelock models imply a thermodynamic identity TdS=dE+PdV (where the variations are interpreted as changes due to virtual displacement along the affine parameter) in the near-horizon limit in static spacetimes. Here we generalize this result to any arbitrary null surface in an arbitrary spacetime and show that certain components of the Einstein's equations can be expressed in the form of the above thermodynamic identity. We also obtain an explicit expression for the thermodynamic energy associated with the null surface. Under appropriate limits, our expressions reduce to those previously derived in the literature. The components of the field equations used in obtaining the current result are orthogonal to the components used previously to obtain another related result, viz. that some components of the field equations reduce to a Navier-Stokes equation on any null surface, in any spacetime. We also describe the structure of Ei...
On the Stability of Quasi-Equilibrium Self-Gravitating Configurations in a Tidal Field
Domínguez-Tenreiro, R
2000-01-01
The possibility that quasi-equilibrium self-gravitating galaxy-like configurations exist in a tidal field is analyzed in this paper. More specifically, we address the question of how to predict initial configurations modeling galaxies that are able to survive environmental effects in a dense environment for a Hubble time or so, provided thay dynamical friction is neglected. The initial quasi-equilibrium configurations have been built up taking into account the external tidal field produced by the halo. It modifies the escape velocity field of the configuration, compared with isolated configurations. The survival of the configurations as they orbit inside the halos has been studied through N-body simulations. As a general result, it has been found out that the bulk of the models is conserved along 12.5 Gyears of evolution, and that the low rates of mass losses they experience are consistent with those expected when the adiabatic protection hypothesis is at work. So, solutions for galaxy configurations in tidal...
A new high-integrated weak field sensor for automotive applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Thiessen
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Especially in the field of automotive applications smart sensor systems for magnetic field sensing face increasing requirements concerning low cost, low power consumption and high magnetic performance. Over the past years AMR sensors play a decisive role in this application area because of their robustness and stability. In the following a high-integrated smart sensor system for magnetic field sensing is presented. A novel approach for the detection of weak magnetic fields is shown, which is based on an AC-excitation of AMR elements. In contrast to common used sensors this concept is based on a nonlinear AMR element without Barber pole construction. By means of this methodology sensitivity as well as temperature and life time stability is significantly improved, while the production costs compared to common-used sensors are reduced. Within this novel approach new signal conditioning algorithms and analog circuit topologies are presented, which are able to meet low offset and low noise requirements.
Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field
Ratushnaya, Valeria
2016-12-17
We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.
Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field
Ratushnaya, Valeria; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-12-01
We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.
Kumar, T. Arun; Sathyanarayana, P.; Sastry, V. S. S.; Takezoe, Hideo; Madhusudana, N. V.; Dhara, Surajit
2010-07-01
We report electric field dependence of the anchoring transition in a mesogen on cooling in a cell with perfluoropolymer treated surfaces. Below a crossover voltage Vco the transition is discontinuous between planar and homeotropic alignments, and as the temperature is lowered, the transition temperature decreases quadratically with the field. Above Vco the transition is continuous between planar and tilted alignments, the transition temperature decreasing essentially linearly with the rms field. We develop a simple model to account for these results and argue that the higher field regime corresponds to a temperature driven inverse Freedericksz transition in which the director orientation starts tilting at the weakly anchored surfaces while the tilt angle remains zero at the midplane of the cell.
A new high-integrated weak field sensor for automotive applications
Thiessen, T.; Prochaska, M.
2009-05-01
Especially in the field of automotive applications smart sensor systems for magnetic field sensing face increasing requirements concerning low cost, low power consumption and high magnetic performance. Over the past years AMR sensors play a decisive role in this application area because of their robustness and stability. In the following a high-integrated smart sensor system for magnetic field sensing is presented. A novel approach for the detection of weak magnetic fields is shown, which is based on an AC-excitation of AMR elements. In contrast to common used sensors this concept is based on a nonlinear AMR element without Barber pole construction. By means of this methodology sensitivity as well as temperature and life time stability is significantly improved, while the production costs compared to common-used sensors are reduced. Within this novel approach new signal conditioning algorithms and analog circuit topologies are presented, which are able to meet low offset and low noise requirements.
