WorldWideScience

Sample records for weak coupling confinement

  1. Persistent Spin Current in a Hard-Wall Confining Quantum Wire with Weak Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xi; ZHOU Guang-Hui

    2009-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling connected to two normal conductors.Both the quantum wire and conductors are described by a hard-wall confining potential.Using the electron wave-functions in the quantum wire and a new definition of spin current, we have calculated the elements of linear spin current density jTs,xi and jTs,yi(I = x, y, z).We lind that the elements jTs,xx and jTs,yy have a antisymmetrical relation and the element jTs,yz has the same amount level jTs,xx and jTs,yy.We also find a net linear spin current density, which has peaks at the center of quantum wire.The net linear spin current can induce a linear electric field, which may imply a way of spin current detection.

  2. Casimir torque in weak coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Long, William

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, dedicated to Johan H{\\o}ye on the occasion of his 70th birthday, we examine manifestations of Casimir torque in the weak-coupling approximation, which allows exact calculations so that comparison with the universally applicable, but generally uncontrolled, proximity force approximation may be made. In particular, we examine Casimir energies between planar objects characterized by $\\delta$-function potentials, and consider the torque that arises when angles between the objects are changed. The results agree very well with the proximity force approximation when the separation distance between the objects is small compared with their sizes. In the opposite limit, where the size of one object is comparable to the separation distance, the shape dependence starts becoming irrelevant. These calculations are illustrative of what to expect for the torques between, for example, conducting planar objects, which eventually should be amenable to both improved theoretical calculation and experimental verific...

  3. ElectroWeak Bosons Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Ouraou, Ahmimed; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Latest results on the measurement of gauge boson couplings, from ATLAS and CMS at the LHC, are presented. This review starts with an introduction to boson couplings, then the measurements of Triple and Quartic Couplings are described. And finally, limits on anomalous couplings are summarized.

  4. RHEOLOGY OF CONFINED POLYMER MELTS UNDER SHEAR-FLOW - WEAK ADSORPTION LIMIT : Weak Adsorption Limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subbotin, A.V.; Semenov, A.N.; Hadziioannou, G; ten Brinke, G.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of a confined polymer melt between weakly adsorbing surfaces is considered theoretically. The finite chain extensibility is taken into account explicitly, and the tangential stress and the first and the second normal-stress differences are calculated as functions of shear rate gamma.

  5. Weak confinement in the three-state Potts Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkevich, Sergei

    Kink topological excitations are quite common in one-dimensional quantum ferromagnetic systems with the spontaneously broken discrete symmetry. Application of the external magnetic field h induces the long-range attractive force between kinks leading to their confinement. While in the Ising Field Theory the particle sector in the confinement regime contains only the two-kink bound states (''the mesons''), in the three-state Potts Field Theory (PFT) the three-kink bound states (''the baryons'') can exist as well. In the weak confinement regime, which is realized at small external magnetic fields, the meson masses in the PFT can be determined analytically in the leading order in h by means of the solution of a quantum-mechanical problem for two non-relativistic particles interacting with a linear attractive potential, and my means of the WKB method. The masses of lightest baryons in the three-state PFT were calculated by the numerical solution of a three-particle quantum-mechanical problem. The obtained mass spectra for the PFT mesons and baryons were confirmed recently by Lencés and Takács in numerical calculations based on the truncated conformal space approach.

  6. Many-body chaos at weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The strength of chaos in large N quantum systems can be quantified using λ L , the rate of growth of certain out-of-time-order four point functions. We calculate λ L to leading order in a weakly coupled matrix Φ4 theory by numerically diagonalizing a ladder kernel. The computation reduces to an essentially classical problem.

  7. Weak Anchoring and Surface Elasticity Effects in Electroosmotic Flow of Nematic Liquid Crystals Through Narrow Confinements

    CERN Document Server

    Poddar, Antarip; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Advent of nematic liquid crystals flows have attracted renewed attention in view of microfluidic transport phenomena. Among various transport processes, electroosmosis stands as one of the efficient flow actuation method through narrow confinement. In the present study, we explore the electrically actuated flow of a nematic fluid with ionic inclusions taking into account the influences from surface induced elastic and electrical double layer phenomena. Influence of surface effects on the flow characteristics is known to get augmented in micro-confined environment and must be properly addressed. Towards this, we devise the coupled flow governing equations from fundamental free energy analysis considering the contributions from first and second-order elastic, dielectric, flexoelectric, ionic and entropic energies. We have further considered weak anchoring surface conditions with second order elasticity which helps us to more accurately capture the director deformations along the boundaries. The present study fo...

  8. Entanglement in Weakly Coupled Lattice Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Radicevic, Djordje

    2015-01-01

    We present a direct lattice gauge theory computation that, without using dualities, demonstrates that the entanglement entropy of Yang-Mills theories with arbitrary gauge group $G$ contains a generic logarithmic term at sufficiently weak coupling $e$. In two spatial dimensions, for a region of linear size $r$, this term equals $\\frac{1}{2} \\dim(G) \\log\\left(e^2 r\\right)$ and it dominates the universal part of the entanglement entropy. Such logarithmic terms arise from the entanglement of the softest mode in the entangling region with the environment. For Maxwell theory in two spatial dimensions, our results agree with those obtained by dualizing to a compact scalar with spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  9. Autoresonance versus localization in weakly coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Agnessa; Manevitch, Leonid I.

    2016-04-01

    We study formation of autoresonance (AR) in a two-degree of freedom oscillator array including a nonlinear (Duffing) oscillator (the actuator) weakly coupled to a linear attachment. Two classes of systems are studied. In the first class of systems, a periodic force with constant (resonance) frequency is applied to a nonlinear oscillator (actuator) with slowly time-decreasing stiffness. In the systems of the second class a nonlinear time-invariant oscillator is subjected to an excitation with slowly increasing frequency. In both cases, the attached linear oscillator and linear coupling are time-invariant, and the system is initially engaged in resonance. This paper demonstrates that in the systems of the first type AR in the nonlinear actuator entails oscillations with growing amplitudes in the linear attachment while in the system of the second type energy transfer from the nonlinear actuator is insufficient to excite high-energy oscillations of the attachment. It is also shown that a slow change of stiffness may enhance the response of the actuator and make it sufficient to support oscillations with growing energy in the attachment even beyond the linear resonance. Explicit asymptotic approximations of the solutions are obtained. Close proximity of the derived approximations to exact (numerical) results is demonstrated.

  10. Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene, Wilhelmstr. 3a, 79098 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2006-05-15

    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary.

  11. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  12. Tate form and weak coupling limits in F-theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esole, Mboyo; Savelli, Raffaele

    2013-06-01

    We consider the weak coupling limit of F-theory in the presence of non-Abelian gauge groups implemented using the traditional ansatz coming from Tate's algorithm. We classify the types of singularities that could appear in the weak coupling limit and explain their resolution. In particular, the weak coupling limit of SU( n) gauge groups leads to an orientifold theory which suffers from conifold singulaties that do not admit a crepant resolution compatible with the orientifold involution. We present a simple resolution to this problem by introducing a new weak coupling regime that admits singularities compatible with both a crepant resolution and an orientifold symmetry. We also comment on possible applications of the new limit to model building. We finally discuss other unexpected phenomena as for example the existence of several non-equivalent directions to flow from strong to weak coupling leading to different gauge groups.

  13. Tate Form and Weak Coupling Limits in F-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Esole, Mboyo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the weak coupling limit of F-theory in the presence of non-Abelian gauge groups implemented using the traditional ansatz coming from Tate's algorithm. We classify the types of singularities that could appear in the weak coupling limit and explain their resolution. In particular, the weak coupling limit of SU(n) gauge groups leads to an orientifold theory which suffers from conifold singulaties that do not admit a crepant resolution compatible with the orientifold involution. We present a simple resolution to this problem by introducing a new weak coupling regime that admits singularities compatible with both a crepant resolution and an orientifold symmetry. We also comment on possible applications of the new limit to model building. We finally discuss other unexpected phenomena as for example the existence of several non-equivalent directions to flow from strong to weak coupling leading to different gauge groups.

  14. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, M.R. (Physics Laboratory I, The Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)); Lomdahl, P.S. (Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (USA)); Blackburn, J.A. (Department of Physics and Computing, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.

  15. Phenomena in Coupled Superconducting Weak Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Lawrence George

    Interactions between two independently biasable coupled superconducting microbridges were studied. Some bridges were fabricated within 2 (mu)m of each other. Quasiparticles from one bridge affect the other. In a second type of sample, the microbridges were separated by 10 (mu)m and coupled via a resistive shunt. The interaction results from the current flowing through the shunt. Similar effects are seen in both types of samples. In opposed biased bridges, the effective critical current is decreased because of the interaction. For series biased bridges, the effective critical current of one bridge is decreased or increased, depending on the voltage across the other bridge. These interactions lead to voltage steps in the I-V curves where, for opposed biased bridges, both voltages increase; for series bias, one voltage increases, the other decreases. Experimental results are in reasonable agreement with a second-order perturbation calculation and with an analog simulation. Voltage locking is found for both biasing configurations in both types of samples. Locking can occur simultaneously with a voltage step, resulting in nascent voltage locking which can also occur in conjunction with hysteresis. The effect of a voltage in the pad between the two proximity coupled bridges is to vary the voltage at which locking occurs, which in turn alters the shape of the locking curve. Locking range is calculated in two models for comparison with the two types of samples. The first explicitly considers the time delay for propagation of the charge -imbalance wave from one bridge to the other. The second model considers the current flowing in the resistive/inductive coupling shunt. A deviation of the critical current of planar microbridges from a linear temperature dependence can be explained as an effective length effect. Variable thickness bridges show a linear temperature dependence except very near T(,c), where fluctuations are important. The critical current of the one

  16. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio

    2016-06-23

    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Persistent Spin Current in a Quantum Wire with Weak Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; SHENG Wei; ZHOU Guang-Hui

    2006-01-01

    @@ We theoretically investigate the spin current for a parabolically confined semiconductor heterojunction quantum wire with weak Rashba spin-orbit coupling by means of the perturbation method. By analytical calculation, it is found that only two components off spin current density is non-zero in the equilibrium case. Numerical examples have demonstrated that the spin current of electron transverse motion is 10-3 times that off electron longitudinal motion. However, the former one is much more sensitive to the strength of Rashba spin-orbit coupling. These results may suggest an approach to the spin storage device and to the measurement of spin current through its induced electric field.

  18. Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Takaaki; Rosen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which "real world" theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory's confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance ...

  19. Coupling of transit time instabilities in electrostatic confinement fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, J.; Fröhlich, M.

    2015-07-01

    A model of the behavior of transit time instabilities in an electrostatic confinement fusion reactor is presented in this letter. It is demonstrated that different modes are excited within the spherical cathode of a Farnsworth fusor. Each of these modes is dependent on the fusion products as well as the acceleration voltage applied between the two electrodes and they couple to a resulting oscillation showing non-linear beat phenomena. This type of instability is similar to the transit time instability of electrons between two resonant surfaces but the presence of ions and the occurring fusion reactions alter the physics of this instability considerably. The physics of this plasma instability is examined in detail for typical physical parameter ranges of electrostatic confinement fusion devices.

  20. Phenomenology and cosmology of weakly coupled string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Mary K.

    1998-05-18

    The weakly coupled vacuum of E{sub 8} {circle_times} E{sub 8} heterotic string theory remains an attractive scenario for phenomenology and cosmology. The particle spectrum is reviewed and the issues of gauge coupling unification, dilaton stabilization and modular cosmology are discussed. A specific model for condensation and supersymmetry breaking, that respects known constraints from string theory and is phenomenologically viable, is described.

  1. Anomalous Photoluminescence of Weakly Confined Excitons including Radiative Correction in Nano-to-Bulk Crossover Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takuya; Yokoshi, Nobuhiko; Ishihara, Hajime

    2015-06-01

    We develop a theoretical formalism to calculate photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of weakly confined excitons incorporating the microscopic nonlocal optical response. The nonlocality is caused by the center-of-mass (c. m.) motion of exciton and becomes remarkable in nano-to-bulk crossover regime. The theory successfully explains the characteristics of recently observed peculiar PL spectra in high quality CuCl films [5], wherein the signals appear at the exciton states with the very large radiative corrections not only for the lowest level but also for the higher ones including non-dipole types of excitons.

  2. Ephaptic coupling rescues conduction failure in weakly coupled cardiac tissue with voltage-gated gap junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Electrical conduction in cardiac tissue is usually considered to be primarily facilitated by gap junctions, providing a pathway between the intracellular spaces of neighboring cells. However, recent studies have highlighted the role of coupling via extracellular electric fields, also known as ephaptic coupling, particularly in the setting of reduced gap junction expression. Further, in the setting of reduced gap junctional coupling, voltage-dependent gating of gap junctions, an oft-neglected biophysical property in computational studies, produces a positive feedback that promotes conduction failure. We hypothesized that ephaptic coupling can break the positive feedback loop and rescue conduction failure in weakly coupled cardiac tissue. In a computational tissue model incorporating voltage-gated gap junctions and ephaptic coupling, we demonstrate that ephaptic coupling can rescue conduction failure in weakly coupled tissue. Further, ephaptic coupling increased conduction velocity in weakly coupled tissue, and importantly, reduced the minimum gap junctional coupling necessary for conduction, most prominently at fast pacing rates. Finally, we find that, although neglecting gap junction voltage-gating results in negligible differences in well coupled tissue, more significant differences occur in weakly coupled tissue, greatly underestimating the minimal gap junctional coupling that can maintain conduction. Our study suggests that ephaptic coupling plays a conduction-preserving role, particularly at rapid heart rates.

  3. Collective oscillations and coupled modes in confined microfluidic droplet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard

    Microfluidic droplets have a wide range of applications ranging from analytic assays in cellular biology to controlled mixing in chemical engineering. Ensembles of microfluidic droplets are interesting model systems for non-equilibrium many-body phenomena. When flowing in a microchannel, trains of droplets can form microfluidic crystals whose dynamics are governed by long-range hydrodynamic interactions and boundary effects. In this contribution, excitation mechanisms for collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. While longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets, transversely excited modes form propagating waves that behave like microfluidic phonons. We show that the confinement induces a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes. We also investigate the life time of the collective oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic phonons can exhibit effects beyond the linear theory, which can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SE 1118/4.

  4. From strong to weak coupling in holographic models of thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University,Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Starinets, Andrei O. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-29

    We investigate the analytic structure of thermal energy-momentum tensor correlators at large but finite coupling in quantum field theories with gravity duals. We compute corrections to the quasinormal spectra of black branes due to the presence of higher derivative R{sup 2} and R{sup 4} terms in the action, focusing on the dual to N=4 SYM theory and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We observe the appearance of new poles in the complex frequency plane at finite coupling. The new poles interfere with hydrodynamic poles of the correlators leading to the breakdown of hydrodynamic description at a coupling-dependent critical value of the wave-vector. The dependence of the critical wave vector on the coupling implies that the range of validity of the hydrodynamic description increases monotonically with the coupling. The behavior of the quasinormal spectrum at large but finite coupling may be contrasted with the known properties of the hierarchy of relaxation times determined by the spectrum of a linearized kinetic operator at weak coupling. We find that the ratio of a transport coefficient such as viscosity to the relaxation time determined by the fundamental non-hydrodynamic quasinormal frequency changes rapidly in the vicinity of infinite coupling but flattens out for weaker coupling, suggesting an extrapolation from strong coupling to the kinetic theory result. We note that the behavior of the quasinormal spectrum is qualitatively different depending on whether the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density is greater or less than the universal, infinite coupling value of ℏ/4πk{sub B}. In the former case, the density of poles increases, indicating a formation of branch cuts in the weak coupling limit, and the spectral function shows the appearance of narrow peaks. We also discuss the relation of the viscosity-entropy ratio to conjectured bounds on relaxation time in quantum systems.

  5. Weak Coupling Casimir Energies for Finite Plate Configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Jef; Parashar, Prachi

    2008-01-01

    We derive and use an extremely simplified formula for the interaction Casimir energy for two separate bodies in the weak coupling regime for massless scalar fields. We derive closed form solutions for a general arrangement of two $\\delta$-function plates finite in one direction and infinite in another. We examine the situation of two parallel plates finite in both transverse directions.

  6. Analytical solutions of weakly coupled map lattices using recurrence relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Herrera, Dolores, E-mail: dsh@dfmf.uned.e [Applied Maths, EUITI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, 3-28012 Madrid (Spain); San Martin, Jesus [Applied Maths, EUITI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, 3-28012 Madrid (Spain); Dep. Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, UNED, Senda del Rey 9-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-20

    By using asymptotic methods recurrence relations are found that rule weakly CML evolution, with both global and diffusive coupling. The solutions obtained from these relations are very general because they do not hold restrictions about boundary conditions, initial conditions and number of oscilators in the CML. Furthermore, oscillators are ruled by an arbitraty C{sup 2} function.

  7. Dark Sectors and New, Light, Weakly-Coupled Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Essig, R; Wester, W; Adrian, P Hansson; Andreas, S; Averett, T; Baker, O; Batell, B; Battaglieri, M; Beacham, J; Beranek, T; Bjorken, J D; Bossi, F; Boyce, J R; Cates, G D; Celentano, A; Chou, A S; Cowan, R; Curciarello, F; Davoudiasl, H; deNiverville, P; De Vita, R; Denig, A; Dharmapalan, R; Dongwi, B; Döbrich, B; Echenard, B; Espriu, D; Fegan, S; Fisher, P; Franklin, G B; Gasparian, A; Gershtein, Y; Graham, M; Graham, P W; Haas, A; Hatzikoutelis, A; Holtrop, M; Irastorza, I; Izaguirre, E; Jaeckel, J; Kahn, Y; Kalantarians, N; Kohl, M; Krnjaic, G; Kubarovsky, V; Lee, H-S; Lindner, A; Lobanov, A; Marciano, W J; Marsh, D J E; Maruyama, T; McKeen, D; Merkel, H; Moffeit, K; Monaghan, P; Mueller, G; Nelson, T K; Neil, G R; Oriunno, M; Pavlovic, Z; Phillips, S K; Pivovaroff, M J; Poltis, R; Pospelov, M; Rajendran, S; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Ritz, A; Ruz, J; Saenboonruang, K; Schuster, P; Shinn, M; Slatyer, T R; Steffen, J H; Stepanyan, S; Tanner, D B; Thaler, J; Tobar, M E; Toro, N; Upadye, A; Van de Water, R; Vlahovic, B; Vogel, J K; Walker, D; Weltman, A; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zhang, S; Zioutas, K

    2013-01-01

    Dark sectors, consisting of new, light, weakly-coupled particles that do not interact with the known strong, weak, or electromagnetic forces, are a particularly compelling possibility for new physics. Nature may contain numerous dark sectors, each with their own beautiful structure, distinct particles, and forces. This review summarizes the physics motivation for dark sectors and the exciting opportunities for experimental exploration. It is the summary of the Intensity Frontier subgroup "New, Light, Weakly-coupled Particles" of the Community Summer Study 2013 (Snowmass). We discuss axions, which solve the strong CP problem and are an excellent dark matter candidate, and their generalization to axion-like particles. We also review dark photons and other dark-sector particles, including sub-GeV dark matter, which are theoretically natural, provide for dark matter candidates or new dark matter interactions, and could resolve outstanding puzzles in particle and astro-particle physics. In many cases, the explorat...

  8. Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Keegan, Liam; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.

  9. Lifetime Effects in Color Superconductivity at Weak Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, C

    2000-01-01

    Present computations of the gap of color superconductivity in weak coupling assume that the quarks which participate in the condensation process are infinitely long-lived. However, the quasiparticles in a plasma are characterized by having a finite lifetime. In this article we take into account this fact to evaluate its effect in the computation of the color gap. By first considering the Schwinger-Dyson equations in weak coupling, when one-loop self-energy corrections are included, a general gap equation is written in terms of the spectral densities of the quasiparticles. To evaluate lifetime effects, we then model the spectral density by a Lorentzian function. We argue that the decay of the quasiparticles limits their efficiency to condense. The value of the gap at the Fermi surface is then reduced. To leading order, these lifetime effects can be taken into account by replacing the coupling constant of the gap equation by a reduced effective one.

  10. Critical properties of weakly interacting Bose gases as modified by a harmonic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ayala, I.; Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Seman, J. A.; Romero-Rochín, V.

    2017-07-01

    The critical properties of the phase transition from a normal gas to a Bose-Einstein condensate (superfluid) of a harmonically confined Bose gas are addressed with the knowledge of an equation of state of the underlying homogeneous Bose fluid. It is shown that while the presence of the confinement trap arrests the usual divergences of the isothermal compressibility and heat capacities, the critical behavior manifests itself now in the divergence of derivatives of the mentioned susceptibilities. This result is illustrated with a mean-field like model of an equation of state for the homogeneous particle density as a function of the chemical potential and temperature of the gas. The model assumes the form of an ideal Bose gas in the normal fluid while in the superfluid state a function is proposed such that, both, asymptotically reaches the Thomas-Fermi solution of a weakly interacting Bose gas at large densities and low temperatures and, at the transition, matches the critical properties of the ideal Bose gas. With this model we obtain the global thermodynamics of the harmonically confined gas, from which we analyze its critical properties. We discuss how these properties can be experimentally tested.

  11. Induced pseudoscalar coupling of the proton weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gorringe, T P; Gorringe, Tim; Fearing, Harold W.

    2004-01-01

    The induced pseudoscalar coupling $g_p$ is the least well known of the weak coupling constants of the proton's charged--current interaction. Its size is dictated by chiral symmetry arguments, and its measurement represents an important test of quantum chromodynamics at low energies. During the past decade a large body of new data relevant to the coupling $g_p$ has been accumulated. This data includes measurements of radiative and non radiative muon capture on targets ranging from hydrogen and few--nucleon systems to complex nuclei. Herein the authors review the theoretical underpinnings of $g_p$, the experimental studies of $g_p$, and the procedures and uncertainties in extracting the coupling from data. Current puzzles are highlighted and future opportunities are discussed.

  12. Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Kiritsis, Elias; Rosen, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which "real world" theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory's confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the "abrupt quench" limit.

  13. Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which “real world” theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory’s confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the “abrupt quench” limit.

  14. Scaling, topological tunneling and actions for weak coupling DWF calculations

    CERN Document Server

    McGlynn, Greg

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a 2+1 flavor DWF calculation at 1/a = 3 GeV and discuss strategies for similar calculations at finer lattice spacings which will target charm physics. At weak coupling the autocorrelation time of the global topological charge becomes very long because the HMC algorithm has trouble moving between topological sectors. We report the results of simulations that test two ideas for reducing the autocorrelation time of topological charge. In weak coupling quenched simulations we find that the open boundary conditions suggested by L\\"uscher and Schaefer do not prevent the appearance of extremely long autocorrelation times for topological observables. We discuss the idea of a "dislocation-enhancing determinant" and show that it can produce an increase in topological tunneling.

  15. Heat Transport in Confined Strongly Coupled 2D Dust Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kudelis, Giedrius; Bonitz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Dusty plasmas are a model system for studying strong correlation. The dust grains' size of a few micro-meters and their characteristic oscillation frequency of a few hertz allows for an investigation of many particle effects on an atomic level. In this article, we model the heat transport through an axially confined 2D dust cluster from the center to the outside. The system behaves particularly interesting since heat is not only conducted within the dust component but also transfered to the neutral gas. Fitting the analytical solution to the obtained radial temperature profiles allows to determine the heat conductivity $\\kheat$. The heat conductivity is found to be constant over a wide range of coupling strengths even including the phase transition from solid to liquid here, as it was also found in extended systems by V. Nosenko et al. in 2008 \\cite{PhysRevLett.100.025003}

  16. Strong-coupling effects in a plasma of confining gluons

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Su, Nan; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The plasma consisting of confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory is studied using non-equilibrium fluid dynamical framework. Exploiting the Bjorken symmetry and using linear response theory a general analytic expressions for the bulk and shear viscosity coefficients are derived. It is found that the considered system exhibits a number of properties similar to the strongly-coupled theories, where the conformality is explicitly broken. In particular, it is shown that, in the large temperature limit, bulk to shear viscosity ratio, scales linearly with the difference $1/3 - c_s^2$, where $c_s$ is the speed of sound. Results obtained from the analysis are in line with the interpretation of the quark-gluon plasma as an almost perfect fluid.

  17. Variational Study of Weakly Coupled Triply Heavy Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Y

    2006-01-01

    Baryons made of three heavy quarks become weakly coupled, when all the quarks are sufficiently heavy such that the typical momentum transfer is much larger than Lambda_QCD. We use variational method to estimate masses of the lowest-lying bcc, ccc, bbb and bbc states by assuming they are Coulomb bound states. Our predictions for these states are systematically lower than those made long ago by Bjorken.

  18. Effective Supergravity from the Weakly Coupled HeteroticString

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Mary K.

    2005-05-01

    The motivation for Calabi-Yau-like compactifications of the weakly coupled E{sub 8} {circle_times} E{sub 8} heterotic string theory, its particle spectrum and the issue of dilaton stabilization are briefly reviewed. Modular invariant models for hidden sector condensation and supersymmetry breaking are described at the quantum level of the effective field theory. Their phenomenological and cosmological implications, including a possible origin for R-parity, are discussed.

  19. Dark Sectors and New, Light, Weakly-Coupled Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven [YITP, Stony Brook; Jaros, John A. [SLAC; Wester, William [Fermilab

    1900-01-01

    Dark sectors, consisting of new, light, weakly-coupled particles that do not interact with the known strong, weak, or electromagnetic forces, are a particularly compelling possibility for new physics. Nature may contain numerous dark sectors, each with their own beautiful structure, distinct particles, and forces. This review summarizes the physics motivation for dark sectors and the exciting opportunities for experimental exploration. It is the summary of the Intensity Frontier subgroup \\New, Light, Weakly-coupled Particles" of the Community Summer Study 2013 (Snowmass). We discuss axions, which solve the strong CP problem and are an excellent dark matter candidate, and their generalization to axion-like particles. We also review dark photons and other dark-sector particles, including sub-GeV dark matter, which are theoretically natural, provide for dark matter candidates or new dark matter interactions, and could resolve outstanding puzzles in particle and astro-particle physics. In many cases, the exploration of dark sectors can proceed with existing facilities and comparatively modest experiments. A rich, diverse, and lowcost experimental program has been identied that has the potential for one or more game-changing discoveries. These physics opportunities should be vigorously pursued in the US and elsewhere.

  20. Weak Coupling Electron-Phonon for High Tc Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, J.

    1989-01-01

    Our opinion is that, in the high Tc copper oxides, the electronic correlations are not large enough to allow the localization of the electrons of the half-filled d-p sub-band. Thus, we treat them as itinerant electrons, in a bidimensional structure. And we show that, contrary to a widely held opinion, the electron-phonon interaction can induce high Tc superconductivity in these compounds, even in the weak coupling limit. This is due to the fact that, because of the bidimensionality, the electronic density of states is sharply peaked in the neighbourhood of the Fermi energy. A small coupling between nearest neighbouring CuO2 planes is sufficient to prevent a very large reduction of Tc by the critical fluctuations. The calculated isotope effect is much smaller than usually in the BCS theory. And, in our weak coupling theory, the antiferromagnetic (AF) phase is much more rapidly destabilized by dopping or internal charge transfer than the superconducting phase, which takes place when the AF phase has vanished.

  1. Isotropization and hydrodynamization in weakly coupled heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi

    2015-01-01

    We numerically solve 2+1D effective kinetic theory of weak coupling QCD under longitudinal expansion relevant for early stages of heavy-ion collisions. We find agreement with viscous hydrodynamics and classical Yang-Mills simulations in the regimes where they are applicable. By choosing initial conditions that are motivated by color-glass-condensate framework we find that for Q=2GeV and $\\alpha_s$=0.3 the system is approximately described by viscous hydrodynamics well before $\\tau \\lesssim 1.0$ fm/c.

  2. The Weak Parity-Violating Pion-Nucleon Coupling (Revised)

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, E M; Kisslinger, L S

    2009-01-01

    We use QCD sum rules to obtain the weak parity-violating pion-nucleon coupling constant $f_{\\pi NN}$. We find that $f_{\\pi NN}\\approx 2\\times 10^{-8}$, about an order of magnitude smaller than the ``best estimates'' based on quark models. This result follows from the cancellation between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD processes not found in quark models, but explicit in the QCD sum rule method. Our result is consistent with the experimental upper limit found from $^{18}$F parity-violating measurements.

  3. Weakly coupled oscillators in a slowly varying world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngmin; Ermentrout, Bard

    2016-06-01

    We extend the theory of weakly coupled oscillators to incorporate slowly varying inputs and parameters. We employ a combination of regular perturbation and an adiabatic approximation to derive equations for the phase-difference between a pair of oscillators. We apply this to the simple Hopf oscillator and then to a biophysical model. The latter represents the behavior of a neuron that is subject to slow modulation of a muscarinic current such as would occur during transient attention through cholinergic activation. Our method extends and simplifies the recent work of Kurebayashi (Physical Review Letters, 111, 214101, 2013) to include coupling. We apply the method to an all-to-all network and show that there is a waxing and waning of synchrony of modulated neurons.

  4. Perspective: Coulomb fluids—Weak coupling, strong coupling, in between and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Ali; Kanduč, Matej; Forsman, Jan; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2013-10-01

    We present a personal view on the current state of statistical mechanics of Coulomb fluids with special emphasis on the interactions between macromolecular surfaces, concentrating on the weak and the strong coupling limits. Both are introduced for a (primitive) counterion-only system in the presence of macroscopic, uniformly charged boundaries, where they can be derived systematically. Later we show how this formalism can be generalized to the cases with additional characteristic length scales that introduce new coupling parameters into the problem. These cases most notably include asymmetric ionic mixtures with mono- and multivalent ions that couple differently to charged surfaces, ions with internal charge (multipolar) structure and finite static polarizability, where weak and strong coupling limits can be constructed by analogy with the counterion-only case and lead to important new insights into their properties that cannot be derived by any other means.

  5. Weak Coupling, Degeneration and Log Calabi-Yau Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, R; Wijnholt, M

    2012-01-01

    We establish a new weak coupling limit in F-theory. The new limit may be thought of as the process in which a local model bubbles off from the rest of the Calabi-Yau. The construction comes with a small deformation parameter $t$ such that computations in the local model become exact as $t \\to 0$. More generally, we advocate a modular approach where compact Calabi-Yau geometries are obtained by gluing together local pieces (log Calabi-Yau spaces) into a normal crossing variety and smoothing, in analogy with a similar cutting and gluing approach to topological field theories. We further argue for a holographic relation between F-theory on a degenerate Calabi-Yau and a dual theory on its boundary, which fits nicely with the gluing construction.

  6. Weakly-Coupled Higgs Bosons and Precision Electroweak Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowson, Peter C.

    2003-06-02

    We examine the prospects for discovering and elucidating the weakly-coupled Higgs sector at future collider experiments. The Higgs search consists of three phases: (i) discovery of a Higgs candidate, (ii) verification of the Higgs interpretation of the signal, and (iii) precision measurements of Higgs sector properties. The discovery of one Higgs boson with Standard Model properties is not sufficient to expose the underlying structure of the electroweak symmetry breaking dynamics. It is critical to search for evidence for a non-minimal Higgs sector and/or new physics associated with electroweak symmetry breaking dynamics. An improvement in precision electroweak data at future colliders can play a useful role in confirming the theoretical interpretation of the Higgs search results.

  7. Three-point function of semiclassical states at weak coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We give the derivation of the previously announced analytic expression for the correlation function of three heavy non-BPS operators in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at weak coupling. The three operators belong to three different su(2) sectors and are dual to three classical strings moving on the sphere. Our computation is based on the reformulation of the problem in terms of the Bethe Ansatz for periodic XXX spin-1/2 chains. In these terms the three operators are described by long-wave-length excitations over the ferromagnetic vacuum, for which the number of the overturned spins is a finite fraction of the length of the chain, and the classical limit is known as the Sutherland limit. Technically our main result is a factorized operator expression for the scalar product of two Bethe states. The derivation is based on a fermionic representation of Slavnov's determinant formula, and a subsequent bosonisation.

  8. Kaon-nucleon couplings for weak decays of hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, M J

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the weak kaon-nucleon (NNK) S-wave and P-wave interactions using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The leading 1-loop SU(3) breaking contributions to the ppK, pnK, and nnK couplings are computed. We find that they suppress all NNK amplitudes by 30\\% to 50\\%. The ratio of neutron-induced to proton-induced hypernuclear decay widths is sensitive to such reductions. It has been argued that the discrepancy between the predicted and observed P-wave amplitudes in \\Delta s=1 hyperon decay results from an accidental cancellation between tree-level amplitudes, and is not a fundamental problem for chiral perturbation theory. Agreement between experimentally determined NNK P-wave amplitudes and our estimates would support this explanation.

  9. Bremsstrahlung function, leading Luscher correction at weak coupling and localization

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, Marisa; Preti, Michelangelo; Seminara, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the near BPS expansion of the generalized cusp anomalous dimension with L units of R-charge. Integrability provides an exact solution, obtained by solving a general TBA equation in the appropriate limit: we propose here an alternative method based on supersymmetric localization.The basic idea is to relate the computation to the vacuum expectation value of certain 1/8 BPS Wilson loops with local operator insertions along the contour. These observables localize on a two-dimensional gauge theory on S^2, opening the possibility of exact calculations. As a test of our proposal, we reproduce the leading Luscher correction at weak coupling to the generalized cusp anomalous dimension. This result is also checked against a genuine Feynman diagram approach in N=4 Super Yang-Mills theory.

  10. Anomaly induced transport coefficients, from weak to strong coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The existence of new transport phenomena associated to the presence of quantum anomalies has atracted very recently the attention of theorist. These transport coefficient have very interesting properties, for example, they do not renormalize. The most famous case of anomaly induced transport phenomena is the Chiral Magnetic Effect, in which an electric current is produced by a magnetic field if the system has a different number of right handed fermions respect the left handed one. In this thesis we have studied those transport coefficients from Kubo formulas at weak and strong coupling. To finish a fluid/gravity approach is used to compute all the second order anomalous coefficients in an anomalous conformal fluid.

  11. Conductance for a Quantum Wire with Weak Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gen-Hua; ZHOU Guang-Hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ We theoretically study the low temperature electron transport properties of a weak Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) semiconductor quantum wire connected nonadiabatically to two electrode leads without SOC. The wire and the leads are defined by a parabolic confining potential, and the influence of both the wire-lead connection and the Rashba SOC on the electron transport is treated analytically by means of scattering matrix within effective free-electron approximation. From analytical analysis and numerical examples, we find that the system shows some fractional quantum conductance behaviour, and for some particular wire width a pure spin polarized current exists. Our result may imply a simple method for the design of a spin filter without involving any magnetic materials or magnetic fields.

  12. Thermoelectric properties of a weakly coupled quantum dot: enhanced thermoelectric efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaousidou, M [Materials Science Department, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Triberis, G P, E-mail: rtsaous@upatras.g [Physics Department, Solid State Section, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784, Zografos, Athens (Greece)

    2010-09-08

    We study the thermoelectric coefficients of a multi-level quantum dot (QD) weakly coupled to two electron reservoirs in the Coulomb blockade regime. Detailed calculations and analytical expressions of the power factor and the figure of merit are presented. We restrict our interest to the limit where the energy separation between successive energy levels is much larger than the thermal energy (i.e., the quantum limit) and we report a giant enhancement of the figure of merit due to the violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law when phonons are frozen. We point out the similarity of the electronic and the phonon contribution to the thermal conductance for zero-dimensional electrons and phonons. Both contributions show an activated behavior. Our findings suggest that the control of the electron and phonon confinement effects can lead to nanostructures with improved thermoelectric properties.

  13. Quantum Key Distribution Based on a Weak-Coupling Cavity QED Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春燕; 李岩松

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum key distribution scheme using a weak-coupling cavity QED regime based on quantum dense coding.Hybrid entanglement states of photons and electrons are used to distribute information.We just need to transmit photons without storing them in the scheme.The electron confined in a quantum dot,which is embedded in a microcavity,is held by one of the legitimate users throughout the whole communication process.Only the polarization of a single photon and spin of electron measurements are applied in this protocol,which are easier to perform than collective-Bell state measurements.Linear optical apparatus,such as a special polarizing beam splitter in a circular basis and single photon operations,make it more flexible to realize under current technology.Its efficiency will approach 100% in the ideal case.The security of the scheme is also discussed.%We present a quantum key distribution scheme using a weak-coupling cavity QED regime based on quantum dense coding. Hybrid entanglement states of photons and electrons are used to distribute information. We just need to transmit photons without storing them in the scheme. The electron confined in a quantum dot, which is embedded in a microcavity, is held by one of the legitimate users throughout the whole communication process. Only the polarization of a single photon and spin of electron measurements are applied in this protocol, which are easier to perform than collective-Bell state measurements. Linear optical apparatus, such as a speciai polarizing beam splitter in a circular basis and single photon operations, make it more flexible to realize under current technology. Its efficiency will approach 100% in the ideal case. The security of the scheme is also discussed.

  14. Nonconventional synchronization and energy localization in weakly coupled autogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Margarita; Pilipchuk, Valery; Manevitch, Leonid

    2016-09-01

    The present work follows our previous study dealing with a new type of synchronization in a system of two weakly coupled generalized van der Pol-Duffing autogenerators. The essence of the effect revealed is that the synchronized oscillations are not stationary but accompanied by the most intensive energy exchange between the oscillators. The phase shift between the generators remains constant most of the time, except for vanishingly small transitional intervals. The current analysis deals with a generalized model in order to clarify the frequency detuning effect. We found that varying the frequency detuning, nonlinearity, and dissipation parameters can lead to structural changes in phase diagrams of the energy exchange dynamics, with important transitions from the intensive energy exchange to its localization on one of the two oscillators. The main conclusion is that stationary and nonstationary synchronizations associate with nonlinear normal and local modes, respectively. The analysis uses phase plane diagrams, including the concept of limiting phase trajectories, whose role in nonstationary synchronization appears to be similar to the role of nonlinear normal modes in conventional stationary states.

  15. Chaoticity threshold in magnetized plasmas: Numerical results in the weak coupling regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carati, A., E-mail: andrea.carati@unimi.it; Benfenati, F.; Maiocchi, A.; Galgani, L. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Zuin, M., E-mail: matteo.zuin@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    The present paper is a numerical counterpart to the theoretical work [Carati et al., Chaos 22, 033124 (2012)]. We are concerned with the transition from order to chaos in a one-component plasma (a system of point electrons with mutual Coulomb interactions, in a uniform neutralizing background), the plasma being immersed in a uniform stationary magnetic field. In the paper [Carati et al., Chaos 22, 033124 (2012)], it was predicted that a transition should take place when the electron density is increased or the field decreased in such a way that the ratio ω{sub p}/ω{sub c} between plasma and cyclotron frequencies becomes of order 1, irrespective of the value of the so-called Coulomb coupling parameter Γ. Here, we perform numerical computations for a first principles model of N point electrons in a periodic box, with mutual Coulomb interactions, using as a probe for chaoticity the time-autocorrelation function of magnetization. We consider two values of Γ (0.04 and 0.016) in the weak coupling regime Γ ≪ 1, with N up to 512. A transition is found to occur for ω{sub p}/ω{sub c} in the range between 0.25 and 2, in fairly good agreement with the theoretical prediction. These results might be of interest for the problem of the breakdown of plasma confinement in fusion machines.

  16. Effects of transverse mode coupling and optical confinement factor on gallium-nitride based laser diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xiao-Ming; Zhang Bei; Dai Tao; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the transverse mode pattern and the optical field confinement factor of gallium nitride (GaN) laser diodes (LDs) theoretically. For the particular LD structure, composed of approximate 4μm thick n-GaN substrate layer, the maximum optical confinement factor was found to be corresponding to the 5th order transverse mode, the so-called lasing mode. Moreover, the value of the maximum confinement factor varies periodically when increasing the n-side GaN layer thickness, which simultaneously changes and increases the oscillation mode order of the GaN LD caused by the effects of mode coupling. The effects of the thickness and the average composition of Al in the AlGaN/GaN superlattice on the optical confinement factor are also presented. Finally, the mode coupling and optimization of the layers in the GaN-based LD are discussed.

  17. Enhanced coupling of optical energy during liquid-confined metal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Wook, E-mail: wkang@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea and Center for Marine-integrated Biomedical Technology (MIBT), Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Welch, Ashley J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Liquid-confined laser ablation was investigated with various metals of indium, aluminum, and nickel. Ablation threshold and rate were characterized in terms of surface deformation, transient acoustic responses, and plasma emissions. The surface condition affected the degree of ablation dynamics due to variations in reflectance. The liquid confinement yielded up to an order of larger ablation crater along with stronger acoustic transients than dry ablation. Enhanced ablation performance resulted possibly from effective coupling of optical energy at the interface during explosive vaporization, plasma confinement, and cavitation. The deposition of a liquid layer can induce more efficient ablation for laser metal processing.

  18. Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T4 correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 ...

  19. Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T4 correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 ...

  20. The Weak-Coupling of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-Ji; MA Zao-Yuan; CHEN Xu-Zong; WANG Yi-Qiu

    2003-01-01

    The coherent characteristics of four trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) conjunct one by one in aring shape which is divided by two far off-resonant lasers, are studied. Four coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations are usedto describe the dynamics of the system. Two kinds of self-trapping effects are discussed in the coupled BECs, and thephase diagrams for different initial conditions and different coupling strengths are discussed. This study can be used todetermine interaction parameters between atoms in BEC.

  1. Continuum Coupling and Pair Correlation in Weakly Bound Deformed Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Oba, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We formulate a new Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method applicable to weakly bound deformed nuclei using the coordinate-space Green's function technique. An emphasis is put on treatment of quasiparticle states in the continuum, on which we impose the correct boundary condition of the asymptotic out-going wave. We illustrate this method with numerical examples.

  2. Weak Coupling Chambers in N=2 BPS Quiver Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Saidi, E H

    2012-01-01

    Using recent results on BPS quiver theory, we develop a group theoretical method to describe the quiver mutations encoding the quantum mechanical duality relating the spectra of distinct quivers. We illustrate the method by computing the BPS spectrum of the infinite weak chamber of some examples of N=2 supersymmetric gauge models without and with quark hypermultiplets.

  3. Weak coupling chambers in N=2 BPS quiver theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, El Hassan

    2012-11-01

    Using recent results on BPS quiver theory, we develop a group theoretical method to describe the quiver mutations encoding the quantum mechanical duality relating the spectra of distinct quivers. We illustrate the method by computing the BPS spectrum of the infinite weak chamber of some examples of N=2 supersymmetric gauge models without and with quark hypermultiplets.

  4. Light weakly coupled axial forces: models, constraints, and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Yonatan; Krnjaic, Gordan; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevance of the allowed parameter space to low-energy anomalies in π0 and 8Be∗ decay.

  5. Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Yonatan; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Tait, Tim M P

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevan...

  6. Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Yonatan [Princeton U.; Krnjaic, Gordan [Fermilab; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth [Princeton U.; Tait, Tim P. [UC, Irvine

    2016-09-28

    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevance of the allowed parameter space to low-energy anomalies in pi^0 and 8-Be* decay.

  7. Spatial Coherence Properties of Organic Molecules Coupled to Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances in the Weak and Strong Coupling Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Rekola, H T; Martikainen, J -P; Moerland, R J; Törmä, P

    2014-01-01

    We study spatial coherence properties of a system composed of periodic silver nanoparticle arrays covered with a fluorescent organic molecule (DiD) film. The evolution of spatial coherence of this composite structure from the weak to the strong coupling regime is investigated by systematically varying the coupling strength between the localized DiD excitons and the collective, delocalized modes of the nanoparticle array known as surface lattice resonances. A gradual evolution of coherence from the weak to the strong coupling regime is observed, with the strong coupling features clearly visible in interference fringes. A high degree of spatial coherence is demonstrated in the strong coupling regime, even when the mode is very excitonlike (80%), in contrast to the purely localized nature of molecular excitons. We show that coherence appears in proportion to the weight of the plasmonic component of the mode throughout the weak-to-strong coupling crossover, providing evidence for the hybrid nature of the normal m...

  8. Quantum Weak Values and Logic: An Uneasy Couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Bengt E. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Quantum mechanical weak values of projection operators have been used to answer which-way questions, e. g. to trace which arms in a multiple Mach-Zehnder setup a particle may have traversed from a given initial to a prescribed final state. I show that this procedure might lead to logical inconsistencies in the sense that different methods used to answer composite questions, like "Has the particle traversed the way X or the way Y?", may result in different answers depending on which methods are used to find the answer. I illustrate the problem by considering some examples: the "quantum pigeonhole" framework of Aharonov et al., the three-box problem, and Hardy's paradox. To prepare the ground for my main conclusion on the incompatibility in certain cases of weak values and logic, I study the corresponding situation for strong/projective measurements. In this case, no logical inconsistencies occur provided one is always careful in specifying exactly to which ensemble or sample space one refers. My results cast doubts on the utility of quantum weak values in treating cases like the examples mentioned.

  9. A Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Approach to Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We propose and explore a new hybrid approach to jet quenching in a strongly coupled medium. The basis of this phenomenological approach is to treat physics processes at different energy scales differently. The high-$Q^2$ processes associated with the QCD evolution of the jet from production as a single hard parton through its fragmentation, up to but not including hadronization, are treated perturbatively. The interactions between the partons in the shower and the deconfined matter within which they find themselves lead to energy loss. The momentum scales associated with the medium (of the order of the temperature) and with typical interactions between partons in the shower and the medium are sufficiently soft that strongly coupled physics plays an important role in energy loss. We model these interactions using qualitative insights from holographic calculations of the energy loss of energetic light quarks and gluons in a strongly coupled plasma, obtained via gauge/gravity duality. We embed this hybrid model ...

