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Sample records for wbc polymorph lymphocyte

  1. Human lymphocyte polymorphisms detected by quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, D.; Merril, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of 186 soluble lymphocyte proteins for genetic polymorphism was carried out utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis of 14 C-labeled phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte proteins. Nineteen of these proteins exhibited positional variation consistent with independent genetic polymorphism in a primary sample of 28 individuals. Each of these polymorphisms was characterized by quantitative gene-dosage dependence insofar as the heterozygous phenotype expressed approximately 50% of each allelic gene product as was seen in homozygotes. Patterns observed were also identical in monozygotic twins, replicate samples, and replicate gels. The three expected phenotypes (two homozygotes and a heterozygote) were observed in each of 10 of these polymorphisms while the remaining nine had one of the homozygous classes absent. The presence of the three phenotypes, the demonstration of gene-dosage dependence, and our own and previous pedigree analysis of certain of these polymorphisms supports the genetic basis of these variants. Based on this data, the frequency of polymorphic loci for man is: P . 19/186 . .102, and the average heterozygosity is .024. This estimate is approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the rate of polymorphism previously estimated for man in other studies using one-dimensional electrophoresis of isozyme loci. The newly described polymorphisms and others which should be detectable in larger protein surveys with two-dimensional electrophoresis hold promise as genetic markers of the human genome for use in gene mapping and pedigree analyses

  2. [The role of genetic polymorphisms of interleukins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotina, S S; Tikunova, T S; Proshchaev, K I; Efremova, O A; Batlutskaia, I V; Iakunchenko, T I; Sobianin, F I; Churnosov, M I; Alekseev, S M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a multifactorial disease, in which development the important role played the cytokine genes, in particular interleukins. This type of leukemia is more common in the elderly. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin with the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among residents of the Central Chernozem region of Russia. Genotyping of the -889C/T IL-1A, -590C/T IL-4 and VNTR IL-1 Ra was conducted in 206 patients with CLL and 307 individuals of the control group. The study found that the genetic risk factor for the development of CLL is allele -590T IL-4 (OR=-1,45). The development of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLL is associated with genetic variants -889T IL-1A (OR=1,95), -889TT IL-1A (OR=6,2) and IL-1Ra*1 (OR=-2,32).

  3. Pediatric uses of In-111 WBC imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, L.D.; Goodgold, H.M.; Hendershott, L.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of In-111 WBC imaging in pediatrics the authors have examined the records of children seen in the laboratory. During the past 4 years they have performed 45 pediatric In-111 WBC studies, half within 1984 alone, in 40 children aged one month to 20 years. In children under one year old they have labelled WBC from 5-10 cc. of the child's blood. They have preferred to transfuse infants after withdrawal of the blood for labelling rather than label donor blood. In twelve children (30%) there was diagnostic localization of labelled WBCs. Five children had equivocal results while three had distinct but false positive localization. The confusing effect of skin lesions of chicken pox and of lymphadenopathy was apparent in six patients. Thirteen children had normal studies. Overall this study of utilization of In-111 WBC in pediatrics suggests best utilization in colitis and abdominal and pelvic infections and in osteomyelitis, especially in distinguishing osteomyelitis from bone infarcts in sickle cell disease. There appears to be lesser utility in patients with palpable adenopathy or superficial infection. Although In-111 WBC imaging may provide clear evidence for active pneumonitis in cases where a chest x-ray is equivocal, such as cytomegalovirus infection, vague localization in bases of lungs, mediastimum or heart is a relatively common finding without known clinical significance

  4. Different cell moieties and white blood cell (WBC) integrity in In-111 labeled WBC preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Feiglin, D.H.I.; McMahon, J.T.; Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled white blood cells (WBC) have become very popular in detecting inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of different types of cells in WBC preparation for In-111 oxine labeling, and also to assess the histological integrity of WBC's after labeling with In-111 oxine. Forty to fifty cc of blood was collected from each patient and WBC's were separated by sedimentation and centrifugation. After labeling with In-111 oxine, an aliquot of the WBC sample was used for cell counting and a second aliquot was used for electron microscopic (EM) examination. The different cell moieties were counted, and the mean and standard deviation of twelve determinations calculated. Cells were prepared by the standard technique for electron microscopic examination and images of the cells were obtained at different magnifications (X8,000-25,000). The EM images revealed that although minimal cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in the WBC's due to the labeling process, the overall histological integrity of the cells remained intact. The relative labeling efficiency of WBC's is greater than those of RBC's and platelets (J Nuc) Med 25:p98, 1984) and, therefore, even a comparatively low population of WBC's gives optimal imaging due to their increased tracer uptake

  5. Effects of folic acid deficiency and MTHFRC677T polymorphisms on cytotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiayu; Liang Ziqing; Zou Tianning; Wang Xu

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis (APO) and necrosis (NEC) are two different types of cell death occurring in response to cellular stress factors. Cells with DNA damage may undergo APO or NEC. Folate is an essential micronutrient associated with DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) regulates intracellular folate metabolism. Folate deficiency and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms have been shown to be related to DNA damage. To verify the cytotoxic effects of folate deficiency on cells with different MTHFR C677T genotypes, 15 human peripheral lymphocyte cases with different MTHFR C677T genotypes were cultured in folic acid (FA)-deficient and -sufficient media for 9 days. Cytotoxicity was quantified using the frequencies of APO and NEC as endpoints, the nuclear division index (NDI), and the number of viable cells (NVC). These results showed that FA is an important factor in reducing cytotoxicity and increasing cell proliferation. Lymphocytes with the TT genotype proliferated easily under stress and exhibited different responses to FA deficiency than lymphocytes with the CC and CT genotypes. A TT individual may accumulate more cytotoxicity under cytotoxic stress, suggesting that the effects of FA deficiency on cytotoxicity are greater than the effects in individuals with the other MTHFR C677T variants.

  6. In-111 WBC imaging in musculoskeletal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.; Ouzounian, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and utility of the In-111 labeled WBC imaging in a series of patients who were suspected of having musculoskeletal sepsis. The labeling of the WBCs was patterned after a method previously described, in which the WBCs are labeled with In-111 oxine in plasma. The WBCs from 100 ml of blood are separated and incubated with In-111 oxine complex, and then 500 μCi. of the labeled cells were reinjected into the patient. Images of the areas in question were obtained at 24 hrs. In some instances, 48 hour images were also obtained. Images were interpreted using consistent criteria. Forty imaging procedures were done on 39 patients. These included 39 total joint protheses, and 17 other images to evaluate possible osteomyelitis, septic arthritis or deep abscesses. Of these studies, 15 were positive, and 42 negative. The findings were then correlated with operative culture and pathology in 21, aspiration cultures and gram stains in 14, and with clinical findings in the remaining 21. This correlation showed 41 true negatives, 12 true positives, 1 false negative, and 2 false positives. The sensitivity was 92.9% and the specificity was 95.2%l. The false negative occurred in a patient on chronic suppressive antibiotic therapy for an infected total hip replacement. The false positive images occurred in a patient with active rheumatoid arthritis and in a patient imaged one month post operative placement of the prosthesis. These images were very useful in several septic patients who had many possible sites of infection. The authors conclude that In-III imaging is an accurate and useful non-invasive method of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis

  7. Indium 111 WBC scan in local and systemic fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseman, M.K.; Blake, K.; McDougall, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    We describe two patients-one with a systemic fungal infection and one with a localized form-who had strikingly abnormal indium 111 leukocyte (WBC) scans. The patient with systemic disease had an abnormal WBC scan before lesions became clinically apparent

  8. The assessment of micronucleus frequency in lymphocytes in the cohort of coal-miners characterized by different polymorphisms of double strand break reparation genes

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    Maxim Yur'yevich Sinitsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coal-miners are exposed to a lot of number of harmful factors (chemical agents, ionizing radiation, heavy metals, coal dust etc.. Material and methods: Venous blood samples extracted from 129 coal-miners. Assessment of cytogenetic damage was performed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN on peripheral blood lymphocytes. PCR and gel electrophoresis were used to determine polymorphisms in the genes Lig4 (rs1805388 and XRCC4 (rs6869366. Results: We found a significant increase in the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (MN and protrusions in carriers of the Ile/ Ile genotype of the Lig4 gene Thr9Ile polymorphism in comparison to Thr/Thr and Thr/Ile genotypes. Conclusions: Thr9Ile polymorphism within Lig4 gene can be used as potential molecular genetic markers of increased individual susceptibility to the complex of harmful factors in coal-mining conditions.

  9. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated molecule -4 (CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms in ovarian cancer patients

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    Sirous Naeimi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cancer is a relatively common cancer among postmenopausal women. Nowadays, there is controversy about immunotherapy of ovarian cancer patients with interleukins such as interferon to reach better out come in prognosis of patients under chemotherapy. CTLA-4 is a gene, which has an important role in homeostasis and regulation of immune response. Inhibitory nature of CTLA-4 is proved to be of significance in autoimmune diseases as well as in cancer. In this study we intend to find out the relationship between polymorphisms of this gene at the sites of +49 A/G and -318 C/T and ovarian cancer.Methods: The polymorphisms of the CTLA-4 gene at the sites of +49 A/G exon and -318 C/T promoter were investigated. Blood samples of 73 patients with ovarian cancer and 115 healthy subjects used for DNA extraction. Two groups genotypes and alleles were determined using PCR method and compared by statistical t-student test.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in genotypes and alleles prevalence of +49 A/G and -317 C/T between two groups (p>0.05.Conclusion: Further researches with larger sample size while paying attention to the relation between the gene polymorphism and stage and type of tumor is recommended.

  10. Detection of individual radiosensitivity by radiation–induced micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes

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    Staynova, A.; Hadjidekova, V.; Popova, L.; Hristova, R. [Radiation Genetics Laboratory, National Centre of Radiobology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Savov, A. [National Genetic Laboratory, University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    Aim: To investigate the association of two polymorphisms – in XRCC1 gene (Arg399Gln) and in APE1 gene (Asp148Glu) and the radiation induced frequency of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Material and methods: Genomic DNA from 34 cancer patients and 52 controls were genotyped using PCR–RFLP technique. Micronucleus test (MNT) was performed on 15 cancer patients and 15 controls, before and after in vitro irradiation with 2Gy gamma rays. Results: The data showed that cancer patients had a significantly higher spontaneous frequency of cells with micronuclei than controls (P=0.009). No statistical difference was registered when comparing the mean frequency of cells with micronuclei after in vitro irradiation between these groups. Four subjects were selected as radiosensitive after applying cut–off of the mean frequency of radiation induced micronuclei. Three of them are carriers of the XRCC1 399Gln allele and two of them are carriers of the APE1 148Glu allele. (author)

  11. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in human lymphocytes as biomarker of exposure: effect of dioxin exposure and polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duursen, M. van; Sanderson, T.; Berg, M. van den [Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    There are several known genetic polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes. A polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the CYP1A1 gene (CYP1A1 MspI or CYP1A1 m1) is often studied in relation with breast or lung cancer, but little is known about the functional effect of this polymorphism. An amino acid substitution in codon 432 (Val to Leu) of the CYP1B1 gene is associated with a lower catalytic activity of the enzyme. However, the involvement of these polymorphisms on the inducibility of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression is unclear. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression levels can be determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This makes them potential candidates for use as biomarker of exposure to environmental compounds. Interindividual variations in mRNA expression patterns, catalytic activity and polymorphisms are very important factors when CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression patterns are used as biomarker of exposure, but little is known about it. Spencer et al. showed a concentration-dependent increase of CYP1B1 mRNA in lymphocytes upon exposure in vitro to 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD), the most potent dioxin. Yet, only a few studies describe the in vivo correlation between polymorphisms, mRNA expression level and exposure to environmental factors. In this study, we wanted to obtain a better insight in the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression and enzyme activity in human lymphocytes. We determined the constitutive CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in lymphocytes of ten healthy volunteers and the variability in sensitivity toward enzyme induction by TCDD. Further, the CYP1A1 m1 and CYP1B1 Val432Leu polymorphisms were determined.

  12. Influence of SNP Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes on the Level of Persistent Damage in Human Lymphocytes After Exposure to 2 Gy of Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, M.; Rozgaj, R.; Kasuba, V.; Kubelka, D.; Angelini, S.; Hrelia, P.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in cell response to ionising radiation could be result of changes in gene expression and/or polymorphisms of DNA repair genes. The aim of the study was to estimate the DNA damage level in human lymphocytes after exposure to 2 Gy of ionising radiation. Medical workers occupationally exposed to low doses of ionising radiation (N = 20) and matched controls (N 20) were genotyped for polymorphic hOGG1, XRCC1, APE1, XPD10, XPD23, XRCC3, PARP1 and MGMT genes. Micronucleus (MN) test was used for the estimation of DNA damage before and after radiation. Incidence of MN in irradiated samples positively correlated with age and negatively with polymorphic variants of XPD23. Significant difference was observed between irradiated homozygotes (HO) and heterozygotes (HE). HO and HE APE1 differed in MN before exposure. HO and polymorphic variants of XPD10 differed in MN after exposure. Gender showed different MN in the exposed group after exposure. Age correlated positively with MN after exposure, working probation and received dose. Multiple regression analysis revealed connection between polymorphic variants of APE1 and XRCC3 with MN before exposure. These results confirm the value of micronucleus assay in DNA damage estimation and suggest possible use of polymorphic genes in monitoring of individuals professionaly exposed to ionising radiation. (author)

  13. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa ( C. longa ) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO 2 , NO 3 , MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Total and most differential WBC count, NO 2 , NO 3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls ( P longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group ( P longa and curcumin ( P longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.

  14. The -137G/C Polymorphism in Interleukin-18 Gene Promoter Contributes to Chronic Lymphocytic and Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Risk in Turkish Patients

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    Serap Yalçın

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interleukin-18 (IL-18 is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 superfamily and is secreted by various immune and nonimmune cells. Evidence has shown that IL-18 has both anticancer and procancer effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between IL-18 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL and chronic myelogenous leukemias (CML in Turkish patients. Materials and Methods: The frequencies of polymorphisms (rs61667799(G/T, rs5744227(C/G, rs5744228(A/G, and rs187238(G/C were studied in 20 CLL patients, 30 CML patients, and 30 healthy individuals. The genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analysis. Results: Significant associations were detected between the IL-18 rs187238(G/C polymorphism and chronic leukemia. A higher prevalence of the C allele was found in CML cases with respect to controls. The GC heterozygous and CC homozygous genotypes were associated with risk of CML when compared with controls. However, prevalence of the C allele was not significantly high in CLL cases with respect to controls. There was only a significant difference between the homozygous CC genotype of CLL patients and the control group; thus, it can be concluded that the CC genotype may be associated with the risk of CLL. Based on our data, there were no significant associations between the IL-18 rs61667799(G/T, rs5744227(C/G, or rs5744228(A/G polymorphisms and CLL or CML. Conclusions: IL-18 gene promoter rs187238(G/C polymorphism is associated with chronic leukemia in the Turkish population. However, due to the limited number of studied patients, these are preliminary results that show the association between -137G/C polymorphism and patients (CLL and CML. Further large-scale studies combined with haplotype and expression analysis are required to validate the current findings.

  15. An accurate test for acute appendicitis: In-111 WBC imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, D.A.; Weber, P.M.; Kang, I.Y.; dosRemedios, L.V.; Jasko, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    The decision to operate when acute appendicitis (APPY) is suspected is often difficult. Surgeons accept up to a 20% false positive rate to avoid any delay that may result in appendiceal rupture and peritonitis. The authors have successfully improved early diagnostic accuracy by using abdominal imaging beginning 2 hours after injecting In-111 labeled WBC. Patients with clear-cut (APPY) had laparotomy and were not studied. Those who were to be observed in the ER for possible (APPY) had their leukocytes harvested, labeled with In-111 oxine, and reinjected. Abnormal localized activity in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) imaged at 2 hours was graded relative to bone marrow activity (8M): 0, 1+ BM. When available the surgical specimen was imaged for In-111 activity. Of 31 patients studied there were 13 with positive scans for (APPY) all surgically confirmed. There were 4 additional abnormal studies all demonstrating known diagnostic patterns, 2 of pertonitis and 2 of colitis. There were 14 negative studies in 8 of whom the clinical course was benign; the remaining 6 had laparotomy with 3 having (APPY) and 3 not. Thus there were no false positives and 3 false negatives. One case negative at 2 hours had appendiceal activity later. The 3 cases with 3+ activity all had apendiceal abscesses. This new application of In-111 oxine WBC imaging is safe, simple, sensitive and specific. It shortens the time to surgical intervention and should reduce the surgical false positive rate

  16. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Selected Apoptotic Genes and BPDE-Induced Apoptotic Capacity in Apparently Normal Primary Lymphocytes: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.; Li, Ch.; Chen, K.; Wang, L.E.; Sturgis, E.M.; Spitz, M.R.; Wei, Q.; Sturgis, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptotic capacity (AC) in primary lymphocytes may be a marker for cancer susceptibility, and functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in apoptotic pathways may modulate cellular AC in response to DNA damage. To further examine the correlation between apoptotic genotypes and phenotype, we geno typed 14 published SNPs in 11 apoptosis-related genes (i.e., p53, Bcl-2, BAX, CASP9, DR4, Fas, FasL, CASP8, CASP10, CASP3, and CASP7) and assessed the AC in response to benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-9,10-diol epoxide (BPDE) in cultured primary lymphocytes from 172 cancer-free subjects. We found that among these 14 SNPs, R72P, intron 3 16-bp del/ins, and intron 6 G>A in , −938C>A in Bcl-2, and I522L in CASP10 were significant predictors of the BPDE-induced lymphocytic AC in single-locus analysis. In the combined analysis of the three variants, we found that the individuals with the diplotypes carrying 0-1 copy of the common R-del-G haplotype had higher AC values compared to other genotypes. Although the study size may not have the statistical power to detect the role of other SNPs in AC, our findings suggest that some SNPs in genes involved in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway may modulate lymphocytic AC in response to BPDE exposure in the general population. Larger studies are needed to validate these findings for further studying individual susceptibility to cancer and other apoptosis-related diseases

  17. Antigenotoxic Effect of Curcumin and Carvacrol against Parathion Induced DNA Damage in Cultured Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Its Relation to GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphism

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    Neeraj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of organophosphorus pesticides has been extensively increased and these compounds signify a major class of agricultural pesticides today. We studied antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol against the parathion induced DNA damage in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes using sister chromatid exchanges as a biomarker of genotoxicity. Heparinised fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with 2.5 μg/mL concentration of parathion in presence of curcumin and carvacrol in order to observe the antigenotoxic potential of both curcumin and carvacrol. Significant reduction (P0.05 of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism on genotoxicity of parathion and antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol.

  18. Carriage of a Tumor Necrosis Factor Polymorphism Amplifies the Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 Attributed Risk of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Evidence for a Gene–Gene Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Brian D.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Larson, Joseph J.; Schlicht, Erik M.; Liu, Xiangdong; Heathcote, E. Jenny; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2010-01-01

    Common genetic variants significantly influence complex diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We recently reported an association between PBC and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs231725) of the immunoreceptor gene cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4). We hypothesized that PBC risk attributed to this polymorphism might be increased by propensity to an overly robust inflammatory response. Thus, we examined its potential interaction with the commonly studied −308AG promoter polymorphism (rs1800629) of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene for which the variant TNF2A allele causes increased TNF production. The polymorphisms were genotyped in 866 PBC patients and 761 controls from independent US and Canadian registries; the effects of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their interaction on PBC risk was assessed by logistic regression. The reported association of PBC with the CTLA4 “A/A” genotype was replicated in the Canadian cohort and significant for PBC risk in the combined data (odds ratio [OR], 1.68; P = 0.0005). TNF2A allele frequency was elevated in PBC patients, but only reached borderline significance using the combined data (OR, 1.21; P = 0.042). Analysis showed that TNF2A carriage was significantly increased in CTLA4 “A/A” PBC patients compared with CTLA4 “A/A” controls (39.7% versus 16.5%, P = 0.0004); no apparent increase of TNF2A carriage was noted in CTLA4 “A/G” or “G/G” individuals. Finally, interaction under a logistic model was highly significant, as TNF2A carriage in combination with the CTLA4 “A/A” genotype was present in 6.5% of PBC patients, compared with 1.7% of controls (OR, 3.98; P < 0.0001). Conclusion TNF2A amplifies the CTLA4 rs231725 “A/A” genotype risk for PBC. Although the mechanisms remain unclear, the premise that deficiency in T-cell regulation resulting in an increased risk of PBC is amplified by overexpression of an important proinflammatory cytokine provides a basis

  19. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

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    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  20. Bico 2: second national intercomparison campaign of WBC centres working in Italy; Bico 2: la seconda campagna MIDIA di interconfronto dei WBC operanti in Italia

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    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    During the period November 1994 - May 1995 the coordinating group of WBC centres working in Italy organised the 2. national intercalibration and intercomparison campaign. A BOMAB phantom was used filled with four radionuclides gel solution with gamma energy emissions ranging between 100 keV and 2 MeV. 17 out of 21 Italian WBC centres took part in the campaign. Through the intercalibration, organised according to internationally accepted methodologies, each WBC centre could check its own calibration procedures. many intermediate data, collected for the methodologies and measurement procedures intercomparison, permitted analyses and comparison of uncertainly causes in a WBC measurement of the internal contamination. A proposal of MDA definition and assessment procedure resulted from the intercomparison campaign. [Italiano] Il Coordinamento dei Centri WBC operanti in Italia ha organizzato la seconda campagna di intercalibrazione ed interconfronto nazionale basata sulle misure di un fantoccio BOMAB riempito con una soluzione radioattiva gelificata contenente 4 radionuclidi con emissioni gamma nell`intervallo energetico compreso fra 100 keV e 2 MeV. Alla campagna, che si e` svolta fra novembre 1994 e maggio 1995, hanno partecipato 17 dei 21 Centri WBC censiti in Italia. L`intercalibrazione e` stata organizzata secondo criteri ormai consolidati in campo internazionale ed ha permesso ad ognuno dei partecipanti di verificare le proprie procedure di calibrazione. Per l`interconfronto delle procedure e dei metodi di misura impiegati e` stata raccolta una serie di dati intermedi che hanno consentito di analizzare e confrontare le fonti di incertezza insite nella misura di contaminazione interna nell`uomo tramite WBC. Cio` ha infine reso possibile una proposta di definizione e di procedura di determinazione del valore della minima attivita` rivelabile (MDA) in accordo con le piu` recenti tendenze in campo internazionale.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in 19q13.3 genes associated with alteration of repair capacity to BPDE-DNA adducts in primary cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingyang; Xiao, Sha; Straaten, Tahar van der; Xue, Ping; Zhang, Guopei; Zheng, Xiao; Zhang, Qianye; Cai, Yuan; Jin, Cuihong; Yang, Jinghua; Wu, Shengwen; Zhu, Guolian; Lu, Xiaobo

    2016-12-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P), and its ultimate metabolite Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), are classic DNA damaging carcinogens. DNA damage in cells caused by BPDE is normally repaired by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) and Base Excision Repair (BER). Genetic variations in NER and BER can change individual DNA repair capacity to DNA damage induced by BPDE. In the present study we determined the number of in vitro induced BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocytes, to reflect individual susceptibility to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-induced carcinogenesis. The BPDE-DNA adduct level in lymphocytes were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 281 randomly selected participants. We genotyped for 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in NER (XPB rs4150441, XPC rs2228001, rs2279017 and XPF rs4781560), BER (XRCC1 rs25487, rs25489 and rs1799782) and genes located on chromosome 19q13.2-3 (PPP1R13L rs1005165 and CAST rs967591). We found that 3 polymorphisms in chromosome 19q13.2-3 were associated with lower levels of BPDE-DNA adducts (MinorT allele in XRCC1 rs1799782, minor T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 and minor A allele in CAST rs967571). In addition, a modified comet assay was performed to further confirm the above conclusions. We found both minor T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 and minor A allele in CAST rs967571 were associated with the lower levels of BPDE-adducts. Our data suggested that the variant genotypes of genes in chromosome 19q13.2-3 are associated with the alteration of repair efficiency to DNA damage caused by Benzo[a]pyrene, and may contribute to enhance predictive value for individual's DNA repair capacity in response to environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 99Tcm stannous WBC study in childhood inflammatory bowel disease- what benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman-Giles, R.; Porn, U.; Peacock, K.; O'Loughlin, E.; Uren, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasingly recognised in the paediatric population. Management requires early diagnosis with determination of disease localisation and intensity. The 99 Tc m labelled white blood cell (WBC) study has been used for IBD in adults but little data is available in children. The most common agent used is 99 Tc m HMPAO however, this is time consuming and expensive. The use of 99 Tc m sulphur colloid labelled WBC is an easy, reliable technique. 70 patients aged 2-19 years (mean 12.7) were studied. Planar and SPECT imaging was performed at one and three hours. 38 patients with proven IBD had positive WBC. Of 32 with negative WBC, five had IBD, however, three were on treatment with steroids. 18 patients had barium radiography (BR): nine (50%) were positive for IBD whereas 18 (100%) were positive on WBC. Comparison with endoscopy showed good correlation of areas involved in 45%, 18% had different areas and 36% had more areas defined on endoscopy. In the latter group 14% had positive endoscopy in the stomach and duodenum, which are area not visualised on WBC studies. The WBC has a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 93%. For BR the sensitivity was 53%, specificity 100% and accuracy 63%. Conclusion: WBC is a good screening investigation for IBD prior to having other invasive investigations. This study would suggest that the barium radiographic study does not offer additional benefits over the WBC and endoscopy in determining the initial diagnosis and extent of the disease. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. Correlation between base-excision repair gene polymorphisms and levels of in-vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Yu

    Full Text Available In vitro benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral lymphocytes have been shown to be a phenotypic biomarker of individual's DNA repair phenotype that is associated with cancer risk. In this study, we explored associations between genotypes of base-excision repair genes (PARP1 Val762Ala, APEX1 Asp148Glu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln and in vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in 706 cancer-free non-Hispanic white subjects. We found that levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers and that individuals with the Glu variant genotypes (i.e., Asp/Glu and Glu/Glu exhibited lower levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts than did individuals with the common Asp/Asp homozygous genotype (median RAL levels: 32.0 for Asp/Asp, 27.0 for Asp/Glu, and 17.0 for Glu/Glu, respectively; P(trend = 0.030. Further stratified analysis showed that compared with individuals with the common APEX1-148 homozygous Asp/Asp genotype, individuals with the APEX1-148Asp/Glu genotype or the Glu/Glu genotype had a lower risk of having higher-level adducts (adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98 and adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.86, respectively; P(trend = 0.012 among smokers. Such an effect was not observed in non-smokers. However, there was no significant interaction between the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and smoking exposure in this study population (P = 0.512. Additional genotype-phenotype analysis found that the APEX1-148Glu allele had significantly increased expression of APEX1 mRNA in 270 Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, which is likely associated with more active repair activity. Our findings suggest that the functional APEX1-148Glu allele is associated with reduced risk of having high levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts mediated with high levels of mRNA expression.

  4. Bone remodelling biomarkers after whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliera, Emanuela; Dogliotti, Giada; Melegati, Gianluca; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano M; Cabitza, Paolo; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of a brief exposure to extreme cold air (-110°C) in a controlled chamber and it is applied in sports medicine to improve recovery from musculoskeletal trauma. The aim of this study is to better define the beneficial effect of WCB on the musculoskeletal system of athletes, in particular on bone remodelling. Remodelling osteoimmunological biomarkers OPG, RANKL and RANK were measured after WBC treatment in 10 male rugby players randomly selected from the Italian National team. OPG levels were increased significantly, supporting the view that WBC induces an osteogenic effect. Further studies evaluating the effect of WBC on bone metabolism are desirable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bico 2: second national intercomparison campaign of WBC centres working in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1998-01-01

    During the period November 1994 - May 1995 the coordinating group of WBC centres working in Italy organised the 2. national intercalibration and intercomparison campaign. A BOMAB phantom was used filled with four radionuclides gel solution with gamma energy emissions ranging between 100 keV and 2 MeV. 17 out of 21 Italian WBC centres took part in the campaign. Through the intercalibration, organised according to internationally accepted methodologies, each WBC centre could check its own calibration procedures. many intermediate data, collected for the methodologies and measurement procedures intercomparison, permitted analyses and comparison of uncertainly causes in a WBC measurement of the internal contamination. A proposal of MDA definition and assessment procedure resulted from the intercomparison campaign [it

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA gene polymorphisms have an impact on survival in a subgroup of indolent patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Lozano-Santos

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-mediated angiogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL. We investigated the impact of VEGFA gene diversity on the clinical outcome of patients with this disease. A VEGFA haplotype conformed by positions rs699947 (-1540C>A, rs833061 (-460T>C and rs2010963 (405C>G and two additional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs3025039 (936C>T and rs25648 (1032C>T, were analysed in 239 patients at the time of their CLL diagnosis. Here, we showed that homozygosity for rs699947/rs833061/rs2010963 ACG haplotype (ACG+/+ genotype correlated with a reduced survival in CLL patients (ACG+/+ vs other genotypes: HR = 2.3, p = 0.002; recessive model. In multivariate analysis, the ACG+/+ genotype was identified as a novel independent prognostic factor (HR = 2.1, p = 0.005. Moreover, ACG homozygosity subdivided patients with CLL with otherwise indolent parameters into prognostic subgroups with different outcomes. Specifically, patients carrying the ACG+/+ genotype with mutated IgVH, very low and low-risk cytogenetics, initial clinical stage, CD38 negative status or early age at diagnosis showed a shorter survival (ACG+/+ vs other genotypes: HR = 3.5, p = 0.035; HR = 3.4, p = 0.001; HR = 2.2, p = 0.035; HR = 3.4, p = 0.0001 and HR = 3.1, p = 0.009, respectively. In conclusion, VEGFA ACG+/+ genotype confers an adverse effect in overall survival in CLL patients with an indolent course of the disease. These observations support the biological and prognostic implications of VEGFA genetics in CLL.

  7. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  8. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AND CYTOGENETIC CHANGES IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD T-LYMPHOCYTES OF PATIENTS WITH ARTHRITIS ASSOCIATED WITH IXODES TICK-BORNE BORRELIOSIS IN THE NORTHERN REGIONS OF SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ilyinskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have previously conducted studies that demonstrate the increased level of cytogenetic disturbances in patients with Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (ITB. The severity of arthritis associated with ITB (AITB is also ascertained to depend on whether the patient has certain HLA-DRB1 alleles.Objective: to assess the association between HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and cytogenetic changes in the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of patients with AITB.Subjects and methods. 146 patients with AITB, 100 clinically healthy convalescents with ITB (CITB, and a control group of 98 healthy blood donors (HBDs without a history of tick-borne infections were examined using cytogenetic (micronucleus analysis of cytokinesis-blocked peripheral blood T lymphocytes and molecular genetic (PCR analysis of HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism methods.Results and discussion. The frequency of cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes with micronuclei in the AITB group was significantly higher than that in the CITB and HBD groups (p<0.01 with the exception of the results obtained in the subgroup of patients with AITB who had the DRB1*10 allele (p>0.05. The highest levels of lymphocytes with micronuclei were observed in AITB patients with the DRB1*17(03, *01, and *04 alleles as compared to those in the CITB and HBD groups (p<0.001. The CITB group showed the most significant increase in the detection rate of lymphocytes with micronuclei in people with the DRB1*01, DRB1*04, or *17(03 alleles. At the same time, there were no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes with micronuclei in the HBD group, depending on the HLA-DRB1 gene alleles (p>0.05. Thus, the patients with AITB had the highest frequency of cytogenetic disorders with the exception of individuals with the DRB1*10 allele.

  9. Comparison of cryopreservation bags for hematopoietic progenitor cells using a WBC-enriched product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Hazelaar, Sandra; Gkoumassi, Effimia; Weggemans, Margienus; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) are stored in cryopreservation bags that are resistant to liquid nitrogen. Since Cryocyte bags of Baxter (B-bags) are no longer available, an alternative bag was sought. Also, the influence of freezing volume was studied. Miltenyi Biotec (MB)- and MacoPharma (MP)-bags passed the integrity tests without failure. Comparing MB- and MP-bags with B-bags, no difference in WBC recovery or viability was found when using a WBC-enriched product as a "dummy" HPC product. Further, a freezing volume of 30 mL resulted in better WBC recovery and viability than 60 mL. Additonal studies using real HPC might be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lack of association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 -1722T/C (rs733618 polymorphism and cancer risk: from a case-control study to a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 gene -1722T/C polymorphism (rs733618 and cancer has been widely assessed, and a definitive conclusion remains elusive. We first performed a hospital based case-control study to measure this association of esophageal cancer with CTLA-4 -1722T/C polymorphism in Han Chinese population, and then carried out a meta-analysis to obtain a comprehensive evaluation for this issue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This case-control study involved 629 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC cases and 686 age and gender well matched cancer-free controls. PCR-LDR (polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reactions method was used to identify genotypes. Meta-analysis was conducted by STATA (v12.0 software. This case-control study showed no significant difference in the genotype and allele distributions of CTLA-4 -1722T/C polymorphism between esophageal cancer cases and control subjects, in accord with the findings of the further meta-analysis in all genetic models. Evidence of large heterogeneity was observed among all eligible studies in the recessive model. Further subgroup analyses by ethnicity, cancer type and system, detected null associations in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: This case-control study and the further meta-analysis, failed to identify the association between CTLA-4 -1722T/C polymorphism and cancer risk.

  11. A new method for evaluating worst- and best-case (WBC) economic consequences of technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1996-01-01

    This paper is addressing the problem of evaluating economic worst- and best-care (WBC) consequences of technological development in industrial companies faking into account uncertainties and lack of exact cost and market information. In the theoretical part of the paper, the mathematical concepts...

  12. Rapid assessment of repair of ultraviolet DNA damage with a modified host-cell reactivation assay using a luciferase reporter gene and correlation with polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in normal human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Yawei; Spitz, Margaret R.; Guo Zhaozheng; Hadeyati, Mohammad; Grossman, Lawrence; Kraemer, Kenneth H.; Wei Qingyi

    2002-11-30

    As DNA repair plays an important role in genetic susceptibility to cancer, assessment of the DNA repair phenotype is critical for molecular epidemiological studies of cancer. In this report, we compared use of the luciferase (luc) reporter gene in a host-cell reactivation (HCR) (LUC) assay of repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage to DNA to use of the chloramphenicol (cat) gene-based HCR (CAT) assay we used previously for case-control studies. We performed both the assays on cryopreserved lymphocytes from 102 healthy non-Hispanic white subjects. There was a close correlation between DNA repair capacity (DRC) as measured by the LUC and CAT assays. Although these two assays had similar variation, the LUC assay was faster and more sensitive. We also analyzed the relationship between DRC and the subjects' previously determined genotypes for four polymorphisms of two nucleotide-excision repair (NER) genes (in intron 9 of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) C and exons 6, 10 and 23 of XPD) and one polymorphism of a base-excision repair gene in exon 10 of X-ray complementing group 1 (XRCC1). The DRC was significantly lower in subjects homozygous for one or more polymorphisms of the two NER genes than in subjects with other genotypes (P=0.010). In contrast, the polymorphic XRCC1 allele had no significant effect on DRC. These results suggest that the post-UV LUC assay measures NER phenotype and that polymorphisms of XPC and XPD genes modulate DRC. For population studies of the DNA repair phenotype, many samples need to be evaluated, and so the LUC assay has several advantages over the CAT assay: the LUC assay was more sensitive, had less variation, was not radioactive, was easier to perform, and required fewer cryopreserved cells. These features make the LUC-based HCR assay suitable for molecular epidemiological studies.

  13. A methodology to develop computational phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Fonseca, T. C.; Bogaerts, R.; Hunt, John; Vanhavere, F.

    2014-11-01

    A Whole Body Counter (WBC) is a facility to routinely assess the internal contamination of exposed workers, especially in the case of radiation release accidents. The calibration of the counting device is usually done by using anthropomorphic physical phantoms representing the human body. Due to such a challenge of constructing representative physical phantoms a virtual calibration has been introduced. The use of computational phantoms and the Monte Carlo method to simulate radiation transport have been demonstrated to be a worthy alternative. In this study we introduce a methodology developed for the creation of realistic computational voxel phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration. The methodology makes use of different software packages to enable the creation and modification of computational voxel phantoms. This allows voxel phantoms to be developed on demand for the calibration of different WBC configurations. This in turn helps to study the major source of uncertainty associated with the in vivo measurement routine which is the difference between the calibration phantoms and the real persons being counted. The use of realistic computational phantoms also helps the optimization of the counting measurement. Open source codes such as MakeHuman and Blender software packages have been used for the creation and modelling of 3D humanoid characters based on polygonal mesh surfaces. Also, a home-made software was developed whose goal is to convert the binary 3D voxel grid into a MCNPX input file. This paper summarizes the development of a library of phantoms of the human body that uses two basic phantoms called MaMP and FeMP (Male and Female Mesh Phantoms) to create a set of male and female phantoms that vary both in height and in weight. Two sets of MaMP and FeMP phantoms were developed and used for efficiency calibration of two different WBC set-ups: the Doel NPP WBC laboratory and AGM laboratory of SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium.

  14. A methodology to develop computational phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, T C Ferreira; Vanhavere, F; Bogaerts, R; Hunt, John

    2014-01-01

    A Whole Body Counter (WBC) is a facility to routinely assess the internal contamination of exposed workers, especially in the case of radiation release accidents. The calibration of the counting device is usually done by using anthropomorphic physical phantoms representing the human body. Due to such a challenge of constructing representative physical phantoms a virtual calibration has been introduced. The use of computational phantoms and the Monte Carlo method to simulate radiation transport have been demonstrated to be a worthy alternative. In this study we introduce a methodology developed for the creation of realistic computational voxel phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration. The methodology makes use of different software packages to enable the creation and modification of computational voxel phantoms. This allows voxel phantoms to be developed on demand for the calibration of different WBC configurations. This in turn helps to study the major source of uncertainty associated with the in vivo measurement routine which is the difference between the calibration phantoms and the real persons being counted. The use of realistic computational phantoms also helps the optimization of the counting measurement. Open source codes such as MakeHuman and Blender software packages have been used for the creation and modelling of 3D humanoid characters based on polygonal mesh surfaces. Also, a home-made software was developed whose goal is to convert the binary 3D voxel grid into a MCNPX input file. This paper summarizes the development of a library of phantoms of the human body that uses two basic phantoms called MaMP and FeMP (Male and Female Mesh Phantoms) to create a set of male and female phantoms that vary both in height and in weight. Two sets of MaMP and FeMP phantoms were developed and used for efficiency calibration of two different WBC set-ups: the Doel NPP WBC laboratory and AGM laboratory of SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. (paper)

  15. Thyroid Dose Estimation Using WBC and I-131 Concentration in Working Area of Radioisotope Production at Normal Operation; Perkiraan Dosis Thyroid Melalui Pengukuran WBC dan Perhitungan dengan Konsentrasi I-131 Di Daerah Kerja Pada Operasi Normal Produksi Radioisotop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedjasari, R S; Lubis, E [Radioactive-Waste Management Technology Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia(Indonesia)

    1996-07-01

    Thyroid dose estimation at Radioisotope Production Centre workers using WBC and calculation based on I-131 concentration in working area has been done. The aim of this research is to get the relation between WBC result and calculation using I-131 concentration in working area. The result indicates differences in a range of 3,2% to 53,2%. These differences caused of parameters which influence the calculation are not accurate. These results also indicate that dose estimation using WBC is relatively batter and more accurate but need to have certain information about time of intake.

  16. Predictive role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios for diagnosis of acute appendicitis during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Yazar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis (AA is not uncommon during pregnancy but can be difficult to diagnose. This study evaluated the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR in addition to conventional diagnostic indicators of the disease to diagnose AA during pregnancy. Age, gestational age, white blood cell (WBC count, Alvarado scores, C-reactive protein (CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR were compared among 28 pregnant women who underwent surgery for AA, 35 pregnant women wrongly suspected as having AA, 29 healthy pregnant women, and 30 nonpregnant healthy women. Mean WBC counts and CRP levels were higher in women with proven AA than in those of control groups (all p < 0.05. Among all the groups, the median NLR and PLR were significantly different in women with proven AA (all p < 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine cut-off values for WBC count, CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR and PLR used with routine methods could diagnose AA with 90.5% accuracy. Used in addition to routine diagnostic methods, NLR and PLR increased the accuracy of the diagnosis of AA in pregnant women.

  17. Whole-Body Counter(WBC) and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Nomura, Kazuki; Tsushima, Eiki; Kudo, Kohsei; Noto, Yuka; Nishizawa, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied. The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2%) of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area. We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  18. Whole-Body Counter(WBC and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Hosokawa

    Full Text Available This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees.The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012 and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015 were analyzed and studied.The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2% of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area.We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  19. Conservation of Tcrg-V5 and limited allelic sequence polymorphism of the other Tcrg-V genes used by mouse tissue-specific gd-T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, T.; Morisset, J.; Seman, M. [Universite Denis Diderot, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The mouse Tcrg locus comprises seven Tcrg-V, four Tcrg-J, and four Tcrg-C segments which generate only six major types of functional g chains, Vg7-, Vg4-, Vg6-, or Vg5-Jg1-Cg1, Vg2-Jg2-Cg2, and Vg1-Jg4-Cg4. A complete analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the Tcrg locus in wild and inbred mice suggested its relative conservation compared to other loci of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene family. Three haplotypes have been characterized in laboratory mice: gA, gB, and gC, represented by BALB/c, DBA/2, and AKR prototypes. Tcr-gA and -gC haplotypes are highly related. By contrast, Tcr-gB, likely inherited from Asian mouse subspecies, appeared very different by RFLP analysis. Yet only partial sequence data have been reported on gA and gB Tcrg-V genes. Here, the complete sequence of all Tcrg-V genes of the two haplotypes is described. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and genotypes of transient receptor potential ion channel and acetylcholine receptor genes from isolated B lymphocytes in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya; Johnston, Samantha; Chacko, Anu; Nguyen, Thao; Smith, Peter; Staines, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Objective The pathomechanism of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is unknown; however, a small subgroup of patients has shown muscarinic antibody positivity and reduced symptom presentation following anti-CD20 intervention. Given the important roles of calcium (Ca 2+ ) and acetylcholine (ACh) signalling in B cell activation and potential antibody development, we aimed to identify relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotypes in isolated B cells from CFS/ME patients. Methods A total of 11 CFS/ME patients (aged 31.82 ± 5.50 years) and 11 non-fatigued controls (aged 33.91 ± 5.06 years) were included. Flow cytometric protocols were used to determine B cell purity, followed by SNP and genotype analysis for 21 mammalian TRP ion channel genes and nine mammalian ACh receptor genes. SNP association and genotyping analysis were performed using ANOVA and PLINK analysis software. Results Seventy-eight SNPs were identified in nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes in the CFS/ME group, of which 35 were in mAChM3. The remaining SNPs were identified in nAChR delta (n = 12), nAChR alpha 9 (n = 5), TRPV2 (n = 7), TRPM3 (n = 4), TRPM4 (n = 1) mAChRM3 2 (n = 2), and mAChRM5 (n = 3) genes. Nine genotypes were identified from SNPs in TRPM3 (n = 1), TRPC6 (n = 1), mAChRM3 (n = 2), nAChR alpha 4 (n = 1), and nAChR beta 1 (n = 4) genes, and were located in introns and 3' untranslated regions. Odds ratios for these specific genotypes ranged between 7.11 and 26.67 for CFS/ME compared with the non-fatigued control group. Conclusion This preliminary investigation identified a number of SNPs and genotypes in genes encoding TRP ion channels and AChRs from B cells in patients with CFS/ME. These may be involved in B cell functional changes, and suggest a role for Ca 2+ dysregulation in AChR and TRP ion channel signalling in the pathomechanism of CFS/ME.

  1. 99mTc-HMPAO WBC-scintigraphy: Are all positive findings in traumatology mandatory for surgical invention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winker, K.H.; Weller, S.; Reuland, P.; Feine, U.