Gravitational Shielding Effect in Gauge Theory of Gravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ning
2004-01-01
In 1992,E.E.Podkletnov and R.Nieminen found that under certain conditions,ceramic superconductor with composite structure reveals weak shielding properties against gravitational force.In classical Newton's theory of gravity and even in Einstein's general theory of gravity,there are no grounds of gravitational shielding effects.But in quantum gauge theory of gravity,the gravitational shielding effects can be explained in a simple and natural way.In quantum gauge theory of gravity,gravitational gauge interactions of complex scalar field can be formulated based on gauge principle.After spontaneous symmetry breaking,if the vacuum of the complex scalar field is not stable and uniform,there will be a mass term of gravitational gauge field.When gravitational gauge field propagates in this unstable vacuum of the complex scalar field,it will decays exponentially,which is the nature of gravitational shielding effects.The mechanism of gravitational shielding effects is studied in this paper,and some main properties of gravitational shielding effects are discussed.
Discovery of a very weak magnetic field on the Am star Alhena
Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.
2016-06-01
Alhena (γ Gem) was observed in the frame of the BRIght Target Explorer spectropolarimetric survey, which gathers high resolution, high signal-to-noise, high sensitivity, spectropolarimetric observations of all stars brighter than V = 4 to combine seismic and spectropolarimetric studies of bright stars. We present here the discovery of a very weak magnetic field on the Am star Alhena, thanks to very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data obtained with Narval at Télescope Bernard Lyot. All previously studied Am stars show the presence of ultraweak (sub-Gauss) fields with Zeeman signatures with an unexpected prominent positive lobe. However, Alhena presents a slightly stronger (but still very weak, only a few Gauss) field with normal Zeeman signatures with a positive and negative lobe, as found in stronger field (hundreds or thousands of Gauss) stars. It is the first detection of a normal magnetic signature in an Am star. Alhena is thus a very interesting object, which might provide the clue to understanding the peculiar shapes of the magnetic signatures of the other Am stars.
Generalized weak-binding relations of compositeness in effective field theory
Kamiya, Yuki
2016-01-01
We study the compositeness of near-threshold states to investigate the internal structure of exotic hadron candidates. Within the framework of effective field theory, Weinberg's weak-binding relation is extended to more general cases by easing several preconditions. First, by evaluating the contribution from the decay channel, we obtain the generalized relation for unstable quasibound states. Next, we generalize the relation to include the nearby CDD (Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson) pole contribution with the help of the Pade approximant. The validity of the estimation with the generalized weak-binding relations is examined by numerical calculations. Finally, by applying the extended relation to Lambda(1405), f0(980) and a0(980), we discuss their internal structure, in comparison with other approaches.
Weak interactions from 1950-1960: a quantitative bibliometric study of the formation of a field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.
1986-01-01
A quantitative technique is illustrated which uses publication statistics from a bibliography of citations in the area of weak interactions to provide a view of trends and patterns in the development of the field during the period from 1950 to 1960. An overview is given of what the physicists working in weak interactions during this period were doing as indicated by an analysis of the subjects of their papers. The dominant problems and concerns are discussed. Focus is then turned to the events surrounding the emergence of the tau/theta particle puzzle, the discovery of parity nonconservation, and the resolution offered by the V-A theory. Displaying the data from the citation index in unusual ways highlights dominant issues of the period, especially the close relationship between theory and experiment in the latter half of the decade. 64 refs., 14 figs. (LEW)
Novikov, V V; Sheĭman, I M; Fesenko, E E
2002-01-01
It was shown that the exposure to combined weak and extraweak magnetic fields (permanent component 42 microT; variable component of an amplitude of 100 nT, frequency 1-60 Hz) increases the intensity of asexual propagation of planarians Dugesia tigrina. The effect of combined magnetic fields is most pronounced at frequencies of 1, 3.7, and 32 Hz. The presence of concomitant technogeneous fields (50 Hz, 30 nT) does not markedly influence the effects of weak magnetic fields with a small variable component. Upon realization of effects of weak magnetic fields, their both components are of great importance; the absence of one (permanent) component changes the sing of the effect to the opposite. The transfer of the effect to planarians through water pretreated with magnetic fields probably indicates that aqueous medium is involved in the realization of biological effects of weak magnetic fields.