  10. Forbidden nonunique β decays and effective values of weak coupling constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaranen, M.; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, J.

    2016-03-01

    Forbidden nonunique β decays feature shape functions that are complicated combinations of different nuclear matrix elements and phase-space factors. Furthermore, they depend in a very nontrivial way on the values of the weak coupling constants, gV for the vector part and gA for the axial-vector part. In this work we include also the usually omitted second-order terms in the shape functions to see their effect on the computed decay half-lives and electron spectra (β spectra). As examples we study the fourth-forbidden nonunique ground-state-to-ground-state β- decay branches of 113Cd and 115In using the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model and the nuclear shell model. A striking new feature that is reported in this paper is that the calculated shape of the β spectrum is quite sensitive to the values of gV and gA and hence comparison of the calculated with the measured spectrum shape opens a way to determine the values of these coupling constants. This article is designed to show the power of this comparison, coined spectrum-shape method (SSM), by studying the two exemplary β transitions within two different nuclear-structure frameworks. While the SSM seems to confine the gV values close to the canonical value gV=1.0 , the values of gA extracted from the half-life data and by the SSM emerge contradictory in the present calculations. This calls for improved nuclear-structure calculations and more measured data to systematically employ SSM for determination of the effective value of gA in the future.

  11. Optical absorption, photoluminescence and structural analysis of CdS quantum dots in weak confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K.; Vedeshwar, A. G.; Tandon, R. P.

    2014-02-01

    The diffusion-controlled growth of CdS quantum dots (QDs) dispersed in a silicate glass matrix was investigated. It was found that the size of CdS QDs can be controlled by either heat treatment at various temperatures for a fixed duration or varying times at a constant temperature. Pastel yellow colored glass samples were obtained due to the presence of CdS petite crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for determining the average dot size which varied from 3.8 to 30 nm. The typical quantum confinement effect was clearly observed from the blue shift measured in the optical absorption edge with decreasing dot size in the absorption spectroscopy. The band gap of CdS QDs ranges from 2.41 to 2.82 eV. Measured photoluminescence (PL) at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm showed the red shift of emission wavelength with increasing thermal treatment time and temperature in agreement with the increasing dot sizes. The half-width of PL spectra seems to indicate qualitatively the size distribution of dots and is consistent with the treatment parameters.

  12. Transport in weakly-coupled superlattices: A quantitative approach for photon-assisted tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1997-01-01

    Photon-assisted tunneling is studied in weakly-coupled semiconductor superlattices under THz irradiation. Using a microscopic transport model we find excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data for two different samples without using any fitting parameters.......Photon-assisted tunneling is studied in weakly-coupled semiconductor superlattices under THz irradiation. Using a microscopic transport model we find excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data for two different samples without using any fitting parameters....

  13. Faithful conditional quantum state transfer between weakly coupled qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miková, M.; Straka, I.; Mičuda, M.; Krčmarský, V.; Dušek, M.; Ježek, M.; Fiurášek, J.; Filip, R.

    2016-08-01

    One of the strengths of quantum information theory is that it can treat quantum states without referring to their particular physical representation. In principle, quantum states can be therefore fully swapped between various quantum systems by their mutual interaction and this quantum state transfer is crucial for many quantum communication and information processing tasks. In practice, however, the achievable interaction time and strength are often limited by decoherence. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a procedure for faithful quantum state transfer between two weakly interacting qubits. Our scheme enables a probabilistic yet perfect unidirectional transfer of an arbitrary unknown state of a source qubit onto a target qubit prepared initially in a known state. The transfer is achieved by a combination of a suitable measurement of the source qubit and quantum filtering on the target qubit depending on the outcome of measurement on the source qubit. We experimentally verify feasibility and robustness of the transfer using a linear optical setup with qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons.

  14. From weak to strong coupling in ABJM theory

    CERN Document Server

    Drukker, Nadav; Putrov, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The partition function of N=6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theory (known as ABJM theory) on S^3, as well as certain Wilson loop observables, are captured by a zero dimensional super-matrix model. This super-matrix model is closely related to a matrix model describing topological Chern-Simons theory on a lens space. We explore further these recent observations and extract more exact results in ABJM theory from the matrix model. In particular we calculate the planar free energy, which matches at strong coupling the classical IIA supergravity action on AdS_4 x CP^3 and gives the correct N^{3/2} scaling for the number of degrees of freedom of the M2 brane theory. Furthermore we find contributions coming from world-sheet instanton corrections in CP^3. We also calculate non-planar corrections, both to the free energy and to the Wilson loop expectation values. This matrix model appears also in the study of topological strings on a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and an intriguing connection arises between the space...

  15. Modeling and analysis of secondary sources coupling for active sound field reduction in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Allahyar; Taylor, C. James

    2017-10-01

    This article addresses the coupling of acoustic secondary sources in a confined space in a sound field reduction framework. By considering the coupling of sources in a rectangular enclosure, the set of coupled equations governing its acoustical behavior are solved. The model obtained in this way is used to analyze the behavior of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) active sound field control (ASC) systems, where the coupling of sources cannot be neglected. In particular, the article develops the analytical results to analyze the effect of coupling of an array of secondary sources on the sound pressure levels inside an enclosure, when an array of microphones is used to capture the acoustic characteristics of the enclosure. The results are supported by extensive numerical simulations showing how coupling of loudspeakers through acoustic modes of the enclosure will change the strength and hence the driving voltage signal applied to the secondary loudspeakers. The practical significance of this model is to provide a better insight on the performance of the sound reproduction/reduction systems in confined spaces when an array of loudspeakers and microphones are placed in a fraction of wavelength of the excitation signal to reduce/reproduce the sound field. This is of particular importance because the interaction of different sources affects their radiation impedance depending on the electromechanical properties of the loudspeakers.

  16. What are the Confining Field Configurations of Strong-Coupling Lattice Gauge Theory?

    CERN Document Server

    Faber, M; Olejník, S

    2000-01-01

    Starting from the strong-coupling SU(2) Wilson action in D=3 dimensions, we derive an effective, semi-local action on a lattice of spacing L times the spacing of the original lattice. It is shown that beyond the adjoint color-screening distance, i.e. for $L \\ge 5$, thin center vortices are stable saddlepoints of the corresponding effective action. Since the entropy of these stable objects exceeds their energy, center vortices percolate throughout the lattice, and confine color charge in half-integer representations of the SU(2) gauge group. This result contradicts the folklore that confinement in strong-coupling lattice gauge theory, for D>2 dimensions, is simply due to plaquette disorder, as is the case in D=2 dimensions. It also demonstrates explicitly how the emergence and stability of center vortices is related to the existence of color screening by gluon fields.

  17. D-brane physics. From weak to strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Lopes, Daniel Ordine

    2013-01-10

    In this thesis we discuss two aspects of branes relevant to high-energy phenomenology. First, we consider a single D6-brane wrapping a special Lagrangian cycle and the background space compactified in a Calabi-Yau orientifold the conditions needed to obtain a four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric theory. We calculate the bosonic part of the effective action by performing a Kaluza-Klein reduction of the brane seven-dimensional action, and obtain the N=1 characteristic data. To discuss the moduli, we first fix the moduli from deformations of the background Calabi-Yau and study the D-brane deformation moduli space. We next allow for Calabi-Yau deformations, and show that the moduli space for complex structure deformations is corrected by the fields living on the D6-brane. We also calculate the scalar potential from D- and F-terms generated from brane and background configurations that would break the supersymmetry condition. We then, via Mirror Symmetry, relate the spectrum obtained in our work to the spectrum in Type IIB effective theory with D3- D5- and D7-branes, and we propose a Kaehler potential for the moduli space of brane deformations in Type IIB theories. In the second part of the thesis we discuss effects of brane intersections when the string coupling can become strong, and we work in the framework of F-theory. After reviewing the basics of F-theory constructions and a particular SU(5) model already discussed in the literature, we construct a model which contains a point of E{sub 8} singularity, and curves of E{sub 6} singularity. By explicitly resolving the space, we show that the resolution requires the introduction of higher dimensional fibers, and argue how we can circumvent this problem for the E{sub 6} curve, leading to the expected resolution that generate an E{sub 6} group, while at the E{sub 8} point we cannot make the resolution lead to an expected E{sub 8} structure.

  18. Principal modes in multimode fibers: exploring the crossover from weak to strong mode coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Wen; Bromberg, Yaron; Redding, Brandon; Rotter, Stefan; Cao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical studies on principal modes in a multimode fiber with mode coupling. By applying external stress to the fiber and gradually adjusting the stress, we have realized a transition from weak to strong mode coupling, which corresponds to the transition from single scattering to multiple scattering in mode space. Our experiments show that principal modes have distinct spatial and spectral characteristic in the weak and strong mode coupling regimes. We also investigate the bandwidth of the principal modes, in particular, the dependence of the bandwidth on the delay time, and the effects of the mode-dependent loss. By analyzing the path-length distributions, we discover two distinct mechanisms that are responsible for the bandwidth of principal modes in weak and strong mode coupling regimes. Taking into account the mode-dependent loss in the fiber, our numerical results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. Our study paves the way for exploring potential applica...

  19. Strong coupling of two interacting excitons confined in a nanocavity-quantum dot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Paulo C; RodrIguez, Boris A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 MedellIn (Colombia); Quesada, Nicolas [McLennan Physical Laboratories, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Vinck-Posada, Herbert, E-mail: pcardenas@fisica.udea.edu.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-07-06

    We present a study of the strong coupling between radiation and matter, considering a system of two quantum dots, which are in mutual interaction and interact with a single mode of light confined in a semiconductor nanocavity. We take into account dissipative mechanisms such as the escape of the cavity photons, decay of the quantum dot excitons by spontaneous emission, and independent exciton pumping. It is shown that the mutual interaction between the dots can be measured off-resonance only if the strong coupling condition is reached. Using the quantum regression theorem, a reasonable definition of the dynamical coupling regimes is introduced in terms of the complex Rabi frequency. Finally, the emission spectrum for relevant conditions is presented and compared with the above definition, demonstrating that the interaction between the excitons does not affect the strong coupling.

  20. Effects of Thermal Lattice Vibration on the Effective Potential of Weak-Coupling Bipolaron in a Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    额尔敦朝鲁; 乌云其木格; 肖欣; 韩超; 辛伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Huybrechts' linear-combination operator, effects of thermal lattice vibration on the effective potential of weak-coupling bipolaron in semiconductor quantum dots are studied by using the LLP variational method and quantum statistical theory. The results show that the absolute value of the induced potential of the bipolaron increases with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength, but decreases with increasing the temperature and the distance of electrons, respectively; the absolute value of the effective potential increases with increasing the radius of the quantum dot, electron-phonon coupling strength and the distance of electrons, respectively, but decreases with increasing the temperature; the temperature and electron-phonon interaction have the important influence on the formation and state properties of the bipolaron: the bipolarons in the bound state are closer and more stable when the electron-phonon coupling strength is larger or the temperature is lower; the confinement potential and coulomb repulsive potential between electrons are unfavorable to the formation of bipolarons in the bound state.

  1. Classical integrability for three-point functions: cognate structure at weak and strong couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazama, Yoichi [Research Center for Mathematical Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Quantum Hadron Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Komatsu, Shota [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Nishimura, Takuya [Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2016-10-10

    In this paper, we develop a new method of computing three-point functions in the SU(2) sector of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the semi-classical regime at weak coupling, which closely parallels the strong coupling analysis. The structure threading two disparate regimes is the so-called monodromy relation, an identity connecting the three-point functions with and without the insertion of the monodromy matrix. We shall show that this relation can be put to use directly for the semi-classical regime, where the dynamics is governed by the classical Landau-Lifshitz sigma model. Specifically, it reduces the problem to a set of functional equations, which can be solved once the analyticity in the spectral parameter space is specified. To determine the analyticity, we develop a new universal logic applicable at both weak and strong couplings. As a result, compact semi-classical formulas are obtained for a general class of three-point functions at weak coupling including the ones whose semi-classical behaviors were not known before. In addition, the new analyticity argument applied to the strong coupling analysis leads to a modification of the integration contour, producing the results consistent with the recent hexagon bootstrap approach. This modification also makes the Frolov-Tseytlin limit perfectly agree with the weak coupling form.

  2. Coupling, convergence rates of Markov processes and weak Poincaré inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Fengyu(王凤雨)

    2002-01-01

    Some analytic and probabilistic properties of the weak Poincaré inequality are obtained. In particular, for strong Feller Markov processes the existence of this inequality is equivalent to each of the following: (i)the Liouville property (or the irreducibility); (ii) the existence of successful couplings (or shift-couplings); (iii)the convergence of the Markov process in total variation norm; (iv) the triviality of the tail (or the invariant)σ-field; (v) the convergence of the density. Estimates of the convergence rate in total variation norm of Markov processes are obtained using the weak Poincaré inequality.

  3. Universal lineshapes at the crossover between weak and strong critical coupling in Fano-resonant coupled oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotto, Simone

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss a model describing key features concerning the lineshapes and the coherent absorption conditions in Fano-resonant dissipative coupled oscillators. The model treats on the same footing the weak and strong coupling regimes, and includes the critical coupling concept, which is of great relevance in numerous applications; in addition, the role of asymmetry is thoroughly analyzed. Due to the wide generality of the model, which can be adapted to various frameworks like nanophotonics, plasmonics, and optomechanics, we envisage that the analytical formulas presented here will be crucial to effectively design devices and to interpret experimental results.

  4. Coupling-induced ferromagnetic transitions in ferroelectromagnets of weak antiferromagnetic order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qichang; LIU Junming

    2006-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo simulation on phase transitions in ferroelectromagnets (FEMs) in which a weak antiferromagnetic ordering occurs at the Neel point TN far below the ferroelectric ordering point TE was performed. It is revealed that an intrinsic coupling between spins and electric-dipoles ( mp -coupling) does result in a weak ferromagnetic transition from the paramagnetic state at a temperature far above TN, as long as the coupling is strong enough. The magnetoelectric properties as a function of temperature, mp -coupling strength and external electric and magnetic fields were investigated. A mean-field calculation based on the Heisenberg model was performed and a rough consistency between the simulated and calculated ferromagnetic transitions was shown.

  5. Persistent spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Wei; Wang Yi; Zhou Guang-Hui

    2007-01-01

    The spin current in a parabolically confined semiconductor heterojunction quantum wire with Dresselhaus spinorbit coupling is theoretically studied by using the perturbation method. The formulae of the elements for linear and angular spin current densities are derived by using the recent definition for spin current based on spin continuity equation. It is found that the spin current in this Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling quantum wire is antisymmetrical,which is different from that in R ashba model due to the difference in symmetry between these two models. Some numerical examples for the result are also demonstrated and discussed.

  6. Towards a hybrid strong/weak coupling approach to jet quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We explore a novel hybrid model containing both strong and weak coupling physics for high energy jets traversing a deconfined medium. This model is based on supplementing a perturbative DGLAP shower with strongly coupled energy loss rate. We embed this system into a realistic hydrodynamic evolution of hot QCD plasma. We confront our results with LHC data, obtaining good agreement for jet RAARAA, dijet imbalance AJAJ and fragmentation functions.

  7. Weak-Coupling Theory for Low-Frequency Periodically Driven Two-Level Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ai-Xi; HUANG Ke-Lin; WANG Zhi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    We generalize the Wu-Yang strong-coupling theory to solve analytically periodically driven two-level systems in the weak-coupling and low-frequency regimes for single- and multi-period periodic driving of continuous-wave-type and pulse-type including ultrashort pulses of a few cycles. We also derive a general formula of the AC Stark shift suitable for such diverse situations.

  8. Modulation properties of spatial three-waveguide system using weakly coupled mode theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiling Sun; Jianxia Pan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the weakly coupled mode theory, the modulation properties of three-waveguide system are analyzed in general. We examine the modulation behavior for two cases that a voltage is applied on the beamlaunched waveguide or non-beam-launched waveguide. The analytical intensity distributions in both cases are given. Applications of the spatial multi-waveguide coupling systems include spatial light modulators,optical switches, optical interconnection, and spatial optical signal processing.

  9. Evaluation of FRP Confinement Models for Substandard Rectangular RC Columns Based on Full-Scale Reversed Cyclic Lateral Loading Tests in Strong and Weak Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farrokh Ghatte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many theoretical and experimental studies are available on external confinement of columns using fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP jackets, as well as numerous models proposed for the axial stress-axial strain relation of concrete confined with FRP jackets, they have not been validated with a sufficient amount and variety of experimental data obtained through full-scale tests of reinforced concrete (RC columns with different geometrical and mechanical characteristics. Particularly, no systematical experimental data have been presented on full-scale rectangular substandard RC columns subjected to reversed cyclic lateral loads along either their strong or weak axes. In this study, firstly, test results of five full-scale rectangular substandard RC columns with a cross-sectional aspect ratio of two (300 mm × 600 mm are briefly summarized. The columns were tested under constant axial load and reversed cyclic lateral loads along their strong or weak axes before and after retrofitting with external FRP jackets. In the second stage, inelastic lateral force-displacement relationships of the columns are obtained analytically, making use of the plastic hinge assumption and different FRP confinement models available in the literature. Finally, the analytical findings are compared with the test results for both strong and weak directions of the columns. Comparisons showed that use of different models for the stress-strain relationship of FRP-confined concrete can yield significantly non-conservative or too conservative retrofit designs, particularly in terms of deformation capacity.

  10. Travelling waves associated with saddle-node bifurcation in weakly coupled CML

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Herrera, Ma Dolores, E-mail: dsh@dfmf.uned.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, E.U.I.T.I., Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); San Martin, Jesus, E-mail: jsm@dfmf.uned.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, E.U.I.T.I., Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, U.N.E.D., Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-19

    Weakly coupled CML can be analytically solved by using perturbative methods. This technique has been recently used to deduce analytical expressions for travelling waves. Nonetheless, the results were limited for periodic solutions far away from saddle-node bifurcation. In this Letter, this problem is solved and periodic solutions, arising from the individual dynamics, are totally characterised.

  11. Longitudinal singular response of dusty plasma medium in weak and strong coupling limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Tiwari, Sanat; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman; Sen, Abhijit [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382428 (India)

    2012-01-15

    The longitudinal response of a dusty plasma medium in both weak and strong coupling limits has been investigated in detail using analytic as well as numerical techniques. In particular, studies on singular response of the medium have been specifically investigated here. A proper Galilean invariant form of the generalized hydrodynamic fluid model has been adopted for the description of the dusty plasma medium. For weak non-linear response, analytic reductive perturbative approach has been adopted. It is well known that in the weak coupling regime for the dusty plasma medium, such an analysis leads to the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV) equation and predicts the existence of localized smooth soliton solutions. We show that the strongly coupled dust fluid with the correct Galilean invariant form does not follow the KdV paradigm. Instead, it reduces to the form of Hunter-Saxton equation, which does not permit soliton solutions. The system in this case displays singular response with both conservative as well as dissipative attributes. At arbitrary high amplitudes, the existence and spontaneous formation of sharply peaked cusp structures in both weak and strong coupling regimes has been demonstrated numerically.

  12. Parity-violating $\\pi NN$ coupling constant from the flavor-conserving effective weak chiral Lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    Hyun, Chang Ho; Lee, Hee-Jung

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the parity-violating pion-nucleon-nucleon coupling constant $h^1_{\\pi NN}$, based on the chiral quark-soliton model. We employ an effective weak Hamiltonian that takes into account the next-to-leading order corrections from QCD to the weak interactions at the quark level. Using the gradient expansion, we derive the leading-order effective weak chiral Lagrangian with the low-energy constants determined. The effective weak chiral Lagrangian is incorporated in the chiral quark-soliton model to calculate the parity-violating $\\pi NN$ constant $h^1_{\\pi NN}$. We obtain a value of about $10^{-7}$ at the leading order. The corrections from the next-to-leading order reduce the leading order result by about 20~\\%.

  13. The strong-weak coupling symmetry in 2D Φ4 field models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N.Shalaev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the exact beta-function β(g of the continuous 2D gΦ4 model possesses two types of dual symmetries, these being the Kramers-Wannier (KW duality symmetry and the strong-weak (SW coupling symmetry f(g, or S-duality. All these transformations are explicitly constructed. The S-duality transformation f(g is shown to connect domains of weak and strong couplings, i.e. above and below g*. Basically it means that there is a tempting possibility to compute multiloop Feynman diagrams for the β-function using high-temperature lattice expansions. The regular scheme developed is found to be strongly unstable. Approximate values of the renormalized coupling constant g* found from duality symmetry equations are in an agreement with available numerical results.

  14. Confinement and structure of electrostatically coupled dust clouds in a direct current plasma-sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomura, S.; Ohno, N.; Takamura, S.

    1998-10-01

    Mechanisms for the confinement and the internal structure of an electrostatically coupled dust cloud formed in a dc glow discharge have been investigated from a comparative viewpoint between experimental observations and a simple model. Two kinds of dust clouds with different internal structures are clearly observed, depending on the dispersion of the size distribution of dust particles. The dust cloud can be trapped only in the plasma-sheath boundary area, corresponding to the potential minimum region determined by gravitational and electrostatic forces in the cathode sheath. No dust particles were found deep inside of the sheath, which is consistent with the analysis because the dust particles may be charged positively due to an extreme reduction of the electron density. The internal structure of the electrostatically coupled dust cloud was found to be arranged so that the total potential energy, including the repulsive Coulomb interaction among negative dust particles, may become minimal.

  15. Infrared Exponents and the Running Coupling of Landau gauge QCD and their Relation to Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Alkofer, R; Von Smekal, L; Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S.; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2003-01-01

    The infrared behaviour of the gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge QCD is reviewed. The Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion and the Gribov-Zwanziger horizon condition result from quite general properties of the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. The numerical solutions for the gluon and ghost propagators obtained from a truncated set of Dyson-Schwinger equations provide an explicit example for the anticipated infrared behaviour. The results are in good agreement with corresponding lattice data obtained recently. The resulting running coupling approaches a fix point in the infrared, $\\alpha(0) = 8.92/N_c$. Two different fits for the scale dependence of the running coupling are given and discussed.

  16. Detecting weak coupling in mesoscopic systems with a nonequilibrium Fano resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S.; Yoon, Y.; Lee, Y.-H.; Bird, J. P.; Ochiai, Y.; Aoki, N.; Reno, J. L.; Fransson, J.

    2016-04-01

    A critical aspect of quantum mechanics is the nonlocal nature of the wave function, a characteristic that may yield unexpected coupling of nominally isolated systems. The capacity to detect this coupling can be vital in many situations, especially those in which its strength is weak. In this work, we address this problem in the context of mesoscopic physics, by implementing an electron-wave realization of a Fano interferometer using pairs of coupled quantum point contacts (QPCs). Within this scheme, the discrete level required for a Fano resonance is provided by pinching off one of the QPCs, thereby inducing the formation of a quasibound state at the center of its self-consistent potential barrier. Using this system, we demonstrate a form of nonequilibrium Fano resonance (NEFR), in which nonlinear electrical biasing of the interferometer gives rise to pronounced distortions of its Fano resonance. Our experimental results are captured well by a quantitative theoretical model, which considers a system in which a standard two-path Fano interferometer is coupled to an additional, intruder, continuum. According to this theory, the observed distortions in the Fano resonance arise only in the presence of coupling to the intruder, indicating that the NEFR provides a sensitive means to infer the presence of weak coupling between mesoscopic systems.

  17. Limit on right hand weak coupling parameters from inelastic neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; De Groot, J G H; Dydak, F; Eisele, F; Flottmann, T; Geweniger, C; Guyot, C; He, J T; Klasen, H P; Kleinknecht, K; Knobloch, J; Królikowski, J; May, J; Merlo, J P; Palazzi, P; Para, A; Peyaud, B; Pszola, B; Rander, J; Ranjard, F; Renk, B; Rothberg, J E; Ruan, T Z; Schlatter, W D; Schuller, J P; Steinberger, J; Taureg, H; Tittel, K; Turlay, René; von Rüden, Wolfgang; Wahl, H; Willutzki, H J; Wotschack, J; Wu, W M

    1982-01-01

    Right handed weak quark current coupled to the usual left handed weak lepton current would be seen in inclusive antineutrino scattering on nuclei as a contribution at large y with the quark (not antiquark) structure function. The authors do not see such a term, and can therefore put an upper limit on the relative strengths of such right handed currents: rho /sup 2/= sigma /sub R// sigma /sub L/ <0.009, 90% confidence. This measurement puts limits on the mixing angle of left- right symmetric models. In distinction to similar limits derived from muon decay or beta decay, our limits are also valid if the right handed neutrino is heavy.

  18. Classical Integrability for Three-point Functions: Cognate Structure at Weak and Strong Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Kazama, Y; Nishimura, T

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new method of computing three-point functions in the SU(2) sector of the $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory in the semi-classical regime at weak coupling, which closely parallels the strong coupling analysis. The structure threading two disparate regimes is the so-called monodromy relation, an identity connecting the three-point functions with and without the insertion of the monodromy matrix. We shall show that this relation can be put to use directly for the semi-classical regime, where the dynamics is governed by the classical Landau-Lifshitz sigma model. Specifically, it reduces the problem to a set of functional equations, which can be solved once the analyticity in the spectral parameter space is specified. To determine the analyticity, we develop a new universal logic applicable at both weak and strong couplings. As a result, compact semi-classical formulas are obtained for a general class of three-point functions at weak coupling including the ones whose semi-classical...

  19. Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignani, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Harmark, Troels [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Marini, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Orselli, Marta [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy)

    2014-03-25

    We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T{sup 4} correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 factor well-known from the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane. We investigate the reason for this by taking the decoupling limit in both the open and the closed string descriptions thus showing that the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary constant electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane.

  20. Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Grignani, Gianluca; Marini, Andrea; Orselli, Marta

    2013-01-01

    We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading $T^4$ correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the $3/4$ factor well-known from the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane. We investigate the reason for this by taking the decoupling limit in both the open and the closed string descriptions thus showing that the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary constant electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane.

  1. Resonance width distribution in RMT: Weak-coupling regime beyond Porter-Thomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Savin, Dmitry V.

    2015-05-01

    We employ the random matrix theory (RMT) framework to revisit the distribution of resonance widths in quantum chaotic systems weakly coupled to the continuum via a finite number M of open channels. In contrast to the standard first-order perturbation theory treatment we do not a priori assume the resonance widths being small compared to the mean level spacing. We show that to the leading order in weak coupling the perturbative χ^2M distribution of the resonance widths (in particular, the Porter-Thomas distribution at M = 1) should be corrected by a factor related to a certain average of the ratio of square roots of the characteristic polynomial (“spectral determinant”) of the underlying RMT Hamiltonian. A simple single-channel expression is obtained that properly approximates the width distribution also at large resonance overlap, where the Porter-Thomas result is no longer applicable.

  2. The weakly coupled Pfaffian as a type I quantum hall liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, S.A., E-mail: spivak@u.washington.edu [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sondhi, S.L. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Spivak, B.Z. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Pfaffian phase of electrons in the proximity of a half-filled Landau level is understood to be a p+ip superconductor of composite fermions. We consider the properties of this paired quantum Hall phase when the pairing scale is small, i.e. in the weak coupling, BCS, limit, where the coherence length is much larger than the charge screening length. We find that, as in a Type I superconductor, vortices attract so that, upon varying the magnetic field from its magic value at {nu}=5/2, the system exhibits Coulomb frustrated phase separation. We propose that the weakly and strongly coupled Pfaffian states exemplify a general dichotomy between Type I and Type II quantum Hall fluids.

  3. Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\

  4. Weak Coupling Phase Structureof the Abelian Higgs Model at Finite Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovác, A

    1993-01-01

    Using the 1-loop reduced 3D action of the Abelian Higgs-model we discuss the order of its finite temperature phase transition. A two-variable saddle point approximation is proposed for the evaluation of the effective potential. The strength of the first order case scales like \\sim e^{3-6}. Analytic asymptotic weak coupling and numerical small coupling solutions are compared with special emphasis on the cancellation of divergences. (Figures are not included, can be sent upon request from jako@hercules.elte.hu .)

  5. Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\

  6. Dynamics in Two Periodically Driven and Weakly Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈付广; 黄德斌; 郭荣伟

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, dynamics in the oscillations of the relative atomic population in two periodically driven and weakly coupled Bose-Einstein eondensates (BECs) was qualitatively studied. Using the well-known Melnikov method, the conditions of existence of the periodic and chaotic coherent atomic tunnellings were given in the model. Our results indicate the typical route from bifurcation of the limited circles to chaos, and are in agreement with the previous numerical results.

  7. Large time behavior of weakly coupled systems of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    CERN Document Server

    Camilli, Fabio; Loreti, Paola; Nguyen, Vinh Duc

    2011-01-01

    We show a large time behavior result for class of weakly coupled systems of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations in the periodic setting. We use a PDE approach to extend the convergence result proved by Namah and Roquejoffre (1999) in the scalar case. Our proof is based on new comparison, existence and regularity results for systems. An interpretation of the solution of the system in terms of an optimal control problem with switching is given.

  8. Fick's Law for the Lorentz Model in a weak coupling regime

    OpenAIRE

    Nota, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we deal with further recent developments, strictly connected to the recent result obtained by Basile, Nota, Pezzotti and Pulvirenti. We consider the Lorentz gas out of equilibrium in a weak coupling regime. Each obstacle of the Lorentz gas generates a smooth radially symmetric potential with compact support. We prove that the macroscopic current in the stationary state is given by the Fick's law of diffusion. The diffusion coefficient is given by the Green-Kubo formula associate...

  9. The effective potential of composite fields in weakly coupled QED in a uniform external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, D S; Ng, Y J; Shovkovy, I A

    1999-01-01

    The effective potential for the composite fields responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in weakly coupled QED in a magnetic field is derived. The global minimum of the effective potential is found to acquire a non-vanishing expectation value of the composite fields that leads to generating the dynamical fermion mass by an external magnetic field. The results are compared with those for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model.

  10. Initial conditions for hydrodynamics from weakly coupled pre-equilibrium evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Keegan, Liam; Mazeliauskas, Aleksas; Teaney, Derek

    2016-01-01

    We use effective kinetic theory, accurate at weak coupling, to simulate the pre-equilibrium evolution of transverse energy and flow perturbations in heavy-ion collisions. We provide a Green function which propagates the initial perturbations to the energy-momentum tensor at a time when hydrodynamics becomes applicable. With this map, the complete pre-thermal evolution from saturated nuclei to hydrodynamics can be modelled in a perturbatively controlled way.

  11. Nonthermal Fixed Points in Quantum Field Theory Beyond the Weak-Coupling Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Berges, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Quantum systems in extreme conditions can exhibit universal behavior far from equilibrium associated to nonthermal fixed points, with a wide range of topical applications from early-universe inflaton dynamics and heavy-ion collisions to strong quenches in ultracold quantum gases. So far, most studies rely on a mapping of the quantum dynamics onto a classical-statistical theory that can be simulated on a computer. However, the mapping is based on a weak-coupling limit while phenomenological applications often require moderate values of couplings. We report on the observation of nonthermal fixed points directly in quantum field theory beyond the weak-coupling limit. For the example of a relativistic scalar \\mathrm{O}(N) symmetric quantum field theory, we numerically solve the nonequilibrium dynamics employing a 1/N expansion to next-to-leading order, which does not rely on a small coupling parameter. Starting from two different sets of (a) over-occupied and (b) strong-field initial conditions, we find that nont...

  12. The role of multipoles in counterion-mediated interactions between charged surfaces: strong and weak coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanduc, M; Podgornik, R [Department of Theoretical Physics, J Stefan Institute, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Naji, A [Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Jho, Y S; Pincus, P A [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2009-10-21

    We present general arguments for the importance, or lack thereof, of structure in the charge distribution of counterions for counterion-mediated interactions between bounding symmetrically charged surfaces. We show that on the mean field or weak coupling level, the charge quadrupole contributes the lowest order modification to the contact value theorem and thus to the intersurface electrostatic interactions. The image effects are non-existent on the mean field level even with multipoles. On the strong coupling level the quadrupoles and higher order multipoles contribute additional terms to the interaction free energy only in the presence of dielectric inhomogeneities. Without them, the monopole is the only multipole that contributes to the strong coupling electrostatics. We explore the consequences of these statements in all their generality.

  13. Resonant enhanced parallel-T topology for weak coupling wireless power transfer pickup applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Guo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For the wireless power transfer (WPT system, the transfer performance and the coupling coefficient are contradictory. In this paper, a novel parallel-T resonant topology consists of a traditional parallel circuit and a T-matching network for secondary side is proposed. With this method, a boosted voltage can be output to the load, since this topology has a resonant enhancement effect, and high Q value can be obtained at a low resonant frequency and low coil inductance. This feature makes it more suitable for weak coupling WPT applications. Besides, the proposed topology shows good frequency stability and adaptability to variations of load. Experimental results show that the output voltage gain improves by 757% compared with traditional series circuit, and reaches 85% total efficiency when the coupling coefficient is 0.046.

  14. Nonreciprocity light propagation in coupled microcavities system beyond weak-excitation approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, A S; Chen, H; Mei, T; Liu, J

    2016-01-01

    We propose an alternative scheme for nonreciprocal light propagation in two coupled cavities system, in which a two-level quantum emitter is coupled to one of the optical microcavities. For the case of parity-time (\\textrm{PT}) system (i.e., active-passive coupled cavities system), the cavity gain can significantly enhance the optical nonlinearity induced by the interaction between a quantum emitter and cavity field beyond weak-excitation approximation. The giant optical nonlinearity results in the non-lossy nonreciprocal light propagation with high isolation ratio in proper parameters range. In addition, our calculations show that nonreciprocal light propagation will not be affected by the unstable output field intensity caused by optical bistability and we can even switch directions of nonreciprocal light propagation by appropriately adjusting the system parameters.

  15. Top-quark mass coupling and classification of weakly coupled heterotic superstring vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizos, J. [University of Ioannina, Physics Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-06-15

    The quest for the Standard Model among the huge number of string vacua is usually based on a set of phenomenological criteria related to the massless spectrum of string models. In this work we study criteria associated with interactions in the effective low energy theory and in particular with the presence of the coupling that provides mass to the top quark. Working in the context of the free-fermionic formulation of the heterotic superstring, we demonstrate that, in a big class of phenomenologically promising Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} compactifications, these criteria can be expressed entirely in terms of the generalised GSO projection coefficients entering the definition of the models. They are shown to be very efficient in identifying phenomenologically viable vacua, especially in the framework of computer-based search, as they are met by approximately one every 10{sup 4} models. We apply our results in the investigation of a class of supersymmetric Pati-Salam vacua, comprising 10{sup 16} configurations, and we show that when combined with other phenomenological requirements they lead to a relatively small set of about 10{sup 7} Standard Model compatible models that can be fully classified. (orig.)

  16. Electrically tunable single-dot nanocavities in the weak and strong coupling regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laucht, Arne; Hofbauer, Felix; Angele, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot - photonic crystal defect nanocavities [1] operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the dot-cavity spectral detuning...... electrical readout of the strongly coupled dot-cavity system using photocurrent methods will be discussed. This work is financially supported by the DFG via SFB 631 and by the German Excellence Initiative via the “Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM)”.......We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot - photonic crystal defect nanocavities [1] operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the dot-cavity spectral detuning......~120μeV are observed for the highest-Q cavities with Q~10500, much larger than the linewidths of either the decoupled exciton (γ30 linewidths. The devices fabricated allow studies of cavity-QED phenomena in a system that can be tuned in-situ, at low temperatures. Furthermore, prospects for direct...

  17. Global weak solutions for coupled transport processes in concrete walls at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Beneš, Michal

    2012-01-01

    We consider an initial-boundary value problem for a fully nonlinear coupled parabolic system with nonlinear boundary conditions modelling hygro-thermal behavior of concrete at high temperatures. We prove a global existence of a weak solution to this system on an arbitrary time interval. The main result is proved by an approximation procedure. This consists in proving the existence of solutions to mollified problems using the Leray-Schauder theorem, for which a priori estimates are obtained. The limit then provides a weak solution for the original problem. A practical example illustrates a performance of the model for a problem of a concrete segment exposed to transient heating according to three different fire scenarios. Here, the focus is on the short-term pore pressure build up, which can lead to explosive spalling of concrete and catastrophic failures of concrete structures.

  18. Weak low-energy couplings from topological zero-mode wavefunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, P; Peña, C; Torro, E; Wennekers, J; Wittig, H

    2007-01-01

    We discuss a new method to determine the low-energy couplings of the $\\Delta S=1$ weak Hamiltonian in the $\\epsilon$-regime. It relies on a matching of the topological poles in $1/m^2$ of three-point functions of two pseudoscalar densities and a four-fermion operator computed in lattice QCD, to the same observables in the Chiral Effective Theory. We present the results of a NLO computation in chiral perturbation theory of these correlation functions together with some preliminary numerical results.

  19. The QCD static potential in 2+1 dimensions at weak coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    Using the effective theory pNRQCD we determine the potential energy of a color singlet quark-antiquark pair with (fixed) distance r in three space-time dimensions at weak coupling (alpha r << 1). The precision of our result reaches O(alpha^3 r^2), i.e. NNLO in the multipole expansion, and NNLL in a alpha/DeltaV expansion, where Delta V ~ alpha ln(alpha r). We even include all logarithmic terms up to N^4LL order and compare the outcome to existing lattice data.

  20. Determination of the Axial-Vector Weak Coupling Constant with Polarized Ultracold Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Holley, A T; Back, H O; Bowles, T J; Broussard, L J; Carr, R; Clayton, S; Currie, S; Filippone, B W; Garcia, A; Geltenbort, P; Hickerson, K P; Hoagland, J; Hogan, G E; Hona, B; Ito, T M; Liu, C -Y; Makela, M; Mammei, R R; Martin, J W; Melconian, D; Morris, C L; Pattie, R W; Galvan, A Perez; Pitt, M L; Plaster, B; Ramsey, J C; Rios, R; Russell, R; Saunders, A; Seestrom, S; Sondheim, W E; Tatar, E; Vogelaar, R B; VornDick, B; Wrede, C; Yan, H; Young, A R

    2010-01-01

    A precise measurement of the neutron decay $\\beta$-asymmetry $A_0$ has been carried out using polarized ultracold neutrons (UCN) from the pulsed spallation UCN source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Combining data obtained in 2008 and 2009, we report $A_0 = -0.11966 \\pm 0.00089 _{-0.00140}^{+0.00123}$, from which we determine the ratio of the axial-vector to vector weak coupling of the nucleon $g_A/g_V = -1.27590 _{-0.00445}^{+0.00409}$.

  1. Non-thermal fixed points. Effective weak-coupling for strongly correlated systems far from equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berges, J. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Rothkopf, A. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Schmidt, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Strongly correlated systems far from equilibrium can exhibit scaling solutions with a dynamically generated weak coupling. We show this by investigating isolated systems described by relativistic quantum field theories for initial conditions leading to nonequilibrium instabilities, such as parametric resonance or spinodal decomposition. The non-thermal fixed points prevent fast thermalization if classical-statistical fluctuations dominate over quantum fluctuations. We comment on the possible significance of these results for the heating of the early universe after inflation and the question of fast thermalization in heavy-ion collision experiments. (orig.)

  2. On uniqueness and existence of entropy solutions of weakly coupled systems of nonlinear degenerate parabolic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Holden

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove existence and uniqueness of entropy solutions for the Cauchy problem of weakly coupled systems of nonlinear degenerate parabolic equations. We prove existence of an entropy solution by demonstrating that the Engquist-Osher finite difference scheme is convergent and that any limit function satisfies the entropy condition. The convergence proof is based on deriving a series of a priori estimates and using a general $L^p$ compactness criterion. The uniqueness proof is an adaption of Kruzkov's ``doubling of variables'' proof. We also present a numerical example motivated by biodegradation in porous media.

  3. Rigorous derivation of the Landau equation in the weak coupling limit

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Kay

    2009-01-01

    We examine a family of microscopic models of plasmas, with a parameter $\\alpha$ comparing the typical distance between collisions to the strength of the grazing collisions. These microscopic models converge in distribution, in the weak coupling limit, to a velocity diffusion described by the linear Landau equation (also known as the Fokker-Planck equation). The present work extends and unifies previous results that handled the extremes of the parameter $\\alpha$, for the whole range (0, 1/2], by showing that clusters of overlapping obstacles are negligible in the limit. Additionally, we study the diffusion coefficient of the Landau equation and show it to be independent of the parameter.

  4. Amplitude equations for coupled electrostatic waves in the limit of weak instability

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, J D; Crawford, John David; Knobloch, Edgar

    1997-01-01

    We consider the simplest instabilities involving multiple unstable electrostatic plasma waves corresponding to four-dimensional systems of mode amplitude equations. In each case the coupled amplitude equations are derived up to third order terms. The nonlinear coefficients are singular in the limit in which the linear growth rates vanish together. These singularities are analyzed using techniques developed in previous studies of a single unstable wave. In addition to the singularities familiar from the one mode problem, there are new singularities in coefficients coupling the modes. The new singularities are most severe when the two waves have the same linear phase velocity and satisfy the spatial resonance condition $k_2=2k_1$. As a result the short wave mode saturates at a dramatically smaller amplitude than that predicted for the weak growth rate regime on the basis of single mode theory. In contrast the long wave mode retains the single mode scaling. If these resonance conditions are not satisfied both mo...

  5. Spin Polarized Photons from Axially Charged Plasma at Weak Coupling: Complete Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Mamo, Kiminad A

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin-aligned, which is a unique P- and CP-odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this "P-odd photon emission rate" in weak coupling regime at high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P-even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of P-odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: 1) Compton and Pair Annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, 2) soft t- and u-channel contributions with Hard Thermal Loop re-summation, 3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) re-summation of collinear Bremstrahlung and Pair Annihilation. We present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P-odd photon emission rate observable.

  6. Quantum criticality in the 2D Hubbard: from weak to strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, Dimitrios; Mikelsons, Karlis; Khatami, Ehsan; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Zhaoxin; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2010-03-01

    We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional Hubbard model in the vicinity of the quantum critical point which separates the fermi liquid from the pseudogap region. We use the Dynamical Cluster Approximation (DCA) in conjunction with the weak-coupling continuous time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC) cluster solver. We measure the filling nc and the density of states at the critical point as a function of the Coulomb interaction U. We observe a change in behavior when the Coulomb interaction is of the order of the bandwidth. We also evaluate the temperature range in which the system is under the influence of the quantum critical point and compare it with the effective spin coupling Jeff. We discuss the consistency of these results with various mechanisms of quantum criticality. This research is supported by NSF DMR-0706379 and OISE-0952300.

  7. Stochastic resonance in coupled weakly-damped bistable oscillators subjected to additive and multiplicative noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Mei Kang; Mei Wang; Yong Xie

    2012-01-01

    With coupled weakly-damped periodically driven bistable oscillators subjected to additive and multiplicative noises under concern,the objective of this paper is to check to what extent the resonant point predicted by the Gaussian distribution assumption can approximate the simulated one.The investigation based on the dynamical mean-field approximation and the direct simulation demonstrates that the predicted resonant point and the simulated one are basically coincident for the case of pure additive noise,but for the case including multiplicative noise the situation becomes somewhat complex.Specifically speaking,when stochastic resonance (SR) is observed by changing the additive noise intensity,the predicted resonant point is lower than the simulated one; nevertheless,when SR is observed by changing the multiplicative noise intensity,the predicted resonant point is higher than the simulated one.Our observations imply that the Gaussian distribution assumption can not exactly describe the actual situation,but it is useful to some extent in predicting the low-frequency stochastic resonance of the coupled weakly-damped bistable oscillator.

  8. Lectures On AdS-CFT At Weak 't Hooft Coupling At Finite Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Furuuchi, K

    2006-01-01

    This is an introductory lecture note aiming at providing an overview of the AdS-CFT correspondence at weak 't Hooft coupling at finite temperature. The first aim of this note is to describe the equivalence of three interesting thermodynamical phenomena in theoretical physics, namely, Hawking-Page transition to black hole geometry, deconfinement transition in gauge theories, and vortex condensation on string worldsheets. The Hawking-Page transition and the deconfinement transition in weakly coupled gauge theories are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is on the study of 't Hooft-Feynman diagrams in the large $N$ gauge theories, which are supposed to describe closed string worldsheets and probe the above equivalence. Nature of the 't Hooft-Feynman diagrams at finite temperature is analyzed, both in the Euclidean signature (the imaginary time formalism) and in the Lorentzian signature (the real time formalism). The second aim of this note is to give an introduction to the real time formalism applied to AdS-CFT.

  9. Phase diagram of the t U2 Hamiltonian of the weak coupling Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    We determine the symmetry of Cooper pairs, on the basis of the perturbation theory in terms of the Coulomb interaction U, for the two-dimensional Hubbard model on the square lattice. The phase diagram is investigated in detail. The Hubbard model for small U is mapped on to an effective Hamiltonian with the attractive interaction using the canonical transformation: Heff = eSHe-S. The gap equation of the weak coupling formulation is solved without numerical ambiguity to determine the symmetry of Cooper pairs. The superconducting gap crucially depends on the position of the van Hove singularity. We show the phase diagram in the plane of the electron filling ne and the next nearest-neighbor transfer t'. The d-wave pairing is dominant for the square lattice in a wide range of ne and t'. The d-wave pairing is also stable for the square lattice with anisotropic t'. The three-band d-p model is also investigated, for which the d-wave pairing is stable in a wide range of ne and tpp (the transfer between neighboring oxygen atoms). In the weak coupling analysis, the second-neighbor transfer parameter -t' could not be so large so that the optimum doping rate is in the range of 0.8 < ne < 0.85.