    1989-01-01

    In 5 case reports of traumatology patients the authors describe a subgroup of patients (IYON = infection yes, operation no) with positive WBC scan and proven infection, which do not need surgical intervention and can be treated by conservative means. (orig.) [de

  2. Neutrophil to lymphocyte with monocyte to lymphocyte ratio and white blood cell count in prediction of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Thanh Phan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in both sexes, while it is very difficult for screenings and early detection. Aims This study aims to clarify the role of systematic inflammation markers, including white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEU, monocyte (MONO, platelet (PLT, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR in prediction of lung cancer. Methods A case-control study was conducted on 1,315 primary lung cancer patients and 1,315 healthy adults with matched age and gender at Cho Ray hospital. NLR, MLR and PLR were calculated by using neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count which were recalled from laboratory database. With 600 cases in the derivation set, the logistic regression with univariate analysis was used to identify the impacted marker, then developing the optimal prediction model for lung cancer by logistic regression with multivariate method. The diagnostic values of optimal model consisting of sensitivity (Sen, specificity (Spe, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and the area under the ROC curve (AUC value were extracted and verified on all data, in validation set. Results The median values of WBC, NEU, MONO, PLT, NLR, MLR and PLR in lung cancer were not significantly difference between histological subtypes and clinical stages (p > 0.05, but higher than the values in control group (p < 0.01. Multivariates analysis shows that NLR, MLR and WBC were three parameters that have the significant impact of the optimal prediction model (p < 0.01. The AUC value, sensitivity and specificity of the optimal model for lung cancer detection were 0.881, 73.5 per cent (95 per cent CI:70.3–76.6 and 87.7 per cent (95 per centCI:85.2–89.9, respectively. Whereas, the PPV and NPV values of prediction model were 85.7 per cent (95 per cent CI:82.8–88.2 and 76.8 (95 per centCI:73.9–79.5, respectively. Among three

  3. Safety of growth factor administration for leukapheresis in those with WBC counts greater than 60,000/µl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weihong; Rizzieri, David; Drago, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization using growth factors is a common method of stem cell collection for transplantation, however, little is reported concerning safety of continued growth factor delivery in exceptional responders with very high white blood cell (WBC) counts in preparation for pheresis. We performed a retrospective study of the safety of growth factor delivery for leukapheresis in those with WBC counts greater than 60,000/µl. Allogeneic donors received 5 days of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a daily dose of 10 or 16 µg/kg. Autologous donors received G-CSF 10 µg/kg/day +/- chemotherapy until peripheral blood CD34(+) count reached 10/µl. Granulocyte donors received 300 µg dose of G-CSF the day prior to donation. Out of 3,037 leukapheresis collections from 1998 to 2005, we identified 303 collections from 204 donors or patients who had a WBC > 60,000/µl. WBC counts were ≥100,000/µl in seven of these subjects. If inadequate stem cell dose was obtained with pheresis with WBC counts this high, patients had growth factor dosing decreased 50% but still received a dose till stem cell collection was completed. Of the 204 subjects, 122 were patients and 82 were donors. These 204 donors/patients had no serious adverse events reported other than the common reports of myalgia, bone pain, and headache associated with administration of growth factors. Pain levels ranged from mild to severe and usually were managed by over the counter analgesics. Continuing ½ the dose of neupogen to complete the pheresis process appears safe in subjects with very high white blood counts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Relationship between XRCC1 polymorphism and acute complication of chemoradiation therapy in the patients with colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Chul; Choi, Sun Keun [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yun Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-03-15

    It is well known from clinical experience that acute complications of chemoradiation therapy vary from patients to patients. However, there are no known factors to predict these acute complications before treatment starts. The human XRCC1 gene is known as a DNA base excision repair gene. We investigated the possibilities of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms as a predictor for the acute complications of chemoradiation therapy in colorectal cancer patients. From July 1997 to June 2003, 86 colorectal cancer patients (71 rectal cancer, 13 sigmoid colon cancer and 2 colon cancer patients) were treated with chemoradiation therapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University Hospital. Twenty-two patients were in stage B, 50 were in stage C, 8 were in stage D and 6 patients were unresectable cases. External radiation therapy was delivered with 10MV X-ray at a 1.8 Gy fraction per day for a total dose of radiation of 30.6 {approx} 59.4 Gy (median: 54 Gy). All the patients received 5-FU based chemotherapy regimen. We analyzed the acute complications of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract based on the RTOG complication scale. The initial and lowest WBC and platelet count were recorded during both the RT period and the whole treatment period. Allelic variants of the XRCC1 gene at codons 194, 280 and 399 were analyzed in the lymphocyte DNA by performing PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were carried out with the SAS (version 6.12) statistical package. When all the variables were assessed on the multivariate analysis, recurrent disease revealed the factors that significantly correlated with upper gastrointestinal acute complications. Arg399Gln polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene, the radiation dose and the frequencies of chemotherapy during radiation therapy were significantly correlated with lower gastrointestinal complications. Arg399Gln polymorphisms also affected the decrease of the WBC and platelet count during radiation therapy. Although the present sample size was too small

  5. Relationship between XRCC1 polymorphism and acute complication of chemoradiation therapy in the patients with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Chul; Choi, Sun Keun; Hong, Yun Chul

    2006-01-01

    It is well known from clinical experience that acute complications of chemoradiation therapy vary from patients to patients. However, there are no known factors to predict these acute complications before treatment starts. The human XRCC1 gene is known as a DNA base excision repair gene. We investigated the possibilities of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms as a predictor for the acute complications of chemoradiation therapy in colorectal cancer patients. From July 1997 to June 2003, 86 colorectal cancer patients (71 rectal cancer, 13 sigmoid colon cancer and 2 colon cancer patients) were treated with chemoradiation therapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University Hospital. Twenty-two patients were in stage B, 50 were in stage C, 8 were in stage D and 6 patients were unresectable cases. External radiation therapy was delivered with 10MV X-ray at a 1.8 Gy fraction per day for a total dose of radiation of 30.6 ∼ 59.4 Gy (median: 54 Gy). All the patients received 5-FU based chemotherapy regimen. We analyzed the acute complications of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract based on the RTOG complication scale. The initial and lowest WBC and platelet count were recorded during both the RT period and the whole treatment period. Allelic variants of the XRCC1 gene at codons 194, 280 and 399 were analyzed in the lymphocyte DNA by performing PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were carried out with the SAS (version 6.12) statistical package. When all the variables were assessed on the multivariate analysis, recurrent disease revealed the factors that significantly correlated with upper gastrointestinal acute complications. Arg399Gln polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene, the radiation dose and the frequencies of chemotherapy during radiation therapy were significantly correlated with lower gastrointestinal complications. Arg399Gln polymorphisms also affected the decrease of the WBC and platelet count during radiation therapy. Although the present sample size was too small for

  6. Allograft immunity in vitro. I. Cultivation conditions and mixed lymphocyte interaction of mouse peripheral lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, P.; Defendi, V.

    1970-01-01

    We have adapted mouse peripheral lymphocytes to culture as a preliminary step in designing a model for the study of allograft immunity in vitro. The isolation of peripheral leucocytes is facilitated by using Plasmagel® as an erythrocyte-agglutinating agent. The yield of leucocytes can be considerably increased by intravenous injection of the donor animals with supernatant fluid from Bordetella pertussis cultures and the lymphocytes thus mobilized react both to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and allogeneic stimulus, as do lymphocytes from untreated animals. Preparations which contain more than 25–50 RBC/WBC are refractory in the mixed lymphocyte interaction (MLI). The optimum cell density for the proliferative response is approximately 1–3 × 106 lymphocytes/ml. Various nutritive milieu were tested and found to have little influence on the MLI; both normal and suspension media behaved in a similar manner. PHA causes a vigorous proliferative response in mouse peripheral lymphocytes, the 3H–TdR incorporation values in PHA-containing cultures at peak point of stimulation (3rd day) being up to 1000 times those observed for control cultures. The allogeneic response in the MLI takes place later (6th to 7th day) and is weaker, about one-tenth the PHA response, when strains differing at the H-2 locus are used as cell donors. Because the specific proliferative response to allogeneic stimulus in mixed culture, regardless of the way it is measured, is indistinguishable from the response produced by other non-specific factors, these other factors must be critically excluded. It appears that supplementing the culture medium with low concentrations of certain lots of foetal calf or agamma-newborn-calf serum permits the study of the specific response at an optimum sensitivity. PMID:4315207

  7. Comparative Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein and WBC Count in Fascial Space Infections of Odontogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Ravikiran; Chandan, Sanjay; Sane, Vikrant Dilip; Patil, Sujay; Yadav, Dinesh

    2017-06-01

    To assess efficacy of C-reactive protein levels as monitoring tools for patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin. A randomized prospective study was conducted on 20 patients suffering from fascial space infection of odontogenic origin, in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Bharati Vidyapeeth dental college and hospital, Pune, Patients between 18 and 60 years of age of both the sexes were selected. All patients were treated and observed by the same surgeon. Patient's venous blood sample was collected pre-operatively and on 2nd and 5th post-operative days for evaluation of WBC count and C-reactive protein (CRP). All patients were encouraged for strict follow-up protocol. Where the results of WBC count and CRP when compared it was seen that the mean values of WBC were normal in 15 cases and abnormal in 5 cases on day 0, day 2 and day 5; whereas the mean values of CRP were abnormal on day 0 and day 2 and were within normal limit on day 5 in all cases. The findings of this prospective analysis indicate that White blood cells and C-reactive protein are effective markers for determining severity of infection, efficacy of treatment regime for patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin. Thus the markers also help in making treatment of patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin more cost effective and they also help protecting patients from side effects of excess drugs usage. Thus we conclude that CRP should be incorporated as monitoring tools for managing patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin.

  8. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for painful and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood ... unexplained fatigue, bruising, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Alternative ... Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL); Blood cancer - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Bone marrow cancer - chronic ...

  9. A comparison of the neutrophil-lymphocyte, platelet-lymphocyte and monocyte-lymphocyte ratios in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients - a retrospective file review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdin, Selçuk; Sarisoy, Gökhan; Böke, Ömer

    2017-10-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) have recently been used as indicators of inflammation. Higher MLR and PLR values have been determined in the euthymic and manic periods in patients with bipolar disorder compared to a control group. High NLR values were determined in the only study investigating this ratio in schizophrenia patients. The purpose of this study was to compare NLR, PLR and MLR values and complete blood count elements in patients receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenic psychotic episode and bipolar disorder manic episode. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria among subjects receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenia-psychotic episode and bipolar affective disorder-manic episode at the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty Psychiatry Department, Turkey, in 2012-2016 were included in our study. A total of 157 healthy donors were included as a control group. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet and monocyte numbers were noted retrospectively from complete blood counts at time of admission, and NLR, PLR and MLR were calculated from these. NLR, PLR and MLR values and platelet numbers in this study were higher and lymphocyte numbers were lower in bipolar disorder patients compared to the controls. Elevation in NLR, MLR and PLR values and neutrophil numbers and lower lymphocyte numbers were determined in schizophrenia patients compared to the controls. Higher NLR and MLR values were found in schizophrenia patients compared to bipolar disorder. Findings of our study supported the inflammation hypothesis for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  10. Radiation effects on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the ontogeny of lymphocyte populations concentrates on sites of production, rates of production, and the factors governing the differentiation and longevity of the various lymphocyte pools. The physiology of the lymphocyte pools is described with particular emphasis on recirculation from blood to lymph through lymphoid tissues. The separate routes of recirculation of both thymus-derived and nonthymus-derived lymphocytes and the possible anatomical sites and mechanisms of lymphocyte cooperation are discussed. Radiation effects on lymphocyte populations are divided into two sections. First, the effects of whole-body irradiation on the total lymphocyte pools are discussed including the differential effects of irradiation on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. The differential sensitivity of various types of immune response is correlated, where possible, with the differential sensitivity of the lymphocyte types involved. Second, experimental attempts to selectively deplete discrete subpopulations of the total lymphocyte pools, e.g., recirculating cells, are briefly discussed with particular emphasis on studies on the effects of the localization of radionuclides in lymphoid tissue

  11. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Shakeri; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 ?g/ml) rats. Results: Total and mo...

  12. The Relationship Between 14C Urea Breath Test Results and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte and Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Şahin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR are used as inflammatory markers in several diseases. However, there are little data regarding the diagnostic ability of NLR and PLR in Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to assess the association between the 14C urea breath test (14C-UBT results and NLR and PLR in H. pylori diagnosis. Methods: Results of 89 patients were retrospectively analysed in this study. According to the 14C-UBT results, patients were divided into two groups: H. pylori (+ and H. pylori (- (control group. Haematological parameters, including hemoglobine, white blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, NLR, platelet count, and PLR were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean total WBC count, neutrophil count, NLR and PLR in H. pylori (+ patients were significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.001 for all these parameters. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off value for NLR and PLR for the presence of H. pylori was calculated as ≥2.39 [sensitivity: 67.3%, specificity: 79.4%, area under the curve (AUC: 0.747 (0.637-0.856, p<0.0001] and ≥133.3 [sensitivity: 61.8%, specificity: 55.9%, AUC: 0.572 (0.447-0.697, p<0.05], respectively. Conclusion: The present study shows that NLR and PLR are associated with H. pylori positivity based on 14C-UBT, and they can be used as an additional biomarker for supporting the 14C-UBT results.

  13. Biodistribution of radiolabeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Oluwole, S.; Wang, T.S.; Kuromoto, N.; Iga, C.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    Factors that might affect the biodistribution and clinical utility of radiolabeled lymphocytes were evaluated in experimental animals. Indium-111 (In-111) labeled lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, lymph node, or spleen were found in significant amounts in the lymphoid tissues of Lewis rats as early as 3 hours after infusion. A progressive increase in nodal activity with concomitant fall of activity in other organs followed, indicating active recirculation of the lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation of the In-111 labeled lymphocytes resulted in no detectable lymphocyte recirculation and/or reduced localization in lymphoid tissue. Splenectomized animals and those sensitized to an organ allograft before cell infusion showed increased activity in their bone marrow. These results suggest that the source of the injected cells, cell irradiation dose level and host sensitization should be considered when radiolabeled lymphocytes are being prepared for use in clinical diagnosis and therapy

  14. Evolution of structure and mechanical properties of hard yet fracture resistant W-B-C coatings with varying C/W ratio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alishahi, M.; Mirzaei, S.; Souček, P.; Zábranský, L.; Buršíková, V.; Stupavska, M.; Peřina, Vratislav; Balázsi, K.; Czigany, Z.; Vašina, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 340, č. 4 (2018), s. 103-111 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * W-B-C * microstructure * hardness * fracture resistance Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  15. Radiation-induced damage to normal tissues after radiotherapy in patients treated for gynecologic tumors: Association with single nucleotide polymorphisms in XRCC1, XRCC3, and OGG1 genes and in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity in lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruyck, Kim de; Eijkeren, Marc van; Claes, Kathleen; Morthier, Rudy; Paepe, Anne de; Vral, Anne; Ridder, Leo de; Thierens, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (194Arg/Trp, 280Arg/His, 399Arg/Gln, 632Gln/Gln), XRCC3 (5' UTR 4.541A>G, IVS5-14 17.893A>G, 241Thr/Met), and OGG1 (326Ser/Cys) with the development of late radiotherapy (RT) reactions and to assess the correlation between in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity and clinical radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two women with cervical or endometrial cancer treated with RT were included in the study. According to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, scale, 22 patients showed late adverse RT reactions. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays were performed to examine polymorphic sites, the G2 assay was used to measure chromosomal radiosensitivity, and patient groups were compared using actuarial methods. Results: The XRCC3 IVS5-14 polymorphic allele was significantly associated with the risk of developing late RT reactions (odds ratio 3.98, p = 0.025), and the XRCC1 codon 194 variant showed a significant protective effect (p = 0.028). Patients with three or more risk alleles in XRCC1 and XRCC3 had a significantly increased risk of developing normal tissue reactions (odds ratio 10.10, p = 0.001). The mean number of chromatid breaks per cell was significantly greater in patients with normal tissue reactions than in patients with no reactions (1.16 and 1.34, respectively; p = 0.002). Patients with high chromosomal radiosensitivity showed a 9.2-fold greater annual risk of complications than patients with intermediate chromosomal radiosensitivity. Combining the G2 analysis with the risk allele model allowed us to identify 23% of the patients with late normal tissue reactions, without false-positive results. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that clinical radiosensitivity is associated with an enhanced G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity and is significantly associated with a combination of different polymorphisms in

  16. Elevated Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Recurrent Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Guclu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate the relation between optic neuritis (ON and systemic inflammation markers as neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, and red cell distribution width (RDW and furthermore to evaluate the utilization of these markers to predict the frequency of the ON episodes. Methods. Forty-two patients with acute ON and forty healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The medical records were reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin (Hb, Haematocrit (Htc, RDW, platelet count, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio. Results. The mean N/L ratio, platelet counts, and RDW were significantly higher in ON group (p=0.000, p=0.048, and p=0.002. There was a significant relation between N/L ratio and number of episodes (r=0.492, p=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference for MPV between one episode group and recurrent ON group (p=0.035. Conclusions. Simple and inexpensive laboratory methods could help us show systemic inflammation and monitor ON patients. Higher N/L ratio can be a useful marker for predicting recurrent attacks.

  17. Baseline frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals living in Turin (North-Western Italy): assessment of the effects of age, sex and GSTs gene polymorphisms on the levels of genomic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2016-05-01

    The increased exposure to environmental pollutants has led to the awareness of the necessity for constant monitoring of human populations, especially those living in urban areas. This study evaluated the background levels of genomic damage in a sample of healthy subjects living in the urban area of Turin (Italy). The association between DNA damage with age, sex and GSTs polymorphisms was assessed. One hundred and one individuals were randomly sampled. Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) and Chromosomal Aberrations (CAs) assays, as well as genotyping of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes, were performed. Mean values of SCEs and CAs were 5.137 ± 0.166 and 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively. Results showed age and gender associated with higher frequencies of these two cytogenetic markers. The eldest subjects (51-65 years) showed significantly higher levels of genomic damage than younger individuals. GSTs polymorphisms did not appear to significantly influence the frequencies of either markers. The CAs background frequency observed in this study is one of the highest reported among European populations. Turin is one of the most polluted cities in Europe in terms of air fine PM10 and ozone and the clastogenic potential of these pollutants may explain the high frequencies of chromosomal rearrangements reported here.

  18. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling {sup 18}F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by {sup 40}K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  19. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A.; Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling 18 F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by 40 K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  20. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  1. Association between rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphism within the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene and Graves' disease: a case/control study combined with meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Zeng, Tianshu; Xiao, Fei; Chen, Lulu; Kong, Wen

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a case/control study to assess the impact of SNP rs3087243 and rs231775 within the CTLA4 gene, on the susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) in a Chinese Han dataset (271 cases and 298 controls). The frequency of G allele for rs3087243 and rs231775 was observed to be significantly higher in subjects with GD than in control subjects (p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). After logistic regression analysis, a significant association was detected between SNP rs3087243 and GD in the additive and recessive models. Similarly, association for the SNP rs231775 could also be detected in the additive model, dominant model and recessive model. A meta-analysis, including 27 published datasets along with the current dataset, was performed to further confirm the association. Consistent with our case/control results, rs3087243 and rs231775 showed a significant association with GD in all genetic models. Of note, ethnic stratification revealed that these two SNPs were associated with susceptibility to GD in populations of both Asian and European descent. In conclusion, our data support that the rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphisms within the CTLA4 gene confer genetic susceptibility to GD. PMID:29299173

  2. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  3. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may increase the risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia include: Previous cancer treatment. Children and adults who've had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other kinds of cancer may have an increased ... leukemia. Exposure to radiation. People exposed to very high ...

  4. Increased neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in delirium: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberts A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Angelique Egberts, Francesco US Mattace-Raso Section of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Aim: Delirium is a common and severe complication among older hospitalized patients. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but it has been suggested that inflammation and oxidative stress may play a role. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate levels of the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR – a marker of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress – in patients with and without delirium. Methods: This pilot study was performed within a retrospective chart review study that included acutely ill patients, 65 years and older, who were admitted to the ward of geriatrics of the Erasmus University Medical Center. All patients in whom the differential white blood cell (WBC counts as well as the C-reactive protein (CRP level were determined within 24 h after admission were included in the present study. Differences in NLR between patients with and without delirium were investigated using univariate analysis of variance, with adjustments for age, sex, comorbidities, CRP level, and total WBC count. Results: Eighty-six patients were included. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with delirium. In adjusted models, higher mean NLR values were found in patients with, than in those without, delirium (9.10 vs 5.18, P=0.003. Conclusion: In this pilot study, we found increased NLR levels in patients with delirium. This finding might suggest that an inadequate response of the immune system and oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of delirium. Further studies are needed to confirm the association between NLR and delirium. Keywords: delirium, pathology, biomarkers, leukocytes, immune system, brain 

  5. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stent restenosis (SR is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to cardiology clinic with stabile angina and un­derwent repeat coronary angiography. The data obtained from patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patient group was consisted of 197 patients who were diagnosed as SR, and the control group was consisted of 117 pa­tients whose stents were patent angiographically. Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LDL-C, HDL-C, platelet count, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, hemoglobin and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP, ELR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR on admission were higher in the SR group compared to the controls. All patients were categorized into two groups according to ELR values and SR was more frequent in the high ELR group compared to low ELR group. An ELR value of ≥0.745 predicted SR with 64% sensitivity and 61% specif­ity. Conclusion: In this study ELR was found statistically higher in SR patients compared to the controls. Accord­ing to our data ELR as an inexpensive and easy method, may contribute to determination of high risk patients and increased ELR can be used as a predictor of SR.

  6. The Role of RANTES Promoter Polymorphism in Functional Dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Hiromi; Hirata, Ichiro; Arisawa, Tomiyasu

    2009-01-01

    Altered inflammatory immune responses have been shown to be associated with functional gastro intestinal disorder. We aimed to clarify the effect of functional promoter polymorphism of RANTES, which is a potent chemoattractant peptide for memory T lymphocytes and eosinophils, on the risk of functional dyspepsia in a Japanese population. RANTES promoter C-28G polymorphism was genotyped in 246 subjects including 134 FD patients according to Roma III criteria and 112 non-symptomatic healthy cont...

  7. The relation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and mean platelet volume with the presence and severity of Behçet's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Alan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's syndrome (BS is associated with chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Although there have been extensive investigations on neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and mean platelet volume (MPV in many diseases, their roles in BS is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate NLR, PLR, and MPV levels in BS patients and explore their clinical significance. The study included 254 patients with BS and 173 healthy individuals. Age, sex, age of onset, duration of disease, smoking, Behçet activity score, total white blood counts, neutrophil, platelet, and T lymphocyte counts of the patients were recorded. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, platelet, NLR, and PLR were significantly higher in patients with BS when compared with healthy controls (all p  0.05. In the BS group, PLR and MPV were significantly different among the three severity groups (p = 0.037 and p = 0.016, respectively. We showed that any laboratory markers were not associated with joint, eye, central nervous system, large vessel, or gastrointestinal involvement in BS. NLR was shown to be an independent factor for BS by multivariate analysis. We suggest that NLR can be considered to be a diagnostic criterion of BS given the support of the findings from larger prospective studies.

  8. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-26

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  9. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  10. Radiosensitivities of sensitized lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Kazuto

    1979-01-01

    Immunization of mice with cell antigens such as allogeneic tumor cells or xenogeneic erythrocytes raises a variety of immune reactions mediated by T lymphocytes: i.e. delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), cytotoxicity, and antibody production. The radiosensitivities of these reactions were examined in mice exposed to 600 R x-irradiation a few hours before or after immunization. 1) DTH to xenogeneic erythrocytes, as demonstrated by footpad reaction, was not suppressed by irradiation 3 h before or after immunization. DTH to allogeneic tumor cells, as demonstrated by a migration inhibition test, hardly developed in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It may have belonged to distinct types of delayed reactions which were mediated by distinct subpopulations of T lymphocytes. 2) Cytotoxicity against allogeneic cells and xenogeneic erythrocytes showed almost the same radiosensitivity. It was scarcely detected in mice that had been irradiated before immunization. However, a low but definite degree of cytotoxicity was detected in mice that had been irradiated only a few hours after immunization. Solubilized allogeneic cells instead of native cells were used as immunizing antigens. It was also possible for precursor cells with cytotoxicity to acquire a radioresistant nature by immunization of solubilized antigens, but native cells were required as stimulation for radioresistant precursor cells to differentiated into nature cytotoxic effector cells. 3) Antibody production against xenogeneic erythrocytes or allogeneic cells was almost completely depleted in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It is possible that antibody production essentially requires cell division and clonal expansion of B lymphocytes. (Bell, E.)

  11. Maternal MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of Down ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of maternal plasma homocysteine (Hyc): methionine (Met) ratio and lymphocyte methotrexate (MTX) cytotoxicity to assess the occurrence of MTHFR 677C → T mutation. Results: The MTHFR 677C → T polymorphism is more prevalent among mothers of infant with DS compared with the controls, with an odd ratio ...

  12. Effects of low dose rate fission neutron irradiation on the lymphocyte subpopulations of peripheral blood in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Dingwen; Lei Chengxiang; Shen Xianrong; Ma Li; Yang Yifang; Peng Wulin; Dai Shourong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of long-term, low dose rate fission neutron irradiation on lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of rats. Methods: Ninety-six rats were randomly divided into control group and irradiated group exposed to low dose rate fission neutron ( 252 Cf,0.35 mGy/h) for 20.5 h every day. At days 14,28,42,56 and 70 d after irradiation and 35 d after stopping irradiation, After 8 rats of each group were killed, WBC and lymphocyte subpopulations of CD4 + CD3 + , CD8 + CD3 + and CD45RA + /CD161α + in peripheral blood were estimated respectively. Results: Compared with the control group, WBC was reduced significantly at dose of 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 Gy (P + CD3 - was evidently higher compared with control group at doses of 0.1,0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 Gy and 35 d after stopping irradiation (P + CD3 - was obviously higher compared with control group at dose of 0.2 and 0.3 Gy (P + CD3 + at dose of 0.1 Gy (P + CD3 + at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 Gy (P + CD45RA - ) was increased significantly at doses of 0.2-0.3 Gy, and peripheral blood B cells(CD161α - CD45RA + ) was reduced remarkably at doses of 0.1-0.5 Gy and 35 d after stopping irradiation compared with the control group. Conclusions: Long-term irradiation with low dose rate fission neutron could make TCR (T-cell-receptor) mutant, therefore, WBC, B cells in peripheral blood significantly reduced and NK cells increased. These changes may could not recover at 35 d after Stopping irradiation. (authors)

  13. Precise fusion of MRI and dual energy 111In WBC/99mTc HDP SPECT/CT in the diabetic foot using companion CT: an example of SPECT/MRI imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knešaurek, K.; Heiba, S.; Kolker, D.; Vatti, S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to correctly fuse MRI and SPECT 111 In WBC and 99m Tc HDP images using companion CT images. The fused images could be used to assess proper surgical approach in treatment of the diabetic foot. Nine patients who had dual energy 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT/CT and MRI studies within a week were investigated in an ongoing project. A GE Infinia SPECT/CT camera and Siemens MAGNETOM 1.5T MR system were used in this study. First, the MRI and corresponding CT images were coregistrated using a transformation based on normalized mutual information. The transformation was saved and used for MRI and 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT fusion. A Jaszczak phantom study was also performed in order to estimate accuracy of MRI/ SPECT fusion. The Jaszczak phantom study with 3.7 MBq 111 In hot sphere showed that MRI/SPECT alignment using the approach described above produced registration with 0.7±0.4 mm accuracy in all three dimensions (3D). The nine clinical cases were visually evaluated and showed 1-2 mm 3D fusion accuracy. MRI provides almost perfect anatomy of soft tissue and bony structures but it may exaggerate the extent of infection. 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT imaging is more accurate for infection detection but lacks anatomical reference. Combination of these images proved an essential adjunct to diagnosis. A clinical utility of the approach is illustrated in two clinical examples. In conclusion, the CT in dual energy 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT/CT studies can be used to accurately fuse and compare 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT and MRI images of the diabetic foot. This can significantly help in conservative treatment planning and limb salvage procedures in treatment of diabetic foot infections.

  14. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Cutaneous Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahalı, Anıl Gulsel; Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide

    2017-03-01

    Vasculitis represents a specific pattern of inflammation of the blood vessel wall that can occur in any organ system of the body. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are currently used as markers of inflammation in several diseases. This study analyzed C-reactive protein level (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell (WBC), NLR, and RDW in patients who had cutaneous vasculitis, or cutaneous vasculitis with systemic involvement, and in healthy controls. A total of 85 individuals were included in our study: 45 with vasculitis and 40 healthy controls. Patients who had complete blood count (CBC) analysis, CRP, and ESR at the time of skin biopsy were included in the study. NLR was calculated from these parameters. NLR, CRP, ESR, and WBC were significantly higher in patients with vasculitis than in healthy controls (p≤0.05), but RDW did not significantly differ between the two groups. This study suggests that blood NLR may be used for predicting vasculitis, especially cutaneous vasculitis with systemic involvement. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  15. Lymphocyte signaling: beyond knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexander; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of lymphocyte signaling was greatly enhanced by the advent of gene targeting, which allows the selective inactivation of a single gene. Although this gene 'knockout' approach is often informative, in many cases, the phenotype resulting from gene ablation might not provide a complete picture of the function of the corresponding protein. If a protein has multiple functions within a single or several signaling pathways, or stabilizes other proteins in a complex, the phenotypic consequences of a gene knockout may manifest as a combination of several different perturbations. In these cases, gene targeting to 'knock in' subtle point mutations might provide more accurate insight into protein function. However, to be informative, such mutations must be carefully based on structural and biophysical data.

  16. MRI of lymphocytic hypophysitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Feng; Li Mingli; Li Xiaozhen; Meng Chunling; Jin zhengyu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MR findings in patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH), and to discuss MR diagnostic value and limit in this disease entity and its differentiation with pituitary adenoma. Methods: Five pathologically proven cases of LyH were recruited in this study. The main complaints of the patients were polydipsia, polyuria, and headache. The preoperative MR images and clinical manifestations were analyzed retrospectively. Results: MR findings of the 5 patients with LyH included enlargement of pituitary gland, stalk thickening, disappearance of high signal of neurohypophysis on T 1 WI, and marked Gadolinium enhancement of the lesions. Homogeneous enhancement was found in 2 cases, while heterogeneous enhancement was in 3 cases. Involvement of the cavernous sinus and dura mater on dorsum sella and clivus were found in 2 patients. Conclusion: The diagnosis of LyH should be suggested when the enlarged pituitary gland is associated with central diabetes insipidus, and with/without dysfunction of adenohypophysis. (authors)

  17. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, S.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation-induced impairment of human T-lymphocytes was studied after in vitro exposure to 25.8 - 825.6 mC/kg (100 - 3200 R) of 60 Co γ-radiation by ascertaining the change in lymphocyte response to phytohaemagglutin stimulation. Following methods were used: (1) measurement of 3 H-thymidine uptake, (2) E-rosette test, and (3) morphological examination of transformed T-cells. The results revealed a dose-dependent decline in T-cell number which was still somewhat more marked with lymphocytes purified over Ficoll-Isopaque prior to irradiation. (author)

  18. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  19. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lymph system . Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews. Signs and symptoms ... information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia For more information ...

  20. Influence of neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio (NLR on poor prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients during hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the influence of neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio(NLR to the poor prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients during the stay in hospital. Method: A total of 133 cases elderly patients with AECOPD admitted in our hospital from March 2013 to September 2014 were selected, and divided them into death group (31 cases and survival group (102 cases according to in-hospital death occurrence; To compare the on admission general clinical data, therapy method, lung function, blood routine examination [white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio(NLR], C-reactive protein (CRP, blood gas analysis and blood biochemical indexes in both groups, and drew ROC curve for a analysis of the clinical value of NLR in the prediction of death. Results: Among 133 cases of elderly AECOPD patients: the proportion of combined pulmonary heart disease and mechanical ventilation in death group was higher than that in survival group, PaCO2, WBC count, neutrophil count, NLR, CRP level in death group was higher, but lymphocyte count, serum albumin(ALB in death group was lower; multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR presented independent positive correlation with the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients; ROC curve analysis showed that the ROCAUC of NLR to the inhospital death in elderly AECOPD patients was 0.787, the best diagnostic node value was 7.3, sensitivity and specificity were 77.4% and 74.5% respectively; bounded by NLR(7.3, divided patients into NLR≥7.3 group and NLR<7.3 group, hospital stays, CRP level and mortality in NLR≥7.3 group were higher than that in NLR<7.3 group. Conclusion: NLR was the high risk factor of the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients, early detection of NLR level had a certain difference to the evaluation for short-term prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients and guide treatment.

  1. Polymorphic Embedding of DSLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Christian; Ostermann, Klaus; Rendel, Tillmann

    2008-01-01

    propose polymorphic embedding of DSLs, where many different interpretations of a DSL can be provided as reusable components, and show how polymorphic embedding can be realized in the programming language Scala. With polymorphic embedding, the static type-safety, modularity, composability and rapid...

  2. [The lymphocyte transformation test in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, K; Braun-Falco, O

    1976-03-01

    At first, immunologie and methodic basies of the lymphocyte transformation test are discussed. Then the results gained by this test in several dermatologic diseases are summarized. Finally, practice of the lymphocyte transformation test is critically reviewed.

  3. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.

  4. A microculture technique for rat lymphocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V J; Allardyce, R A

    1979-01-01

    We report the development of an economical microculture technique suitable for measuring rat lymphocyte response to mitogens and in mixed lymphocyte reactions. The effects of varying culture conditions, i.e. source of serum, addition and concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol, mitogen concentrations, culture incubation times, absorption of serum, lymphocyte numbers and microtitre plate well shape are described.

  5. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.I.S.; Gregorio, J.S.; Aguilar, C.P.; Poblete, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report is about the studies on the radiosensitivity of Filipino lymphocytes to radiation that can elucidate on the potential of blood chromosomes as biological dosimeters. The objective of this study is to determine the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos and to establish the radiation-induced chromosome anomaly standard curve in lymphocytes for radiological dosimetry. 47 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  6. Short-term effects of regional irradiation on lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazarin, C.; Roche, H.; Bugat, R.; Pris, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three cancer patients treated only by regional irradiation were studied. Radiotherapy was delivered to the pelvis in 14 patients and to the mediastinum in 9. T lymphocytes were evaluated with the Jondal technique. Before treatment, lymphocyte counts were identical in patients and control. Decreases in total lymphocytes and T lymphocytes became significant in both groups after 40 Gy. Significant rises in eosinophil counts were found only after abdominal irradiation and seemed unrelated to variations in lymphocyte counts [fr

  7. GENERATION OF CYTOTOXIC LYMPHOCYTES IN MIXED LYMPHOCYTE REACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, James; Möller, Göran

    1973-01-01

    Generation of cytotoxic effector cells by a unidirectional mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in the mouse H-2 system was studied using labeled YAC (H-2a) leukemia cells as targets. The responding effector cell displayed a specific cytotoxic effect against target cells of the same H-2 genotype as the stimulating cell population. Killing of syngeneic H-2 cells was not observed, even when the labeled target cells were "innocent bystanders" in cultures where specific target cells were reintroduced. Similar results were found with spleen cells taken from mice sensitized in vivo 7 days earlier. The effector cell was not an adherent cell and was not activated by supernatants from MLR. The supernatants were not cytotoxic by themselves. When concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin was added to the cytotoxic test system, target and effector cells were agglutinated. Under these conditions, killing of H-2a target cells was observed in mixed cultures where H-2a lymphocytes were also the effector cells. These findings indicate that specifically activated, probably thymus-derived lymphocytes, can kill nonspecifically once they have been activated and providing there is close contact between effector and target cells. Thus, specificity of T cell killing appears to be restricted to recognition and subsequent binding to the targets, the actual effector phase being nonspecific. PMID:4269560

  8. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  9. Human thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: effect of phenotype on sensitivity of cultured lymphocytes to 6-mercaptopurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, J.; Weinshilboum, R.

    1986-01-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.67, TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). TPMT activity in human lymphocytes and other tissues is controlled by a common genetic polymorphism. These experiments were designed to study the relationship between TPMT phenotype and the effect of 6-MP on 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) incorporation into phytohemaglutinin (PHA) stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were obtained from the blood of nine subjects, three subjects with each TPMT phenotype. 6-MP dose response curves were performed at optimal (10 μg/ml) and suboptimal (1 μg/ml) concentrations of PHA. ED50 values for 6-MP with lymphocytes from subjects who genetically lacked TPMT activity were higher than ED50 values for lymphocytes from subjects with genetically intermediate or high TPMT activity. However, ED50 values decreased as level of stimulation increased. Therefore, the effects of 6-MP were studied at a series of PHA concentrations that ranged from 0.1 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml. Lymphocytes from subjects who lacked TPMT activity had significantly higher K/sub ii/ values (1.37 +/- 0.340 μM; mean +/- SEM) for inhibition of 3 H-TdR incorporation by 6-MP than did lymphocytes from subjects with intermediate or high TPMT activity (0.529 +/- 0.068 μM and 0.327 +/- 0.064 μM, respectively, P < .05 for both comparisons)

  10. Human thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: effect of phenotype on sensitivity of cultured lymphocytes to 6-mercaptopurine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Loon, J.; Weinshilboum, R.

    1986-03-05

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.67, TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). TPMT activity in human lymphocytes and other tissues is controlled by a common genetic polymorphism. These experiments were designed to study the relationship between TPMT phenotype and the effect of 6-MP on /sup 3/H-thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) incorporation into phytohemaglutinin (PHA) stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were obtained from the blood of nine subjects, three subjects with each TPMT phenotype. 6-MP dose response curves were performed at optimal (10 ..mu..g/ml) and suboptimal (1 ..mu..g/ml) concentrations of PHA. ED50 values for 6-MP with lymphocytes from subjects who genetically lacked TPMT activity were higher than ED50 values for lymphocytes from subjects with genetically intermediate or high TPMT activity. However, ED50 values decreased as level of stimulation increased. Therefore, the effects of 6-MP were studied at a series of PHA concentrations that ranged from 0.1 ..mu..g/ml to 10 ..mu..g/ml. Lymphocytes from subjects who lacked TPMT activity had significantly higher K/sub ii/ values (1.37 +/- 0.340 ..mu..M; mean +/- SEM) for inhibition of /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation by 6-MP than did lymphocytes from subjects with intermediate or high TPMT activity (0.529 +/- 0.068 ..mu..M and 0.327 +/- 0.064 ..mu..M, respectively, P < .05 for both comparisons).

  11. Polymorphs and polymorphic cocrystals of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N Jagadeesh; Reddy, L Sreenivas; Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Nangia, Ashwini

    2008-07-07

    Crystal polymorphism in the antitumor drug temozolomide (TMZ), cocrystals of TMZ with 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide (BPNO), and solid-state stability were studied. Apart from a known X-ray crystal structure of TMZ (form 1), two new crystalline modifications, forms 2 and 3, were obtained during attempted cocrystallization with carbamazepine and 3-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide. Conformers A and B of the drug molecule are stabilized by intramolecular amide N--HN(imidazole) and N--HN(tetrazine) interactions. The stable conformer A is present in forms 1 and 2, whereas both conformers crystallized in form 3. Preparation of polymorphic cocrystals I and II (TMZBPNO 1:0.5 and 2:1) were optimized by using solution crystallization and grinding methods. The metastable nature of polymorph 2 and cocrystal II is ascribed to unused hydrogen-bond donors/acceptors in the crystal structure. The intramolecularly bonded amide N-H donor in the less stable structure makes additional intermolecular bonds with the tetrazine C==O group and the imidazole N atom in stable polymorph 1 and cocrystal I, respectively. All available hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors are used to make intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the stable crystalline form. Synthon polymorphism and crystal stability are discussed in terms of hydrogen-bond reorganization.

  12. T-lymphocyte dependency of B-lymphocyte blastogenic response to phytomitogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Dadey, B.

    1978-01-01

    Human peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes were separated by a method based on the stable rosette formation of T lymphocytes with neuraminidase-treated sheep erythrocytes, followed by centrifugation over a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. Monocytes were isolated from the T-depleted B lymphocyte preparation by allowing the monocytes to ingest iron particles and by subsequent centrifugation over a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. The T lymphocytes responded extremely well to PHA and very well to PWM, while the B lymphocytes were unresponsive to either PHA or PWM. However, when the B lymphocytes were cultured together with irradiated autologous or allogeneic T lymphocytes (1 : 1,1:2 or 1 : 4 ratio), both PHA and PWM became mitogenic to B lymphocytes. Irradiated T lymphocytes alone did not respond to either PHA or PWM, indicating that the 3 H-thymidine incorporation seen in the mixed-cell culture was due to the activation of unirradiated B lymphocytes. The B lymphocytes failed to respond to these phytomitogens in the presence of lower concentrations of irradiated T lymphocytes. The monocytes were found to be incapable of helping the B lymphocytes to respond to PHA or PWM. (author)

  13. Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Didia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

  14. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  15. Comparison of p53 levels in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessner, Pavel; Chvatalova, Irena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Roessner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J.

    2004-01-01

    p53 levels were assessed in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of workers from two Czech nuclear power plants (NPP): 114 subjects working in Temelin and 108 subjects working in Dukovany. Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure data were available for 64 and 59 subjects working in the monitored zones from the NPP in Temelin and Dukovany, respectively. The short-term doses of IR for these subjects were 0.01 and 0.12 mSv, and the long-term doses were 0.46 and 5.68 mSv, in the Temelin and Dukovany NPP, respectively. As a control group, 46 subjects living in Ceske Budejovice, a city nearby the Temelin NPP, were analyzed. The concentration of p53 in lymphocytes was significantly higher in workers from the monitored zone in the Dukovany NPP (median value 6.4 pg/μg protein, P < 0.001) than in workers from the Temelin NPP (3.2 pg/μg) as well as in the control group (3.5 pg/μg). In contrast, plasma levels of p53 were comparable in the control group (median value 116 pg/ml plasma) and workers from the monitored zone of Dukovany NPP (102 pg/ml), but lower in workers from Temelin NPP (5 pg/ml). Other factors affecting p53 levels were studied. Smoking resulted in increased p53 lymphocyte levels. The effect of polymorphisms in metabolic and DNA repair genes on p53 levels was analyzed. The correlation was found between p53 levels in lymphocytes and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in subjects working in NPPs, but not in the control group. The results of measurement p53 levels in lymphocytes suggest that this biomarker could reflect the short-term as well as long-term effects of low doses IR. Its impact on human health should be further explored

  16. Damage of lymphocytes by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.; Moldenhauer, H.; Kehrberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    After a short review, how lymphocytes of the peripheral blood are influenced by radiotherapy, the damage of lymphocytes by whole-body irradiation is pointed out in animal experiments and after in vitro irradiation. The special sensibility of B-cells and their homogeneity in fields of radiobiology are opposed to the heterogeneity of T-cells. The radiosensibility of cytotoxic lymphocytes, suppressor cells, and helper cells are discussed. It appears, that within these functional criteria, there is a different radiosensibility, too. (author)

  17. Radiation sensitivity of human malignant lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, R.; Matthews, C.; Morley, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and rapid in vitro technique to assess the sensitivity of human malignant lymphocytes to roentgen irradiation is described. A variety of established malignant lymphocyte cell lines were cloned in microwells and clone survival was used as the end-point. The survival of the clonogenic malignant lymphocyte down to a fraction of approximately 0.001 could be measured accurately. Except for a T-cell line, the radiation sensitivities of the cell lines were similar to that of normal T-lymphocytes. (orig.)

  18. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  19. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  20. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited-Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard; Heyman, Mats; Wesenberg, Finn; Kristinsson, Jon; Vettenranta, Kim; Schrøeder, Henrik; Weinshilboum, Richard; Jensen, Katrine Lykke; Grell, Kathrine; Rosthoej, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose adjustment guidelines. To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10 9 /l. After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides or MTX (including its polyglutamates) to be significant relapse predictors. The parameters significantly associated with risk of relapse (N = 83) were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [1.3-3.1], P = 0.003), WBC at diagnosis (HR = 1.04 per 10 × 10 9 /l rise [1.00-1.09], P = 0.048), the absolute neutrophil count (ANC; HR = 1.7 per 10 9 /l rise [1.3-2.4], P = 0.0007), and Ery thiopurine methyltransferase activity (HR = 2.7 per IU/ml rise [1.1-6.7], P = 0.03). WBC was significantly related to ANC (Spearman correlation coefficient, r s  = 0.77; P best hematological target for dose adjustments of maintenance therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fish Lymphocytes: An Evolutionary Equivalent of Mammalian Innate-Like Lymphocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scapigliati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes are the responsible of adaptive responses, as they are classically described, but evidence shows that subpopulations of mammalian lymphocytes may behave as innate-like cells, engaging non-self rapidly and without antigen presentation. The innate-like lymphocytes of mammals have been mainly identified as γδT cells and B1-B cells, exert their activities principally in mucosal tissues, may be involved in human pathologies and their functions and tissue(s of origin are not fully understood. Due to similarities in the morphology and immunobiology of immune system between fish and mammals, and to the uniqueness of having free-living larval stages where the development can be precisely monitored and engineered, teleost fish are proposed as an experimental model to investigate human immunity. However, the homology between fish lymphocytes and mammalian innate-like lymphocytes is an issue poorly considered in comparative immunology. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that fish lymphocytes could have developmental, morphological, and functional features in common with innate-like lymphocytes of mammals. Despite such similarities, information on possible links between conventional fish lymphocytes and mammalian innate-like lymphocytes is missing. The aim of this review is to summarize and describe available findings about the similarities between fish lymphocytes and mammalian innate-like lymphocytes, supporting the hypothesis that mammalian γδT cells and B1-B cells could be evolutionarily related to fish lymphocytes.