Plocková, J; Chmelík, J
2001-05-25
Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) utilizes the Earth's gravitational field as an external force that causes the settlement of particles towards the channel accumulation wall. Hydrodynamic lift forces oppose this action by elevating particles away from the channel accumulation wall. These two counteracting forces enable modulation of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF. In this work, force-field programming based on modulating the magnitude of hydrodynamic lift forces was implemented via changes of flow-rate, which was accomplished by a programmable pump. Several flow-rate gradients (step gradients, linear gradients, parabolic, and combined gradients) were tested and evaluated as tools for optimization of the separation of a silica gel particle mixture. The influence of increasing amount of sample injected on the peak resolution under flow-rate gradient conditions was also investigated. This is the first time that flow-rate gradients have been implemented for programming of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF.
Fan, Peifeng; Liu, Jian; Xiang, Nong; Yu, Zhi
2016-01-01
A manifestly covariant, or geometric, field theory for relativistic classical particle-field system is developed. The connection between space-time symmetry and energy-momentum conservation laws for the system is established geometrically without splitting the space and time coordinates, i.e., space-time is treated as one identity without choosing a coordinate system. To achieve this goal, we need to overcome two difficulties. The first difficulty arises from the fact that particles and field reside on different manifold. As a result, the geometric Lagrangian density of the system is a function of the 4-potential of electromagnetic fields and also a functional of particles' world-lines. The other difficulty associated with the geometric setting is due to the mass-shell condition. The standard Euler-Lagrange (EL) equation for a particle is generalized into the geometric EL equation when the mass-shell condition is imposed. For the particle-field system, the geometric EL equation is further generalized into a w...
Nonlinear gravitational self-force. I. Field outside a small body
Pound, Adam
2012-01-01
A small extended body moving through an external spacetime $g_{\\alpha\\beta}$ creates a metric perturbation $h_{\\alpha\\beta}$, which forces the body away from geodesic motion in $g_{\\alpha\\beta}$. The foundations of this effect, called the gravitational self-force, are now well established, but concrete results have mostly been limited to linear order. Accurately modeling the dynamics of compact binaries requires proceeding to nonlinear orders. To that end, I show how to obtain the metric perturbation outside the body at all orders in a class of generalized wave gauges. In a small buffer region surrounding the body, the form of the perturbation can be found analytically as an expansion for small distances $r$ from a representative worldline. Given only a specification of the body's multipole moments, the field obtained in the buffer region suffices to find the metric everywhere outside the body via a numerical puncture scheme. Following this procedure at first and second order, I calculate the field in the buf...
Black holes and fundamental fields: hair, kicks and a gravitational "Magnus" effect
Okawa, Hirotada
2014-01-01
Scalar fields pervade theoretical physics and are a fundamental ingredient to solve the dark matter problem, to realize the Peccei-Quinn mechanism in QCD or the string-axiverse scenario. They are also a useful proxy for more complex matter interactions, such as accretion disks or matter in extreme conditions. Here, we study the collision between scalar "clouds" and rotating black holes. For the first time we are able to compare analytic estimates and strong field, nonlinear numerical calculations for this problem. As the black hole pierces through the cloud it accretes according to the Bondi-Hoyle prediction, but is deflected through a purely kinematic gravitational "anti-Magnus" effect, which we predict to be present also during the interaction of black holes with accretion disks. After the interaction is over, we find large recoil velocities in the transverse direction. The end-state of the process belongs to the vacuum Kerr family if the scalar is massless, but can be a hairy black hole when the fundamenta...