  10. Confined surface plasmon sensors based on strongly coupled disk-in-volcano arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Bin; Wang, Limin; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yu, Ye; Zhang, Gang

    2015-02-14

    Disk-in-volcano arrays are reported to greatly enhance the sensing performance due to strong coupling in the nanogaps between the nanovolcanos and nanodisks. The designed structure, which is composed of a nanovolcano array film and a disk in each cavity, is fabricated by a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. By tuning structural parameters, the disk-in-volcano arrays show greatly enhanced resonances in the nanogaps formed by the disks and the inner wall of the volcanos. Therefore they respond to the surrounding environment with a sensitivity as high as 977 nm per RIU and with excellent linear dependence on the refraction index. Moreover, through mastering the fabrication process, biological sensing can be easily confined to the cavities of the nanovolcanos. The local responsivity has the advantages of maximum surface plasmon energy density in the nanogaps, reducing the sensing background and saving expensive reagents. The disk-in-volcano arrays also possess great potential in applications of optical and electrical trapping and single-molecule analysis, because they enable establishment of electric fields across the gaps.

  11. Confined Diffusion Without Fences of a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor as Revealed by Single Particle Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumas, Frédéric; Destainville, Nicolas; Millot, Claire; Lopez, André; Dean, David; Salomé, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Single particle tracking is a powerful tool for probing the organization and dynamics of the plasma membrane constituents. We used this technique to study the μ-opioid receptor belonging to the large family of the G-protein-coupled receptors involved with other partners in a signal transduction pathway. The specific labeling of the receptor coupled to a T7-tag at its N-terminus, stably expressed in fibroblastic cells, was achieved by colloidal gold coupled to a monoclonal anti T7-tag antibody. The lateral movements of the particles were followed by nanovideomicroscopy at 40 ms time resolution during 2 min with a spatial precision of 15 nm. The receptors were found to have either a slow or directed diffusion mode (10%) or a walking confined diffusion mode (90%) composed of a long-term random diffusion and a short-term confined diffusion, and corresponding to a diffusion confined within a domain that itself diffuses. The results indicate that the confinement is due to an effective harmonic potential generated by long-range attraction between the membrane proteins. A simple model for interacting membrane proteins diffusion is proposed that explains the variations with the domain size of the short-term and long-term diffusion coefficients. PMID:12524289

  12. Superconductivity enhanced by d-density wave: A weak-coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kim; Subok, Ri; Ilmyong, Ri; Cheongsong, Kim; Yuling, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Making a revision of mistakes in Ref. [19], we present a detailed study of the competition and interplay between the d-density wave (DDW) and d-wave superconductivity (DSC) within the fluctuation-exchange (FLEX) approximation for the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model. In order to stabilize the DDW state with respect to phase separation at lower dopings a small nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion is included within the Hartree-Fock approximation. We solve the coupled gap equations for the DDW, DSC, and π-pairing as the possible order parameters, which are caused by exchange of spin fluctuations, together with calculating the spin fluctuation pairing interaction self-consistently within the FLEX approximation. We show that even when nesting of the Fermi surface is perfect, as in a square lattice with only nearest-neighbor hopping, there is coexistence of DSC and DDW in a large region of dopings close to the quantum critical point (QCP) at which the DDW state vanishes. In particular, we find that in the presence of DDW order the superconducting transition temperature Tc can be much higher compared to pure superconductivity, since the pairing interaction is strongly enhanced due to the feedback effect on spin fluctuations of the DDW gap. π-pairing appears generically in the coexistence region, but its feedback on the other order parameters is very small. In the present work, we have developed a weak-coupling theory of the competition between DDW and DSC in 2D Hubbard model, using the static spin fluctuation obtained within FLEX approximation and ignoring the self-energy effect of spin fluctuations. For our model calculations in the weak-coupling limit we have taken U/ t=3.4, since the antiferromagnetic instability occurs for higher values of U/ t.

  13. A Nanotechnology-Ready Computing Scheme based on a Weakly Coupled Oscillator Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodenicarevic, Damir; Locatelli, Nicolas; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Grollier, Julie; Querlioz, Damien

    2017-01-01

    With conventional transistor technologies reaching their limits, alternative computing schemes based on novel technologies are currently gaining considerable interest. Notably, promising computing approaches have proposed to leverage the complex dynamics emerging in networks of coupled oscillators based on nanotechnologies. The physical implementation of such architectures remains a true challenge, however, as most proposed ideas are not robust to nanotechnology devices’ non-idealities. In this work, we propose and investigate the implementation of an oscillator-based architecture, which can be used to carry out pattern recognition tasks, and which is tailored to the specificities of nanotechnologies. This scheme relies on a weak coupling between oscillators, and does not require a fine tuning of the coupling values. After evaluating its reliability under the severe constraints associated to nanotechnologies, we explore the scalability of such an architecture, suggesting its potential to realize pattern recognition tasks using limited resources. We show that it is robust to issues like noise, variability and oscillator non-linearity. Defining network optimization design rules, we show that nano-oscillator networks could be used for efficient cognitive processing. PMID:28322262

  14. A Nanotechnology-Ready Computing Scheme based on a Weakly Coupled Oscillator Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodenicarevic, Damir; Locatelli, Nicolas; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Grollier, Julie; Querlioz, Damien

    2017-03-01

    With conventional transistor technologies reaching their limits, alternative computing schemes based on novel technologies are currently gaining considerable interest. Notably, promising computing approaches have proposed to leverage the complex dynamics emerging in networks of coupled oscillators based on nanotechnologies. The physical implementation of such architectures remains a true challenge, however, as most proposed ideas are not robust to nanotechnology devices’ non-idealities. In this work, we propose and investigate the implementation of an oscillator-based architecture, which can be used to carry out pattern recognition tasks, and which is tailored to the specificities of nanotechnologies. This scheme relies on a weak coupling between oscillators, and does not require a fine tuning of the coupling values. After evaluating its reliability under the severe constraints associated to nanotechnologies, we explore the scalability of such an architecture, suggesting its potential to realize pattern recognition tasks using limited resources. We show that it is robust to issues like noise, variability and oscillator non-linearity. Defining network optimization design rules, we show that nano-oscillator networks could be used for efficient cognitive processing.

  15. Chaotic dynamics dependence on doping density in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yang; Yuanhong, Li; Fengying, Zhang; Yuqi, Li

    2012-09-01

    A discrete sequential tunneling model is used for studying the influence of the doping density on the dynamical behaviors in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices. Driven by the DC bias, the system exhibits self-sustained current oscillations induced by the period motion of the unstable electric field domain, and an electrical hysteresis in the loop of current density voltage curve is deduced. It is found that the hysteresis range strongly depends on the doping density, and the width of the hysteresis loop increases with increasing the doping density. By adding an external driving ac voltage, more complicated nonlinear behaviors are observed including quasiperiodicity, period-3, and the route of an inverse period-doubling to chaos when the driving frequency changes.

  16. Chaotic dynamics dependence on doping density in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gui; Li Yuanhong; Zhang Fengying; Li Yuqi

    2012-01-01

    A discrete sequential tunneling model is used for studying the influence of the doping density on the dynamical behaviors in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices.Driven by the DC bias,the system exhibits selfsustained current oscillations induced by the period motion of the unstable electric field domain,and an electrical hysteresis in the loop of current density voltage curve is deduced.It is found that the hysteresis range strongly depends on the doping density,and the width of the hysteresis loop increases with increasing the doping density.By adding an external driving ac voltage,more complicated nonlinear behaviors are observed including quasiperiodicity,period-3,and the route of an inverse period-doubling to chaos when the driving frequency changes.

  17. Implication of Two-Coupled Differential Van der Pol Duffing Oscillator in Weak Signal Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hang-hang; Xu, Xue-mei; Yang, Bing-chu; Yin, Lin-zi

    2016-04-01

    The principle of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator for state transition and for determining critical value is described, which has been studied to indicate that the application of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator in weak signal detection is feasible. On the basis of this principle, an improved two-coupled differential Van der Pol Duffing oscillator is proposed which can identify signals under any frequency and ameliorate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The analytical methods of the proposed model and the construction of the proposed oscillator are introduced in detail. Numerical experiments on the properties of the proposed oscillator compared with those of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator are carried out. Our numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical treatment. The results demonstrate that this novel oscillator has better detection performance than the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator.

  18. Precision analysis of a weakly-coupled parallel mechanism with three translational degrees of freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lv-zhong; GUO Zong-he; YANG Qi-zhi; YIN Xiao-qin; HAN Ya-li; SHEN Hui-ping

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the precision of the dissymmetrical parallel mechanism of 3-RRRP(4R) with three translational degrees of freedom (DOF).The parallel mechanism has weakly-coupled,decoupled and real-time characteristics,thus error compensation can be done using control software.Based on topology structure analysis,the inverse and forward solutions are analyzed and the precision is studied using complete differential method.The influencing factors of the manipulator's precision are studied carefully and the means to enhance the precision are also discussed.It is found that the position errors of the moving platform have nonlinear relation with the position of the mechanism.The δθ3 error has the biggest influence on the nonlinear errors of the position.Otherwise,the original errors of the mechanism are the main reason leading to more errors.Thus enhancing machining and assembling precision is an important method to enhance the precision of the mechanism.

  19. Nonequilibrium Energy Transfer at Nanoscale: A Unified Theory from Weak to Strong Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Ren, Jie; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-07-08

    Unraveling the microscopic mechanism of quantum energy transfer across two-level systems provides crucial insights to the optimal design and potential applications of low-dimensional nanodevices. Here, we study the non-equilibrium spin-boson model as a minimal prototype and develop a fluctuation-decoupled quantum master equation approach that is valid ranging from the weak to the strong system-bath coupling regime. The exact expression of energy flux is analytically established, which dissects the energy transfer as multiple boson processes with even and odd parity. Our analysis provides a unified interpretation of several observations, including coherence-enhanced heat flux and negative differential thermal conductance. The results will have broad implications for the fine control of energy transfer in nano-structural devices.

  20. Atoms and Molecules in Cavities: From Weak to Strong Coupling in QED Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Johannes; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we provide an overview of how well-established concepts in the fields of quantum chemistry and material sciences have to be adapted when the quantum nature of light becomes important in correlated matter-photon problems. Therefore, we analyze model systems in optical cavities, where the matter-photon interaction is considered from the weak- to the strong coupling limit and for individual photon modes as well as for the multi-mode case. We identify fundamental changes in Born-Oppenheimer surfaces, spectroscopic quantities, conical intersections and efficiency for quantum control. We conclude by applying our novel recently developed quantum-electrodynamical density-functional theory to single-photon emission and show how a straightforward approximation accurately describes the correlated electron-photon dynamics. This paves the road to describe matter-photon interactions from first-principles and addresses the emergence of new states of matter in chemistry and material science.

  1. Atoms and molecules in cavities, from weak to strong coupling in quantum-electrodynamics (QED) chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2017-03-21

    In this work, we provide an overview of how well-established concepts in the fields of quantum chemistry and material sciences have to be adapted when the quantum nature of light becomes important in correlated matter-photon problems. We analyze model systems in optical cavities, where the matter-photon interaction is considered from the weak- to the strong-coupling limit and for individual photon modes as well as for the multimode case. We identify fundamental changes in Born-Oppenheimer surfaces, spectroscopic quantities, conical intersections, and efficiency for quantum control. We conclude by applying our recently developed quantum-electrodynamical density-functional theory to spontaneous emission and show how a straightforward approximation accurately describes the correlated electron-photon dynamics. This work paves the way to describe matter-photon interactions from first principles and addresses the emergence of new states of matter in chemistry and material science.

  2. Single-layer dual-band terahertz filter with weak coupling between two neighboring cross slots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓丽梅; 李超; 方广有; 李士超

    2015-01-01

    A dual-band terahertz (THz) filter consisting of two different cross slots is designed and fabricated in a single molyb-denum layer. Experimental verification by THz time-domain spectroscopy indicates good agreement with the simulation results. Owing to the weak coupling between the two neighboring cross slots in the unit cell, good selectivity performance can be easily achieved, both in the lower and higher bands, by tuning the dimensions of the two crosses. The physical mechanisms of the dual-band resonant are clarified by using three differently configured filters and electric field distribu-tion diagrams. Owing to the rotational symmetry of the cross-shaped filter, the radiation at normal incidence is insensitive to polarization. Compared with the THz dual-band filters that were reported earlier, these filters also have the advantages of easy fabrication and low cost, which would find applications in dual-band sensors, THz communication systems, and emerging THz technologies.

  3. The weak psuedoscalar coupling of the free and the bound protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorringe, T.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The proton`s weak pseudoscalar coupling, g{sub p} is induced by the effects of its strong interaction on its weak interaction. In the Partially Conserved Axial Current hypothesis g{sub p} is due to single pion exchange between the leptonic and nucleonic currents in semi-leptonic weak processes. It predicts g{sub p} = 8.4 {plus_minus} 0.2 for the free proton but modifications of g{sub p}for the bound proton, due to modifications of the pion field of the bound proton, are possible. We will review the available data on g{sub p} for both the free and the bound proton. In the case of the free proton g{sub p} has been determined from measurements of ordinary (OMC) and radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen. We will discuss the extraction of g{sub p} from the data, the importance of various {mu}-atomic and molecular processes in extracting g{sub p }and compare the results obtained from the OMC and RMC data and experiments in gaseous and liquid H{sub 2}. In the case of the bound proton we will discuss the measurements of ordinary and radiative {mu}{sup -} capture on complex nuclei and the extraction of g{sub p} from these data. The comparison of inclusive RMC and OMC rates on nuclei has led to speculations of a large enhancement of g{sub p} in light nuclei and a large quenching of g{sub p} in heavy nuclei. We will discuss the evidence for and against the renormalization, of g{sub p}in nuclei and the problems of extracting g{sub p} from the nuclear RMC and OMC data.

  4. Role of nuclear couplings in the inelastic excitation of weakly-bound neutron-rich nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasso, C.H. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lenzi, S.M.; Vitturi, A. [Universita di Padova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Much effort is presently devoted to the study of nuclear systems far from the stability line. Particular emphasis has been placed in light systems such as {sup 11}Li, {sup 8}B and others, where the very small binding energy of the last particles causes their density distribution to extend considerably outside of the remaining nuclear core. Some of the properties associated with this feature are expected to characterize also heavier systems in the vicinity of the proton or neutron drip lines. It is by now well established that low-lying concentrations of multipole strength arise from pure configurations in which a peculiar matching between the wavelength of the continuum wavefunction of the particles and the range of the weakly-bound hole states occurs. To this end the authors consider the break-up of a weakly-bound system in a heavy-ion collision and focus attention in the inelastic excitation of the low-lying part of the continuum. They make use of the fact that previous investigations have shown that the multipole response in this region is not of a collective nature and describe their excited states as pure particle-hole configurations. Since the relevant parameter determining the strength distributions is the binding energy of the last bound orbital they find it most convenient to use single-particle wavefunctions generated by a sperical square-well potential with characteristic nuclear dimensions and whose depth has been adjusted to give rise to a situation in which the last occupied neutron orbital is loosely-bound. Spin-orbit couplings are, for the present purpose, ignored. The results of this investigation clearly indicate that nuclear couplings have the predominant role in causing projectile dissociation in many circumstances, even at bombarding energies remarkably below the Coulomb barrier.

  5. Weakly dynamic dark energy via metric-scalar couplings with torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamical aspects of dark energy in the context of a non-minimally coupled scalar field with curvature and torsion. Whereas the scalar field acts as the source of the trace mode of torsion, a suitable constraint on the pseudo-trace of the latter provides a mass term for the scalar field in the effective action. In the equivalent scalar-tensor framework, we find explicit cosmological solutions suitable for describing dark energy in both Einstein and Jordan frames. We demand the dynamical evolution of the dark energy to be weak enough, so that the present-day values of the cosmological parameters could be estimated keeping them within the confidence limits set for the standard $\\L$CDM model from recent observations. For such estimates, we examine the variations of the effective matter density and the dark energy equation of state over different redshift ranges. In spite of being weakly dynamic, the dark energy component here differs significantly from the cosmological constant, both in characterist...

  6. Continuum strong-coupling expansion of Yang-Mills theory: quark confinement and infra-red slavery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, P. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-25

    We solve Schroedinger's equation for the ground-state of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory as an expansion in inverse powers of the coupling. Expectation values computed with the leading-order approximation are reduced to a calculation in two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory which is known to confine. Consequently the Wilson loop in the four-dimensional theory obeys an area law to leading order and the coupling becomes infinite as the mass scale goes to zero. (orig.)

  7. Molecules Designed to Contain Two Weakly Coupled Spins with a Photoswitchable Spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Jorge Salinas; Estrader, Marta; Garcia, Jordi; Lloyd-Williams, Paul; Sadurní, Anna; Dengler, Dominik; van Slageren, Joris; Chilton, Nicholas F; Roubeau, Olivier; Teat, Simon J; Ribas-Ariño, Jordi; Aromí, Guillem

    2017-10-04

    Controlling the charges and spins of molecules lies at the heart of spintronics. A photoswitchable molecule consisting of two independent spins separated by a photoswitchable moiety was designed in the form of new ligand H4 L, which features a dithienylethene photochromic unit and two lateral coordinating moieties, and yields molecules with [MM⋅⋅⋅MM] topology. Compounds [M4 L2 (py)6 ] (M=Cu, 1; Co, 2; Ni, 3; Zn, 4) were prepared and studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). Different metal centers can be selectively distributed among the two chemically distinct sites of the ligand, and this enables the preparation of many double-spin systems. Heterometallic [MM'⋅⋅⋅M'M] analogues with formulas [Cu2 Ni2 L2 (py)6 ] (5), [Co2 Ni2 L2 (py)6 ] (6), [Co2 Cu2 L2 (py)6 ] (7), [Cu2 Zn2 L2 (py)6 ] (8), and [Ni2 Zn2 L2 (py)6 ] (9) were prepared and analyzed by SCXRD. Their composition was established unambiguously. All complexes exhibit two weakly interacting [MM'] moieties, some of which embody two-level quantum systems. Compounds 5 and 8 each exhibit a pair of weakly coupled S=1/2 spins that show quantum coherence in pulsed Q-band EPR spectroscopy, as required for quantum computing, with good phase memory times (TM =3.59 and 6.03 μs at 7 K). Reversible photoswitching of all the molecules was confirmed in solution. DFT calculations on 5 indicate that the interaction between the two spins of the molecule can be switched on and off on photocyclization. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Impact of weak excitatory synapses on chaotic transients in a diffusively coupled Morris-Lecar neuronal network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafranceschina, Jacopo, E-mail: jlafranceschina@alaska.edu; Wackerbauer, Renate, E-mail: rawackerbauer@alaska.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-5920 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Spatiotemporal chaos collapses to either a rest state or a propagating pulse solution in a ring network of diffusively coupled, excitable Morris-Lecar neurons. Weak excitatory synapses can increase the Lyapunov exponent, expedite the collapse, and promote the collapse to the rest state rather than the pulse state. A single traveling pulse solution may no longer be asymptotic for certain combinations of network topology and (weak) coupling strengths, and initiate spatiotemporal chaos. Multiple pulses can cause chaos initiation due to diffusive and synaptic pulse-pulse interaction. In the presence of chaos initiation, intermittent spatiotemporal chaos exists until typically a collapse to the rest state.

  9. Brillouin light scattering study of transverse mode coupling in confined yttrium iron garnet/barium strontium titanate multiferroic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovnikov, A. V., E-mail: sadovnikovav@gmail.com; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Beginin, E. N.; Bublikov, K. V.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-28

    Using the space-resolved Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy we study the transformation of dynamic magnetization patterns in a bilayer multiferroic structure. We show that in the comparison with a single yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film magnetization distribution is transformed in the bilayer structure due to the coupling of waves propagating both in an YIG film (magnetic layer) and in a barium strontium titanate slab (ferroelectric layer). We present a simple electrodynamic model using the numerical finite element method to show the transformation of eigenmode spectrum of confined multiferroic. In particular, we demonstrate that the control over the dynamic magnetization and the transformation of spatial profiles of transverse modes in magnetic film of the bilayer structure can be performed by the tuning of the wavevectors of transverse modes. The studied confined multiferroic stripe can be utilized for fabrication of integrated dual tunable functional devices for magnonic applications.

  10. Debye mass of massless \\phi^4-theory to order g^6 at weak coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the Debye mass of massless \\phi^4-theory to order g^6 at weak coupling. The contributions to the Debye mass arise from the hard momentum scale of order T and the soft momentum scale of order gT. Effective field theory methods and dimensional reduction are used to separate the contributions from the two momentum scales. The hard contribution can be calculated as a power series in g^2 using naive perturbation theory with bare propagators. The soft contribution is calculated using an effective theory in three dimensions, whose coefficients are power series in g^2. This contribution is a power series in g starting at order g^3. The calculation of the hard part to order g^6. The calculation of the soft part requires calculating the mass parameter in the effective theory to order g^6 and the evaluation of four-loop self-energy diagrams in three dimensions. This gives the Debye mass correct up to order g^6. We discuss the convergence of the perturbative series as well as the loop expansion in three dime...

  11. Design optimization of transmitting antennas for weakly coupled magnetic induction communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the design of transmitting coils in weakly coupled magnetic induction communication systems. We propose several optimization methods that reduce the active, reactive and apparent power consumption of the coil. These problems are formulated as minimization problems, in which the power consumed by the transmitting coil is minimized, under the constraint of providing a required magnetic field at the receiver location. We develop efficient numeric and analytic methods to solve the resulting problems, which are of high dimension, and in certain cases non-convex. For the objective of minimal reactive power an analytic solution for the optimal current distribution in flat disc transmitting coils is provided. This problem is extended to general three-dimensional coils, for which we develop an expression for the optimal current distribution. Considering the objective of minimal apparent power, a method is developed to reduce the computational complexity of the problem by transforming it to an equivalent problem of lower dimension, allowing a quick and accurate numeric solution. These results are verified experimentally by testing a number of coil geometries. The results obtained allow reduced power consumption and increased performances in magnetic induction communication systems. Specifically, for wideband systems, an optimal design of the transmitter coil reduces the peak instantaneous power provided by the transmitter circuitry, and thus reduces its size, complexity and cost. PMID:28192463

  12. Controlling cooperativity of a metastable open system coupled weakly to a noisy environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳

    2015-01-01

    The notion of cooperativity comprises a specific characteristic of a multipartite system concerning its ability to demon-strate a sigmoidal-type response of varying sensitivities to input stimuli in transitions between states under controlled con-ditions. From a statistical physics viewpoint, in this work we attempt to describe the cooperativity by the stability of a metastable open system with respect to irreversibility. To treat the evolution of a system weakly coupled to the environment in a kinetic framework, we consider two fluctuating energy levels of different dimensionalities, initial population of one level, reversible transitions of population between the levels, and irreversible depopulation of another level. An average is made over level fluctuations and environment vibrations so that inter-level transition rate can be obtained accounting for the influences of external control on level position and dimensionality. It is found that the cooperativity of the two-level system is bounded approximately between 0.736 and unity, with the lower bound indicating worsening system stability.

  13. Controlling cooperativity of a metastable open system coupled weakly to a noisy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, I. Teslenko; Oleksiy, L. Kapitanchuk; Zhao, Yang

    2015-02-01

    The notion of cooperativity comprises a specific characteristic of a multipartite system concerning its ability to demonstrate a sigmoidal-type response of varying sensitivities to input stimuli in transitions between states under controlled conditions. From a statistical physics viewpoint, in this work we attempt to describe the cooperativity by the stability of a metastable open system with respect to irreversibility. To treat the evolution of a system weakly coupled to the environment in a kinetic framework, we consider two fluctuating energy levels of different dimensionalities, initial population of one level, reversible transitions of population between the levels, and irreversible depopulation of another level. An average is made over level fluctuations and environment vibrations so that an inter-level transition rate can be obtained accounting for the influences of external control on level position and dimensionality. It is found that the cooperativity of the two-level system is bounded approximately between 0.736 and unity, with the lower bound indicating worsening system stability. Project supported by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Grant No. 0110U007542) and the National Research Foundation of Singapore through the Competitive Research Programme (Grant No. NRF-CRP5-2009-04).

  14. A weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice as a harmonic hypersonic-electrical transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyser, C. L.; Akimov, A. V.; Balanov, A. G.; Campion, R. P.; Kent, A. J.

    2015-08-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the effects of high-frequency strain pulse trains on the charge transport in a weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice. In a frequency range of the order of 100 GHz such excitation may be considered as single harmonic hypersonic excitation. While travelling along the axis of the SL, the hypersonic acoustic wavepacket affects the electron tunnelling, and thus governs the electrical current through the device. We reveal how the change of current depends on the parameters of the hypersonic excitation and on the bias applied to the superlattice. We have found that the changes in the transport properties of the superlattices caused by the acoustic excitation can be largely explained using the current-voltage relation of the unperturbed system. Our experimental measurements show multiple peaks in the dependence of the transferred charge on the repetition rate of the strain pulses in the train. We demonstrate that these resonances can be understood in terms of the spectrum of the applied acoustic perturbation after taking into account the multiple reflections in the metal film serving as a generator of hypersonic excitation. Our findings suggest an application of the semiconductor superlattice as a hypersonic-electrical transducer, which can be used in various microwave devices.

  15. STATIONARY STRUCTURES FOR A WEAKLY COUPLED ELLIPTIC SYSTEM ARISING IN TWO-PREDATOR, TWO-PREY MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严平; 林支桂

    2001-01-01

    Weakly-coupled elliptic system arising in the two-predator, two-prey model is discussed. It is proved that there is no non-constant solution if diffusions or inter-specific competitions are strong, or if the intrinsic growths of the prey are slow and the intrinsic drop rates of predator are fast.

  16. Confined chaotic behavior in collective motion for populations of globally coupled chaotic elements

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, N; Nakagawa, Naoko; Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    1999-01-01

    The Lyapunov exponent for collective motion is defined in order to characterize chaotic properties of collective motion for large populations of chaotic elements. Numerical computations for this quantity suggest that such collective motion is always chaotic, whenever it appears. Chaotic behavior of collective motion is found to be confined within a small scale, whose size is estimated using the value of the Lyapunov exponent. Finally, we conjecture why the collective motion appears low dimensional despite the actual high dimensionality of the dynamics.

  17. Spin-lattice coupling induced weak dynamical magnetism in EuTiO3 at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guguchia, Z.; Keller, H.; Kremer, R. K.; Köhler, J.; Luetkens, H.; Goko, T.; Amato, A.; Bussmann-Holder, A.

    2014-08-01

    EuTiO3, which is a G-type antiferromagnet below TN=5.5 K, has some fascinating properties at high temperatures, suggesting that macroscopically hidden dynamically fluctuating weak magnetism exists at high temperatures. This conjecture is substantiated by magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements, which exhibit pronounced anomalies below 200 K becoming more distinctive with increasing magnetic field strength. Additional results from muon spin rotation experiments provide evidence for weak fluctuating bulk magnetism induced by spin-lattice coupling which is strongly supported in increasing magnetic field.

  18. Spectral editing of weakly coupled spins using variable flip angles in PRESS constant echo time difference spectroscopy: Application to GABA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeff; Hanstock, Chris C.; Wilman, Alan H.

    2009-10-01

    A general in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy editing technique is presented to detect weakly coupled spin systems through subtraction, while preserving singlets through addition, and is applied to the specific brain metabolite γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at 4.7 T. The new method uses double spin echo localization (PRESS) and is based on a constant echo time difference spectroscopy approach employing subtraction of two asymmetric echo timings, which is normally only applicable to strongly coupled spin systems. By utilizing flip angle reduction of one of the two refocusing pulses in the PRESS sequence, we demonstrate that this difference method may be extended to weakly coupled systems, thereby providing a very simple yet effective editing process. The difference method is first illustrated analytically using a simple two spin weakly coupled spin system. The technique was then demonstrated for the 3.01 ppm resonance of GABA, which is obscured by the strong singlet peak of creatine in vivo. Full numerical simulations, as well as phantom and in vivo experiments were performed. The difference method used two asymmetric PRESS timings with a constant total echo time of 131 ms and a reduced 120° final pulse, providing 25% GABA yield upon subtraction compared to two short echo standard PRESS experiments. Phantom and in vivo results from human brain demonstrate efficacy of this method in agreement with numerical simulations.

  19. Influence of weak vibrational-electronic couplings on 2D electronic spectra and inter-site coherence in weakly coupled photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Daniele M.; Whaley-Mayda, Lukas; Fleming, Graham R., E-mail: grfleming@lbl.gov [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ishizaki, Akihito [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Coherence oscillations measured in two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of pigment-protein complexes may have electronic, vibrational, or mixed-character vibronic origins, which depend on the degree of electronic-vibrational mixing. Oscillations from intrapigment vibrations can obscure the inter-site coherence lifetime of interest in elucidating the mechanisms of energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting. Huang-Rhys factors (S) for low-frequency vibrations in Chlorophyll and Bacteriochlorophyll are quite small (S ≤ 0.05), so it is often assumed that these vibrations influence neither 2D spectra nor inter-site coherence dynamics. In this work, we explore the influence of S within this range on the oscillatory signatures in simulated 2D spectra of a pigment heterodimer. To visualize the inter-site coherence dynamics underlying the 2D spectra, we introduce a formalism which we call the “site-probe response.” By comparing the calculated 2D spectra with the site-probe response, we show that an on-resonance vibration with Huang-Rhys factor as small as S = 0.005 and the most strongly coupled off-resonance vibrations (S = 0.05) give rise to long-lived, purely vibrational coherences at 77 K. We moreover calculate the correlation between optical pump interactions and subsequent entanglement between sites, as measured by the concurrence. At 77 K, greater long-lived inter-site coherence and entanglement appear with increasing S. This dependence all but vanishes at physiological temperature, as environmentally induced fluctuations destroy the vibronic mixing.

  20. Charge transfer rates in organic semiconductors beyond first-order perturbation: from weak to strong coupling regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Guangjun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Xiaodi; Shuai, Zhigang; Zhao, Yi

    2009-01-14

    Semiclassical Marcus electron transfer theory is often employed to investigate the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors. However, quite often the electronic couplings vary several orders of magnitude in organic crystals, which goes beyond the application scope of semiclassical Marcus theory with the first-order perturbative nature. In this work, we employ a generalized nonadiabatic transition state theory (GNTST) [Zhao et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 8204 (2004)], which can evaluate the charge transfer rates from weak to strong couplings, to study charge transport properties in prototypical organic semiconductors: quaterthiophene and sexithiophene single crystals. By comparing with GNTST results, we find that the semiclassical Marcus theory is valid for the case of the coupling semiconductors with general electronic coupling terms. Taking oligothiophenes as examples, we find that our GNTST-calculated hole mobility is about three times as large as that from the semiclassical Marcus theory. The difference arises from the quantum nuclear tunneling and the nonperturbative effects.

  1. Exact results for Casimir interactions between dielectric bodies: The weak-coupling or van der Waals Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Wagner, Jef

    2008-01-01

    In earlier papers we have applied multiple scattering techniques to calculate Casimir forces due to scalar fields between different bodies described by delta function potentials. When the coupling to the potentials became weak, closed-form results were obtained. We simplify this weak-coupling technique and apply it to the case of tenuous dielectric bodies, in which case the method involves the summation of van der Waals (Casimir-Polder) interactions. Once again exact results for finite bodies can be obtained. We present closed formulas describing the interaction between spheres and between cylinders, and between an infinite plate and a retangular slab of finite size. For such a slab, we consider the torque acting on it, and find non-trivial equilibrium points can occur.

  2. Four point function of R-currents in N=4 SYM in the Regge limit at weak coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J.; Mischler, A.M.; Salvadore, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-04-15

    We compute, in N = 4 super Yang-Mills, the four point correlation function of R-currents in the Regge limit in the leading logarithmic approximation at weak coupling. Such a correlator is the closest analog to photon-photon scattering within QCD, and there is a well defined procedure to perform the analogous computation at strong coupling via AdS/CFT. The main result of this paper is, on the gauge theory side, the proof of Regge factorization and the explicit computation of the R-current impact factors. (orig.)

  3. Renormalized energy of ground and first excited state of Fröhlich polaron in the range of weak coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Tkach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The partial summing of infinite range of diagrams for the two-phonon mass operator of polaron described by Frohlich Hamiltonian is performed using the Feynman-Pines diagram technique. The renormalized spectral parameters of ground and first excited (phonon repeat polaron state are accurately calculated for the weak electron-phonon coupling at T=0 K. It is shown that the stronger electron-phonon interaction shifts the energy of both states into low-energy region of the spectra. The ground state stays stationary and the excited one - decays at bigger coupling constant.

  4. Magnetic confinement and coupling in narrow-diameter Au–Ni nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelhas, Laura T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States); Banholzer, Matthew J. [Northwestern University, Department of Chemistry and International Institute for Nanotechnology, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, CA, 60208-3113 (United States); Mirkin, Chad A., E-mail: chadnano@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Department of Chemistry and International Institute for Nanotechnology, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, CA, 60208-3113 (United States); Tolbert, Sarah H., E-mail: tolbert@chem.ucla.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Here we examine magnetic coupling in layered magnetic/nonmagnetic nanowires created using electrochemical deposition into nanoporous templates. By utilizing reproducible and tunable deposition methods, various aspect ratios and spacing between magnetic domains were created. Low aspect ratio disks were then coupled to high aspect ratio rods to control the mechanism for spin flip in the disk component of the system. The orthogonal relationship between the magnetic easy axis of the disk and rod geometries creates a multistate system with both in-plane and out-of-plane easy axes by balancing magnetic shape anisotropy with dipole coupling between the two layers. - Highlights: • Layered Ni–Au rods with precise dimensions were synthesized via electrochemical deposition into AAO templates. • Coupling between rod and disk shaped Ni segments was explored by varying the thickness of the Au spacers. • Magnetic hysteresis studies indicate that coupling between disk and rod magnetic easy axis can be used to control the mechanism for spin flips.

  5. Coherent oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates: Josephson effects, π oscillations, and macroscopic quantum self-trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S. R.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the coherent atomic oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. The weak link is provided by a laser barrier in a (possibly asymmetric) double-well trap or by Raman coupling between two condensates in different hyperfine levels. The boson Josephson junction (BJJ) dynamics is described by the two-mode nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation that is solved analytically in terms of elliptic functions. The BJJ, being a neutral, isolated system, allows the investigations of dynamical regimes for the phase difference across the junction and for the population imbalance that are not accessible with superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ's). These include oscillations with either or both of the following properties: (i) the time-averaged value of the phase is equal to π (π-phase oscillations); (ii) the average population imbalance is nonzero, in states with macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The (nonsinusoidal) generalization of the SJJ ac and plasma oscillations and the Shapiro resonance can also be observed. We predict the collapse of experimental data (corresponding to different trap geometries and the total number of condensate atoms) onto a single universal curve for the inverse period of oscillations. Analogies with Josephson oscillations between two weakly coupled reservoirs of 3He-B and the internal Josephson effect in 3He-A are also discussed.

  6. Onsager's Cross Coupling Effects in Gas Flows Confined to Micro-channels

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ruijie; Xu, Kun; Qian, Tiezheng

    2016-01-01

    In rarefied gases, mass and heat transport processes interfere with each other, leading to the mechano-caloric effect and thermo-osmotic effect, which are of interest to both theoretical study and practical applications. We employ the unified gas-kinetic scheme to investigate these cross coupling effects in gas flows in micro-channels. Our numerical simulations cover channels of planar surfaces and also channels of ratchet surfaces, with Onsager's reciprocal relation verified for both cases. For channels of planar surfaces, simulations are performed in a wide range of Knudsen number and our numerical results show good agreement with the literature results. For channels of ratchet surfaces, simulations are performed for both the slip and transition regimes and our numerical results not only confirm the theoretical prediction [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 164502 (2011)] for Knudsen number in the slip regime but also show that the off-diagonal kinetic coefficients for cross coupling effects are maximized at a Knudsen n...

  7. Onsager's Cross Coupling Effects in Gas Flows Confined to Micro-channels

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruijie; Xu, Xinpeng; Xu, Kun; Qian, Tiezheng

    2016-01-01

    In rarefied gases, mass and heat transport processes interfere with each other, leading to the mechano-caloric effect and thermo-osmotic effect, which are of interest to both theoretical study and practical applications. We employ the unified gas-kinetic scheme to investigate these cross coupling effects in gas flows in micro-channels. Our numerical simulations cover channels of planar surfaces and also channels of ratchet surfaces, with Onsager's reciprocal relation verified for both cases. ...

  8. Non-canonical distribution and non-equilibrium transport beyond weak system-bath coupling regime: A polaron transformation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dazhi; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-08-01

    The concept of polaron, emerged from condense matter physics, describes the dynamical interaction of moving particle with its surrounding bosonic modes. This concept has been developed into a useful method to treat open quantum systems with a complete range of system-bath coupling strength. Especially, the polaron transformation approach shows its validity in the intermediate coupling regime, in which the Redfield equation or Fermi's golden rule will fail. In the polaron frame, the equilibrium distribution carried out by perturbative expansion presents a deviation from the canonical distribution, which is beyond the usual weak coupling assumption in thermodynamics. A polaron transformed Redfield equation (PTRE) not only reproduces the dissipative quantum dynamics but also provides an accurate and efficient way to calculate the non-equilibrium steady states. Applications of the PTRE approach to problems such as exciton diffusion, heat transport and light-harvesting energy transfer are presented.

  9. Spectral and Quantum Dynamical Properties of the Weakly Coupled Fibonacci Hamiltonian

    OpenAIRE

    Damanik, David; Gorodetski, Anton

    2010-01-01

    We consider the spectrum of the Fibonacci Hamiltonian for small values of the coupling constant. It is known that this set is a Cantor set of zero Lebesgue measure. Here we study the limit, as the value of the coupling constant approaches zero, of its thickness and its Hausdorff dimension. We prove that the thickness tends to infinity and, consequently, the Hausdorff dimension of the spectrum tends to one. We also show that at small coupling, all gaps allowed by the gap labeling theorem are o...

  10. Coupled Fixed Point Theorems for Weak Contraction Mappings under F-Invariant Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutiphol Sintunavarat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the recent results of the coupled fixed point theorems of Cho et al. (2012 by weakening the concept of the mixed monotone property. We also give some examples of a nonlinear contraction mapping, which is not applied to the existence of the coupled fixed point by the results of Cho et al. but can be applied to our results. The main results extend and unify the results of Cho et al. and many results of the coupled fixed point theorems.

  11. Absence of localization in disordered two-dimensional electron gas at weak magnetic field and strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.

    2016-09-01

    The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical.

  12. Influence of Ge content and annealing conditions on the PL properties of nc-Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix in weak quantum confined regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuğay, Evrin, E-mail: evrin.tugay@erdogan.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize 53100 (Turkey); Ilday, Serim [Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Turan, Raşit [Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Finstad, Treje G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-11-15

    Fabrication of Si (nc-Si), Ge (nc-Ge), and Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} (nc-Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}) nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix is achieved by thermal annealing of magnetron-sputtered thin films. Effects of annealing conditions, namely duration and temperature, as well as Ge content on the photoluminescence properties are investigated. Origin and evolution of the photoluminescence signal in the weak quantum confinement regime are discussed. It is found that photoluminescence signals can be decomposed into four Gaussian peaks originating from Ge-related radiative defects located at the sub-oxide (GeO{sub x}), either inside the matrix or at the interface region (peak M), nc-Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} interface-related localized states (peak I), localized states in the amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} bandgap (peak A) and quantum confinement of excitons in small nanocrystals (peak Q). The role of small and large nanocrystals in the photoluminescence mechanism is investigated by varying the mean nanocrystal size from 3 nm to 23 nm (from strong to weak quantum confined regime). Our results demonstrate that the quantum confinement effect in Ge nanocrystals manifests though spectral blueshift due to increase in Ge content. We also propose that the decreasing photoluminescence signal intensity with an increase in Ge content may originate from Ge-related nonradiative P{sub b} centers. - Highlights: • Origin and evolution of PL in weak quantum confinement regime are investigated. • It is necessary to distinguish between the role of smaller and larger nanocrystals. • Blueshift and PL quenching by incorporation of more Ge atoms has been observed.

  13. Sterile neutrino dark matter: A tale of weak interactions in the strong coupling epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Abazajian, Kevork N; Hirata, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the weak interactions of standard model neutrinos with the primordial plasma and their effect on the resonant production of sterile neutrino dark matter. Motivated by issues in cosmological structure formation on small scales, and reported X-ray signals that could be due to sterile neutrino decay, we consider $7$ keV-scale sterile neutrinos. Oscillation-driven production of such sterile neutrinos occurs at temperatures $T \\gtrsim 100$ MeV, where we study two significant effects of weakly charged species in the primordial plasma: (1) the redistribution of an input lepton asymmetry; (2) the opacity for active neutrinos. We calculate the redistribution analytically above and below the quark-hadron transition, and match with lattice QCD calculations through the transition. We estimate opacities due to tree level processes involving leptons and quarks above the quark-hadron transition, and the most important mesons below the transition. We report final sterile neutrino dark matter ph...

  14. Randomly organized lipids and marginally stable proteins: a coupling of weak interactions to optimize membrane signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova.

  15. Model of stacked long Josephson junctions: Parallel algorithm and numerical results in case of weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Bashashin, M. V.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Atanasova, P. Kh.; Volokhova, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    We consider a model of system of long Josephson junctions (LJJ) with inductive and capacitive coupling. Corresponding system of nonlinear partial differential equations is solved by means of the standard three-point finite-difference approximation in the spatial coordinate and utilizing the Runge-Kutta method for solution of the resulting Cauchy problem. A parallel algorithm is developed and implemented on a basis of the MPI (Message Passing Interface) technology. Effect of the coupling between the JJs on the properties of LJJ system is demonstrated. Numerical results are discussed from the viewpoint of effectiveness of parallel implementation.

  16. Random matrix theory for closed quantum dots with weak spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, K; Eisenberg, E; Altshuler, B L

    2003-03-14

    To lowest order in the coupling strength, the spin-orbit coupling in quantum dots results in a spin-dependent Aharonov-Bohm flux. This flux decouples the spin-up and spin-down random matrix theory ensembles of the quantum dot. We employ this ensemble and find significant changes in the distribution of the Coulomb blockade peak height, in particular, a decrease of the width of the distribution. The puzzling disagreement between standard random matrix theory and the experimental distributions by Patel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5900 (1998)

  17. Bekenstein entropy bound for weakly-coupled field theories on a 3-sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myers, Joyce C.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the high temperature partition functions for SU(N-c) orU(N-c) gauge theories in the deconfined phase on 51 x 53, with scalars, vectors, and/or fermions in an at representation, at zero 't Hooft coupling and large N-c, using, analytical methods. We compare these with numerical results wh

  18. Weakly coupled heat bath models for Gibbs-like invariant states in nonlinear wave equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bajars (Janis); J.E. Frank (Jason); B.J. Leimkuhler (Ben)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThermal bath coupling mechanisms as utilized in molecular dynamics are applied to partial differential equation models. Working from a semi-discrete (Fourier mode) formulation for the Burgers–Hopf or Korteweg–de Vries equation, we introduce auxiliary variables and stochastic

  19. N=1 Super-Yang-Mills on the Lattice Weak and Strong Coupling Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, E

    1999-01-01

    We present a general review about the N=1 supersymmetric SU(Nc) Yang-Mills on the lattice focusing our attention on the quenched approximation in supersymmetry. Finally we analyse and discuss the recent results obtained at strong coupling and large Nc for the mesonic and fermionic propagators and spectrum.

  20. On the uniqueness and existence of entropy solutions of weakly coupled systems of nonlinear degenerate parabolic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Helge; Karlsen, Kenneth H.; Risebro, Nils H.

    2002-04-01

    We prove uniqueness and existence of entropy solutions for the Cauchy problem of weakly coupled systems of nonlinear degenerate parabolic equations. The uniqueness proof is an adaption of Kruzkov's ''doubling of variables'' proof. We prove existence of an entropy solution by demonstrating that the Engquist-Osher finite difference scheme is convergent and that any limit function satisfies the entropy condition. The convergence proof is based on deriving a series of a priori estimates and using a general L{sup p} compactness criterion. We also present a numerical example motivated by biodegradation in porous media.

  1. Temperature dependence of the effective interdimer exchange interaction in a weakly coupled antiferromagnetic dimer copper compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Rafael; Santana, Vinicius T.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.