  2. Discrimination of human cytotoxic lymphocytes from regulatory and B-lymphocytes by orthogonal light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; van Berkel, W.; Greve, Jan

    1986-01-01

    Light scattering properties of human lymphocyte subpopulations selected by immunofluorescence were studied with a flow cytometer. Regulatory and B-lymphocytes showed a low orthogonal light scatter signal, whereas cytotoxic lymphocytes identified with leu-7, leu-11 and leu-15 revealed a large

  3. Canine lymphocyte activating factor (LAF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifrine, M.; Whaley, C.B.; Wilson, F.D.; Taylor, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    The immune response of an animal is the sum of the result of the interaction of various cells mainly through soluble mediators. It is not enough to look at specific cell populations, it is also necessary to study the interactions between purified cell population. The effect of one subpopulation on another is via soluble mediators. We have been studying one (of several) such mediators in its relation to radiation effects on the immune response. Lymphocyte activating factor (LAF) is defined functionally as a potentiator of the response of thymocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin (con-A). It can also elicit response of unstimulated subpopulations separated from the thymus. It is a product of adherent populations, presumably macrophages. It has been shown to be produced by human, rabbit, and mouse cells, but has not been reported in the dog. It also was shown to be present in higher concentrations in irradiated mice than in comparable unirradiated mice. We have shown that LAF is produced by plastic-adherent populations derived from peripheral blood. Currently we are working to determine the lymphocyte subpopulations with which LAF interacts

  4. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  5. Lymphocyte-platelet crosstalk in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznik, Boris I; Vitkovsky, Yuri A; Gvozdeva, Olga V; Solpov, Alexey V; Magen, Eli

    2014-03-01

    Platelets can modulate lymphocytes' role in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The present study was performed to clarify the status of platelet-lymphocyte subpopulations aggregation in circulating blood in patients with Graves' disease (GD). One hundred and fifty patients with GD (GD group) and 45 hyperthyroid patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG group) were recruited in the study. Control group consisted 150 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Detection of lymphocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs) was done using light microscope after Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The group of GD patients exhibited reduced CD8 lymphocyte and higher CD19 cell counts compared with TMG group and healthy controls. A greater number of activated CD3, HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were observed in GD than in TMG group and control group. GD group was characterized by lower blood platelet count (232 ± 89 × 10 cells/µL) than TMG group (251 ± 97 × 10 cells/µL; P TMG group (116 ± 67/µL, P < 0.005) and control group (104 ± 58 /µL; P < 0.001). GD is associated with higher levels of activated lymphocytes and lymphocyte-platelet aggregates.

  6. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with peripheral vertigo: a prospective controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Isa; Kahraman, Cuneyt; Balikci, Hasan Huseyin; Kucur, Cuneyt; Kahraman, Nilufer Kuzeyli; Ozkaya, Derya Pınar; Oghan, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between peripheral vertigo and inflammation by using the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an inflammatory marker. We recruited 103 patients with peripheral vertigo (71 women, 32 men; mean age, 39.8 ± 14.7 years) who presented to the Otolaryngology Department of Dumlupinar University Hospital. Vertigo patients with systemic diseases, neurological disorders, malignancy or any inflammatory disease that could alter the NLR were excluded from the study. We also enrolled 103 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls; 82 women, 21 men; mean age, 36.7 ± 13.5 years) who underwent routine checkups in our hospital. The vertigo patients underwent full otolaryngologic and neurologic examinations and audiometric tests to rule out any other pathology causing the peripheral vertigo. NLR was calculated in all subjects and was compared between the patient and control groups. There were no significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of lipid profiles, liver-function tests, white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin level, mean platelet volume, and vitamin B12 and folate levels. The mean NLR was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (Pvertigo, found that the NLR is significantly higher among peripheral vertigo patients than among healthy controls. This result suggests that the NLR is a novel potential marker of stress in peripheral vertigo patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Furman, Richard R; Zent, Clive S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is usually diagnosed in asymptomatic patients with early-stage disease. The standard management approach is careful observation, irrespective of risk factors unless patients meet the International Workshop on CLL (IWCLL) criteria for "active disease," which requires treatment. The initial standard therapy for most patients combines an anti-CD20 antibody (such as rituximab, ofatumumab, or obinutuzumab) with chemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide [FC], bendamustine, or chlorambucil) depending on multiple factors including the physical fitness of the patient. However, patients with very high-risk CLL because of a 17p13 deletion (17p-) with or without mutation of TP53 (17p-/TP53mut) have poor responses to chemoimmunotherapy and require alternative treatment regimens containing B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway inhibitors. The BCR signaling pathway inhibitors (ibrutinib targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase [BTK] and idelalisib targeting phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase delta [PI3K-delta], respectively) are currently approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory CLL and all patients with 17p- (ibrutinib), and in combination with rituximab for relapsed/refractory patients (idelalisib). These agents offer great efficacy, even in chemotherapy refractory CLL, with increased tolerability, safety, and survival. Ongoing studies aim to determine the best therapy combinations with the goal of achieving long-term disease control and the possibility of developing a curative regimen for some patients. CLL is associated with a wide range of infectious, autoimmune, and malignant complications. These complications result in considerable morbidity and mortality that can be minimized by early detection and aggressive management. This active monitoring requires ongoing patient education, provider vigilance, and a team approach to patient care.

  8. Evolution and phylogeny of B lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Claudio-Piedras

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available B lymphocytes are one of the most important cell types involved in the immune response of mammals. The origin and evolution of this cellular type is unknown, but the B lymphocyte bona fide appeared first in fish. In this review we analize the principal components of the immune response of invertebrates, their phylogenetic distribution and the permancence of some properties that allowed the emergence of the B lymphocyte. We started from the idea that many of the components that characterize the B lymphocyte are found distributed among the invertebrates, however, it is in the B lymphocyte, where all these components that give this type of cell its identity, converged. The actual knowledge we have in regards of the lymphocytes comes, in the most part, from physiological studies in mammals, being the mice the more representative. The origin of the B lymphocyte, its alternative mechanisms for generating receptor diversity, its immune effector response, and the generation of memory, require an evolutionary and multidisiplinary approach for its study.

  9. Lymphocytic Pleural Effusion in Acute Melioidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Mou Chung

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An endemic outbreak of melioidosis developed in southern Taiwan following a flood caused by a typhoon in July 2005. A total of 27 patients were diagnosed with the acute and indigenous form of pulmonary melioidosis. Parapneumonic pleural effusions were noted on chest X-rays in six patients. Thoracentesis was done in three patients and all revealed lymphocyte predominance in differential cell count. Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated in the pleural effusion in one of them. All three patients survived after antibiotic treatment. Lymphocytic pleural effusion is generally seen in tuberculosis or malignancy. However, our findings suggest that melioidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lymphocytic pleural effusion.

  10. Late-onset Epstein-Barr virus-related disease in acute leukemia patients after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with impaired early recovery of T and B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangying; Yan, Chenhua; Zhang, Chunli; Xu, Lanping; Liu, Yanrong; Huang, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-related disease (EBVD) is a serious clinical complication in patients who have undergone haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haploHSCT). Some recipients develop EBVD relatively late after haploHSCT, and most of these patients suffer a poor outcome. This retrospective cohort study characterized the early adaptive immune recovery of patients with acute leukemia presenting with EBVD more than 100 d after haploHSCT. Patients with acute leukemia who received haploHSCT and developed EBVD 100 d later (n = 8) were compared with a matched control group without EBVD (n = 24) with regard to peripheral WBC, lymphocytes, and neutrophils (at 30, 60, and 90 d) and recoveries of B and T lymphocytes (at 30 and 90 d, via immunophenotyping/flow cytometry). Ninety days after haploHSCT, the median values of WBCs and lymphocytes, and the recoveries of CD19(+) B cells and CD4(+) , CD8(+) , and CD4(+) CD45RO(+) T cells, were significantly lower in patients who developed EBVD, relative to the control group. These results suggest a significant association between deficient early recovery of B and T lymphocytes and the development of late-onset EBVD after haploHSCT. Our observation could facilitate clinical intervention and the improvement of overall survival of patients undergoing haploHSCT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. General Information about Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lymph system . Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews. Signs and symptoms ... information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia For more information ...

  12. Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  13. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...

  14. Cellular immune therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, Arnon P.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Although chemotherapy can induce complete responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), it is not considered curative. Treated patients generally develop recurrent disease requiring additional therapy, which can cause worsening immune dysfunction, myelosuppression, and selection for

  15. Lymphocyte mobilization by dextran sulfate in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Debban, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Dogs manifesting 239 Pu-induced lymphopenia responded to the lymphocyte-mobilizing agent, dextran sulfate, to a degree similar to that observed in control dogs. No life-threatening increase in prothrombin times or hemorrhagic tendencies were observed

  16. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun-Mi; Kittai, Adam; Tabbara, Imad A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of leukemia in adults, and while in early, asymptomatic stages treatment is not indicated, the threat to the quality of life and increased mortality of patients posed by more advanced-stage disease necessitate therapeutic intervention. Guidelines of when and how to treat are not well-established because CLL is a disease of the elderly and it is important to balance preservation of functional status and control of the disease. Advances in molecular and genetic profiling has led to the ability to identify sub-groups of patients with CLL whose disease may respond to selected therapy. This review discusses current standard therapies in the major sub-groups of CLL based on age and functional status, in both the front-line and relapsed/refractory settings. It also provides a concise review of novel agents that have shown considerable efficacy in CLL. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. How T lymphocytes see antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2009-03-01

    Complex organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that enables us to do battle with diverse pathogens. This flexible system can also go awry, and many diseases are the direct consequence of the adaptive immune system failing to discriminate between markers of self and non-self. The orchestrators of adaptive immunity are a class of cells called T lymphocytes (T cells). T cells recognize minute numbers of molecular signatures of pathogens, and T cell recognition of these molecular markers of non-self is both specific and degenerate. The specific (yet, cross-reactive), diverse, and self-tolerant T cell repertoire is designed in the thymus. I will describe how an approach that brings together theoretical and computational studies (rooted in statistical physics) with experiments (carried out by key collaborators) has allowed us to shed light on the mechanistic principles underlying how T cells respond to pathogens in a digital fashion (``on'' or ``off''), and how this molecular machinery coupled with frustration (a la spin glasses) plays a key role in designing the special properties of the T cell repertoire during development in the thymus.

  18. Lymphocytic hypophysitis and hypothalamitis - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelmachowska, M.; Bolko, P.; Wasko, R.; Sowinski, J.; Kosinski, D.; Towpik, I.

    2006-01-01

    Lymphocytic hypophysitis is an unusual disorder that nearly exclusively affects women. We present a case of 69 year-old female patient who developed the symptoms of diabetes insipidus and partial insufficiency of the anterior pituitary gland. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a mass involving the sella and suprasellar region. After exclusion of other causes of infiltrate in this region and due to evident reaction to glucocorticoid treatment the diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophisitis and hypothalamitis was established. (author)

  19. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Childhood Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślińska, Anna; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Chwała, Barbara; Moszyńska-Dumara, Małgorzata; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2017-09-09

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D₃ has an immunoregulatory role mediated by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in monocyte, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The effects of vitamin D and interaction with the VDR may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. Genetic association of four different VDR polymorphisms (Apa-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I, Fok-I) associated with susceptibility to the development of autism in children was investigated. We uniquely found an association between the presence of the T allele at position Taq-I and presence of the a allele at position Apa-I of the VDR gene with decreased ASD incidence. There was also an association between female gender and the presence of the T allele. We found no statistical significant correlation between VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and vitamin D₃ concentration in serum of ASD children. Genetic polymorphism in two SNP in VDR may be correlated with development of ASD symptoms by influencing functionality of vitamin D₃ metabolism, while vitamin D₃ levels were not significantly different between ASD and non-ASD children.

  20. The genetic polymorphism and expression profiles of NLRP3 inflammasome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Amin; Yu, Jie; Yan, Shuxin; Zhao, Xia; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Xueyun; Hua, Mingqiang; Wang, Ruiqing; Zhang, Chen; Zhong, Chaoqin; He, Na; Ji, Chunyan; Ma, Daoxin

    2018-01-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome has been recently reported as an important risk factor in the development of cancer. But the relationship between polymorphisms of NLRP3 inflammasome related genes and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is rarely reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of five genetic polymorphisms (NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-18, CARD8 and NF-κB) in 267 CML patients and 344 healthy controls. We found that the AT genotype of CARD8 (rs2043211) was significantly higher compared to TT genotype in high and intermediate risk CML patients. IL-1β (rs16944) polymorphism in early molecular response at 6 months was marginally different, with more GG and less AA genotype in BCR-ABL IS >1% group. IL-18 (rs1946518) polymorphism was significantly different with more GG genotype in BCR-ABL IS >1% group at 6 months. We also demonstrated that WBC count of newly diagnosed patients carrying AG genotype was significantly higher than that of GG or AA genotype of IL-1β (rs16944). The onset age of patients carrying ins/ins genotype of NF-κB (rs28362491) was significantly older than that of ins/del and del/del genotype. Moreover, IL-1β or NLRP3 mRNA expression was decreased and IL-18 mRNA expression was increased significantly in CML patients compared with controls. In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms of NLRP3 inflammasome may be served as potential predictors for CML. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SHARPIN Regulates Uropod Detachment in Migrating Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Pouwels

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SHARPIN-deficient mice display a multiorgan chronic inflammatory phenotype suggestive of altered leukocyte migration. We therefore studied the role of SHARPIN in lymphocyte adhesion, polarization, and migration. We found that SHARPIN localizes to the trailing edges (uropods of both mouse and human chemokine-activated lymphocytes migrating on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, which is one of the major endothelial ligands for migrating leukocytes. SHARPIN-deficient cells adhere better to ICAM-1 and show highly elongated tails when migrating. The increased tail lifetime in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes decreases the migration velocity. The adhesion, migration, and uropod defects in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes were rescued by reintroducing SHARPIN into the cells. Mechanistically, we show that SHARPIN interacts directly with lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, a leukocyte counterreceptor for ICAM-1, and inhibits the expression of intermediate and high-affinity forms of LFA-1. Thus, SHARPIN controls lymphocyte migration by endogenously maintaining LFA-1 inactive to allow adjustable detachment of the uropods in polarized cells.

  2. Polymorphs of Pridopidine Hydrochloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, A.; Frostrup, B.; Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    of both polymorphs contain N+-H center dot center dot center dot Cl-center dot center dot center dot N+-H center dot center dot center dot interactions, and the polymorphism can be viewed as alternative orientations (parallel or antiparallel) of comparable molecular columns while retaining the center dot...... center dot center dot N+-H center dot center dot center dot Cl-center dot center dot center dot N+-H center dot center dot center dot motif between columns. Forms I and II have melting points of 199 and 210 degrees C, respectively. Following melting of form I, a kinetically controlled crystallization...

  3. B and T lymphocytes in man. I. Effect of infant thymic irradiation on the circulating B and T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.M.; Goh, K.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    B and T lymphocytes were studied in a group of adults whose thymic glands were irradiated in infancy for alleged thymic enlargement. Two independent methods were used to determine the B and T lymphocytes from each peripheral blood specimen: (1) the relative proportion of cells with surface immunoglobulins (B lymphocytes) and cells forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (T lymphocytes); and (2) the relative mitogenic response to phytohemagglutinin (T lymphocytes) and to pokeweed mitogen (B lymphocytes). All specimens were coded. The results obtained indicate: (1) a reduction of B and T lymphocytes; and (2) a decreased mitogenic response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen in this group of patients as compared with the controls. These observations suggest that (1) the effect of irradiation to the thymus gland on lymphocytes is long lasting and (2) both B and T lymphocytes are affected by irradiation to the thymus gland

  4. 100 cases of normal earlobe and vein blood hemoglobin and WBC determination comparison%100例正常人耳垂血与静脉血血红蛋白及白细胞测定的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝云波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To normal earlobe blood and venous blood hemoglobin and WBC to compare the results of determination. Method Research object for the normal adults, 100 cases (conscription examination), the earlobe blood parts of blood and venous blood two parts, the determination of hemoglobin and WBC level. Results The 100 cases of Hb and white blood cells are higher than that of venous blood, earlobe blood Hb were higher than in venous blood of Hb, the difference between the two have 3 cases not more than 10 g (3%), 97% of Hb the difference between the two parts of 10 g/L ~ 60 g/L (31 g) on average, 95% difference within the 25 g ~ 60 g, 26.5 g to 26.5 g. Using two blood test method of the same parts as WBC determination results comparison, the earlobe blood leukocytes were higher than that of venous blood leukocytes, 98% of them significantly better than the earlobe blood of venous blood leukocyte number (differential value of 8.6 x 109 / L ~ 6.3 x 109 / L (8600 ~ 6300), the mean difference of 3.8 x 109 / L ~ 4.8 x 109 / L (3800 ~4800), only 2% of the people the earlobe blood leukocytes was slightly higher than that of venous blood, difference of 0.6 x 109 / L ~ 1.2 x 109 / L (600 ~ 1200). Conclusions Blood test result difference is big, the two parts should arouse our attention.%目的:对正常人耳垂血与静脉血血红蛋白及白细胞测定的结果进行比较。方法研究对象为正常成人100例(征兵体检),采血部位为耳垂血与静脉血两部位,测定血红蛋白与白细胞水平。结果经测定100例 Hb 及白细胞均高于静脉血,耳垂血 Hb 均高于静脉血的 Hb,两者之差有3例不超过10g(3%),有97%的人 Hb 两部位之差为10g/L ~60g/L(平均31g),95%差数在25g ~60g以内,平均26.5g ~30.4g。用同一种检验方法对两种采血部位做的白细胞测定结果比较,耳垂血白细胞均高于静脉血的白细胞,其中98%的人耳垂血明显高于静脉

  5. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  6. Quantification of newly produced B and T lymphocytes in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimi Luigi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune defects occurring in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are responsible for the frequent occurrence of infections and autoimmune phenomena, and may be involved in the initiation and maintenance of the malignant clone. Here, we evaluated the quantitative defects of newly produced B and T lymphocytes. Methods The output of B and T lymphocytes from the production and maturation sites was analyzed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and healthy controls by quantifying kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs and T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs by a Real-Time PCR assay that simultaneously detects both targets. T-lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by six-color flow cytometric analysis. Data comparison was performed by two-sided Mann-Whitney test. Results KRECs level was reduced in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients studied at the very early stage of the disease, whereas the release of TRECs+ cells was preserved. Furthermore, the observed increase of CD4+ lymphocytes could be ascribed to the accumulation of CD4+ cells with effector memory phenotype. Conclusions The decreased number of newly produced B lymphocytes in these patients is likely related to a homeostatic mechanism by which the immune system balances the abnormal B-cell expansion. This feature may precede the profound defect of humoral immunity characterizing the later stages of the disease.

  7. Progranulin Inhibits Human T Lymphocyte Proliferation by Inducing the Formation of Regulatory T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Hwan Kwack

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effect of progranulin (PGRN on human T cell proliferation and its underlying mechanism. We show that PGRN inhibits the PHA-induced multiplication of T lymphocytes. It increases the number of iTregs when T lymphocytes are activated by PHA but does not do so in the absence of PHA. PGRN-mediated inhibition of T lymphocyte proliferation, as well as the induction of iTregs, was completely reversed by a TGF-β inhibitor or a Treg inhibitor. PGRN induced TGF-β secretion in the presence of PHA whereas it did not in the absence of PHA. Our findings indicate that PGRN suppresses T lymphocyte proliferation by enhancing the formation of iTregs from activated T lymphocytes in response to TGF-β.

  8. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Shiota

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objectives were to compare the numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from asthmatic patients and from healthy subjects, and to determine the effect of inhaled anti-asthmatic steroid therapy on these cell numbers. Hypertonic saline inhalation was used to non-invasively induce sputum samples in 34 patients with bronchial asthma and 21 healthy subjects. The sputum samples were reduced with dithioerythritol and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were assessed by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. To assess the effect of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP on induced sputum, numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in sputum also were evaluated after 4 weeks of BDP inhalation treatment in seven asthmatic patients. An adequate sample was obtained in 85.3% of patients with asthma and in 79.2% of the healthy subjects. Induced sputum from patients with asthma had increased numbers of lymphocytes (P = 0.009; CD4+ cells (P = 0.044; CD4+ cells-bearing interleukin-2 receptor (CD25; P = 0.016; and CD4+ cells bearing human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR (P = 0.033. CD8+ cells were not increased in asthmatic patients. In patients treated with inhaled steroids, numbers of lymphocytes, CD4+ cells, CD25-bearing CD4+ cells and HLA-DR-bearing CD4+ cells in sputum decreased from pretreatment numbers (P = 0.016, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively. Analysis of lymphocytes in induced sputum by flow cytometry is useful in assessing bronchial inflammation, and activated CD4+ lymphocytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma.

  9. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) an....../ppb. INTERPRETATION: Circulating T-lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions-particularly cobalt-may have a general depressive effect on T- and B-lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA....... RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...

  10. WBC Associates with Readmission Following Cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew G; Li, Tianyu; Ito, Timothy; Mannion, Jason; Dziemianowicz, Mark; Waingankar, Nikhil; Haseebuddin, Mohammed; Chen, David Y T; Greenberg, Richard E; Viterbo, Rosalia; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Smaldone, Marc C; Abbosh, Philip H

    2017-04-27

    Background: Radical cystectomy is associated with perioperative complication rates exceeding 50% in some series. Readmission rates are increasingly used as a surgical quality metric. White blood cell count is a crude surrogate for physiologic processes which may reflect postoperative complications leading to readmission. Objective: We assessed the association between final white blood cell count at discharge and risk of readmission following radical cystectomy. Methods: Records on 477 patients undergoing radical cystectomy from 2006-2013 were reviewed. Final white blood cell count was defined as the last documented value during index admission. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher's exact, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Spearman's coefficient tests where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test the associations between final white blood cell count and readmission. Results: 34% of patients were readmitted within 90 days of surgery. Amongst this cohort, a cutoff final white blood cell count of 9000/mm 3 was identified, with a significantly higher proportion of patients with values >9000/mm 3 experiencing readmission than those with values≤9000/mm 3 (42% vs 28%, p  = 0.004). Other perioperative variables associated with an increased readmission rate included initial hospital length of stay≤10 days, and receipt of a continent diversion. Following adjustment, final white blood cell count >9000/mm 3 was associated with increased risk of readmission (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.23-3.53, p  = 0.006). Conclusions: Final white blood cell count is associated with hospital readmission following radical cystectomy. This metric may provide important guidance in discharge algorithms.

  11. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pp 1003-1008. Harmening D. Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis, Fifth Edition, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 2009, Pp 305-328. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus ...

  12. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: concepts and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Chikkappa, G.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were studied for assessment of total body leukemic mass and abnormality in T-lymphocyte function associated with clinical stages of CLL. Total body potassium (TBK), an indicator of lean body mass, was found to correlate well with increase in the clinical stage of the disease. Use of TBK for monitoring the regression and relapse of leukemic load is suggested. No correlation was found between whole cell and nuclear volumes of lymphocytes in CLL patients and clinical stages of the disease. Blast transformation and proliferation under phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation appeared to be normal in purified T cells of early stages and abnormal in the late stages of disease.

  13. Cellular energy metabolism in T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Sawitzki, Birgit; Hoff, Paula; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Energy homeostasis is a hallmark of cell survival and maintenance of cell function. Here we focus on the impact of cellular energy metabolism on T-lymphocyte differentiation, activation, and function in health and disease. We describe the role of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of lymphocyte metabolism on immune functions of T cells. We also summarize the current knowledge about T-lymphocyte adaptations to inflammation and hypoxia, and the impact on T-cell behavior of pathophysiological hypoxia (as found in tumor tissue, chronically inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis and during bone regeneration). A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control immune cell metabolism and immune response may provide therapeutic opportunities to alter the immune response under conditions of either immunosuppression or inflammation, potentially targeting infections, vaccine response, tumor surveillance, autoimmunity, and inflammatory disorders.

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... of SNPs. This will allow acquisition of more information from the sample materials and open up for new possibilities as well as new challenges....

  15. Lymphocytic hypophysitis: occurrence in two men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Laws, E R; Guthrie, B L; Dina, T S; Nochomovitz, L E

    1994-01-01

    Two men undergoing transsphenoidal exploration for pituitary adenoma were found to have lymphocytic hypophysitis. Both presented with frontal headaches, lethargy, and diminished libido. Laboratory investigations showed markedly depressed serum testosterone, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated pituitary enlargement, with optic chiasm involvement. Intraoperatively, the dura was adherent to the pituitary in each case. The resected glands were effaced by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and fibrosis, without granulomas. Nonspecific peripheral enhancement on imaging suggested a diagnosis other than adenoma, but more experience with peripheral enhancement in lymphocytic hypophysitis is needed. The diagnosis was histological and required surgical intervention. Long-term pituitary replacement therapy is usually required.

  16. Primary lymphocytic lymphoma of lacrimal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Caballero, M D; Lozano-García, I; Gómez-Molina, C; Gil-Liñán, A I; Arcas, I

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of primary small-cell lymphocytic lacrimal gland lymphoma in a male diagnosed with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. These rare lymphomas are usually presented in the clinic as disseminations secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and the primary site is rare in the orbit. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours. Although treatment in the IE stage is usually radiotherapy, due to its association with antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic treatment with rituximab was administered. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphometric Characterization of Small Cell Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoi Anca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphometry in histopathology is used to characterize cell populations belonging to different tissues and to identify differences in their parameters with prognostic implications. To achieve morphometric examination were selected 6 of 24 cases identified as small cell lymphocytic lymphoma. For each case analysis was done on five fields, for each field measuring the parameters of 20 cells. The studied parameters were for cytoplasm: cytoplasmic area, maximum and minimum cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter; for nucleus were measured: nuclear area, minimum and maximum nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, nuclear contour index, nuclear ellipticity index, nuclear irregularity index. Also the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was calculated in all studied cases. Small cell lymphocytic lymphoma is characterized in morphometric terms having a small cytoplasmic area (average 29.206 and also a small nuclear area (mean 28.939 having a nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appearance suggestive for adult lymphocyte. A nuclear contour index small value (3.946, ellipticity index value also small (3.521 and small nuclear irregularity index (3.965. Standard deviations, in any of the studied morphometric categories, is around or below 1 suggesting monomorphic cell appearance. These morphometric and microscopic features characterized mainly by a small population of adult lymphocytes, monomorphic, with rounded hipercromic nuclei, dense chromatin, support the framing into indolent lymphoma group in terms of clinical outcome.

  19. Cytokine gene expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... Key words: Lipopolysaccharide, lymphocytes, TLRs, cytokines. INTRODUCTION. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a predominant glycolipid in the outer membranes of Gam-negative bacteria, stimulates monocyte, macrophages, and neutrophils and increase expression of cell adhesion molecules (Trent et al., ...

  20. Genotoxic effects of borax on cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2009-03-01

    The effect of borax on human chromosomes was analyzed in this study. Venous blood from 30 male students at Thammasat University, Thailand (age 18-25 years) was collected for lymphocyte cell cultures. This experiment was divided into two groups: the first group was the control group and the second group was the experimental group. The lymphocyte cells in the control group were cultured without borax. The experimental group was divided into four subgroups. The lymphocyte cells in each experimental subgroup were cultured with different concentrations of borax (0.1 mg/ml, 0.15 mg/ml, 0.2 mg/ml and 0.3 mg/ml). Human chromosomes were studied for abnormalities through Giemsa-staining and G-banding. The results show that the numbers of metaphase plates (the metaphase plate which contained 46 chromosomes; 46, XY) and metaphase chromosomes were reduced when lymphocyte cells were cultured with 0.15 mg/ml (57.2%), 0.2 mg/ml (50.8%) and 0.3 mg/ml (42.3%) concentrations of borax. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and experimental subgroups (p borax concentration experimental subgroup. This shows that borax (at 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/ml concentrations) affects the cell and human chromosomes (both numerical and structural abnormalities). Borax may cause human chromosome abnormalities and lead to genetic defects.

  1. Immunophenotypic lymphocyte profiles in human african trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Boda

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is a deadly vector-born disease caused by an extracellular parasite, the trypanosome. Little is known about the cellular immune responses elicited by this parasite in humans. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 33 HAT patients and 27 healthy controls identified during a screening campaign in Angola and Gabon. We evaluated the subsets and activation markers of B and T lymphocytes. Patients had a higher percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes and activated B lymphocytes in the blood than did controls, but lacked activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD25+. Patients displayed no increase in the percentage of activated CD8+ T cells (HLA-DR+, CD69+ or CD25+, but memory CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA2 were significantly lower in patients than in controls, as were effector CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA+CD62L2. No relationship was found between these blood immunophenotypes and disease severity (stage 1 vs 2. However, CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF increased with disease severity. The patterns of T and B cell activation in HAT patients suggest that immunomodulatory mechanisms may operate during infection. Determinations of CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF could improve disease staging.

  2. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia manifestating as exfoliative dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhir R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old patient reported with a history of redness and peeling of the skin, and sensations of chills and tightness of the skin of three months duration. Clinical examination revealed exfoliative dermatitis, generalised lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegely. A peripheral smear showed features of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

  3. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...

  4. GABA, a natural immunomodulator of T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurstöm, Helen; Wang, Junyang; Ericsson, Ida

    2008-01-01

    gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neuroinhibitory transmitter in the brain. Here we show that GABA in the extracellular space may affect the fate of pathogenic T lymphocytes entering the brain. We examined in encephalitogenic T cells if they expressed functional GABA channels that could...

  5. DMPD: Developmental plasticity of lymphocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18472258 Developmental plasticity of lymphocytes. Cobaleda C, Busslinger M. Curr Op...in Immunol. 2008 Apr;20(2):139-48. Epub 2008 May 9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Developmental plastic...ity of lymphocytes. PubmedID 18472258 Title Developmental plasticity of lymphocytes. Authors Cobaleda C, Bus

  6. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma presenting as septic arthritis of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Andrea; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Nomikos, George [NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Garcia, Roberto A. [Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-11-15

    We report a case of a 53-year-old man presenting with shoulder pain mimicking septic arthritis. Laboratory findings were atypical. Biopsy performed to assess for possible osteomyelitis demonstrated chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Intra-articular lymphoma is a rare but important consideration in patients with atypical clinical presentation. Imaging alone may be insufficient to render diagnosis as lymphoma can mimic infection, synovial hypertrophic processes, and depositional arthropathy. (orig.)

  7. Polymorphisms in the IFNγ, IL-10, and TGFβ Genes May Be Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bonfim Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated possible associations between the TNFα-308G/A, IFN+874A/T, IL-6-174C/G, IL-10-1082A/G, and TGFβ-509C/T polymorphisms with HIV-1 infection, in addition to correlation of the polymorphisms with clinical markers of AIDS progression, such as levels of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and plasma viral load. Methods. A total of 216 individuals who were infected with HIV-1 and on antiretroviral therapy (ART and 294 individuals from the uninfected control group were analyzed. Results. All individuals evaluated were negative for total anti-HBc, anti-HCV, anti-T. pallidum, and anti-HTLV-1/2. The polymorphisms were identified by PCR-RFLP. Individuals presenting the IFN+874A allele as well as the AA genotype were more frequent in the HIV-1 infected group compared to the control group (P<0.05, in addition to having lower levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes. The CD8+ T lymphocytes count was significantly lower in individuals with the IL-10-1082 GG genotype. The TGFβ-509TT genotype was associated with higher plasma viral load. Conclusions. The results suggest that the presence of the IFN+874A allele confers susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and a decrease in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, the genotype associated with high serum levels of TGFβ may be associated with an increase in plasma viral load.

  8. Fas expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) : relation to lymphocyte activation and disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, M; Horst, G; Limburg, PC; Kallenberg, CGM

    2001-01-01

    Levels of apoptotic lymphocytes have been found to be increased in SLE and persistence of apoptotic cells has been associated with autoantibody production, Increased lymphocyte Fas (CD95) expression due to lymphocyte activation may account for increased Susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis in

  9. Measurement of exercise-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James E; Bosch, Jos A; Aldred, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Vigorous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, a state that involves modifications to bodily molecules due to release of pro-oxidant species. Assessment of such modifications provides non-specific measures of oxidative stress in human tissues and blood, including circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a very heterogeneous group of white blood cells, consisting of subtypes that have different functions in immunity. Importantly, exercise drastically changes the lymphocyte composition in blood by increasing the numbers of some subsets, while leaving other cells unaffected. This fact may imply that observed changes in oxidative stress markers are confounded by changes in lymphocyte composition. For example, lymphocyte subsets may differ in exposure to oxidative stress because of subset differences in cell division and the acquisition of cytotoxic effector functions. The aim of the present review is to raise awareness of interpretational issues related to the assessment of oxidative stress in lymphocytes with exercise and to address the relevance of lymphocyte subset phenotyping in these contexts.

  10. Effect of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase on the mitogen response of T lymphocytes. I. Enhancement of macrophage T-lymphocyte cooperation in concanavalin-A-induced lymphocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, J

    1980-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN) enhances the immune response of lymphocytes in various systems, such as antigen- and mitogen-induced blastogenesis, mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and tumor-cell response. We used macrophage-depleted and reconstituted murine lymph-node T-cells to investigate the effect of VCN on macrophage-T-lymphocyte co-operation in Con-A-induced lymphocyte activation. In unfractionated lymph-node cells VCN enhanced the Con-A-induced lymphocyte activation as measured by 3H-thymidine (3H-dThd) incorporation. Removing macrophages from the cells resulted in a significantly diminished response. In addition the enhancing effect of VCN was greatly reduced. Reconstitution of the lymphocyte cultures with macrophages in increasing numbers and from various sources rstored the lymphocyte response and the enhancing effect of VCN. VCN proved to be most efficient in cultures reconstituted with normal peritoneal macrophages. Some effect was also observed using bone-marrow-derived (BM) macrophages. However, higher numbers of normal PE macrophages in the presence of VCN inhibited lymphocyte activation, and inhibition by thioglycollate-broth-induced macrophages was considerably increased by VCN. These results suggest that VCN acts by increasing the efficiency of macrophage-T lymphocyte interaction.

  11. Characteristics of T lymphocyte subpopulations 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the characteristics, receptor profile and functions of T lymphocyte subpopulations (helper, cytotoxic, regulatory, memory and others. Among T helper cells one can enumerate Th0, Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, TFH and nTh2, while T cytotoxic cells include Tc, NKT, Tγδ, and T CD8αα (IEL. Among regulatory cells there are nTreg, iTreg, TR1, and iTR35, as well as T lymphocytes with CD8, such as CD8 CD122 , CD8 CD28-, and CD11c CD8 . And among memory T cells there are Tcm and Tem. Moreover, there are some so-called other T cells, such as Tn (T αβ CD4 and T αβ CD8 , T exhausted and T anergic. 

  12. Biological Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Vroblová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most frequent leukemic disease of adults in the Western world. It is remarkable by an extraordinary heterogeneity of clinical course with overall survival ranging from several months to more than 15 years. Classical staging sytems by Rai and Binet, while readily available and useful for initial assessment of prognosis, are not able to determine individual patient’s ongoing clinical course of CLL at the time of diagnosis, especially in early stages. Therefore, newer biological prognostic parameters are currently being clinically evaluated. Mutational status of variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgVH, cytogenetic aberrations, and both intracellular ZAP- 70 and surface CD38 expression are recognized as parameters with established prognostic value. Molecules regulating the process of angiogenesis are also considered as promising markers. The purpose of this review is to summarize in detail the specific role of these prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  13. Lymphocytic subsets and low-dose exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Eybl, E.

    1993-03-01

    The present investigations proved the differential radiosensitivity of lymphocytic subpopulations: From in vivo and in vitro irradiations it may be followed that the most sensitive subset are CD8 positive suppressor T cells. CD4/CD8 ratios are increased both in peripheral blood and after mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes of exposed persons. The decrease in B cells is pronounced only at higher radiation doses. Though the rate of DNA synthesis after mitogen stimulation was reduced in some exposed persons, that was no general phenomenon. Especially after tritium exposure, the observed lymphopenia correlated with an increased stimulation by PHA and an increased rate of DNA synthesis in some probands. Thus the present investigations indicate that - despite an inhibition of some immune parameters by radioexposure - the body is able to maintain its immunological homoeostasis. (authors)

  14. REACTIVITY OF BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Khasanova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of proliferative and IL-2-producing activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes wasperformed, using cultural methods, in patients with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. The cell testing was performed at basal level and following in vitro stimulation with recombinant IL-2 and M. tuberculosis antigens. It was established that clinical course of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, independently on drug sensitivity/resistance of the infectious pathogen, is accompanied by suppression of spontaneous lymphoproliferation. The levels of induced IL-2 production in drug-sensitive tuberculosis proved to be increased, whereas a reserve of IL-2-secreting reactivity of blood lymphocytes was lower than in drugresistant infection. Also, it was revealed that the level of lymphoproliferative response induced by IL-2, does not depend on clinical variant of tuberculosis, whereas stimulation of IL-2 production in blood lymphocytes is attained only in cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis variant.

  15. Decreased lymphocyte dopamine transporter in romantic lovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Piccinni, Armando; Mucci, Federico; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario; Rutigliano, Grazia; Massimetti, Gabriele; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) in romantic love is suggested by different evidence and is supported by the findings of some brain imaging studies. The DA transporter (DAT) is a key structure in regulating the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Given the presence of DAT in blood cells, the present study aimed to explore it in resting lymphocytes of 30 healthy subjects of both sexes in the early stage of romantic love (no longer than 6 months), as compared with 30 subjects involved in a long-lasting relationship. All subjects had no physical or psychiatric illness. The DAT was measured by means of the [3H]-WIN 35,428 binding and the [3H]-DA reuptake to resting lymphocytes membranes. Romantic love was assessed by a specific questionnaire developed by us. The results showed that the subjects in the early phase of romantic love had a global alteration of the lymphocyte DAT involving both a decreased number of proteins (Bmax) and a reduced functionality (Vmax). Taken together, these findings would indicate the presence of increased levels of DA in romantic love that, if paralleled by similar concentrations in the brain, would explain some peculiar features of this human feeling.

  16. Radiosensitivity of human lymphocytes and thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, D.K.; Norman, A.

    1977-01-01

    The in vitro survival of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes was measured 4 days following graded doses of γ radiation. Results indicate considerable heterogeneity among lymphocyte subpopulations with respect to radiosensitivity. Total T lymphocytes were characterized by rosette formation with neuraminidase-treated sheep red blood cells (nSRBC); early T (T/sub E/) cells, by early rosettes; and B cells, by their inability to form nSRBC rosettes. Late T (T/sub L/) cells were defined as T -- T/sub E/. Survival curves of T, T/sub E/, and B cells are biphasic. The radiosensitive and radioresistant components of T, T/sub E/, and B cells all have a D 0 of about 50 and 550 rad, respectively. B cells appeared to be slightly more radiosensitive than T cells. T/sub L/ cells and thymocytes, however, appeared to be homogeneous with respect to radiosensitivity, both having D 0 values of about 135 rad. The survival of T cells in mixed T and B cell cultures resembled that of separated T cells, suggesting that ionizing radiation has no significant effect on rosette formation. It also indicates that interactions of T and B cells do not significantly affect their radiation responses

  17. Robot system for preparing lymphocyte chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayata, Isamu; Furukawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Koki; Tabuchi, Hiroyoshi; Okabe, Nobuo.

    1992-01-01

    Towards the automatization of the scoring of chromosome aberrations in radiation dosimetry with the emphasis on the improvement of biological preparations, the conventional culture and harvesting method was modified. Based on this modified method, a culture and harvest robotic system (CHROSY) for preparing lymphocyte chromosome was developed. The targeted points of the modification are as in the preparing lymphocyte chromosome was developed. The targeted points of the modification are as in the following. 1) Starting culture with purified lymphocytes in a fixed cell number. 2) Avoiding the loss of cells in changing the liquids following centrifugalization. 3) Keeping the quantity of the liquids to be applied to the treatments of cells fixed. 4) Building a system even a beginner can handle. System features are as follows. 1) Operation system: Handling robot having 5 degrees of freedom; a rotator incubator with an automatic sliding door; units for setting and removing pipette tips; a centrifuge equipped with a position adjuster and an automatic sliding door; two aluminium block baths; two nozzles as pipettes and aspirators connected to air pumps; a capping unit with a nozzle for CO 2 gas; a compressor; and an air manipulated syringe. 2) Control system; NEC PC-9801RX21 with CRT; and program written in Basic and Assembly languages on MS-DOS. It took this system 2 hours and 25 minutes to harvest 2 cultures. A fairly good chromosome slide was made from the sample harvested by CHROSY automatically. (author)

  18. Lymphocytic hypophysitis masquerading as pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pituitary hypophysitis (PH is characterized by pituitary infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells that could lead to loss of pituitary function. Hypophysitis may be autoimmune or secondary to systemic diseases or infections. Based on the histopathological findings PH is classified into lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous, mixed forms (lymphogranulomatous, xanthogranulomatous, necrotizing and Immunoglobulin- G4 (IgG4 plasmacytic types. Objective: To report a case of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH. Case Report: A 15-year-old girl presented with history of headache, amenorrhea, and history of polyuria for past 4 months. Initial evaluation had suppressed follicular stimulating hormone (<0.01 mIU/ml, high prolactin levels (110.85 ng/ml and diabetes insipidus (DI. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella was suggestive of pituitary macroadenoma with partial compression over optic chiasma. Patient underwent surgical decompression. Yellowish firm tissue was evacuated and xanthochromic fluid was aspirated. Histopathology was suggestive of LH. She resumed her cycles postoperatively after 4 months, prolactin levels normalized, however, she continues to have DI and is on desmopressin spray. This case has been presented here for its rare presentation in an adolescent girl because it is mostly seen in young females and postpartum period and its unique presentation as an expanding pituitary mass with optic chiasma compression. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of LH is based on histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic approach should be based on the grade of suspicion and clinical manifestations of LH.

  19. Normal lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Macedo Queiroz Mota Castellão Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population.METHODS: This study enrolled 35 over 60-year-old volunteers and a control group composed of 35 young adults. The study included elderly without diseases that might affect the functioning of the immune system. These individuals were consulted by doctors and after a physical examination, laboratory tests were performed using a Beckman Coulter (r flow cytometer. The GraphPad Prism computer program was employed for statistical analysis with the level of significance being set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: There is a statistically significant reduction in the number of lymphocytes (CD8 +, CD2 + and CD3 + cells in the elderly compared to young adults. These low rates are explained by changes attributed to aging and may be partly responsible for the reduction in the cellular immune response, lower proliferative activity and the low cytotoxicity of lymphocytes.CONCLUSION: These parameters showed greater impairment of adaptive immunity in the elderly population and can therefore explain the greater fragility of the aged body to developing diseases.