Advances in Magnetic and Gravitational Potential Field Data in the Arctic
Olesen, Odleiv; Saltus, Rick
2010-10-01
Integration of Magnetics and Gravity in Northern Exploration (iMAGINE); Tromsø, Norway, 1-2 June 2010; Magnetic and gravitational potential field data are crucial components of regional tectonic framework studies and resource exploration in the Arctic. Special data acquisition difficulties at high latitudes include extreme weather conditions, ice-covered waters, and magnetic disturbances from the aurora borealis. Improved techniques in sub-ice, sub-salt, and sub-basalt exploration are required. The Integration of Magnetics and Gravity in Northern Exploration (iMAGINE) meeting (part of Arctic Days 2010) featured discussion of the most recent advances in potential field methods with particular attention to Arctic challenges. Presentations concentrated on regional interpretations in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Siberia, and northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Talks also touched on regional petroleum exploration and on the interpretation of weathered bedrock in Norway. In addition, a group of talks dealt with geomagnetic disturbances and their effect on magnetic data collection and in magnetic orientation for directional drilling.
Black holes and fundamental fields: Hair, kicks, and a gravitational Magnus effect
Okawa, Hirotada; Cardoso, Vitor
2014-11-01
Scalar fields pervade theoretical physics and are a fundamental ingredient to solve the dark matter problem, to realize the Peccei-Quinn mechanism in QCD or the string-axiverse scenario. They are also a useful proxy for more complex matter interactions, such as accretion disks or matter in extreme conditions. Here, we study the collision between scalar "clouds" and rotating black holes. For the first time we are able to compare analytic estimates and strong field, nonlinear numerical calculations for this problem. As the black hole pierces through the cloud it accretes according to the Bondi-Hoyle prediction, but is deflected through a purely kinematic gravitational "anti-Magnus" effect, which we predict to be present also during the interaction of black holes with accretion disks. After the interaction is over, we find large recoil velocities in the transverse direction. The end-state of the process belongs to the vacuum Kerr family if the scalar is massless, but can be a hairy black hole when the scalar is massive.
Gravitational Wave Track in the Electromagnetic Field of the Earth in the Infra-Low Frequency Range
Grunskaya, L. V.; Isakevich, V. V.; Isakevich, D. V.; Luk'ianov, V. E.
2017-01-01
Signals in the infra-low frequency range in the electric and geomagnetic fields of the Earth have been detected, corresponding to frequencies of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by a series of binary star systems (BSS). The coherence of the detected signals has been investigated. The amplitude characteristics of signals in the electric and geomagnetic fields at GW frequencies of BSS are estimated. The estimates of the amplitudes of the detected signals are in line with model estimates.
An stellar explosion in the weak field approximation of the Brans-Dicke theory
Hamity, V H; Hamity, Victor H.; Barraco, Daniel E.
2005-01-01
We treat a very crude model of an exploding star, in the weak field approximation of the Brans-Dicke theory, that shows aspects that resembles some characteristics data of a Type Ia Supernova. The most noticeable result in the electromagnetic component, is the relationship between the absolute magnitude at maximum brightness of the star and the decline rate in one magnitude from that maximum. This characteristic has become one of the most accurate method to measure luminosity distances to objects at cosmological distances. Another interesting result is that the active mass associated with the scalar field is totally radiated to infinity, representing a mass loss in the ratio of the "tensor" component to the scalar component of 1 to $(2\\omega + 3)$ ($\\omega$ is the Brans-Dicke parameter), in agreement with a general result of Hawking. Then, this model shows explicitly, in a dynamical case, the mechanism of radiation of scalar field, which is necessary to understand the Hawking result.
Electrical conductivity of a methane-air burning plasma under the action of weak electric fields
Colonna, G.; Pietanza, L. D.; D'Angola, A.; Laricchiuta, A.; Di Vita, A.