    2017-08-01

    We report a variation with temperature T of the effective interdimeric interaction Jeff' in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) copper dimeric organic compound Cu2[TzTs] 4 (N -thiazol-2-yl-toluenesulfonamidate CuII). This T dependence was obtained from measurements of the effects in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the proposed quantum phase transition associated with the exchange-narrowing processes. Cu2[TzTs] 4 contains exchange-coupled pairs of CuII spins SA and SB (S =1 /2 ), with intradimeric AFM exchange coupling J0=(-115 ±1 ) cm-1 (Hex=-J0SA.SB ). The variation of the EPR linewidth of single crystals with field orientation around a "magic angle" where the transitions intersect and the integrated signal intensity of the so-called U peak of the powder spectrum were measured as a function of T . Modeling these data using arguments of exchange narrowing in the adiabatic regime considering the angular variation of the single-crystal spectra and a geometric description, we find that the effective interdimeric coupling | Jeff'| associated with the exchange frequency ωex is negligible for T ≪| J0/kB| when the units are uncoupled and | Jeff'|=(0.080 ±0.005 ) cm-1 (| Jeff'/J0|=7.0 × 10-4 ) at 298 K. Within this T interval, two ranges of | Jeff'| with linear temperature variation but different slopes, with a kink at ˜80 K, are observed and discussed. This T dependence arises from the growing population of the triplet state, and its relevance to the properties of various arrays of dimeric units is discussed. Our experimental procedures and results are compared with those of previous works in ion radical salts and dimeric metal compounds. The relation between the effective coupling | Jeff'| and the real interdimeric exchange coupling | J'| related to the chemical paths connecting neighbor units is discussed.

  2. Probing the function of ionotropic and G protein-coupled receptors in surface-confined membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelon, Christophe; Terrettaz, Samuel; Guenat, Olivier; Koudelka, Milena; Vogel, Horst

    2008-10-01

    This article reports on recent electrical and optical techniques for investigating cellular signaling reactions in artificial and native membranes immobilized on solid supports. The first part describes the formation of planar artificial lipid bilayers on gold electrodes, which reveal giga-ohm electrical resistance and the insertion and characterization of ionotropic receptors therein. These membranes are suited to record a few or even single ion channels by impedance spectroscopy. Such tethered membranes on planar arrays of microelectrodes offer mechanically robust, long-lasting measuring devices to probe the influence of different chemistries on biologically important ionotropic receptors and therefore will have a future impact to probe the function of channel proteins in basic science and in biosensor applications. In a second part, we present complementary approaches to form inside-out native membrane sheets that are immobilized on micrometer-sized beads or across submicrometer-sized holes machined in a planar support. Because the native membrane sheets are plasma membranes detached from live cells, these approaches offer a unique possibility to investigate cellular signaling processes, such as those mediated by ionotropic or G protein-coupled receptors, with original composition of lipids and proteins.

  3. Thermodynamics of weakly coupled Falicov-Kimball chains from renormalization-group theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    The linear perturbation renormalization group is used to study spinless two-band fermion chains at half-filling. The model consists of two species of spinless fermions, namely localized f and extended p , and it takes into account the following: the kinetic energy of fermions p , the on-site Coulomb repulsion V between p and f fermions, chemical potentials μp and μf adjusted in such a way that the average of the site occupation + =1 , and a weak interchain hopping tx. The average occupation number, the specific heat, and the correlation functions are studied as functions of temperature. For a single chain the occupation number is a smooth function of T and the specific heat displays two maxima. The weak interchain hopping triggers a discontinuity in the occupation number of fermions as a function of temperature. A long-standing controversy on whether the Falicov-Kimball model can describe a discontinuous transition of nf is also addressed.

  4. Weakly coupled map lattice models for multicellular patterning and collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    We present a weakly coupled map lattice model for patterning that explores the effects exerted by weakening the local dynamic rules on model biological and artificial networks composed of two-state building blocks (cells). To this end, we use two cellular automata models based on (i) a smooth majority rule (model I) and (ii) a set of rules similar to those of Conway's Game of Life (model II). The normal and abnormal cell states evolve according to local rules that are modulated by a parameter κ . This parameter quantifies the effective weakening of the prescribed rules due to the limited coupling of each cell to its neighborhood and can be experimentally controlled by appropriate external agents. The emergent spatiotemporal maps of single-cell states should be of significance for positional information processes as well as for intercellular communication in tumorigenesis, where the collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states by a predominantly normal neighborhood may be crucial.

  5. Dynamical analysis of a weakly coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide -- surface-plasmon model as a new type of Josephson Junction

    CERN Document Server

    Ekşioğlu, Yasa; Güven, Kaan

    2011-01-01

    We propose that a weakly-coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide -- surface-plasmon system can be formulated as a new type of Josephson junction. Such a system can be realized along a metal - dielectric interface where the dielectric medium hosts a nonlinear waveguide (e.g. fiber) for soliton propagation. We demonstrate that the system is in close analogy to the bosonic Josephson-Junction (BJJ) of atomic condensates at very low temperatures, yet exhibits different dynamical features. In particular, the inherently dynamic coupling parameter between soliton and surface-plasmon generates self-trapped oscillatory states at nonzero fractional populations with zero and $\\pi$ time averaged phase difference. The salient features of the dynamics are presented in the phase space.

  6. Boson-Jet Correlations in a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet Quenching in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Jose Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    We confront a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching to data from LHC heavy ion collisions. The model combines the perturbative QCD physics at high momentum transfer and the strongly coupled dynamics of non- abelian gauge theories plasmas in a phenomenological way. By performing a full Monte Carlo simulation, and after fitting one single parameter, we successfully describe several jet observables at the LHC, including dijet and photon jet measurements. Within current theoretical and experimental uncertainties, we find that such observables show little sensitivity to the specifics of the microscopic energy loss mechanism. We also present a new observable, the ratio of the fragmentation function of inclusive jets to that of the associated jets in dijet pairs, which can discriminate among different medium models. Finally, we discuss the importance of plasma response to jet passage in jet shapes.

  7. An NFC on Two-Coil WPT Link for Implantable Biomedical Sensors under Ultra-Weak Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The inductive link is widely used in implantable biomedical sensor systems to achieve near-field communication (NFC and wireless power transfer (WPT. However, it is tough to achieve reliable NFC on an inductive WPT link when the coupling coefficient is ultra-low (0.01 typically, since the NFC signal (especially for the uplink from the in-body part to the out-body part could be too weak to be detected. Traditional load shift keying (LSK requires strong coupling to pass the load modulation information to the power source. Instead of using LSK, we propose a dual-carrier NFC scheme for the weak-coupled inductive link; using binary phase shift keying (BPSK modulation, its downlink data are modulated on the power carrier (2 MHz, while its uplink data are modulated on another carrier (125 kHz. The two carriers are transferred through the same coil pair. To overcome the strong interference of the power carrier, dedicated circuits are introduced. In addition, to minimize the power transfer efficiency decrease caused by adding NFC, we optimize the inductive link circuit parameters and approach the receiver sensitivity limit. In the prototype experiments, even though the coupling coefficient is as low as 0.008, the in-body transmitter costs only 0.61 mW power carrying 10 kbps of data, and achieves a 1 × 10 - 7 bit error rate under the strong interference of WPT. This dual-carrier NFC scheme could be useful for small-sized implantable biomedical sensor applications.

  8. An NFC on Two-Coil WPT Link for Implantable Biomedical Sensors under Ultra-Weak Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Liu, Dake; Miao, Zhidong; Wang, Wei; Li, Min

    2017-06-11

    The inductive link is widely used in implantable biomedical sensor systems to achieve near-field communication (NFC) and wireless power transfer (WPT). However, it is tough to achieve reliable NFC on an inductive WPT link when the coupling coefficient is ultra-low (0.01 typically), since the NFC signal (especially for the uplink from the in-body part to the out-body part) could be too weak to be detected. Traditional load shift keying (LSK) requires strong coupling to pass the load modulation information to the power source. Instead of using LSK, we propose a dual-carrier NFC scheme for the weak-coupled inductive link; using binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation, its downlink data are modulated on the power carrier (2 MHz), while its uplink data are modulated on another carrier (125 kHz). The two carriers are transferred through the same coil pair. To overcome the strong interference of the power carrier, dedicated circuits are introduced. In addition, to minimize the power transfer efficiency decrease caused by adding NFC, we optimize the inductive link circuit parameters and approach the receiver sensitivity limit. In the prototype experiments, even though the coupling coefficient is as low as 0.008, the in-body transmitter costs only 0.61 mW power carrying 10 kbps of data, and achieves a 1 × 10 - 7 bit error rate under the strong interference of WPT. This dual-carrier NFC scheme could be useful for small-sized implantable biomedical sensor applications.

  9. Excitonic splitting and vibronic coupling in 1,2-diphenoxyethane: Conformation-specific effects in the weak coupling limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Evan G.; Walsh, Patrick S.; Plusquellic, David F.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2013-05-01

    Vibrationally and rotationally resolved electronic spectra of 1,2-diphenoxyethane (C6H5-O-CH2-CH2-O-C6H5, DPOE) are reported for the isolated molecule under jet-cooled conditions. The spectra demonstrate that the two excited surfaces are within a few cm-1 of one another over significant regions of the torsional potential energy surfaces that modulate the position and orientation of the two aromatic rings with respect to one another. Two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2C-R2PI) and laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra were recorded in the near-ultraviolet in the region of the close-lying S0-S1 and S0-S2 states (36 400-36 750 cm-1). In previous work, double resonance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and alkyl CH stretch regions of the infrared was used to identify and assign transitions to two conformational isomers differing primarily in the central C-C dihedral angle, a tgt conformation with C2 symmetry and a ttt conformation with C2h symmetry [E. G. Buchanan, E. L. Sibert, and T. S. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 2800 (2013)], 10.1021/jp400691a. Comparison of 2C-R2PI spectra recorded in the m/z 214 (all 12C) and m/z 215 (one 13C) mass channels demonstrate the close proximity of the S1 and S2 excited states for both conformations, with an upper bound of 4 cm-1 between them. High resolution spectra of the origin band of the tgt conformer reveal it to consist of two transitions at 36 422.91 and 36 423.93 cm-1, with transition dipole moments perpendicular to one another. These are assigned to the S0-S1 and S0-S2 origin transitions with excited states of A and B symmetry, respectively, and an excitonic splitting of only 1.02 cm-1. The excited state rotational constants and transition dipole coupling model directions prove that the electronic excitation is delocalized over the two rings. The ttt conformer has only one dipole-allowed electronic transition (Ag→Bu) giving rise to a pure b-type band at 36 508.77 cm-1. Here, the asymmetry induced by a single 13

  10. Information about the state of a charge qubit gained by a weakly coupled quantum point contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S; You, J Q; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)], E-mail: ashhab@riken.jp

    2009-12-15

    We analyze the information that one can learn about the state of a quantum two-level system, i.e. a qubit, when probed weakly by a nearby detector. We consider the general case where the qubit Hamiltonian and the qubit's operator probed by the detector do not commute. Because the qubit's state keeps evolving while being probed and the measurement data is mixed with a detector-related background noise, one might expect the detector to fail in this case. We show, however, that under suitable conditions and by proper analysis of the measurement data, useful information about the initial state of the qubit can be extracted. Our approach complements the usual master-equation and quantum-trajectory approaches, which describe the evolution of the qubit's quantum state during the measurement process but do not keep track of the acquired measurement information.

  11. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Gulhan, Doga Can [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Milhano, José Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pablos, Daniel [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rajagopal, Krishna [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  12. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Gulhan, Doga Can; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-12-01

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  13. Design of a Binuclear Ni(II) Complex with Large Ising-type Anisotropy and Weak Anti-Ferromagnetic Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, Fatima; Cahier, Benjamin; López-Jordà, Maurici; Guillot, Régis; Rivière, Eric; Hafez, Hala; Saad, Zeinab; Girerd, Jean-Jacques; Guihéry, Nathalie; Mallah, Talal

    2017-09-05

    The preparation of a binuclear Ni(II) complex with a pentacoordinate environment using a cryptand organic ligand and the imidazolate bridge is reported. The coordination sphere is close to trigonal bipyramidal (tbp) for one Ni(II) and to square pyramidal (spy) for the other. The use of the imidazolate bridge that undergoes π-π stacking with two benzene rings of the chelating ligand induces steric hindrance that stabilizes the pentacoordinate environment. Magnetic measurements together with theoretical studies of the spin states energy levels allow fitting the data and reveal a large Ising-type anisotropy and a weak anti-ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the metal ions. The magnitude and the nature of the magnetic anisotropy and the difference in anisotropy between the two metal ions are rationalized using wave-function-based calculations. We show that a slight distortion of the coordination sphere of Ni(II) from spy to tbp leads to an Ising-type anisotropy. Broken-symmetry density functional calculations rationalize the weak anti-ferromagnetic exchange coupling through the imidazolate bridge.

  14. Cavity QED and Quantum Computation in the Weak Coupling Regime II Complete Construction of the Controlled-Controlled NOT Gate

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, K; Kato, R; Wada, Y; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Higashida, Kyoko; Kato, Ryosuke; Wada, Yukako

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we treat a cavity QED quantum computation. Namely, we consider a model of quantum computation based on n atoms of laser-cooled and trapped linearly in a cavity and realize it as the n atoms Tavis-Cummings Hamiltonian interacting with n external (laser) fields. We solve the Schr{\\" o}dinger equation of the model in the weak coupling regime to construct the controlled NOT gate in the case of n=2, and to construct the controlled-controlled NOT gate in the case of n=3 by making use of several resonance conditions and rotating wave approximation associated to them. We also present an idea to construct general quantum circuits. The approach is more sophisticated than that of the paper [K. Fujii, Higashida, Kato and Wada, Cavity QED and Quantum Computation in the Weak Coupling Regime, J. Opt. B : Quantum Semiclass. Opt. {\\bf 6} (2004), 502]. Our method is not heuristic but completely mathematical, and the significant feature is based on a consistent use of Rabi oscillations.

  15. Indirect quantum sensors: Improving the sensitivity in characterizing very weakly coupled spins

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Johannes N; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme to increase the sensitivity and thus the detection volume of nanoscale single molecule magnetic resonance imaging. The proposal aims to surpass the T1 limited detection of the sensor by taking advantage of a long-lived ancilla nuclear spin to which the sensor is coupled. We show how this nuclear spin takes over the role of the sensor spin, keeping the characteristic time-scales of detection on the same order but with a longer life-time allowing it to detect a larger volume of the sample which is not possible by the sensor alone.

  16. Heterogeneity and weak coupling may explain the synchronization characteristics of cells in the arterial wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Aalkjær, Christian; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) exhibit different types of calcium dynamics. Static vascular tone is associated with unsynchronized calcium waves and the developed force depends on the number of recruited cells. Global calcium transients synchronized among a large number of cells cause rhythmic...... are enrolled into synchronized oscillation.Simulations of coupled SMCs show that the experimentally observed cellular recruitment, the presence of quiescent cells and the variation in oscillation frequency may arise if the cell population is phenotypically heterogeneous. In this case, quiescent cells can...

  17. Heterogeneity and weak coupling may explain the synchronization characteristics of cells in the arterial wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Aalkjaer, Christian; Matchkov, Vladimir V; Nilsson, Holger; Freiberg, Jacob J; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2008-10-13

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) exhibit different types of calcium dynamics. Static vascular tone is associated with unsynchronized calcium waves and the developed force depends on the number of recruited cells. Global calcium transients synchronized among a large number of cells cause rhythmic development of force known as vasomotion. We present experimental data showing a considerable heterogeneity in cellular calcium dynamics in the vascular wall. In stimulated vessels, some SMCs remain quiescent, whereas others display waves of variable frequency. At the onset of vasomotion, all SMCs are enrolled into synchronized oscillation. Simulations of coupled SMCs show that the experimentally observed cellular recruitment, the presence of quiescent cells and the variation in oscillation frequency may arise if the cell population is phenotypically heterogeneous. In this case, quiescent cells can be entrained at the onset of vasomotion by the collective driving force from the synchronized oscillations in the membrane potential of the surrounding cells. Partial synchronization arises with an increase in the concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, but in a heterogeneous cell population complete synchronization also requires a high-conductance pathway that provides strong coupling between the cells.

  18. Identification of weakly coupled multiphysics problems. Application to the inverse problem of electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Cesare; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric; Moireau, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    This work addresses the inverse problem of electrocardiography from a new perspective, by combining electrical and mechanical measurements. Our strategy relies on the definition of a model of the electromechanical contraction which is registered on ECG data but also on measured mechanical displacements of the heart tissue typically extracted from medical images. In this respect, we establish in this work the convergence of a sequential estimator which combines for such coupled problems various state of the art sequential data assimilation methods in a unified consistent and efficient framework. Indeed, we aggregate a Luenberger observer for the mechanical state and a Reduced-Order Unscented Kalman Filter applied on the parameters to be identified and a POD projection of the electrical state. Then using synthetic data we show the benefits of our approach for the estimation of the electrical state of the ventricles along the heart beat compared with more classical strategies which only consider an electrophysiological model with ECG measurements. Our numerical results actually show that the mechanical measurements improve the identifiability of the electrical problem allowing to reconstruct the electrical state of the coupled system more precisely. Therefore, this work is intended to be a first proof of concept, with theoretical justifications and numerical investigations, of the advantage of using available multi-modal observations for the estimation and identification of an electromechanical model of the heart.

  19. SNS junctions in nanowires with spin-orbit coupling: role of confinement and helicity on the sub-gap spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayao, Jorge; Prada, Elsa; San-Jose, Pablo; Aguado, Ramón

    2015-03-01

    We study normal transport and the sub-gap spectrum of superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) junctions made of semiconducting nanowires with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We focus, in particular, on the role of confinement effects in long ballistic junctions. In the normal regime, scattering at the two contacts gives rise to two distinct features in conductance, Fabry-Perot resonances and Fano dips. The latter arise in the presence of a strong Zeeman field B that removes a spin sector in the leads (helical leads), but not in the central region. Conversely, a helical central region between non-helical leads exhibits helical gaps of half-quantum conductance, with superimposed helical Fabry-Perot oscillations. These normal features translate into distinct subgap states when the leads become superconducting. In particular, Fabry-Perot resonances within the helical gap become parity-protected zero-energy states (parity crossings, related to Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states), well below the critical field Bc at which the superconducting leads become topological. As a function of Zeeman field or Fermi energy, these zero-modes oscillate around zero energy, forming characteristic loops, which evolve continuously into Majorana bound states as B exceeds Bc.

  20. SNS junctions in nanowires with spin-orbit coupling: Role of confinement and helicity on the subgap spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayao, Jorge; Prada, Elsa; San-Jose, Pablo; Aguado, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    We study normal transport and the subgap spectrum of superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) junctions made of semiconducting nanowires with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We focus, in particular, on the role of confinement effects in long ballistic junctions. In the normal regime, scattering at the two contacts gives rise to two distinct features in conductance: Fabry-Perot resonances and Fano dips. The latter arise in the presence of a strong Zeeman field B that removes a spin sector in the leads (helical leads), but not in the central region. Conversely, a helical central region between nonhelical leads exhibits helical gaps of half-quantum conductance, with superimposed helical Fabry-Perot oscillations. These normal features translate into distinct subgap states when the leads become superconducting. In particular, Fabry-Perot resonances within the helical gap become parity-protected zero-energy states (parity crossings), well below the critical field Bc at which the superconducting leads become topological. As a function of Zeeman field or Fermi energy, these zero modes oscillate around zero energy, forming characteristic loops, which evolve continuously into Majorana bound states as B exceeds Bc. The relation with the physics of parity crossings of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states is discussed.

  1. The information about the state of a qubit gained by a weakly coupled detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S; You, J Q; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)], E-mail: ashab@riken.jp

    2009-08-15

    We analyze the information that one can learn about the state of a quantum two-level system, i.e. a qubit, when probed weakly by a nearby detector. In particular, we focus on the case when the qubit Hamiltonian and the qubit's operator being probed by the detector do not commute. Because the qubit's state keeps evolving while being probed and because the measurement data is mixed with detector-related background noise, one might expect the detector to fail in this case. We show, however, that under suitable conditions and by proper analysis of the measurement data useful information about the state of the qubit can be extracted. It turns out that the measurement basis is stochastically determined every time the experiment is repeated. We analyze in detail the probability distributions that govern the choice of measurement bases. We also analyze the information acquisition rate and show that it is largely unaffected by the apparent conflict between the measurement and intrinsic qubit dynamics. We discuss the relation between our analysis and the stochastic master equation that describes the evolution of the qubit's state under the influence of measurement and decoherence. In particular, we write down a stochastic equation that encompasses the usual stochastic master equation for the evolution of the qubit's density matrix and additionally contains the measurement information that can be extracted from the observed signal.

  2. Collapse of the wave field in a one-dimensional system of weakly coupled light guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, A. A.; Litvak, A. G.; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The analytical and numerical study of the radiation self-action in a system of coupled light guides is fulfilled on the basis of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNSE). We develop a variational method for qualitative study of DNSE and classify self-action modes. We show that the diffraction of narrow (in grating scale) wave beams weakens in discrete media and, consequently, the "collapse" of the one-dimensional wave field with power exceeding the critical value occurs. This results in the ability to self-channel radiation in the central fiber. Qualitative analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulation of DNSE, which also shows the stability of the collapse mode.

  3. Jet-Medium Interactions at NLO in a Weakly-Coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ghiglieri, Jacopo; Teaney, Derek

    2015-01-01

    We present an extension to next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant $g$ of the AMY effective kinetic approach to the energy loss of high momentum particles in the quark-gluon plasma. At leading order, the transport of jet-like particles is determined by elastic scattering with the thermal constituents, and by inelastic collinear splittings induced by the medium. We reorganize this description into collinear splittings, high-momentum-transfer scatterings, drag and diffusion, and particle conversions (momentum-preserving identity-changing processes). We show that this reorganized description remains valid to NLO in $g$, and compute the appropriate modifications of the drag, diffusion, particle conversion, and inelastic splitting coefficients. In addition, a new kinematic regime opens at NLO for wider-angle collinear bremsstrahlung. These semi-collinear emissions smoothly interpolate between the leading order high-momentum-transfer scatterings and collinear splittings. To organize the calculation, w...

  4. Perturbative expansions from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy

    CERN Document Server

    Trottier, H D; Lepage, G P; MacKenzie, P B

    2002-01-01

    Perturbative coefficients for Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling. The lattice volumes and couplings are chosen to ensure that the lattice momenta are all perturbative. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of lattice zero modes and to suppress nonperturbative finite-volume effects due to Z(3) phases. Simulations of the Wilson gluon action are done with both periodic and twisted boundary conditions, and over a wide range of lattice volumes (from $3^4$ to $16^4$) and couplings (from $\\beta \\approx 9$ to $\\beta \\approx 60$). A high precision comparison is made between the simulation data and results from finite-volume lattice perturbation theory. The Monte Carlo results are shown to be in excellent agreement with perturbation theory through second order. New results for third-order coefficients for a number of Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are reported.

  5. Magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n {approx}1.5X10{sup 20}m{sup -3}). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO{sub 2} interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 {mu}s) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong

  6. Spatial noise in coupling strength and natural frequency within a pacemaker network; consequences for development of intestinal motor patterns according to a weakly coupled phase oscillator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Parsons

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e. spatial noise with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at points of low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency.

  7. Spatial Noise in Coupling Strength and Natural Frequency within a Pacemaker Network; Consequences for Development of Intestinal Motor Patterns According to a Weakly Coupled Phase Oscillator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean P.; Huizinga, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude) was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave) activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e., spatial noise) with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at pointsof low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency. PMID:26869875

  8. Spatial Noise in Coupling Strength and Natural Frequency within a Pacemaker Network; Consequences for Development of Intestinal Motor Patterns According to a Weakly Coupled Phase Oscillator Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude) was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave) activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e., spatial noise) with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at pointsof low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency.

  9. Heavy Quark Diffusion in Strong Magnetic Fields at Weak Coupling and Implication to Elliptic Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We compute the momentum diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks, $\\kappa_\\parallel$ and $\\kappa_\\perp$, in a strong magnetic field $B$ along the directions parallel and perpendicular to $B$, respectively, at the leading order in QCD coupling constant $\\alpha_s$. We consider a regime relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collisions, $\\alpha_s eB\\ll T^2\\ll eB$, so that thermal excitations of light quarks are restricted to the lowest Landau level (LLL) states. In the vanishing light-quark mass limit, we find $\\kappa_\\perp^{\\rm LO}\\propto \\alpha_s^2 T eB$ in the leading order that arises from screened Coulomb scatterings with (1+1)-dimensional LLL quarks, while $\\kappa_\\parallel$ gets no contribution from the scatterings with LLL quarks due to kinematic restrictions. We show that the first non-zero leading order contributions to $\\kappa_\\parallel^{\\rm LO}$ come from the two separate effects: 1) the screened Coulomb scatterings with thermal gluons, and 2) a finite light-quark mass $m_q$. The former leads to $\\kap...

  10. Movement dynamics reflect a functional role for weak coupling and role structure in dyadic problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2015-11-01

    Successful interaction requires complex coordination of body movements. Previous research has suggested a functional role for coordination and especially synchronization (i.e., time-locked movement across individuals) in different types of human interaction contexts. Although such coordination has been shown to be nearly ubiquitous in human interaction, less is known about its function. One proposal is that synchrony supports and facilitates communication (Topics Cogn Sci 1:305-319, 2009). However, questions still remain about what the properties of coordination for optimizing communication might look like. In the present study, dyads worked together to construct towers from uncooked spaghetti and marshmallows. Using cross-recurrence quantification analysis, we found that dyads with loosely coupled gross body movements performed better, supporting recent work suggesting that simple synchrony may not be the key to effective performance (Riley et al. 2011). We also found evidence that leader-follower dynamics-when sensitive to the specific role structure of the interaction-impact task performance. We discuss our results with respect to the functional role of coordination in human interaction.

  11. Weak stability for coupled wave and/or Petrovsky systems with complementary frictional damping and infinite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, M. M.; Domingos Cavalcanti, V. N.; Guesmia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we consider coupled wave-wave, Petrovsky-Petrovsky and wave-Petrovsky systems in N-dimensional open bounded domain with complementary frictional damping and infinite memory acting on the first equation. We prove that these systems are well-posed in the sense of semigroups theory and provide a weak stability estimate of solutions, where the decay rate is given in terms of the general growth of the convolution kernel at infinity and the arbitrary regularity of the initial data. We finish our paper by considering the uncoupled wave and Petrovsky equations with complementary frictional damping and infinite memory, and showing a strong stability estimate depending only on the general growth of the convolution kernel at infinity.

  12. Many-polaron description of impurities in a Bose-Einstein condensate in the weak-coupling regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteels, W.; Devreese, J. T. [TQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Tempere, J. [TQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The weak-coupling many-polaron formalism is applied to the case of the polaronic system consisting of impurities in a Bose-Einstein condensate. This allows investigating the ground-state properties and the response of the system to Bragg spectroscopy. Then, this theory is applied to the system of spin-polarized fermionic lithium-6 impurities in a sodium condensate. The Bragg spectrum reveals a peak that corresponds to the emission of Bogoliubov excitations. Both the ground-state properties and the response spectrum show that the polaronic effect vanishes at high densities. We also look at two possibilities to define the polaronic effective mass and observe that this results in a different quantitative behavior if multiple impurities are involved.

  13. Crystalline Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, D; Jiang, F -J; Wiese, U -J

    2013-01-01

    We show that exotic phases arise in generalized lattice gauge theories known as quantum link models in which classical gauge fields are replaced by quantum operators. While these quantum models with discrete variables have a finite-dimensional Hilbert space per link, the continuous gauge symmetry is still exact. An efficient cluster algorithm is used to study these exotic phases. The $(2+1)$-d system is confining at zero temperature with a spontaneously broken translation symmetry. A crystalline phase exhibits confinement via multi-stranded strings between charge-anti-charge pairs. A phase transition between two distinct confined phases is weakly first order and has an emergent spontaneously broken approximate $SO(2)$ global symmetry. The low-energy physics is described by a $(2+1)$-d $\\mathbb{R}P(1)$ effective field theory, perturbed by a dangerously irrelevant $SO(2)$ breaking operator, which prevents the interpretation of the emergent pseudo-Goldstone boson as a dual photon. This model is an ideal candidat...

  14. An efficient and accurate approximation to time-dependent density functional theory for systems of weakly coupled monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Herbert, John M.

    2015-07-01

    A novel formulation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived, based on non-orthogonal, absolutely-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs). We call this approach TDDFT(MI), in reference to ALMO-based methods for describing molecular interactions (MI) that have been developed for ground-state applications. TDDFT(MI) is intended for efficient excited-state calculations in systems composed of multiple, weakly interacting chromophores. The efficiency is based upon (1) a local excitation approximation; (2) monomer-based, singly-excited basis states; (3) an efficient localization procedure; and (4) a one-step Davidson method to solve the TDDFT(MI) working equation. We apply this methodology to study molecular dimers, water clusters, solvated chromophores, and aggregates of naphthalene diimide that form the building blocks of self-assembling organic nanotubes. Absolute errors of 0.1-0.3 eV with respect to supersystem methods are achievable for these systems, especially for cases involving an excited chromophore that is weakly coupled to several explicit solvent molecules. Excited-state calculations in an aggregate of nine naphthalene diimide monomers are ˜40 times faster than traditional TDDFT calculations.

  15. Analytical Calculation of Mutual Information between Weakly Coupled Poisson-Spiking Neurons in Models of Dynamically Gated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Mutual information is a commonly used measure of communication between neurons, but little theory exists describing the relationship between mutual information and the parameters of the underlying neuronal interaction. Such a theory could help us understand how specific physiological changes affect the capacity of neurons to synaptically communicate, and, in particular, they could help us characterize the mechanisms by which neuronal dynamics gate the flow of information in the brain. Here we study a pair of linear-nonlinear-Poisson neurons coupled by a weak synapse. We derive an analytical expression describing the mutual information between their spike trains in terms of synapse strength, neuronal activation function, the time course of postsynaptic currents, and the time course of the background input received by the two neurons. This expression allows mutual information calculations that would otherwise be computationally intractable. We use this expression to analytically explore the interaction of excitation, information transmission, and the convexity of the activation function. Then, using this expression to quantify mutual information in simulations, we illustrate the information-gating effects of neural oscillations and oscillatory coherence, which may either increase or decrease the mutual information across the synapse depending on parameters. Finally, we show analytically that our results can quantitatively describe the selection of one information pathway over another when multiple sending neurons project weakly to a single receiving neuron.

  16. Optical bistability and four-wave mixing with a single nitrogen-vacancy center coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity in the weak-coupling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Ding, Chunling; Wu, Ying

    2014-06-16

    We explore optical bistability and degenerate four-wave mixing of a hybrid optical system composed of a photonic crystal nanocavity, a single nitrogen-vacancy center embedded in the cavity, and a nearby photonic waveguide serving for in- and outcoupling of light into the cavity in the weak-coupling regime. Here the hybrid system is coherently driven by a continuous-wave bichromatic laser field consisting of a strong control field and a weak probe field. We take account of the nonlinear nature of the nitrogen-vacancy center in the Heisenberg-Langevin equations and give an effective perturbation method to deal with such problems in the continuous-wave-operation regime. The results clearly show that the bistability region of the population inversion and the intensity of the generated four-wave mixing field can be well controlled by properly adjusting the system practical parameters. The nanophotonic platform can be used to implement our proposal. This investigation may be useful for gaining further insight into the properties of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics system and find applications in all-optical wavelength converter and switch in a photonic crystal platform.

  17. Analytical Determination of the Confinement Potential and Coupling Constant of Spin--Orbit Interactions of Electrons in Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Dineykhan, M; Zhaugasheva, S A; Al Farabi Kazakh State National University. Almaty

    2005-01-01

    Multilayer nanocrystalline structure is represented by the electrostatic field inducted by total image charge, and the confinement potential for electrons is determined. Assuming that at a given distance the confinement potential is equal to the Coulomb repulsion and an interaction between electrons becomes spin-orbit, the constant of the spin-orbit interaction of electrons in nanostructures is determined. The dependence of the constant of the spin-orbit interaction on environment parameters and the distance between electrons is studied.

  18. Breakup coupling effects on near-barrier inelastic scattering of the weakly bound {sup 6}Li projectile on a {sup 144}Sm target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, A.E., E-mail: awoodard@nd.edu [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Figueira, J.M. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Otomar, D.R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Gragoata, Niteroi, R. J., 24210-340 (Brazil); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de San Martin, B1650BWA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lubian, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Gragoata, Niteroi, R. J., 24210-340 (Brazil)

    2012-01-01

    Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of the weakly bound {sup 6}Li nucleus from a {sup 144}Sm target (associated with the contributions of both the 2{sub 1}{sup +} and 3{sub 1}{sup -144}Sm excited states together) were measured at bombarding energies close to the Coulomb barrier. The experimental data were compared with expected results based on continuum discretized coupled-channel (CDCC) calculations. The results confirm that it is essential to include continuum-continuum couplings to reproduce the experimental data. The analysis demonstrates that inelastic scattering data can be a critical tool in testing full CDCC calculations involving weakly bound nuclei.

  19. 37 GHz Direct-Modulation Bandwidth of Multi-Section InGaAsP/InP DBR-Laser with weakly coupled active grating section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, W.; Bach, L.; Reithmaier, J. P.;

    2003-01-01

    37 GHz direct-modulation bandwidth could be obtained by a multi-section design with an integrated weakly coupled DBR grating. The laser shows side mode suppression ratios of 45 dB and output powers exceeding 20 mW.......37 GHz direct-modulation bandwidth could be obtained by a multi-section design with an integrated weakly coupled DBR grating. The laser shows side mode suppression ratios of 45 dB and output powers exceeding 20 mW....

  20. Hot-Volumes as Uniform and Reproducible SERS-Detection Enhancers in Weakly-Coupled Metallic Nanohelices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, José M.; Winters, Sinéad; McCloskey, David; Duesberg, Georg S.; Donegan, John F.; Krstić, Vojislav

    2017-01-01

    Reproducible and enhanced optical detection of molecules in low concentrations demands simultaneously intense and homogeneous electric fields acting as robust signal amplifiers. To generate such sophisticated optical near-fields, different plasmonic nanostructures were investigated in recent years. These, however, exhibit either high enhancement factor (EF) or spatial homogeneity but not both. Small interparticle gaps or sharp nanostructures show enormous EFs but no near-field homogeneity. Meanwhile, approaches using rounded and separated monomers create uniform near-fields with moderate EFs. Here, guided by numerical simulations, we show how arrays of weakly-coupled Ag nanohelices achieve both homogeneous and strong near-field enhancements, reaching even the limit forreproducible detection of individual molecules. The unique near-field distribution of a single nanohelix consists of broad hot-spots, merging with those from neighbouring nanohelices in specific array configurations and generating a wide and uniform detection zone (“hot-volume”). We experimentally assessed these nanostructures via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, obtaining a corresponding EF of ~107 and a relative standard deviation <10%. These values demonstrate arrays of nanohelices as state-of-the-art substrates for reproducible optical detection as well as compelling nanostructures for related fields such as near-field imaging. PMID:28358022

  1. Coupled effects of aging and weak magnetic fields on sequestration of selenite by zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liping; Guan, Xiaohong; Shi, Zhong; Li, Jialing; Wu, Yinan; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2014-06-03

    The sequestration of Se(IV) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) is strongly influenced by the coupled effects of aging ZVI and the presence of a weak magnetic field (WMF). ZVI aged at pH 6.0 with MES as buffer between 6 and 60 h gave nearly constant rates of Se(IV) removal with WMF but with rate constants that are 10- to 100-fold greater than without. XANES analysis showed that applying WMF changes the mechanism of Se(IV) removal by ZVI aged for 6-60 h from adsorption followed by reduction to direct reduction. The strong correlation between Se(IV) removal and Fe2+ release suggests direct reduction of Se(IV) to Se(0) by Fe0, in agreement with the XANES analysis. The numerical simulation of ZVI magnetization revealed that the WMF influence on Se(IV) sequestration is associated mainly with the ferromagnetism of ZVI and the paramagnetism of Fe2+. In the presence of the WMF, the Lorentz force gives rise to convection in the solution, which narrows the diffusion layer, and the field gradient force, which tends to move paramagnetic ions (esp. Fe2+) along the higher field gradient at the ZVI particle surface, thereby inducing nonuniform depassivation and eventually localized corrosion of the ZVI surface.

  2. Ground state energy of the δ-Bose and Fermi gas at weak coupling from double extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolhac, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    We consider the ground state energy of the Lieb–Liniger gas with δ interaction in the weak coupling regime γ \\to 0 . For bosons with repulsive interaction, previous studies gave the expansion {{e}\\text{B}}≤ft(γ \\right)≃ γ -4{γ3/2}/3π +≤ft(1/6-1/{π2}\\right){γ2} . Using a numerical solution of the Lieb–Liniger integral equation discretized with M points and finite strength γ of the interaction, we obtain very accurate numerics for the next orders after extrapolation on M and γ. The coefficient of {γ5/2} in the expansion is found to be approximately equal to -0.001 587 699 865 505 944 989 29 , accurate within all digits shown. This value is supported by a numerical solution of the Bethe equations with N particles, followed by extrapolation on N and γ. It was identified as ≤ft(3\\zeta (3)/8-1/2\\right)/{π3} by G Lang. The next two coefficients are also guessed from the numerics. For balanced spin 1/2 fermions with attractive interaction, the best result so far for the ground state energy has been {{e}\\text{F}}≤ft(γ \\right)≃ {π2}/12-γ /2+{γ2}/6 . An analogue double extrapolation scheme leads to the value -\\zeta (3)/{π4} for the coefficient of {γ3} .

  3. Hot-Volumes as Uniform and Reproducible SERS-Detection Enhancers in Weakly-Coupled Metallic Nanohelices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, José M; Winters, Sinéad; McCloskey, David; Duesberg, Georg S; Donegan, John F; Krstić, Vojislav

    2017-03-30

    Reproducible and enhanced optical detection of molecules in low concentrations demands simultaneously intense and homogeneous electric fields acting as robust signal amplifiers. To generate such sophisticated optical near-fields, different plasmonic nanostructures were investigated in recent years. These, however, exhibit either high enhancement factor (EF) or spatial homogeneity but not both. Small interparticle gaps or sharp nanostructures show enormous EFs but no near-field homogeneity. Meanwhile, approaches using rounded and separated monomers create uniform near-fields with moderate EFs. Here, guided by numerical simulations, we show how arrays of weakly-coupled Ag nanohelices achieve both homogeneous and strong near-field enhancements, reaching even the limit forreproducible detection of individual molecules. The unique near-field distribution of a single nanohelix consists of broad hot-spots, merging with those from neighbouring nanohelices in specific array configurations and generating a wide and uniform detection zone ("hot-volume"). We experimentally assessed these nanostructures via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, obtaining a corresponding EF of ~10(7) and a relative standard deviation <10%. These values demonstrate arrays of nanohelices as state-of-the-art substrates for reproducible optical detection as well as compelling nanostructures for related fields such as near-field imaging.

  4. Uniaxial Compressive Constitutive Relationship of Concrete Confined by Special-Shaped Steel Tube Coupled with Multiple Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haipeng; Cao, Wanlin; Qiao, Qiyun; Dong, Hongying

    2016-01-29

    A method is presented to predict the complete stress-strain curves of concrete subjected to triaxial stresses, which were caused by axial load and lateral force. The stress can be induced due to the confinement action inside a special-shaped steel tube having multiple cavities. The existing reinforced confined concrete formulas have been improved to determine the confinement action. The influence of cross-sectional shape, of cavity construction, of stiffening ribs and of reinforcement in cavities has been considered in the model. The parameters of the model are determined on the basis of experimental results of an axial compression test for two different kinds of special-shaped concrete filled steel tube (CFT) columns with multiple cavities. The complete load-strain curves of the special-shaped CFT columns are estimated. The predicted concrete strength and the post-peak behavior are found to show good agreement within the accepted limits, compared with the experimental results. In addition, the parameters of proposed model are taken from two kinds of totally different CFT columns, so that it can be concluded that this model is also applicable to concrete confined by other special-shaped steel tubes.

  5. Uniaxial Compressive Constitutive Relationship of Concrete Confined by Special-Shaped Steel Tube Coupled with Multiple Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented to predict the complete stress-strain curves of concrete subjected to triaxial stresses, which were caused by axial load and lateral force. The stress can be induced due to the confinement action inside a special-shaped steel tube having multiple cavities. The existing reinforced confined concrete formulas have been improved to determine the confinement action. The influence of cross-sectional shape, of cavity construction, of stiffening ribs and of reinforcement in cavities has been considered in the model. The parameters of the model are determined on the basis of experimental results of an axial compression test for two different kinds of special-shaped concrete filled steel tube (CFT columns with multiple cavities. The complete load-strain curves of the special-shaped CFT columns are estimated. The predicted concrete strength and the post-peak behavior are found to show good agreement within the accepted limits, compared with the experimental results. In addition, the parameters of proposed model are taken from two kinds of totally different CFT columns, so that it can be concluded that this model is also applicable to concrete confined by other special-shaped steel tubes.

  6. Confinement versus asymptotic freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, A Yu

    2002-01-01

    I put forward the low-energy confining asymptote of the solution $$ (valid for large macroscopic contours C of the size $>>1/\\Lambda_{QCD}$) to the large N Loop equation in the D=4 U(N) Yang-Mills theory with the asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet domain. Adapting the multiscale decomposition characteristic of the Wilsonean renormgroup, the proposed Ansatz for the loop-average is composed in order to sew, along the lines of the bootstrap approach, the large N weak-coupling series for high-momentum modes with the $N\\to{\\infty}$ limit of the recently suggested stringy representation of the 1/N strong-coupling expansion Dub4 applied to low-momentum excitations. The resulting low-energy stringy theory can be described through such superrenormalizable deformation of the noncritical Liouville string that, being devoid of ultraviolet divergences, does not possess propagating degrees of freedom at short-distance scales $<<1/{\\sqrt{\\sigma_{ph}}}$, where $\\sigma_{ph}\\sim{(\\Lambda_{QCD})^{2}}$ is the physical s...

  7. Comparison of the Noise Properties of Squeezed Probe Light in Optically Thick and Thin Quantum Coherence Media for Weak and Strong Coupling Lights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-Hua; LI Yuan; DOU Ya-Fang; GAO Jiang-Rui; ZHANG Jun-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The output amplitude noises of one squeezed probe light which is at resonance throughout different optical depths media in strong- and weak-coupling-Seld regimes are investigated theoretically. By comparing the output quantum noises for different Rabi frequencies of coupling field and also for different optical depths, it is found that the optimal squeezing preservation of the probe light occurs in an optically thin medium with strong-coupling-field, where we can obtain the output squeezing ciose to the input one at nonzero detection frequency.%The output amplitude noises of one squeezed probe light which is at resonance throughout different optical depths media in strong- and weak-coupling-field regimes are investigated theoretically.By comparing the output quantum noises for different Rabi frequencies of coupling field and also for different optical depths,it is found that the optimal squeezing preservation of the probe light occurs in an optically thin medium with strong-coupling-field,where we can obtain the output squeezing close to the input one at nonzero detection frequency.

  8. Condensation of p-branes and generalized Higgs/confinement duality

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, Fernando; Quevedo, Fernando; Trugenberger, Carlo

    1996-01-01

    We review our recent work on the low-energy actions and the realizations of strong-weak coupling dualities in non-perturbative phases of compact antisymmetric tensor field theories due to p-brane condensation. As examples we derive and discuss the confining string and confining membrane actions obtained from compact vector and tensor theories in 4D. We also mention the relevance of our results for the description of the Hagedorn phase transition of finite temperature strings.

  9. An Experimentally Based Description of the Ground-state Wavefunction for Two Weakly Coupled Electrons by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Richard; Seddon, Elaine A.; Teuben, Jan H.; Jonkman-Beuker, Anneke H.; Boer, Dirk K.G. de

    1981-01-01

    It is possible to extract values for the transfer energy, t, and the Coulomb interaction, U, in hydrogen-like systems from a combination of photoelectron and magnetic data, as both the form of the photoelectron spectrum and the exchange splitting are determined by these quantities. This procedure is used to evaluate the ground-state wavefunction for the two weakly coupled Ti 3d electrons in (C10H8)(C5H5)2Ti2Cl2.

  10. Interfacially Al-doped ZnO nanowires: greatly enhanced near band edge emission through suppressed electron-phonon coupling and confined optical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Dai, Yanmeng; Jiang, Shenlong; Ma, Chao; Lin, Yue; Du, Dongxue; Wu, Yukun; Ding, Huaiyi; Zhang, Qun; Pan, Nan; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-04-05

    Aluminium (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with a unique core-shell structure and a Δ-doping profile at the interface were successfully grown using a combination of chemical vapor deposition re-growth and few-layer AlxOy atomic layer deposition. Unlike the conventional heavy doping which degrades the near-band-edge (NBE) luminescence and increases the electron-phonon coupling (EPC), it was found that there was an over 20-fold enhanced NBE emission and a notably-weakened EPC in this type of interfacially Al-doped ZnO NWs. Further experiments revealed a greatly suppressed nonradiative decay process and a much enhanced radiative recombination rate. By comparing the finite-difference time-domain simulation with the experimental results from intentionally designed different NWs, this enhanced radiative decay rate was attributed to the Purcell effect induced by the confined and intensified optical field within the interfacial layer. The ability to manipulate the confinement, transport and relaxation dynamics of ZnO excitons can be naturally guaranteed with this unique interfacial Δ-doping strategy, which is certainly desirable for the applications using ZnO-based nano-photonic and nano-optoelectronic devices.