  20. To the nucleolar bodies (nucleoli) in cells of the lymphocytic lineage in patients suffering from B - chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, K; Karban, J; Trneny, M

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide more information on nucleoli in lymphocytes of B - chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The computer assisted nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA image densitometry, reflecting the nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA concentration at the single cell level, demonstrated a remarkable stability during the differentiation and maturation of B- lymphocytes. In contrast, as it was expected, the nucleolar diameter during the lymphocytic development markedly decreased. Thus the nucleolar RNA content of leukemic B-lymphocytes was apparently related to the nucleolar size. In both immature and mature lymphocytes, the cytostatic treatment increased the incidence of micronucleoli, which represent the "inactive" type of nucleoli. However, the decreased values of the nucleolar diameter were statistically significant only in mature lymphocytes of treated patients. On the other hand, despite such observation, it must be mentioned that "large active" and "ring shaped resting" nucleoli were still present in immature and mature lymphocytes after the cytostatic therapy and such cells might represent a potential pool of proliferating cells. As it is generally accepted "large active nucleoli" with multiple fibrillar centers are known to be characteristic for proliferating cells. "Ring shaped resting nucleoli" are present in sleeping cells, which may be stimulated to return to the cell cycle and to proliferate again. In addition, the nucleolar RNA distribution also indicated that Gumprecht ghosts mostly originated from mature lymphocytes. Increased ratio of the nucleolar to cytoplasmic RNA density in Gumprecht ghosts or apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies of the lymphocytic origin was related to the decreased cytoplasmic RNA concentration. The increased nucleolar size together with the markedly decreased cytoplasmic RNA concentration characteristic for Gumprecht ghosts just reflected the spreading of lymphocytes during smear preparations. In apoptotic cells or

  1. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-07

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA repair gene polymorphisms in relation to chromosome aberration frequencies in retired radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, Craig S.; Relton, Caroline L.; Rees, Gwen S.; Tarone, Robert E.; Whitehouse, Caroline A.; Tawn, E. Janet

    2005-01-01

    Polymorphic variation in DNA repair genes was examined in a group of retired workers from the British Nuclear Fuels plc facility at Sellafield in relation to previously determined translocation frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Variation at seven polymorphisms in four genes involved in the base excision repair (XRCC1 R194W, R399Q and a [AC] n microsatellite in the 3' UTR) and double strand break repair (XRCC3 T241M and a [AC] n microsatellite in intron 3 of XRCC3, XRCC4 I134T, and a GACTAn microsatellite located 120kb 5' of XRCC5) pathways was determined for 291 retired radiation workers who had received cumulative occupational external radiation doses of between 0 and 1873mSv. When the interaction between radiation dose and each DNA repair gene polymorphism was examined in relation to translocation frequency there was no evidence for any of the polymorphisms studied influencing the response to occupational exposure. A positive interaction observed between genotype (individuals with at least one allele >=20 repeat units) at a microsatellite locus in the XRCC3 gene and smoking status should be interpreted cautiously because interactions were investigated for seven polymorphisms and two exposures. Nonetheless, further research is warranted to examine whether this DNA repair gene variant might be associated with a sub-optimal repair response to smoking-induced DNA damage and hence an increased frequency of translocations

  3. The effects of low dose radiation (LDR) on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Liaoyuan; Du Zeji; Tian Hailin; Zhao Yujie; Zou Huawei; Zhou Jianhua; Kong Xiangrong; Zhang Jianhua; Shen Wei

    2001-01-01

    LDR could stimulate lymphocyte transformation for adults, children and infants. The effect of LDR on lymphocytes in malnourished children was lower, but higher on lymphocytes in cord blood. The effect of LDR on CD 4 + cells in adult persons was higher than that on CD + cells. NK cells were radioresistant. The stimulative effect of LDR on NK activity in tumor patients was lower than that in normal individuals. For the mice with tumors, LDR could increase the ratio of L 3 T 4 cells in blood, spleen and the number of cytotoxic T cells in the tumors. Extracellular fluid of the lymphocytes operated by LDR could also stimulate the lymphocyte transformation. The preliminary LDR could decrease the injuries to macromolecules, membrane antigens and chromosomes in lymphocytes which were induced by high dose radiation. The LDR- induced protein might be found from mouse spleen cells, and this protein could increase immune function in human and animals

  4. Effect of radiotherapy on lymphocyte cytotoxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, J; Melen, B [Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm County Council (Sweden); Blomgren, H; Glas, U; Perlmann, P

    1975-11-01

    The cytotoxic functions of highly purified blood lymphocytes from patients with breast cancer were studied before and after radiotherapy. Addition of PHA or of rabbit antibodies to target cells (chicken erythrocytes) were chosen as two means of inducing lymphocyte cytotoxicity in vitro. The proportion of T and non-T lymphocytes was determined by means of E and EAC rosette tests. The antibody-induced cytotoxicity of lymphocytes decreased following radiotherapy while that mediated by PHA remained unchanged. There was some reduction in the percentage of EAC rosette-forming cells. These results, as well as earlier observations, suggest that the decrease in the peripheral blood of the proportion of lymphocytes with receptors for activated complement is responsible for changes in the antibody-mediated lymphocyte cytotoxicity.

  5. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-10

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  6. A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline, C7H8N4O2, has been obtained from a chloroform/methanol mixture by evaporation under ambient conditions. The new polymorph crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure features intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in the formation of dimers between two crystallographically different molecules; each molecule acts as both donor and acceptor.

  7. Nucleolar size in lymphocytes and haemocytes of different species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Berger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of nucleoli in a cell and nucleolar area vary according to the cell. We compared nucleoli in mammalian circulating lymphocytes and insect circulating haemocytes. An increased nucleolar coefficient correlated with a lowered nucleoli size. The smaller nucleolar size in mammalian lymphocytes indicates a lower proteosynthetic cellular activity in both mammalian lymphocytes and insect haemocytes. Moreover, in insect haemocytes, the smaller size of the nucleoli may reflect a lowered potential to transform into another cell type.

  8. Cell kinetic and radiosensitivity of PHA stimulated goat lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuyst, B.; Rosenthal, M.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining method has been used to study the cell kinetic of goat peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and to assess their radiosensitivity. At 48 h, the standardized culture time employed for human lymphocytes, 71% of the goat lymphocytes are in first mitosis, 23% are in second mitosis and 5% in third. Irradiation with 200 rads X-rays induces an average of 24,5 dicentric chromosomes per hundred cells in first mitosis [fr

  9. Influence of immunomodulators on the lymphokine secretion of irradiated lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk-Bronisz, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Spleen lymphocytes derived from guinea pigs loose their ability to secrete lymphokines induced by Con A after treatment with irradiation (500 and 750 mC/kg). In the presence of the immunomodulators isoprinosine, levamisole and the thymosine-like factor TFX the lymphocytes are again capable of secreting lymphokines. After treatment with immunomodulators in dosages between 10 and 100 μg/ml the migration inhibition activity for macrophages and the chemotactic activity for polymorphonuclear granulocytes produced by lymphocytes were restored. (author)

  10. No Effect of the Transforming Growth Factor {beta}1 Promoter Polymorphism C-509T on TGFB1 Gene Expression, Protein Secretion, or Cellular Radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuther, Sebastian; Metzke, Elisabeth [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiooncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Bonin, Michael [Department of Medical Genetics, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Petersen, Cordula [Clinic of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Dikomey, Ekkehard, E-mail: dikomey@uke.de [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiooncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Raabe, Annette [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiooncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To study whether the promoter polymorphism (C-509T) affects transforming growth factor {beta}1 gene (TGFB1) expression, protein secretion, and/or cellular radiosensitivity for both human lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed with lymphocytes taken either from 124 breast cancer patients or 59 pairs of normal monozygotic twins. We used 15 normal human primary fibroblast strains as controls. The C-509T genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. The cellular radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was measured by G0/1 assay and that of fibroblasts by colony assay. The amount of extracellular TGFB1 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and TGFB1 expression was assessed via microarray analysis or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The C-509T genotype was found not to be associated with cellular radiosensitivity, neither for lymphocytes (breast cancer patients, P=.811; healthy donors, P=.181) nor for fibroblasts (P=.589). Both TGFB1 expression and TGFB1 protein secretion showed considerable variation, which, however, did not depend on the C-509T genotype (protein secretion: P=.879; gene expression: lymphocytes, P=.134, fibroblasts, P=.605). There was also no general correlation between TGFB1 expression and cellular radiosensitivity (lymphocytes, P=.632; fibroblasts, P=.573). Conclusion: Our data indicate that any association between the SNP C-509T of TGFB1 and risk of normal tissue toxicity cannot be ascribed to a functional consequence of this SNP, either on the level of gene expression, protein secretion, or cellular radiosensitivity.

  11. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    background. To study a relationship between interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter -1082 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response during C trachomatis infection in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) secretion were analysed in subjects with different...... IL-10 genotypes. Enhanced IL-10 secretion and reduced antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative and IFN-gamma responses were found in subjects with IL-10 -1082 GG genotype when compared to those with -1082 AA genotype. CD14+ monocytes were main source of IL-10 indicating that these cells...... are important regulators of the antigen-specific cell-mediated responses during active C trachomatis infection. We conclude that impaired cell-mediated response to C trachomatis is associated with IL-10 genotype in subjects with high IL-10 producing capacity. A comparison of immune markers between subjects...

  12. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults from the western world. No curative treatments of CLL are presently known so the treatment strategy today is primarily to prolong patient survival,1 why we have initiated new activities towards discovery of novel compounds......,3 This includes analysis of the spectroscopic data generated from LC-DAD-MS to reveal whether the active principles are either structurally known compounds or are likely to be novel compounds. This paper will illustrate our integrated discovery approaches and recent findings of anti-leukemia compounds....

  13. Lymphocytic subsets in occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Wottawa, A.

    1989-04-01

    The percentage of CD2, CD4, CD8 and NK cells of peripheral blood was investigated in persons occupationally exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. Investigations were carried out by monoclonal antibodies and flow-cytometry. While significant effects of age and smoking habits on the relative number of CD8 cells and CD4/CD8 ratios could be established, no influence of the very low radiation exposure on the profile of lymphocytic cells in blood was found, except a very slight effect on the relative number of total T cells (= CD2 cells). 7tabs., 2figs., 16refs. (Author)

  14. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-08-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are being studied as potential therapeutic targets. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation and affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in patients with CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is encouraging. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA repair in PHA stimulated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Mattoni, A.

    1984-01-01

    Damage an repair of radiation induced DNA strand breaks were measured by alkaline lysis and hydroxyapatite chromatography. PHA stimulated human lymphocytes show that the rejoining process is complete within the first 50 min., afterwords secondary DNA damage and chromatid aberration. DNA repair, in synchronized culture, allows to evaluate individual repair capacity and this in turn can contribute to the discovery of individual who, although they do not demonstrate apparent clinical signs, are carriers of DNA repair deficiency. Being evident that a correlation exists between DNA repair capacity and carcinogenesis, the possibility of evaluating the existent relationship between DNA repair and survival in tumor cells comes therefore into discussion

  16. Analysis in cytokinesis-blocked human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Mattoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    Biological dosimetry can be considered as an additional method to physical dosimetry for estimating dose absorption after exposure to ionizing radiation. Fully validated as well as new promising approaches in this field are reviewed. Recent experiments, carried out in our laboratory, on the analysis of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked human lymphocytes are presented. The possible relevance of differential human individual response to ionizing radiation, in view of the occurrence of radiosensitive syndromes, for the estimation of the absorbed dose in human is also discussed

  17. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic-Denic, L; Jankovic, S; Marinkovic, J; Radovanovic, Z

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL.

  18. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic-Denic, Lj.; Jankovic, S.; Marinkovic, J.; Radovanovic, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence, (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL. (author)

  19. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic-Denic, Lj; Jankovic, S [Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Marinkovic, J [Institute of Social Medicine, Statistics and Healt Research, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Radovanovic, Z [Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, 13110 Safat (Kuwait)

    1996-12-31

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence, (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL. (author) 1 tab., 30 refs.

  20. Peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1991-01-01

    Peripheral lymphocyte subsets--T-helper (CD4+), T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8+), and naive/virgin T cells/natural killer cells (CD45RA)--were studied quantitatively in 30 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) and 29 sex- and age-matched RAU-free control donors. The CD4+ percentage...... was significantly lower in the patients than in the control group (P less than 0.0001), whereas CD8+ and CD4/CD8 ratio figures did not differ significantly between patients and controls. The CD45RA+ counts were significantly higher in the patient group (P less than 0.01). The study supports previous investigations...

  1. New polymorphous computing fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinski, Christophe; Gokhale, Maya; McCabe, Kevin P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  2. HLA-DP related suppression of mixed lymphocyte reaction with alloactivated lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    We studied the influence of HLA class I and class II antigens on the suppression of the MLR induced by primed lymphocytes (PLs) alloactivated in vitro. The suppression of 14 different PLs of 83 MLRs was analyzed. The PLs were primed against (i) HLA-DP (SB) (ii) HLA-DR/DQ or (iii) both HLA-DP and ...

  3. HLA-DP related suppression of mixed lymphocyte reaction with alloactivated lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    We studied the influence of HLA class I and class II antigens on the suppression of the MLR induced by primed lymphocytes (PLs) alloactivated in vitro. The suppression of 14 different PLs of 83 MLRs was analyzed. The PLs were primed against (i) HLA-DP (SB) (ii) HLA-DR/DQ or (iii) both HLA-DP and DR...

  4. Concanavalin A-induced activation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus memory lymphocytes into specifically cytotoxic T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Andersen, G T

    1977-01-01

    When spleen cells, which have been primed to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) virus during a primary infection several months previously, are stimulated in vitro with Con A. highly specific secondary cytotoxic effector cells are generated. The degree of cytotoxicity revealed by such Con A...

  5. A novel adoptive transfer model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia suggests a key role for T lymphocytes in the disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnara, Davide; Kaufman, Matthew S.; Calissano, Carlo; Marsilio, Sonia; Patten, Piers E. M.; Simone, Rita; Chum, Philip; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Allen, Steven L.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Rader, Christoph; Mellstedt, Hakan; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Lee, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable adult disease of unknown etiology. Understanding the biology of CLL cells, particularly cell maturation and growth in vivo, has been impeded by lack of a reproducible adoptive transfer model. We report a simple, reproducible system in which primary CLL cells proliferate in nonobese diabetes/severe combined immunodeficiency/γcnull mice under the influence of activated CLL-derived T lymphocytes. By cotransferring autologous T lymphocytes, activ...

  6. The role of HLA-E polymorphism in immunological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Iwaszko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The HLA-E protein is one of the most extensively studied MHC class Ib antigens and the least polymorphic one compared to other MHC class I molecules. In the human population there have been reported just ten alleles encoding three different peptides. Only two of these alleles, namely HLA-E*0101 and HLA-E*0103, are widely distributed (around 50�0each. The proteins encoded by these alleles differ from each other in one amino acid at position 107. In HLA-E*0101 it is arginine and in HLA-E*0103 it is glycine. The difference between these proteins manifests itself in surface expression levels, affinities to leader peptides and thermal stabilities of their complexes.The HLA-E molecule is a ligand for CD94/NKG2 receptors on NK cells and TCR receptors on NK-CTL (NK-cytotoxic T lymphocyte cells, so it plays a double role in both innate and adaptive immunity. This paper reviews the knowledge on the role of the HLA-E molecule in the immunological response. Aspects related to polymorphism of the HLA-E gene and the course of several diseases including type I diabetes, ankylosing spondylitis, HCV and HIV infections, nasopharyngeal cancer and recurrent spontaneous abortions, as well as the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, are presented and discussed in more detail.

  7. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Dalhoff, K; Fugger, L

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, -DPB, the serologically defined HLA-A, B, C, DR antigens, and the primed lymphocyte typing defined HLA-DP antigens in 23 Danish patients with primary...... than 0.05, 'corrected' P greater than 0.05). No DNA fragments specific for DRB1*0301 (DR3) could be identified. The frequencies in PBC of other genetic markers including DRw8, DRB1*08, HLA-DP antigens, DPA, and DPB genes did not differ significantly from those in controls. The associations between PBC...

  8. The murine Cd48 gene: allelic polymorphism in the IgV-like region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, J G; Freeman, G J; Reiser, H

    1998-12-01

    The murine CD48 molecule is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which regulates the activation of T lymphocytes. prior cloning experiments using mRNA from two different mouse strains had yielded discrepant sequences within the IgV-like domain of murine CD48. To resolve this issue, we have directly sequenced genomic DNA of 10 laboratory strains and two inbred strains of wild origin. The results of our analysis reveal an allelic polymorphism within the IgV-like domain of murine CD48.

  9. Lymphocyte electrotaxis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Francis; Baldessari, Fabio; Gyenge, Christina Crenguta; Sato, Tohru; Chambers, Robert D; Santiago, Juan G; Butcher, Eugene C

    2008-08-15

    Electric fields are generated in vivo in a variety of physiologic and pathologic settings, including penetrating injury to epithelial barriers. An applied electric field with strength within the physiologic range can induce directional cell migration (i.e., electrotaxis) of epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and neutrophils suggesting a potential role in cell positioning during wound healing. In the present study, we investigated the ability of lymphocytes to respond to applied direct current (DC) electric fields. Using a modified Transwell assay and a simple microfluidic device, we show that human PBLs migrate toward the cathode in physiologically relevant DC electric fields. Additionally, electrical stimulation activates intracellular kinase signaling pathways shared with chemotactic stimuli. Finally, video microscopic tracing of GFP-tagged immunocytes in the skin of mouse ears reveals that motile cutaneous T cells actively migrate toward the cathode of an applied DC electric field. Lymphocyte positioning within tissues can thus be manipulated by externally applied electric fields, and may be influenced by endogenous electrical potential gradients as well.

  10. Crosstalk between T lymphocytes and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivroz, Claire; Chemin, Karine; Tourret, Marie; Bohineust, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique property of inducing priming and differentiation of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into helper and cytotoxic effectors. Their efficiency is due to their unique ability to process antigen, express costimulatory molecules, secrete cytokines, and migrate to tissues or lymphoid organs to prime T cells. DCs also play an important role in T-cell peripheral tolerance. There is ample evidence that the DC ability to present antigens is regulated by CD4+ helper T cells. Indeed, interactions between surface receptors and ligands expressed respectively by T cells and DCs, as well as T-cell-derived cytokines modify DC functions. This T-cell-induced modification of DCs has been called "education" or "licensing." This intimate crosstalk between DCs and T lymphocytes is key in establishing appropriate adaptive immune responses. It requires cognate interactions between T lymphocytes and DCs, which are organized in time and space by structures called immunological synapses. Here we discuss the particular aspects of immunological synapses formed between T cells and DCs and the role these organized interactions have in T-cell-DC crosstalk.

  11. Large granular lymphocytic leukaemia pathogenesis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Claire

    2011-02-01

    The WHO classification recognises three distinct disorders of large granular lymphocytes: T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia (T-LGL), chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK-cells (CLPD-NK) and agressive NK-cell leukaemia. Despite the different cell of origin, there is considerable overlap between T-LGL and CLPD-NK in terms of clinical presentation and therapy. Many patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. Therapy, with immunosuppressant agents such as low dose methotrexate or ciclosporin, is usually indicated to correct cytopenias. In contrast, aggressive NK-cell leukaemia and the rare CD56(+) aggressive T-LGL leukaemia follow a fulminant clinical course, affect younger individuals and require more intensive combination chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplant in eligible patients. The relative rarity of these disorders means that there have been few clinical trials to inform management. However, there is now considerable interest in the pathogenesis of the chronic LGL leukaemias and this has stimulated early trials to evaluate novel agents which target the dysregulated apoptotic pathways characteristic of this disease. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The immunodeficiency of bone marrow-transplanted patients. II. CD8-related suppression by patient lymphocytes of the response of donor lymphocytes to mitogens, antigens, and allogeneic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Jacobsen, N

    1987-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 21 patients sampled 1-6 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were tested for functional suppressor activity against marrow-donor lymphocytes in the lymphocyte transformation test. Suppression of donor responses to allogeneic (i.e. mixed lymphocyte reaction, MLR...

  13. Association between polymorphisms in the TSHR gene and Graves' orbitopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jurecka-Lubieniecka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graves' orbitopathy (GO as well as Graves' disease (GD hyperthyroidism originate from an autoimmune reaction against the common auto-antigen, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR. GO phenotype is associated with environmental risk factors, mainly nicotinism, as well as genetic risk factors which initiate an immunologic reaction. In some patients GO is observed before diagnosis of GD hyperthyroidism, while it can also be observed far after diagnosis. The intensity of GO symptoms varies greatly in these patients. Thus, the pathogenesis of GD and GO may correlate with different genetic backgrounds, which has been confirmed by studies of correlations between GO and polymorphisms in cytokines involved in orbit inflammation. The aim of our analysis was to assess genetic predisposition to GO in young patients (age of diagnosis ≤30 years of age, for whom environmental effects had less time to influence outcomes than in adults. METHODS: 768 GD patients were included in the study. 359 of them had clinically evident orbitopathy (NOSPECS ≥2. Patients were stratified by age at diagnosis. Association analyses were performed for genes with a known influence on development of GD - TSHR, HLA-DRB1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4 and lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22. RESULTS: The rs179247 TSHR polymorphism was associated with GO in young patients only. In young GO-free patients, allele A was statistically more frequent and homozygous carriers had a considerable lower risk of disease incidence than patients with AG or GG genotypes. Those differences were not found in either elderly patients or the group analyzed as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Allele A of the rs179247 polymorphism in the TSHR gene is associated with lower risk of GO in young GD patients.

  14. Radiotherapy compared to chemotherapy as initial treatment of angiocentric centrofacial lymphoma (polymorphic reticulosis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrevilla-Calvo, P.; Meneses, A.; Alfaro, P.; Bares, J.P.; Amador, J.; Reynoso, E.E.

    1993-01-01

    Polymorphic reticulosis has recently been characterized as an angiocentric lymphoproliferative disorder of the peripheral T-lymphocytes. However, its treatment is still a matter of controversy. In order to study efficacy and toxicity of the primary treatment, we reviewed clinical features and therapeutic results in 29 patients seen at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia de Mexico. Nineteen patients received primary local irradiation and 10 patients primary combination chemotherapy. In the radiotherapy group, 14 (74%) patients achieved complete response, but only 4 (40%) did so in the primary chemotherapy group. Five patients in the latter group died of treatment-related complications. The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 70% in the irradiation group, while the 1-year survival rate was only 15% in the chemotherapy group. These data strongly suggest that, in polymorphic reticulosis, initial chemotherapy may be very toxic. (orig.)

  15. Preparation and evaluation of famotidine polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Ravouru; Prathusha, Ande Penchala; Subhash Chandra Bose, Penjury; Kaza, Rajesh; Bharathi, Koganti

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the behaviour of drug release among the famotidine polymorphs prepared by using various additives and solvents, by solvent evaporation method. The famotidine polyvinyl pyrrolidone polymorphs with different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were prepared by using solvent evaporation method. In these polymorphs of different concentrations 1% w/v polymorphs showed better release. Similarly, famotidine polymorphs of Tween 80 with different concentrations, polyethylene glycol 1% w/v and methanol was prepared. Famotidine polymorphs prepared the PVP (1% w/v) showed better drug release and solubility. DSC, FTIR, SEM and XRD studies were carried out. DSC studies revealed that PVP polymorphs were found to stable compared to other polymorphs. FTIR studies of the polymorphs prepared indicated that there was an interaction found in all polymorphs except PVP polymorphs indicating the absence of drug-additive interaction. SEM studies of PVP and methanol polymorphs revealed that they are tabular and prismatic and columnar respectively. These changes in morphology were due to variations in face dimensions and also properties of additives and solvent used in the preparation. XRD studies revealed that there is an increase in crystallinity in methanol polymorphs when compared to PVP polymorphs and pure drug. The mechanism of drug release was determined using zero order, first order and Hixon-Crowel equations. From the drug release kinetics these polymorphs followed first order and Hixon-Crowel release kinetics, exhibited fair linearity in their dissolution data. Further, in vivo studies were carried out for the evaluation of antiulcer activity. Based upon the drug release pattern and its kinetics only two of the prepared polymorphs of famotidine i.e. famotidine PVP polymorphs and famotidine methanol polymorphs were selected for animal studies. Antiulcer studies were carried out using pylorus ligation model and estimation of antioxidant

  16. Telomerase levels control the lifespan of human T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, Alexander; Yssel, Hans; Pene, Jerome; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Schertzer, Mike; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Spits, Hergen; Luiten, Rosalie M.

    2003-01-01

    The loss of telomeric DNA with each cell division contributes to the limited replicative lifespan of human T lymphocytes. Although telomerase is transiently expressed in T lymphocytes upon activation, it is insufficient to confer immortality. We have previously shown that immortalization of human

  17. Apoptosis of lymphocytes in SLE: the level, correlation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphocytes were isolated from venous blood by method of gradient centrifugation of all the blood through a Ficoll-pak solution. The quantity apoptotic cells was determined in leukocytes by flow cytometry Epics XL-2 (“Beckman Coulter”, USA). Analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations was carried by using two fluorescent ...

  18. 9 CFR 113.42 - Detection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis contamination. 113.42 Section 113.42 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... contamination. The test for detection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus provided in this section shall...

  19. Role of interferon in lymphocyte recruitment into the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issekutz, T.B.; Stoltz, J.M.; Webster, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Large numbers of lymphocytes are recruited from the blood into sites of cutaneous DTH reactions. Our goal was to investigate the factors controlling this recruitment. 111 In-labeled peritoneal exudate lymphocytes were injected iv and the accumulation of these cells in skin sites injected with a variety of stimuli, was used to measure lymphocyte recruitment in rats. Large numbers of lymphocytes migrated into vaccinia- and KLH-injected sites in sensitized animals, but only into the viral and not the KLH lesions in non-immune animals. Lymphocytes also migrated efficiently into sites injected with the alpha-interferon (IFN) inducers, uv-inactivated vaccinia virus and poly I:C, as well as into sites injected with IFN. In each case there was a dose-response relationship. Analysis of the kinetics of lymphocyte recruitment demonstrated that the peak rate of migration occurred most rapidly after the injection of IFN, later after poly I:C, and was slowest to be reached after vaccinia virus. Rabbit anti-IFN blocked the recruitment of lymphocytes by uv-inactivated vaccinia and by IFN. Histologically, all of these sites demonstrated a dense mononuclear cell infiltrate in the dermis. It is suggested that IFN may be an important mediator in the recruitment of lymphocytes into inflammatory reactions

  20. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8500 Lymphocyte separation...

  1. Immunophenotypic enumeration of CD4 T-lymphocyte values in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    lymphocytes play a central role in regulation of immune response.[2] These ..... influence of sex hormones on lymphocyte subpopulations. ... Friedland GH. Early treatment for HIV-The Time. Has Come. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1000-1002. 7. Gebo KA, Gallant JE, Keruly JC, Moore RD. Absolute CD4 vs. CD4 percentage for ...

  2. The behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, R.M.; Licence, S.T.; Pabst, R.

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocyte migration provides the means of rapidly recognizing and responding to antigen and widely disseminating the resulting immune response. The porcine lymphoid system differs from that of man in structural inversion of lymph nodes and route of lymphocyte recirculation and the existence of two Peyer's patch types, one of which differs from the conventional pattern in structure, cell content and lack of lymphocyte traffic and in its regression in old age. Recirculating T and B lymphocytes enter and leave spleen and lymph nodes by the blood but Null cells do not; lymphocytes also migrate through nonlymphoid tissues. The lung is one such important site, with a small migration in and out of alveolar space and a large traffic associated with the blood vessel wall, predominantly involving T cells. Blood lymphocytes hardly traffic into the peritoneal cavity, yet major traffic of particulate material or cells is possible in this important site of abdominal defense, so often used for immunization, and follows a distinct, well defined route. Cells migrate out of subcutaneous tissue via the draining node. Lymphocytes are produced and emigrate into blood from labelled thymus. They differ in size and surface phenotype from both thymocytes and peripheral T cells. Lymphocytes also migrate from blood into most tissues. In most nonlymphoid tissues, entry relates to blood flow but in many lymphoid tissues it is an active process which differs in tempo and extent, eg, between different nodes and between the two Peyer's patch types

  3. Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comet assay showed increased percentage of abnormalities in smokers (light, medium and heavy) than non-smokers. Conclusion: The frequencies of MN in buccal epithelial and blood lymphocytes are high in smokers; particularly heavy smoker group showed significantly increased results. Among them, the lymphocytic ...

  4. Lymphocytes as a neural probe : potential for studying psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladkevich, A; Kauffman, HF; Korf, J

    There is an increasing body evidence pointing to a close integration between the central nervous system (CNS) and immunological functions with lymphocytes playing therein a central role. The authors provide arguments to consider blood lymphocytes as a convenient probe of-an albeit-limited number of

  5. Intestinal T lymphocytes of different rat strains in immunotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruder, M.C.; Spanhaak, S.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Michielsen, C.P.P.C.; Vos, J.G.; Kuper, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the intestinal mucosal immune cells, with emphasis on single T lymphocytcs, an inventory was made of single and organized lymphocytes in the epithelium and lamina propria of the small intestines of untreated Wistar, Fischer 344, and Lewis rats. The single and organized lymphocytes

  6. Activation of human T lymphocytes by Leishmania lipophosphoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G; Handman, E

    1991-01-01

    This study describes Leishmania antigen-induced activation of lymphocytes isolated from Kenyan donors, previously treated for visceral leishmaniasis, and from Danish and Kenyan controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cured Kala-Azar patients proliferated and produced Interferon......, the results suggest that human T lymphocytes can respond to glycolipid antigens....

  7. Carotenoid levels in human lymphocytes, measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanauskaite, R B; SegersNolten, IGMJ; DeGrauw, K J; Sijtsema, N M; VanderMaas, L; Greve, J; Otto, C; Figdor, C G

    1997-01-01

    Carotenoid levels in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy people have been investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. We observed that carotenoids are concentrated in so-called ''Gall bodies''. The level of carotenoids in living human lymphocytes was found to be age-dependent and to

  8. T gamma/delta lymphocytes in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, M. H.; Bloemena, E.; Surachno, S.; ten Berge, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    T gamma/delta lymphocytes are able to perform allospecific cytotoxicity and natural killer cytotoxicity in vitro. However, very little is known about their function in vivo. To investigate the possible involvement of T gamma/delta lymphocytes in the immune response to renal allografts, fine-needle

  9. Lymphocyte respiration in children with Trisomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburawi Elhadi H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study measured lymphocyte mitochondrial O2 consumption (cellular respiration in children with trisomy 21. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from whole blood of trisomy 21 and control children and these cells were immediately used to measure cellular respiration rate. [O2] was determined as a function of time from the phosphorescence decay rates (1/τ of Pd (II-meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl-tetrabenzoporphyrin. In sealed vials containing lymphocytes and glucose as a respiratory substrate, [O2] declined linearly with time, confirming the zero-order kinetics of O2 conversion to H2O by cytochrome oxidase. The rate of respiration (k, in μM O2 min-1, thus, was the negative of the slope of [O2] vs. time. Cyanide inhibited O2 consumption, confirming that oxidation occurred in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Results For control children (age = 8.8 ± 5.6 years, n = 26, the mean (± SD value of kc (in μM O2 per min per 107 cells was 1.36 ± 0.79 (coefficient of variation, Cv = 58%; median = 1.17; range = 0.60 to 3.12; -2SD = 0.61. For children with trisomy 21 (age = 7.2 ± 4.6 years, n = 26, the values of kc were 0.82 ± 0.62 (Cv = 76%; median = 0.60; range = 0.20 to 2.80, pp6.1 mU/L. Fourteen of 26 (54% children with trisomy 21 had kc values of 0.20 to 0.60 (i.e., kc positively correlated with body-mass index (BMI, R >0.302, serum creatinine (R >0.507, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, R >0.535 and albumin (R >0.446. Conclusions Children with trisomy 21 in this study have reduced lymphocyte bioenergetics. The clinical importance of this finding requires further studies.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA copy number and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma risk in two prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Christopher; Bassig, Bryan A; Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Huang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Chin-San; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Männistö, Satu; Vermeulen, Roel; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Lim, Unhee; Hosgood, H Dean; Bonner, Matthew R; Caporaso, Neil E; Albanes, Demetrius; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel

    BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA CN) may be modified by mitochondria in response to oxidative stress. Previously, mtDNA CN was associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk, particularly chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL). We conducted a replication

  11. 2SNP heritability and effects of genetic variants for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Bochao Danae; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Bell, Jordana T; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J; Jansen, Rick; Kluft, Cornelis; Mangino, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda; Spector, Tim D; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are important biomarkers for disease development and progression. To gain insight into the genetic causes of variance in NLR and PLR in the general population, we conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses and

  12. Ecosensitivity and genetic polymorphism of somatic traits in the perinatal development of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Małgorzata; Cieślik, Krystyna; Skrzypczak-Zielińska, Marzena; Szalata, Marlena; Wielgus, Karolina; Kempiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Grzegorz; Słomski, Ryszard

    2016-04-01

    In view of criticism regarding the usefulness of heritability coefficients, the aim of this study was to analyze separately the information on genetic and environmental variability. Such an approach, based on the normalization of trait's variability for its value, is determined by the coefficients of genetic polymorphism (Pg) and ecosensitivity (De). The studied material included 1263 twin pairs of both sexes (among them 424 pairs of monozygotic twins and 839 pairs of dizygotic twins) born between the 22nd and 41st week of gestation. Variability of six somatic traits was analyzed. The zygosity of same-sex twins was determined based on the polymorphism of DNA from lymphocytes of the umbilical cord blood, obtained at birth. The coefficients of genetic polymorphism and ecosensitivity for analyzed traits of male and female twins born at various months of gestation were calculated. Our study revealed that a contribution of the genetic component predominated over that of the environmental component in determining the phenotypic variability of somatic traits of newborns from twin pregnancies. The genetically determined phenotypic variability in male twins was greater than in the females. The genetic polymorphism and ecosensitivity of somatic traits were relatively stable during the period of fetal ontogeny analyzed in this study. Only in the case of body weight, a slight increase in the genetic contribution of polygenes to the phenotypic variance could be observed with gestational age, along with a slight decrease in the influence of environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. A meta-analysis of the association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-jia; Pan, Hai-feng; Tao, Jin-hui; Wang, Bing-xiang; Lu, Man-man; Wang, Song; He, Qian; Wang, Jing

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with systemic sclerosis (SSc) susceptibility. Electronic databases were used to identify published studies before July 2011. In total, 23 case-control studies including 3524 SSc cases and 6086 healthy controls were included in the meta-analysis. We examined the relationship between five gene polymorphisms [cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) -1722T/C, CTLA-4 -318C/T, CTLA-4 +49A/G, angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D, STAT-4 rs7574865] and susceptibility to SSc. The combined odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated to estimate the strength of the association in a fixed or random effect model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. We found a significant association between SSc and STAT rs7574865 (TT vs. GG: OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.36-0.54; TT vs. TG + GG: OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.39-0.59; TT + TG vs. GG: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.66-0.83; T vs. G: OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66-0.79), but there were no other statistically significant associations with other gene polymorphisms. Our study suggested that SSc is associated with STAT gene rs7574865 polymorphism.

  14. The frequency of CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 32 mutation in Iranian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zare-Bidaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence showed that chemokines serve as pro-migratory factors for immune cells. CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5, as the main CC  chemokines subfamily members, activate immune cells through binding to CC chemokine receptor 5 or CCR5. Macrophages, NK cells and T lymphocytes express CCR5 and thus, affected CCR5 expression or functions could be associated with altered immune responses. Deletion of 32 base pairs (D 32 in the exon 1 of the CCR5 gene, which is known as CCR5 D 32 mutation causes down regulation and malfunction of the molecule. Furthermore, it has been evidenced that three polymorphisms in the promoter region of CCR5 modulate its expression. Altered CCR5 expression in microbial infection and immune related diseases have been reported by several researchers but the role of CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 D 32 mutation in Iranian patients suffering from these diseases are controversial. Due to the fact that Iranian people have different genetic backgrounds compared to other ethnics, hence, CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 D 32 mutation association with the diseases may be different in Iranian patients. Therefore, this review addresses the most recent information regarding the prevalence as well as association of the mutation and polymorphisms in Iranian patients with microbial infection and immune related diseases as along with normal population.

  15. Selective effects of alpha interferon on human T-lymphocyte subsets during mixed lymphocyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1983-01-01

    Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) cultures of human lymphocyte subsets with or without the addition of physiological doses of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared with respect to surface marker phenotypes and proliferative capacities of the responder cells. A selective depression on the T...... T4 cells and decreased numbers of T4 cells harvested from IFN MLRs (days 5-6 of culture). In contrast, it was shown that the T8 (cytotoxic/suppressor) subset in MLRs was either not affected or slightly stimulated by the addition of IFN. The depression of the T4 cells by IFN was accompanied...... by a decrease in the number of activated T cells expressing Ia antigens. On the other hand, IFN MLRs contained greater numbers of cells expressing the T10 differentiation antigen. In experiments with purified T-cell subsets the IFN effect was exerted directly on the T4 cells and not mediated by either T8...

  16. Minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vela, José Antonio; García Marco, José Antonio

    2018-02-23

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is an important endpoint in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It is highly predictive of prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival and could be considered a surrogate for PFS in the context of chemoimmunotherapy based treatment. Evaluation of MRD level by flow cytometry or molecular techniques in the era of the new BCR and Bcl-2 targeted inhibitors could identify the most cost-effective and durable treatment sequencing. A therapeutic approach guided by the level of MRD might also determine which patients would benefit from an early stop or consolidation therapy. In this review, we discuss the different MRD methods of analysis, which source of tumour samples must be analysed, the future role of the detection of circulating tumour DNA, and the potential role of MRD negativity in clinical practice in the modern era of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Lymphocytic nucleolar index in the combined application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilyovska, M.; Nechev, Kh.; Vankova, P.; Tsvetkov, P.; Shopova, V. (Meditsinski Fakultet, Pleven (Bulgaria). Katedra Mediko-Sanitarna Zashtita)

    1982-01-01

    Sex mature male rats were irradiated with 5,25 and 50 rad from X-ray source. One group of irradiated animals was treated intraperitoneally with 10 mCi/animal Ce/sup 144/ or 0.04 mCi/g Sr/sup 89/. The second group was treated only with radionuclide. The nucleolar index (NI) of the lymphocytes in a blood smear was studied on the 1st, 3rd, 8th and 30th day after application. It was found that X-irradiation increased the value of NI after the 15th day, the effect being independent on the dose rates. Ce/sup 144/, applied alone in combination with external irradiation, also causes an increase of NI. Combined application of Sr/sup 89/ and external irradiation leads after one month to a decrease of NI. The results are discussed in connection with radionuclide kinetics and dose distribution.

  18. Predictive radiosensitivity tests in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Sardi, M.; Busto, E.; Mairal, L.; Roth, B.; Menendez, P.; Bonomi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Individual radiosensitivity is an inherent characteristic, associated with an abnormally increased reaction to ionising radiation of both the whole body and cells derived from body tissues. Human population is not uniform in its radiation sensitivity. Radiosensitive sub-groups exist, which would suffer an increased incidence of both deterministic and stochastic effects. Clinical studies have suggested that a large part of the spectrum of normal tissue reaction may be due to differences in individual radiosensitivity. The identification of such sub-groups should be relevant for radiation therapy and radiation protection purposes. It is suggested that DNA repair mechanisms are involved. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assays could be a suitable approache to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. The aims of this study were: 1) To assess the in vitro radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from two groups of cancer patients (prospectively and retrospectively studied), using MN and comet assays, in comparison with the clinical radiation reaction and 2) To test the predictive potential of both techniques for the identification of radiosensitivity sub-groups. 38 cancer patients receiving radiation therapy were enrolled in this study. 19 patients were evaluated prior, mid-way and on completion of treatment (prospective group) and 19 patients were evaluated about 6-18 month after radiotherapy (retrospective group). Cytogenetic data from the prospective group were analysed using a mathematical model to evaluate the attenuation of the cytogenetic effect as a function of the time between a single exposure and blood sampling, estimating a cytogenetic recovery factor k. In the retrospective group, blood samples were irradiated in vitro with 0 (control) or 2 Gy and evaluated using MN test. Cytogenetic data were analysed

  19. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-01-01

    A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result...... of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind...... infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma in five of the 124 cases, of which four belonged in the group of 'unknown cause of death'. This discovery leads to reflections regarding lymphocytic thyroiditis as a cause of death, either by itself or in combination with other disorders. Silent (painless) thyroiditis...

  20. [Lymphocyte metabolism in children with extensive burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'ev, S A; Nazarov, I P; Kamzalakova, N I; Bulygin, G V

    2009-01-01

    The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the development of burn disease in children is accompanied by significant lymphocytic structural metabolic changes that determine the functional capabilities of cells and the immune system as a whole. There is an evident activation of the glutathione antioxidant system, a drastic activation of enzymes that ensure Krebs cycle reactions, as well as activation of anaerobic processes. The above changes are mainly caused by the activated sympathoadrenal system that is characteristic of stresses. The knowledge about the metabolic mechanisms responsible for the development of cellular reactions to burn shock and burn disease permits specification of the elements of the pathogenesis of these severe conditions and substantiation of the possibility of using metabolic correction in the complex treatment of children with the above pathology.

  1. Ibrutinib: A Review in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2017-02-01

    Ibrutinib (Imbruvica ® ) is an oral irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, a B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling kinase expressed by various haematopoietic cells, B-cell lymphomas and leukaemias. The drug is indicated for the treatment of certain haematological malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), which are the focus of this review. In phase III CLL/SLL trials, ibrutinib monotherapy was more effective than chlorambucil in the first-line treatment of elderly patients (RESONATE-2) and more effective than ofatumumab in previously-treated adults (RESONATE). Likewise, a combination of ibrutinib, bendamustine and rituximab was more effective in previously-treated adults than bendamustine plus rituximab in a phase III placebo-controlled study (HELIOS). These ibrutinib regimens were associated with significantly better progression-free survival, overall response rates, and overall survival than the comparators (in protocol-specified or planned analyses), with ibrutinib therapy providing benefit regardless of adverse prognostic factors, such as del(17p)/TP53 mutation and del(11q). Ibrutinib has an acceptable tolerability profile, although certain adverse events (e.g. bleeding and atrial fibrillation) require consideration. Redistribution lymphocytosis can occur, but is not indicative of disease progression. Although longer-term data would be beneficial, ibrutinib is a welcome treatment option for patients with CLL, including those who have higher-risk disease or are less physically fit. Indeed, current EU and US guidelines recommend/prefer the drug for the first- and/or subsequent-line treatment of certain patients, including those with del(17p)/TP53 mutation.

  2. Frequencies of micronuclei in lymphocytes and complete blood picture of radiation worker at Al-Twuathia Site Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amel, J.M.; Abdulsahib, K. A.; Abdullah, A.G.; Haider, Y.L.; Ali, H.F.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to use the frequency of micronuclei in lymphocyte and complete blood picture as a bio markers for detection of the effects of the low radiation doses in to decommissioning to radioactive contamination (Lama and Geo- Pilot) as a result of work, during January 2009 to November 2011 present study including collected 113 blood samples, including (103 male and female) aged (25 - 65) year for the exam of compete blood picture analysis, included 69 blood samples as first time before work in Al-Twuathia site, 22 blood samples as a second and third exam. While the cytogenetic analysis including 78 male blood samples aged (35 - 63) year, included 30 blood samples as first time be for work in Al-Twuathia site, 30 blood samples as a second exam and 18 blood samples as third exam, as well as 50 blood samples which are not smokers and alcohol as control group which including (40 male and 10 female) aged (30 - 55 year). Three cytogenetic parameter were employed such as frequency of micronuclei, mitotic index an nuclear and nuclear division index, which used for detection of biological effects of ionizing radiation. Also the current study included the detection of the effect of radiation in complete blood picture analysis of workers at Al-Tuwaitha site, which included (Hb, PCV, WBC count, differential count of WBCs, platelets count of WBCs, platelets count and ESR). From the study no significant differences in the rate of micronuclei and division index of workers in the first and second examination compared with the group of workers in the third exam, while observed a significant increase slightly at level (P <0.05) in these rates compared with the control group, as well as were recorded no significant differences in the rate of mitotic index for workers compared with the control group. Also, found no significant difference in complete blood picture analysis for workers compared with the control group. In conclusion, the significant slightly increase at the

  3. Effect of postirradiation anoxia on radiosensitivity of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrek, R.

    1976-01-01

    Radiosensitivity was measured by viable-lymphocyte counts and by uridine uptake. The viability of the lymphocytes was based on morphologic characteristics visualized by phase contrast microscopy of the cells in a special slide chamber. Low doses of x rays (10 to 1000 R) and incubation at 37 0 C killed lymphocytes in interphase with the production of pyknotic nuclei (nuclear death), and large doses (6000 R) produced nuclei with clear nucleoplasm (cytoplasmic death). Nuclear, but not cytoplasmic, death was inhibited by incubation of the irradiated cells at 27 0 C. Postirradiation anoxia had no effect on development of the nuclear and cytoplasmic death of lymphocytes irradiated with 100 to 6000 R. Anoxia had no effect on the early response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) [increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein synthesis] but inhibited completely the late effects [increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and transformation into lymphoblastoid cells]. The PHA caused relative radioresistance of lymphocytes under aerobic conditions and, to a lesser extent, under anaerobic conditions. The slight radioresistance induced by PHA in anoxic lymphocytes apparently did not depend on an increase in DNA synthesis or on the transformation to lymphoblastoid cells

  4. PERSPECTIVE OF IN VITRO LYMPHOCYTES ANTIGENICITY EVALUATION FOR THE DIAGNOSTICS OF ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kostyuchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brucellosis remains to one of the most urgent dangerous infections in regions with developed livestock production. An exclusive polymorphism of symptoms, variety of forms of a disease, small informational content of results of routine laboratory all-clinical inspection, quite often leads to diagnostic mistakes at a pre-hospital stage. Improvement of a complex of laboratory diagnosis of a brucellous infection demands development of the modern padding methods of verification based on cell-like factors of immunity as leaders in an immunogenesis and a pathogenesis of a brucellosis. Considering the leading role of cell-like immunity in formation of protection against the majority of bacteriemic especially dangerous infections, studying of cell-like reaction in response to antigenic stimulation, it is necessary to consider the most informative (marker and objective at assessment of immunologic reorganization of an organism at a disease or vaccination. The following markers (receptors of activation of lymphocytes can act as perspective indexes of a specific cell-like antigenreactivity: CD25 — a high-affine receptor of interleukin 2 (IL-2Ra, a marker of early activation of Tlymphocytes; HLA-DR — an antigen of the main complex of a histocompatibility of a class II, an expression of a marker is associated not only with late, but also long-lived activation of lymphocytes; CD95 (Fas, APO-1 — a receptor of an induction of an apoptosis (“cell death”, a marker of “late” activation (CD4+ lymphocytes is presented mainly and Fas L (CD178 — a receptor of an induction of an apoptosis, expresses generally on CD8+ cages. The work purpose — to estimate an opportunity and prospects of use of technology of a flowing cytofluorometry and the in vitro cell tests for diagnosis of a acute brucellosis. 35 people with the diagnosis “Acute brucellosis” and 12 people — not the patients who did not have a brucellosis, are not vaccinated

  5. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    NiSO 4 .6H 2 O, M r =262.85; data collections with Mo Kα radiation, λ=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, β=98.38(2) 0 , V=1704.7(6) A 3 , Z=8, D x =2.05 g cm -3 , μ=25.54 cm -1 , F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4 1 2 1 2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A 3 , Z=4, D x =2.07 g cm -3 , μ=25.81 cm -1 , F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO 4 .6D 2 O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO 4 .6H 2 O. Both structures contain isolated [Ni(H 2 O 6 ] octahedra and [SO 4 ] tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding. (orig.)