2017-02-01
This paper focuses on the calculation of the electrical conductivity of a methane-air flame in the presence of weak electric fields, solving the Boltzmann equation for free electrons self-consistently coupled with chemical kinetics. The chemical model GRI-Mech 3.0 has been completed with chemi-ionization reactions to model ionization in the absence of fields, and a database of cross sections for electron-impact-induced processes to account for reactions and transitions activated in the flame during discharge. The dependence of plasma properties on the frequency of an oscillating field has been studied under different pressure and gas temperature conditions. Fitting expressions of the electrical conductivity as a function of gas temperature and methane consumption are provided for different operational conditions in the Ansaldo Energia burner.
The topology of weak lensing field in the neighborhood of MS1054-03
Sato, J; Futamase, T; Yamada, T; Sato, Jun'ichi; Umetsu, Keiichi; Futamase, Toshifumi; Yamada, Toru
2003-01-01
We report the first measurement of genus curves for the two-dimensional mass map in the neighborhood of rich, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster MS1054-03 at z=0.83, reconstructed from weak lensing data obtained by Suprime-Cam on the prime focus of 8.2m Subaru telescope. We find that the genus curve measured in the whole survey field deviates from that expected from a random Gaussian field. We show that this non-Gaussianity is induced by the rich cluster in this region, and that the genus curve for the region without the cluster is consistent with the prediction for a random Gaussian field. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the genus statistics to examine the non-Gaussianity due to the large scale structures and to probe the statistical properties of the large scale clustering.
Tomanova, K; Vacha, M
2016-06-01
Studies on weak man-made radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields affecting animal magnetoreception aim for a better understanding of the reception mechanism and also point to a new phenomenon having possible consequences in ecology and environmental protection. RF impacts on magnetic compasses have recently been demonstrated in migratory birds and other vertebrates. We set out to investigate the effect of RF on the magnetic orientation of the Antarctic krill species Gondogeneia antarctica, a small marine crustacean widespread along the Antarctic littoral line. Here, we show that upon release, G. antarctica (held under laboratory conditions) escaped in the magnetically seaward direction along the magnetic sea-land axis (y-axis) of the home beach. However, the animals were disoriented after being exposed to RF. Orientation was lost not only in an RF field with a magnetic flux density of 20 nT, as expected according to the literature, but even under the 2 nT originally intended as a control. Our results extend recent findings of the extraordinary sensitivity of animal magnetoreception to weak RF fields in marine invertebrates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moral, A. del, E-mail: delmoral@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain); Azanza, María J., E-mail: mjazanza@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain)
2015-03-01
A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate (“frequency”), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD–CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD–CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B{sub 0}≅0.2–15 mT) AC-MF of frequency f{sub M}=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation. - Highlights: • Neuron pair synchronization under low frequency alternating (AC) magnetic field (MF). • Superdiamagnetism and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion for AC MF effect in synchronized frequency. • Membrane lipid electrical quadrupolar pair interaction as synchronization mechamism. • Good agreement of model with electrophysiological experiments on mollusc Helix neurons.
Effect of Ionic Advection on Electroosmosis over Charge Surfaces: Beyond the Weak Field Limit
Ghosh, Uddipta
2015-01-01
The present study deals with the effect of ionic advection on electroosmotic flow over charge modulated surfaces in a generalized paradigm when the classically restrictive "weak field" limit may be relaxed. Going beyond the commonly portrayed weak field limit (i.e, the externally applied electric field is over-weighed by the surface-induced electrical potential, towards charge distribution in an electrified wall-adhering layer) for electroosmotic transport, we numerically solve the coupled full set of Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) and Navier-Stokes equations, in a semi-infinite domain, bounded at the bottom by a charged wall. Further, in an effort to obtain deeper physical insight, we solve the simplified forms of the relevant governing equations for low surface potential in two separate asymptotic limits: (i) a regular perturbation solution for Low Ionic Peclet number (Pe), where Pe is employed as the gauge function and (ii) a matched asymptotic solution for O(1) Pe in the Thin Electric Double Layer (EDL) limi...