  11. Predictions for Boson-Jet Observables and Fragmentation Function Ratios from a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have previously introduced a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching in heavy ion collisions that describes the production and fragmentation of jets at weak coupling, using PYTHIA, and describes the rate at which each parton in the jet shower loses energy as it propagates through the strongly coupled plasma, dE/dx, using an expression computed holographically at strong coupling. The model has a single free parameter that we fit to a single experimental measurement. We then confront our model with experimental data on many other jet observables, focusing here on boson-jet observables, finding that it provides a good description of present jet data. Next, we provide the predictions of our hybrid model for many measurements to come, including those for inclusive jet, dijet, photon-jet and Z-jet observables in heavy ion collisions with energy $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$ ATeV coming soon at the LHC. As the statistical uncertainties on near-future measurements of photon-jet observables are expected to be much sm...

  12. On the nonminimal vector coupling in the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory and the confinement of massive bosons by a linear potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, T R; Castro, L B; De Castro, A S, E-mail: cardoso@feg.unesp.b, E-mail: benito@feg.unesp.b, E-mail: castro@pq.cnpq.b [UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, 12516-410 Guaratingueta Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-02-05

    The vector couplings in the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) theory have been revised. It is shown that minimal and nonminimal vector potentials behave differently under charge-conjugation and time-reversal transformations. In particular, it is shown that nonminimal vector potentials have been erroneously applied to the description of elastic meson-nucleus scatterings and that the space component of the nonminimal vector potential plays a crucial role for the confinement of bosons. The DKP equation with nonminimal vector linear potentials is mapped into the nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator problem and the behavior of the solutions for this sort of DKP oscillator is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the absence of Klein's paradox and the localization of bosons in the presence of nonminimal vector interactions are discussed.

  13. Enhanced hydrogen desorption properties of magnesium hydride by coupling non-metal doping and nano-confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daliang; Wang, Yulong; Wu, Chengzhang; Li, Qian; Ding, Weizhong; Sun, Chenghua

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium hydride (MgH2) offers excellent capacity to store hydrogen, but it suffers from the high desorption temperature (>283 °C for starting release hydrogen). In this work, we calculated the hydrogen desorption energy of Mg76H152 clusters with/without non-metal dopants by density functional theory method. Phosphorus (P), as identified as the best dopant, can reduce the reaction energy for releasing one hydrogen molecule from 0.75 eV (bulk MgH2) to 0.20 eV. Inspired by the calculation, P-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) was synthesized by one-step method and employed as the scaffold for loading MgH2 nanoparticles, forming MgH2@P/CMK-3. Element analysis shows that phosphorus dopants have been incorporated into the CMK-3 scaffold and magnesium and phosphorus elements are well-distributed in carbon scaffold hosts. Tests of hydrogen desorption confirmed that P-doping can remarkably enhance the hydrogen release properties of nanoconfined MgH2 at low temperature, specifically ˜1.5 wt. % H2 released from MgH2@P/CMK-3 below 200 °C. This work, based on the combination of computational calculations and experimental studies, demonstrated that the combined approach of non-metal doping and nano-confinement is promising for enhancing the hydrogen desorption properties of MgH2, which provides a strategy to address the challenge of hydrogen desorption from MgH2 at mild operational conditions.

  14. Time-resolved carrier dynamics and electron-phonon coupling strength in proximized weak ferromagnet-superconductor nanobilayers

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We present our femtosecond optical pump-probe studies of proximized ferromagnet-superconductor nanobilayers. The weak ferromagnetic nature of a thin NiCu film makes it possible to observe the dynamics of the nonequilibrium carriers through the near-surface optical reflectivity change measurements. The subpicosecond biexponential reflectivity decay has been identified as electron-phonon Debye and acoustic phonon relaxation times, and the decay of Debye phonons versus temperature dependence was...

  15. Non-Hermitian wave packet approximation for coupled two-level systems in weak and intense fields

    CERN Document Server

    Puthumpally-joseph, Raiju; Charron, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an accurate non-Hermitian Schr\\"odinger-type approximation of Bloch optical equations for two-level systems. This approximation provides a complete description of the excitation, relaxation and decoherence dynamics in both weak and strong laser fields. In this approach, it is sufficient to propagate the wave function of the quantum system instead of the density matrix, providing that relaxation and dephasing are taken into account via automatically-adjusted time-dependent gain and decay rates. The developed formalism is applied to the problem of scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a thin layer comprised of interacting two-level emitters.

  16. An application of nonlinear supratransmission to the propagation of binary signals in weakly damped, mechanical systems of coupled oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias-Diaz, J.E. [Departamento de Matematicas y Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Ags. 20100 (Mexico) and Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)]. E-mail: jemacias@correo.uaa.mx; Puri, A. [Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)]. E-mail: apuri@uno.edu

    2007-07-02

    In the present Letter, we simulate the propagation of binary signals in semi-infinite, mechanical chains of coupled oscillators harmonically driven at the end, by making use of the recently discovered process of nonlinear supratransmission. Our numerical results-which are based on a brand-new computational technique with energy-invariant properties-show an efficient and reliable transmission of information.

  17. Dip-Hump Temperature Dependence of Specific Heat and Effects of Pairing Fluctuations in the Weak-Coupling Side of a P-Wave Interacting Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotani, Daisuke; van Wyk, Pieter; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the specific heat CV at constant volume in the normal state of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas. Including p-wave pairing fluctuations within the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that, in the weak-coupling side, CV exhibits a dip-hump behavior as a function of the temperature. While the dip is associated with the pseudogap phenomenon near Tc, the hump structure is found to come from the suppression of Fermi quasiparticle scattering into a p-wave molecular state in the Fermi degenerate regime. Since the latter phenomenon does not occur in the ordinary s-wave interacting Fermi gas, it may be viewed as a characteristic phenomenon associated with a p-wave pairing interaction.

  18. Coupled-channels effects in elastic scattering and near-barrier fusion induced by weakly bound nuclei and exotic halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, C. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, UMR 7178, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite Louis Pasteur (Strasbourg I), 23 rue du Loess - BP28, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Keeley, N. [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Diaz-Torres, A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2007-03-15

    The influence on fusion of coupling to the breakup process is investigated for reactions where at least one of the colliding nuclei has a sufficiently low binding energy for breakup to become an important process. Elastic scattering, excitation functions for sub-and near-barrier fusion cross sections, and breakup yields are analyzed for {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 59}Co. Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels (CDCC) calculations describe well the data at and above the barrier. Elastic scattering with {sup 6}Li (as compared to {sup 7}Li) indicates the significant role of breakup for weakly bound projectiles. A study of {sup 4,6}He induced fusion reactions with a three-body CDCC method for the {sup 6}He halo nucleus is presented. The relative importance of breakup and bound-state structure effects on total fusion is discussed. (authors)

  19. Network properties of interstitial cells of Cajal affect intestinal pacemaker activity and motor patterns, according to a mathematical model of weakly coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruihan; Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D

    2017-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) network perturbations on intestinal pacemaker activity and motor patterns? What is the main finding and its importance? Two-dimensional modelling of the ICC pacemaker activity according to a phase model of weakly coupled oscillators showed that network properties (coupling strength between oscillators, frequency gradient and frequency noise) strongly influence pacemaker network activity and subsequent motor patterns. The model explains motor patterns observed in physiological conditions and provides predictions and testable hypotheses for effects of ICC loss and frequency modulation on the motor patterns. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells of gut motility and are associated with motility disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal form a network, but the contributions of its network properties to gut physiology and dysfunction are poorly understood. We modelled an ICC network as a two-dimensional network of weakly coupled oscillators with a frequency gradient and showed changes over time in video and graphical formats. Model parameters were obtained from slow-wave-driven contraction patterns in the mouse intestine and pacemaker slow-wave activities from the cat intestine. Marked changes in propagating oscillation patterns (including changes from propagation to non-propagating) were observed by changing network parameters (coupling strength between oscillators, the frequency gradient and frequency noise), which affected synchronization, propagation velocity and occurrence of dislocations (termination of an oscillation). Complete uncoupling of a circumferential ring of oscillators caused the proximal and distal section to desynchronize, but complete synchronization was maintained with only a single oscillator connecting the sections with high enough coupling. The network of oscillators could withstand loss; even with 40% of oscillators lost randomly

  20. Amoeboid motion in confined geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Hu, Wei-Fan; Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Lai, Ming-Chih; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as...

  1. The formation and transformation of the spatial weak-light bright and dark solitons in a quantum dot molecule with the interdot tunneling coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kuanhong; Wang, Denglong; She, Yanchao; Luo, Xiaoqin

    2013-11-01

    We study analytically the properties of the optical absorption and the spatial weak-light solitons in a quantum dot molecule system with the interdot tunneling coupling (ITC). It is shown that, for the linear case, there exists tunneling induced transparency (TIT) in the context of a weak ITC, while the TIT can be replaced by Autler-Townes splitting in the presence of a strong ITC. For the nonlinear case, it is probable to realize the spatial optical solitons even under weak light intensity. Interestingly, we find that there appears transformation behavior between the bright and dark solitons by properly turning both the ITC strength and the detuning of the probe field. Meanwhile, the transformation condition of the bright and dark solitons is obtained. Additionally it is also found that the amplitude of the solitons first descends and then rises with the increasing of ITC strength. Our results may have potential applications for nonlinear optical experiments and optical telecommunication engineering in solid systems.

  2. Effects of weakly coupled and dense quantum plasmas environments on charge exchange and ionization processes in Na+ + Rb(5s) atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Mukesh Kumar; Lin, Yen-Chang; Ho, Yew Kam

    2017-02-01

    The effects of weakly coupled or classical and dense quantum plasmas environment on charge exchange and ionization processes in Na+ + Rb(5s) atom collision at keV energy range have been investigated using classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method. The interaction of three charged particles are described by the Debye-Hückel screen potential for weakly coupled plasma, whereas exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potential have been used for dense quantum plasma environment and the effects of both conditions on the cross sections are compared. It is found that screening effects on cross sections in high Debye length condition is quite small in both plasma environments. However, enhanced screening effects on cross sections are observed in dense quantum plasmas for low Debye length condition, which becomes more effective while decreasing the Debye length. Also, we have found that our calculated results for plasma-free case are comparable with the available theoretical results. These results are analyzed in light of available theoretical data with the choice of model potentials.

  3. A new symmetrical quasi-classical model for electronically non-adiabatic processes: Application to the case of weak non-adiabatic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Stephen J.; Miller, William H.

    2016-10-01

    Previous work has shown how a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing procedure can be used to quantize the initial and final electronic degrees of freedom in the Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic (i.e, nuclear + electronic) Hamiltonian, and that the approach provides a very good description of electronically non-adiabatic processes within a standard classical molecular dynamics framework for a number of benchmark problems. This paper explores application of the SQC/MM approach to the case of very weak non-adiabatic coupling between the electronic states, showing (as anticipated) how the standard SQC/MM approach used to date fails in this limit, and then devises a new SQC windowing scheme to deal with it. Application of this new SQC model to a variety of realistic benchmark systems shows that the new model not only treats the weak coupling case extremely well, but it is also seen to describe the "normal" regime (of electronic transition probabilities ≳ 0.1) even more accurately than the previous "standard" model.

  4. Fusion and neutron transfer reactions with weakly bound nuclei within time-dependent and coupled channel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarin, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    The time-dependent Schrödinger equation and the coupled channel approach based on the method of perturbed stationary two-center states are used to describe nucleon transfers and fusion in low-energy nuclear reactions. Results of the cross sections calculation for the formation of the 198Au and fusion in the 6He+197Au reaction and for the formation of the 65Zn in 6He+64Zn reaction agree satisfactorily with the experimental data near the barrier. The Feynman's continual integrals calculations for a few-body systems were used for the proposal of the new form of the shell model mean field for helium isotopes.

  5. Improved Dyson series expansion for steady-state quantum transport beyond the weak coupling limit: divergences and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingna, Juzar; Zhou, Hangbo; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2014-11-21

    We present a general theory to calculate the steady-state heat and electronic currents for nonlinear systems using a perturbative expansion in the system-bath coupling. We explicitly demonstrate that using the truncated Dyson-series leads to divergences in the steady-state limit, thus making it impossible to be used for actual applications. In order to resolve the divergences, we propose a unique choice of initial condition for the reduced density matrix, which removes the divergences at each order. Our approach not only allows us to use the truncated Dyson-series, with a reasonable choice of initial condition, but also gives the expected result that the steady-state solutions should be independent of initial preparations. Using our improved Dyson series we evaluate the heat and electronic currents up to fourth-order in system-bath coupling, a considerable improvement over the standard quantum master equation techniques. We then numerically corroborate our theory for archetypal settings of linear systems using the exact nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Finally, to demonstrate the advantage of our approach, we deal with the nonlinear spin-boson model to evaluate heat current up to fourth-order and find signatures of cotunnelling process.

  6. Improved Dyson series expansion for steady-state quantum transport beyond the weak coupling limit: Divergences and resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thingna, Juzar [Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, Universitätsstrasse 1 D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich, Schellingrstrasse 4, D-80799 München (Germany); Zhou, Hangbo [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Wang, Jian-Sheng, E-mail: phywjs@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-11-21

    We present a general theory to calculate the steady-state heat and electronic currents for nonlinear systems using a perturbative expansion in the system-bath coupling. We explicitly demonstrate that using the truncated Dyson-series leads to divergences in the steady-state limit, thus making it impossible to be used for actual applications. In order to resolve the divergences, we propose a unique choice of initial condition for the reduced density matrix, which removes the divergences at each order. Our approach not only allows us to use the truncated Dyson-series, with a reasonable choice of initial condition, but also gives the expected result that the steady-state solutions should be independent of initial preparations. Using our improved Dyson series we evaluate the heat and electronic currents up to fourth-order in system-bath coupling, a considerable improvement over the standard quantum master equation techniques. We then numerically corroborate our theory for archetypal settings of linear systems using the exact nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Finally, to demonstrate the advantage of our approach, we deal with the nonlinear spin-boson model to evaluate heat current up to fourth-order and find signatures of cotunnelling process.

  7. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  8. Enhanced paramagnetic Cu²⁺ ions removal by coupling a weak magnetic field with zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao; Qiao, Junlian; Lo, Irene M C; Wang, Lei; Guan, Xiaohong; Lu, Zhanpeng; Zhou, Gongming; Xu, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    A weak magnetic field (WMF) was proposed to enhance paramagnetic Cu(2+) ions removal by zero valent iron (ZVI). The rate constants of Cu(2+) removal by ZVI with WMF at pH 3.0-6.0 were -10.8 to -383.7 fold greater than those without WMF. XRD and XPS analyses revealed that applying a WMF enhanced both the Cu(2+) adsorption to the ZVI surface and the transformation of Cu(2+) to Cu(0) by ZVI. The enhanced Cu(2+) sequestration by ZVI with WMF was accompanied with expedited ZVI corrosion and solution ORP drop. The uneven distribution of paramagnetic Cu(2+) along an iron wire in an inhomogeneous MF verified that the magnetic field gradient force would accelerate the paramagnetic Cu(2+) transportation toward the ZVI surface due to the WMF-induced sharp decay of magnetic flux intensity from ZVI surface to bulk Cu(2+) solution. The paramagnetic Fe(2+) ions generated by ZVI corrosion would also accumulate at the position with the highest magnetic flux intensity on the ZVI surface, causing uneven distribution of Fe(2+), and facilitate the local galvanic corrosion of ZVI, and thus, Cu(2+) reduction by ZVI. The electrochemical analysis verified that the accelerated ZVI corrosion in the presence of WMF partly arose from the Lorentz force-enhanced mass transfer.

  9. Fluvial geomorphology and aquatic-to-terrestrial Hg export are weakly coupled in small urban streams of Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Boaz, Lindsey E.; Hossler, Katie

    2016-04-01

    Although mercury (Hg) contamination is common in stream ecosystems, mechanisms governing bioavailability and bioaccumulation in fluvial systems remain poorly resolved as compared to lentic systems. In particular, streams in urbanized catchments are subject to fluvial geomorphic alterations that may contribute to Hg distribution, bioaccumulation, and export across the aquatic-to-terrestrial boundary. In 12 streams of urban Columbus, Ohio, we investigated the influence of fluvial geomorphic characteristics related to channel geometry, streamflow, and sediment size and distribution on (1) Hg concentrations in sediment and body burdens in benthic larval and adult emergent aquatic insects and (2) aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transfer to common riparian spiders of the families Pisauridae and Tetragnathidae via changes in aquatic insect Hg body burdens as well as in aquatic insect density and community composition. Hydrogeomorphic characteristics were weakly related to Hg body burdens in emergent insects (channel geometry) and tetragnathid spiders (streamflow), but not to Hg concentrations in sediment or benthic insects. Streamflow characteristics were also related to emergent insect density, while wider channels were associated with benthic insect community shifts toward smaller-bodied and more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironomidae). Thus, our results provide initial evidence that fluvial geomorphology may influence aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant Hg transfer through the collective effects on emergent insect body burdens as well as on aquatic insect community composition and abundance.

  10. Connecting Few-Body Inelastic Decay to Quantum Correlations in a Many-Body System: A Weakly Coupled Impurity in a Resonant Fermi Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Sébastien; Pierce, Matthieu; Delehaye, Marion; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frédéric; Salomon, Christophe

    2017-03-10

    We study three-body recombination in an ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture. We first show theoretically that, for weak interspecies coupling, the loss rate is proportional to Tan's contact. Second, using a ^{7}Li/^{6}Li mixture we probe the recombination rate in both the thermal and dual superfluid regimes. We find excellent agreement with our model in the BEC-BCS crossover. At unitarity where the fermion-fermion scattering length diverges, we show that the loss rate is proportional to n_{f}^{4/3}, where n_{f} is the fermionic density. This unusual exponent signals nontrivial two-body correlations in the system. Our results demonstrate that few-body losses can be used as a quantitative probe of quantum correlations in many-body ensembles.

  11. Magnetic properties of weakly exchange-coupled high spin Co(II) ions in pseudooctahedral coordination evaluated by single crystal X-band EPR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Winkler, Elín; Peña, Octavio; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2014-03-01

    We report single-crystal X-band EPR and magnetic measurements of the coordination polymer catena-(trans-(μ2-fumarato)tetraaquacobalt(II)), 1, and the Co(II)-doped Zn(II) analogue, 2, in different Zn:Co ratios. 1 presents two magnetically inequivalent high spin S = 3/2 Co(II) ions per unit cell, named A and B, in a distorted octahedral environment coordinated to four water oxygen atoms and trans coordinated to two carboxylic oxygen atoms from the fumarate anions, in which the Co(II) ions are linked by hydrogen bonds and fumarate molecules. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements of 1 indicate weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the S = 3/2 spins of the Co(II) ions in the crystal lattice. Oriented single crystal EPR experiments of 1 and 2 were used to evaluate the molecular g-tensor and the different exchange coupling constants between the Co(II) ions, assuming an effective spin S′= 1/2. Unexpectedly, the eigenvectors of the molecular g-tensor were not lying along any preferential bond direction, indicating that, in high spin Co(II) ions in roughly octahedral geometry with approximately axial EPR signals, the presence of molecular pseudo axes in the metal site does not determine preferential directions for the molecular g-tensor. The EPR experiment and magnetic measurements, together with a theoretical analysis relating the coupling constants obtained from both techniques, allowed us to evaluate selectively the exchange coupling constant associated with hydrogen bonds that connect magnetically inequivalent Co(II) ions (|JAB(1/2)| = 0.055(2) cm(–1)) and the exchange coupling constant associated with a fumarate bridge connecting equivalent Co(II) ions (|JAA(1/2)| ≈ 0.25 (1) cm(–1)), in good agreement with the average J(3/2) value determined from magnetic measurements.

  12. Comment on a confining theory of quarks, leptons and sarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuè, Masaki

    1990-12-01

    The confining SU(2) Lloc theory for composite quarks, leptons and extra weak-triplet and -singlet fermions (called sarks), which fixes the generation number ⩽3 as suggested by Frampton and Ng in their sark model, is shown to incorporate extra composite W and Z bosons, W‧ and Z‧, as the remnant of confined hypercolors carried by sark constituents. The model deals with SU(2) Lloc -and hypercolor-singlet composites that exhibit the duality of compositeness and “elementariness”, in which it differs from the original sark model of Frampton and Ng. W‧ and Z‧ primarily couple to sarks but not to quarks and leptons while the indirect coupling of Z‧ to quarks and leptons is induced as a result of the vector meson dominance of the photon.

  13. Weak coupling of pseudoacoustic phonons and magnon dynamics in the incommensurate spin-ladder compound S r14C u24O41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Bansal, Dipanshu; Sullivan, Sean; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Aczel, Adam A.; Zhou, Jianshi; Delaire, Olivier; Shi, Li

    2016-10-01

    Intriguing lattice dynamics have been predicted for aperiodic crystals that contain incommensurate substructures. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering measurements of phonon and magnon dispersions in S r14C u24O41 , which contains incommensurate one-dimensional (1D) chain and two-dimensional (2D) ladder substructures. Two distinct pseudoacoustic phonon modes, corresponding to the sliding motion of one sublattice against the other, are observed for atomic motions polarized along the incommensurate axis. In the long wavelength limit, it is found that the sliding mode shows a remarkably small energy gap of 1.7-1.9 meV, indicating very weak interactions between the two incommensurate sublattices. The measurements also reveal a gapped and steep linear magnon dispersion of the ladder sublattice. The high group velocity of this magnon branch and weak coupling with acoustic and pseudoacoustic phonons can explain the large magnon thermal conductivity in S r14C u24O41 crystals. In addition, the magnon specific heat is determined from the measured total specific heat and phonon density of states and exhibits a Schottky anomaly due to gapped magnon modes of the spin chains. These findings offer new insights into the phonon and magnon dynamics and thermal transport properties of incommensurate magnetic crystals that contain low-dimensional substructures.

  14. Anomalous transport at weak coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Subham Dutta

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of chiral fermions in $d=2, 4, 6$, chiral bosons, a chiral gravitino like theory in $d=2$ and chiral gravitinos in $d=6$ to all the leading parity odd transport coefficients at one loop. This is done by using finite temperature field theory to evaluate the relevant Kubo formulae. For chiral fermions and chiral bosons the relation between the parity odd transport coefficient and the microscopic anomalies including gravitational anomalies agree with that found by using the general methods of hydrodynamics and the argument involving the consistency of the Euclidean vacuum. For the gravitino like theory in $d=2$ and chiral gravitinos in $d=6$, we show that relation between the pure gravitational anomaly and parity odd transport breaks down. From the perturbative calculation we clearly identify the terms that contribute to the anomaly polynomial, but not to the transport coefficient for gravitinos. We also develop a simple method for evaluating the angular integrals in the one loop dia...

  15. No confinement without Coulomb confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Zwanziger, D

    2003-01-01

    We compare the physical potential $V_D(R)$ of an external quark-antiquark pair in the representation $D$ of SU(N), to the color-Coulomb potential $V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ which is the instantaneous part of the 44-component of the gluon propagator in Coulomb gauge, $D_{44}(\\vx,t) = V_{\\rm coul}(|\\vx|) \\delta(t)$ + (non-instantaneous). We show that if $V_D(R)$ is confining, $\\lim_{R \\to \\infty}V_D(R) = + \\infty$, then the inequality $V_D(R) \\leq - C_D V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ holds asymptotically at large $R$, where $C_D > 0$ is the Casimir in the representation $D$. This implies that $ - V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ is also confining.

  16. Shear and Bulk Viscosities of a Weakly Coupled Quark Gluon Plasma with Finite Chemical Potential and Temperature---Leading-Log Results

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Song, Yu-Kun; Wang, Qun

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the shear (eta) and bulk (zeta) viscosities of a weakly coupled quark gluon plasma at the leading-log order with finite temperature T and quark chemical potential mu. We find that the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s increases monotonically with mu and eventually scales as (mu/T)^2 at large mu. In contrary, zeta/s is insensitive to mu. Both eta/s and zeta/s are monotonically decreasing functions of the quark flavor number N_f when N_f \\geq 2. This property is also observed in pion gas systems. Our perturbative calculation suggests that QCD becomes the most perfect (i.e. with the smallest eta/s) at mu=0 and N_f = 16 (the maximum N_f with asymptotic freedom). It would be interesting to test whether the currently smallest eta/s computed close to the phase transition with mu=0 and N_f = 0 can be further reduced by increasing N_f.

  17. Molecular Orbital Rule for Quantum Interference in Weakly Coupled Dimers: Low-Energy Giant Conductivity Switching Induced by Orbital Level Crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Daijiro; Lücke, Andreas; Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2017-02-16

    Destructive quantum interference (QI) in molecular junctions has attracted much attention in recent years. It can tune the conductance of molecular devices dramatically, which implies numerous potential applications in thermoelectric and switching applications. There are several schemes that address and rationalize QI in single molecular devices. Dimers play a particular role in this respect because the QI signal may disappear, depending on the dislocation of monomers. We derive a simple rule that governs the occurrence of QI in weakly coupled dimer stacks of both alternant and nonalternant polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and extends the Tada-Yoshizawa scheme. Starting from the Green's function formalism combined with the molecular orbital expansion approach, it is shown that QI-induced antiresonances and their energies can be predicted from the amplitudes of the respective monomer terminal molecular orbitals. The condition is illustrated for a toy model consisting of two hydrogen molecules and applied within density functional calculations to alternant dimers of oligo(phenylene-ethynylene) and nonalternant PAHs. Minimal dimer structure modifications that require only a few millielectronvolts and lead to an energy crossing of the essentially preserved monomer orbitals are shown to result in giant conductance switching ratios.

  18. New Stable Cu(I) Catalyst Supported on Weakly Acidic Polyacrylate Resin for Green C-N Coupling: Synthesis of N-(Pyridin-4-yl)benzene Amines and N,N-Bis(pyridine-4-yl)benzene Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, Nitin; Pazdera, Pavel

    2016-12-22

    A method for preparation of a new stable Cu(I) catalyst supported on weakly acidic polyacrylate resin without additional stabilizing ligands is described. A simple and efficient methodology for Ullmann Cu(I) catalyzed C-N cross coupling reactions using this original catalyst is reported. Coupling reactions of 4-chloropyridinium chloride with anilines containing electron donating (EDG) or electron withdrawing (EWG) groups, naphthalen-2-amine and piperazine, respectively, are successfully demonstrated.

  19. New Stable Cu(I Catalyst Supported on Weakly Acidic Polyacrylate Resin for Green C-N Coupling: Synthesis of N-(Pyridin-4-ylbenzene Amines and N,N-Bis(pyridine-4-ylbenzene Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for preparation of a new stable Cu(I catalyst supported on weakly acidic polyacrylate resin without additional stabilizing ligands is described. A simple and efficient methodology for Ullmann Cu(I catalyzed C-N cross coupling reactions using this original catalyst is reported. Coupling reactions of 4-chloropyridinium chloride with anilines containing electron donating (EDG or electron withdrawing (EWG groups, naphthalen-2-amine and piperazine, respectively, are successfully demonstrated.

  20. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Keiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.

  1. Confining Strings with Topological Term

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo Andrea

    1997-01-01

    We consider several aspects of `confining strings', recently proposed to describe the confining phase of gauge field theories. We perform the exact duality transformation that leads to the confining string action and show that it reduces to the Polyakov action in the semiclassical approximation. In 4D we introduce a `$\\theta$-term' and compute the low-energy effective action for the confining string in a derivative expansion. We find that the coefficient of the extrinsic curvature (stiffness) is negative, confirming previous proposals. In the absence of a $\\theta$-term, the effective string action is only a cut-off theory for finite values of the coupling e, whereas for generic values of $\\theta$, the action can be renormalized and to leading order we obtain the Nambu-Goto action plus a topological `spin' term that could stabilize the system.

  2. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  3. Innovation in Broad-Area Diode Laser Array Architecture: Coupling Grating-Confined Zigzag Modes for High Power, High Brightness Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-08

    arrays [16-18]; 3) leaky wave coupled (anti- guided ) laser arrays [7, 19-21]; 4) unstable resonators, e.g., curved mirror or tapered lasers [22-26...amplifiers. The phase of each individual amplified beam is controlled by a discrete optical phase modulator. The phase difference among the array elements...overlap area of the two gratings defines a two dimensional coupling region. The phase locking of two emitters is obtained by the wave coupling through

  4. 声子色散对量子点中弱耦合磁极化子声子平均数的影响%The influence of phonon dispersion on the average phonon number of weak-coupling magnetopolaron in a parabolic quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀文慧; 杨洪涛; 胡文弢; 呼和满都拉

    2014-01-01

    The influence of phonon dispersion on the average phonon number of weak-coupling magnetopolaron in a parabolic quantum dot is studied by using the linear-combination operator and unitary transformation meth-od.Taking account of the longitudinal optical ( LO) phonons dispersion in a parabolic approximation, the ground state energy as a function of the effective confinement length, the coefficient of the phonon dispersion, the cyclo-tron-resonance frequency and the electron-phonon coupling constant and the average number of virtual pho-nons around the electron as a function of the coefficient of the phonon dispersion and the electron-phonon cou-pling constant are obtained.Numerical calculations results show that the ground state energy decreases with in-creasing the coefficient of the phonon dispersion;the average number of virtual phonons around the electron in-creases with increasing the electron-phonon coupling constant and the coefficient of the phonon dispersion in the electron-LO-phonon weak-coupling case.%利用线性组合算符和幺正变换相结合的方法,研究了声子色散对抛物量子点中弱耦合磁极化子电子周围光学声子平均数的影响。计及纵光学( LO)声子色散,在抛物近似下导出了基态能量与量子点有效受限长度、声子色散系数、回旋共振频率以及电子-声子耦合常数之间的关系,电子周围光学声子平均数与声子色散系数以及电子-声子耦合常数的关系。数值计算结果表明在弱耦合情况下抛物量子点中磁极化子的基态能量随声子色散系数的增大而减小;电子周围光学声子平均数随声子色散系数增大而增大,随电子-声子耦合常数的增大而增大。

  5. A Gauge-Independent Mechanism for Confinement and Mass Gap: Part I -- The General Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Cherrington, J Wade

    2009-01-01

    We propose a gauge-independent mechanism for the area-law behavior of Wilson loop expectation values in terms of worldsheets spanning Wilson loops interacting with the spin foams that contribute to the vacuum partition function. The method uses an exact transformation of lattice-regularized Yang-Mills theory that is valid for all couplings. Within this framework, some natural conjectures can be made as to what physical mechanism enforces the confinement property in the continuum (weak coupling) limit. Details for the SU(2) case in three dimensions are provided in a companion paper.

  6. Dynamics in Two Periodically Driven and Weakly Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates%二周期驱动及弱耦合玻丝-爱因斯坦凝聚模型的动力学性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈付广; 黄德斌; 郭荣伟

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, dynamics in the oscillations of the relative atomic population in two periodically driven and weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) was qualitatively studied. Using the well-known Melnikov method, the conditions of existence of the periodic and chaotic coherent atomic tunnellings were given in the model. Our results indicate the typical route from bifurcation of the limited circles to chaos, and are in agreement with the previous numerical results.

  7. Bipolaron in different configuration of quantum confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮永红; 陈庆虎; 焦正宽

    2004-01-01

    The authors used Landau-Pekar variational method to investigate a strong-coupling singlet optical bipolaron in different configuration of quantum confinement.Numerical and analytical results showed that when configuration changes from quantum dot and wire to well,confinement shows different effect on the formation of a bipolaron.In contrast to a bipolaron in a quantum dot or wire,the binding energy of a bipolaron in a quantum well increases with increasing confinement,indicating that confinement favors bipolaron formation in a quantum well.

  8. Bipolaron in different configuration of quantum confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮永红; 陈庆虎; 焦正宽

    2004-01-01

    The authors used Landau-Pekar variational method to investigate a strong-coupling singlet optical bipolaron in different configuration of quantum confinement. Numerical and analytical results showed that when configuration changes from quantum dot and wire to well, confinement shows different effect on the formation of a bipolaron. In contrast to a bipolaron in a quantum dot or wire, the binding energy of a bipolaron in a quantum well increases with increasing con-finement, indicating that confinement favors bipolaron formation in a quantum well.

  9. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  10. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  11. 基于双耦合改进型混沌振子系统的弱信号检测%Weak Signal Detection Based on Improved Chaotic Oscillator System with Dual Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清文; 张金锋

    2012-01-01

    The traditional weak signal detection theory based on single Duffing chaotic oscillator system is described. In the traditional method based on chaos theory for detection of weak signals in strong noise environment, there prone to be instability in the phase change of system and the anti-noise should also be further enhanced. For solving the problems, the method of detecting the weak signal in strong noise environment based on double Duffing coupled improved oscillator system is proposed, and the weak sinusoidal signal detection in strong noise environment is finished the simulation by using this method. By simulation, the result is that based on the system of two-coupled improved chaotic oscillator, the weak signals in the strong noise environment can be better detected and the noise is better suppressed.%介绍传统的单Duffing混沌振子系统检测微弱信号的原理.传统混沌检测弱信号方法中,在强噪声环境下检测弱信号时系统易出现相位变化不稳定、抗噪性需进一步增强等问题.针对这些问题,本文提出基于双Duffing耦合改进型振子系统来对强噪声环境下的弱信号进行检测的方法,并用此方法对强噪声下的微弱正弦信号进行检测仿真.通过仿真得出双耦合改进型混沌振子系统能够更好地检测强噪声环境下的弱信号,对噪声有着更好的抑制作用.

  12. Bimetallic Microswimmers Speed Up in Confining Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Synthetic microswimmers are envisioned to be useful in numerous applications, many of which occur in tightly confined spaces. It is therefore important to understand how confinement influences swimmer dynamics. Here we study the motility of bimetallic microswimmers in linear and curved channels. Our experiments show swimmer velocities increase, up to 5 times, with the degree of confinement, and the relative velocity increase depends weakly on the fuel concentration and ionic strength in solution. Experimental results are reproduced in a numerical model which attributes the swimmer velocity increase to electrostatic and electrohydrodynamic boundary effects. Our work not only helps to elucidate the confinement effect of phoretic swimmers, but also suggests that spatial confinement may be used as an effective control method for them.

  13. 基于双耦合混沌振子的未知频率弱信号检测%Detection of the Weak Signal with Unknown Frequency Based on the Coupled Chaos Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东升; 李乐; 杨珺; 汪刚

    2012-01-01

    针对微弱信号检测的难点问题,提出了一种应用于未知频率微弱信号的分段测频检测方法.利用双耦合Duffing系统相轨迹状态的跃迁对于输入微弱信号的敏感特性实现了对淹没在强噪声中的微弱信号的检测,同时利用分段测频方法实现了对微弱信号的频率测量,有效地解决了单Duffing振子的微弱信号检测方法易受噪声影响产生误判的问题,突破了现有微弱信号混沌振子检测方法只能进行已知频率信号检测的局限性.仿真实验结果证明该方法确实能够较为准确地检测出输入微弱周期信号的频率,使微弱信号检测技术得到进一步完善.%A sub-frequency measurement method for weak signals with unknown frequency was presented. Due to the sensitivity of the state transitions of the phase trajectories of the coupled Duffing system to the weak signal input, the detection for a weak signal submerged in strong noises was implemented to solve the difficult problems of weak signal detection. Based on the proposed method, the problem on misjudgment of weak signal detection method based on single Duffing oscillator under the influence of noise effectively was solved. And the limitation had been broken that the existing detection methods of weak signal based on chaotic oscillator could only detect the weak signal with known frequency. Simulation results showed that the method could indeed detect the frequency of weak periodic input signal more accurately, resulting in improvement of the weak signal detection techniques.

  14. Weak gravity conjecture and effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff Λ . If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true, then parametric violation of the WGC at low energy comes at the cost of nonminimal field content in the UV. I propose that only a very weak constraint is applicable to EFTs, Λ ≲(log 1/g )-1 /2Mpl , where g is the gauge coupling, motivated by entropy bounds. Remarkably, EFTs produced by Higgsing a theory that satisfies the WGC can saturate but not violate this bound.

  15. On the existence of weak solution to the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem for non-Newtonian shear-dependent fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Hundertmark-Zaušková, A.; Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Nečasová, Š. (Šárka)

    2016-01-01

    We study the existence of weak solution for unsteady fluid-structure interaction problem for shear-thickening flow. The time dependent domain has at one part a flexible elastic wall. The evolution of fluid domain is governed by the generalized string equation with action of the fluid forces. The power-law viscosity model is applied to describe shear-dependent non-Newtonian fluids.

  16. Magnetic microsphere-confined graphene for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weina; Ma, Ruiyang; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2013-06-07

    In this paper, a magnetic microsphere-confined graphene adsorbent (Fe3O4@SiO2-G) was fabricated and used for the extraction of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) from environmental water samples prior to high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The Fe3O4@SiO2-G was characterized by various instrumental methods. Various experimental parameters that could affect the extraction efficiencies, such as the amount of Fe3O4@SiO2-G, the pH and ionic strength of sample solution, the extraction time and the desorption conditions, were investigated. Due to the high surface area and excellent adsorption capacity of the Fe3O4@SiO2-G, satisfactory extraction can be achieved with only 15mg of the adsorbent per 250mL solution and 5min extraction. Under the optimum conditions, a linear response was observed in the concentration range of 5-1500ngL(-1) for fluorene, 2.5-1500ngL(-1) for anthracene and 15-1500ngL(-1) for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9897 to 0.9961. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method were between 0.5 and 5.0ngL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5.6%. The recoveries of the method were in the range between 83.2% and 108.2%. The results indicated that this graphene-based magnetic nanocomposite had a great adsorptive ability toward the five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples.

  17. The 2012 August 27 Mw7.3 El Salvador earthquake: expression of weak coupling on the Middle America subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter C.; DeMets, Charles; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Mattioli, Glen S.; Rogers, Robert; Rodriguez, Manuel; Marroquin, Griselda; Tenorio, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Subduction zones exhibit variable degrees of interseismic coupling as resolved by inversions of geodetic data and analyses of seismic energy release. The degree to which a plate boundary fault is coupled can have profound effects on its seismogenic behaviour. Here we use GPS measurements to estimate co- and post-seismic deformation from the 2012 August 27, Mw7.3 megathrust earthquake offshore El Salvador, which was a tsunami earthquake. Inversions of estimated coseismic displacements are in agreement with published seismically derived source models, which indicate shallow (El Salvador-Nicaragua segment of the Central American margin and may be a characteristic of margins hosting tsunami earthquakes.

  18. Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  19. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, F A; Serafim, W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of `anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell's equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance which is associated with {a screening phase

  20. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, F.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Serafim, W. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of 'anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like in an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to the condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance, which is associated with a screening phase. (orig.)

  1. Experimental study of the effects of couple weak waves on laminar-turbulent transition on attachment-line of a swept cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Yu. G.; Yatskih, A. A.; Kosinov, A. D.; Semionov, N. V.; Kolosov, G. L.; Panina, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    An experiment on a swept cylinder with 68°-sweep angle at Mach number M = 2.5 is described. The flow attachment line was disturbed by two weak shock waves. Shock waves were generated by a two-dimensional surface inhomogeneity on the wall of the test section of wind tunnel. It was found that the laminar-turbulent transition on the attachment-line of the cylinder is accompanied by an uneven growth of pulsations. Influence of Mach waves on the transition when their fall on the cylinder far away from domain of measuring is not observed. The laminar-turbulent transition occurs at a much lower unit Reynolds numbers in the case when a pair of waves falling on the attachment-line near the measurement field.

  2. 利用单向驱动非线性耦合Duffing振子检测微弱信号%Weak Signal Detection Based on Unidirectionaldriving Nonlinear Coupled Duffing Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勇峰; 张世平

    2011-01-01

    Considering the huge computation and long time calculation in phase transition identification of weak signal detection based on single Duffing oscillator,a unidirectional driving nonlinear coupled Duffing oscillator system is established.System synchronization state from chaotic state to large-scale periodic state is analyzed according to transverse Lyapunov exponent,and a novel method for phase transition identification based on synchronization error is proposed.Experiment simulation shows that this coupled Duffing oscillator system can quickly detect weak signal in strong noise.%针对单个Duffing振子检测微弱信号时相交判别计算量大、时间长、不易把握等问题,建立了一个单向驱动非线性耦合Duffing振子系统.根据横向Lyapunov指数分析了系统在混沌态到大尺度周期态时振子间运动轨迹的同步演化特性,提出了利用同步误差来判别相变的新方法.实验仿真表明,在强噪声背景下该耦合系统仍能够正确快速地检测出微弱信号.

  3. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  4. Decoupling of Confined Normal 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, S. G.; Bennett, R. G.; Ilic, B.; Verbridge, S. S.; Levitin, L. V.; Fefferman, A. D.; Casey, A.; Saunders, J.; Parpia, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Anodic bonding was used to fabricate a 10 mm diameter × 640 nm tall annular geometry suitable for torsion pendulum studies of confined 3He. For pure 3He at saturated vapor pressure the inertia of the confined fluid was seen to be only partially coupled to the pendulum at 160 mK. Below 100 mK the liquid’s inertial contribution was negligible, indicating a complete decoupling of the 3He from the pendulum.

  5. Quark Confinement and Force Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available String theory had to adopt a bi-scale approach in order to produce the weakness of gravity. Taking a bi-scale approach to particle physics along with a spin connection produces 1 the measured proton radius, 2 a resolution of the multiplicity of measured weak angle values 3 a correct theoretical value for the Z 0 4 a reason that h is a constant and 5 a “neutral current” source. The source of the “neutral current” provides 6 an alternate solution to quark confinement, 7 produces an effective r like potential, and 8 gives a reason for the observed but unexplained Regge trajectory like J M 2 behavior seen in quark composite particle spin families.

  6. Local structural ordering in surface-confined liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Jeżewski, W.; Zakharov, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of the interplay between attractive nonlocal surface interactions and attractive pair long-range intermolecular couplings on molecular structures of liquid crystals confined in thin cells with flat solid surfaces has been studied. Extending the McMillan mean field theory to include finite systems, it has been shown that confining surfaces can induce complex orientational and translational ordering of molecules. Typically, local smectic A, nematic, and isotropic phases have been shown to coexist in certain temperature ranges, provided that confining cells are sufficiently thick, albeit finite. Due to the nonlocality of surface interactions, the spatial arrangement of these local phases can display, in general, an unexpected complexity along the surface normal direction. In particular, molecules located in the vicinity of surfaces can still be organized in smectic layers, even though nematic and/or isotropic order can simultaneously appear in the interior of cells. The resulting surface freezing of smectic layers has been confirmed to occur even for rather weak surface interactions. The surface interactions cannot, however, prevent smectic layers from melting relatively close to system boundaries, even when molecules are still arranged in layers within the central region of the system. The internal interfaces, separating individual liquid-crystal phases, are demonstrated here to form fronts of local finite-size transitions that move across cells under temperature changes. Although the complex molecular ordering in surface confined liquid-crystal systems can essentially be controlled by temperature variations, specific thermal properties of these systems, especially the nature of the local transitions, are argued to be strongly conditioned to the degree of molecular packing.

  7. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  8. Decomplexation and subsequent reductive removal of EDTA-chelated Cu II by zero-valent iron coupled with a weak magnetic field: Performances and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaohong; Jiang, Xiao; Qiao, Junlian; Zhou, Gongming

    2015-12-30

    The feasibility of EDTA-chelated Cu(II) (Cu(II)-EDTA) removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) in the presence of a weak magnetic field (WMF) and the involved mechanisms were systematically investigated. Fe(0) combined with WMF (Fe(0)/WMF) was very effective for removing Cu(II)-EDTA at pH 4.0-6.0 with the rate constants ranging from 0.1190 min(-1) to 0.0704 min(-1). Little passivation of Fe(0) was observed during Cu(II)-EDTA removal by Fe(0)/WMF in 8 consecutive runs when 10.0 mg L(-1) Cu(II)-EDTA was dosed before the initiation of each run. The evidences presented in this study verified that Cu(II)-EDTA was removed by decomplexation followed by reduction/adsorption. In brief, Fe(II) released from Fe(0) corrosion was rapidly oxidized by oxygen to Fe(III) to chelate with EDTA and release free Cu(II), and the detached Cu(II) ions were subsequently reduced/removed by Fe(0)/Fe(II) and co-precipitated by the generated iron (hydr)-oxides. To advance the application of Fe(0)/WMF technology in real practice, a magnetic propeller agitator was designed to offer WMF inside the reactor, which could greatly improve Cu(II)-EDTA removal by Fe(0) and be easily amplified.