  6. Gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Loos, B.G.; Crielaard, W.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or

  7. The Value of PCT, WBC and hs-CRP Tests in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Children with Pneumonia%小儿肺炎中PCT、WBC、hs-CRP检测对疾病诊断及预后判断价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兰兰; 李敬

    2017-01-01

    目的 分析小儿肺炎中PCT、WBC、hs-CRP检测对疾病诊断及预后的判断价值.方法 选取2015年5月至2016年4月在本院住院治疗的肺炎患儿120例作为观察组,健康儿童65例作为对照组.检测治疗前后患儿及健康儿童血清PCT、WBC、hs-CRP的变化.结果 治疗前,细菌感染组WBC数量(15.5±3.4)×109/L、hs-CRP水平(19.8±2.6) mg/L和PCT水平(21.9±2.1)ng/mL均明显高于非细菌感染组(6.8 ±2.3)×109/L、(4.5±2.3)mg/L、(4.7±1.8) ng/mL和健康对照组(8.1 ±1.4)×109/L、(3.5±1.2) mg/L、(1.8±0.5) ng/mL,且差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).而非细菌感染组和健康对照组的WBC、hs-CRP和PCT结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后,细菌感染组WBC数量(7.3±1.4)×109/L、hs-CRP水平(5.1 ± 1.2) mg/L和PCT水平(2.3 ± 1.2) ng/mL均明显低于治疗前,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);WBC、hs-CRP、PCT联合检测的灵敏性95.2%、特异性93.0%、准确度93.3%显著高于WBC、hs-CRP、PCT单独检测,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在小儿肺炎治疗过程中,动态监测患儿血清的WBC、hs-CRP、PCT的变化,并结合临床,有助于诊疗和判断患儿疾病愈后的情况,具有显著的临床意义,值得推广应用.%Objective To estimate the value of PCT,WBC and hs-CRP tests in the diagnosis and prognosis of children with pneumonia.Methods 120 cases with pneumonia in children were selected from May 2015 to April 2016 in our hospital as the observation group,65 cases of healthy children as the control group.Changes of serum PCT,WBC and hs-CRP tests in children and healthy children before and after treatment were mearued.Results Before treatment,bacterial infection group have WBC count (15.5 ± 3.4) × 109/L,hs-CRP levels (19.8±2.6) mg/L and PCT level (21.9 ±2.1) ng/mL,which were significantly higher than those in non bacterial infection group (6.8 ±2.3) × 109/L,(4.5 ±2.3) mg/L,(4.7 ± 1.8) ng/mL and healthy control group (+ 8.1

  8. Assessment of in vitro radiosensitivity of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Shifrine, M.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    The proliferative capacity of sensitive lymphocyte progenitor cells, from thirty-one clinically normal adults, was evaluated following in vitro x-irradiation (0-400R). Radiation effects were studied using both whole blood and lymphocyte-enriched mononuclear cell fractions in the lymphocyte stimulation test and colony formation assay with 6 different mitogens and antigens. Radiation dose-response survival curves were determined for the different test groups. The sensitivity of the different assay systems is compared and normative values are presented that may be used for comparison purposes to determine the relative radiosensitivity of atypical individuals and groups of individuals

  9. Lymphocyte mediators of delayed hypersensitivity; the early phase cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefford, M J; McGregor, D D [Trudeau Inst., Saranac Lake, N.Y. (USA)

    1978-04-01

    Inbred rats were immunized with living Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and lymphocytes which mediate tuberculin DTH and anti-tuberculosis immunity were found 10 days later in the draining lymph nodes, thoracic duct, blood, spleen, and acute peritoneal exudates. The lymphocytes that mediated DTH incorporated /sup 3/HT in vitro, were large in size, sensitive to vinblastine but relatively resistant to irradiation, and had a short effective lifespan in syngeneic recipients. These properties characterize the cells as short-lived, nonrecirculating immunoblasts. In some experimental situations it was possible to dissociate the expression of DTH and immunity following the transfer of sensitized lymphocytes.

  10. Association Between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Tics after Treatment with Methylphenidate in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seo Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene) and methylphenidate (MPH) treatment response, as well as the association between the adverse events of MPH treatment and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 114 children with ADHD (mean age 9.08 ± 1.94 years) were recruited from the child psychiatric clinic in a hospital in South Korea. We have extracted the genomic DNA of the subjects from their blood lymphocytes and analyzed 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene. All children were treated with MPH for 8 weeks, with clinicians monitoring both the improvement of ADHD symptoms and the side effects. We compared the response to MPH treatment and adverse events among those with the genotype of 5-HRRLPR polymorphism. There was no significant association between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and the response to MPH treatment in children with ADHD. Subjects with the S/L+L/L genotype tended to have tics and nail biting (respectively, p tics and nail-biting as an adverse event of methylphenidate. This may aid in our understanding of the genetic contribution and genetic susceptibility of a particular allele in those ADHD patients with tics or nail biting.

  11. AID protein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis and complex genetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Mona; Frigerio, Simona; Wild, Peter J; Noetzli, Franziska; Korol, Dimitri; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Gengler, Carole; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Moch, Holger; Tinguely, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    The biological behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma is unpredictable. Nonetheless, non-mutated IgV(H) gene rearrangement, ATM (11q22-23) and p53 (17p13) deletion are recognized as unfavorable prognosticators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The mRNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme indispensable for somatic hypermutation processes, was claimed to be predictive of non-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in blood. Here, we evaluated AID protein expression compared with known molecular and immunohistochemical prognostic indicators in 71 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients using a tissue microarray approach. We found AID heterogeneously expressed in tumor cells as shown by colocalization analysis for CD5 and CD23. Ki-67 positive paraimmunoblasts of the proliferation centers displayed the highest expression. This observation is reflected by a significant association of AID positivity with a high proliferation rate (P=0.012). ATM deletion was detected in 10% (6/63) of patients and p53 deletion in 19% (13/67) of patients. Moreover, both ATM (P=0.002) and p53 deletion (P=0.004) were significantly associated with AID. IgV(H) gene mutation was seen in 45% (27/60) of patients. Twenty-five percent (17/69) of patients with AID-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma displayed a shorter survival than AID-negative chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients (61 vs 130 months, P=0.001). Although there was a trend, we could not show an association with the IgV(H) gene mutation status. Taken together, our study shows that AID expression is an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients, although it is not a surrogate marker for the IgV(H) status. Furthermore, the microenvironment of proliferation centers seems to influence AID regulation and might be an initiating factor

  12. Increased radiosensitivity of a subpopulation of T-lymphocyte progenitors from patients with Fanconi's anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrime, M.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Reeves, J.D.; Misra, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro radiation-survival of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes was studied in fifteen clinically normal adults and four patients with Fanconi's anemia (FA). Lymphocyte blastogenesis and cloning were measured following phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or Concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulation. PHA-responsive lymphocytes from FA patients were significantly more radiosensitive than lymphocytes from normal individuals

  13. Separation and properties of EA-rosette-forming lymphocytes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, M. H.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.; Schellekens, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were separated into subpopulations enriched or depleted with respect to B lymphocytes (Ig-bearing cells), T lymphocytes, (cell forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes: E-RFC) and Fc receptor-bearing lymphocytes (EA-RFC). From the distributions and recoveries of

  14. The Genotoxicity of Sodium Arsenite in Human Lymphocyte Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Habit Ola, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium arsenite was tested for its clastogenic effect alone and on isolated lymphocyte culture. The results showed a significant difference in the yield of chromosome aberrations induced with respect to the culture time 48 h. Whole blood culture showed significant increase in gaps and breaks whereas isolated lymphocyte culture showed significant inhibition of cell cycle and 75% of the lymphocytes were in their first cell cycle at 72 hr. Arsenite showed co-mutagenicity with different doses of x-ray delivered immediately or few hours after treatment of the culture with S A. The results suggest that S A is also mutagenic at the dose level used and provide support for the indispensability of whole blood culture for evaluation of the in vivo effect of any suspected mustagen using isolated lymphocytes appear to have problems leading to extensive cell cycle delay

  15. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment options can include observation, steroids, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or stem cell transplant. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent CLL and available treatment modalities in this summary for clinicians.

  16. The genotoxicity of sodium arsenite in human lymphocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhabit, O.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium arsenite was tested for its clastogenic effect alone and in combination with x-irradiation on whole blood culture and on isolated lymphocyte culture. The results showed a significant difference in the yield of aberrations induced with respect to the culture time 48 hr whole blood culture showed significant increase in gaps and breaks whereas isolated lymphocytes culture showed significant inhibition of cell cycle and 75% of the lymphocytes were in first cell cycle at 72 hr. Arsenite showed co-mutagenicity with different doses of x-ray delivered immediately or few hours after treatment of the culture with SA. The results suggest that SA also is mutagenic at the dose level used and provide support for the indispensability of whole blood culture for evaluation of the in vivo effect any suspected mutagen. Using isolated lymphocytes appear to have problems leading to extensive cell cycle delay

  17. Response of human lymphocytes to low gamma ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Carrillo, HR; Banuelos Valenzuela, R; Manzanares Acuna, E; Sanchez-Rodriguez, S.H

    2001-01-01

    Radiation and non-radiation workers lymphocytes were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp25, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90; from these, only Hsp70 protein was detected before and after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 70.5 mGy gamma-ray dose, radiation worker's lymphocytes expressed more Hsp70 protein, than non-radiation workers' lymphocytes, indicating a larger tolerance to gamma rays (gamma tolerance), due to an adaptation process developed by their labor condition (Au)

  18. Langerhans cells and subsets of lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellquist-Dahl, B; Olsen, K E; Irander, K

    1991-01-01

    Langerhans cells and different lymphocytes were studied in the nasal mucosa of 39 woodwork teachers and a control group of 14 healthy subjects. Ten of the woodwork teachers were sensitized as determined by skin prick test. A panel of different monoclonal antibodies was applied on the frozen nasal...... mucosal specimens. Intraepithelial CD1-positive dendritic cells were found in all specimens. However, there was no difference between the number of these Langerhans cells found in the study group and the number found in the controls. In every specimen the intraepithelial lymphocyte population...... was dominated by T lymphocytes, and there were relatively few B cells. Similarly the ratio between CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytes in the study group and the controls was the same. In all specimens there was a dominance of T suppressor/cytotoxic cells compared with T helper/inducer cells. The study confirms...

  19. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) and Thyroglobulin (TG) Genetic Variants with Autoimmune Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hinal; Mansuri, Mohmmad Shoab; Singh, Mala; Begum, Rasheedunnisa; Shastri, Minal; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hypothyroidism is known to be caused by immune responses related to the thyroid gland and its immunological feature includes presence of autoimmune antibodies. Therefore the aim was to analyze presence of anti-TPO antibodies in hypothyroidism patients in Gujarat. Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) is one of the susceptibility genes for various autoimmune diseases. Hence, exon1 +49A/G and 3’UTR CT60A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTLA4 and its mRNA expression levels were investigated in autoimmune hypothyroidism patients. Thyroglobulin (TG) is known to be associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders and thus exon 33 (E33) SNP in TG was investigated. We analyzed the presence of anti-TPO antibodies in the plasma samples of 84 hypothyroidism patients and 62 controls by ELISA. PCR-RFLP technique was used for genotyping of polymorphisms. sCTLA4 and flCTLA4 mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time PCR. 59.52% of hypothyroid patients had anti-TPO antibodies in their circulation. The genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly for +49A/G (p = 0.0004 for +49AG, p = 0.0019 for +49GG & p = 0.0004 for allele), CT60 (p = 0.0110 for CT60AG, p = 0.0005 for CT60GG & phypothyroidism when adjusted for age and gender. Our results suggest +49A/G and CT60 polymorphism of CTLA4 and E33 polymorphism of TG may be genetic risk factors for autoimmune hypothyroidism susceptibility and down regulation of both forms of CTLA4 advocates the crucial role of CTLA4 in pathogenesis of autoimmune hypothyroidism. PMID:26963610

  20. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio in mood disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Lucchi, Sara; Tringali, Agnese Grazia Maria; Rossetti, Aurora; Botti, Eugenia Rossana; Clerici, Massimo

    2018-06-08

    The immune and inflammatory system is involved in the etiology of mood disorders. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are inexpensive and reproducible biomarkers of inflammation. This is the first meta-analysis exploring the role of NLR and PLR in mood disorder. We identified 11 studies according to our inclusion criteria from the main Electronic Databases. Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) between index and healthy controls (HC). Heterogeneity was estimated. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) had higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC (respectively SMD = 0.672; p analysis evidenced an influence of bipolar phase on the overall estimate whit studies including subjects in manic and any bipolar phase showing a significantly higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC whereas the effect was not significant among studies including only euthymic bipolar subjects. Meta-regression showed that age and sex influenced the relationship between BD and NLR but not the relationship between BD and PLR. Meta-analysis was not carried out for MLR because our search identified only one study when comparing BD to HC, and only one study when comparing MDD to HC. Subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) had higher NLR as compared with HC (SMD = 0.670; p = 0.028; I 2  = 89.931%). Heterogeneity-based sensitivity analyses and meta-regression confirmed these findings. Our meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that an inflammatory activation occurs in mood disorders and NLR and PLR may be useful to detect this activation. More researches including comparison of NLR, PLR and MLR between different bipolar phases and between BD and MDD are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles. Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  2. Cytogenetic investigations of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Catherine; Moriarty, Helen; Marsden, Katherine; Tegg, Elizabeth

    2010-04-15

    This study aimed to determine which culture method would yield the highest culture success rate, mitotic index, banding resolution, and abnormality rate in investigation of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A range of culture techniques for conventional cytogenetic (CC) analyses was compared: 24-hour unstimulated, 72 hours incubation with additional fetal calf serum, 72 hours stimulation with interleukin 4, 72 hours stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 72 hours stimulation with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate), and 72 hours stimulation with CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 + Interleukin-2 (IL-2). CC abnormality rates were also compared to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results using probes for CLL (LSI D13S319/13q34/CEP 12: LSI ATM/p53). Forty-five samples from 24 patients (consisting of 11 newly diagnosed and 13 previously diagnosed patients) were included. For CC, a 100.0% culture success rate was achieved (n = 45) by means of an EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) peripheral blood sample with an associated 62.5% CC abnormality rate (n = 24). FISH detected an abnormality rate of 75.0% (n = 24). The combined CC and FISH abnormality rate was 87.5% (n = 24). This study demonstrates that CC that uses TPA and DSP30 + IL-2 on EDTA peripheral blood is effective in the investigation of CLL and may be used as a supplement to FISH studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION FOR CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Laurenti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Even if Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL often has an indolent behavior with good responsiveness to cytoreductive treatment, about 20% of the patients, so called "poor-risk" patients, show an aggressive course and die within a few years despite early intensive therapies. Criteria for poor-risk disease according to the European Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT CLL Transplant Consensus are: purine analogue refractoriness, early relapse after purine analogue combination therapy, CLL with p53 lesion requiring treatment. Allogeneic transplant has potential curative role in CLL, however burden with very  high transplant related mortality (TRM rates of 38-50%: A major advance in reducing the short-term morbidity and mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT has been the introduction of non-myeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning (RIC regimens to allow engraftment of allogeneic stem cells. There is no doubt that the crucial therapeutic principle of allo-SCT in CLL is graft versus leukemia (GVL activity. The major complications of allogeneic SCT in CLL are: chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD affecting quality of life, high graft rejection and infection rates rates correlated with preexisting immunosuppression. Disease relapse remains the major cause of failure after RIC allo-HCT in CLL patients. Sensitive minimal residual disease (MRD quantification has strong prognostic impact after transplant.

  4. Therapeutic advancement of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combinations of chemotherapy with monoclonal antibodies have further improved response rates, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL remains an incurable disease with an extremely variable course. This article reviews the ongoing clinical advances in the treatment of CLL in both previously untreated and relapsed disease and focuses on the benefit of different therapeutic strategies, the most effective therapy combinations and the potential activity of novel agents. Novel agents and combination therapies have been investigated by several studies in both the upfront and relapsed setting, particularly for patients with 17p deletion, TP53 mutation and fludarabine-refractory CLL. While these agents and combination therapies have improved initial response rates, ongoing studies are continued to determine and improve the efficacy and safety. Despite advancements in the treatment of CLL have led to high response rates, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT remains the only curative option and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC allo-HSCT must be strongly considered whenever feasible. As such, ongoing studies of these agents and other novel approaches in clinical development are needed to expand and improve treatment options for CLL patients.

  5. Spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forell, B.; Myers, L.S. Jr.; Norman, A.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes was estimated from measurements of tritiated thymidine incorporation into double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) during incubation of cells in vitro. The contribution of scheduled DNA synthesis to the observed incorporation was reduced by inhibiting replication with hydroxyurea and by separating freshly replicated single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) from repaired ds-DNA by column chromatography. The residual contribution of scheduled DNA synthesis was estimated by observing effects on thymidine incorporation of: (a) increasing the rate of production of apurinic sites, and alternatively, (b) increasing the number of cells in S-phase. Corrections based on estimates of endogenous pool size were also made. The rate of spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis is estimated to be 490 +- 120 thymidine molecules incorporated per cell per hour. These results compare favorably with estimates made from rates of depurination and depyrimidination of DNA, measured in molecular systems if we assume thymidine is incorporated by a short patch mechanism which incorporates an average of four bases per lesion

  6. Autoreactive lymphocytes in thyroid disorders. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K.; Hoeier-Madsen, M.; Larsen, F.; Husby, S.

    1986-01-01

    Blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from 9 randomly selected patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were stimulated in vitro with pokeweed mitogen (PWM), a polyclonal B lymphocyte activator. The secretion of immunoglobulins (Ig) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) was assayed by means of haemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays, radioimmune assay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Total Ig and TgAb production was maximal using MNC cultured at 1.0 x 10 6 /ml as estimated by PFC, RIA and ELISA. The Ig and TgAb production as measured by RIA and ELISA was 1.5 - 3 times higher after 12 days' culture compared to 6 days' culture. Ig and TgAb production measured by PFC-assays at day 6 correlated positively to the results obtained by RIA and ELISA at day 12. PWM-induced TgAb secretion correlated positively to TgAb titres in serum. As judged by PFC, TgAb production was found in 8/9 patients; about 5% (range 0 - 7.9%) of the total PWM-stimulated IgG-secreting cells were involved in TgAb secretion. TgAb production as measured by ELISA and RIA was found in 6/9 patients. By reference to an affinity-purified human TgAb preparation, the TgAb secretion was about 0.7% (range 0 - 21.3%) of the total PWM-induced IgG secretion. (author)

  7. Imaging B lymphocytes in autoimmune inflammatory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodice, V.; Lauri, C.; Capriotti, G.; Lagana', B.; Germano, V.; D’Amelio, R.; Picchianti Diamanti, A.

    2014-01-01

    B cells arise from stem cells precursor and develop through a tightly regulated and selective process that lead to the generation of different B cell populations such as transitional, mature, memory and plasma cells. These B cell subsets can be identified using flow cytometry by the expression of specific surface antigens. The growing knowledge of the pivotal role played by B cells in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases combined with the advances in monoclonal antibody technology, led in the last years to the generation of different biological agents targeting B cells. In this context, nuclear medicine can offer the possibility to use a panel of biologic radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging of inflammatory diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals bind to their targets with high affinity and specificity and have an excellent imaging diagnostic potential for the evaluation of disease activity, selection and monitoring of immune therapies. Several molecules have been radiolabelled for the imaging of T lymphocytes whereas, by now, the anti CD20 rituximab is the only biological therapy targeting B cells that demonstrated to be efficiently radiolabelled and used to detect inflammation in autoimmune patients

  8. Effect of chloroquine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of chloroquine on human blood mononuclear cells was studied. High concentrations of chloroquine in vitro profoundly suppressed the proliferation of mitogen- and antigen-stimulated cells, as indicated by decreased 14C-thymidine incorporation. Lower concentrations of chloroquine increase...... to large particulate antigens; the response to small antigens was not affected. The mode of action of chloroquine and the possible consequences of the findings for dosage of chloroquine when used for malaria prophylaxis is discussed.......The effect of chloroquine on human blood mononuclear cells was studied. High concentrations of chloroquine in vitro profoundly suppressed the proliferation of mitogen- and antigen-stimulated cells, as indicated by decreased 14C-thymidine incorporation. Lower concentrations of chloroquine increased...... the response to pokeweed mitogen. The response to concanavalin A and to various antigens was suppressed, especially the response to large particulate antigens. Oral intake of 300 mg of chloroquine base/week did not affect the lymphocyte proliferative responses. 600 mg of base/week decreased the response...

  9. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: An immunobiology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostareli Efterpi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL is the most common adult leukaemia that follows an extremely variable clinical course. Several important prognostic parameters defining pathogenic and clinical subgroups of CLL have been identified and validated recently. The biological significance of immunoglobulin (Ig heavy chain variable region gene (IgHV mutational status and associated ZAP-70 over-expression, CD38 and chromosomal aberrations have enabled to identify patients at high risk for early disease progression and inferior survival. Moreover, studies of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR structure and receptor signaling have been most helpful in revealing some new aspects of the biology of this disease. In particular, the analysis of IG genes has revealed that the expressed IgHV/IgKV/IgLV gene repertoires of CLL cells differ from those of normal B cells. A further unique feature of the CLL IG repertoire is the existence of subsets of cases with "stereotyped" BCRs. Accumulating molecular and phenotypic data support the notion that CLL development and evolution is not a simple scholastic event and strongly indicates a role for antigen in driving the cell of origin for at least some subsets of CLL cases.

  10. Effect of interleukin-2 and methylprednisolone on in vitro transformation of uremic lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, E; Ladefoged, J; Ødum, Niels

    1986-01-01

    The functional relationship in vitro between mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation, lymphocyte response to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and steroid, and production of IL-2 was examined in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis (HD) or on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD......). The lymphocyte responses to optimal stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen were depressed in lymphocyte cultures from HD patients, while CAPD lymphocyte cultures responded normally. However, at suboptimal phytohemagglutinin stimulation both CAPD lymphocyte and HD lymphocyte...... responses were subnormal. Uremic lymphocyte cultures were more sensitive to the immunosuppressive effect of methylprednisolone. Addition of IL-2 normalized the phytohemagglutinin responses of suboptimally stimulated CAPD lymphocyte cultures and clearly improved the mitogen responses of the HD lymphocyte...

  11. Cell proliferation and radiosensitivity of cow lymphocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modave, C.; Fabry, L.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining technique has been used to study, after PHA-stimulation, the cell proliferation of cow lymphocytes in culture and to assess the radiosensitivity in first mitosis cells. At the 48 h fixation time, only 34% of the cells are in first mitosis whereas 55% are already in second and 11% in third mitosis. The exposure of cow lymphocytes to 200 rad X-rays result in the production of 16% dicentric chromosomes in first mitosis cells [fr

  12. Latent childhood thyroid carcinoma in diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, A; Mimouni, M; Kovalivker, M; Griffel, B

    1983-07-01

    Diffuse thyroid enlargement in a child is a rare presenting symptom of thyroid carcinoma. A papillary carcinoma may be hidden in a diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis and should be carefully searched for during surgery. Furthermore, the finding, in frozen sections, of psammoma bodies in a lymphocytic thyroiditis should raise the suspicion of an occult malignant neoplasm. A case illustrating these diagnostic difficulties in a 5-year-old child is presented.

  13. Bare lymphocyte syndrome: imaging findings in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vandevenne, J.E.; De Schepper, A.M.; Lambert, J.; De Clerck, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a rare primary immune disorder characterized by defective expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) on lymphocytes, often resulting in extensive and recurrent multi-organ infections. We describe a previously undiagnosed case of an adult woman who presented with radiological findings of severe bronchiectases, near-total granulomatous destruction of facial bones, and osteomyelitis. Diagnosis of BLS should be considered when evaluating children with unexplained bronchiectases or adults with long history of chronic multi-organ infections. (orig.)

  14. Detection of cardiac transplant rejection with radiolabeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Carlson, E.M.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether rejections of cardiac transplants could be detected specifically and non-invasively by lymphocytes labeled with indium-111 (111In), we studied 36 allogeneic and 14 isogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Allogeneic grafts accumulated autologous 111In-lymphocytes, detectable scintigraphically 24 hours after i.v. injection of the labeled cells. At the time of peak histologic rejection, the allogeneic grafts accumulated 92. +/- 4.8 times more activity than the native hearts (determined by well counting). The tissue-to-blood ratio in the rejecting transplants was 3.7 +/- 2.2; total uptake by the graft was 2.9 +/- 2.1% of the injected dose. Autoradiography confirmed that graft radioactivity was associated with labeled lymphocytes. In contrast, isogeneic grafts showed no signs of rejection and did not accumulate radioactivity. Because conventionally isolated and labeled lymphocytes are often contaminated with platelets, we prepared both 111In-platelets and purified 111In-lymphocytes for use in additional experiments. Allogeneic grafts accumulated platelets and purified lymphocytes independently. Thus, deposition of immunologically active cells in the rejecting graft representing specific pathophysiologic events can be detected. The results suggest that rejection of cardiac transplants can be detected noninvasively, potentially facilitating objective early clinical detection of rejection and titration of antirejection therapy

  15. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of nickel on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseini Shirazi, Seyed Farshad; Aghvami, Marjan; Salimi, Ahmad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2018-02-01

    Nickel compounds possess many applications in different industrial processes. Human beings are exposed to nickel commonly through occupational exposure and food. Although a few studies so far have investigated the effects of nickel compounds on human lymphocytes, the complete mechanism of cytotoxicity of this metal on human lymphocytes is yet to be determined. The intention of this paper was to determine the cytotoxicity mechanism of water soluble NiCl 2 toward human lymphocytes using the accelerated cytotoxicity mechanisms screening (ACMS) technique. Human lymphocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy subjects based on Ficoll-Paque PLUS standard method. For the assessment of cell viability, lymphocytes were incubated with 0.05-1 mM NiCl 2 for 12 h. Determination of mechanistic parameters was performed 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment of cells with ½ EC50 12h , EC50 12h and 2EC50 12h of NiCl 2 . Our results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of NiCl 2 on human lymphocytes is associated with increased ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, glutathione depletion, lysosomal membrane damage, cellular proteolysis and activation of caspase-3 before cytotoxicity ensued.

  16. Mechanism of chlorphentermine-induced lymphocyte toxicity: initial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauers, L.J.; Wierda, D.; Reasor, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Chlorphentermine (CP) inhibits the blastogenic response of mouse splenic and human peripheral blood lymphocytes to the T-cell mitogens, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A). The purpose of these studies was to examine in vitro the mechanism mediating this immunosuppression. If mouse or human lymphocytes are pretreated with CP for 30 minutes, then stimulated with PHA, their blastogenic response is inhibited 80% and 45%, respectively. However, if CP is not added until 10 minutes or later following PHA stimulation, the inhibitory effect of the drug is essentially eliminated. The authors also determined that CP can potentiate Con A-induced agglutination of human lymphocytes. Enhanced agglutination can result from changes in the integrity of membrane phospholipids. Because changes in membrane phospholipid biochemistry characteristically occur within 10 minutes after mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation, the authors examined whether CP altered the incorporation of choline into cellular phospholipids. They found that CP decreases overall incorporation of 14 C-choline into cellular phospholipids of mouse lymphocytes by 45% during the first 4 hours of activation. These data suggest that the immunotoxicity associated with CP may be mediated by drug-induced changes at the membrane level that appear to occur early during lymphocyte activation

  17. Baseline neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (≥2.8) as a prognostic factor for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lijun; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Liping; Li, Guichao; Fan, Ming; Wu, Yongxin; Zhu, Ji; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as an indicator of systemic inflammatory response and may predict the clinical outcome in some cancers, such as head and neck cancer and gastric cancer. However, the value of this ratio is variable in different cancers. Studies of the relationship between NLR and both survival and response to chemoradiation have been limited with respect to locally advanced rectal cancer. From 2006 to 2011, 199 consecutive locally advanced rectal cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation in the Shanghai Cancer Center were enrolled and analysed retrospectively. Tumor response was evaluated by pathological findings. The baseline total white blood cell count (WBC) and the neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet counts were recorded. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the relationship with clinical outcomes such as overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed. With ROC analysis, the baseline NLR value was found to significantly predict prognosis in terms of OS well in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. A multivariate analysis identified that a cut-off value of NLR ≥ 2.8 could be used as an independent factor to indicate decreased OS (HR, 2.123; 95% CI, 1.140-3.954; P = 0.018). NLR ≥ 2.8 was also associated with worse DFS in univariate analysis (HR, 1.662; 95% CI, 1.037-2.664; P = 0.035), though it was not significant in the multivariate analysis (HR, 1.363; 95% CI, 0.840-2.214; P = 0.210). There was no observed significant correlation of mean value of NLR to the response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The mean NLR in the ypT0-2 N0 group was 2.68 ± 1.38, and it was 2.77 ± 1.38 in the ypT3-4/N+ group, with no statistical significance (P = 0.703). The mean NLR in the TRG 0–1 group was 2.68 ± 1.42, and it was 2.82 ± 1.33 in the TRG 2–3 group with no statistical significance (P = 0.873). An elevated baseline NLR is a valuable and easily available prognostic factor for OS in

  18. Tuberculin purified protein derivative-reactive T cells in cord blood lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiratsuchi, H; Tsuyuguchi, I

    1981-01-01

    Lymphocytes obtained from cord blood of newborn babies who were born of healthy mothers were studied in vitro for their responsiveness to purified protein derivative (PPD) of tuberculin. Cord blood lymphocytes proliferated in vitro by stimulation with PPD, despite wide variations in the results. Studies with fractionated lymphocytes revealed that PPD-responding cells belonged to E-rosetting, nylon wool-nonadherent T lymphocytes. Non-E-rosetting B lymphocytes alone did not proliferate at all a...

  19. Reduced heat shock response in human mononuclear cells during aging and its association with polymorphisms in HSP70 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent changes in heat shock response (HSR) were studied in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) collected from young (mean age = 22.6 +/- 1.7 years) and middle-aged (mean age = 56.3 +/- 4.7 years) subjects after 1 hour of heat shock at 42 degrees C. Genotype-specific HSR...... was measured by genotyping the subjects for 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, HSPA1A(A-110C), HSPA1B(A1267G), and HSPA1L(T2437C), 1 each in the 3 HSP70 genes. A significant age-related decrease in the induction of Hsp70 occurred after heat shock in both monocytes and lymphocytes. The noninducible...

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  1. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-11-15

    NiSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O, M/sub r/=262.85; data collections with Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation, lambda=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, ..beta..=98.38(2)/sup 0/, V=1704.7(6) A/sup 3/, Z=8, D/sub x/=2.05 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.54 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A/sup 3/, Z=4, D/sub x/=2.07 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.81 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO/sub 4/.6D/sub 2/O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O. Both structures contain isolated (Ni(H/sub 2/O/sub 6/) octahedra and (SO/sub 4/) tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding.

  2. Electrostatic control of phospholipid polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahovsky, Y S; Arsenault, A L; MacDonald, R C; McIntosh, T J; Epand, R M

    2000-12-01

    A regular progression of polymorphic phase behavior was observed for mixtures of the anionic phospholipid, cardiolipin, and the cationic phospholipid derivative, 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray diffraction, whereas the two lipids separately assume only lamellar phases, their mixtures exhibit a symmetrical (depending on charge ratio and not polarity) sequence of nonlamellar phases. The inverted hexagonal phase, H(II,) formed from equimolar mixtures of the two lipids, i.e., at net charge neutrality (charge ratio (CR((+/-))) = 1:1). When one type of lipid was in significant excess (CR((+/-)) = 2:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:2), a bicontinuous cubic structure was observed. These cubic phases were very similar to those sometimes present in cellular organelles that contain cardiolipin. Increasing the excess of cationic or anionic charge to CR((+/-)) = 4:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:4 led to the appearance of membrane bilayers with numerous interlamellar contacts, i.e., sponge structures. It is evident that interactions between cationic and anionic moieties can influence the packing of polar heads and hence control polymorphic phase transitions. The facile isothermal, polymorphic interconversion of these lipids may have important biological and technical implications.

  3. Selective toxicity of persian gulf sea cucumber holothuria parva on human chronic lymphocytic leukemia b lymphocytes by direct mitochondrial targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Motallebi, Abbasali; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Seydi, Enayatollah; Mohseni, Ali Reza; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-04-01

    Natural products isolated from marine environment are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diversity of disease treatments such as cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are one of the marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm. Many studies have shown that the sea cucumber contains antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease characterized by the relentless accumulation of CD5 + B lymphocytes. CLL is the most common leukemia in adults, about 25-30% of all leukemias. In this study B lymphocytes and their mitochondria (cancerous and non-cancerous) were obtained from peripheral blood of human subjects and B lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay, and caspase 3 activation along with mitochondrial upstream events of apoptosis signaling including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial swelling were determined following the addition of Holothuria parva extract to both cancerous and non-cancerous B lymphocytes and their mitochondria. Our in vitro finding showed that mitochondrial ROS formation, MMP collapse, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after addition of different concentrations of H. parva only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous mitochondria. Consistently, different concentrations of H. parva significantly (P < 0.05) increased cytotoxicity and caspase 3 activation only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous B lymphocytes. These results showed that H. parva methanolic extract has a selective mitochondria mediated apoptotic effect on chronic lymphocytic leukemia B lymphocytes hence may be promising in the future anticancer drug development for treatment of CLL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1158-1169, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Associations between lifestyles and neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chuyuan; Wei, Yisheng; Jiang, Jianxin; Zhao, Chuxiong; Liang, Guojian; Wang, Guoqiang; Yang, Hui

    2014-06-01

    To explore the etiology of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) abnormalities in colorectal cancer. In total, 230 patients with histopathologically confirmed colorectal cancer from August 2009 to August 2011 were recruited to our study. The associations between lifestyles (smoking, alcohol and pickled food consumption) and pretreatment NLR and PLR were estimated using the Kruskal-Wallis tests and linear regression model. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant association between pickled food intake and pretreatment NLR but not PLR (P = 0.002, 0.057, respectively). Pairwise comparisons showed that, compared with those with a moderately frequent (2-3 times/week) and an infrequent (≤ once a week) intake of pickled food, high frequency (≥ four times/week) consumption of pickled food had a higher pretreatment NLR (P = 0.01, 0.007, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed pretreatment NLR increased significantly in high frequency (≥ four times/week) consumption of pickled food (P frequency intake of pickled food possibly contributes to higher NLR, which may reflect a systemic inflammatory response in colorectal cancer. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Ibrutinib for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Cory M; McBride, Ali; Jaglowski, Samantha M; Andritsos, Leslie A

    2016-03-15

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and safety of ibrutinib are described. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class oral inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) approved for treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Ibrutinib blocks downstream signaling of the B-cell receptor, disrupting stromal microenvironment interactions and B-cell cytokine signaling. BTK inhibition has been shown to be effective in relapsed or refractory CLL. A recent Phase III study evaluated ibrutinib (420 mg daily) versus ofatumumab (consistent with labeling) in relapsed or refractory CLL with a primary endpoint of progression free survival (PFS, n = 391). After a median follow-up period of 9.4 months, a PFS was not attained in ibrutinib-treated individuals with and without deletion 17p. In contrast, ofatumumab-treated individuals experienced a PFS of 8.1 months and those with deletion 17p experienced a PFS of 5.8 months. Major hemorrhage was reported in 2 (1%) patients treated with ibrutinib, and a total of 8 (4%) patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity or adverse reactions. Partial response or partial response with lymphocytosis was achieved in 63% of ibrutinib-treated individuals as determined by independent assessments. Overall, ibrutinib reduced the rate of mortality by 57%. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class, orally active, irreversible BTK inhibitor with a novel mechanism of action. This unique mechanism of action and high overall response rates observed in clinical trials make ibrutinib an attractive second-line option in patients who have disease progression while receiving monoclonal antibody therapy or chemoimmunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Current Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Puła, Bartosz; Walewski, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A number of new treatment options have recently emerged for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, including the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) delta isoform inhibitor idelalisib combined with rituximab, the Bcl-2 antagonist venetoclax, and the new anti-CD20 antibodies obinutuzumab and ofatumumab. Most of these agents are already included into treatment algorithms defined by international practice guidelines, but more clinical investigations are needed to answer still remaining questions. Ibrutinib was proven as a primary choice for patients with the TP53 gene deletion/mutation, who otherwise have no active treatment available. Idelalisib with rituximab is also an active therapy, but due to increased risk of serious infections, its use in first-line treatment is limited to patients for whom ibrutinib is not an option. A new indication for ibrutinib was recently approved for older patients with comorbidities, as an alternative to the already existing indication for chlorambucil with obinutuzumab. The use of kinase inhibitors is already well established in recurrent/refractory disease. Immunochemotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab (FCR) remains a major first-line option for many CLL patients without the TP53 gene deletion/mutation, and who have no significant comorbidities or history of infections, and is particularly effective in patients with favorable features including mutated IGHV status. There are a number of issues regarding novel therapies for CLL that need further investigation such as optimum duration of treatment with kinase inhibitors, appropriate sequencing of novel agents, mechanisms of resistance to inhibitors and response to class switching after treatment failure, along with the potential role of combinations of targeted agents.

  7. ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION FOR CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Chiusolo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Even if Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL often has an indolent behavior with good responsiveness to cytoreductive treatment, about 20% of the patients, so called "poor-risk" patients, show an aggressive course and die within a few years despite early intensive therapies. Criteria for poor-risk disease according to the European Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT CLL Transplant Consensus are: purine analogue refractoriness, early relapse after purine analogue combination therapy, CLL with p53 lesion requiring treatment.

    Allogeneic transplant has potential curative role in CLL, however burden with very  high transplant related mortality (TRM rates of 38-50%:

    A major advance in reducing the short-term morbidity and mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT has been the introduction of non-myeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning (RIC regimens to allow engraftment of allogeneic stem cells. There is no doubt that the crucial therapeutic principle of allo-SCT in CLL is graft versus leukemia (GVL activity.

    The major complications of allogeneic SCT in CLL are: chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD affecting quality of life, high graft rejection and infection rates rates correlated with preexisting immunosuppression. Disease relapse remains the major cause of failure after RIC allo-HCT in CLL patients.

    Sensitive minimal residual disease (MRD quantification has strong prognostic impact after transplant.

     

  8. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    There are two important points of view on inclusion or subtype polymorphism in object-oriented programs, namely polymorphic access and dynamic dispatch. These features are essential for object-oriented programming, and it is worthwhile to consider whether they are supported in aspect-oriented......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  9. Occupational Toluene Exposure Induces Cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; de León, Mario Bermúdez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rojas-García, Aurora E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Alberto; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo

    2006-01-01

    Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzoxazone (CHZ) quotient (known as CHZ metabolic ratio) in plasma, and the role of genotype (5′-flanking region RsaI/PstI polymorphic sites) in 97 male print workers. The geometric mean (GM) of toluene concentration in the air was 52.80 ppm (10–760 ppm); 54% of the study participants were exposed to toluene concentrations that exceeded the maximum permissible exposure level (MPEL). The GM of urinary hippuric acid at the end of a work shift (0.041 g/g creatinine) was elevated relative to that before the shift (0.027 g/g creatinine; p < 0.05). The GM of the CHZ metabolic ratio was 0.33 (0–9.3), with 40% of the subjects having ratios below the GM. However, the average CYP2E1 mRNA level in peripheral lymphocytes was 1.07 (0.30–3.08), and CYP2E1 mRNA levels within subjects correlated with the toluene exposure ratio (environmental toluene concentration:urinary hippuric acid concentration) (p = 0.014). Genotype did not alter the association between the toluene exposure ratio and mRNA content. In summary, with further validation, CYP2E1 mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes could be a sensitive and noninvasive biomarker for the continuous monitoring of toluene effects in exposed persons. PMID:16581535

  10. Comparative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP three-phase bone scan with SPECT/CT and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled WBC SPECT/CT in the differential diagnosis of clinically suspicious post-traumatic osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Chan Woo; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Choi, Yun Young [Hanyang University Medical CenterSeoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    To identify differences between three-phase bone scan and SPECT/CT (TBS) and WBC SPECT/CT (WS) and compare diagnostic accuracies of each modality in patients with suspicious post-traumatic osteomyelitis (OM). Twenty-one patients with suspicious post-traumatic OM were enrolled. All patients performed TBS and WS within 1 week. Foci of MDP and WBC accumulation were divided into three categories: bone (OM), soft tissue (soft tissue inflammation; STI), negative for inflammation (NI). Confirmative diagnosis was made upon operative pathology or long-term clinical follow-up. Of 21 patients, four OM, eight STI, nine NI were finally diagnosed. TBS diagnosis was correct in three of four positive cases and nine of 17 negative cases. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of TBS were 75 %, 52.9 %, 57.1 %, 27.3 %, 90 %. WS diagnosis was correct in two of four positive cases and 17 of 17 negative cases. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, NPV were 50 %, 100 %, 81.0 %, 100 %, 89.5 %. Twelve of 21 cases showed agreement between TBS and WS. TBS misdiagnosed nine cases (six STI and two NI as eight OM; one OM as one STI), while WS misdiagnosed four cases (two OM as two STI; two STI as two NI). Combining results from TBS and WS led to better diagnostic accuracy (91.7 %) than either TBS or WS alone. TBS and WS showed moderate agreement in assessment of clinically suspected post-traumatic OM. WS better evaluated inflammation than TBS. WS tended to underestimate inflammation whereas TBS tended to overestimate inflammation. Combining TBS and WS enhanced diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Effect of in vitro x-irradiation on human peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prusek, W.; Astaldi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of in vitro irradiation with increasing in logarythmic progress X-ray doses on lymphocyte viability and on T and B lymphocyte populations was studied in normal adults, patients with myasthenia gravis and in patients undergoing long-term steroid therapy. Decrease in numbers of lymphocytes carrying T or B lymphocyte surface markers was higher than the viable cell loss. The decrease showed no linear correlation with X-ray doses applied, which might reflect the existence of radioresistant T and B lymphocytes. A higher so-called early radiosensitivity of B lymphocytes was demonstrated. In patients with myasthenia gravis early radioresistance of T lymphocytes was detected. In patients undergoing long-term steroid therapy, an increase in numbers of cells lacking markers of any of lymphocyte populations was found in parallel with a decrease in T lymphocyte number which, in these patients, showed a higher radiosensitivity. (author)

  12. Effect of in vitro x-irradiation on human peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prusek, W. (Szpital Wojewodzki, Wroclaw (Poland)); Astaldi, G. (The Blood Research Foundation Centre, Tortona (Italy))

    1979-01-01

    The effect of in vitro irradiation with increasing in logarythmic progress X-ray doses on lymphocyte viability and on T and B lymphocyte populations was studied in normal adults, patients with myasthenia gravis and in patients undergoing long-term steroid therapy. Decrease in numbers of lymphocytes carrying T or B lymphocyte surface markers was higher than the viable cell loss. The decrease showed no linear correlation with X-ray doses applied, which might reflect the existence of radioresistant T and B lymphocytes. A higher so-called early radiosensitivity of B lymphocytes was demonstrated. In patients with myasthenia gravis early radioresistance of T lymphocytes was detected. In patients undergoing long-term steroid therapy, an increase in numbers of cells lacking markers of any of lymphocyte populations was found in parallel with a decrease in T lymphocyte number which, in these patients, showed a higher radiosensitivity.