Nonthermal Fixed Points in Quantum Field Theory Beyond the Weak-Coupling Limit
Berges, Jürgen
2016-01-01
Quantum systems in extreme conditions can exhibit universal behavior far from equilibrium associated to nonthermal fixed points, with a wide range of topical applications from early-universe inflaton dynamics and heavy-ion collisions to strong quenches in ultracold quantum gases. So far, most studies rely on a mapping of the quantum dynamics onto a classical-statistical theory that can be simulated on a computer. However, the mapping is based on a weak-coupling limit while phenomenological applications often require moderate values of couplings. We report on the observation of nonthermal fixed points directly in quantum field theory beyond the weak-coupling limit. For the example of a relativistic scalar \\mathrm{O}(N) symmetric quantum field theory, we numerically solve the nonequilibrium dynamics employing a 1/N expansion to next-to-leading order, which does not rely on a small coupling parameter. Starting from two different sets of (a) over-occupied and (b) strong-field initial conditions, we find that nont...
Kirschvink, Joseph L.
1992-08-01
In a recent paper, Adair [Phys. Rev. A 43, 1039 (1991)] concludes that weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields cannot affect biology on the cell level. However, Adair's assertion that few cells of higher organisms contain magnetite (Fe3O4) and his blanket denial of reproducible ELF effects on animals are both wrong. Large numbers of single-domain magnetite particles are present in a variety of animal tissues, including up to a hundred million per gram in human brain tissues, organized in clusters of tens to hundreds of thousand per gram. This is far more than a ``few cells.'' Similarly, a series of reproducible behavioral experiments on honeybees, Apis mellifera, have shown that they are capable of responding to weak ELF magnetic fields that are well within the bounds of Adair's criteria. A biologically plausible model of the interaction of single-domain magnetosomes with a mechanically activated transmembrane ion channel shows that ELF fields on the order of 0.1 to 1 mT are capable of perturbing the open-closed state by an energy of kT. As up to several hundred thousand such structures could fit within a eukaryotic cell, and the noise should go as the square root of the number of independent channels, much smaller ELF sensitivities at the cellular level are possible. Hence, the credibility of weak ELF magnetic effects on living systems must stand or fall mainly on the merits and reproducibility of the biological or epidemiological experiments that suggest them, rather than on dogma about physical implausibility.
The hydrogen atom in strong electric fields summation of the weak field series expansion
Ohshima, Y; Ohshima, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Hiroshi
1995-01-01
The order dependent mapping method, its convergence has recently been proven for the energy eigenvalue of the anharmonic oscillator, is applied to re-sum the standard perturbation series for Stark effect of the hydrogen atom. We perform a numerical experiment up to the fiftieth order of the perturbation expansion. A simple mapping suggested by the analytic structure and the strong field behavior gives an excellent agreement with the exact value for an intermediate range of the electric field, 0.03\\leq E\\leq0.25. The imaginary part of the energy (the decay width) as well as the real part of the energy is reproduced from the standard perturbation series.
Imagawa, Daisuke; Kawamura, Hikaru
2004-02-20
The spin and the chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with the weak random anisotropy are studied under applied magnetic fields by equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations. A replica symmetry breaking transition occurs in the chiral sector accompanied by the simultaneous spin-glass order. The ordering behavior differs significantly from that of the Ising spin glass, despite the similarity in the global symmetry. Our observation is consistent with the spin-chirality decoupling-recoupling scenario of a spin-glass transition.
Second-order corrections to mean-field evolution of weakly interacting Bosons, II
Grillakis, M; Margetis, D
2010-01-01
We study the evolution of a N-body weakly interacting system of Bosons. Our work forms an extension of our previous paper I, in which we derived a second-order correction to a mean-field evolution law for coherent states in the presence of small interaction potential. Here, we remove the assumption of smallness of the interaction potential and prove global existence of solutions to the equation for the second-order correction. This implies an improved Fock-space estimate for our approximation of the N-body state.