  9. Determination of the Weak Axial Vector Coupling from a Measurement of the Beta-Asymmetry Parameter A in Neutron Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, D; Deissenroth, M; Krempel, J; Schumann, M; Abele, H; Petoukhov, A; Soldner, T

    2012-01-01

    We report on a new measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry parameter $A$ with the instrument \\perkeo. Main advancements are the high neutron polarization of $P = 99.7(1)%$ from a novel arrangement of super mirror polarizers and reduced background from improvements in beam line and shielding. Leading corrections were thus reduced by a factor of 4, pushing them below the level of statistical error and resulting in a significant reduction of systematic uncertainty compared to our previous experiments. From the result $A_0 = -0.11996(58)$, we derive the ratio of the axial-vector to the vector coupling constant $\\lambda = g_\\mathrm{A}/g_\\mathrm{V} = -1.2767(16)$

  10. Observables in muon capture on {sup 23}Na and the effective weak couplings {ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital a}} and {ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital p}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.L.; Gorringe, T.P.; Armstrong, D.S.; Bauer, J.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Kovash, M.A.; Measday, D.F.; Moftah, B.A.; Porter, R.; Wright, D.H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States)]|[Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (CANADA)]|[TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (CANADA)

    1996-11-01

    We report measurements of capture rates and hyperfine dependences in muon capture on {sup 23}Na to various states in Ne and F isotopes. We also report comparisons of the capture rates and hyperfine dependences for six {sup 23}Na {r_arrow} {sup 23}Ne transitions with the 1{ital s}-0{ital d} shell model with the empirical effective interaction of Brown and Wildenthal and the realistic effective interaction of Kuo and Brown. Fits to the data with the Brown and Wildenthal interaction yield an effective coupling {ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital a}} = {minus}1.01 {plus_minus} 0.07 and an effective coupling ratio {ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital p}}/{ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital a}} = 6.5 {plus_minus} 2.4. The value of {ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital a}} is consistent with values of {ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital a}} extracted from {beta}{sup +}/{beta}{sup {minus}} decay and ({ital p},{ital n})/({ital n},{ital p}) charge exchange data, and the value of {ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital p}}/{ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital a}} is consistent with the predictions of PCAC and pion-pole dominance. We evaluate the nuclear model dependence of these values of {ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital a}} and {ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital p}}/{ital {tilde g}}{sub {ital a}} and examine the role of the Gamow-Teller and other matrix elements in the {sup 23}Na {r_arrow} {sup 23}Ne transitions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Feasibility of Diagrammatic Monte-Carlo based on weak-coupling expansion in asymptotically free theories: case study of $O(N)$ sigma-model in the large-$N$ limit

    CERN Document Server

    Buividovich, P V

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the feasibility of applying Diagrammatic Monte-Carlo algorithms to the weak-coupling expansions of asymptotically free quantum field theories, taking the large-$N$ limit of the $O(N)$ sigma-model as the simplest example where exact results are available. We use stereographic mapping from the sphere to the real plane to set up the perturbation theory, which results in a small bare mass term proportional to the coupling $\\lambda$. Counting the powers of coupling associated with higher-order interaction vertices, we arrive at the double-series representation for the dynamically generated mass gap in powers of both $\\lambda$ and $\\log(\\lambda)$, which converges quite quickly to the exact non-perturbative answer. We also demonstrate that it is feasible to obtain the coefficients of these double series by a Monte-Carlo sampling in the space of Feynman diagrams. In particular, the sign problem of such sampling becomes milder at small $\\lambda$, that is, close to the continuum limit.

  12. EPR studies of the Mo-enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas: an application of the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to a system containing weakly-coupled paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo J; Barrera, Guillermo I; Rizzi, Alberto C; Moura, José J G; Passeggi, Mario C G; Brondino, Carlos D

    2009-10-01

    Electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes containing paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates are widespread in nature. Despite both the long distances and chemical paths connecting these centers, they can present weak magnetic couplings produced by spin-spin interactions such as dipolar and isotropic exchange. We present here a theoretical model based on the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to analyze the dependence with temperature of EPR spectra of interacting pairs of spin 1/2 centers having different relaxation rates, as is the case of the molybdenum-containing enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas. We analyze the changes of the EPR spectra of the slow relaxing center (Mo(V)) induced by the faster relaxing center (FeS center). At high temperatures, when the relaxation time T(1) of the fast relaxing center is very short, the magnetic coupling between centers is averaged to zero. Conversely, at low temperatures when T(1) is longer, no modulation of the coupling between metal centers can be detected.

  13. Simulating compact quantum electrodynamics with ultracold atoms: probing confinement and nonperturbative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni

    2012-09-21

    Recently, there has been much interest in simulating quantum field theory effects of matter and gauge fields. In a recent work, a method for simulating compact quantum electrodynamics (CQED) using Bose-Einstein condensates has been suggested. We suggest an alternative approach, which relies on single atoms in an optical lattice, carrying 2l + 1 internal levels, which converges rapidly to CQED as l increases. That enables the simulation of CQED in 2 + 1 dimensions in both the weak and the strong coupling regimes, hence, allowing us to probe confinement as well as other nonperturbative effects of the theory. We provide an explicit construction for the case l = 1 which is sufficient for simulating the effect of confinement between two external static charges.

  14. Absorptive reduction and width narrowing in A-type atoms confined between two dielectric walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuan-Yuan; Hou Xun; Bai Jin-Tao; Yan Jun-Feng; Gan Chen-Li; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the absorptive reduction and the width narrowing of electromagnetically induced trans- parency (EIT) in a thin vapour film of A-type atoms confined between two dielectric walls whose thickness is comparable with the wavelength of the probe field. The absorptive lines of the weak probe field exhibit strong reductions and very narrow EIT dips, which mainly results from the velocity slow-down effects and transient behaviour of atoms in a con-fined system. It is also shown that the lines are modified by the strength of the coupling field and the ratio of L/λ, with L the film thickness and A the wavelength of the probe field. A simple robust recipe for EIT in a thin medium is achievable in experiment.

  15. Effect of a weak magnetic field on the Mizoroki–Heck coupling reaction in the presence of wicker-like palladium-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-iron nanocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Ezzat, E-mail: ezzat_rafiee@yahoo.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Joshaghani, Mohammad [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abadi, Parvaneh Ghaderi-Shekhi [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The wicker-like Pd-PVP-Fe (palladium-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-iron) was synthesized by the external magnetic field (EMF). The Pd-based catalyst with nano and the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure was obtained at room temperature without using any additive. The resulting composite was characterized. The results show that EMF has a great influence on morphology, particle size, and crystalline structure of the Pd-PVP-Fe composite. The resulting composite (Pd-PVP-Fe), was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki–Heck reaction while is exposed to EMF with the intensity at 486 µT. The reused catalyst for at least five repeating cycles, shows excellent activity. - Highlights: • The wicker-like Pd-PVP-Fe nanocatalyst was synthesized via external magnetic field. • The resulting catalyst composite was characterized. • The C–C coupling reaction was carried out at magnetic field and room temperature. • Magnetic field affects on the morphology and size of the catalyst. • The catalyst could be reused without significant degradation in activity.

  16. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

  17. Cosmological Particle Production at Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund; Van Raamsdonk, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a strongly-coupled quantum field theory in a cosmological spacetime using the holographic AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically we consider a confining gauge theory in an expanding FRW universe and track the evolution of the stress-energy tensor during a period of expansion, varying the initial temperature as well as the rate and amplitude of the expansion. At strong coupling, particle production is inseparable from entropy production. As a result, we find significant qualitative differences from the weak coupling results: at strong coupling the system rapidly loses memory of its initial state as the amplitude is increased. Furthermore, in the regime where the Hubble parameter is parametrically smaller than the initial temperature, the dynamics is well modelled as a plasma evolving hydrodynamically towards equilibrium.

  18. Weak Galois and Weak Cocleft Coextensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.N. Alonso (A)lvarez; J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; A.B. Rodríguez Raposo

    2007-01-01

    For a weak entwining structure (A, C,ψ) living in a braided monoidal category with equalizers and coequalizers, we formulate the notion of weak A-Galois coextension with normal basis and we show that these Galois coextensions are equivalent to the weak A-cocleft coextensions introduced by the authors.

  19. Higgs couplings and electroweak observables: a comparison of precision tests

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Is the weak scale natural? This ever pending question makes the search for new particle production a highly motivated primary goal of the next LHC phase. These searches may or may not be successful. While waiting for a needed higher energy collider to extend the direct exploration, the search for signs of new physics might be confined to indirect tests for quite some time. In a few fully calculable models, weakly or semi-strongly interacting, we compare the significance to measure the Higgs couplings versus the electroweak observables.

  20. Plasma confinement system and methods for use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Sutherland, Derek

    2017-09-05

    A plasma confinement system is provided that includes a confinement chamber that includes one or more enclosures of respective helicity injectors. The one or more enclosures are coupled to ports at an outer radius of the confinement chamber. The system further includes one or more conductive coils aligned substantially parallel to the one or more enclosures and a further set of one or more conductive coils respectively surrounding portions of the one or more enclosures. Currents may be provided to the sets of conductive coils to energize a gas within the confinement chamber into a plasma. Further, a heat-exchange system is provided that includes an inner wall, an intermediate wall, an outer wall, and pipe sections configured to carry coolant through cavities formed by the walls.

  1. Electrofreezing of confined water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zangi, R; Mark, AE

    2004-01-01

    We report results from molecular dynamics simulations of the freezing transition of TIP5P water molecules confined between two parallel plates under the influence of a homogeneous external electric field, with magnitude of 5 V/nm, along the lateral direction. For water confined to a thickness of a

  2. Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplaine School District, AR.

    The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…

  3. Scattering resonances of ultracold atoms in confined geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidian, Shahpoor

    2008-06-18

    Subject of this thesis is the investigation of the quantum dynamics of ultracold atoms in confined geometries. We discuss the behavior of ground state atoms inside a 3D magnetic quadrupole field. Such atoms in enough weak magnetic fields can be approximately treated as neutral point-like particles. Complementary to the well-known positive energy resonances, we point out the existence of short-lived negative energy resonances. The latter originate from a fundamental symmetry of the underlying Hamiltonian. We drive a mapping of the two branches of the spectrum. Moreover, we analyze atomic hyperfine resonances in a magnetic quadrupole field. This corresponds to the case for which both the hyperfine and Zeeman interaction, are comparable, and should be taken into account. Finally, we develop a general grid method for multichannel scattering of two atoms in a two-dimensional harmonic confinement. With our approach we analyze transverse excitations/deexcitations in the course of the collisional process (distinguishable or identical atoms) including all important partial waves and their couplings due to the broken spherical symmetry. Special attention is paid to suggest a non-trivial extension of the CIRs theory developed so far only for the single-mode regime and zero-energy limit. (orig.)

  4. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  5. Searching target sites on DNA by proteins: Role of DNA dynamics under confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anupam; Bhattacherjee, Arnab

    2015-10-30

    DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) rapidly search and specifically bind to their target sites on genomic DNA in order to trigger many cellular regulatory processes. It has been suggested that the facilitation of search dynamics is achieved by combining 3D diffusion with one-dimensional sliding and hopping dynamics of interacting proteins. Although, recent studies have advanced the knowledge of molecular determinants that affect one-dimensional search efficiency, the role of DNA molecule is poorly understood. In this study, by using coarse-grained simulations, we propose that dynamics of DNA molecule and its degree of confinement due to cellular crowding concertedly regulate its groove geometry and modulate the inter-communication with DBPs. Under weak confinement, DNA dynamics promotes many short, rotation-decoupled sliding events interspersed by hopping dynamics. While this results in faster 1D diffusion, associated probability of missing targets by jumping over them increases. In contrast, strong confinement favours rotation-coupled sliding to locate targets but lacks structural flexibility to achieve desired specificity. By testing under physiological crowding, our study provides a plausible mechanism on how DNA molecule may help in maintaining an optimal balance between fast hopping and rotation-coupled sliding dynamics, to locate target sites rapidly and form specific complexes precisely. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Magnetic confinement fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grad, H

    1977-03-01

    Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion offers probably the only relatively clean energy solution with completely inexhaustible fuel and unlimited power capacity. The scientific and technological problem consists in magnetically confining a hot, dense plasma (pressure several to hundreds of atmospheres, temperature 10/sup 8/ degrees or more) for an appreciable fraction of a second. The scientific and mathematical problem is to describe the behavior, such as confinement, stability, flow, compression, heating, energy transfer and diffusion of this medium in the presence of electromagnetic fields just as we now can for air or steam. Some of the extant theory consists of applications, routine or ingenious, of known mathematical structures in the theory of differential equations and in traditional analysis. Other applications of known mathematical structures offer surprises and new insights: the coordination between sub-supersonic and elliptic-hyperbolic is fractured; supersonic propagation goes upstream; etc. Other completely nonstandard mathematical structures with significant theory are being rapidly uncovered (and somewhat less rapidly understood) such as non-elliptic variational equations and new types of weak solutions. It is these new mathematical structures which one should expect to supply the foundation for the next generation's pure mathematics, if history is a guide. Despite the substantial effort over a period of some twenty years, there are still basic and important scintific and mathematical discoveries to be made, lying just beneath the surface.

  7. The confining trailing string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Mazzanti, Liuba [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Nitti, Francesco [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France)

    2014-02-19

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  8. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  9. Time Scales, Coherency, and Weak Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    1979. 37. U. Di Caprio , R. Marconato, "Structural Coherency Conditions in Multimachine Power Systems," Presented at the 8th IFAC World Congress...1 1 M ici + Di W = Pm i-Pgi N P E v vB sin(6 -6) + v i1,2. ,n (3.2) gi j=l ij ij i iii j i N 2 P E v v B .sin(6i-6) + v.G i=n+l,. .. ,N (3.3)P.i j 1...is r Di E D . (4.10)ij=l ij j#i The total interconnection of the system is r D = iE D.. (4.11)q T i=1 i Assuming that the cos terms in k are

  10. Weakly coupled mean-field game systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-07-14

    Here, we prove the existence of solutions to first-order mean-field games (MFGs) arising in optimal switching. First, we use the penalization method to construct approximate solutions. Then, we prove uniform estimates for the penalized problem. Finally, by a limiting procedure, we obtain solutions to the MFG problem. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  11. The spectrum of weakly coupled map lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baladi, Viviane; Degli Esposti, Mirko; Isola, Stefano

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a way of framing the study of ‘noncommunicable diseases’ within the more general area of chronic conditions. Focusing on Africa, it takes as points of departure the situation in Uganda, and the approach to health issues developed by a group of European and African colleagues o...

  12. Motion of Confined Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David E

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical evaluations of the motion of classical particles in Minkowski Space $\\mathbb{M}^{4}$ which are confined to the inside of a bag. In particular, we analyze the structure of the paths evolving from the breaking of the dilatation symmetry, the conformal symmetry and the combination of both together. The confining forces arise directly from the corresponding nonconserved currents. We demonstrate in our evaluations that these particles under certain initial conditions move toward the interior of the bag.

  13. On Weak Regular *-semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.

  14. Confinement and String Breaking for QED2 in the Hamiltonian Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Boye; Haegeman, Jutho; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank; Van Acoleyen, Karel

    2016-10-01

    The formalism of matrix product states is used to perform a numerical study of (1 +1 )-dimensional QED—also known as the (massive) Schwinger model—in the presence of an external static "quark" and "antiquark". We obtain a detailed picture of the transition from the confining state at short interquark distances to the broken-string "hadronized" state at large distances, and this for a wide range of couplings, recovering the predicted behavior both in the weak- and strong-coupling limit of the continuum theory. In addition to the relevant local observables like charge and electric field, we compute the (bipartite) entanglement entropy and show that subtraction of its vacuum value results in a UV-finite quantity. We find that both string formation and string breaking leave a clear imprint on the resulting entropy profile. Finally, we also study the case of fractional probe charges, simulating for the first time the phenomenon of partial string breaking.

  15. Confinement and string breaking for QED$_2$ in the Hamiltonian picture

    CERN Document Server

    Buyens, Boye; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank; Van Acoleyen, Karel

    2015-01-01

    The formalism of matrix product states is used to perform a numerical study of 1+1 dimensional QED -- also known as the (massive) Schwinger model -- in the presence of an external static `quark' and `antiquark'. We obtain the large distance behavior of the interquark potential for different probe charges and this for a wide range of couplings, recovering the predicted behavior both in the weak and strong coupling limit of the continuum theory. Furthermore we give a detailed picture of the transition from the confining state at short interquark distances to the broken-string `hadronized' state at large distances. Finally, we also study this transition for fractional probe charges, simulating for the first time the phenomenon of partial string breaking.

  16. Coordinated Water Under Confinement Eases Sliding Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defante, Adrian; Dhopotkar, Nishad; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Water is essential to a number of interfacial phenomena such as the lubrication of knee joints, protein folding, mass transport, and adsorption processes. We have used a biaxial friction cell to quantify underwater friction between a hydrophobic elastomeric lens and a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer in the presence of surfactant solutions. To gain an understanding of the role of water in these processes we have coupled this measurement with surface sensitive sum frequency generation to directly probe the molecular constitution of the confined contact interface. We observe that role of confined coordinated water between two hydrophobic substrates covered with surfactants is the key to obtaining a low coefficient of friction.

  17. c b \\xAF spectrum and decay properties with coupled channel effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Antony Prakash; Bhat, Manjunath; Kumar, K. B. Vijaya

    2017-03-01

    The mass spectrum of c b ¯ states has been obtained using the phenomenological relativistic quark model (RQM) with coupled channel effects. The Hamiltonian used in the investigation has confinement potential and confined one gluon exchange potential (COGEP). In the frame work of the RQM, a study of magnetic dipole and electric dipole transitions and radiative decays of c b ¯ states has been made. The weak decay widths in the spectator quark approximation have been estimated. An overall agreement is obtained with the experimental masses and decay widths.

  18. $c\\bar{b}$ spectrum and decay properties with coupled channel effects

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Antony Prakash; Kumar, K B Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    The mass spectrum of $c\\bar{b}$ states has been obtained using the phenomenological relativistic quark model (RQM) with coupled channel effects. The Hamiltonian used in the investigation has confinement potential and confined one gluon exchange potential (COGEP). In the frame work of RQM a study of M1 and E1 radiative decays of $c\\bar{b}$ states has been made. The weak decay widths in the spectator quark approximation have been estimated. An overall agreement is obtained with the experimental masses and decay widths.

  19. Simulations of Enhanced Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorland, W.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Liu, Q. P.; Jones, C. S.; Beer, M. A.; Hammett, G. W.

    1996-11-01

    Most existing tokamaks routinely achieve enhanced confinement regimes. Designs for new, larger tokamaks therefore are typically predicated upon reliable enhanced confinement performance. However, most enhanced confinement regimes rely (to some degree) upon sheared E×B flows to stabilize the turbulence that otherwise limits the confinement. For example, the pedestal H-mode transport barrier is typically attributed to shear stabilization [Biglari, Diamond and Terry, Phys. Fl. B, 2 1 (1990)]. Unfortunately, it is easily shown that sheared E×B stabilization of microinstabilities such as the ITG mode does not scale favorably with machine size. Here, using nonlinear gyrofluid simulations in general geometry, we attempt to quantify the confinement enhancement that can be expected from velocity shear stabilization for conventional reactor plasmas. We also consider other microinstability stabilization mechanisms(See related presentations by Beer, Kotschenreuther, Manickam, and Ramos, this conference.) (strong density peaking, Shafranov shift stabilization, dots) and unconventional reactor configurations.^2 Experimental datasets from JET, DIII-D, C-Mod and TFTR are analyzed, and ITER operation is considered.

  20. Confined Brownian ratchets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Rubi, J Miguel

    2013-05-21

    We analyze the dynamics of Brownian ratchets in a confined environment. The motion of the particles is described by a Fick-Jakobs kinetic equation in which the presence of boundaries is modeled by means of an entropic potential. The cases of a flashing ratchet, a two-state model, and a ratchet under the influence of a temperature gradient are analyzed in detail. We show the emergence of a strong cooperativity between the inherent rectification of the ratchet mechanism and the entropic bias of the fluctuations caused by spatial confinement. Net particle transport may take place in situations where none of those mechanisms leads to rectification when acting individually. The combined rectification mechanisms may lead to bidirectional transport and to new routes to segregation phenomena. Confined Brownian ratchets could be used to control transport in mesostructures and to engineer new and more efficient devices for transport at the nanoscale.

  1. Biopolymer organization upon confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marenduzzo, D [SUPA, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Micheletti, C [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, CNR-INFM Democritos and Italian Institute of Technology, SISSA Unit via Bonomea, 265, Trieste (Italy); Orlandini, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Sezione INFN Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131, Padova (Italy)

    2010-07-21

    Biopolymers in vivo are typically subject to spatial restraints, either as a result of molecular crowding in the cellular medium or of direct spatial confinement. DNA in living organisms provides a prototypical example of a confined biopolymer. Confinement prompts a number of biophysics questions. For instance, how can the high level of packing be compatible with the necessity to access and process the genomic material? What mechanisms can be adopted in vivo to avoid the excessive geometrical and topological entanglement of dense phases of biopolymers? These and other fundamental questions have been addressed in recent years by both experimental and theoretical means. A review of the results, particularly of those obtained by numerical studies, is presented here. The review is mostly devoted to DNA packaging inside bacteriophages, which is the best studied example both experimentally and theoretically. Recent selected biophysical studies of the bacterial genome organization and of chromosome segregation in eukaryotes are also covered. (topical review)

  2. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...... of the weak value. We present compact expressions for the weak value of single qubit observables and of product observables on qubit pairs. Experimental studies of the results are suggested with cold trapped ions....

  3. Spin wave confinement

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    This book presents recent scientific achievements in the investigation of magnetization dynamics in confined magnetic systems. Introduced by Bloch as plane waves of magnetization in unconfined ferromagnets, spin waves currently play an important role in the description of very small magnetic systems ranging from microelements, which form the basis of magnetic sensors, to magnetic nano-contacts. The spin wave confinement effect was experimentally discovered in the 1990s in permalloy microstripes. The diversity of systems where this effect is observed has been steadily growing since then, and

  4. Order, Disorder and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, M; Pica, C

    2006-01-01

    Studying the order of the chiral transition for $N_f=2$ is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of color confinement. We present results of a numerical investigation on the order of the transition by use of a novel strategy in finite size scaling analysis. The specific heat and a number of susceptibilities are compared with the possible critical behaviours. A second order transition in the O(4) and O(2) universality classes are excluded. Substantial evidence emerges for a first order transition. Results are in agreement with those found by studying the scaling properties of a disorder parameter related to the dual superconductivity mechanism of color confinement.

  5. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  6. Quantum Chromodynamics and Color Confinement (confinement 2000) - Proceedings of the International Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, H.; Fukushima, M.; Toki, H.

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Opening Address * Monopole Condensation and Quark Confinement * Dual QCD, Effective String Theory, and Regge Trajectories * Abelian Dominance and Monopole Condensation * Non-Abelian Stokes Theorem and Quark Confinement in QCD * Infrared Region of QCD and Confining Configurations * BRS Quartet Mechanism for Color Confinement * Color Confinement and Quartet Mechanism * Numerical Tests of the Kugo-Ojima Color Confinement Criterion * Monopoles and Confinement in Lattice QCD * SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory at T > 0 in a Finite Box with Fixed Holonomy * Confining and Dirac Strings in Gluodynamics * Cooling, Monopoles, and Vortices in SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory * Quark Confinement Physics from Lattice QCD * An (Almost) Perfect Lattice Action for SU(2) and SU(3) Gluodynamics * Vortices and Confinement in Lattice QCD * P-Vortices, Nexuses and Effects of Gribov Copies in the Center Gauges * Laplacian Center Vortices * Center Vortices at Strong Couplings and All Couplings * Simulations in SO(3) × Z(2) Lattice Gauge Theory * Exciting a Vortex - the Cost of Confinement * Instantons in QCD * Deformation of Instanton in External Color Fields * Field Strength Correlators in the Instanton Liquid * Instanton and Meron Physics in Lattice QCD * The Dual Ginzburg-Landau Theory for Confinement and the Role of Instantons * Lattice QCD for Quarks, Gluons and Hadrons * Hadronic Spectral Functions in QCD * Universality and Chaos in Quantum Field Theories * Lattice QCD Study of Three Quark Potential * Probing the QCD Vacuum with Flavour Singlet Objects : η' on the Lattice * Lattice Studies of Quarks and Gluons * Quarks and Hadrons in QCD * Supersymmetric Nonlinear Sigma Models * Chiral Transition and Baryon-number Susceptibility * Light Quark Masses in QCD * Chiral Symmetry of Baryons and Baryon Resonances * Confinement and Bound States in QCD * Parallel Session * Off-diagonal Gluon Mass Generation and Strong Randomness of Off

  7. The characteristics of confined ablation in laser propulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhi-Yuan; Zhang Jie; Hao Zuo-Qiang; Yuan Xiao-Hui; Zhang Zhe; Lu Xin; Wang Zhao-Hua; Wei Zhi-Yi

    2006-01-01

    Compared with direct ablation, confined ablation provides an effective way to obtain a large target momentum and a high coupling coefficient. By using a transparent glass layer to cover the target surface, the coupling coefficient is enhanced by an order of magnitude. With the increase of the gap width between the target surface and the cover layer, the coupling coefficient exponentially decreases. It is found that the coupling coefficient is also related to the thickness of the cover layer.

  8. GENERALIZED WEAK FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁夏畦; 罗佩珠

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.

  9. Exceptional Confinement in G(2) Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, K; Pepé, M; Wiese, U J

    2003-01-01

    We study theories with the exceptional gauge group G(2). The 14 adjoint "gluons" of a G(2) gauge theory transform as {3}, {3bar} and {8} under the subgroup SU(3), and hence have the color quantum numbers of ordinary quarks, anti-quarks and gluons in QCD. Since G(2) has a trivial center, a "quark" in the {7} representation of G(2) can be screened by "gluons". As a result, in G(2) Yang-Mills theory the string between a pair of static "quarks" can break. In G(2) QCD there is a hybrid consisting of one "quark" and three "gluons". In supersymmetric G(2) Yang-Mills theory with a {14} Majorana "gluino" the chiral symmetry is Z(4)_\\chi. Chiral symmetry breaking gives rise to distinct confined phases separated by confined-confined domain walls. A scalar Higgs field in the {7} representation breaks G(2) to SU(3) and allows us to interpolate between theories with exceptional and ordinary confinement. We also present strong coupling lattice calculations that reveal basic features of G(2) confinement. Just as in QCD, wher...

  10. Confinement for More Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnusu, Wycliffe K.; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kossack, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy are employed to study the molecular dynamics and effective free volume of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in the bulk state and when confined in unidirectional nanopores with average diameters of 4, 6, and 8 nm. Enhanced α...

  11. Fractional statistics and confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, P; Gaete, Patricio; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that a pointlike composite having charge and magnetic moment displays a confining potential for the static interaction while simultaneously obeying fractional statistics in a pure gauge theory in three dimensions, without a Chern-Simons term. This result is distinct from the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory that shows a screening nature for the potential.

  12. Confinement from Merons

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F; Thies, M

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that an effective theory with meron degrees of freedom produces confinement in SU(2) Yang Mills theory. This effective theory is compatible with center symmetry. When the scale is set by the string tension, the action density and topological susceptibility are similar to those arising in lattice QCD.

  13. Weak interactions and photoinitiated unimolecular decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylichenko, K.; Wittig, C.

    1998-04-01

    Numerical studies have been carried out to examine the applicability of the density of states measured just below dissociation threshold to transition state rate theory. The model system consists of two weakly interacting manifolds of levels, one of which is optically accessible. Both manifolds are coupled to dissociative continua. These studies demonstrate that immediately above reaction threshold, coupling to continua is relatively slow on the time scale of inter-manifold coupling, and it is the mixed manifolds which decay. At higher energies, couplings to continua exceed inter-manifold couplings, and it is the photoexcited bright states which undergo unimolecular decomposition.

  14. Direct determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid, in fruits and vegetables by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Xue; Cao, Zhao-Yun; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Zhi-Wei

    2013-01-11

    A novel method was developed for the direct, sensitive, and rapid determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in fruit and vegetable samples by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography (HILIC/WAX) coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Homogenized samples were extracted with water, without derivatization or further clean-up, and the extracts were injected directly onto the Asahipak NH2P-50 4E column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). The best results were obtained when the column was operated under mixed-mode HILIC/WAX elution conditions. An initial 10-min washing step with acetonitrile/water (10:90, v/v) in HILIC mode was used to remove potentially interfering compounds, and then the analytes were eluted in WAX mode with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1 molL(-1) ammonium hydroxide under gradient elution for the ESI analysis in negative ion mode. Limits of quantification of glyphosate and AMPA were 5 μgkg(-1) and 50 μgkg(-1), respectively, with limits of detection as low as 1.2 μgkg(-1) for glyphosate and 15 μgkg(-1) for AMPA. The linearity was satisfactory, with correlation coefficients (r)>0.9966. Recovery studies were carried out on spiked matrices (6 vegetables, 3 fruits) with glyphosate at four concentrations and AMPA at three concentrations. The mean recoveries for glyphosate and AMPA were 75.3-110% and 76.1-110%, respectively, with relative standard deviations in the range of 1.1-13.8%. The intra-day precision (n=7) for glyphosate and AMPA in vegetable and fruit samples spiked at an intermediate level between 5.9% and 7.5%, and the inter-day precision over 11 days (n=11) was between 7.0% and 13%.

  15. Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsiara Estanislau Maffei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A reatividade é definida como a reação do animal quando contido num ambiente de contenção móvel. Ela é quantificada por meio do teste de reatividade animal em ambiente de contenção móvel - REATEST®. Este teste consiste num dispositivo eletrônico acoplado à balança e num software específico. O dispositivo capta a movimentação que o animal provoca na balança, durante 20 segundos e a envia para o software que a processa determinando a reatividade do animal numa escala contínua de pontos. Pontuações maiores são de animais mais reativos (mais agressivo. A reatividade foi criada com os objetivos de solucionar os problemas até então existentes na seleção para temperamento e de permitir estimação de parâmetros genéticos mais confiáveis. Ela é uma característica objetiva que tem grande variabilidade fenotípica e é de quantificação rápida, fácil e segura, além de poder ser quantificada em qualquer tipo de balança, o que permite maior aplicabilidade. Ela não interfere nas práticas de manejo das fazendas porque é quantificada no momento da pesagem dos animais. Sua herdabilidade na raça Nelore é de 0,39 ao ano e 0,23 ao sobreano e suas correlações genéticas com ganho de peso diário são de -0,28 do nascimento até desmama e de -0,49 do desmame até ano. Já suas correlações genéticas com desenvolvimento do perímetro escrotal do ano ao sobreano variam de -0,25 e -0,41.The confinement reactivity (CR has been used as a measure of temperament in Brazil and it is defined as the animal reaction when contained in the scale. It is quantified through the animal reactivity test - REATEST®. This test consists of an electronic device coupled to the scale and of specific software. The device captures the movement that the animal provokes in the scale, during 20 seconds and sends it for the software that processes this movement and determines the animal CR in a continuous scale of points. Higher punctuations belong to

  16. Comparison of hybrid and baseline ELMy H-mode confinement in JET with the carbon wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurskens, M. N. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Challis, C.; Osborne, T.; Snyder, P. B.; Alper, B.; Angioni, C.; Bourdelle, C.; Buratti, P.; Crisanti, F.; Giovannozzi, E.; Giroud, C.; Groebner, R.; Hobirk, J.; Jenkins, I.; Joffrin, E.; Leyland, M. J.; Lomas, P.; Mantica, P.; McDonald, D.; Nunes, I.; Rimini, F.; Saarelma, S.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; de Vries, P.; Zarzoso, D.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-01-01

    The confinement in JET baseline type I ELMy H-mode plasmas is compared to that in so-called hybrid H-modes in a database study of 112 plasmas in JET with the carbon fibre composite (CFC) wall. The baseline plasmas typically have βN ˜ 1.5-2, H98 ˜ 1, whereas the hybrid plasmas have βN ˜ 2.5-3, H98 contains both low- (δ ˜ 0.2-0.25) and high-triangularity (δ ˜ 0.4) hybrid and baseline H-mode plasmas from the last JET operational campaigns in the CFC wall from the period 2008-2009. Based on a detailed confinement study of the global as well as the pedestal and core confinement, there is no evidence that the hybrid and baseline plasmas form separate confinement groups; it emerges that the transition between the two scenarios is of a gradual kind rather than demonstrating a bifurcation in the confinement. The elevated confinement enhancement factor H98 in the hybrid plasmas may possibly be explained by the density dependence in the τ98 scaling as n0.41 and the fact that the hybrid plasmas operate at low plasma density compared to the baseline ELMy H-mode plasmas. A separate regression on the confinement data in this study shows a reduction in the density dependence as n0.09±0.08. Furthermore, inclusion of the plasma toroidal rotation in the confinement regression provides a scaling with the toroidal Alfvén Mach number as Mach_A^{0.41+/- 0.07} and again a reduced density dependence as n0.15±0.08. The differences in pedestal confinement can be explained on the basis of linear MHD stability through a coupling of the total and pedestal poloidal pressure and the pedestal performance can be improved through plasma shaping as well as high β operation. This has been confirmed in a comparison with the EPED1 predictive pedestal code which shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured pedestal pressure within 20-30% for a wide range of βN ˜ 1.5-3.5. The core profiles show a strong degree of pressure profile consistency. No beneficial effect of core

  17. Totally confined explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  18. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  19. Confining gauge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F

    2009-01-01

    By superposition of regular gauge instantons or merons, ensembles of gauge fields are constructed which describe the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Various properties of the Wilson loops, the gluon condensate and the topological susceptibility are found to be in qualitative agreement with phenomenology or results of lattice calculations. Limitations in the application to the glueball spectrum and small size Wilson loops are discussed.

  20. DNA Confined in Nanochannels and Nanoslits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Douglas R.

    It has become increasingly apparent in recent years that next-generation sequencing (NGS) has a blind spot for large scale genomic variation, which is crucial for understanding the genotype-phenotype relationship. Genomic mapping methods attempt to overcome the weakesses of NGS by providing a coarse-grained map of the distances between restriction sites to aid in sequence assembly. From such methods, one hopes to realize fast and inexpensive de novo sequencing of human and plant genomes. One of the most promising methods for genomic mapping involves placing DNA inside a device only a few dozen nanometers wide called a nanochannel. A nanochannel stretches the DNA so that the distance between fluorescently labeled restriction sites can be measured en route to obtaining an accurate genome map. Unfortunately for those who wish to design devices, the physics of how DNA stretches when confined in a nanochannel is still an active area of research. Indeed, despite decades old theories from polymer physics regarding weakly and strongly stretched polymers, seminal experiments in the mid-2000s have gone unexplained until very recently. With a goal of creating a realistic engineering model of DNA in nanochannels, this dissertation addresses a number of important outstanding research topics in this area. We first discuss the physics of dilute solutions of DNA in free solution, which show distinctive behavior due to the stiff nature of the polymer. We then turn our attention to the equilibrium regimes of confined DNA and explore the effects of stiff chains and weak excluded volume on the confinement free energy and polymer extension. We also examine dynamic properties such as the diffusion coefficient and the characteristic relaxation time. Finally, we discuss a sister problem related to DNA confined in nanoslits, which shares much of the same physics as DNA confined in channels. Having done this, we find ourselves with a well-parameterized wormlike chain model that is

  1. On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING

    2011-01-01

    A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 (←→) aα(b) = 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.

  2. Neutrino energy transport in weak decoupling and big bang nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Grohs, E; Kishimoto, C T; Paris, M W; Vlasenko, A

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multi-energy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. Such an approach allows a detailed accounting of the evolution of the $\

  3. Study on Variable SCale Weak Signal DeteCtion Method Based on Two Coupled ChaotiC OsCillator%基于双耦合混沌振子变尺度微弱信号检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时培明; 孙彦龙; 韩东颖

    2016-01-01

    以双耦合 Duffing 混沌振子为研究对象,提出了一种基于双耦合 Duffing 混沌振子与变尺度相结合的微弱信号检测新方法。分析了双耦合 Duffing 混沌振子检测微弱周期信号的原理。利用变尺度方法,克服了 Duffing振子检测微弱周期信号受频率限制的缺陷。通过双耦合 Duffing 混沌振子系统与单 Duffing 混沌振子系统进行比较,表明双耦合 Duffing 混沌振子系统具有明显的优越性。该方法用于检测任意多频微弱信号具有明显优势。%With two coupled Duffing oscillator as the research object,a new method of weak signal detection is proposed based on two coupled Duffing oscillator and variable scale. The detect principle of weak periodic signal based on two coupled Duffing oscillator is analyzed. With the variable scale method,the defect of the Duffing oscillator to detect weak periodic signal by frequency limit is overcomed . Through the comparison of two coupled Duffing oscillator system with single Duffing oscillator system,the advantages of the two coupled Duffing oscillator system are shown. The method used to detect multi-frequency weak signal has obvious advantages.

  4. Hydrogenic Donor in a Spherical Quantum Dot with Different Confinements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. John Peter; K. Navaneethakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Binding energies of a hydrogenic donor in a spherical GaAs quantum dot surrounded by Ga1-xAlxAs matrix are calculated. The results are presented for realistic barrier heights corresponding to different values of x (x < 0.4). The calculations are performed under two different conditions: (i) a spherical dot with square well confinement and (ii) a dot with parabolic potential well confinement. The results show that (i) the donor ionization energies are always higher under parabolic confinement as compared to a dot of the same radius under square well confinement and (ii) the oscillator strengths coupling ground state with excited states are two orders larger under parabolic confinement. Our results are in agreement with the results of other researchers.

  5. Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997

  6. Weak values obtained from mass-energy equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao

    2017-01-01

    Quantum weak measurement, measuring some observable quantities within the selected subensemble of the entire quantum ensemble, can produce many interesting results such as the superluminal phenomena. An outcome of such a measurement is the weak value which has been applied to amplify some weak signals of quantum interactions in lots of previous references. Here, we apply the weak measurement to the system of relativistic cold atoms. According to mass-energy equivalence, the internal energy of an atom will contribute its rest mass and consequently the external momentum of center of mass. This implies a weak coupling between the internal and external degrees of freedom of atoms moving in the free space. After a duration of this coupling, a weak value can be obtained by post-selecting an internal state of atoms. We show that the weak value can change the momentum uncertainty of atoms and consequently help us to experimentally measure the weak effects arising from mass-energy equivalence.

  7. Confinement studies in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Boody, F.; Boyd, D.; Bretz, N.; Bush, C.E.

    1985-06-01

    The paper describes the present (end of February 1985) status of the plasma confinement studies in the TFTR tokamak with emphasis on those with neutral beam injection (NBI). Recent improvements in the device capabilities have substantially extended operating parameters: B/sub T/ increased to 4.0 T, I/sub p/ to 2.0 MA, injection power (P/sub b/) to 5 MW with H/sup 0/ or D/sup 0/ beams anti n/sub e/ to 5 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/, and Z/sub eff/ reduced to 1.4. With ohmic heating (OH) alone, the previously established scaling for gross energy confinement time (tau/sub E/ = anti n/sub e/q) has been confirmed at higher I/sub p/ and B/sub T/, and the maximum tau/sub E/ of 0.4 sec has been achieved. With NBI at P/sub b/ substantially (by factor >2) higher than P/sub OH/, excellent power and particle accountability have been established. This suggests that the less-than-expected increase in stored energy with NBI is not due to problems of power delivery, but due to problems of confinement deterioration. tau/sub E/ is observed to scale approximately as I/sub p/ P/sub b//sup -0.5/ (independent of anti n/sub e/), consistent with previous L-mode scalings. With NBI we have achieved the maximum tau/sub E/ of 0.2 sec and the maximum T/sub i/(o) of 4.4 keV in the normal operating regime, and even higher T/sub i/(o) in the energetic-ion regime with low-n/sub e/ and low-I/sub p/ operation.

  8. Working under confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Rubi, J Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a Brownian ratchet in the presence of geometrical constraints. A two-state model that describes the kinetics of molecular motors is used to characterize the energetic cost when the motor proceeds under confinement, in the presence of an external force. We show that the presence of geometrical constraints has a strong effect on the performance of the motor. In particular, we show that it is possible to enhance the ratchet performance by a proper tuning of the parameters characterizing the environment. These results open the possibility of engineering entropically-optimized transport devices.

  9. Hadrosynthesis and Quark Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satz Helmut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multihadron production in high energy collisions, from e+e− annihilation to heavy ion interactions, shows remarkable thermal behaviour, specified by a universal “Hagedorn” temperature. We argue that this hadronic radiation is formed by tunnelling through the event horizon of colour confinement, i.e., that it is the QCD counterpart of Hawking-Unruh radiation from black holes. It is shown to be emitted at a universal temperature TH ≃ (σ/2π1/2, where σ denotes the string tension. Since the event horizon does not allow information transfer, the radiation is thermal “at birth”.

  10. Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas

    1999-08-01

    A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.

  11. Confinement Contains Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  12. Simulating Entanglement Dynamics of Singlet-Triplet Qubits Coupled to a Classical Transmission Line Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael; Kestner, Jason

    Electrons confined in lateral quantum dots are promising candidates for scalable quantum bits. Particularly, singlet-triplet qubits can entangle electrostatically and offer long coherence times due to their weak interactions with the environment. However, fast two-qubit operations are challenging. We examine the dynamics of singlet triplet qubits capacitively coupled to a classical transmission line resonator driven near resonance. We numerically simulate the dynamics of the von Neumann entanglement entropy and investigate parameters of the coupling element that optimizes the operation time for the qubit.

  13. Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  14. Weakly asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of "weakly asymptotically hyperbolic" geometries whose sectional curvatures tend to $-1$ and are $C^0$, but are not necessarily $C^1$, conformally compact. We subsequently investigate the rate at which curvature invariants decay at infinity, identifying a conformally invariant tensor which serves as an obstruction to "higher order decay" of the Riemann curvature operator. Finally, we establish Fredholm results for geometric elliptic operators, extending the work of Rafe Mazzeo and John M. Lee to this setting. As an application, we show that any weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric is conformally related to a weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric of constant negative curvature.

  15. Confinement of antihydrogen for 1000 seconds

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kemp, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2011-01-01

    Atoms made of a particle and an antiparticle are unstable, usually surviving less than a microsecond. Antihydrogen, made entirely of antiparticles, is believed to be stable, and it is this longevity that holds the promise of precision studies of matter-antimatter symmetry. We have recently demonstrated trapping of antihydrogen atoms by releasing them after a confinement time of 172 ms. A critical question for future studies is: how long can anti-atoms be trapped? Here we report the observation of anti-atom confinement for 1000 s, extending our earlier results by nearly four orders of magnitude. Our calculations indicate that most of the trapped anti-atoms reach the ground state. Further, we report the first measurement of the energy distribution of trapped antihydrogen which, coupled with detailed comparisons with simulations, provides a key tool for the systematic investigation of trapping dynamics. These advances open up a range of experimental possibilities, including precision studies of CPT symmetry and ...

  16. Strange Weak Values

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Akio

    2010-01-01

    We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.

  17. Deforming baryons into confining strings

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, S A; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Portugues, Ruben

    2004-01-01

    We find explicit probe D3-brane solutions in the infrared of the Maldacena-Nunez background. The solutions describe deformed baryon vertices: q external quarks are separated in spacetime from the remaining N-q. As the separation is taken to infinity we recover known solutions describing infinite confining strings in ${\\mathcal{N}}=1$ gauge theory. We present results for the mass of finite confining strings as a function of length. We also find probe D2-brane solutions in a confining type IIA geometry, the reduction of a G_2 holonomy M theory background. The interpretation of these solutions as deformed baryons/confining strings is not as straightforward.

  18. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable

  19. Hole weak anti-localization in a strained-Ge surface quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokuchi, R.; Torresani, P.; Maurand, R.; Zeng, Z.; Niquet, Y.-M.; Myronov, M.; De Franceschi, S.

    2017-08-01

    We report a magneto-transport study of a two-dimensional hole gas confined to a strained Ge quantum well grown on a relaxed Si0.2Ge0.8 virtual substrate. The conductivity of the hole gas measured as a function of a perpendicular magnetic field exhibits a zero-field peak resulting from weak anti-localization. The peak develops and becomes stronger upon increasing the hole density by means of a top gate electrode. This behavior is consistent with a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling whose strength is proportional to the perpendicular electric field and hence to the carrier density. In the low-density, the single-subband regime, by fitting the weak anti-localization peak to an analytic model, we extract the characteristic transport time scales and a spin splitting energy ΔSO˜ 1 meV. Tight-binding calculations show that ΔSO is dominated by a cubic term in the in-plane wave vector. Finally, we observe a weak anti-localization peak also for magnetic fields parallel to the quantum well and associate this finding to an effect of intersubband scattering induced by interface defects.

  20. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  1. Acoustic Focusing and Energy Confinement Based on Multilateral Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2017-05-01

    Metamaterial-based acoustic wave manipulation shows great potential in effective acoustic energy confinement and low-frequency acoustic isolation. We numerically and theoretically propose here a concept based on multilateral metasurfaces for reflected acoustic focusing and energy confinement. The theoretical phase-shift profile required for reflected wave focusing and governed by the generalized Snell's law can be discretely realized by appropriately arraying the labyrinthine units in the right sequences. Based on this design, multilateral metasurfaces for acoustic wave focusing and energy confinement under point-source incidence are considered and sufficiently investigated. The coupling effects and multiple reflections between or among metasurfaces, which play a significant role in the energy confinement, are initially analyzed and discussed. We show that the acoustic focusing and confinement increase with the sides of the multilateral metasurfaces as anticipated. In addition to the contribution of the first reflection, multiple reflections also contribute to the acoustic focusing and energy confinement, especially when the metasurfaces are configured in parallel. The proposed multilateral metasurfaces should have excellent performance in acoustic energy confinement in various situations due to the variable designs and strong acoustic focusing capabilities.