  13. The relationship between lymphocytes activated by pokeweed mitogen and by lipopolysaccharides and their radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Liaoyuan; Liu Fenju; Liu Keliang; Xu Changshao; Xu Yingdong; Geng Yongzhi

    1992-07-01

    Human whole blood was incubated in vitro. Lymphocytes were activated by poke-weed mitogen (PWM) and by Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The relationship between the two kinds of lymphocytes was investigated using radioactive compound incorporation. The study showed that PWM-activated lymphocytes were able to promote the stimulating effect of LPS on B lymphocytes. The stimulating effect of PWM-activated lymphocytes was obviously decreased after they were irradiated with 10 Gy gamma rays. When PWM-activated lymphocytes and LPS-activated lymphocytes were incubated together after one of the cell populations had been exposed 10 Gy 60 Co gamma rays, the incorporation of [ 3 H] TdR was much decreased and the synergistic function disappeared, especially when the PWM-activated lymphocytes were irradiated. In cells from patients treated with 60 Co gamma rays for carcinoma of nasopharynx, the incorporation in LPS-activated lymphocytes approached normal levels while that in PWM-activated lymphocytes was reduced significantly and the stimulating effect of PWM-activated lymphocytes on LPS-activated lymphocytes was also markedly reduced. These demonstrate that PWM-activated lymphocytes have a similar function to T-helper cells and seem to be more radiosensitive than LPS-activated lymphocytes

  14. [Occurrence of associated tumours in chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Varju, Lóránt

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is one of the most common hematologic malignancy. The aim of the authors was to investigate the characteristics of malignancies associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients diagnozed between 2000 and 2015. Data of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had other associated tumours were analysed using the Leukemia/Lymphoma Registry of the Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Hungary and patient records. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015, 526 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were diagnosed. 95 patients of the 526 patients (18.06%) were diagnosed as having associated other tumours. In 48/95 patients (50.5%) the first diagnosed tumour was chronic lymphocytic leukemia, in 23/95 patients (24.2%) the first recognized malignancy was the associated tumour, whereas in 24/95 patients (25.3%) synchron tumours were diagnosed. The number of patients with more than one associated tumour was 10/95 (10.5%). The total number of tumours was 107. The incidence of chronic lymphoid leukemia increased in the period between 2000 and 2015 as compared to the period between 1983 and 1999 (3.19 vs 5.65/100 000 person/year). The occurrence of associated malignancies increased as well (8.06% vs 18.06%). In addition to the most common tumours (colorectal, breast, lung, prostate), skin squamous cell carcinoma (17/95 patients; 17.9%) and melanoma (6/95 patients; 6.3%) also frequently occurred. The second malignancies were most frequently discovered after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and synchron tumours accounting for 78.5% (84/107) of all associated tumours. The incidence of second malignancies decreased 10 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The possible reasons for the high frequency of other tumours associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are elderly age of patients, immunsuppressed state and, presumably, chemotherapy of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. During the follow up

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Particle Ration Induced Apoptosis in Lymphocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yufang

    Space radiation, composed of high-energy charged nuclei (HZE particles) and protons, has been previously shown to severely impact immune homeostasis in mice. To determine the molecular mechanisms that mediate acute lymphocyte depletion following exposure to HZE particle radiation mice were exposed to particle radiation beams at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We found that mice given whole body 5 6Fe particle irradiation (1GeV /n) had dose-dependent losses in total lymphocyte numbers in the spleen and thymus (using 200, 100 and 50 cGy), with thymocytes being more sensitive than splenocytes. All phenotypic subsets were reduced in number. In general, T cells and B cells were equally sensitive, while CD8+ T cells were more senstive than CD4+ T cells. In the thymus, immature CD4+CD8+ double-positive thymocytes were exquisitely sensitive to radiation-induced losses, single-positive CD4 or CD8 cells were less sensitive, and the least mature double negative cells were resistant. Irradiation of mice deficient in genes encoding essential apoptosis-inducing proteins revealed that the mechanism of lymphocyte depletion is independent of Fas ligand and TRAIL (TNF-ralated apoptosis-inducing ligand), in contrast to γ-radiation-induced lymphocyte losses which require the Fas-FasL pathway. Using inhibitors in vitro, lymphocyte apoptosis induced by HZE particle radiation was found to be caspase dependent, and not involve nitric oxide or oxygen free radicals.

  16. Radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Lima, Maíra V.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2017-01-01

    Several substances of synthetic and natural origin have been studied in relation to their ability to protect the body from damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among these substances, quercetin has been shown to be a molecule of natural origin with high radioprotective potential due to its antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine, in vitro, the radioprotective effect of quercetin on human lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation. Blood was irradiated at the 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 Gy doses and then lymphocyte culture with quercetin at preselected concentrations of 37.5 and 75 μM. Subsequently, slides were prepared for analysis and quantification of the metaphases present in lymphocyte cells. The results demonstrated that irradiated lymphocytes and later exposed to quercetin presented a lower number of chromosomal alterations compared to the control group which was irradiated and not exposed to quercetin. Therefore, the results suggest a radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytes exposed, in vitro, to ionizing radiation

  17. Lymphocytic Panhypophysitis: Its Clinical Features in Japanese Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Wada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytic hypophysitis is divided into three forms according to the involved tissues, lymphocytic adenohypophysitis, lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis, and lymphocytic panhypophysitis (LPH. The term LPH was first proposed by us in 1995, although its entity and pathogenesis still remain controversial. Here we report five cases of LPH, who visited our clinics during 1994 to 2009. All cases were female of 20 to 77 years of age, and one case was associated with pregnancy. They presented with polyuria (n = 4, headache (n = 3, general malaise, polydipsia (n = 2, blunted vision, diplopia, amenorrhea or appetite loss (n = 1. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the pituitary swelling, the thickened stalk, the loss of the T1 hyperintense neurohypophysis (n = 4, or the atrophic pituitary (n = 1. Endocrinological examinations revealed deficiencies of TSH, ADH in all cases, GH, ACTH in three cases, LH, PRL in two cases, and FSH in one case, respectively. The severity of ADH deficiency varied among the cases. Anti-pituitary antibody was not detected in the cases examined. The biopsy of the pituitary lesions was performed except for one case, all of which revealed the diffuse lymphocytic infiltration. These results suggest that LPH is characterized by the female predominance, the atypical patterns of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies and the variable degrees of diabetes insipidus in Japanese.

  18. Fate of lymphocytes after withdrawal of tofacitinib treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Cuzzoni, Eva; De Iudicibus, Sara; De Lorenzo, Elisa; Decorti, Giuliana; Tommasini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Tofacitinib (Tofa) is an inhibitor of Janus Kinase 3, developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of transplant rejection. Due to its selective action on proliferating cells, Tofa can offer a way to block T cell activation, without toxic effects on resting cells. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Tofa on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Our aim was to study the action of Tofa on different lymphocyte subsets after in vitro stimulation and to track the behaviour of treated cells after interruption of the treatment. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with mitogen and treated with two concentrations of Tofa. After a first period in culture, cells were washed and further incubated for an additional time. Lymphocyte subsets, activation phenotype and proliferation were assessed at the different time frames. As expected, Tofa was able to reduce the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the first four days of treatment. In addition the drug led to a relative decrease of Natural Killer, B cells and CD8 T cells compared to CD4 T cells. However, treated cells were still viable after the first period in culture and begun to proliferate, strikingly, in a dose dependent manner when the drug was removed from the environment by replacing the culture medium. This novel data does not necessarily predict a similar behaviour in vivo, but can warn about the clinical use of this drug when a discontinuation of treatment with Tofa is considered for any reason.

  19. Fate of lymphocytes after withdrawal of tofacitinib treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Piscianz

    Full Text Available Tofacitinib (Tofa is an inhibitor of Janus Kinase 3, developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of transplant rejection. Due to its selective action on proliferating cells, Tofa can offer a way to block T cell activation, without toxic effects on resting cells. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Tofa on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Our aim was to study the action of Tofa on different lymphocyte subsets after in vitro stimulation and to track the behaviour of treated cells after interruption of the treatment. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with mitogen and treated with two concentrations of Tofa. After a first period in culture, cells were washed and further incubated for an additional time. Lymphocyte subsets, activation phenotype and proliferation were assessed at the different time frames. As expected, Tofa was able to reduce the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the first four days of treatment. In addition the drug led to a relative decrease of Natural Killer, B cells and CD8 T cells compared to CD4 T cells. However, treated cells were still viable after the first period in culture and begun to proliferate, strikingly, in a dose dependent manner when the drug was removed from the environment by replacing the culture medium. This novel data does not necessarily predict a similar behaviour in vivo, but can warn about the clinical use of this drug when a discontinuation of treatment with Tofa is considered for any reason.

  20. Lymphocyte subsets and response to PHA among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Noguchi, Kyouichi; Eida, Kazuyuki; Tashiro, Kazunori; Hayashida, Ken

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to elucidate the effect of radiation exposure on immune competence in man, the number of lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets, and the percentage of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced transformation of lymphocytes were determined in 66 cancer patients, 25 of whom were exposed to atomic radiation at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero and 41 others were not exposed. The number of lymphocytes was decreased with increasing age at exposure. The percentage of OKT3-positive cells tended to be lower in exposed patients who were in their twenties at the time of exposure than the non-exposed patients. Among patients in their teens and twenties at the time of exposure, there was a tendency toward decreased percentage of OKT4-positive cells (T4) and increased percentage of OKT8-positive cells (T8). The T4/T8 ratio was reduced. Patients who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure tended to have decreased OKIa 1-positive cells, and increased Leulla-positive cells. Patients exposed in their twenties and thirties had slightly decreased percentage of PHA-induced transformation of lymphocytes. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Lymphocyte Proliferation Response in Patients with Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Khosravi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in humans and domestic animals. The underlying mechanisms that cause prolonged illness are complex and not fully understood. Immune responses may have an important role in the chronicity of infection. Here, we evaluated the lymphocyte proliferation responses in patients with chronic and acute brucellosis. Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytical study was performed on 22 patients with acute brucellosis, 21 patients with chronic brucellosis and 21 healthy people with the similar age, sex and genetic background as control group. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated using Ficoll and the cellular proliferation was quantified in presence of antigen and phytohemaglutinin-A by MTT method. Results: The brucella antigen-specific stimulation index in patients with chronic brucellosis was significantly lower than the acute brucellosis patients (p=0.001. Also, stimulating the lymphocytes with phytohemaglutinin-A has shown that proliferative response in patients with chronic brucellosis was lower than the other groups (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results indicated that chronic brucellosis inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation may be due to the induction of anergy.

  2. Non-codingRNA sequence variations in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sylwia E; Rossi, Simona; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Nicoloso, Milena S; Cimmino, Amelia; Alder, Hansjuerg; Herlea, Vlad; Rassenti, Laura Z; Rai, Kanti R; Kipps, Thomas J; Keating, Michael J; Croce, Carlo M; Calin, George A

    2010-02-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease in which the interplay between alterations in protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) plays a fundamental role. In recent years, the full coding component of the human genome was sequenced in various cancers, whereas such attempts related to ncRNAs are still fragmentary. We screened genomic DNAs for sequence variations in 148 microRNAs (miRNAs) and ultraconserved regions (UCRs) loci in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or colorectal cancer (CRC) by Sanger technique and further tried to elucidate the functional consequences of some of these variations. We found sequence variations in miRNAs in both sporadic and familial CLL cases, mutations of UCRs in CLLs and CRCs and, in certain instances, detected functional effects of these variations. Furthermore, by integrating our data with previously published data on miRNA sequence variations, we have created a catalog of DNA sequence variations in miRNAs/ultraconserved genes in human cancers. These findings argue that ncRNAs are targeted by both germ line and somatic mutations as well as by single-nucleotide polymorphisms with functional significance for human tumorigenesis. Sequence variations in ncRNA loci are frequent and some have functional and biological significance. Such information can be exploited to further investigate on a genome-wide scale the frequency of genetic variations in ncRNAs and their functional meaning, as well as for the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for leukemias and carcinomas.

  3. DNA double-strand break repair of blood lymphocytes and normal tissues analysed in a preclinical mouse model: implications for radiosensitivity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rübe, Claudia E; Grudzenski, Saskia; Kühne, Martin; Dong, Xiaorong; Rief, Nicole; Löbrich, Markus; Rübe, Christian

    2008-10-15

    Radiotherapy is an effective cancer treatment, but a few patients suffer severe radiation toxicities in neighboring normal tissues. There is increasing evidence that the variable susceptibility to radiation toxicities is caused by the individual genetic predisposition, by subtle mutations, or polymorphisms in genes involved in cellular responses to ionizing radiation. Double-strand breaks (DSB) are the most deleterious form of radiation-induced DNA damage, and DSB repair deficiencies lead to pronounced radiosensitivity. Using a preclinical mouse model, the highly sensitive gammaH2AX-foci approach was tested to verify even subtle, genetically determined DSB repair deficiencies known to be associated with increased normal tissue radiosensitivity. By enumerating gammaH2AX-foci in blood lymphocytes and normal tissues (brain, lung, heart, and intestine), the induction and repair of DSBs after irradiation with therapeutic doses (0.1-2 Gy) was investigated in repair-proficient and repair-deficient mouse strains in vivo and blood samples irradiated ex vivo. gammaH2AX-foci analysis allowed to verify the different DSB repair deficiencies; even slight impairments caused by single polymorphisms were detected similarly in both blood lymphocytes and solid tissues, indicating that DSB repair measured in lymphocytes is valid for different and complex organs. Moreover, gammaH2AX-foci analysis of blood samples irradiated ex vivo was found to reflect repair kinetics measured in vivo and, thus, give reliable information about the individual DSB repair capacity. gammaH2AX analysis of blood and tissue samples allows to detect even minor genetically defined DSB repair deficiencies, affecting normal tissue radiosensitivity. Future studies will have to evaluate the clinical potential to identify patients more susceptible to radiation toxicities before radiotherapy.

  4. Kinetics of human lymphocyte division and chromosomal radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, N O; Bianchi, M S; Larramendy, M [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular, La Plata (Argentinia)

    1979-12-01

    Human blood from normal donors was irradiated with 200 R during the G/sub 0/ phase, and the X-ray sensitivity of early and late dividing lymphocytes in culture was expressed as percentage of induced dicentrics. Cells in first or subsequent divisions were individualized by BrdU-Giemsa techniques. Lymphocytes in the first division at 40, 44 and 72 h after the start of culture had a lower sensitivity to radiation than lymphocytes making their first division at 48, 52 and 56 h. It was observed that: (a) the combination of radiation followed by BrdU did not increase the clastoyenic action of X-rays, (b)X-rays in the dose and duration used in our cultures did not increase the frequency of SCEs, and (c) minor changes in culture conditions probably influenced the frequency of SCEs.

  5. Whole blood microculture assay of human lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Han, T

    1976-11-01

    A whole blood microculture assay is described for measuring lymphocyte reactivity to mitogenic and antigenic stimulants. This assay employs heparinized whole blood, serum-free culture medium, microtiter plates, and a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). When this assay is compared to other leukocyte assays, its major advantages include (1) the utilization of fewer lymphocytes per microculture, thuus reducing the amount of blood required per test while increasing the number of test agents and replicate cultures which can be employed in any given experiment; (2) the conservation of mitogens, antigens, drugs, enzymes, hormones, lymphokines, and other test agents, some of which are either expensive of difficult to prepare in large quantities; (3) the elimination of lymphocyte isolation and purification procedures which may disrupt the relative proportion of T cells, B cells and antigen-processing cells; and (4) the application of an automated harvester which simplifies and expedites procedures required for processing cells for liquid scintillation counting.

  6. Radioprotective effect of antioxidants on human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Gu Xuandi; Zhu Genbo; Feng Jixing; Su Liaoyuan

    1991-09-01

    By using an improved fluorometric method with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as fluorometric agent, the antiradiation effects of four kinds of antioxidants on 60 Co γ-ray irradiation inducing final products of lipid peroxides (LPO), i.e. malodialdehyde (MDA) content changes in human blood lymphocytes, were investigated with LPO value as an indicator. The results of the experiment were as following: (1)The radioprotective effect of exogenous antioxidants added to human blood lymphocytes on radiation-induced LPO damage of cellular membrane were remarkable; (2)The radioprotective beneficial sequences of four kinds of antioxidants were arranged like this: SOD > VE >VC, Se 4+ ; (3)Radioprotective effects of antioxidants on radiation-induced damage varied especially with the property of antioxidants, drug concentration, and pretreatment and monitoring time, etc., as well as irradiated dosage and various kinds of incubated cells. In addition, the mechanism of these antioxidants as radioprotectants on human blood lymphocytes is discussed in connection with LPO damage and radioprotection

  7. Genetically enhanced T lymphocytes and the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Tiberiu; Li, Huming; Constantinescu, Catalin-Sorin; Onaciu, Anca; Chira, Sergiu; Osan, Ciprian; Pasca, Sergiu; Petrushev, Bobe; Moisoiu, Vlad; Micu, Wilhelm-Thomas; Berce, Cristian; Tranca, Sebastian; Dima, Delia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Shen, Jianliang; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Qian, Liren

    2018-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T cells) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) are important protocols in lymphocyte engineering. CAR-T cells have emerged as a new modality for cancer immunotherapy due to their potential efficacy against hematological malignancies. These genetically modified receptors contain an antigen-binding moiety, a hinge region, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular costimulatory domain resulting in lymphocyte T cell activation subsequent to antigen binding. In present-day medicine, four generations of CAR-T cells are described depending on the intracellular signaling domain number of T cell receptors. DLI represents a form of adoptive therapy used after hematopoietic stem cell transplant for its anti-tumor and anti-infectious properties. This article covers the current status of CAR-T cells and DLI research in the intensive care unit (ICU) patient, including the efficacy, toxicity, side effects and treatment. PMID:29662667

  8. MAJOR AND LYMPHOCYTE POPULATIONS OF HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES AND THEIR REFERENCE VALUES, AS ASSAYED BY MULTI-COLOUR CYTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaidukov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Determination of lymphocyte subpopulations and their phenotypes is an important diagnostic feature, in order to elucidate some disturbances connected with immune system functioning. However, insufficient data are obtained when analyzing only major populations of peripheral lymphocytes. In order to perform clinical diagnostics, the data about minor lymphocytic populations and activated cellular pools seem to be more pertinent.Studies of peripheral blood cell subpopulations of healthy donors performed in different Russian regions allowed to assess quantitative distribution intervals for both major and minor immune cell subpopulations in humans. The results obtained, as compared with data from literature, provide an evidence for similar reference intervals for main immune cell subpopulations in healthy donors, independent on their habitation area.Present work has resulted into development of algorithms for cytometric studies and generation of certain panels of monoclonal antibodies enabling evaluation of all main lymphocyte subpopulations, as well as their minor subsets participating in emerging immune response. The distribution intervals have been estimated for such minor subpopulations, as B1- and B2-lymphocytes, memory B-cells, γδ- and αβT-cells, regulatory and naїve T-cells, cytotoxic and secretory NK-cell polupations.The results of present study, while been performed with peripheral blood of healthy donors, may provide a basis of reference values when studying subpopulation profile of immune cells.

  9. Preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios as independent predictors of cervical stromal involvement in surgically treated endometrioid adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang D

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dan Wang, Jia-Xin Yang, Dong-Yan Cao, Xi-Run Wan, Feng-Zhi Feng, Hui-Fang Huang, Keng Shen, Yang Xiang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative inflammatory markers (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio and cervical stromal involvement in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Methods: We studied 318 patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma who underwent comprehensive surgical staging. We used univariate and multivariate analyses of cervical stromal involvement and receiver-operating curves to calculate optimal cutoff values for neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios to predict cervical stromal involvement. Results: The presence of cervical stromal involvement was associated with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.009 and P = 0.031, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that higher neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios independently predicted cervical stromal involvement (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 1.10–8.76, P = 0.032, and odds ratio 5.27, 95% confidence interval 1.94–14.35, P = 0.001, respectively. At a threshold of 2.01, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was 71.0% sensitive and 63.8% specific for stromal involvement; at a 172.24 threshold, the platelet-lymphocyte ratio was 48.4% sensitive and 88.9% specific. Conclusion: Preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios can help identify the risk of cervical stromal involvement in patients with endometrial cancer. Evaluating these ratios may help select patients who should be particularly watched and tested for cervical stromal involvement. Keywords: neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte ratio, endometrioid adenocarcinoma

  10. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angela M Monteiro da; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers.

  11. Long term lymphocyte reconstitution after alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Button, Tom; Tuohy, Orla C.; Jones, Joanne L.; May, Karen; Somerfield, Jennifer; Green, Alison J E; Giovannoni, Gavin; Compston, Alastair D.; Fahey, Michael T.; Coles, Alasdair J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alemtuzumab is a lymphocyte depleting monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated superior efficacy over interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and is currently under investigation in phase 3 trials. One unresolved issue is the duration and significance of the lymphopenia induced. The long term effects on lymphocyte reconstitution of a single course, and the consequences that this has on disability, morbidity, mortality and autoimmunity, were examined. Methods: The lymphocyte reconstitution (n=36; 384 person years) and crude safety data (n=37; 447 person years) are reported for the first patients with progressive MS to receive alemtuzumab (1991-1997). Reconstitution time was expressed as a geometric mean or, when a non-negligible number of individuals failed to recover, as a median using survival analysis. Results: Geometric mean recovery time (GMRT) of total lymphocyte counts to the lower limit of the normal range (LLN; ≥1.0×10 9 cells/l) was 12.7 months (95% CI 8.8 to 18.2 months). For B cells, GMRT to LLN (≥0.1×10 9/l) was 7.1 months (95% CI 5.3 to 9.5); median recovery times for CD8 (LLN ≥0.2×10 9 cells/l) and CD4 lymphocytes (LLN ≥0.4×10 9 cells/l) were 20 months and 35 months, respectively. However, CD8 and CD4 counts recovered to baseline levels in only 30% and 21% of patients, respectively. No infective safety concerns arose during 447 person years of follow-up. Conclusions: Lymphocyte counts recovered to LLN after a single course of alemtuzumab in approximately 8 months (B cells) and 3 years (T cell subsets), but usually did not recover to baseline values. However, this long lasting lymphopenia in patients with a previously normal immune system was not associated with an increased risk of serious opportunistic infection.

  12. Long term lymphocyte reconstitution after alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.

    2011-11-05

    Background: Alemtuzumab is a lymphocyte depleting monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated superior efficacy over interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and is currently under investigation in phase 3 trials. One unresolved issue is the duration and significance of the lymphopenia induced. The long term effects on lymphocyte reconstitution of a single course, and the consequences that this has on disability, morbidity, mortality and autoimmunity, were examined. Methods: The lymphocyte reconstitution (n=36; 384 person years) and crude safety data (n=37; 447 person years) are reported for the first patients with progressive MS to receive alemtuzumab (1991-1997). Reconstitution time was expressed as a geometric mean or, when a non-negligible number of individuals failed to recover, as a median using survival analysis. Results: Geometric mean recovery time (GMRT) of total lymphocyte counts to the lower limit of the normal range (LLN; ≥1.0×10 9 cells/l) was 12.7 months (95% CI 8.8 to 18.2 months). For B cells, GMRT to LLN (≥0.1×10 9/l) was 7.1 months (95% CI 5.3 to 9.5); median recovery times for CD8 (LLN ≥0.2×10 9 cells/l) and CD4 lymphocytes (LLN ≥0.4×10 9 cells/l) were 20 months and 35 months, respectively. However, CD8 and CD4 counts recovered to baseline levels in only 30% and 21% of patients, respectively. No infective safety concerns arose during 447 person years of follow-up. Conclusions: Lymphocyte counts recovered to LLN after a single course of alemtuzumab in approximately 8 months (B cells) and 3 years (T cell subsets), but usually did not recover to baseline values. However, this long lasting lymphopenia in patients with a previously normal immune system was not associated with an increased risk of serious opportunistic infection.

  13. gene polymorphism and its serum lev

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    polymorphisms and its serum level with the risk of MetS as well as their ... population for quantifying insulin resistance and β-cell function (Matthews et al. 1985). .... of IL-10 -819 C >T gene polymorphism (Co-dominant model) was significantly.

  14. using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the pattern of genetic diversity in 45 genotypes of common bean, 19 RAPD primers were used. Of 253 bands produced, 236 bands (94.22%) were polymorphic in which maximum number (20 polymorphic bands) were observed in the profiles of the primer OPB-07. Highest PIC value (0.79) was observed for the ...

  15. gene polymorphism and its serum lev

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Association of Interleukin-10 (-1082 A>G, -819 C >T and -592 C >A) gene polymorphism and its ... Th2 induced component of anti-β cell immunity is mediated principally by IL-10 (Lee et al. ..... promoter polymorphisms influence the clinical outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. ... Bone Marrow Transplant 36, 1089-1095.

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism in type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients with type-I diabetes mellitus folate deficiency is associated with endothelial dysfunction. So, polymorphism in genes involved in folate metabolism may have a role in vascular disease. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism ...

  17. Polymorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    crumbled to dirty grey and the soldiers believed that it is the wrath of God; their .... more molecules of water leave the beaker progressively concentrating the solution ..... spectrum antibacterial fluoroquinolone for the treatment of prostate and ...

  18. Ibrutinib-induced lymphocytosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, S E M; Niemann, C U; Farooqui, M

    2014-01-01

    Ibrutinib and other targeted inhibitors of B-cell receptor signaling achieve impressive clinical results for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A treatment-induced rise in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has emerged as a class effect of kinase inhibitors in CLL and warrants further...... investigation. Here we report correlative studies in 64 patients with CLL treated with ibrutinib. We quantified tumor burden in blood, lymph nodes (LNs), spleen and bone marrow, assessed phenotypic changes of circulating cells and measured whole-blood viscosity. With just one dose of ibrutinib, the average...

  19. The chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.; Decat, G.; Leonard, E.D.; Mortelmans, J.

    1977-01-01

    The yield of chromosomal aberrations induced by exposure to X-irradiation in vitro was studied in the lymphocytes of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a hominoid ape phylogenically and chromosomally closely related to man. In agreement with the similarity of the chromosome characteristics, no significant difference was observed between man and chimpanzee with respect to the incidence of dicentrics and fragments. It is obvious that the nuclear area, which apparently constitutes the most evident difference between the nuclei of man and chimpanzee lymphocytes, did not play an important role in the yields of aberrations

  20. Acute lymphocytic leukaemia in children in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Does-van den Berg, A. van der.

    1980-01-01

    Some features, present at diagnosis in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia, investigated during the period 1973-1975, and the results of treatment according to protocol AL II of the Dutch Childhood Leukaemia Study Group (SNWLK), are described. This report concerns the results of induction treatment, elective treatment of the central nervous system, and also of the prospective comparative study on the influence of the addition of cyclophosphamide to maintenance treatment with 6-mercaptopurine and methotrextate. In the context of the investigation of long-term side effects of disease and treatment, the immunocompetence of children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia in continuous remission after cessation of therapy was studied. (Auth.)

  1. DNA repair deficiency in lymphocytes from patients with actinic keratosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Darub, J.M.; Mackie, R.; Pitts, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    DNA repair activity was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 18 patients with Actinic Keratosis and 18 age-matched control subjects, by comparing the incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into cells after irradiation with ultraviolet light with that into unirradiated cells. The incorporation was followed autoradiographically or by measuring acid insoluble radioactivity in cells labelled in the presence of hydroxyurea. The repair activity in lymphocytes from Actinic keratosis patients was only 47.1% (+-6.5%) of that in cells from the control subjects

  2. ATM Polymorphisms Are Associated With Risk of Radiation-Induced Pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Yang Ming; Bi Nan; Fang Mingjing; Sun Tong; Ji Wei; Tan Wen; Zhao Lujun; Yu Dianke; Lin Dongxin; Wang Luhua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Since the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein plays crucial roles in repair of double-stranded DNA breaks, control of cell cycle checkpoints, and radiosensitivity, we hypothesized that variations in this gene might be associated with radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 253 lung cancer patients receiving thoracic irradiation between 2004 and 2006 were included in this study. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 was used to grade RP. Five haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ATM gene were genotyped using DNA from blood lymphocytes. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of RP for genotypes were computed by the Cox model, adjusted for clinical factors. The function of the ATM SNP associated with RP was examined by biochemical assays. Results: During the median 22-month follow-up, 44 (17.4%) patients developed grade ≥ 2 RP. In multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for other clinical predictors, we found two ATM variants were independently associated with increased RP risk. They were an 111G > A) polymorphism (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.07-5.80) and an ATM 126713G > A polymorphism (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.16-5.28). Furthermore, genotype-dependent differences in ATM expression were demonstrated both in cell lines (p < 0.001) and in individual lung tissue samples (p = 0.003), which supported the results of the association study. Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms of ATM are significantly associated with RP risk. These variants might exert their effect through regulation of ATM expression and serve as independent biomarkers for prediction of RP in patients treated with thoracic radiotherapy.

  3. DNA repair and cyclin D1 polymorphisms and styrene-induced genotoxicity and immunotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuricova, M.; Naccarati, A.; Kumar, R.; Koskinen, M.; Sanyal, S.; Dusinska, M.; Tulinska, J.; Vodickova, L.; Liskova, A.; Jahnova, E.; Fuortes, L.; Haufroid, V.; Hemminki, K.; Vodicka, P.

    2005-01-01

    1-SO-adenine DNA adducts, DNA single-strand breaks (SBs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), mutant frequency (MF) at the HPRT gene, and immune parameters (hematological and of humoral immunity) were studied in styrene-exposed human subjects and controls. Results were correlated with genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes (XPD, exon 23, XPG, exon 15, XPC, exon 15, XRCC1, exon 10, XRCC3, exon 7) and cell cycle gene cyclin D1. Results for biomarkers of genotoxicity after stratification for the different DNA repair genetic polymorphisms showed that the polymorphism in exon 23 of the XPD gene modulates levels of chromosomal and DNA damage, HPRT MF, and moderately affects DNA adduct levels. The highest levels of biomarkers were associated with the wild-type homozygous AA genotype. The exposed individuals with the wild-type GG genotype for XRCC1 gene exhibited the lowest CA frequencies, compared to those with an A allele (P < 0.05). Cyclin D1 polymorphism seems to modulate the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes in the analyzed subjects. The number of eosinophiles was positively associated with XPD variant C allele and negatively with XRCC1 variant A allele (P < 0.05) and XPC variant C allele (P < 0.05). Immunoglobulin IgA was positively associated with an XRCC3 variant T allele (P < 0.01) and negatively with XPC variant C allele (P < 0.05). Both C3- and C4-complement components were lower in individuals with XRCC3 CT (P < 0.05) and TT genotypes (P < 0.01). Adhesion molecules sL-selectin and sICAM-1 were associated with XPC genotype (P < 0.05). Individual susceptibility may be reflected in genotoxic and immunotoxic responses to environmental and occupational exposures to xenobiotics

  4. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells are active participants in microenvironmental cross-talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Attekum, Martijn H. A.; Eldering, Eric; Kater, Arnon P.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is widely accepted. Nevertheless, the understanding of the complex interplay between the various types of bystander cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is incomplete. Numerous studies have indicated that bystander

  5. B lymphocytes not required for progression from insulitis to diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, B; Zhang, M D; Slattery, R M

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. While it is clear that B lymphocytes are necessary, it has not been clear at which stage of disease they play a role; early, late or both. To clarify when B lymphocytes are needed, T lymphocytes were transferred from 5-week-old NOD female mice to age-matched NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) recipient mice. NOD/SCID mice, which lack functionally mature T and B lymphocytes, do not normally develop insulitis or insulin-dependent diabetes melitus (IDDM). The NOD/SCID mice that received purified T lymphocytes from 5-week-old NOD mice subsequently developed insulitis and diabetes even though they did not have detectable B lymphocytes. This suggests that while B lymphocytes may be essential for an initial priming event they are not requisite for disease progression in the NOD mouse.

  6. Ibrutinib Improves Survival in Patients with Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared ibrutinib (Imbruvica®) and ofatumumab (Arzerra®) for the treatment of relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL).

  7. Rac1 mediates collapse of microvilli on chemokine-activated T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhara, Ruchika; van Hennik, Paula B.; Gignac, Michelle L.; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Hordijk, Peter L.; Delon, Jerome; Shaw, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Lymphocytes circulate in the blood and upon chemokine activation rapidly bind, where needed, to microvasculature to mediate immune surveillance. Resorption of microvilli is an early morphological alteration induced by chemokines that facilitates lymphocyte emigration. However, the antecedent

  8. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells are active participants in microenvironmental cross-talk

    OpenAIRE

    van Attekum, Martijn HA; Eldering, Eric; Kater, Arnon P

    2017-01-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is widely accepted. Nevertheless, the understanding of the complex interplay between the various types of bystander cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is incomplete. Numerous studies have indicated that bystander cells provide chronic lymphocytic leukemia-supportive functions, but it has also become clear that chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells actively engage in the formation of a supportive tumor microenv...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES WHICH RECOGNIZE DIFFERENT SUBPOPULATIONS OF CHICKEN T LYMPHOCYTES

    OpenAIRE

    KONDO, Takashi; HATTORI, Masakazu; KODAMA, Hiroshi; ONUMA, Misao; MIKAMI, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Distribution among peripheral T lymphocyte subpopulations and biochemical properties of the chicken lymphocyte surface antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Lc-4 and Lc-6 were examined. Two-color immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Lc-4 and Lc-6 antigens were expressed on mutually exclusive subpopulations of peripheral T lymphocytes but not on B lymphocytes. Lc-4 mAb precipitated a polypeptide with apparent molecular mass of 35 and 65 kilodalton under reducing and non-reducin...

  10. Activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes in patients with scrub typhus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fost, Maaike; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Pimda, Kriangsak; Dondorp, Arjen M.; White, Nicholas J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Thai patients with scrub typhus caused by the intracellular pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi displayed elevated plasma concentrations of granzymes A and B, interferon-gamma (IFN)-gamma-inducible protein 10, and monokine induced by IFN-gamma. These data suggest that activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes

  11. Range-reference determination of lymphocyte subsets in Moroccan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Med V Rabat, Morocco. 3. Service ... The percentage of CD3-CD56+ subsets was affected by smoking (p < 0.01). Our analysis .... lymphocyte subpopulations in non-smokers and.

  12. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Mutated IGHV4-34 Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xochelli, Aliki; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Kavakiotis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to investigate whether B cell receptor immunoglobulin (BcR IG) stereotypy is associated with particular clinicobiological features among chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients expressing mutated BcR IG (M-CLL) encoded by the IGHV4-34 gene, and also ascertain whether...

  13. Lymphocyte as a biological dosimeter : a different approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.

    1974-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency as a measure of radiation exposure in human blood lymphocytes following a short term culture is well known and the technique is in use at several laboratories in the world to determine accidental exposures. Results of an entirely different approach to arrive at the exposure is presented. Time course of interphase death of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was followed for 6 days after exposure to cobalt-60 gamma radiation. Trypan blue dye exclusion method was used for scoring viable cells. Survival curves at 5 days post irradiation were exponential and had two components: an initial sensitive component representing a major sub-population of lymphocytes with a mean lethal dose (DO) of 75 rads and the other an apparently more resistant population with a Do of about 300 rads. The initial part of the survival curve which spans to about 100 rads reaching a survival level of 15 percent, can be used to read off the extent of exposure in accident cases. Although 60 percent of the initial lymphocytes survive in the unexposed control cultures, the method is sensitive to exposures of the order of 20 rads and reproducible results have been obtained. The response is independent of dose-rate from 65 rads/min to 65 rads/hour. Other aspects of the dosimetry system such as the neutron response, in vitro and in vivo correlation are discussed. (author)

  14. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Arthurs, MD; Kathy Wunderle, MD; Maylee Hsu, MD; Suil Kim, MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus. Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  15. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Arthurs, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus. Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  16. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Benjamin; Wunderle, Kathy; Hsu, Maylee; Kim, Suil

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus . Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  17. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    biochemical features.2 It is a coordinated series of events for the ... sex matched subjects with no clinical or laboratory signs or family history of ... Keywords: lymphocyte apoptosis; CD95 system; type 1 DM; prediabetes. Eman M. ..... percentage among complicated and non-complicated cases of type-1 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Paraneoplastic pemphigus as the initial presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mook, WNKA; Fickers, MMF; Theunissen, PHMH; vander Kley, JAMJ; Duijvestijn, JA; Pas, HH; Flikweert, DC

    The case history of a 61-year-old male patient is described, who presented with severe stomatitis, conjunctivitis and leukocytosis. The diagnosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) stage A (0) was made, for which no treatment was necessary. Progression of stomatitis and conjunctivitis and

  19. Pet Rodents and Fatal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis in Transplant Patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Three organ transplant recipients died from infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which was traced back to a hamster owned by the daughter of the organ donor. Dr. Brian Amman, a mammalogist with the Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses the dangers LCMV may pose to people with immune disorders, as well as to pregnant women.

  20. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell ... alleles were more resistant to clinical mastitis. ... DRB3.2 allele pattern in two Iranian Holstein cow .... observed and the number of immune parameters with.

  1. Production of C-reactive protein by human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuta, A.E.; Baum, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase serum protein in humans; it is detectable at very high concentrations during infection and tissue trauma. This protein is a pentame composed of five identical, 21,500 MW subunits. CRP is detectable on the surface of approximately 4% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). CRP binds its physiological ligands in a Ca ++ dependent manner; removal of Ca ++ does not alter the expression of CRP on the lymphocyte surface. Recently, investigators in this laboratory reported substantial inhibition of natural killer cell (NK) activity with anti-CRP antibodies. The following studies were undertaken to determine the origin of surface-CRP (S-CRP) found on normal PBL. Cells were incubated in methionine-free DMEM supplemented with 35 S-methionine. Cells were lysed and subjected to immunoprecipitation with anti-CRP and Staphylococcus aureus; immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Data presented here suggested that lymphocytes, in particular, LGL produce small amounts of CRP and express it on their surface. Lymphocytes do not appear to secrete CRP since no CRP could be detected in culture supernatants. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates that peripheral blood monocytes produce no detectable CRP. Present studies utilizing Northern blot analysis are underway in order to detect CRP-mRNA

  2. Platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A study was performed in adults with acute appendicitis and matched controls to assess the utility of the platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a diagnostic adjunct. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from a complete blood count test of 155 adult patients (72 men and 83 women) with ...

  3. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4...

  4. Case Report: A child with acute lymphocytic leukaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient was a child aged 5 years who had been diagnosed to have acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Chemotherapy was given with wysolone, vincristine, daunomycin, l-asparaginase, and intrathecal methotrexate. In addition he was given fluconazole and co-trimoxazole to cover infections during the induction period ...

  5. Lymphocytic cholangitis in cats: a microbiological, histological and clinical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, C.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, a general overview is given of the healthy feline liver and feline diseases of the gall bladder and biliary tree. Lymphocytic cholangitis (LC) is one of the most common inflammatory hepatic diseases in cats. It is a chronic disease that affects the biliary tree and progresses slowly

  6. Monitoring of cardiac antirejection therapy with 111In lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.A.; Bergmann, S.R.; Carlson, E.M.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether lymphocytes labeled with 111 In permit noninvasive assessment of antirejection therapy, we performed 40 allogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Antirejection therapy with azathioprine (30 mg/kg) and sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) prolonged contractile function of the graft from 7.5 +/- 1.5 (s.d.) days in controls to 19.4 +/- 3.7 days in treated animals. Six to seven days after transplantation, autologous lymphocytes labeled with 111 In were injected intravenously in seven untreated and eight treated rats. Scintigraphy and organ counting were performed 24 hr after administration of labeled cells. At sacrifice all grafts in untreated rats exhibited contractile failure, whereas grafts in all treated rats were beating well. Transplants in untreated recipients exhibited marked accumulation of 111 In lymphocytes detectable scintigraphically, with ratios of 7.7 +/- 1.9 for the activity in the transplant over that in the native heart (HT/HO), as obtained by well counting. In contrast, accumulation was not scintigraphically detectable in transplants of treated rats, with HT/HO ratios of 2.6 +/- 1.8 (p less than 0.005). The results suggested that imaging with 111 In-labeled lymphocytes will permit noninvasive assessment of antirejection therapy

  7. Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falaq Naz

    2012-06-29

    Jun 29, 2012 ... Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes of oral ... catechol estrogens and quinines, via redox reactions causes oxidative damage to .... volume was prepared for each donor. About, 0.8 ml of cell sus .... duce the adverse effects of OCs, such as the reduction in the estrogen content.

  8. Effects of noise exposure on catalase activity of growing lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kashif Nawaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress due to noise was estimated at cell level using model of growing lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were isolated and cultured using conventional methodology. Cell culture of each group was exposed to sound of frequency 1 KHz during incubation. Three groups were defined on the basis of exposure of sound with specific range of intensity and duration of exposure. Group A and Group B were exposed to sound with intensity 110 dBA for four hours per day and for eight hours per day respectively. Control group was exposed to sound less than 85 dBA. Viable cell count was performed using trypan blue. Catalase activity of each group was estimated using ELISA kit.Viable cell count of Group A and Group B was almost same but significantly less than that of control group. Catalase activity of lymphocytes in Group B was significantly low as compared to Group A and controls (p=0.003,p< 0.05. There was no significant difference between catalase activity of Group A and control group.Exposure of sound with frequency 1 KHz and intensity 110 dBA for 4 hours and eight hours per day may induce oxidative stress in growing lymphocytes causing the difference in viable cell count. However the catalase activity depends on duration of exposure. In case of noise exposure of 8 hours per day, it declines significantly as compared to noise exposure of 4 hours per day.

  9. Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in autoimmune disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G [Kennedy Inst. of Rheumatology, London (UK). Div. of Experimental Pathology; Cramp, W A; Edwards, J C; George, A M; Sabovljev, S A; Hart, L; Hughes, G R.V. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK); Denman, A M [Northwich Park Hospital, Harrow (UK); Yatvin, M B [Wisconsin Clinical Cancer Center, Madison (USA)

    1985-06-01

    The proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, cultured with Con A, can be inhibited by ionizing radiation. Lymphocytes from patients with conditions associated with autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and polymyositis, are more radiosensitive than those from healthy volunteers or patients with conditions not associated with autoimmunity. Nuclear material isolated from the lymphocytes of patients with autoimmune diseases is, on average, lighter in density than the nuclear material from most healthy controls. This difference in density is not related to increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation but the degree of post-irradiation change in density (lightening) is proportional to the initial density, i.e. more dense nuclear material always shows a greater upward shift after radiation. The recovery of pre-irradiation density of nuclear material, 1 h after radiation exposure, taken as an indication of DNA repair, correlates with the radiosensitivity of lymphocyte proliferation (Con A response); failure to return to pre-irradiation density being associated with increased sensitivity of proliferative response. These results require extension but, taken with previously reported studied of the effects of DNA methylating agents, support the idea that DNA damage and its defective repair could be important in the aetio-pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.

  10. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  11. Protective effect of citrullus vulgaris on irradiated lymphocyte membrane ultrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Osman; Norashikin, M.S.; Hing Hiang Lian; Siti Fatimah Ibrahim; Seetha Khartini Abdul Wahab; Jamaludin Mohamed; Proom Promwichit

    2004-01-01

    Radiotherapy causes various complications including low immunity. Past research that the low immunity is due to the low amount of lymphocytes and consumption vulgaris will alleviate this problem. Based on this a study was conducted to identify vulgaris was able to produce radioprotection on the lymphocyte membrane. A total of 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into three equals groups of positive control and treatment. For seven days, positive control and negative control were force fed with normal saline of 40 ml/kg animal weight while the treatment group received 40g/kg animal weight fresh juice of citrullus vulgaris daily. After a week positive control an group were irradiated with 0.9 Gy gamma ray. Viable lymphocyte were determined using propidium iodine and acridine orange stain. Results clearly shows that positive con and treatment group were significantly different at 34 ± 3% , 80 ± 2% an 71 ± 2% respectively. SEM results shows that pores were present on the membrane of the pos while the negative control had none. Similar results were also found on the treatment group. Based on the result it had shown that citrullus vulgaris had radioprotection properties and lymphocytes were destroyed by the formation of pores on their membrane. It is very likely that the radioprotection properties could be due to the presence of antioxidants particularly vitamin A, C and lycopene. In conclusion, citrullus vulgaris could be used as a safe radioprotection agent. (Author)

  12. Production of HIV-1 by resting memory T lymphocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gondois-Rey, F.; Biancotto, A.; Pion, M.; Chenine, A. L.; Gluschankof, P.; Hořejší, Václav; Tamalet, C.; Vigne, R.; Hirsch, I.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 15 (2001), s. 1931-1940 ISSN 0269-9370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7052904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HIV * AIDS * lymphocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.881, year: 2001

  13. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geukes Foppen, M H; Donia, M; Svane, I M

    2015-01-01

    five years, treatment with immunotherapy (anti CTLA-4, anti PD-1, or the combination of these antibodies) has shown very promising results and was able to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is yet another, but highly...