Kirschvink, Joseph L.
1992-01-01
In a recent paper, Adair [Phys. Rev. A 43, 1039 (1991)] concludes that weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields cannot affect biology on the cell level. However, Adair’s assertion that few cells of higher organisms contain magnetite (Fe_(3)O_4) and his blanket denial of reproducible ELF effects on animals are both wrong. Large numbers of single-domain magnetite particles are present in a variety of animal tissues, including up to a hundred million per gram in human brain tiss...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2011-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically that laser-induced coherent quantum interference control of asymptotic states of dissociating molecules is possible - even in the (one-photon) weak-field limit starting from a single vibrational eigenstate - when resonances are in play. This is illustrated for the Na......I molecule, where it is shown that the probability of observing atomic fragments as well as the distribution of their relative momenta can be changed by a phase modulated pulse with a fixed bandwidth. This type of control is restricted to finite times during the indirect fragmentation. (C) 2011 American...
Control of Optical Transitions with Magnetic Fields in Weakly Bound Molecules
McGuyer, B H; Iwata, G Z; Skomorowski, W; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T
2015-01-01
Forbidden optical transitions in weakly bound $^{88}$Sr$_2$ molecules become strongly enabled with moderate applied magnetic fields. We report the control of transition strengths by five orders of magnitude and measurements of highly nonlinear Zeeman shifts, which we explain with an accurate {\\it ab initio} model. Mixed quantization in an optical lattice enables the experimental procedure. Our observation of formerly inaccessible $f$-parity excited states offers a new avenue for improving theoretical models for divalent atom dimers. Furthermore, magnetically enabled transitions may lead to an extremely precise subradiant molecular lattice clock.
Weak lensing calibrated M-T scaling relation of galaxy groups in the cosmos field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Massey, R. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hoekstra, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands); Taylor, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Spinelli, P. F. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas (IAG), Rua do Matão, 1226 Cidade Universitária 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tanaka, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ilbert, O. [LAM, CNRS-UNiv Aix-Marseille, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curis, F-13013 Marseille (France); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCracken, H. J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: kimmo.kettula@iki.fi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2013-11-20
The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute{sup 2}, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48{sub −0.09}{sup +0.13}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV.
Ghosh, Shaon; Nelemans, Gijs; Groot, Paul J; Price, Larry R
2015-01-01
The advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors scheduled to come online in the next two years will open up the much anticipated era of gravitational wave astronomy. Among the strongest contenders for the first detection are merging binary neutron stars, a fraction of which are also expected to produce observable electromagnetic signals in coincidence with the gravitational wave events. In this paper we investigate the strategy of using gravitational wave sky-localizations that we can expect to see in the first two years of the advanced detector era, to look for electromagnetic counterparts using wide field of view optical telescopes. The key to efficient observation of the gravitational wave sky-localizations is to obtain the optimal discretized approximation of the sky-localizations, where the coarseness of the discretization will depend on the field of view of the telescope. We examine various strategies of scanning these sky-localizations and propose the ranked-tiling strategy that we found to be the most effective...
Electric-field-induced weakly chaotic transients in ferroelectric liquid crystals
Śliwa, I.; JeŻewski, W.; Kuczyński, W.