  2. Unconventional Bose-Einstein Condensations from Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiang-Fa; WU Cong-Jun; Ian Mondragon-Shem

    2011-01-01

    According to the "no-node" theorem, the many-body ground state wavefunctions of conventional Bose-Einstein condensations (BEC) are positive-definite, thus time-reversal symmetry cannot be spontaneously broken. We find that multi-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling provide an unconventional type of BECs beyond this paradigm. We focus on a subtle case ofisotropic Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the spin-independent interaction. In the limit of the weak confining potential, the condensate wavefunctions are frustrated at the Hartree-Fock level due to the degeneracy of the Rashba ring. Quantum zero-point energy selects the spin-spiral type condensate through the "order-from-disorder" mechanism. In a strong harmonic confining trap, the condensate spontaneously generates a half-quantum vortex combined with the skyrmion type of spin texture. In both cases, time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. These phenomena can be realized in both cold atom systems with artificial spin-orbit couplings generated from atom-laser interactions and exciton condensates in semi-conductor systems.%@@ According to the"no-node"theorem,the many-body ground state wavefunctions of conventional Bose-Einstein condensations(BEC)are positive-definite,thus time-reversal symmetry cannot be spontaneously broken.We find that multi-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling provide an unconventional type of BECs beyond this paradigm.We focus on a subtle case of isotropic Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the spin-independent interaction.In the limit of the weak confining potential,the condensate wavefunctions are frustrated at the Hartree-Fork level due to the degeneracy of the Rashba ring.Quantum zero-point energy selects the spin-spiral type condensate through the"order-from-disorder"mechanism.In a strong harmonic confining trap,the condensate spontaneously generates a half-quantum vortex combined with the skyrmion type of spin texture.In both cases,time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken

  3. Confined-but-Connected Quantum Solids via Controlled Ligand Displacement

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.

    2013-07-10

    Confined-but-connected quantum dot solids (QDS) combine the advantages of tunable, quantum-confined energy levels with efficient charge transport through enhanced electronic interdot coupling. We report the fabrication of QDS by treating self-assembled films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots with polar nonsolvents. Treatment with dimethylformamide balances the rates of self-assembly and ligand displacement to yield confined-but-connected QDS structures with cubic ordering and quasi-epitaxial interdot connections through facets of neighboring dots. The QDS structure was analyzed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering. Excitonic absorption signatures in optical spectroscopy confirm that quantum confinement is preserved. Transport measurements show significantly enhanced conductivity in treated films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Confined helium on Lagrange meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Baye, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than $10^{-10}$. For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to $10^{-3}$, still improving the best literature results.

  5. Theoretical study on constitutive relationship of fiber reinforced polymer confined concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-wen; ZHANG Jun-ping; SUN Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    We proposed a bilinearity constitutive curve model of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined concrete which includes a parabola in the fast stage and a straight line in the second stage. The FRP-confmed concrete has powerful confinement status and weak confinement status leading to different equations of parabola. We analyzed the impacts of factors such as confinement ratio and restrain stiffness on confined concrete compressive strength, ultimate strain and other control parameters through finite element analysis. The results show that the confinement ratio determines the confinement status, and the increase of the confinement ratio has a limited capacity to increase the compressive strength. The deformation of confmed concrete is influenced by restrain stiffness. The stronger the restrain stiffness is, the less the lateral deformation is and the greater ultimate axial swain will be. The consideration of equivalent section coefficient k is needed in the non-circular section confmed concrete. We analyzed the results and proposed boundary values of strong and weak confinement styles, a peak/inflection point stress and swain model, and a compressive strength and ultimate strain model.

  6. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  7. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.

  8. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  9. The weak measurement process and the weak value of spin for metastable helium 23S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monachello, Vincenzo; Barker, Peter; Flack, Robert; Hiley, Basil

    2016-05-01

    An experiment is being designed and constructed in order to measure the weak value of spin for an atomic system. The principle of the ``weak measurement'' process was first proposed by Aharonov, Albert and Vaidman, and describes a scenario in which a system is weakly coupled to a pointer between well-defined pre- and post-selected states. This experiment will utilise a pulsed supersonic beam of spin-1 metastable Helium (He*) atoms in the 23S1 state. The spin of the pre-selected He* atoms will be weakly coupled to its centre-of-mass. During its flight, the atomic beam will be prepared in a desired quantum state and travel through two inhomogeneous magnets (weak and strong) which both comprise the ``weak measurement'' process. The deviation of the post-selected ms = + 1 state as measured using a micro-channel plate, phosphor screen and CCD camera setup will allow for the determination of the weak value of spin. This poster will report on the methods used and the experimental realisation.

  10. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  11. Mobility in geometrically confined membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanov, Yegor A; Aimon, Sophie; Toombes, Gilman E S; Renner, Marianne; Quemeneur, François; Triller, Antoine; Turner, Matthew S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2011-08-02

    Lipid and protein lateral mobility is essential for biological function. Our theoretical understanding of this mobility can be traced to the seminal work of Saffman and Delbrück, who predicted a logarithmic dependence of the protein diffusion coefficient (i) on the inverse of the size of the protein and (ii) on the "membrane size" for membranes of finite size [Saffman P, Delbrück M (1975) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:3111-3113]. Although the experimental proof of the first prediction is a matter of debate, the second has not previously been thought to be experimentally accessible. Here, we construct just such a geometrically confined membrane by forming lipid bilayer nanotubes of controlled radii connected to giant liposomes. We followed the diffusion of individual molecules in the tubular membrane using single particle tracking of quantum dots coupled to lipids or voltage-gated potassium channels KvAP, while changing the membrane tube radius from approximately 250 to 10 nm. We found that both lipid and protein diffusion was slower in tubular membranes with smaller radii. The protein diffusion coefficient decreased as much as 5-fold compared to diffusion on the effectively flat membrane of the giant liposomes. Both lipid and protein diffusion data are consistent with the predictions of a hydrodynamic theory that extends the work of Saffman and Delbrück to cylindrical geometries. This study therefore provides strong experimental support for the ubiquitous Saffman-Delbrück theory and elucidates the role of membrane geometry and size in regulating lateral diffusion.

  12. Equilibrium partitioning of macromolecules in confining geometries: Improved universality with a new molecular size parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanwei; Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2008-01-01

    We present a new framework for the description of macromolecules subject to confining geometries. The two main ingredients are a new computational method and the definition of a new molecular size parameter. The computational method, hereafter referred to the confinement analysis from bulk...... structures (CABS), allows the computation of equilibrium partition coefficients as a function of confinement size solely based on a single sampling of the configuration space of a macromolecule in bulk. Superior in computational speed to previous computational methods, CABS is capable of handling slits...... parameter for characterization of spatial confinement effects on macromolecules. Results for the equilibrium partition coefficient in the weak confinement regime depend only on the ratio ofR-s to the confinement size regardless of molecular details....

  13. 5s correlation confinement resonances in Xe-endo-fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmatov, V K

    2011-01-01

    Spectacular trends in the modification of the Xe 5s photoionization via interchannel coupling with confinement resonances emerging in the Xe 4d giant resonance upon photoionization of the Xe@C60, Xe@C240 and Xe@C60@C240 endo-fullerenes are theoretically unraveled and interpreted.

  14. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  15. Bacterial swarmer cells in confinement: A mesoscale hydrodynamic simulation study

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenstecken, Thomas; Winkler, Roland G

    2016-01-01

    A wide spectrum of Peritrichous bacteria undergo considerable physiological changes when they are inoculated onto nutrition-rich surfaces and exhibit a rapid and collective migration denoted as swarming. Thereby, the length of such swarmer cells and their number of flagella increases substantially. In this article, we investigated the properties of individual E. coli-type swarmer cells confined between two parallel walls via mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations, combining molecular dynamics simulations of the swarmer cell with the multiparticle particle collision dynamics approach for the embedding fluid. E. coli-type swarmer cells are three-times longer than their planktonic counter parts, but their flagella density is comparable. By varying the wall separation, we analyze the confinement effect on the flagella arrangement, on the distribution of cells in the gap between the walls, and on the cell dynamics. We find only a weak dependence of confinement on the bundle structure and dynamics. The distribution of ...

  16. Effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the electronic, thermodynamic, magnetic and transport properties of GaAs, InAs and InSb quantum dots with Gaussian confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Aalu; Boyacioglu, Bahadir; Erkaslan, Ugur; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    The effect of Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the electronic, thermodynamic, magnetic and transport properties of a one-electron Gaussian quantum dot is investigated in the presence of a magnetic field and its interaction with the electron spin using the canonical ensemble approach. The temperature-dependent energy, magnetization, susceptibility, specific heat and the persistent current are calculated as a function of the spin-orbit coupling parameter. The results are applied to GaAs, InAs and InSb quantum dots.

  17. Effect of Rashba spin–orbit coupling on the electronic, thermodynamic, magnetic and transport properties of GaAs, InAs and InSb quantum dots with Gaussian confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda, Aalu [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Boyacioglu, Bahadir [Vocational School of Health Services, University of Ankara, 06290 Ankara (Turkey); Erkaslan, Ugur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, 48170 Kotekli-Mugla (Turkey); Chatterjee, Ashok, E-mail: acsp@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2016-10-01

    The effect of Rashba spin–orbit interaction on the electronic, thermodynamic, magnetic and transport properties of a one-electron Gaussian quantum dot is investigated in the presence of a magnetic field and its interaction with the electron spin using the canonical ensemble approach. The temperature-dependent energy, magnetization, susceptibility, specific heat and the persistent current are calculated as a function of the spin–orbit coupling parameter. The results are applied to GaAs, InAs and InSb quantum dots.

  18. Glass transition and relaxation dynamics of propylene glycol-water solutions confined in clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Khalid; Björklund, Jimmy; Nyhlén, Fredrik; Yttergren, Madeleine; Mârtensson, Lena; Swenson, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The molecular dynamics of aqueous solutions of propylene glycol (PG) and propylene glycol methylether (PGME) confined in a two-dimensional layer-structured Na-vermiculite clay has been studied by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. As typical for liquids in confined geometries the intensity of the cooperative α-relaxation becomes considerably more suppressed than the more local β-like relaxation processes. In fact, at high water contents the calorimetric glass transition and related structural α-relaxation cannot even be observed, due to the confinement. Thus, the intensity of the viscosity related α-relaxation is dramatically reduced, but its time scale as well as the related glass transition temperature Tg are for both systems only weakly influenced by the confinement. In the case of the PGME-water solutions it is an important finding since in the corresponding bulk system a pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependence of the glass transition related dynamics has been observed due to the growth of hydrogen bonded relaxing entities of water bridging between PGME molecules [J. Sjöström, J. Mattsson, R. Bergman, and J. Swenson, Phys. Chem. B 115, 10013 (2011)]. The present results suggest that the same type of structural entities are formed in the quasi-two-dimensional space between the clay platelets. It is also observed that the main water relaxation cannot be distinguished from the β-relaxation of PG or PGME in the concentration range up to intermediate water contents. This suggests that these two processes are coupled and that the water molecules affect the time scale of the β-relaxation. However, this is most likely true also for the corresponding bulk solutions, which exhibit similar time scales of this combined relaxation process below Tg. Finally, it is found that at higher water contents the water relaxation does not merge with, or follow, the α-relaxation above Tg, but instead crosses the

  19. Compressive wavefront sensing with weak values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Howell, John C

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate a wavefront sensor that unites weak measurement and the compressive-sensing, single-pixel camera. Using a high-resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) as a variable waveplate, we weakly couple an optical field's transverse-position and polarization degrees of freedom. By placing random, binary patterns on the SLM, polarization serves as a meter for directly measuring random projections of the wavefront's real and imaginary components. Compressive-sensing optimization techniques can then recover the wavefront. We acquire high quality, 256 × 256 pixel images of the wavefront from only 10,000 projections. Photon-counting detectors give sub-picowatt sensitivity.

  20. Monopole-Based Scenarios of Confinement and Deconfinement in 3D and 4D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Antonov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses confinement, as well as the topological and critical phenomena, in the gauge theories which provide the condensation of magnetic monopoles. These theories include the 3D SU(N Georgi-Glashow model, the 4D [U(1] N - 1 -invariant compact QED , and the [U(1] N - 1 -invariant dual Abelian Higgs model. After a general introduction to the string models of confinement, an analytic description of this penomenon is provided at the example of the 3D SU(N Georgi-Glashow model, with a special emphasis placed on the so-called Casimir scaling of k-string tensions in that model. We further discuss the string representation of the 3D [U(1] N - 1 -invariant compact QED, as well as of its 4D generalization with the inclusion of the Θ -term. We compare topological effects, which appear in the latter case, with those that take place in the 3D QED extended by the Chern-Simons term. We further discuss the string representation of the ’t Hooft-loop average in the [U(1] N - 1 -invariant dual Abelian Higgs model extended by the Θ -term, along with the topological effects caused by this term. These topological effects are compared with those occurring in the 3D dual Abelian Higgs model (i.e., the dual Landau-Ginzburg theory extended by the Chern-Simons term. In the second part of the review, we discuss critical properties of the weakly-coupled 3D confining theories. These theories include the 3D compact QED, along with its fermionic extension, and the 3D Georgi-Glashow model.

  1. Coupled analytic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bricmont, J; Bricmont J; Kupiainen A

    1994-01-01

    We consider a lattice of weakly coupled expanding circle maps. We construct, via a cluster expansion of the Perron-Frobenius operator, an invariant measure for these infinite dimensional dynamical systems which exhibits space-time-chaos.

  2. Spatial confinement of muonium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, K. S.; Antognini, A.; Prokscha, T.; Kirch, K.; Liszkay, L.; Salman, Z.; Crivelli, P.

    2016-08-01

    We report the achievement of spatial confinement of muonium atoms (the bound state of a positive muon and an electron). Muonium emitted into a vacuum from mesoporous silica reflects between two SiO2 confining surfaces separated by 1 mm. From the data, one can extract that the reflection probability on the confining surfaces kept at 100 K is about 90% and the reflection process is well described by a cosine law. This technique enables new experiments with this exotic atomic system and is a very important step towards a measurement of the 1 S -2 S transition frequency using continuous-wave laser spectroscopy.

  3. Spatial confinement of muonium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Khaw, K S; Prokscha, T; Kirch, K; Liszkay, L; Salman, Z; Crivelli, P

    2016-01-01

    We report the achievement of spatial confinement of muonium atoms (the bound state of a positive muon and an electron). Muonium emitted into vacuum from mesoporous silica is forced to bounce back and forth between two SiO$_2$ confining surfaces separated by 1 mm. From the data, one can extract that the reflection on the confining surfaces is well described by a cosine law. This technique opens up a way to perform new experiments with this exotic atomic system and is a very important step towards a measurement of the 1S-2S transition frequency using continuous wave laser spectroscopy.

  4. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Kyle; Ross, Graham G

    2014-01-01

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.

  5. Artificial living crystals in confined environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Misko, Vyacheslav R; Tempere, Jacques; Kong, Minghui; Peeters, Francois M

    2017-06-01

    Similar to the spontaneous formation of colonies of bacteria, flocks of birds, or schools of fish, "living crystals" can be formed by artificial self-propelled particles such as Janus colloids. Unlike usual solids, these "crystals" are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They fluctuate in time forming a crystalline structure, breaking apart and re-forming again. We propose a method to stabilize living crystals by applying a weak confinement potential that does not suppress the ability of the particles to perform self-propelled motion, but it stabilizes the structure and shape of the dynamical clusters. This gives rise to such configurations of living crystals as "living shells" formed by Janus colloids. Moreover, the shape of the stable living clusters can be controlled by tuning the potential strength. Our proposal can be verified experimentally with either artificial microswimmers such as Janus colloids, or with living active matter.

  6. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  7. Rovibrational states of Wigner molecules in spherically symmetric confining potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2016-08-01

    The strong-localization limit of three-dimensional Wigner molecules, in which repulsively interacting particles are confined by a weak spherically symmetric potential, is investigated. An explicit prescription for computation of rovibrational wavefunctions and energies that are asymptotically exact at this limit is presented. The prescription is valid for systems with arbitrary angularly-independent interparticle and confining potentials, including those involving Coulombic and screened (i.e., Yukawa/Debye) interactions. The necessary derivations are greatly simplified by explicit constructions of the Eckart frame and the parity-adapted primitive wavefunctions. The performance of the new formalism is illustrated with the three- and four-electron harmonium atoms at their strong-correlation limits. In particular, the involvement of vibrational modes with the E symmetry is readily pinpointed as the origin of the "anomalous" weak-confinement behavior of the 1S+ state of the four-electron species that is absent in its 1D+ companion of the strong-confinement regime.

  8. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  9. Magnetic freezing of confined water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangyu; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Huijuan

    2010-10-07

    We report results from molecular dynamic simulations of the freezing transition of liquid water in the nanoscale hydrophobic confinement under the influence of a homogeneous external magnetic field of 10 T along the direction perpendicular to the parallel plates. A new phase of bilayer crystalline ice is obtained at an anomalously high freezing temperature of 340 K. The water-to-ice translation is found to be first order. The bilayer ice is built from alternating rows of hexagonal rings and rhombic rings parallel to the confining plates, with a large distortion of the hydrogen bonds. We also investigate the temperature shifts of the freezing transition due to the magnetic field. The freezing temperature, below which the freezing of confined water occurs, shifts to a higher value as the magnetic field enhances. Furthermore, the temperature of the freezing transition of confined water is proportional to the denary logarithm of the external magnetic field.

  10. The Weak Haagerup Property II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....

  11. Weak martingale Hardy spaces and weak atomic decompositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Youliang; REN; Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we define some weak martingale Hardy spaces and three kinds of weak atoms. They are the counterparts of martingale Hardy spaces and atoms in the classical martingale Hp-theory. And then three atomic decomposition theorems for martingales in weak martingale Hardy spaces are proved. With the help of the weak atomic decompositions of martingale, a sufficient condition for a sublinear operator defined on the weak martingale Hardy spaces to be bounded is given. Using the sufficient condition, we obtain a series of martingale inequalities with respect to the weak Lp-norm, the inequalities of weak (p ,p)-type and some continuous imbedding relationships between various weak martingale Hardy spaces. These inequalities are the weak versions of the basic inequalities in the classical martingale Hp-theory.

  12. Hydrodynamic pairing of vesicles in a confined flow

    CERN Document Server

    Aouane, Othmane; Thiébaud, Marine; Benyoussef, Abdelillah; Wagner, Christian; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2016-01-01

    The hydrodynamics-induced pairing mechanism of deformable closed bilayer membranes (vesicles, a model for red blood cells) is studied numerically with a special attention paid to the role of the confinement (the vesicles are within two rigid walls). This study unveils the complexity of the pairing mechanism due to hydrodynamic interactions. At weak confinement we find that two vesicles attract each other and form a stable pair if their initial distance is below a certain value. If the initial distance is beyond that distance, the vesicles repel each other and adopt a larger stable interdistance. This means that for the same confinement we have (at least) two stable branches and whether one branch prevails over the other depends only on initial conditions. An unstable branch is found between these two stable branches. At a critical confinement the stable branch corresponding to the smallest interdistance merges together with the unstable branch in the form of a saddle-node bifurcation. At this critical confine...

  13. Strong-Coupling and the Stripe Phase of ^3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Joshua J.; Sauls, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of superfluid 3He were predicted, based on weak-coupling BCS theory, to have a stable phase which spontaneously breaks translational symmetry in the plane of the film. This crystalline superfluid, or "stripe" phase, develops as a one-dimensional periodic array of domain walls separating degenerate B phase domains. We report calculations of the phases and phase diagram for superfluid 3He in thin films using a strong-coupling Ginzburg-Landau theory that accurately reproduces the bulk 3He superfluid phase diagram. We find that the stability of the Stripe phase is diminished relative to the A phase, but the Stripe phase is stable in a large range of temperatures, pressures, confinement, and surface conditions.

  14. Coupling of Active Motion and Advection Shapes Intracellular Cargo Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Trong, P Khuc; Goldstein, R E; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.028104

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular cargo transport can arise from passive diffusion, active motor-driven transport along cytoskeletal filament networks, and passive advection by fluid flows entrained by such motor/cargo motion. Active and advective transport are thus intrinsically coupled as related, yet different representations of the same underlying network structure. A reaction-advection-diffusion system is used here to show that this coupling affects the transport and localization of a passive tracer in a confined geometry. For sufficiently low diffusion, cargo localization to a target zone is optimized either by low reaction kinetics and decoupling of bound and unbound states, or by a mostly disordered cytoskeletal network with only weak directional bias. These generic results may help to rationalize subtle features of cytoskeletal networks, for example as observed for microtubules in fly oocytes.

  15. Revisiting strong coupling QCD at finite baryon density and temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, M

    2008-01-01

    The strong coupling limit ($\\beta_{gauge}=0$) of lattice QCD with staggered fermions enjoys the same non-perturbative properties as continuum QCD, namely confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. In contrast to the situation at weak coupling, the sign problem which appears at finite density can be brought under control for a determination of the full (mu,T) phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulations. Further difficulties with efficiency and ergodicity of the simulations, especially at the strongly first-order, low-T, finite-mu transition, are addressed respectively with a worm algorithm and multicanonical sampling. Our simulations reveal sizeable corrections to the old results of Karsch and Muetter. Comparison with analytic mean-field determinations of the phase diagram shows discrepancies of O(10) in the location of the QCD critical point.

  16. Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rio, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...

  17. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  18. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  19. The Weak Neutral Current

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.

  20. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  1. Nonuniversality of weak synchronization in chaotic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, M. de Sousa; Lichtenberg, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    We show that the separate properties of weak synchronization (WS) and strong synchronization (SS), reported recently by Pyragas [K. Pyragas, Phys. Rev. E, 54, R4508 (1996)], in unidirectionally coupled chaotic systems, are not generally distinct properties of such systems. In particular, we find analytically for the tent map and numerically for some parameters of the circle map that the transition to WS and SS coincide.

  2. Non-aqueous electrolytes for isotachophoresis of weak bases and its application to the comprehensive preconcentration of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids in column-coupling ITP/CE-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, Pablo A; Huhn, Carolin

    2014-11-01

    Isotachophoresis (ITP) has long been used alone but also as a preconcentration technique for capillary electrophoresis (CE). Unfortunately, up to now, its application is restricted to relatively strong acids and bases as either the degree of (de)protonation is too low or the water dissociation is too high, evoking zone electrophoresis. With the comprehensive ITP analysis of all 20 proteinogenic amino acids as model analytes, we, here, show that non-aqueous ITP using dimethylsulfoxide as a solvent solves this ITP shortcoming. Dimethylsulfoxide changes the pH regime of analytes and electrolytes but, more importantly, strongly reduces the proton mobility by prohibiting hydrogen bonds and thus, the so-called Zundel-Eigen-Zundel electrical conduction mechanism of flipping hydrogen bonds. The effects are demonstrated in an electrolyte system with taurine or H(+) as terminator, and imidazole as leader together with strong acids such as oxalic and even trifluoroacetic acid as counterions, both impossible to use in aqueous solution. Mass spectrometric as well as capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) are used to follow the ITP processes. To demonstrate the preconcentration capabilities of ITP in a two-dimensional set-up, we, here, also demonstrate that our non-aqueous ITP method can be combined with capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry in a column-coupling system using a hybrid approach of capillaries coupled to a microfluidic interface. For this, C(4)D was optimized for on-chip detection with the electrodes aligned on top of a thin glass lid of the microfluidic chip.

  3. Effects of Confined Laser Ablation on Laser Plasma Propulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhi-Yuan; ZHANG Jie; LU Xin; HAO Zuo-Qiang; XU Miao-Hua; WANG Zhao-Hua; WEI Zhi-Yi

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the effects of confined laser ablation on laser plasma propulsion. Compared with planar ablation,the cavity ablation provides an effective way to obtain a large target momentum and a high coupling coefficient.When laser pukes are focused into a cavity with 1 mm diameter and 2mm depth, a high coupling coefficient is obtained. By using a glass layer to cover the cavity, the coupling coefficient is enhanced by 10 times. Meanwhile,it is found that with the increase of the target surface size, the target momentum presents a linear increase.

  4. Weak Decay of Hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M

    2004-01-01

    The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...

  5. ICU-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L

    2016-11-01

    Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental noiseless linear amplification using weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joseph; Boston, Allen; Palsson, Matthew; Pryde, Geoff

    2016-09-01

    The viability of quantum communication schemes rely on sending quantum states of light over long distances. However, transmission loss can degrade the signal strength, adding noise. Heralded noiseless amplification of a quantum signal can provide a solution by enabling longer direct transmission distances and by enabling entanglement distillation. The central idea of heralded noiseless amplification—a conditional modification of the probability distribution over photon number of an optical quantum state—is suggestive of a parallel with weak measurement: in a weak measurement, learning partial information about an observable leads to a conditional back-action of a commensurate size. Here we experimentally investigate the application of weak, or variable-strength, measurements to the task of heralded amplification, by using a quantum logic gate to weakly couple a small single-optical-mode quantum state (the signal) to an ancilla photon (the meter). The weak measurement is carried out by choosing the measurement basis of the meter photon and, by conditioning on the meter outcomes, the signal is amplified. We characterise the gain of the amplifier as a function of the measurement strength, and use interferometric methods to show that the operation preserves the coherence of the signal.

  7. Confinement and String Breaking for QED_{2} in the Hamiltonian Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Buyens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The formalism of matrix product states is used to perform a numerical study of (1+1-dimensional QED—also known as the (massive Schwinger model—in the presence of an external static “quark” and “antiquark”. We obtain a detailed picture of the transition from the confining state at short interquark distances to the broken-string “hadronized” state at large distances, and this for a wide range of couplings, recovering the predicted behavior both in the weak- and strong-coupling limit of the continuum theory. In addition to the relevant local observables like charge and electric field, we compute the (bipartite entanglement entropy and show that subtraction of its vacuum value results in a UV-finite quantity. We find that both string formation and string breaking leave a clear imprint on the resulting entropy profile. Finally, we also study the case of fractional probe charges, simulating for the first time the phenomenon of partial string breaking.

  8. SEEPAGE FIELD-STRAIN FIELD COUPLING ANALYSIS FOR ROCK MASSES OF COAL SEAM FLOOR DURING MINING ABOVE A CONFINED AQUIFER%煤层底板岩体采动渗流场-应变场耦合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚多喜; 鲁海峰

    2012-01-01

    根据五沟煤矿1018 工作面地质及水文地质条件,应用三维快速拉格朗日(FLAC3D)流固耦合分析模块,采用变渗透系数方法,对该工作面底板岩体采动渗流应变机制进行数值模拟研究.分析结果表明:采动影响下,围岩渗透系数发生较大的变化,处在采空区正上方的泥岩段最大达到原始渗透系数的1293倍;根据渗流场分析,工作面采动并没有破坏底板隔水层的阻水性能,采动裂隙没有导通灰岩含水层,灰岩水涌入回采工作面形成水害可能性较小;工作面正下方岩体单元安全度小于1的区域最大深度为30 m.综合渗流场以及隔水底板单元安全度分析结果,10煤底板下灰岩水溃入工作面形成水害可能性较小.%Based on the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the face 1018 in Wugou coal mine, the fluid-solid coupling module in FLAC3D with changeable permeability coefficient is adopted to simulate the whole process of damage and failure of rock masses at floor of the coal seam No. 10. The results indicate that the permeability coefficient of surrounding rocks changes a lot due to mining. The maximum permeability coefficient reaches 1 293 times of the original one, which happens at the immediate roof of mined-out area. According to the analysis of seepage field, mining does not destroy water resistance of floor aquifer. Mining fissures do not connect limestone aquifers, and water in the limestone is less likely to flow into stopes to cause damage. The maximum depth of rock masses with element safety degree less than one is about 30 m. According to the change of permeability coefficient of and the analytical results of element safety degree of rock masses, safe mining of the face 1018 can be ensured.

  9. Weak Quantum Ergodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1998-01-01

    We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.

  10. Collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard

    Excitation mechanisms for collective waves in confined dense one-dimensional microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. Excited longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets. Transversely excited modes obey the dispersion relation of microfluidic phonons and induce a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes, whose origin is the hydrodynamic interaction of the droplets with the confining walls. Moreover, we investigate the long-time behaviour of the oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our findings demonstrate that the collective dynamics of microfluidic droplet ensembles can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. Experimentally, the ability to control microfluidic droplets may allow to modulate the refractive index of optofluidic crystals which is a promising approach for the production of dynamically programmable metamaterials.

  11. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Carlos da Silva dos; Ricotta, Regina Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the quantum confinement effect is proposed as the cause of the displacement of the vibrational spectrum of molecular groups that involve hydrogen bonds. In this approach the hydrogen bond imposes a space barrier to hydrogen and constrains its oscillatory motion. We studied the vibrational transitions through the Morse potential, for the NH and OH molecular groups inside macromolecules in situation of confinement (when hydrogen bonding is formed) and non-confinement (when there is no hydrogen bonding). The energies were obtained through the variational method with the trial wave functions obtained from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SQM) formalism. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish the emission peaks related to the existence of the hydrogen bonds. These analytical results were satisfactorily compared with experimental results obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Three Dimensional Confinement WKB Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, A K

    2002-01-01

    We develop an alternate formalism for radially confined quantum mechanical systems, in the framework of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation, without considering the Langer correction for the centrifugal term. Rather, following the analysis the Hainz and Grabert, we expand the centrifugal term perturbatively (in powers of $\\hbar$), decomposing it into 2 terms -- the classical centrifugal potential and a quantum correction. To test the validity of our formalism, we apply it explicitly to study the energy spectrum of certain physically relevant, radially confined quantum mechanical systems, viz., the 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, and the Hulthen potential. As observed by Hainz and Grabert, this approach gives better estimates than the conventional WKB approximation technique (based on Langer modification), even for spatially confined systems.

  13. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivapragasam; M D Deshpande; S Ramamurthy; P White

    2014-06-01

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of linear growth of the jet penetration length for the unconfined case when the momentum flux ratio is small. However, for the high momentum flux ratio case corresponding to the confinement, the jet penetration length is shown to reach an asymptotic limit of about 3.57 times the confining duct diameter. This conclusion is contrary to the existing results which predict indefinite growth. A simple modification of an existing similarity solution for the jet in an unconfined counterflow provides a convenient framework for presenting the results of the flowfield and jet penetration length.

  14. CORRELATIONS IN CONFINED QUANTUM PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUFTY J W

    2012-01-11

    This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed

  15. Nematode Locomotion in Unconfined and Confined Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode {\\it C. elegans} propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [PLoS ONE \\textbf{7}, e40121 (2012)] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature (PHC) model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness...

  16. Charge-Confining Gravitational Electrovacuum Shock Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    In previous publications we have extensively studied spherically symmetric solutions of gravity coupled to a non-standard type of non-linear electrodynamics containing a square root of the ordinary Maxwell Lagrangian (the latter is known to yield QCD-like confinement in flat space-time). A class of these solutions describe non-standard black holes of Reissner-Nordstroem-(anti-)-de-Sitter type with an additional constant radial vacuum electric field, in particular, a non-asymptotically flat Reissner-Nordstroem-type black hole. Here we study the ultra-relativistic boost (Aichelburg-Sexl-type) limit of the latter and show that, unlike the ordinary Reissner-Nordstroem case, we obtain a gravitational electrovacuum shock wave as a result of the persistence of the gauge field due to the "square-root" Maxwell Lagrangian term. Next, we show that this gravitational electrovacuum shock wave confines charged test particles (both massive and massless) within a finite distance from its front.

  17. Neutron confinement cell for investigating complex fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Tonya L.; Smith, Gregory S.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Hamilton, William

    2001-03-01

    We describe an apparatus for measuring the molecular density and orientation of confined, ultrathin complex fluids under static and dynamic flow conditions. The device essentially couples the utility of the surface forces apparatus -- ability to control surface separation and alignment under applied loads -- with in situ structural characterization of the intervening material utilizing neutron reflectivity measurements. The apparatus is designed such that single crystal substrates of quartz or sapphire with areas up to tens of square centimeters can be kept parallel at controlled and well-defined separations from millimeters to less than 100 nm. The large substrate surface area enables direct structural measurements of the density profile of ''soft'' material placed between the aligned substrates. In addition, the cell is also designed to enable steady shear rates from 0.001 to 20 Hz to be applied in order to follow the dynamic structural response of the confined material, especially at the solid-solution interface. Faster shear rates of order 10{sup 4} can be obtained using oscillatory motion. Current design specifications focus on the use of neutron reflectivity to characterize the structure of end-grafted polymer brush layers, but the device can be employed to probe the structure of any complex fluid of interest and is amenable to other characterization techniques.

  18. Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-08-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

  19. Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-01-01

    The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

  20. Confinement: G(2) group case

    CERN Document Server

    Cossu, G; Di Giacomo, A; Lucini, B; Pica, C

    2007-01-01

    The gauge group being centreless, $G_2$ gauge theory is a good laboratory for studying the role of the centre of the group for colour confinement in Yang-Mills gauge theories. In this paper, we investigate $G_2$ pure gauge theory at finite temperature on the lattice. By studying the finite size scaling of the plaquette, the Polyakov loop and their susceptibilities, we show that a deconfinement phase transition takes place. The analysis of the pseudocritical exponents give strong evidence of the deconfinement transition being first order. Implications of our findings for scenarios of colour confinement are discussed.

  1. Confinement versus Bose-Einstein condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Langfeld, K

    2004-01-01

    The deconfinement phase transition at high baryon densities and low temperatures evades a direct investigation by means of lattice gauge calculations. In order to make this regime of QCD accessible by computer simulations, two proposal are made: (i) A Lattice Effective Theory (LET) is designed which incorporates gluon and diquark fields. The deconfinement transition takes place when the diquark fields undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. (ii) Rather than using eigenstates of the particle number operator, I propose to perform simulations for a fixed expectation value of the baryonic Noether current. This approach changes the view onto the finite density regime, but evades the sign and overlap problems. The latter proposal is exemplified for the LET: Although the transition from the confinement to the condensate phase is first order in the coupling constant space at zero baryon densities, the transition at finite densities appears to be a crossover.

  2. Equilibrium drives of the low and high field side n  =  2 plasma response and impact on global confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Logan, N. C.; Haskey, S. R.; Nazikian, R.; Strait, E. J.; Chen, X.; Ferraro, N. M.; King, J. D.; Lyons, B. C.; Park, J.-K.

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the multi-modal n  =  2 plasma response and its impact on global confinement is studied as a function of the axisymmetric equilibrium pressure, edge safety factor, collisionality, and L-versus H-mode conditions. Varying the relative phase (Δ {φ\\text{UL}} ) between upper and lower in-vessel coils demonstrates that different n  =  2 poloidal spectra preferentially excite different plasma responses. These different plasma response modes are preferentially detected on the tokamak high-field side (HFS) or low-field side (LFS) midplanes, have different radial extents, couple differently to the resonant surfaces, and have variable impacts on edge stability and global confinement. In all equilibrium conditions studied, the observed confinement degradation shares the same Δ {φ\\text{UL}} dependence as the coupling to the resonant surfaces given by both ideal (IPEC) and resistive (MARS-F) MHD computation. Varying the edge safety factor shifts the equilibrium field-line pitch and thus the Δ {φ\\text{UL}} dependence of both the global confinement and the n  =  2 magnetic response. As edge safety factor is varied, modeling finds that the HFS response (but not the LFS response), the resonant surface coupling, and the edge displacements near the X-point all share the same Δ {φ\\text{UL}} dependence. The LFS response magnitude is strongly sensitive to the core pressure and is insensitive to the collisionality and edge safety factor. This indicates that the LFS measurements are primarily sensitive to a pressure-driven kink-ballooning mode that couples to the core plasma. MHD modeling accurately reproduces these (and indeed all) LFS experimental trends and supports this interpretation. In contrast to the LFS, the HFS magnetic response and correlated global confinement impact is unchanged with plasma pressure, but is strongly reduced in high collisionality conditions in both H- and L-mode. This experimentally suggests the bootstrap

  3. Gravitational Interaction of Higgs Boson and Weak Boson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian

    2013-01-01

    With the LHC discovery of a 125GeV Higgs-like particle, we study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson via the unique dimension-4 operator involving Higgs doublet and scalar curvature, \\xi H^\\dag H R, with nonminimal coupling \\xi. This Higgs portal term can be transformed away in Einstein frame and induces gauge-invariant effective interactions in the Higgs sector. We study the weak boson scattering in Einstein frame, and explicitly demonstrate the longitudinal-Goldstone boson equivalence theorem in the presence of \\xi coupling. With these, we derive unitarity bound on the Higgs gravitational coupling \\xi in Einstein frame, which is stronger than that inferred from the LHC Higgs measurements. We further analyze \\xi-dependent weak boson scattering cross sections at TeV scale, and study the LHC probe of \\xi coupling via weak boson scattering experiments.

  4. Quantum behavior of water nano-confined in beryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K.

    2017-03-01

    The proton mean kinetic energy, Ke(H), of water confined in nanocavities of beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) at 5 K was obtained by simulating the partial vibrational density of states from density functional theory based first-principles calculations. The result, Ke(H) = 104.4 meV, is in remarkable agreement with the 5 K deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measured value of 105 meV. This is in fact the first successful calculation that reproduces an anomalous DINS value regarding Ke(H) in nano-confined water. The calculation indicates that the vibrational states of the proton of the nano-confined water molecule distribute much differently than in ordinary H2O phases, most probably due to coupling with lattice modes of the hosting beryl nano-cage. These findings may be viewed as a promising step towards the resolution of the DINS controversial measurements on other H2O nano-confining systems, e.g., H2O confined in single and double walled carbon nanotubes.

  5. Self-formed cavity quantum electrodynamics in coupled dipole cylindrical-waveguide systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar V, S; Henderson, M R; Greentree, A D; Gibson, B C; Monro, T M

    2014-05-01

    An ideal optical cavity operates by confining light in all three dimensions. We show that a cylindrical waveguide can provide the longitudinal confinement required to form a two dimensional cavity, described here as a self-formed cavity, by locating a dipole, directed along the waveguide, on the interface of the waveguide. The cavity resonance modes lead to peaks in the radiation of the dipole-waveguide system that have no contribution due to the skew rays that exist in longitudinally invariant waveguides and reduce their Q-factor. Using a theoretical model, we evaluate the Q-factor and modal volume of the cavity formed by a dipole-cylindrical-waveguide system and show that such a cavity allows access to both the strong and weak coupling regimes of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  6. Weak interference in the high-signal regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juan P; Puentes, Graciana; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose

    2012-08-13

    Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on: a) the existence of a weak interaction which couples a property of a system (the system) with a separate degree of freedom (the pointer), and b) the measurement of an anomalously large mean value of the pointer state (weak mean value), after appropriate pre-and post-selection of the state of the system. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits its applicability. However, we will show here that since weak amplification is essentially the result of an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference (weak interference) to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime).

  7. Confined Quantum Time of Arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A; Galapon, Eric A.; Bahague, Ricardo T.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the non-self-adjoint free time of arrival operator in free space defines a class of compact, self-adjoint, and canonical operators for a spatially confined particle. We analytically and numerically study the qualitative behaviors of these operators, and demonstrate that their eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are consistent with the interpretation that they are time of arrival operators.

  8. Dynamical conductivity of confined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    The electrodynamic response of water confined in nanoporous MCM-41 is measured in the frequency range 1 MHz-3 THz at room temperature. The results are analyzed in the context of a recently proposed ionic model of water. We found an increase in dc-conductivity of confined water by 3 orders of magnitude (3.3 · 10-3 Ω-1 · m-1) compared to bulk water (5.5 · 10-6 Ω-1 · m-1). This is attributed to the increase of H3O+ and OH- ion mobility, due to a decrease of the effective potential amplitude by walls of the confining environment. We found that the absorption in the microwave frequency range is much smaller in the medium with confined water than in the bulk water, and the quadratic dependence of the conductivity (σ) on frequency (ω) becomes less steep and tends to σ ~ ω. The results are of fundamental importance and can be used for understanding of the proton transport in systems with water in the nanoconfined state.

  9. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  10. Color confinement multi quark resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fan [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Ping, J.L. [Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China); Pang, H.R. [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chen, L.Z. [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2007-06-15

    A new kind microscopic resonance, the color confinement multi quark resonance is proposed and studied. The quark delocalization color screening model is compared to one of the chiral quark model, the Salamanca model, and a new mechanism of the intermediate range NN interaction, the mutual distortion of interacting nucleons, is checked to be similar to the {sigma} meson exchange.

  11. Two flavor QCD and Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Pica, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation is...

  12. Weak Cat-Operads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2010-01-01

    An operad (this paper deals with non-symmetric operads) may be conceived as a partial algebra with a family of insertion operations, Gerstenhaber's circle-i products, which satisfy two kinds of associativity, one of them involving commutativity. A Cat-operad is an operad enriched over the category Cat of small categories, as a 2-category with small hom-categories is a category enriched over Cat. The notion of weak Cat-operad is to the notion of Cat-operad what the notion of bicategory is to the notion of 2-category. The equations of operads like associativity of insertions are replaced by isomorphisms in a category. The goal of this paper is to formulate conditions concerning these isomorphisms that ensure coherence, in the sense that all diagrams of canonical arrows commute. This is the sense in which the notions of monoidal category and bicategory are coherent. The coherence proof in the paper is much simplified by indexing the insertion operations in a context-independent way, and not in the usual manner. ...

  13. Higgs-gluon coupling in warped extra dimensional models with brane kinetic terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Ray, Tirtha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Warped models with the Higgs confined to the weak brane and the gauge and matter fields accessing the AdS5 bulk provide a viable setting to address the gauge hierarchy problem. Brane kinetic terms for the bulk fields are known to ease some of the tensions of these models with precision electroweak observables and flavor constraints. We study the loop-driven Higgs coupling to the gluons that are relevant to the Higgs program at the LHC, in this scenario. We demonstrate a partial cancellation in the contribution of the fermionic Kaluza-Klein (KK) towers within such framework relatively independent of the 5D parameters. The entire dependence of this coupling on the new physics arises from the mixing between the Standard Model states and the KK excitations. We find that the present precision in measurement of these couplings can lead to a constraint on the KK scale up to 1.2 TeV at 95% confidence level.

  14. Transport phenomena in a plasma of confining gluons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryblewski Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma of confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization is considered. In the fluid dynamical framework the non-equilibrium properties of the system are studied. In the linear response approximation the formulas for the bulk, ζ, and shear, η, viscosities of the plasma are calculated analytically. Surprisingly, the approximate scaling of the ζ/η ratio reveals the strong-coupling properties of the system under consideration.

  15. Weak Total Resolvability In Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casel Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A vertex v ∈ V (G is said to distinguish two vertices x, y ∈ V (G of a graph G if the distance from v to x is di erent from the distance from v to y. A set W ⊆ V (G is a total resolving set for a graph G if for every pair of vertices x, y ∈ V (G, there exists some vertex w ∈ W − {x, y} which distinguishes x and y, while W is a weak total resolving set if for every x ∈ V (G−W and y ∈ W, there exists some w ∈ W −{y} which distinguishes x and y. A weak total resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a weak total metric basis of G and its cardinality the weak total metric dimension of G. Our main contributions are the following ones: (a Graphs with small and large weak total metric bases are characterised. (b We explore the (tight relation to independent 2-domination. (c We introduce a new graph parameter, called weak total adjacency dimension and present results that are analogous to those presented for weak total dimension. (d For trees, we derive a characterisation of the weak total (adjacency metric dimension. Also, exact figures for our parameters are presented for (generalised fans and wheels. (e We show that for Cartesian product graphs, the weak total (adjacency metric dimension is usually pretty small. (f The weak total (adjacency dimension is studied for lexicographic products of graphs.

  16. Supergravity couplings: a geometric formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Binetruy, P.; Girardi, G.; Grimm, R

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a pedagogical introduction to the description of the general Poincare supergravity/matter/Yang-Mills couplings using methods of Kahler superspace geometry. At a more advanced level this approach is generalized to include tensor field and Chern-Simons couplings in supersymmetry and supergravity, relevant in the context of weakly and strongly coupled string theories.

  17. Supergravity couplings a geometric formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Binétruy, Pierre; Grimm, R

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a pedagogical introduction to the description of the general Poincare supergravity/matter/Yang-Mills couplings using methods of Kahler superspace geometry. At a more advanced level this approach is generalized to include tensor field and Chern-Simons couplings in supersymmetry and supergravity, relevant in the context of weakly and strongly coupled string theories.

  18. Quantum confinement effects in low-dimensional systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Topwal

    2015-06-01

    The confinement effects of electrons in ultrathin films and nanowires grown on metallic and semiconducting substrates investigated using band mapping of their electronic structures using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is discussed here. It has been shown that finite electron reflectivity at the interface is sufficient to sustain the formation of quantum well states and weak quantum well resonance states even in closely matched metals. The expected parabolic dispersion of sp-derived quantum well states for free-standing layers undergoes deviations from parabolic behaviour and modifications due to the underlying substrate bands, suggesting the effects of strong hybridization between the quantum well states and the substrate bands. Electron confinement effects in low dimensions as observed from the dispersionless features in the band structures are also discussed.

  19. Magnetically Confined Wind Shocks in X-rays - a Review

    CERN Document Server

    ud-Doula, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A subset (~ 10%) of massive stars present strong, globally ordered (mostly dipolar) magnetic fields. The trapping and channeling of their stellar winds in closed magnetic loops leads to magnetically confined wind shocks (MCWS), with pre-shock flow speeds that are some fraction of the wind terminal speed. These shocks generate hot plasma, a source of X-rays. In the last decade, several developments took place, notably the determination of the hot plasma properties for a large sample of objects using XMM-Newton and Chandra, as well as fully self-consistent MHD modelling and the identification of shock retreat effects in weak winds. Despite a few exceptions, the combination of magnetic confinement, shock retreat and rotation effects seems to be able to account for X-ray emission in massive OB stars. Here we review these new observational and theoretical aspects of this X-ray emission and envisage some perspectives for the next generation of X-ray observatories.