  14. Survival of human lymphocytes after exposure to densely ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.; Raju, M.R.; Kelly, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Interphase death of human blood lymphocytes cultured in vitro was studied after exposure to 60 Co gamma rays and to accelerated ions of 1 H, 4 He, 7 Li, 11 B, 12 C, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, and π - meson beam under aerobic conditions. Exposures were also conducted under hypoxic conditions with 60 Co gamma rays, 4 He, 7 Li, and 12 C ion beams. Time course of interphase death was followed for 6 days after irradiation. Percent survivals were determined by using the trypan blue exclusion method. Survival curves at 5 days postirradiation were exponential for all radiations studied. These observations indicate that the production of interphase death of lymphocytes by densely ionizing radiations follows a pattern similar to that observed with colony-forming mammalian cells. However, the reproductive capacity of the latter cells is impaired with maximum effectiveness at energy densities associated with 220 keV/μm for the beam conditions used in this investigation. The much lower energy densities required to kill a lymphocyte suggest that a sensitive structure other than DNA may be responsible for the production of lymphocyte death, perhaps the membranes. The calculated inactivation cross sections for high-LET radiations above 650 keV/μm yielded values larger than the actual cell dimensions. It appears that contributions from delta rays become appreciable in this system at these LET's

  15. Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-2 alpha participates in axial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2 alpha (CTLA-2α) has been discovered and expressed in mouse activated T-cells and mast cells. Structurally, it is homologous to the proregion of mouse cathepsin L, a lysosomal cystein proteinase. Expressed recombinant CTLA-2α is shown to exhibit selective inhibition to cathepsin L and ...

  16. Johnson syndrome in a Nigerian woman with chronic lymphocytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome is an adverse muco-cutaneous complication arising from a number of conditions which include the administration of some drugs. A female Nigerian with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, (Binet stage C) who developed Stevens-Johnson syndrome following commencement of allopurinol is ...

  17. T lymphocyte subsets in prostate cancer subjects in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humoral and cellular mechanisms play roles in immune response to foreign antigens. The present study was designed to determine the T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio) in the prostate cancer subjects and control subjects. CD4 + T cells (`l/count) and CD8 + T cells (`l/count) were ...

  18. Role of Circulating Lymphocytes in Patients with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul de Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to infection. The incidence rate is estimated to be up to 19 million cases worldwide per year and the number of cases is rising. Infection triggers a complex and prolonged host response, in which both the innate and adaptive immune response are involved. The disturbance of immune system cells plays a key role in the induction of abnormal levels of immunoregulatory molecules. Furthermore, the involvement of effector immune system cells also impairs the host response to the infective agents and tissue damage. Recently, postmortem studies of patients who died of sepsis have provided important insights into why septic patients die and showed an extensive depletion of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and they found that circulating blood cells showed similar findings. Thus, the knowledge of the characterization of circulating lymphocyte abnormalities is relevant for the understanding of the sepsis pathophysiology. In addition, monitoring the immune response in sepsis, including circulating lymphocyte subsets count, appears to be potential biomarker for predicting the clinical outcome of the patient. This paper analyzes the lymphocyte involvement and dysfunction found in patients with sepsis and new opportunities to prevent sepsis and guide therapeutic intervention have been revealed.

  19. Immunophenotypic enumeration of CD4 + T-lymphocyte values in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The enumeration of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals is an essential tool for staging HIV disease, to make decisions for initiation of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), for monitoring response to ART and to initiate chemoprophylaxis against opportunistic infections.

  20. Standardized assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Di Caterino, Tina; Jylling, Anne-Marie B

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In breast cancer, there is a growing body of evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may have clinical utility and may be able to direct clinical decisions for subgroups of patients. Clinical utility is, however, not sufficient for warranting the implementation of a new...

  1. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  2. Clonal expansion of renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sittig, Simone; Køllgaard, Tania; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions is an indic......T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions...... is an indication of ongoing HLA-restricted T cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple tumors, including renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), are often infiltrated by significant amounts of T cells, the so-called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In the present study, we analyzed RCC lesions (n = 13) for the presence...... of expanded T-cell clonotypes using T-cell receptor clonotype mapping. Surprisingly, we found that RCCs comprise relatively low numbers of distinct expanded T-cell clonotypes as compared with melanoma lesions. The numbers of different T-cell clonotypes detected among RCC-infiltrating lymphocytes were...

  3. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Meng, Qingda; Bartek, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may represent a viable source of T cells for the biological treatment of patients with gliomas. Glioma tissue was obtained from 16 patients, tumor cell lines were established, and TILs were expanded in 16/16 cases using a combination of IL-2/IL-15/IL-21...

  4. Activated T lymphocytes disappear from circulation during endotoxemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez Krabbe, Karen; Kemp, Helle Bruunsgaard; Qvist, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    of disappearance were characterized by an activated phenotype (CD45RA(-) CD45RO(+)) as well as a phenotype linked to apoptosis (CD95(+) CD28(-)). In conclusion, endotoxin-induced lymphopenia reflects the disappearance from the circulation of activated lymphocytes prone to undergo apoptosis....

  5. On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Khokhlov, Vladimir A.; Salyulev, Alexander B.; Korzun, Iraida V. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl{sub 3} over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm{sup -1}) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl{sub 3} type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A{sub 1g}), 201 (E{sub g}), 112 (E{sub g}), 88 (A{sub 1g}), and 63 (E{sub g}). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl{sub 3} C{sub 2h}{sup 3} symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.

  6. On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Khokhlov, Vladimir A.; Salyulev, Alexander B.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl 3 over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm -1 ) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl 3 type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A 1g ), 201 (E g ), 112 (E g ), 88 (A 1g ), and 63 (E g ). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl 3 C 2h 3 symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.

  7. Characterization of cat dander-specific T lymphocytes from atopic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Neerven, R. J.; van de Pol, M. M.; van Milligen, F. J.; Jansen, H. M.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kapsenberg, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    Fel d I, the major cat dander allergen, is recognized by serum IgE of more than 80% of all cat-allergic patients. Because IgE synthesis by B lymphocytes is under the control of T lymphocytes, we studied the specificity and lymphokine production profiles of cat dander-specific T lymphocytes.

  8. Biometric indices of recirculating lymphocytes after acute and chronic gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    The karyometry method was used to study the distribution of mature lymphocytes of lymphatic organs and peripheral blood among classes of nuclear volumes. Radiation injury was accompanied by a selection of populations of short-lived lymphocytes with very big nuclei the content of which was function of cumulative radiation dose. The number of small lymphocytes dependend on the phase of the radiation reaction

  9. Abnormalities of lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, H; Tønnesen, E; Clemmensen, O

    1992-01-01

    We examined the blood lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis after taking salazopyrin. We studied cell surface markers, natural killer cell activity and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation. Our results point to temporary immunosuppression...... as evidenced by lymphopenia with a large "null cell" population, reduced natural killer cell activity, and impaired lymphocyte response to mitogens....

  10. Growing B Lymphocytes in a Three-Dimensional Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. H. David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) culture system for growing long-lived B lymphocytes has been invented. The capabilities afforded by the system can be expected to expand the range of options for immunological research and related activities, including testing of immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in vitro, generation of human monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapy. Mature lymphocytes, which are the effectors of adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, are extremely susceptible to apoptotic death, and depend on continuous reception of survival-inducing stimulation (in the forms of cytokines, cell-to-cell contacts, and antigen receptor signaling) from the microenvironment. For this reason, efforts to develop systems for long-term culture of functional, non-transformed and non-activated mature lymphocytes have been unsuccessful until now. The bone-marrow microenvironment supports the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic lineages, in addition to B-lymphocytes. Primary bone-marrow cell cultures designed to promote the development of specific cell types in vitro are highly desirable experimental systems, amenable to manipulation under controlled conditions. However, the dynamic and complex network of stromal cells and insoluble matrix proteins is disrupted in prior plate- and flask-based culture systems, wherein the microenvironments have a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) character. In 2D bone-marrow cultures, normal B-lymphoid cells become progressively skewed toward precursor B-cell populations that do not retain a normal immunophenotype, and such mature B-lymphocytes as those harvested from the spleen or lymph nodes do not survive beyond several days ex vivo in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. The present 3D culture system is a bioreactor that contains highly porous artificial scaffolding that supports the long-term culture of bone marrow, spleen, and lymph-node samples. In this system, unlike in 2D culture systems, B-cell subpopulations developing

  11. Human T Lymphocytes Are Permissive for Dengue Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Guilherme F; Wowk, Pryscilla F; Cataneo, Allan H D; Dos Santos, Paula F; Delgobo, Murilo; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Lo Sarzi, Maria; Thomazelli, Ana Paula F S; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander R; Antonelli, Lis R V; Báfica, André; Mansur, Daniel S; Dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Bordignon, Juliano

    2018-05-15

    Dengue virus (DV) infection can cause either a self-limiting flu-like disease or a threatening hemorrhage that may evolve to shock and death. A variety of cell types, such as dendritic cells, monocytes, and B cells, can be infected by DV. However, despite the role of T lymphocytes in the control of DV replication, there remains a paucity of information on possible DV-T cell interactions during the disease course. In the present study, we have demonstrated that primary human naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells are permissive for DV infection. Importantly, both T cell subtypes support viral replication and secrete viable virus particles. DV infection triggers the activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, but preactivation of T cells reduces the susceptibility of T cells to DV infection. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity-inducing protein granzyme A is highly secreted by human CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells after exposure to DV in vitro Additionally, using annexin V and polycaspase assays, we have demonstrated that T lymphocytes, in contrast to monocytes, are resistant to DV-induced apoptosis. Strikingly, both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were found to be infected with DV in acutely infected dengue patients. Together, these results show that T cells are permissive for DV infection in vitro and in vivo , suggesting that this cell population may be a viral reservoir during the acute phase of the disease. IMPORTANCE Infection by dengue virus (DV) causes a flu-like disease that can evolve to severe hemorrhaging and death. T lymphocytes are important cells that regulate antibody secretion by B cells and trigger the death of infected cells. However, little is known about the direct interaction between DV and T lymphocytes. Here, we show that T lymphocytes from healthy donors are susceptible to infection by DV, leading to cell activation. Additionally, T cells seem to be resistant to DV-induced apoptosis, suggesting a potential role as a viral reservoir in humans. Finally, we show

  12. Cosmic radiation induced chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Facius, R.; Reitz, G.

    2003-01-01

    Since decades, elevated frequencies of dicentric chromosomes (DIC) in human lymphocytes have successfully been used as a biological dosimeter in cases of acute, often accidental exposures to ionizing radiation. As long as duration and time lags after exposure are small compared to the lifetime of DIC, their frequencies can also be used to assess doses from protracted, chronic irradiation. E.g., within the substantial range of uncertainties, the frequencies of DIC observed in cosmonauts are compatible with the frequencies expected from doses of low and high LET radiation to which they were exposed in low earth orbit (LEO). On the other hand, frequencies of DIC detected in lymphocytes of civilian aviation crewmembers rarely correlate with the doses accumulated all along their professional career. For such long duration exposures with relatively low induction rates, the concomitant decay of DIC frequencies due to the removal during exposure of lymphocytes carrying DIC has to be taken into account. We present temporal profiles of frequencies of DIC during the exposure calculated with a model of exponential decay of DIC for some scenarios of chronic exposure to cosmic radiation. E.g., even after a 'heavily' shielded Mars mission, the expected frequencies of DIC in lymphocytes of astronauts will be 10 to 40 times higher than the terrestrial control levels. For air flight personnel we calculated the time profiles of frequencies of DIC in lymphocytes of a 'typical' pilot, a male cabin attendant and a female cabin attendant whose professional radiation exposures were recalculated for the actual flight routes flown during their entire flight career as recorded in detailed duty logs. These results demonstrate that experimental (epidemiological) studies concerning DIC in air or space flight personnel must explicitly take into consideration the temporal exposure profiles in the prospective study population and that the point in time at which blood samples are to be drawn must

  13. Psychological stress during exercise: lymphocyte subset redistribution in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Garten, Ryan S; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-10-05

    The purpose of this study examined the changes in heart rate (HR), catecholamines (NE, EPI) and percentages of blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ helper T cells, CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD3- CD56+ NK cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD19+ B cells, and total lymphocytes [NK cells+T cells+B cells]) in firefighters exposed to a computerized firefighting strategies and tactics decision-making challenge while participating in moderate intensity exercise. Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and blood lymphocyte subsets following combined mental and physical challenge. Ten professional male firefighters participated in two counterbalanced exercise conditions on a cycle ergometer: (1) 37min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) (exercise alone condition; EAC) and (2) 37min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) along with 20min of a computerized firefighting strategies and tactics decision-making challenge (firefighting strategies condition; FSC). FSC elicited significantly greater HR, NE, and EPI when compared to EAC. Both EAC and FSC elicited increases in CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The percentages of CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ helper T cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD19+ B cells, and total lymphocytes were lower immediately following both conditions. Following dual challenge NE AUC was negatively correlated with percentage of CD19+ B cells immediately post challenge, and HR was negatively associated with the percent change in the CD4/CD8 ratio from pre to post challenge. These elevations in NE and heart rate simultaneously in response to the dual challenge suggest greater sympathetic activation that in turn would possibly explain the alteration in the distribution of lymphocyte subsets. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Lymphocytes Contribute to the Pathophysiology of Neonatal Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshed Nazmi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPeriventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the most common form of preterm brain injury affecting the cerebral white matter. This type of injury involves a multiphase process and is induced by many factors, including hypoxia–ischemia (HI and infection. Previous studies have suggested that lymphocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of brain injury, and the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of lymphocyte subsets to preterm brain injury.MethodsImmunohistochemistry on brain sections from neonatal mice was performed to evaluate the extent of brain injury in wild-type and T cell and B cell-deficient neonatal mice (Rag1−/− mice using a mouse model of HI-induced preterm brain injury. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the presence of different types of immune cells in mouse brains following HI. In addition, immunostaining for CD3 T cells and CD20 B cells was performed on postmortem preterm human infant brains with PVL.ResultsMature lymphocyte-deficient Rag1−/− mice showed protection from white matter loss compared to wild type mice as indicated by myelin basic protein immunostaining of mouse brains. CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells were observed in the postmortem preterm infant brains with PVL. Flow cytometry analysis of mouse brains after HI-induced injury showed increased frequency of CD3+ T, αβT and B cells at 7 days after HI in the ipsilateral (injured hemisphere compared to the contralateral (control, uninjured hemisphere.ConclusionLymphocytes were found in the injured brain after injury in both mice and humans, and lack of mature lymphocytes protected neonatal mice from HI-induced brain white matter injury. This finding provides insight into the pathology of perinatal brain injury and suggests new avenues for the development of therapeutic strategies.

  15. Lymphocytic Colitis: Pathologic predictors of response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Alpert, Lindsay; van der Sloot, Kimberley Wj; Colussi, Dora; Stewart, Kathleen O; Misdraji, Joseph; Khalili, Hamed; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2018-02-13

    While the presence of intraepithelial lymphocytosis with surface epithelial damage is a unifying feature of lymphocytic colitis, there are non-classical features that create morphologic heterogeneity between cases. Limited data are available on the significance of these secondary histologic features. Cases of lymphocytic colitis diagnosed between 2002 and 2013 were identified using the Research Patient Data Registry of a tertiary referral center. Diagnostic biopsy slides were reviewed and evaluated for histologic features of lymphocytic colitis. Clinical data including type of therapy and response to treatment were collected. Chi-square (or Fischer's exact test) and logistic regression analysis were used where appropriate. Thirty-two cases of lymphocytic colitis with complete clinical data and slides available for review were identified. The mean age was 56.4 years, and the female-to-male ratio was 3:2. Eleven (11) patients improved with minimal intervention (Group 1), 14 patients responded to steroid therapy (Group 2), and 7 patients responded to mesalamine, bismuth subsalicylate and/or cholestyramine therapy (Group 3). Histologic differences in the characteristics of the subepithelial collagen table (p=0.018), the severity of lamina propria inflammation (p=0.042) and the presence of eosinophil clusters (p=0.016) were seen between groups 2 and 3. Patients in group 1 were more likely to have mild crypt architectural distortion in their biopsies than patients in groups 2 and 3. Lymphocytic colitis is a heterogeneous disease and the evaluation of histologic factors may help identify various subtypes and predict therapy response. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Nonspecific activation of murine lymphocytes. IV. Proliferation of a distinct, late maturing lymphocyte subpopulation induced by 2-mercaptoethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.G.; Fidler, J.M.; Weigle, W.O.

    1978-01-01

    The lymphocyte subpopulations that are activated by 2-ME, LPS, poly IC, and PPD were studied in terms of their maturational characteristics. Attempts to stimulate hepatic and splenic lymphoid cells from mice of different ages with these mitogens demonstrated a well ordered sequence for the emergency of mitogen responsiveness in C3H mice: reactivity to LPS and Poly IC was observed early in maturation and was followed by that to PPD, and finally by the development of responsiveness to 2-ME. The same sequence appeared when the mitogen responsiveness of lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted syngeneic adult recipients was examined. The mitogenic action of 2-ME was dissociated from its ability to enhance lymphocyte reactivity to other mitogens in mice too young to respond to 2-ME as a mitogen. Experiments in which additivity of responses was assayed by adding mitogens to culture singly or conjointly indicated that LPS and Poly IC activate nearly identical B lymphocyte subpopulations, whereas PPD stimulates a subset of cells distinct from that which is responsive to the former two mitogens. The mitogen responsiveness of CBA/N mice, relative to normal CBA/WEHI mice, was shown to decrease as a function of the maturity of the subpopulation of lymphocytes activated. The CBA/N mouse was shown to be unresponsive to stimulation by 2-ME

  17. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios: are they useful for predicting gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargın MA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Akif Sargın, Murat Yassa, Bilge Dogan Taymur, Ayhan Celik, Emrah Ergun, Niyazi Tug Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: We aimed to investigate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR could be utilized to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.Subjects and methods: NLR and PLR were assessed by retrospective analysis of 762 healthy and pregnant women with GDM. The patients were stratified into four groups, as follows: GDM (n=144, impaired glucose tolerance (n=76, only screen positive (n=238, and control (n=304.Results: The leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the control group (P=0.001; P<0.01. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to the NLR and PLR (P>0.05.Conclusion: We do not recommend that blood NLR and PLR can be used to screen for GDM. However, increase in the leukocyte count is an important marker for GDM as it provides evidence of subclinical inflammation. Keywords: inflammation, lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, pregnancy

  18. Polymorphism Sequence - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us JSNP Polymorphism Sequence Data detail Data name Polymorphism Sequence DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nb...dc00114-001 Description of data contents Information on polymorphisms (SNPs and insertions/deletions) and th...se Name database name JSNP_SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism JSNP_InsDel_IND: insertion/deletion JSNP_InsD...ved allele observed 3' Flanking Sequence 3' flanking sequence Offset in Flanking Sequence position of the polymorphism...uence Accession No. accession No. of the sequence for polymorphism screening Offset in Record position of the polymorphism

  19. Polymorphisms in metabolism and repair genes affects DNA damage caused by open-cast coal mining exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Sosa, Milton Quintana; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; León-Mejía, Grethel; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; Brango, Hugo; Kvitko, Katia; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-09-15

    Increasing evidence suggest that occupational exposure to open-cast coal mining residues like dust particles, heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause a wide range of DNA damage and genomic instability that could be associated to initial steps in cancer development and other work-related diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate if key polymorphisms in metabolism genes CYP1A1Msp1, GSTM1Null, GSTT1Null and DNA repair genes XRCC1Arg194Trp and hOGG1Ser326Cys could modify individual susceptibility to adverse coal exposure effects, considering the DNA damage (Comet assay) and micronucleus formation in lymphocytes (CBMN) and buccal mucosa cells (BMNCyt) as endpoints for genotoxicity. The study population is comprised of 200 healthy male subjects, 100 open-cast coal-mining workers from "El Cerrejón" (world's largest open-cast coal mine located in Guajira - Colombia) and 100 non-exposed referents from general population. The data revealed a significant increase of CBMN frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed workers carrying the wild-type variant of GSTT1 (+) gene. Exposed subjects carrying GSTT1null polymorphism showed a lower micronucleus frequency compared with their positive counterparts (FR: 0.83; P=0.04), while BMNCyt, frequency and Comet assay parameters in lymphocytes: Damage Index (DI) and percentage of DNA in the tail (Tail % DNA) were significantly higher in exposed workers with the GSTM1Null polymorphism. Other exfoliated buccal mucosa abnormalities related to cell death (Karyorrhexis and Karyolysis) were increased in GSTT/M1Null carriers. Nuclear buds were significantly higher in workers carrying the CYP1A1Msp1 (m1/m2, m2/m2) allele. Moreover, BMNCyt frequency and Comet assay parameters were significantly lower in exposed carriers of XRCC1Arg194Trp (Arg/Trp, Trp/Trp) and hOGG1Ser326Cys (Ser/Cys, Cys/Cys), thereby providing new data to the increasing evidence about the protective role of these polymorphisms

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of 3 H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

  2. The effect of the cytoskeletal inhibitors on the splenic lymphocyte traffic and homing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huibin

    1989-01-01

    The rat splenic lymphocyte traffic and homing in vivo and the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on this process were investigated using the technique of γ-counting of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes. The results suggests that:(1) After 2 of intravenous injection, the 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes from donor rat spleen mainly home to recipient rat spleen, liver, lungs, mesenteric lymph modes (MLN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissues. (2) A significant inhibiting effect on the ability of preferential homing of splenic lymphocytes treated with sodium azide, cytochalasin B or colchicine shows that microtubles and microfilaments play an important role in the lymphocyte traffic and homing

  3. Polymorphism at codon 36 of the p53 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, C A; Brown, D L; Mitsudomi, T; Ikagaki, N; Wong, A; Wasserman, R; Womer, R B; Biegel, J A

    1994-01-01

    A polymorphism at codon 36 in exon 4 of the p53 gene was identified by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing of genomic DNA PCR products. The polymorphic allele, present in the heterozygous state in genomic DNAs of four of 100 individuals (4%), changes the codon 36 CCG to CCA, eliminates a FinI restriction site and creates a BccI site. Including this polymorphism there are four known polymorphisms in the p53 coding sequence.

  4. DNA polymorphism analysis of Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques using M13 and 16S rRNA primers, respectively, for genotyping of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was studied. RAPD provided a simple, rapid, and ...

  5. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  6. Genetic diversity among sorghum landraces and polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breeding program through marker-assisted selection. ... Keywords: Sorghum, diversity, stay-green trait, marker, polymorphism. ..... Na: Number of different alleles; Na Freq: Frequency of different alleles; Ne: Number of effective alleles; ...

  7. Polymorphous light eruption - some interesting aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales-Padilla, H.; Dominguez-Soto, L.; Hojyo-Tomoka, M.T.; Londono, F.; Vargas-Ocampo, F.

    1979-01-01

    A study of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) is Latin America is reported. The clinical lesions, the course, histopathology, differential diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and systemic photoprotection are discussed. Treatment with ultraviolet radiation is included. (C.F.)

  8. An association study between polymorphism of alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... factors which include alcohol metabolizing genes and ... Association research proves that c2 allele is a risk factor for ..... polymorphism in alcohol liver cirrhosis and alcohol chronic pancreatitis among Polish individuals.S cand ...

  9. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellites for domestic pigeon Columba ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    certain parasites which cause health problems in humans and domestic animals ... The genomic DNA was isolated using standard protocol as described by ..... panel of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Himalayan monal. Lophophorus ...

  10. The study of genetic polymorphisms related to serotonin in Alzheimer's disease: a new perspective in a heterogenic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira J.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Mutations in 3 genes mapped on chromosomes 21, 14 and 1 are related to the rare early onset forms of AD while the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene (on chromosome 19 is the major susceptibility locus for the most common late onset AD (LOAD. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT is a key neurotransmitter implicated in the control of mood, sleep, appetite and a variety of traits and behaviors. Recently, a polymorphism in the transcriptional control region upstream of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT gene has been studied in several psychiatric diseases and personality traits. It has been demonstrated that the short variant(s of this 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR is associated with a different transcriptional efficiency of the 5-HTT gene promoter resulting in decreased 5-HTT expression and 5-HT uptake in lymphocytes. An increased frequency of this 5-HTTLPR short variant polymorphism in LOAD was recently reported. In addition, another common polymorphic variation in the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C serotonin receptor genes previously analyzed in schizophrenic patients was associated with auditory and visual hallucinations in AD. These observations suggest that the involvement of the serotonin pathway might provide an explanation for some aspects of the affective symptoms commonly observed in AD patients. In summary, research on genetic polymorphisms related to AD and involved in receptors, transporter proteins and the enzymatic machinery of serotonin might enhance our understanding of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder.

  11. Atg5 Is Essential for the Development and Survival of Innate Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. O’Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an essential cellular survival mechanism that is required for adaptive lymphocyte development; however, its role in innate lymphoid cell (ILC development remains unknown. Furthermore, the conditions that promote lymphocyte autophagy during homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Atg5, an essential component of the autophagy machinery, is required for the development of mature natural killer (NK cells and group 1, 2, and 3 innate ILCs. Although inducible ablation of Atg5 was dispensable for the homeostasis of lymphocyte precursors and mature lymphocytes in lymphoreplete mice, we found that autophagy is induced in both adaptive and innate lymphocytes during homeostatic proliferation in lymphopenic hosts to promote their survival by limiting cell-intrinsic apoptosis. Induction of autophagy through metformin treatment following homeostatic proliferation increased lymphocyte numbers through an Atg5-dependent mechanism. These findings highlight the essential role for autophagy in ILC development and lymphocyte survival during lymphopenia.

  12. Kinetics of small lymphocytes in normal and nude mice after splenectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Hansen, F; Jensen, E K

    1977-01-01

    Autoradiography and various quantitations on lymphoid tissues have been used to evaluate the kinetics of small lymphocytes in normal (+/nu or +/+) and congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) NMRI mice 1 month after splenectomy or sham-splenectomy. The results indicate that splenectomy causes depressed...... thymic activity and diminished numbers of T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid tissues. The total number of cells in these tissues as well as the blast cell activity, were within normal limits. Bone marrow lymphocyte numbers and kinetics as well as blood lymphocyte levels in splenectomized and sham......-splenectomized normal animals were comparable. Blood lymphocyte numbers were at normal levels in splenectomized nude mice, in spite of reduced numbers of bone marrow and thoracic duct lymphocytes. It is suggested that increased number of newly-formed lymphocytes, found in lymph nodes and blood of splenectomized mice...

  13. Austrian WBC intercomparison by means of a BOMAB phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Edelmeier, R. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    The paper discusses the results obtained in the intercomparison between the Austrian Institute for Legal Metrology and the ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Institute for Radiation Protection, which gave a BOMAB phantom. Values related to potassium content and MBA (minimum detectable activity) for each identified nuclide are also discussed. [Italian] L'Istituto Austriaco di Metrologia Legale ha organizzato l'interconfronto usando un fantoccio gelificato di tipo BOMAB fornito dall'Istituto di Radioprotezione dell'ENEA nel periodo marzo-giugno 1996. Vengono riportati i risultati ottenuti relativi al contenuto di potassio e all'attivita' minima rilevabile (MDA) per ogni nuclide identificato.

  14. Indium-111 WBC detection of emphysematous gastritis in pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruana, V.; Swayne, L.C.; Salaki, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of emphysematous gastritis initially detected with 111In oxine-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy and subsequently confirmed by computed tomography. Early aggressive antibiotic and supportive therapy resulted in a successful clinical outcome

  15. Techniques for measuring red cell, platelet, and WBC survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, K.; Freeman, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Blood cell survival studies yield valuable information concerning production and destruction of cells circulating in the bloodstream. Methodologies for the measurement of red cell survival include nonisotopic methods such as differential agglutination and hemolysis. The isotopic label may be radioactive or, if not, will require availability of a mass spectrograph. These methods fall into two categories, one where red cells of all ages are labeled ( 51 Cr, DFP32, etc.) and those employing a cohort label of newly formed cells ( 14 C glycine, 75 Se methionine, etc.). Interpretation of results for methodology employed and mechanism of destruction, random or by senescence, are discussed. A similar approach is presented for platelet and leukocyte survival studies. The inherent difficulties and complications of sequestration, storage, and margination of these cells are emphasized and discussed. 38 references

  16. Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Walter J.

    Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.

  17. Organ distribution of 111In-oxine labeled lymphocytes in normal subjects and in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shin; Uchida, Tatsumi; Yui, Tokuo; Kariyone, Shigeo

    1982-01-01

    T and B lymphocyte survival and organ distribution were studied by using 111 In-oxine labeled autologous lymphocytes in 3 normal subjects, 3 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 9 with malignant lymphoma (ML).FDisappearance curves of the labeled lymphocytes showed two exponential components in all cases. The half time of the first component was within 1 hour in all cases. That of the second one was 50.7 +- 6.4 hours for all lymphocytes, 52.0 +- 5.5 hours for T lymphocytes and 31.6 +- 4.9 hours for B lymphocytes in normal subjects, 192.6 hours for T-CLL and 57.7 +- 46.9 hours for B-CLL, and 60.2 +- 30.7 hours for T cell type of malignant lymphoma (T-ML) and 63.7 +- 24.5 hours for B cell type of malignant lymphoma (B-ML). These data might suggest that all lymphocyte disappearance curve reflected T lymphocyte disappearance curve chiefly, and the half time of B lymphocytes was shorter than that of T lymphocytes. In the T-CLL, the half time of the second component prolonged extremely in comparison with that of normal T lymphocytes. The labeled cells were accumulated in the lungs, spleen and liver immediately after the infusion, then in the spleen most remarkably 1 hour after the infusion in all cases. The radioactivity over the bone marrow was observed from 1 hour in all cases and that of lymph nodes were first noticed 18 hours after the infusion in T-CLL and T-ML, 68 hours in B-CLL but were not noticed in normal subjects and B-ML. The recovery of labeled cells in the blood was 28.5 +- 7.9% for all lymphocytes, 19.7 +- 1.9% for T lymphocytes and 11.0 +- 5.1% for B lymphocytes in normal subjects, 25.8 +- 1.6% for CLL, and 17.6 +- 11.0% for T-ML, 7.7 +- 5.2% for B-ML, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  18. Differentiation of human lymphocytes into nuclear vlimata by meiosis. The cytotoxic effect of calcium-activated neutral proteinase inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetou-Rella, H.

    1994-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-activated lymphocytes differentiated into nuclear vlimata (NVs) in vitro. Lymphocyte attachment was followed by formation and extrusion of cytoplasmic vesicles. nuclear elongation and fragmentation into NVs. NVs and cytoplasmic vesicles were detached and organized into large cell nodules in suspension. Immunocytochemistry showed that T-lymphocytes differentiated mainly to NVs while B-lymphocytes to buds. During differentiation ther...

  19. Failure of pulmonary clearance of Rhodococcus equi infection in CD4+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaly, S T; Hines, S A; Palmer, G H

    1993-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of Rhodococcus equi requires functional T lymphocytes. In this study, CD8+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice cleared virulent R. equi from the lungs while infection in CD4+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice persisted. Although both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells function early in pulmonary defense against R. equi, clearance is dependent on CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  20. Bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma: UV sensitivity in lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A.; Hughes, D.J. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia))

    1982-05-01

    Increased sensitivity to UV light has been demonstrated in Phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes from normal and tumour-bearing Hereford cattle when compared to lymphocytes from other breeds. Trypan blue exclusion and inhibition of DNA synthesis were used to determine cell viability. The results obtained from time course and radiation dose experiments demonstrate biphasic survival kinetics. This is indicative of at least two separate cell populations, exhibiting differential sensitivity to UV. The increased sensitivity to UV observed in Herefords may reflect a general sensitivity to UV or alternatively a different cellular constitution in the mitogen stimulated cultures. DNA repair synthesis, measured in the presence of hydroxyurea, was of similar levels in cell cultures from Herefords and one of the control breeds.

  1. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis: clinicopathologic features and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nyethane; Chang, Fuju

    2007-07-01

    Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) is a recently described entity and is of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It is characterized by phlebitis of the bowel wall and mesentery, without arterial involvement or evidence of systemic vasculitis. The clinical presentation of ELP is varied, but it most commonly manifests with signs of an acute abdomen. Clinical, radiologic, and endoscopic findings are often conflicting and misdiagnosis is common as venous thrombosis is not suspected. The diagnosis of ELP is obtained histologically. There is a spectrum of histologic features associated with ELP, which includes lymphocytic phlebitis, necrotizing phlebitis, granulomatous phlebitis, and myointimal hyperplasia. Other features include venous thrombi and acute ischemic changes of the intestine. Surgical resection of the affected bowel is usually curative and recurrences are rare. The clinical and histopathologic features of ELP are reviewed.

  2. Bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma: UV sensitivity in lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A.; Hughes, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to UV light has been demonstrated in Phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes from normal and tumour-bearing Hereford cattle when compared to lymphocytes from other breeds. Trypan blue exclusion and inhibition of DNA synthesis were used to determine cell viability. The results obtained from time course and radiation dose experiments demonstrate biphasic survival kinetics. This is indicative of at least two separate cell populations, exhibiting differential sensitivity to UV. The increased sensitivity to UV observed in Herefords may reflect a general sensitivity to UV or alternatively a different cellular constitution in the mitogen stimulated cultures. DNA repair synthesis, measured in the presence of hydroxyurea, was of similar levels in cell cultures from Herefords and one of the control breeds. (author)

  3. The study of lymphocytes glucocorticoid receptor in severe head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dapei; Wang Haodan; Zhao Qihuang

    1994-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptors (GCR) of peripheral lymphocytes from 14 patients with severe head injury and 11 normal volunteers are studied by means of single point method of radioligand binding assay. All these patients receive surgical therapy and glucocorticoid of routine dosage. The results show that the GCR level of these patients is lower than that of the normal, while the plasma cortisol level is much higher. These changes correlate closely to the patients' clinical outcome. It is indicated that the GCR level can reflect the degree of stress of these patients and their response to glucocorticoid therapy. Using peripheral lymphocytes instead of the brain biopsy for the measurement of GCR can reflect the GCR changes of brain tissue, it's more convenient to get the sample and more acceptable to the patients

  4. UDS in lymphocytes of occupationally radiation exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine a possible effect of low dose radiation on DNA repair processes, peripheral lymphocytes of mine workers exposed to 222 Rn in the thermal gallery of Badgastein (Austria) and employees of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, exposed to varying doses of gamma radiation, were investigated. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by in vitro UV irradiation was measured by autoradiography of isolated lymphocytes of exposed persons and unexposed controls. In all 222 Rn-exposed mine workers a significant increase of UDS above control values could be observed. Gamma irradiation 31 mrad had a significant effect on UDS, indicating a stimulation of DNA repair capability by chronic low dose exposure. (Author)

  5. Genetic modification of lymphocytes by retrovirus-based vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suerth, Julia D; Schambach, Axel; Baum, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    The genetic modification of lymphocytes is an important topic in the emerging field of gene therapy. Many clinical trials targeting immunodeficiency syndromes or cancer have shown therapeutic benefit; further applications address inflammatory and infectious disorders. Retroviral vector development requires a detailed understanding of the interactions with the host. Most researchers have used simple gammaretroviral vectors to modify lymphocytes, either directly or via hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Lentiviral, spumaviral (foamyviral) and alpharetroviral vectors were designed to reduce the necessity for cell stimulation and to utilize potentially safer integration properties. Novel surface modifications (pseudotyping) and transgenes, built using synthetic components, expand the retroviral toolbox, altogether promising increased specificity and potency. Product consistency will be an important criterion for routine clinical use. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Lymphocyte labelling technique for the exploration of kidney transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Touraine, J.L.; Collard, M.; Claveyrolas, P.; Bouteiller, O. de; Traeger, J.

    The labelling technique is developed with a precise clinical exploration in view and has to take into account the following rules or conditions: - the blood sample must be smaller than 20 ml; - the manipulation must not last more than 3 hours; - the immunological properties of the labelled lymphocytes must be kept intact; - the solution reinjected into the patient must contain no aggregates, be absolutely sterile and possess a radioactivity above 1mCi. The technique of extraction and labelling from a sample of about 15ml is described. The main factors responsible for the quality of the labelling are analysed, together with the labelling and irradiation dose effects on certain properties of the lymphocytes (viability, rosette E formation, proliferative response to mitogens) [fr

  7. Helper T lymphocyte precursor frequency analysis in alloreactivity detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cukrova, V.; Dolezalova, L.; Loudova, M.; Vitek, A.

    1998-01-01

    The utility of IL-2 secreting helper T lymphocyte precursors (HTLp) frequency testing has been evaluated for detecting alloreactivity. The frequency of HTLp was approached by limiting dilution assay. High HTLp frequency was detected in 20 out of 30 HLA matched unrelated pairs (67%). The comparison of HTLp and CTLp (cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors) frequencies in HLA matched unrelated pairs showed that the two examinations are not fully alternative in detecting alloreactivity. This could suggest the utility of combined testing of both HTLp and CTLp frequencies for alloreactivity assessment. In contrast, five positive HTLp values were only found among 28 HLA genotypic identical siblings (18%). Previous CTLp limiting dilution studies showed very low or undetectable CTLp frequency results in that group. For that, HTLp assay remains to be the only cellular in vitro technique detecting alloreactivity in these combinations. (authors)

  8. Purine biosynthesis de novo by lymphocytes in gout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoun, P.; Chanard, J.; Brami, M.; Funck-Brentano, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A method of measurement in vitro of purine biosynthesis de novo in human circulating blood lymphocytes is proposed. The rate of early reactions of purine biosynthesis de novo was determined by the incorporation of [ 14 C]formate into N-formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide when the subsequent reactions of the metabolic pathway were completely inhibited by the antibiotic azaserine. Synthesis of 14 C-labelled N-formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide by lymphocytes was measured in healthy control subjects and patients with primary gout or hyperuricaemia secondary to renal failure, with or without allopurinol therapy. The average synthesis was higher in gouty patients without therapy than in control subjects, but the values contained overlap the normal range. In secondary hyperuricaemia the synthesis was at same value as in control subjects. These results are in agreement with the inconstant acceleration of purine biosynthesis de novo in gouty patients as seen by others with measurement of [ 14 C]glycine incorporation into urinary uric acid. (author)

  9. Chromosomal study for prognostic grouping in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaid, A.; Rao, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of various cytogenetic aberrations in newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, and their detection rate by cytogenetic and fluorescent In situ hybridization (FISH) technique separately. Analysis was made on 100 diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Cytogenetics and FISH technique were performed on blood or bone marrow samples. Nineteen out of 100 cases (19%) showed karyotype abnormalities; whereas 55 showed abnormalities using the CLL - specific FISH probes. The most frequent abnormality detected by standard cytogenetics was trisomy 12. The most common abnormality detected by FISH was a deletion of 13q14 (40 out of 55 cases; 72% of the abnormal). For prognostic grouping of CLL patients, FISH must always be requested which may even replace standard karyotyping. These chromosomal markers help in choosing the therapeutic options. (author)

  10. Diversity, Function and Transcriptional Regulation of Gut Innate Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille eRankin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system plays a critical early role in host defense against viruses, bacteria and tumour cells. Until recently, natural killer (NK cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi cells were the primary members of the innate lymphocyte family: NK cells form the front-line interface between the external environment and the adaptive immune system, while LTi cells are essential for secondary lymphoid tissue formation. More recently, it has become apparent that the composition of this family is much more diverse than previously appreciated and newly recognized populations play distinct and essential functions in tissue protection. Despite the importance of these cells, the developmental relationships between different innate lymphocyte populations (ILCs remain unclear. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the development of different innate immune cell subsets, the transcriptional programs that might be involved in driving fate decisions during development, and their relationship to NK cells.

  11. Cytogenetic evaluation of Fansidar on human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Nuzhat; Saifi, Muheet Alam; Shadab, G G H A

    2011-01-01

    Fansidar is a fixed combination of two antimalarial agents a diaminopyrimidine (Pyrimethamine) and a sulphonamide (Sulphadoxine) in the ratio 1:20- that have been used extensively worldwide for the treatment of Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, toxoplasmosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This study examined the effect of Fansidar on chromosomes in human lymphocyte culture. Fansidar was added to peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures in vitro at four different concentrations: 5,15, 25 and 50 microl in the ratio 1:20, 3:60, 5:100 and 10:200 microg ml(-1). Result shows that this drug induces moderate increase in the frequency of gaps, breaks and rearrangements. Therefore it can be concluded that Fansidar has moderate clastogenic effect on human chromosomes in vitro.

  12. Associations of CTLA4 Gene Polymorphisms with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have established that T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4 is a susceptible gene for Graves’ disease (GD. Also many studies showed the association between the CTLA4 exon-1 49A/G polymorphism and the risk of developing Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO in GD patients. But those results were inconsistent. In recent years many new studies were published which helped to shed light on the relationship of CTLA4 SNP49 with GO. So we performed the meta-analysis to explore the association between the SNP49 and GO susceptibility in GD patients. Studies up to February 29, 2012, were searched by using PubMed. The odds ratio was used to evaluate the strength of the association. Altogether 12 case-control studies involving 2,505 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed that the G allele was related to the increased risk of GO compared with the A allele under allelic genetic model (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.14–1.72, P=0.001 in European subgroup. No publication bias was detected. Our results showed that the SNP49 polymorphism of CTLA4 gene was related to increased risk of GO.

  13. Testicular lymphocytic vasculitis treated with prednisolone and azathioprine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzawa, Yohei; Imai, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Yasushi; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2017-07-01

    Testicular vasculitis is a rare condition and little is known about its morphological features. Herein, we report a case of testicular lymphocytic vasculitis, which is rarely documented, in an elderly man. He presented with left testicular swelling and fever, but without any signs of other organ involvement. He was effectively treated with prednisolone and azathioprine. This case report offers information related to the disease course and the importance of biopsy.

  14. Defective immunoregulatory T-cell function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Ozer, H.; Henderson, E.S.; Dadey, B.; Nussbaum-Blumenson, A.; Barcos, M.

    1981-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) of B-cell origin results in the malignant proliferation of small immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes. There is currently a controversy in the literature regarding both the ability of this leukemic population to differentiate into mature plasma cells, as well as the ability of apparently normal T cells from these patients to regulate allogeneic B-cell differentiation. In the present study we have examined the lymphocytes of CLL patients in various clinical stages of their disease and with different surface phenotypes of their leukemic B-cell population. Our results show that leukemic CLL B cells from all 20 patients (including one patient with a monoclonal IgM paraprotein and another with a monoclonal IgG paraprotein) are incapable of further differentiation even in the absence of suppressor T cells and the presence of helper T lymphocytes. This lack of capacity to differentiate is unaffected by clinical stage, by therapy, or by the phenotype of the malignant population. Since the leukemic B population did not suppress normal allogeneic B-cell differentiation, the maturation deficit is evidently intrinsic to the leukemic clone rather than a result of activity of non-T suppressor cells. T helper function was also variably depressed in the blood of some patients with CLL, and this depression did not correlate with clinical stage, with therapy, or with the degree of lymphocytosis. Dysfunction of radiosensitive T suppressor cells was found to be the most consistent regulatory deficit of CLL T cells. Each of 11 patients whose leukemic cell population was of the μdelta, μα, or μ phenotype had both helper and suppressor cell defects

  15. Pulmonary Mucormycosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izza Mir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection associated with high mortality. We present the case of a 61-year-old man with history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with fever and cough, eventually diagnosed with pulmonary mucormycosis after right lung video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B and right lung pneumonectomy; however, he later died from left lung pneumonia.

  16. Micronuclei in lymphocytes from currently active uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoelzer, Friedo; Freitinger Skalicka, Zuzana; Havrankova, Renata; Hon, Zdenek; Rosina, Jozef; Navratil, Leos; Skopek, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Micronuclei can be used as markers of past radiation exposure, but only few studies have dealt with uranium miners. In this paper, we report on micronuclei in lymphocytes from individuals currently working at Rozna, Czech Republic, the last functioning uranium mine in the European Union. A modified micronucleus-centromere test was applied to assess the occurrence of micronuclei in stimulated lymphocytes, as well as their content in terms of whole chromosomes or fragments. Compared with unexposed individuals, the miners had higher frequencies of micronucleus-containing lymphocytes and higher percentages of micronuclei without centromeres, and the differences were significant for both parameters (0.74 ± 0.60 vs. 0.50 ± 0.42, p = 0.017 and 49 ± 44 vs. 12 ± 21, p = 0.0002; means ± standard deviations). There were also significant correlations between one or other of these parameters on the one hand and various dose values on the other, in particular with a 'retrievable' dose, that is, a dose whose effect should still be recognisable in lymphocytes assuming a half-life of 3 years. The 'retrievable' dose at which a doubling of the micronucleus frequency was observed was around 35 mSv, corresponding to a total dose of 90 mSv received while working in the mines. Altogether, our data show that the micronucleus-centromere test is a valuable tool for the assessment of past radiation exposure in uranium miners. The scatter in the data is of course far too great to allow individual dosimetry, but for groups of a few dozen exposed individuals, the method can be used to monitor doses clearly below 100 mSv. (orig.)