2016-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics induced in surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals by strong alternating external electric fields is studied both theoretically and experimentally. As has already been shown, molecular reorientations induced by sufficiently strong fields of high-enough frequencies can reveal a long transient behavior that has a weakly chaotic character. The resulting complex dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystals can be considered not only as a consequence of irregular motions of particular molecules but also as a repercussion of a surface-enforced partial decorrelation of nonlinear molecular motions within smectic layers. To achieve more insight into the nature of this phenomenon and to show that the underlying complex field-induced behavior of smectic liquid crystals is not exceptional, ranges of system parameters for which the chaotic behavior occurs are determined. It is proved that there exists a large enough set of initial phase trajectory points, for which weakly chaotic long-time transitory phenomena occur, and, thereby, it is demonstrated that such a chaotic behavior can be regarded as being typical for strongly field-driven thin liquid crystal systems. Additionally, the influence of low-amplitude random noise on the duration of the transient processes is numerically studied. The strongly nonlinear contribution to the electro-optic response, experimentally determined for liquid crystal samples at frequencies lower than the actual field frequency, is also analyzed for long-time signal sequences. Using a statistical approach to distinguish numerically response signals of samples from noise generated by measuring devices, it is shown that the distribution of sample signals distinctly differs from the device noise. This evidently corroborates the occurrence of the nonlinear low-frequency effect, found earlier for different surface stabilized liquid crystal samples.
Electric-field-induced weakly chaotic transients in ferroelectric liquid crystals.
Śliwa, I; Jeżewski, W; Kuczyński, W
2016-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics induced in surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals by strong alternating external electric fields is studied both theoretically and experimentally. As has already been shown, molecular reorientations induced by sufficiently strong fields of high-enough frequencies can reveal a long transient behavior that has a weakly chaotic character. The resulting complex dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystals can be considered not only as a consequence of irregular motions of particular molecules but also as a repercussion of a surface-enforced partial decorrelation of nonlinear molecular motions within smectic layers. To achieve more insight into the nature of this phenomenon and to show that the underlying complex field-induced behavior of smectic liquid crystals is not exceptional, ranges of system parameters for which the chaotic behavior occurs are determined. It is proved that there exists a large enough set of initial phase trajectory points, for which weakly chaotic long-time transitory phenomena occur, and, thereby, it is demonstrated that such a chaotic behavior can be regarded as being typical for strongly field-driven thin liquid crystal systems. Additionally, the influence of low-amplitude random noise on the duration of the transient processes is numerically studied. The strongly nonlinear contribution to the electro-optic response, experimentally determined for liquid crystal samples at frequencies lower than the actual field frequency, is also analyzed for long-time signal sequences. Using a statistical approach to distinguish numerically response signals of samples from noise generated by measuring devices, it is shown that the distribution of sample signals distinctly differs from the device noise. This evidently corroborates the occurrence of the nonlinear low-frequency effect, found earlier for different surface stabilized liquid crystal samples.
Gravitation as a Composite Particle Effect in a Unified Spinor-Isospinor Preon Field Model I
Stumpf, H.
1988-04-01
The model is defined by a selfregularizing nonlinear preon field equation, and all observable (elementary and non-elementary) particles are assumed to be bound (quantum) states of fermionic preon fields. Electroweak gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, gluons as preon composites and their effective dynamics etc. were studied in preceding papers. In this paper gravitons are introduced as four-preon composites and their effective interactions are discussed. This discussion is performed by the application of functional quantum theory to the model under consideration and subsequent evaluation of a weak mapping procedure, both introduced in preceding papers. In the low energy limit it is demonstrated that the effective graviton dynamics lead to the complete homogeneous Einstein equations in tetrad formulation.
Galtsov, D V
2001-01-01
Recent progress in the study of solitons and black holes in non-Abelian field theories coupled to gravity is reviewed. New topics include gravitational binding of monopoles, black holes with non-trivial topology, Lue-Weinberg bifurcation, asymptotically AdS lumps, solutions to the Freedman-Schwarz model with applications to holography, non-Abelian Born-Infeld solutions
Hydrodynamic time correlation functions in the presence of a gravitational field
Sandoval-Villalbazo, A
2003-01-01
This paper shows that the ordinary Brillouin spectrum peaks associated to scattered radiation off acoustic modes in a fluid suffer a shift in their values due to gravitational effects. The approach is based in the ordinary linearized Navier-Stokes equations for a fluid coupled to a Newtonian gravitational potential. The formalism leads to a dispersion relation that contains both gravitational and dissipative effects. It is also shown that the Brillouin peaks tend to condense into a single peak when the fluid modes approach the critical Jeans wave number.