  20. Impact of the Pedestal on Global Performance and Confinement Scalings in I-mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, John; Hughes, Jerry; Hubbard, Amanda; Whyte, Dennis; White, Anne; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2015-11-01

    The I-mode is a novel high-confinement regime pioneered on Alcator C-Mod, notable for its strong temperature pedestal without the accompanying density pedestal found in conventional H-modes. This separation in transport channels gives the desired improved energy confinement while maintaining low particle confinement, avoiding excessive impurity accumulation. Moreover, I-mode operation is naturally free of deleterious Edge-Localized Modes (ELMs). Recent experiments on Alcator C-Mod have characterized the pedestal structure in I-mode. The impact of the pedestal response (particularly to fueling and heating power) and core profile stiffness on global performance and confinement have demonstrated confinement metrics competitive with H-mode operation on Alcator C-Mod, and consistent with concepts for I-mode access & operation on ITER. Following the practice of the ITER89 and ITER98 scaling laws for L- and H-mode energy confinement, an initial, illustrative attempt at an I-mode confinement scaling has also been developed. The initial characterization from C-Mod data is consistent with the observed pedestal properties in I-mode, particularly the weak degradation of energy confinement with heating power, and comparatively strong positive response to fueling and increased magnetic field. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy award DE-FC02-99ER54512, using Alcator C-Mod, a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  1. The Weak Gravity Conjecture in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, Miguel [Departamento de Física Teórica, Facultad de Ciencias,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Calle Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Physics & Institute for Advanced Study,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Lo Ka Chung Building, Lee Shau Kee Campus, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2016-10-28

    We study weakly coupled U(1) theories in AdS{sub 3}, their associated charged BTZ solutions, and their charged spectra. We find that modular invariance of the holographic dual two-dimensional CFT and compactness of the gauge group together imply the existence of charged operators with conformal dimension significantly below the black hole threshold. We regard this as a form of the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) in three dimensions. We also explore the constraints posed by modular invariance on a particular discrete ℤ{sub N} symmetry which arises in our discussion. In this case, modular invariance does not guarantee the existence of light ℤ{sub N}-charged states. We also highlight the differences between our discussion and the usual heuristic arguments for the WGC based on black hole remnants.

  2. The Weak Gravity Conjecture in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Montero, Miguel; Soler, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We study weakly coupled $U(1)$ theories in $AdS_3$, their associated charged BTZ solutions, and their charged spectra. We find that modular invariance of the holographic dual two-dimensional CFT and compactness of the gauge group together imply the existence of charged operators with conformal dimension significantly below the black hole threshold. We regard this as a form of the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) in three dimensions. We also explore the constraints posed by modular invariance on a particular discrete $\\mathbb{Z}_N$ symmetry which arises in our discussion. In this case, modular invariance does not guarantee the existence of light $\\mathbb{Z}_N$-charged states. We also highlight the differences between our discussion and the usual heuristic arguments for the WGC based on black hole remnants.

  3. Weak compactness of biharmonic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhou Zheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that if a sequence of weak solutions of a perturbed biharmonic map satisfies $Phi_ko 0$ in $(W^{2,2}^*$ and $u_kightharpoonup u$ weakly in $W^{2,2}$, then $u$ is a biharmonic map. In particular, we show that the space of biharmonic maps is sequentially compact under the weak-$W^{2,2}$ topology.

  4. Self-assembly of lamella-forming diblock copolymers confined in nanochannels: Effect of confinement geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Deng, Jian-Hua; Wang, Zheng; Li, Bao-Hui; Shi, An-Chang

    2015-04-01

    The self-assembly of symmetric diblock copolymers confined in the channels of variously shaped cross sections (regular triangles, squares, and ellipses) is investigated using a simulated annealing technique. In the bulk, the studied symmetric diblock copolymers form a lamellar structure with period LL. The geometry and surface property of the confining channels have a large effect on the self-assembled structures and the orientation of the lamellar structures. Stacked perpendicular lamellae with period LL are observed for neutral surfaces regardless of the channel shape and size, but each lamella is in the shape of the corresponding channel's cross section. In the case of triangle-shaped cross sections, stacked parallel lamellae are the majority morphologies for weakly selective surfaces, while morphologies including a triangular-prism-shaped B-cylinder and multiple tridentate lamellae are obtained for strongly selective surfaces. In the cases of square-shaped and ellipse-shaped cross sections, concentric lamellae are the signature morphology for strongly selective surfaces, whereas for weakly selective surfaces, stacked parallel lamellae, and several types of folding lamellae are obtained in the case of square-shaped cross sections, and stacked parallel lamellae are the majority morphologies in the case of ellipse-shaped cross sections when the length of the minor axis is commensurate with the bulk lamellar period. The mean-square end-to-end distance, the average contact number between different species and the surface concentration of the A-monomers are computed to elucidate the mechanisms of the formation of the different morphologies. It is found that the resulting morphology is a consequence of competition among the chain stretching, interfacial energy, and surface energy. Our results suggest that the self-assembled morphology and the orientation of lamellae can be manipulated by the shape, the size, and the surface property of the confining channels. Project

  5. Theory of rheology in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerov, Artem A; Krüger, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    The viscosity of fluids is generally understood in terms of kinetic mechanisms, i.e., particle collisions, or thermodynamic ones as imposed through structural distortions upon, e.g., applying shear. Often the latter are more relevant, which allows a simpler theoretical description, and, e.g., (damped) Brownian particles can be considered good fluid model systems. We formulate a general theoretical approach for rheology in confinement, based on microscopic equations of motion and classical density functional theory. Specifically, we discuss the viscosity for the case of two parallel walls in relative motion as a function of the wall-to-wall distance, analyzing its relation to the slip length found for a single wall. The previously observed [A. A. Aerov and M. Krüger, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 094701 (2014).] deficiency of inhomogeneous (unphysical) stresses under naive application of shear in confinement is healed when hydrodynamic interactions are included.

  6. Soft Confinement for Polymer Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Oya, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    As a model of soft confinement for polymers, we investigated equilibrium shapes of a flexible vesicle that contains a phase-separating polymer solution. To simulate such a system, we combined the phase field theory (PFT) for the vesicle and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for the polymer solution. We observed a transition from a symmetric prolate shape of the vesicle to an asymmetric pear shape induced by the domain structure of the enclosed polymer solution. Moreover, when a non-zero spontaneous curvature of the vesicle is introduced, a re-entrant transition between the prolate and the dumbbell shapes of the vesicle is observed. This re-entrant transition is explained by considering the competition between the loss of conformational entropy and that of translational entropy of polymer chains due to the confinement by the deformable vesicle. This finding is in accordance with the recent experimental result reported by Terasawa, et al.

  7. Quark confinement and the renormalization group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Michael C

    2011-07-13

    Recent approaches to quark confinement are reviewed, with an emphasis on their connection to renormalization group (RG) methods. Basic concepts related to confinement are introduced: the string tension, Wilson loops and Polyakov lines, string breaking, string tension scaling laws, centre symmetry breaking and the deconfinement transition at non-zero temperature. Current topics discussed include confinement on R(3)×S(1), the real-space RG, the functional RG and the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach to confinement.

  8. Quark Confinement and the Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Recent approaches to quark confinement are reviewed, with an emphasis on their connection to renormalization group methods. Basic concepts related to confinement are introduced: the string tension, Wilson loops and Polyakov lines, string breaking, string tension scaling laws, center symmetry breaking, and the deconfinement transition at non-zero temperature. Current topics discussed include confinement on $R^3\\times S^1$, the real-space renormalization group, the functional renormalization group, and the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach to confinement.

  9. Quark confinement mechanism for baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Goncharov, Yu P

    2013-01-01

    The confinement mechanism proposed earlier and then successfully applied to meson spectroscopy by the author is extended over baryons. For this aim the wave functions of baryons are built as tensorial products of those corresponding to the 2-body problem underlying the confinement mechanism of two quarks. This allows one to obtain the Hamiltonian of the quark interactions in a baryon and, accordingly, the possible energy spectrum of the latter. Also one may construct the electric and magnetic form factors of baryon in a natural way which entails the expressions for the root-mean-square radius and anomalous magnetic moment. To ullustrate the formalism in the given Chapter for the sake of simplicity only symmetrical baryons (i.e., composed from three quarks of the same flavours) $\\Delta^{++}$, $\\Delta^{-}$, $\\Omega^-$ are considered. For them the masses, the root-mean-square radii and anomalous magnetic moments are expressed in an explicit analytical form through the parameters of the confining SU(3)-gluonic fi...

  10. Holographic confinement in inhomogeneous backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marolf, Donald; Wien, Jason

    2016-08-01

    As noted by Witten, compactifying a d-dimensional holographic CFT on an S 1 gives a class of ( d - 1)-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The proto-typical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS d+1 Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the S 1, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for 3 ≤ d ≤ 8 using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for d ≤ 6 but repelled by gradients for d ≥ 7, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attracted to regions where the eigenvalues of the Hessian are large and positive in directions orthogonal to the tube, and iv) for d > 3, inhomogeneities act to raise the total energy of the confining vacuum above its zeroth order value.

  11. Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma including correlation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, C; Filinov, A; Piel, A; Bonitz, M

    2007-01-01

    The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically using the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results are compared with the recently obtained mean-field (MF) density profile \\cite{henning.pre06}. While the MF results are more accurate for weak screening, LDA with correlations included yields the proper description for large screening. By comparison with first-principle simulations for three-dimensional spherical Yukawa crystals we demonstrate that both approximations complement each other. Together they accurately describe the density profile in the full range of screening parameters.

  12. Emergent phenomena in manganites under spatial confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Jian; T.Z.Ward; L.F.Yin

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the exotic properties displayed by correlated electronic materials such as high-Tc superconductivity in cuprates,colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites,and heavy-fermion compounds are intimately related to the coexistence of competing nearly degenerate states which couple simultaneously active degrees of freedom—charge,lattice,orbital,and spin states.The striking phenomena associated with these materials are due in a large part to spatial electronic inhomogeneities,or electronic phase separation (EPS).In many of these hard materials,the functionality is a result of the soft electronic component that leads to self-organization.In this paper,we review our recent work on a novel spatial confinement technique that has led to some fascinating new discoveries about the role of EPS in manganites.Using lithographic techniques to confine manganite thin films to length scales of the EPS domains that reside within them,it is possible to simultaneously probe EPS domains with different electronic states.This method allows for a much more complete view of the phases residing in a material and gives vital information on phase formation,movement,and fluctuation.Pushing this trend to its limit,we propose to control the formation process of the EPS using external local fields,which include magnetic exchange field,strain field,and electric field.We term the ability to pattern EPS “electronic nanofabrication.” This method allows us to control the global physical properties of the system at a very fundamental level,and greatly enhances the potential for realizing true oxide electronics.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of a complex fluid confined to a pore with nanoscopically rough walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheron, Fabien; Schoen, Martin; Fuchs, Alain H.

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the properties of fluid films of nanometer scale thickness confined between two solid substrates is of fundamental interest as well as of practical importance for engineering applications such as lubrication, adhesion, and friction. We address here the question of the effect of the wall corrugation on the confined fluid structure. We report configurational bias grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations for model butane confined between planar and nonplanar walls. Furrowed walls have been used to model surface roughness effects on the nanometer length scale, while the confining walls remain smooth on the atomic scale. It is shown that the fluid confined between planar walls exhibits a damped oscillatory solvation pressure profile. A transition from an oscillatory to a nonoscillatory behavior is observed when the characteristic length of the furrow reaches the typical dimensions of a butane molecule. It is inferred from these simulations that disrupted oscillatory forces observed in the experiments may reflect the coupling between molecular and nanoscopic roughness length scales.

  14. Strongly confined fluids: Diverging time scales and slowing down of equilibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    The Newtonian dynamics of strongly confined fluids exhibits a rich behavior. Its confined and unconfined degrees of freedom decouple for confinement length L →0 . In that case and for a slit geometry the intermediate scattering functions Sμ ν(q ,t ) simplify, resulting for (μ ,ν )≠(0 ,0 ) in a Knudsen-gas-like behavior of the confined degrees of freedom, and otherwise in S∥(q ,t ) , describing the structural relaxation of the unconfined ones. Taking the coupling into account we prove that the energy fluctuations relax exponentially. For smooth potentials the relaxation times diverge as L-3 and L-4, respectively, for the confined and unconfined degrees of freedom. The strength of the L-3 divergence can be calculated analytically. It depends on the pair potential and the two-dimensional pair distribution function. Experimental setups are suggested to test these predictions.

  15. Phenomenological sizes of confinement regions in baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.E.; Klimt, S.; Weise, W.; Rho, M.

    1988-10-01

    Standard order of magnitude estimates from QCD indicate that the radius of the quark-gluon core in the nucleon is ..lambda../sup -1//sub QCD/ > or approx. 1 fm. However, in work with the chiral bag model, we have found that the effective confinement size for low energy reactions can be as small as approx. = 1/2 fm or smaller. This shrinking of the effective confinement size has been attributed to the pressure of the pion cloud surrounding the quark core. The concept of confinement size is evidently subtle in light-quark systems, due to the chiral vacuum structure. This is indicated by the 'Cheshire Cat' phenomenon, in which physical observables tend to be insensitive to the bag radius R. We suggest that when strange quarks are present, a qualitative change occurs in the Cheshire Cat picture; in particular, we propose that strangeness provides an obstruction to this picture. We present a phenomenological indication that when strange quarks are present, the bag radius R is frozen at a value substantially larger than 0.5 fm by as much as a factor of two. Roughly speaking, the Cheshire Cat picture emerges from a near cancellation between repulsive quark kinetic and attractive pion-cloud energies in the case of the nucleon. In the ..lambda.. and ..sigma.. particles, however, replacement of one up or down quark by a strange quark removes part of the attraction from the coupling of the quarks to the pion cloud. This upsets the balance needed for the Cheshire Cat phenomenon and makes larger strange baryons more favorable energetically than the 0.5 fm ones appropriate for pure u- and d-systems. We find that magnetic moments of strange baryons favor a bag radius R approx. = 1.1 fm. We find that the excited states of the ..lambda..-hyperons favor similarly large bag radii. Somewhat less convincingly, due to perturbative effects - the bag radius appropriate to the ..delta..(1232) lies intermediate between that of the nucleon and of the stran

  16. [Systemic lupus erythematosus and weakness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Filipe; Santos, Maria José; da Silva, José Canas

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of a 13-year old young girl, with Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and recent onset of muscle weakness. Investigations lead to the diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis. The most important causes of muscle weakness in lupus patients are discussed.

  17. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  18. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero;

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  19. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low-frequency bur......In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...... to the mean component of the flow. Bursting can also result from the quasi-linear modification of the linear instability drive which is the mean pressure gradient. For each bursting process the relevant zero-dimensional model equations are given. These are finally coupled in a minimal model of convection...

  20. Dynamical Flow Arrest in Confined Gravity Driven Flows of Soft Jammed Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Mansard, Vincent; Colin, Annie; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2012-07-01

    Using numerical simulations, we study the gravity driven flow of jammed soft disks in confined channels. We demonstrate that confinement results in increasing the yield threshold for the Poiseuille flow, in contrast to the planar Couette flow. By solving a nonlocal flow model for such systems, we show that this effect is due to the correlated dynamics responsible for flow, coupled with the stress heterogeneity imposed for the Poiseuille flow. We also observe that with increasing confinement, the cooperative nature of the flow results in increasing intermittent behavior. Our studies indicate that such features are generic properties of a wide variety of jammed materials.

  1. Finite-size corrections for confined polymers in the extended de Gennes regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithe, T. St Clere; Iarko, V.; Muralidhar, A.; Dorfman, K. D.; Mehlig, B.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical results for the extension of a polymer confined to a channel are usually derived in the limit of infinite contour length. But experimental studies and simulations of DNA molecules confined to nanochannels are not necessarily in this asymptotic limit. We calculate the statistics of the span and the end-to-end distance of a semiflexible polymer of finite length in the extended de Gennes regime, exploiting the fact that the problem can be mapped to a one-dimensional weakly self-avoiding random walk. The results thus obtained compare favourably with pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) simulations of a three-dimensional discrete wormlike chain model of DNA confined in a nanochannel. We discuss the implications for experimental studies of linear λ-DNA confined to nanochannels at the high ionic strengths used in many experiments. PMID:26764718

  2. Polar confinement of the Sun's interior magnetic field by laminar magnetostrophic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Toby S

    2010-01-01

    The global-scale interior magnetic field B_i needed to account for the Sun's observed differential rotation can be effective only if confined in the polar caps. Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic solutions are obtained showing that such confinement can be brought about by a very weak downwelling flow U~10^{-5}cm/s over each pole. Such downwelling is consistent with the helioseismic evidence. All three components of the magnetic field decay exponentially with altitude across a thin, laminar "magnetic confinement layer" located at the bottom of the tachocline. With realistic parameter values, the thickness of the confinement layer ~10^{-3} of the Sun's radius. Alongside baroclinic effects and stable thermal stratification, the solutions take into account the stable compositional stratification of the helium settling layer, if present as in today's Sun, and the small diffusivity of helium through hydrogen, chi. The small value of chi relative to magnetic diffusivity produces a double boundary-layer structure in wh...

  3. Correlation energy, correlated electron density, and exchange-correlation potential in some spherically confined atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2016-12-05

    We report correlation energies, electron densities, and exchange-correlation potentials obtained from configuration interaction and density functional calculations on spherically confined He, Be, Be(2+) , and Ne atoms. The variation of the correlation energy with the confinement radius Rc is relatively small for the He, Be(2+) , and Ne systems. Curiously, the Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) functional works well for weak confinements but fails completely for small Rc . However, in the neutral beryllium atom the CI correlation energy increases markedly with decreasing Rc . This effect is less pronounced at the density-functional theory level. The LYP functional performs very well for the unconfined Be atom, but fails badly for small Rc . The standard exchange-correlation potentials exhibit significant deviation from the "exact" potential obtained by inversion of Kohn-Sham equation. The LYP correlation potential behaves erratically at strong confinements. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An experimental method of measuring the quasi-static and dynamic confined behaviour of PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siad L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A testing device is presented for the experimental study of the confined behaviour of PMMA in compression under quasi-static loading or at high strain-rates. The constitutive relation of the material ring (allowing to confine the PMMA being known, transverse gauges glued on its lateral surface allow for the measurement of the lateral confining pressure. The hydrostatic pressure and the Mises stress may be computed. Quasi-static and dynamic tests performed in a strain-rate range of 1e-3/s 1e3/s are processed with the method and compared to results of unconfined compression tests. It is found that the compressive behaviour of PMMA is weakly influenced by the level of pressure and much more sensitive to strain-rate: an elastic brittle behaviour is observed at high strain-rates in unconfined or confined conditions whereas elastoplastic behaviour is noted under quasi-static loading.

  5. Stretch flow of confined non-Newtonian fluids: nonlinear fingering dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Rodolfo; Fontana, João V; Miranda, José A

    2013-12-01

    We employ a weakly nonlinear perturbative scheme to investigate the stretch flow of a non-Newtonian fluid confined in Hele-Shaw cell for which the upper plate is lifted. A generalized Darcy's law is utilized to model interfacial fingering formation in both the weak shear-thinning and weak shear-thickening limits. Within this context, we analyze how the interfacial finger shapes and the nonlinear competition dynamics among fingers are affected by the non-Newtonian nature of the stretched fluid.

  6. Effect of quantum corrections on Rayleigh-Taylor instability and internal waves in strongly coupled magnetized viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Ramprasad

    2016-07-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability is recently investigated is strongly coupled plasma looking to its importance in dense stellar systems and Inertial Confinement Fusion [1-3]. In the present work, the effect of quantum corrections are studied on Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and internal wave propagation in a strongly coupled, magnetized, viscoelastic fluid. The modified generalized hydrodynamic model is used to derive the analytical dispersion relation. The internal wave mode and dispersion relation are modified due to the presence of quantum corrections and viscoelastic effects. We observe that strong coupling effects and quantum corrections significantly modifies the dispersion characteristics. The dispersion relation is also discussed in weakly coupled (hydrodynamic) and strongly coupled (kinetic) limits. The explicit expression of R-T instability criterion is derived which is influenced by shear velocity and quantum corrections. Numerical calculations are performed in astrophysical and experimental relevance and it is examined that both the shear and quantum effects suppresses the growth rate of R-T instability. The possible application of the work is discussed in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) to discuss the suppression of R-T instability under considered situation. References: [1] R. P. Prajapati, Phys. Plasmas 23, 022106 (2016). [2] K. Avinash and A. Sen, Phys. Plasmas 22, 083707 (2015). [3] A. Das and P. Kaw, Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 062102.

  7. Evidence for a sublattice weak gravity conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Rudelius, Tom

    2017-08-01

    The Weak Gravity Conjecture postulates the existence of superextremal charged particles, i.e. those with mass smaller than or equal to their charge in Planck units. We present further evidence for our recent observation that in known examples a much stronger statement is true: an infinite tower of superextremal particles of different charges exists. We show that effective Kaluza-Klein field theories and perturbative string vacua respect the Sublattice Weak Gravity Conjecture, namely that a finite index sublattice of the full charge lattice exists with a superextremal particle at each site. In perturbative string theory we show that this follows from modular invariance. However, we present counterexamples to the stronger possibility that a superextremal particle exists at every lattice site, including an example in which the lightest charged particle is subextremal. The Sublattice Weak Gravity Conjecture has many implications both for abstract theories of quantum gravity and for real-world physics. For instance, it implies that if a gauge group with very small coupling e exists, then the fundamental gravitational cutoff energy of the theory is no higher than ˜ e 1/3 M Pl.

  8. Electric-field-induced interfacial instabilities of a soft elastic membrane confined between viscous layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Mohar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sharma, Ashutosh; Qian, Shizhi; Joo, Sang Woo

    2012-10-01

    We explore the electric-field-induced interfacial instabilities of a trilayer composed of a thin elastic film confined between two viscous layers. A linear stability analysis (LSA) is performed to uncover the growth rate and length scale of the different unstable modes. Application of a normal external electric field on such a configuration can deform the two coupled elastic-viscous interfaces either by an in-phase bending or an antiphase squeezing mode. The bending mode has a long-wave nature, and is present even at a vanishingly small destabilizing field. In contrast, the squeezing mode has finite wave-number characteristics and originates only beyond a threshold strength of the electric field. This is in contrast to the instabilities of the viscous films with multiple interfaces where both modes are found to possess long-wave characteristics. The elastic film is unstable by bending mode when the stabilizing forces due to the in-plane curvature and the elastic stiffness are strong and the destabilizing electric field is relatively weak. In comparison, as the electric field increases, a subdominant squeezing mode can also appear beyond a threshold destabilizing field. A dominant squeezing mode is observed when the destabilizing field is significantly strong and the elastic films are relatively softer with lower elastic modulus. In the absence of liquid layers, a free elastic film is also found to be unstable by long-wave bending and finite wave-number squeezing modes. The LSA asymptotically recovers the results obtained by the previous formulations where the membrane bending elasticity is approximately incorporated as a correction term in the normal stress boundary condition. Interestingly, the presence of a very weak stabilizing influence due to a smaller interfacial tension at the elastic-viscous interfaces opens up the possibility of fabricating submicron patterns exploiting the instabilities of a trilayer.

  9. Liquid Spreading under Nanoscale Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checco, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    Dynamic atomic force microscopy in the noncontact regime is used to study the morphology of a nonvolatile liquid (squalane) as it spreads along wettable nanostripes embedded in a nonwettable surface. Results show that the liquid profile depends on the amount of lateral confinement imposed by the nanostripes, and it is truncated at the microscopic contact line in good qualitative agreement with classical mesoscale hydrodynamics. However, the width of the contact line is found to be significantly larger than expected theoretically. This behavior may originate from small chemical inhomogeneity of the patterned stripes as well as from thermal fluctuations of the contact line.

  10. Wicking a confined micropillar array

    CERN Document Server

    Texier, Baptiste Darbois; Stoukatch, Serguei; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the spreading of a Newtonian and perfectly wetting liquid in a square array of cylindric micropillars confined between two plates. We show experimentally that the dynamics of the contact line follows a Washburn-like law which depends on the characteristics of the micropillar array (height, diameter and pitch). The presence of pillars can either enhanced or slow down the motion of the contact line. A theoretical model based on capillary and viscous forces has been developed in order to rationalize our observations. Finally, the impact of pillars on the volumic flow rate of liquid which is pumped in the microchannel is inspected.

  11. Electromelting of Confined Monolayer Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Hu

    2013-01-01

    In sharp contrast to the prevailing view that electric fields promote water freezing, here we show by molecular dynamics simulations that monolayer ice confined between two parallel plates can melt into liquid water under perpendicularly applied electric field. The melting temperature of the monolayer ice decreases with the increasing strength of the external field due to field-induced disruption of the water-wall interaction induced well-ordered network of hydrogen bond. This electromelting process should add an important new ingredient to the physics of water.

  12. Thermoelectricity in confined liquid electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Dietzel, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The electric field in an extended phase of a liquid electrolyte exposed to a temperature gradient is attributed to different thermophoretic mobilities of the ion species. As shown herein, such Soret-type ion thermodiffusion is not required to induce thermoelectricity even in the simplest electrolyte if it is confined between charged walls. The space charge of the electric double layer leads to selective ion diffusion driven by a temperature-dependent electrophoretic ion mobility, which -for narrow channels- may cause thermo-voltages larger in magnitude than for the classical Soret equilibrium.

  13. Frictional properties of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N; Persson, Bo N J

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force...

  14. Effects of confinement and external fields on structure and transport in colloidal dispersions in reduced dimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, D; Deutschländer, S; Siems, U; Franzrahe, K; Henseler, P; Keim, P; Schwierz, N; Virnau, P; Binder, K; Maret, G; Nielaba, P

    2012-11-21

    In this work, we focus on low-dimensional colloidal model systems, via simulation studies and also some complementary experiments, in order to elucidate the interplay between phase behavior, geometric structures and transport properties. In particular, we try to investigate the (nonlinear!) response of these very soft colloidal systems to various perturbations: uniform and uniaxial pressure, laser fields, shear due to moving boundaries and randomly quenched disorder. We study ordering phenomena on surfaces or in monolayers by Monte Carlo computer simulations of binary hard-disk mixtures, the influence of a substrate being modeled by an external potential. Weak external fields allow a controlled tuning of the miscibility of the mixture. We discuss the laser induced de-mixing for the three different possible couplings to the external potential. The structural behavior of hard spheres interacting with repulsive screened Coulomb or dipolar interaction in 2D and 3D narrow constrictions is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. Due to misfits between multiples of the lattice parameter and the channel widths, a variety of ordered and disordered lattice structures have been observed. The resulting local lattice structures and defect probabilities are studied for various cross sections. The influence of a self-organized order within the system is reflected in the velocity of the particles and their diffusive behavior. Additionally, in an experimental system of dipolar colloidal particles confined by gravity on a solid substrate we investigate the effect of pinning on the dynamics of a two-dimensional colloidal liquid. This work contains sections reviewing previous work by the authors as well as new, unpublished results. Among the latter are detailed studies of the phase boundaries of the de-mixing regime in binary systems in external light fields, configurations for shear induced effects at structured walls, studies on the effect of confinement on the structures

  15. Contagious Weakness in an Elderly Couple with Neurologic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    zero red cells, 31 protein, and 99 glucose. The gram stain was negative as was the acid-fast bacilli stain. India ink preparation was negative . In...murine bioassay was positive for botulinum toxin A. Stool studies were negative for botulinum toxin. Health department staff went to the patient’s

  16. Towards natural inflation from weakly coupled heterotic string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    We propose the natural inflation from the heterotic string theory on "Swiss-Cheese" Calabi-Yau manifold with multiple $U(1)$ magnetic fluxes. Such multiple $U(1)$ magnetic fluxes stabilize the same number of the linear combination of the universal axion and K\\"ahler axions and one of the K\\"ahler axions is identified as the inflaton. This axion decay constant can be determined by the size of one-loop corrections to the gauge kinetic function of the hidden gauge groups, which leads effectively to the trans-Planckian axion decay constant consistent with the WMAP, Planck and/or BICEP2 data. During the inflation, the real parts of the moduli are also stabilized by employing the nature of the "Swiss-Cheese" Calabi-Yau manifold.

  17. Strong Helioseismic Constraints on Weakly-Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfonov, Alan

    The extraordinary accuracy of helioseismic data allows detailed theoretical studies of solar plasmas. The necessity to produce solar models matching the experimental results in accuracy imposes strong constrains on the equations of state of solar plasmas. Several discrepancies between the experimental data and models have been successfully identified as the signatures of various non-ideal phenomena. Of a particular interest are questions of the position of the energy levels and the continuum edge and of the effect of the excited states in the solar plasma. Calculations of energy level and continuum shifts, based on the Green function formalism, appeared recently in the literature. These results have been used to examine effects of the shifts on the thermodynamic quantities. A comparison with helioseismic data has shown that the calculations based on lower-level approximations, such as the static screening in the effective two-particle wave equation, agree very well with the experimental data. However, the case of full dynamic screening produces thermodynamic quantities inconsistent with observations. The study of the effect of different internal partition functions on a complete set of thermodynamic quantities has revealed the signature of the excited states in the MHD (Mihalas, Hummer, Dappen) equation of state. The presence of exited states causes a characteristic 'wiggle' in the thermodynamic quantities due to the density-dependent occupation probabilities. This effect is absent if the ACTEX (ACTivity EXpansion) equation of state is used. The wiggle has been found to be most prominent in the quantities sensitive to density. The size of this excited states effect is well within the observational power of helioseismology, and very recent inversion analyses of helioseismic data seem to indicate the presence of the wiggle in the sun. This has a potential importance for the helioseismic determination of the helium abundance of the sun.

  18. Cavity QED and quantum computation in the weak coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kazuyuki; Higashida, Kyoko; Kato, Ryosuke; Wada, Yukako

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we consider a model of quantum computation based on n atoms, laser cooled and trapped linearly in a cavity, and realize it as the n-atom Tavis-Cummings Hamiltonian interacting with n external (laser) fields. We solve the Schrödinger equation of the model in the case of n = 2 and construct the controlled NOT gate by making use of a resonance condition and the rotating wave approximation associated with it. Our method is not heuristic but completely mathematical, and the significant feature is the consistent use of Rabi oscillations. We also present an idea for the construction of three controlled NOT gates in the case of n = 3 which gives a controlled-controlled NOT gate.

  19. Cavity QED and Quantum Computation in the Weak Coupling Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, K; Kato, R; Wada, Y; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Higashida, Kyoko; Kato, Ryosuke; Wada, Yukako

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider a model of quantum computation based on n atoms of laser--cooled and trapped linearly in a cavity and realize it as the n atoms Tavis--Cummings Hamiltonian interacting with n external (laser) fields. We solve the Schr{\\" o}dinger equation of the model in the case of n=2 and construct the controlled NOT gate by making use of a resonance condition and rotating wave approximation associated to it. Our method is not heuristic but completely mathematical, and the significant feature is a consistent use of Rabi oscillations. We also present a problem related to the construction of (three) controlled NOT gates in the case of n=3 which gives the controlled-controlled NOT gate.

  20. Cavity QED and quantum computation in the weak coupling regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Kazuyuki; Higashida, Kyoko; Kato, Ryosuke; Wada, Yukako [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we consider a model of quantum computation based on n atoms, laser cooled and trapped linearly in a cavity, and realize it as the n-atom Tavis-Cummings Hamiltonian interacting with n external (laser) fields. We solve the Schroedinger equation of the model in the case of n = 2 and construct the controlled NOT gate by making use of a resonance condition and the rotating wave approximation associated with it. Our method is not heuristic but completely mathematical, and the significant feature is the consistent use of Rabi oscillations. We also present an idea for the construction of three controlled NOT gates in the case of n = 3 which gives a controlled-controlled NOT gate.

  1. Purcell-enhancement of the radiative PL decay in perylenediimides by coupling with silver nanoparticles into waveguide modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretto, Mattia; Zink-Lorre, Nathalie; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P.; Font-Sanchis, Enrique; Chirvony, Vladimir S.; Sastre-Santos, Ángela; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando; Suárez, Isaac

    2017-08-01

    In this work, an interesting approach to enhance the coupling between excitons and plasmons is proposed by integrating highly luminescent perylenediimides (PDIs) and Ag metal nanoparticles (MNPs) in the core of a multilayer dielectric waveguide. The combination of the weak plasmonic coupling and the high scattering of MNPs gives rise to a significant improvement of the PDI photoluminescence and Purcell factor (PF) in forward-scattering geometry. Furthermore, when the PDI-MNP system is used as the core of a multilayer waveguide, a Purcell factor enhancement larger than 10 is observed, which is explained by an increase in the exciton-plasmon coupling under the light confinement in the waveguiding structure as compared to a single layer of PDI emitters.

  2. Holographic confinement in inhomogenous backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Marolf, Donald

    2016-01-01

    As noted by Witten, compactifying a $d$-dimensional holographic CFT on an $S^1$ gives a class of $(d-1)$-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The prototypical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS$_{d+1}$ Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the $S^1$, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for $3 \\le d \\le 8$ using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for $d \\le 6$ but repelled by gradients for $d \\ge 7$, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attract...

  3. Holographic collisions in confining theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Mateos, David; Pani, Paolo; Rocha, Jorge V

    2013-01-01

    We study the gravitational dual of a high-energy collision in a confining gauge theory. We consider a linearized approach in which two point particles traveling in an AdS-soliton background suddenly collide to form an object at rest (presumably a black hole for large enough center-of-mass energies). The resulting radiation exhibits the features expected in a theory with a mass gap: late-time power law tails of the form t^(-3/2), the failure of Huygens' principle and distortion of the wave pattern as it propagates. The energy spectrum is exponentially suppressed for frequencies smaller than the gauge theory mass gap. Consequently, we observe no memory effect in the gravitational waveforms. At larger frequencies the spectrum has an upward-stairway structure, which corresponds to the excitation of the tower of massive states in the confining gauge theory. We discuss the importance of phenomenological cutoffs to regularize the divergent spectrum, and the aspects of the full non-linear collision that are expected ...

  4. Defect topologies in chiral liquid crystals confined to mesoscopic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotthauer, Sergej; Skutnik, Robert A; Stieger, Tillmann; Schoen, Martin

    2015-05-21

    We present Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical and canonical ensembles of a chiral liquid crystal confined to mesochannels of variable sizes and geometries. The mesochannels are taken to be quasi-infinite in one dimension but finite in the two other directions. Under thermodynamic conditions chosen and for a selected value of the chirality coupling constant, the bulk liquid crystal exhibits structural characteristics of a blue phase II. This is established through the tetrahedral symmetry of disclination lines and the characteristic simple-cubic arrangement of double-twist helices formed by the liquid-crystal molecules along all three axes of a Cartesian coordinate system. If the blue phase II is then exposed to confinement, the interplay between its helical structure, various anchoring conditions at the walls of the mesochannels, and the shape of the mesochannels gives rise to a broad variety of novel, qualitative disclination-line structures that are reported here for the first time.

  5. Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2015-05-01

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  6. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  7. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  8. Optically confined polarized resonance Raman studies in identifying crystalline orientation of sub-diffraction limited AlGaN nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivadasan, A. K., E-mail: sivankondazhy@gmail.com; Patsha, Avinash; Dhara, Sandip, E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-04-27

    An optical characterization tool of Raman spectroscopy with extremely weak scattering cross section tool is not popular to analyze scattered signal from a single nanostructure in the sub-diffraction regime. In this regard, plasmonic assisted characterization tools are only relevant in spectroscopic studies of nanoscale object in the sub-diffraction limit. We have reported polarized resonance Raman spectroscopic (RRS) studies with strong electron-phonon coupling to understand the crystalline orientation of a single AlGaN nanowire of diameter ∼100 nm. AlGaN nanowire is grown by chemical vapor deposition technique using the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. The results are compared with the high resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis. As a matter of fact, optical confinement effect due to the dielectric contrast of nanowire with respect to that of surrounding media assisted with electron-phonon coupling of RRS is useful for the spectroscopic analysis in the sub-diffraction limit of 325 nm (λ/2N.A.) using an excitation wavelength (λ) of 325 nm and near ultraviolet 40× far field objective with a numerical aperture (N.A.) value of 0.50.

  9. Chiral restoration of strong coupling QCD at finite temperature and baryon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-04-01

    The strong coupling limit (β=0) of lattice QCD with staggered fermions enjoys the same non-perturbative properties as continuum QCD, namely confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. In contrast to the situation at weak coupling, the sign problem which appears at finite density can be brought under control for a determination of the full (μ,T) phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulations. Further difficulties with efficiency and ergodicity of the simulations, especially at the strongly first-order, low-T, finite-μ transition, are addressed respectively with a worm algorithm and multicanonical sampling. Our simulations reveal sizeable corrections to the old results of Karsch and Mütter. Comparison with analytic mean-field determinations of the phase diagram shows discrepancies of O(10) in the location of the QCD critical point.

  10. Transformer-coupled NMR probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuzawa, Shin; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we propose an NMR probe circuit that uses a transformer with a ferromagnetic core for impedance matching. The ferromagnetic core provides a strong but confined coupling that result in efficient energy transfer between the sample coil and NMR spectrometer, while not disturbing the B1 field generated by the sample coil. We built a transformer-coupled NMR probe and found that it offers comparable performance (loss NQR.

  11. Effects on Calculated Half-Widths and Shifts from the Line Coupling for Asymmetric-Top Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy formalism by considering the line coupling for linear molecules developed in our previous studies [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013); 140, 104304 (2014)] have been extended to asymmetric-top molecules. For H2O immersed in N2 bath, the line coupling selection rules applicable for the pure rotational band to determine whether two specified lines are coupled or not are established. Meanwhile, because the coupling strengths are determined by relative importance of off-diagonal matrix elements versus diagonal elements of the operator -iS1 -S2, quantitative tools are developed with which one is able to remove weakly coupled lines from consideration. By applying these tools, we have found that within reasonable tolerances, most of the H2O lines in the pure rotational band are not coupled. This reflects the fact that differences of energy levels of the H2O states are pretty large. But, there are several dozen strongly coupled lines and they can be categorized into different groups such that the line couplings occur only within the same groups. In practice, to identify those strongly coupled lines and to confine them into sub-linespaces are crucial steps in considering the line coupling. We have calculated half-widths and shifts for some groups, including the line coupling. Based on these calculations, one can conclude that for most of the H2O lines, it is unnecessary to consider the line coupling. However, for several dozens of lines, effects on the calculated half-widths from the line coupling are small, but remain noticeable and reductions of calculated half-widths due to including the line coupling could reach to 5%. Meanwhile, effects on the calculated shifts are very significant and variations of calculated shifts could be as large as 25%.

  12. The Origin of Weak Lensing Convergence Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on $\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$ are improved by a factor of up to ~ 2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational data from the 154 deg$^2$ Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey. We found that while high peaks (with height $\\kappa$ >3.5 $\\sigma_\\kappa$, where $\\sigma_\\kappa$ is the r.m.s. of the convergence $\\kappa$) are typically due to one single massive halo of ~$10^{15}M_\\odot$, low peaks ($\\kappa$ ~ their virial radii), compared with ~0.25 virial radii for halos linked with high peaks, hinting that low peaks are more immune to baryonic processes whose impact is confined to the inner regions of the dark matter halos. Our fi...

  13. Conformal flow on S$^3$ and weak field integrability in AdS$_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Bizoń, Piotr; Evnin, Oleg; Hunik, Dominika; Luyten, Vincent; Maliborski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    We consider the conformally invariant cubic wave equation on the Einstein cylinder $\\mathbb{R} \\times \\mathbb{S}^3$ for small rotationally symmetric initial data. This simple equation captures many key challenges of nonlinear wave dynamics in confining geometries, while a conformal transformation relates it to a self-interacting conformally coupled scalar in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS$_4$) and connects it to various questions of AdS stability. We construct an effective infinite-dimensional time-averaged dynamical system accurately approximating the original equation in the weak field regime. It turns out that this effective system, which we call the \\emph{conformal flow}, exhibits some remarkable features, such as low-dimensional invariant subspaces, a wealth of stationary states (for which energy does not flow between the modes), as well as solutions with nontrivial exactly periodic energy flows. Based on these observations and close parallels to the cubic Szeg\\H{o} equation, which was sh...

  14. Electro-osmosis of nematic liquid crystals under weak anchoring and second-order surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Antarip; Dhar, Jayabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-07-01

    Advent of nematic liquid crystal flows has attracted renewed attention in view of microfluidic transport phenomena. Among various transport processes, electro-osmosis stands as one of the efficient flow actuation mechanisms through narrow confinements. In the present study, we explore the electrically actuated flow of an ordered nematic fluid with ionic inclusions, taking into account the influences from surface-induced elasticity and electrical double layer (EDL) phenomena. Toward this, we devise the coupled flow governing equations from fundamental free-energy analysis, considering the contributions from first- and second-order elastic, dielectric, flexoelectric, charged surface polarization, ionic and entropic energies. The present study focuses on the influence of surface charge and elasticity effects in the resulting linear electro-osmosis through a slit-type microchannel whose surfaces are chemically treated to display a homeotropic-type weak anchoring state. An optical periodic stripe configuration of the nematic director has been observed, especially for higher electric fields, wherein the Ericksen number for the dynamic study is restricted to the order of unity. Contrary to the isotropic electrolytes, the EDL potential in this case was found to be dependent on the external field strength. Through a systematic investigation, we brought out the fact that the wavelength of the oscillating patterns is dictated mainly by the external field, while the amplitude depends on most of the physical variables ranging from the anchoring strength and the flexoelectric coefficients to the surface charge density and electrical double layer thickness.

  15. Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

    2014-10-21

    an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs. In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications.

  16. Methods for two-dimensional cell confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Maël; Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Bonazzi, Daria; Lautenschlaeger, Franziska; Piel, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Protocols described in this chapter relate to a method to dynamically confine cells in two dimensions with various microenvironments. It can be used to impose on cells a given height, with an accuracy of less than 100 nm on large surfaces (cm(2)). The method is based on the gentle application of a modified glass coverslip onto a standard cell culture. Depending on the preparation, this confinement slide can impose on the cells a given geometry but also an environment of controlled stiffness, controlled adhesion, or a more complex environment. An advantage is that the method is compatible with most optical microscopy technologies and molecular biology protocols allowing advanced analysis of confined cells. In this chapter, we first explain the principle and issues of using these slides to confine cells in a controlled geometry and describe their fabrication. Finally, we discuss how the nature of the confinement slide can vary and provide an alternative method to confine cells with gels of controlled rigidity.

  17. Engineered Models of Confined Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Colin D.; Hung, Wei-Chien; Wirtz, Denis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Cells in the body are physically confined by neighboring cells, tissues, and the extracellular matrix. Although physical confinement modulates intracellular signaling and the underlying mechanisms of cell migration, it is difficult to study in vivo. Furthermore, traditional two-dimensional cell migration assays do not recapitulate the complex topographies found in the body. Therefore, a number of experimental in vitro models that confine and impose forces on cells in well-defined microenvironments have been engineered. We describe the design and use of microfluidic microchannel devices, grooved substrates, micropatterned lines, vertical confinement devices, patterned hydrogels, and micropipette aspiration assays for studying cell responses to confinement. Use of these devices has enabled the delineation of changes in cytoskeletal reorganization, cell–substrate adhesions, intracellular signaling, nuclear shape, and gene expression that result from physical confinement. These assays and the physiologically relevant signaling pathways that have been elucidated are beginning to have a translational and clinical impact. PMID:27420571

  18. Constructive Role of Internal Noise for the Detection of Weak Stimulation in a Coupled Biological Cell System%耦合生物细胞体系中内噪声对检测弱刺激的积极作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红英; 毕建洪; 马娟

    2009-01-01

    By constructing a mesoscopic stochastic model for intracellular calcium oscillations in coupled cell system,we investigated the influence of internal noise on the detection of weak stimulation using the chemical Langevin equation(CLE).We found that an optimal cell size V existed for ac oupled cell chain length N and an optimal value of N existed for a given cell size V,At these values,the collective calcium oscillations showed the best performance,indicating the occurrence of"system size resonance(SSR)"or"internal noise stochastic resonance(INSR)".And such a phenomenon Was robust to the coupling strength.Living cells may have learned to exploit the internal noise to detect weak stimulation via the mechanism of INSR,and then encode information to specifically regulate distinct cellular functions.It is interesting to note that the optimal cell size is always present at V≈103 μm3,which is close to the real living cell size in vivo.Since the internal noise in living systems can not be ignored and the systems may often encounter weak stimulations,our findings might have significance for stimulation detecting processes in living systems.%通过构建一个耦合细胞体系中细胞内钙振荡的介观随机模型,采用化学Langevin方程研究了耦合细胞体系中内噪声对检测弱刺激的作用.我们发现:对于给定的耦合细胞链的尺度N,存在一个最佳的细胞体积V;并且对于给定的细胞体积V,同样存在一个最佳的耦合细胞链尺度N,在这种情况下细胞内钙振荡的动力学行为最佳,这表明了"尺度共振"或"内噪声随机共振"现象的发生,并且这种现象是不依赖于耦合强度的.生物细胞很可能能够利用内噪声,并通过内噪声随机共振机制来检测弱刺激,从而编码信息用以调节细胞功能.值得一提的是,最佳的细胞体积V总是位于103μms左右,这与真实的细胞体积很接近.既然生命体系中内噪声是不可避免的,并且体系也经常遇到

  19. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique

    1995-07-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.

  20. Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke After injury to a nerve During a flare-up of multiple sclerosis (MS) You may feel ... Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) Shellfish poisoning OTHER Not enough healthy red blood ...