  17. Bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis: a common reaction after unilateral thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Romero, S.; Arriero, J.M.; Hernandez, L.; Sanchez-Paya, J.; Massuti, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the early diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in radiation-induced lung injury in patients with breast carcinoma. Twenty-six females receiving postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer were evaluated before and 0, 15, 30, 60 , and 180 days after radiotherapy. History, physical examination, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests were obtained. BAL, including lymphocyte subsets analysis, was limited to the second evaluation after radiotherapy. A group of 21 healthy females were used as control. Findings after radiotherapy in asymptomatic patients were compared with findings in a group of patients with radiation pneumonitis. Irradiated patients showed a significantly (p<0.01) greater percentage (29.5±15.7%) of BAL lymphocytes than controls (6.2±3.3%). No statistical differences existed in BAL findings between the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the chest. Percentages of BAL lymphocytes did not differ significantly between patients who developed subsequent pneumonitis (24.5±13.5%) and those who did not develop pneumonitis (32.8±16.5%). Patients with pneumonitis at the time of BAL had significantly higher (p<0.05) alveolar CD4 subset cells (24.8±10.2%) than asymptomatic patients (15.2±8.9%). Maximal reductions in total lung capacity (p<0.01), and residual volume (p<0.05) occurred 60 days after irradiation. The early lymphocytic alveolitis induced by unilateral thoracic radiotherapy in most patients with breast cancer is always bilateral and does not predict the subsequent development of radiological evidence of pneumonitis. (au)

  18. Bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis: a common reaction after unilateral thoracic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Romero, S.; Arriero, J.M.; Hernandez, L. [Hospital General Universitario, Servicios de Neumologia, Alicante (Spain); Sanchez-Paya, J. [Hospital General Universitario, Epidemiologia, Alicante (Spain); Massuti, B. [Hospital General Universitario, Oncologia, Alicante (Spain)

    1999-04-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the early diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in radiation-induced lung injury in patients with breast carcinoma. Twenty-six females receiving postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer were evaluated before and 0, 15, 30, 60 , and 180 days after radiotherapy. History, physical examination, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests were obtained. BAL, including lymphocyte subsets analysis, was limited to the second evaluation after radiotherapy. A group of 21 healthy females were used as control. Findings after radiotherapy in asymptomatic patients were compared with findings in a group of patients with radiation pneumonitis. Irradiated patients showed a significantly (p<0.01) greater percentage (29.5{+-}15.7%) of BAL lymphocytes than controls (6.2{+-}3.3%). No statistical differences existed in BAL findings between the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the chest. Percentages of BAL lymphocytes did not differ significantly between patients who developed subsequent pneumonitis (24.5{+-}13.5%) and those who did not develop pneumonitis (32.8{+-}16.5%). Patients with pneumonitis at the time of BAL had significantly higher (p<0.05) alveolar CD4 subset cells (24.8{+-}10.2%) than asymptomatic patients (15.2{+-}8.9%). Maximal reductions in total lung capacity (p<0.01), and residual volume (p<0.05) occurred 60 days after irradiation. The early lymphocytic alveolitis induced by unilateral thoracic radiotherapy in most patients with breast cancer is always bilateral and does not predict the subsequent development of radiological evidence of pneumonitis. (au) 38 refs.

  19. Relations between immune and mediator receptors of mouse lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ado, A.D.; Alekseeva, T.A.; Kravchenko, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the action of the specific muscarinic antogonist tritium-quinuclidinyl benzilate (tritium-QNB) on immune rosette formation in mice. It is shown that since the specific muscarini antagonist tritium-QNB inhibits immune rosette formation, this process must be regarded as interconnected with muscarinic receptors of lymphocytes. Interaction of immune (antigen-binding) and mediator receptors, however, is an important factor maintaining immune homeostasis at a certain level

  20. Genomic and epigenomic heterogeneity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Guièze, Romain; Wu, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Defining features of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are not only its immunophenotype of CD19+CD5+CD23+sIgdim expressing clonal mature B cells but also its highly variable clinical course. In recent years, advances in massively parallel sequencing technologies have led to rapid progress in our understanding of the CLL genome and epigenome. Overall, these studies have clearly demarcated not only the vast degree of genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity among individuals with CLL but also even...

  1. Assessment of radiation induced apoptosis in lymphocyte subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. del R.; Dubner, Diana L.; Michelin, Severino; Gisone, Pablo A.; Barboza, Marcos

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis is the main form of radioinduced cell death. The lymphocytes, highly radiosensitive cells, dead in interphase by apoptosis even after very low doses. It has been demonstrated that the various peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) types display clear differences in their radiosensitivity . The purpose of this work was the characterization of radioinduced apoptosis in total PBL and in helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Blood samples were irradiated with a gamma source with doses between 0,5 and 4 Gy, dose-rate 0,8 Gy/min. Apoptosis was evaluated at different times post irradiation (p.i.) by conventional and fluorescence microscopy. Fragmentation of DNA was determined by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Apoptosis was quantified flow cytometrically by light scatter gram and determining the percent of fixed cells stained with propidium iodide that exhibited a reduced DNA content. FITC-labelled Annexin V was used to bind cell membrane phosphatidylserine which is aberrantly exposed during apoptosis. As an additional approach for the evaluation of apoptosis we measured the mitochondrial transmembrane potential by using the cationic dye 3,3 dihexyl oxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC 6 ). Chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies were microscopically observed and internucleosomal fragmentation was revealed in electrophoresis gels. Apoptotic cell fraction displayed a dose-dependent increase with a higher radiosensitivity for CD8 T-lymphocytes. These results suggest that quantification of PBL apoptosis could be an useful biological indicator in accidental overexposures and could also provide an useful predictive test for individual radiosensitivity. The higher radiosensitivity revealed by CD8 subset could allow a better discrimination of this phenomenon. (author)

  2. Blastogenic response of bovine lymphocytes to Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, C L; Winter, A J

    1985-01-01

    Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide was tested in a blastogenesis assay with unfractionated and nylon wool-separated peripheral blood lymphocytes of Brucella-naive cattle and cattle immunized with B. abortus. Our results indicated that in cattle the lipopolysaccharide of B. abortus is not a B-cell mitogen. In immunized animals it stimulated predominantly nylon wool-adherent cells. The lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O128:B12, in contrast, induced a substantially greater proliferative r...

  3. Changes in the host lymphocyte subsets during chemical carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodt, P.; Lala, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Changes in small lymphocyte subsets in the lymphoid organs of young C3H mice were studied following i.m. injection of a carcinogenic dose of 3-methylcholanthrene (mc). Using monoclonal anti-Lyt antibodies and a sandwich radiolabeling method with 125 I-labeled rabbit anti-mouse Immunoglobulin, the lymphocyte subpopulations in the thymus, spleen, and draining lymph node were examined by radioautography. During the fifth week following the administration of the carcinogen a sharp decrease in the level of Ly-1,2+ small lymphocyte population in the thymus was noted which coincided with a considerable increase (10-fold) in the Ly-2+. During the same period, a similar increase in the Ly-2+ population was also observed in the draining. The high levels of Ly-2+ cells lasted for more than 4 weeks in the thymus while, in the draining node, they lasted for 2 weeks and dropped to normal levels (0 to 2%) simultaneously with the appearance of tumor cells identified in histological preparations. These systemic increases coincided with the appearance of macroscopic tumor nodules. The mixed lymphocyte reaction response of the draining node cells, but not of the spleen, was suppressed during the period of increased level of Ly-2+ cells. Furthermore, during this period, s.c. transplantation of a syngeneic mammary tumor in the same leg resulted in enhanced local growth as well as metastatic spread of the tumor to the lungs in mc treated mice. These findings suggest that a localized immunosuppression associated with the rise in the Ly-2+ cells may be of functional significance during carcinogen-induced tumor development

  4. Investigation of cytogenetic activity of radioprotectors in human lymphocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egiazaryan, S.V.; Arutyunyan, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Studied are the effects of the F-11 and F-37 indene preparations on chromosome aberrations induced in lymphocyte culture of peripheral human blood by thioTEP. Investigation into the action of the substance in euqimolar concentrations has not shown their protective effect. Indene preparations did not change the spectrum of chromosome aberrations induced by thioTEP as well as did not increase the level of chromosome aberrations in lumphocyte culture of human peripheral human blood

  5. Elutriated lymphocytes for manufacturing chimeric antigen receptor T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Stroncek, David F.; Lee, Daniel W.; Ren, Jiaqiang; Sabatino, Marianna; Highfill, Steven; Khuu, Hanh; Shah, Nirali N.; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Fry, Terry J.; Mackall, Crystal L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinical trials of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells manufactured from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) concentrates for the treatment of hematologic malignancies have been promising, but CAR T cell yields have been variable. This variability is due in part to the contamination of the PBMC concentrates with monocytes and granulocytes. Methods Counter-flow elutriation allows for the closed system separation of lymphocytes from monocytes and granulocytes. We ...

  6. Chromosome breakage in peripheral lymphocytes of thorium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegerman, S.F.; Cummins, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    Cytogenic analysis of 21 thorium workers and 3 controls has not shown a significant elevation in the level of chromosome breakage in the workers' peripheral lymphocytes. The observation of a single dicentric chromosome in 100-cell samples from each of two workers with relatively long periods of occupational exposure and relatively high body burdens suggests, however, that such exposure might result in increases in chromosome aberration frequency

  7. Cytogenetic effects of tritium incorporated into DNA of human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, M [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In the reported in vitro experiments the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in correlation to the physical dose as assessed by determining the specific radioactivity of DNA have been followed in vitro human lymphocytes from adult donors. Lymphocytes from healthy adult donors of age from 20 to 59 of both sexes (24 males and 20 females) were isolated from blood by centrifugation. After washing the cells were irradiated from tritium incorporated during in vitro incubation in phytohemagglutinin containing medium with tritium labelled thymidine. Slides for standard CA counting have been done from every sample 48 hours after the begin cultivation. The CA were counted in at least 200 metaphases on each slide. Parallel samples of lymphocytes served for preparation smears for autoradiography to determine the labeling index. Other parallel samples were used for the determination of tritium concentration in DNA by the diphenylamine method, as well as determination of the specific radioactivity in lymphocyte DNA by scintillation counting. The dose absorbed in DNA was estimated using the conversion factor implicating that 37 kBq of tritium uniformly distributed per gram of tissue of unit density delivers a dose rate of 121.4 {sup m}i{sup G}y/hour. The contamination of cells by precursors of nucleic acids - like tritiated thymidine - causes an uneven distribution of doses in the cell population. A proportion of the population of cells remains unlabelled. The dose-response curve is flat showing signs of loss of heavily damaged cells and signs of repair of damage. Both these signs are based on the nature of biological processes which lead to internal contamination of cells and to expression of effects in terms of numbers of CA. (J.K.) 5 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Increased uracil misincorporation in lymphocytes from folate-deficient rats

    OpenAIRE

    Duthie, S J; Grant, G; Narayanan, S

    2000-01-01

    The development of certain human cancers has been linked with inadequate intake of folates. The effects of folate deficiency in vivo on DNA stability (strand breakage, misincorporated uracil and oxidative base damage) in lymphocytes isolated from rats fed a diet deficient in folic acid was determined. Because the metabolic pathways of folate and other methyl donors are closely coupled, the effects of methionine and choline deficiency alone or in combination with folate deficiency were determi...

  9. Pet Rodents and Fatal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis in Transplant Patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-05-16

    Three organ transplant recipients died from infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which was traced back to a hamster owned by the daughter of the organ donor. Dr. Brian Amman, a mammalogist with the Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses the dangers LCMV may pose to people with immune disorders, as well as to pregnant women.  Created: 5/16/2007 by CDC, Office of the Director.   Date Released: 5/16/2007.

  10. A new approach to the autoradiographic study of proliferating lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweiman, B.; Lisak, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    An adaptation of a cell filtration method for the autoradiographic study of cultured lymphocytes has been developed. The percentages of labelled cells are very similar in the filtered cell population to those obtained from replicate cultures processed by centrifugation. The filter method permitted a higher recovery of cells from small numbers in culture with better cytological detail than seen when cells were washed by repeated centrifugation, then suspended and smeared. (author)

  11. Assessment of Impact of HLA Type on Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brian T; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Beitinjaneh, Amer; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Cerny, Jan; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Grunwald, Michael R; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Saad, Ayman; Seftel, Matthew; Seo, Sachiko; Szer, Jeffrey; Tallman, Martin; Ustun, Celalettin; Wiernik, Peter H; Maziarz, Richard T; Kalaycio, Matt; Alyea, Edwin; Popat, Uday; Sobecks, Ronald; Saber, Wael

    2018-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common hematologic malignancy with many highly effective therapies. Chemorefractory disease, often characterized by deletion of chromosome 17p, has historically been associated with very poor outcomes, leading to the application of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for medically fit patients. Although the use of allo-HCT has declined since the introduction of novel targeted therapy for the treatment of CLL, there remains significant interest in understanding factors that may influence the efficacy of allo-HCT, the only known curative treatment for CLL. The potential benefit of transplantation is most likely due to the presence of alloreactive donor T cells that mediate the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. The recognition of potentially tumor-specific antigens in the context of class I and II major histocompatibility complex on malignant B lymphocytes by donor T cells may be influenced by subtle differences in the highly polymorphic HLA locus. Given previous reports of specific HLA alleles impacting the incidence of CLL and the clinical outcomes of allo-HCT for CLL, we sought to study the overall survival and progression-free survival of a large cohort of patients with CLL who underwent allo-HCT from fully HLA-matched related and unrelated donors at Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research transplantation centers. We found no statistically significant association of allo-HCT outcomes in CLL based on previously reported HLA combinations. Additional study is needed to further define the immunologic features that portend a more favorable GVL effect after allo-HCT for CLL. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell-extrinsic defective lymphocyte development in Lmna(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Scott Hale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes all A-type lamins, result in a variety of human diseases termed laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice appear normal at birth but become runted as early as 2 weeks of age and develop multiple tissue defects that mimic some aspects of human laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice also display smaller spleens and thymuses. In this study, we investigated whether altered lymphoid organ sizes are correlated with specific defects in lymphocyte development.Lmna(-/- mice displayed severe age-dependent defects in T and B cell development which coincided with runting. Lmna(-/- bone marrow reconstituted normal T and B cell development in irradiated wild-type recipients, driving generation of functional and self-MHC restricted CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Transplantation of Lmna(-/- neonatal thymus lobes into syngeneic wild-type recipients resulted in good engraftment of thymic tissue and normal thymocyte development.Collectively, these data demonstrate that the severe defects in lymphocyte development that characterize Lmna(-/- mice do not result directly from the loss of A-type lamin function in lymphocytes or thymic stroma. Instead, the immune defects in Lmna(-/- mice likely reflect indirect damage, perhaps resulting from prolonged stress due to the striated muscle dystrophies that occur in these mice.

  13. The determination of lymphocyte transformation in patients of various diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Liaoyuan; Liu Ke Liang; Lin Xingcheng; Sun Guoqi; Xue Zhimou

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein during the transformation of human lymphocytes induced by mitogen PHA and LPS was investigated by quantitation of 3 H-TdR, 14 C-UR and 14 C-valine incorporation method. 1666 tests were carried out in patients with various diseases and 424 tests in normal subjects. It was found that immunocompetence was closely related with the progress and prognosis in patients with leukemia. Impairment of the cell-mediated immunity in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and with encephlitis was observed. There was no difference in immunity between patients with adenocarcinoma and the normal subjects. The ionizing irradiation mainly exerts its effect on cell-mediated immunity. The cell-mediated immunity was found to be impaired while the humoral immune regulation was enhanced in tuberculosis and leprosy, indicating that these diseases were caused by impairment of cell-mediated immunity. Both humoral and cell-mediated immunity return to normal levels at convalescence. The uptake of 14 C-UR by lymphocytes in patients with hepatitis increased significantly. Lymphocytes reactivity was elevated in patients with vernal conjunctivities and normal in patients with uveitis. Low reactivity was observed in patients with keratitis. The immunity in various diseases was discussed

  14. Lymphocytic infiltration of bladder after local cellular immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Bishai, M B; Techy, G B; Narayan, K S; Saroufeem, R; Yazan, O; Marshall, C E

    2000-01-01

    This is a case report of a patient who received cellular immunotherapy, in the form of local injections of autologous stimulated lymphocytes (ASL) into individual tumors in the urinary bladder. A major consideration in cellular immunotherapy being the ability of immune cells to reach all target areas, we hypothesized that direct delivery of effector cells into individual bladder tumors might assure such access. ASL were generated by exposing the patient's PBL to phytohemagglutinin and culturing them in the presence of IL-2 to expand the population. ASL were injected into the base of individual bladder tumors three times at intervals of 3 weeks. The patient died of a myocardial infarct, unrelated to cell therapy, 20 days after the third injection. An autopsy was performed. Histological sections of the bladder showed extensive lymphocytic infiltration of virtually the entire organ. No conclusions about the therapeutic efficacy of local immunotherapy using ASL are possible. Nevertheless, the observations reported, taken together with reports of therapeutic efficacy of other immunotherapy regimens in the management of bladder cancer, suggest that ready access of stimulated lymphocytes to all regions of the organ may account, in part, for the relatively high rate of therapeutic success reported for various immunotherapy regimens for this malignancy.

  15. Morphologic identification of atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia by digital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionneaux, S; Maslak, P; Keohane, E M

    2014-08-01

    Atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (aCLL) is a morphologic variant found in approximately 25% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although aCLL has a more aggressive course compared to typical CLL (tCLL), it is not usually reported. This retrospective study used digital microscopy to morphologically classify CLL patients as aCLL or tCLL, and determined the prevalence of prognostic markers in each group. CellaVision AB (Lund, Sweden) was used to evaluate lymphocyte morphology on archived blood films of 97 CLL patients, and results of their prognostic marker analysis at diagnosis were obtained. The unpaired t-test, Chi-square, or Fisher's Exact test were used for statistical analysis. 27% of CLL cases were morphologically classified as aCLL. The aCLL group had a higher prevalence of trisomy 12, unmutated IgVH, and CD38 expression (markers associated with poor prognosis), and a lower prevalence of 13q14 deletions compared to tCLL; this was statistically significant. Using digital imaging to identify aCLL is feasible, economical, and may provide clinically relevant prognostic information at diagnosis and during periodic monitoring. Further study of a larger number of patients is needed to assess the clinical utility of reporting aCLL morphology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Bone marrow-derived T lymphocytes responsible for allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, M.; Marusic, M.

    1984-01-01

    Lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells were grafted with allogeneic skin grafts 6-7 weeks after irradiation and reconstitution. Mice with intact thymuses rejected the grafts whereas the mice thymectomized before irradiation and reconstitution did not. Thymectomized irradiated mice (TIR mice) reconstituted with bone marrow cells from donors immune to the allografts rejected the grafts. Bone marrow cells from immunized donors, pretreated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C', did not confer immunity to TIR recipients. To determine the number of T lymphocytes necessary for the transfer of immunity by bone marrow cells from immunized donors, thymectomized irradiated mice were reconstituted with nonimmune bone marrow cells treated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C' and with various numbers of splenic T lymphocytes from nonimmune and immune donors. Allogeneic skin graft rejection was obtained with 10(6) nonimmune or 10(4) immune T cells. The effect of immune T cells was specific: i.e., immune T cells accelerated only rejection of the relevant skin grafts whereas against a third-party skin grafts acted as normal T lymphocytes

  17. Simple method for culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes of Testudinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T L; Silva, M I A; Venancio, L P R; Zago, C E S; Moscheta, V A G; Lima, A V B; Vizotto, L D; Santos, J R; Bonini-Domingos, C R; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2011-12-06

    We developed and optimized a simple, efficient and inexpensive method for in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the Brazilian tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria (Testudinidae), testing various parameters, including culture medium, mitogen concentration, mitotic index, culture volume, incubation time, and mitotic arrest. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the costal vein of four couples. The conditions that gave a good mitotic index were lymphocytes cultured at 37°C in minimum essential medium (7.5 mL), with phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen (0.375 mL), plus streptomycin/penicillin (0.1 mL), and an incubation period of 72 h. Mitotic arrest was induced by 2-h exposure to colchicine (0.1 mL), 70 h after establishing the culture. After mitotic arrest, the cells were hypotonized with 0.075 M KCl for 2 h and fixed with methanol/acetic acid (3:1). The non-banded mitotic chromosomes were visualized by Giemsa staining. The diploid chromosome number of C. carbonaria was found to be 52 in females and males, and sex chromosomes were not observed. We were able to culture peripheral blood lymphocytes of a Brazilian tortoise in vitro, for the preparation of mitotic chromosomes.

  18. Association between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Oylumlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate relation between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral flow.Material and methods: Eighty-two patients admittedDicle University Medical Faculty Hospital Cardiology Departmentwith diagnosis of coronary artery disease anddetected significant stenosis or occlusion at least one ofthe coronary arteries, were included to study. Age, sex,presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, acute/stable coronary disease, body mass index, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, white blood count, Rentrop scores andnumber of diseased vessel were recorded.Results: Well-developed coronary collateral circulationwas found in 33 of the patients. Forty-nine patients hadpoor coronary collateral circulation. Mean age, sex, bodymass index, presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertensionwere similar in two groups. Mean neutrophil/lymphocyteratio was lower in well-developed coronary collateralcirculation group than poor coronary collateral circulationgroup, but there was no significant differences (2.78 vs2.89, p=0.12.Conclusions: There was no association between neutron/hil lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral circulationaccording to our data. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(1:29-32

  19. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, body mass index and cytokine polymorphisms: a pooled analysis from the InterLymph consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Eleanor; Skibola, Christine F.; Bracci, Paige M.; Cerhan, James R.; Costas, Laura; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Maynadié, Marc; Novak, Anne J.; Lightfoot, Tracy J.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Smith, Alex G.; Liebow, Mark; Melbye, Mads; Morton, Lindsay; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Slager, Susan L.; Wang, Sophia S.; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Roman, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Background Excess adiposity has been associated with lymphomagenesis, possibly mediated by increased cytokine production causing a chronic inflammatory state. The relationship between obesity, cytokine polymorphisms and selected mature B-cell neoplasms is reported. Method Data on 4979 cases and 4752 controls from nine American/European studies from the InterLymph consortium (1988–2008) were pooled. For diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), joint associations of body mass index (from self-reported height and weight) and 12 polymorphisms in cytokines IL1A (rs1800587), IL1B (rs16944, rs1143627), IL1RN (rs454078), IL2 (rs2069762), IL6 (rs1800795, rs1800797), IL10 (rs1800890, rs1800896), TNF (rs1800629), LTA (rs909253), and CARD15 (rs2066847) were investigated using unconditional logistic regression. BMI-polymorphism interaction effects were estimated using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Results Obesity (BMI≥30kg m−2) was associated with DLBCL risk (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.02–1.73), as was TNF-308GA+AA (OR=1.24, 95%CI 1.07–1.44). Together, being obese and TNF-308GA+AA increased DLBCL risk almost two-fold relative to those of normal weight and TNF-308GG (OR=1.93 95%CI 1.27–2.94), with a RERI of 0.41 (95%CI −0.05,0.84, P(interaction)=0.13). For FL and CLL/SLL, no associations with obesity or TNF-308GA+AA, either singly or jointly, were observed. No evidence of interactions between obesity and the other polymorphisms were detected. Conclusions Our results suggest that cytokine polymorphisms do not generally interact with BMI to increase lymphoma risk but obesity and TNF-308GA+AA may interact to increase DLBCL risk. Impact Studies using better measures of adiposity are needed to further investigate the interactions between obesity and TNF-308G>A in the pathogenesis of lymphoma. PMID:25962811

  20. Polymorphism in the 5' upstream regulatory and 3' untranslated regions of the HLA-G gene in relation to soluble HLA-G and IL-10 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F; Rizzo, Roberta; Melchiorri, Loredana

    2006-01-01

    The nonclassical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib gene HLA-G may be important for the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance between the mother and the semi-allogeneic fetus during pregnancy. Expression of HLA-G can influence cytokine and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Different HLA......-G peripheral blood mononuclear cells after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. This study finds that polymorphism in the 5' upstream regulatory region (5'URR) of the HLA-G gene may also be implicated in differences in IL-10 secretion. However, this may also be due to linkage disequilibrium with the 14-bp...

  1. CD4dullCD8bright double-positive T-lymphocytes have a phenotype of granzyme Bpos CD8pos memory T-lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentenaar, R. J.; Wever, P. C.; van Diepen, F. N.; Schellekens, P. T.; Wertheim, P. M.; ten Berge, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T-lymphocytes that co-express CD4 and CD8 antigens may be found in small percentages in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals, and have a CD4brightCD8dull phenotype. CD4dullCD8bright T-lymphocytes have been found only in temporal association with some viral infections. METHODS:

  2. The immunodeficiency of bone marrow-transplanted patients. The effect of patient lymphocytes on the response of donor lymphocytes to mitogens and allogeneic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Platz, P

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes from patients after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are in most cases predominantly of the Leu-2+ (cytotoxic/suppressor) phenotypes and are almost unresponsive to mitogens. In contrast, normal Leu-3+-depleted, Leu-2+-enriched lymphocyte suspensions retain approximately 50...

  3. Association between Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL1RN) Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Polymorphism and Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Naderi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mahboubeh; Amininia, Shadi; Bahari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Mohsen; Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Ghavami, Saeid

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages and T-lymphocytes are involved in immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Macrophage produces interleukin (IL)-1 as an inflammatory mediator. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-Ra) is a natural antagonist of IL-1 receptors. In this study we aimed to examine the possible association between the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) gene and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a sample of Iranian population. Our study is a case-control study and we examined the VNTR of the IL1RN gene in 265 PTB and 250 healthy subjects by PCR. Neither the overall chi-square comparison of PTB and control subjects nor the logistic regression analysis indicated any association between VNTR IL1RN polymorphism and PTB. Our data suggest that VNTR IL1RN polymorphism may not be associated with the risk of PTB in a sample of Iranian population. Larger studies with different ethnicities are needed to find out the impact of IL1RN VNTR polymorphism on risk of developing TB.

  4. Associations of recurrent miscarriages with chromosomal abnormalities, thrombophilia allelic polymorphisms and/or consanguinity in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Rola F; Assidi, Mourad; Banni, Huda A; Zahed, Hanan A; Karim, Sajjad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Bajouh, Osama; Jamal, Hassan S; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H; Abuzenadah, Adel M

    2016-10-10

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or recurrent spontaneous abortion is an obstetric complication that affects couples at reproductive age. Previous reports documented a clear relationship between parents with chromosomal abnormalities and both recurrent miscarriages and infertility. However, limited data is available from the Arabian Peninsula which is known by higher rates of consanguineous marriages. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and thrombophilic polymorphisms, and to correlate them with RPL and consanguinity in Saudi Arabia. Cytogenetic analysis of 171 consent patients with RPL was performed by the standard method of 72-h lymphocyte culture and GTG banding. Allelic polymorphisms of three thrombophilic genes (Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin A20210G, MTHFR C677T) were performed using PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and gel electrophoresis. Data analysis revealed that 7.6 % of patients were carrier of numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities. A high rate of translocations (46 %) was associated to increased incidence of RPL. A significant correlation between consanguineous RPL patients and chromosomal abnormalities (P consanguineous marriages in the Saudi population, these results underline the importance of systematic cytogenetic investigation and genetic counseling preferably at the premarital stage or at least during early pregnancy phase through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).

  5. A Rare Case of Composite Dural Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bustoros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrimary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL of the dura is a rare neoplastic entity in the central nervous system (CNS.MethodsWe used literature searches to identify previously reported cases of primary dural MZL. We also reviewed clinical, pathologic, and radiographic data of an adult patient with concurrent dural MZL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL.ResultsWe identified 104 cases of dural MZL in the literature. None of them presented concurrently with another type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This is the first report of composite lymphoma consisting of dural MZL and CLL/SLL in the bone marrow and lymph nodes.ConclusionPrimary dural MZL is a rare, indolent low-grade CNS lymphoma, with a relatively good prognosis. Its treatment is multidisciplinary and often requires surgical intervention due to brain compression, along with low to moderate doses of radiotherapy and/or systemic chemotherapy.

  6. Prediction of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma by Using Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgonul, Cem; Sertoglu, Erdim; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Ozge, Gokhan; Gokce, Gokcen

    2016-12-01

    To assess the levels of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) and to compare the NLR and PLR results of patients with PEX, PEX glaucoma (PXG), and healthy controls. In total, 34 patients with PEX, 29 patients with PXG, and 42 healthy subjects were enrolled in this retrospective study. Complete ophthalmologic examination and complete blood count measurements were performed of all subjects. Complete blood counts were performed within 2 h of blood collection. There was a significant difference in NLR between PEX and control groups (p = 0.012) and PXG and control groups (p = 0.003). Also, a significant difference was found in PLR values between control and PXG groups (p = 0.024). Our study for the first time provides evidence that PLR and NLR may be useful for predicting the prognosis of PEX patients and progression to PXG.

  7. Allosuppressor T lymphocytes abolish migration inhibition factor production in autoimmune thyroid disease: evidence from radiosensitivity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topliss, D.J.; Okita, N.; Lewis, M.; Row, V.V.; Volpe, R.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of normal T lymphocytes to abolish the production of migration inhibition factor by antigen-sensitized T lymphocytes of Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in response to thyroid antigen has been studied by a modified migration inhibition factor test using isolated T lymphocytes alone. The production of migration inhibition factor was consistently abolished when normal T lymphocytes were mixed with GD or HT T lymphocytes in various ratios (1:9, 2:8, 5:5) as reported previously (Okita et al., 1980b). However, prior in-vitro irradiation (1000 rad) of the normal T lymphocytes resulted in loss of their ability to abolish migration inhibition factor production by the antigen-sensitized T lymphocytes of GD and HT. The effect is consistent with the radiosensitivity of suppressor T lymphocytes and indicates that the effect of normal T lymphocytes on GD and HT T lymphocytes is one of allosuppression. The results support the view that there is a defect in suppressor T cell function in GD and HT. (author)

  8. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  9. Immunometabolism of lymphocytes and its changes in experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kamyshny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes are sensitive to changes in metabolism. Metabolic changes, which develop in conditions of diabetes mellitus, especially hyperglycemia, can directly influence the immunometabolism of lymphocytes. The T cells express a series of glucose transporters, the main of which is the Glut 1. The prodiabetogenic Th1 and Th17-cells that cause insulitis are characterized by high level of expression of Glut 1 and tendency to glycolysis. The suppressor Treg, on the contrary, has the low expression of Glut 1 and the high rate of oxidative metabolism. Purpose of the study: to analyze the contemporary literature and own data, obtained concerning the immunometabolism of lymphocyte and its changes in conditions of diabetes. To determine the role of 6 key metabolic ways that play a crucial role in the differentiation and survival of immune cells: 1 glycolysis; 2 tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle; 3 pentose-phosphate cycle; 4 fatty acid oxidation; 5 fatty acid synthesis and 6 metabolism of amino acids, each of which have different activity level in specific types of immune cells. Conclusions: different types of immune cells prefer different ways of metabolism. The effector Th1-, Th2-, Th17-cells and М1-macrophages use primarily glycolysis, pentose-phosphate cycle and synthesis of fatty acids, while T-regulatory, CD8+ memory cells and M2-macrophages use the TCA cycle and oxidation of fatty acids. Changes in the metabolism of different amino acids can influence the generation of effector and Treg lymphocytes. The high activity of mTOR can enhance the progression of diabetes by activating the effector proinflammatory subpopulations of lymphocytes, and vice versa, the low activity promotes the differentiation of Treg, blocking the insulitis. In our work we investigated the level of expression of mRNA of genes Glut 1, mTOR and AMPK1α in PLN of rats with experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes and after metformin introduction and found that the hyperglycemia

  10. Immunogenetic analysis of cellular interactions governing the recruitment of T lymphocytes and monocytes in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced immunopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, P.C.; Ceredig, R.; Allan, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyt2+ class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted virus-immune T cells that induce murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) are targeted onto radiation-resistant cells in the central nervous system of virus-infected mice. The use of appropriate bone marrow radiation chimeras as LCM virus-infected, (immunosuppressed recipients for immune T-cell transfer has established that, though bone marrow-derived cells can stimulate virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in spleen, they do not reconstitute the barrier to T-cell recruitment from blood to cerebrospinal fluid. This is true for chimeras made up to 8 months previously, even though the inflammatory monocytes and macrophages in such chimeras are all of donor bone marrow origin. Radiation-resistant cells in the spleens of these chimeras are also still able to further stimulate virus-immune CTL. There is no requirement for H-2 compatibility between virus-immune T lymphocytes and secondarily recruited monocytes, or T cells of an inappropriate specificity. The key event in LCM immunopathology may thus be localization of T cells to the antigen-presenting endothelium in brain, leading to the secretion of mediators that promote the nonspecific recruitment of monocytes and other T cells

  11. Association of High Density Lipoprotein with Platelet to Lymphocyte and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh H. Prajapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate a relationship between platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR with high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels in coronary artery disease (CAD patients. Methods. A total of 354 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary blockages were enrolled in the study. Hematological indices and lipid profiling data of all the patients were collected. Results. We have observed significant association between HDL and PLR (P=0.008 and NLR (P=0.009; however no significant relationship was obtained with HDL and isolated platelet (P=0.488, neutrophil (P=0.407, and lymphocyte (P=0.952 counts in CAD patients. The association was subjected to gender specific variation as in males PLR (P=0.024 and NLR (P=0.03 were highly elevated in low HDL patients, whereas in females the elevation could not reach the statistically significant level. The PLR (217.47 versus 190.3; P=0.01 and NLR (6.33 versus 5.10; P=0.01 were significantly higher among the patients with acute coronary syndrome. In young patients the PLR (P=0.007 and NLR (P=0.001 were inversely associated with HDL, whereas in older population only NLR (P=0.05 had showed a significant association. Conclusion. We conclude that PLR and NLR are significantly elevated in CAD patients having low HDL levels.

  12. A simple and rapid micromethod for genomic DNA extraction from jugal epithelial cells. Application to human lymphocyte antigen typing in one large family of atopic/asthmatic probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Y; Swierczewski, E; Lockhart, A

    1994-10-01

    We describe a rapid and reliable micromethod for DNA isolation from buccal epithelial cells from the interior mouth mucosa. This convenient, noninvasive method could be applied to genetic typing in a small number of cells (about 2000 cells per cheek). We have shown that DNA released by this method is suitable for further amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using this protocol, coupled with the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) method, we analyzed the allelic sequence diversity of the human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes in an extended family of 33 persons containing 14 asthmatic or atopic members. Six of eight DQA1 alleles, and 11 DQB1, 20 DPB1, and 10 DR haplotypes could be identified in a single DNA sample. Our results suggest that the DR53 group haplotype is frequently associated with allergic asthma and atopy. The micromethod described here may be useful in genetic epidemiology, especially in family studies involving small children.

  13. The pattern of polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We resequenced 876 short fragments in a sample of 96 individuals of Arabidopsis thaliana that included stock center accessions as well as a hierarchical sample from natural populations. Although A. thaliana is a selfing weed, the pattern of polymorphism in general agrees with what is expected for a widely distributed, sexually reproducing species. Linkage disequilibrium decays rapidly, within 50 kb. Variation is shared worldwide, although population structure and isolation by distance are evident. The data fail to fit standard neutral models in several ways. There is a genome-wide excess of rare alleles, at least partially due to selection. There is too much variation between genomic regions in the level of polymorphism. The local level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with gene density and positively correlated with segmental duplications. Because the data do not fit theoretical null distributions, attempts to infer natural selection from polymorphism data will require genome-wide surveys of polymorphism in order to identify anomalous regions. Despite this, our data support the utility of A. thaliana as a model for evolutionary functional genomics.

  14. The rs1990760 polymorphism within the IFIH1 locus is not associated with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Addison's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Christian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three genes have been confirmed as major joint susceptibility genes for endocrine autoimmune disease:human leukocyte antigen class II, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22. Recent studies showed that a genetic variation within the interferon induced helicase domain 1 (IFIH1 locus (rs1990760 polymorphism is an additional risk factor in type 1 diabetes and Graves' disease (GD. Methods The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the rs1990760 polymorphism within the IFIH1 gene in German patients with GD (n = 258, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT, n = 106, Addison's disease (AD, n = 195 and healthy controls (HC, n = 227 as well as in 55 GD families (165 individuals, German and 100 HT families (300 individuals, Italian. Furthermore, the interaction between rs1990760 polymorphism with human leukocyte antigen (HLA risk haplotype DQ2(DQA*0501-DQB*0201, the risk haplotypes DQ2/DQ8 (DQA*0301-DQB*0302 and the status of thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb in patients and families were analysed. Results No significant differences were found between the allele and genotype frequencies for rs1990760 IFIH1 polymorphism in patients with GD, HT, AD and HC. Also no differences were observed when stratifying the IFIH1 rs1990760 polymorphism for gender, presence or absence of thyroid antibodies (GD:TRAb and HT:TPOAb/TgAb and HLA risk haplotypes (DQ2:for GD and HT, DQ2/DQ8:for AD. Furthermore the transmission analysis in GD and HT families revealed no differences in alleles transmission for rs1990760 IFIH1 from parents with or without HLA risk haplotype DQ2 to the affected offspring. In contrast, by dividing the HT parents according to the presence or absence of thyroid Ab titers, mothers and fathers both positive for TPOAb/TgAb overtransmitted the allele A of IFIH1 rs1990760 to their HT affected offspring (61.8% vs 38.2%;p = 0

  15. Pathomorphology of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in large dose 60Co γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linlu; Cui Yufang; Yang Hong; Xia Guowei; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the authors was to investigate the pathomorphology changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. At different times after irradiation, the mice were sacrificed and the pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte were observed by light and transmission electron microscopies. Results: Spleen lymphocyte decreased evidently and the peak of apoptosis in spleen lymphocyte was dependent on radiation dose and the time after irradiation. Conclusion: After γ-irradiation with large doses, pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in mice can be divided into obviously different stages. The main causes of death of spleen lymphocytes are different in different dose groups

  16. Co-Culturing of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Autological and Allogenic Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, N M; Davydova, Yu O; Gal'tseva, I V; Petinati, N A; Bakshinskaitė, M V; Drize, N I; Kuz'mina, L A; Parovichnikova, E N; Savchenko, V G

    2018-03-01

    We studied the effect of autologous and allogeneic lymphocytes on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in co-culture. It is shown that changes in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and in lymphocytes did not depend on the source of lymphocytes. Contact with lymphocytes triggers expression of HLA-DR molecules on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and these cells lose their immune privilege. In multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, the relative level of expression of factors involved in immunomodulation (IDO1, PTGES, and IL-6) and expression of adhesion molecule ICAM1 increased, while expression of genes involved in the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells remained unchanged. Priming of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells with IFN did not affect these changes. In turn, lymphocytes underwent activation, expression of HLA-DR increased, subpopulation composition of lymphocytes changed towards the increase in the content of naïve T cells. These findings are important for cell therapy.

  17. Endotoxemia-induced lymphocyte apoptosis is augmented by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Sylvest; A, Larsson; Brix-Christensen, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sepsis and endotoxemia are associated with lymphocyte apoptosis. This has been regarded as harmful, contributing to further immune suppression in already immune-compromised patients. Because normalization of blood glucose improves outcome in critically ill patients, the authors...... hypothesized that one of the effects of insulin and normoglycemia would be inhibition of lymphocyte apoptosis. Therefore, in this experimental study in pigs, the authors examined the separate and combined effects of acute endotoxemia and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC) on lymphocyte apoptosis...... sections of each sample, the apoptosis of B and T lymphocytes were analyzed using stereologic methods: The number of apoptotic B and T cells was estimated by fluorescence immunohistochemistry with anti-active caspase-3 and either anti-CD21 (B lymphocytes) or anti-CD3epsilon (T lymphocytes). The number...

  18. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis: statistical analysis of histology features in viable and ischemic bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlicott, Shaun A C; Guggisberg, Kelly A; DesCôteaux, Jean-Gaston; Beck, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare cause of segmental ischemic enterocolitis. This artery-sparing transmural vasculitis is classically a circumferential phlebitis with perivenular lymphocyte cuffing and thrombi in the absence of systemic manifestations. Myointimal hyperplasia may represent a chronic phase of enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis. Subclinical or early stage enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is not well delineated. We analyzed 600 submucosal and subserosal veins from both ischemic and intact bowel segments to discern if vascular morphology varied between sites. Crescentic and circumferential lymphocytic phlebitis is more common in viable bowel than in the ischemic segment. A nonsignificant trend was found for increased crescentic morphology between intact bowel remote from the ischemic focus compared with that adjacent to the ischemic focus. Hallmarks of ischemic bowel are necrotizing phlebitis and thrombi formation. Thrombophlebitis morphology is distinctly different in viable and ischemic bowel, changing from the classic lymphocytic to necrotizing lesions respectively.

  19. Lymphocyte maintenance during healthy aging requires no substantial alterations in cellular turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Hoeven, Vera; Drylewicz, Julia; Spierenburg, Gerrit; van Velzen, Jeroen F; de Boer, Rob J; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, José A M

    2015-04-01

    In healthy humans, lymphocyte populations are maintained at a relatively constant size throughout life, reflecting a balance between lymphocyte production and loss. Given the profound immunological changes that occur during healthy aging, including a significant decline in T-cell production by the thymus, lymphocyte maintenance in the elderly is generally thought to require homeostatic alterations in lymphocyte dynamics. Surprisingly, using in vivo (2) H2 O labeling, we find similar dynamics of most lymphocyte subsets between young adult and elderly healthy individuals. As the contribution of thymic output to T-cell production is only minor from young adulthood onward, compensatory increases in peripheral T-cell division rates are not required to maintain the T-cell pool, despite a tenfold decline in thymic output. These fundamental insights will aid the interpretation of further research into aging and clinical conditions related to disturbed lymphocyte dynamics. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Inactivation of hemopoietic stem cells by lymphocytes as related to genotype of interacting cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, R V; Seslavina, L S; Panteleev, E I; Egorova, O S

    1975-05-01

    Inoculation of a mixture of bone marrow cells with allogeneic lymphocytes into irradiated mice of inbred strains or into F/sub 1/ hybrids results in the depression of bone marrow cell proliferation in the spleen of the recipient: the effect of inactivation of nonsyngeneic stem cells. The inactivation of stem cells by allogeneic lymphocytes can be detected in all tested combinations of mice strains - donors of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells and mice - recipients but the degree of inactivation differs and depends on the genotype of cell donors rather than on the genotype of the recipient. Lymphocytes of some mice strains (haplotypes H-2sup(k) and H-2sup(a)) are more active killers of bone marrow cells as compared with lymphocytes of other strains (hyplotypes H-2sup(b) and H-2sup(d)). Probably, the degree of stem cells inactivation by lymphocytes depends on the differences of their histocompatibility in H-2 system.

  1. Stimulation of allogeneic lymphocytes by skin epidermal cells in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of skin epidermal cells to induce allogeneic lymphocytes into proliferation was examined in mixed skin cell-lymphocyte culture reaction (MSLR). The stimulatng capacity of skin cells was reduced significantly by trypsin digestion, although the damage was repaired by incubation at 37 C for 3 hr. The optimal concentration of mitomycin C for treatment of stimulating cells in the MSLR differed from that in mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLR). Irradiation rendered them three to four times more stimulatory than did mitomycin C. Removal of adherent cells from responding cells by passage through a nylon-wool column gave a substantial elevation of the MSLR. The lymphocytes cocultured with skin cells in the primary MSLR incorporated 3 H-thymidine, with the peak at the 6th day of culture. If the lymphocytes primed in the MSLR were restimulated with skin cells from the same stimulating strain, the primed lymphocytes responded promptly and in great magnitude

  2. Lymphocytic gastritis--prospective study of its relationship with varioliform gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haot, J; Jouret, A; Willette, M; Gossuin, A; Mainguet, P

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis is a new histopathological entity characterised by a dense lymphocytic infiltration of surface and pit gastric epithelium. Previous retrospective work has suggested that lymphocytic gastritis is related to an endoscopic form of gastropathy comprising enlarged folds, nodules and erosions, commonly denoted as varioliform gastritis. In the present prospective study, the relationship is clearly shown; nearly 82% (54/66) of the varioliform gastritis observed in four different endoscopy units correspond histologically to lymphocytic gastritis. The correlation is even better if cases showing strictly antral localisation are excluded (53/55) - that is, more than 96%. The histological concept of lymphocytic gastritis seems, however, to extend beyond varioliform gastritis as of 67 cases of lymphocytic gastritis diagnosed during the period under study, one third had no particular endoscopic expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2323590

  3. Growth of human T lymphocyte colonies from whole blood: culture requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrine, M.

    1982-01-01

    Growth of human lymphocyte colonies from whole blood following stimulation with PHA, Con A, or PPD is described. Individual colony cells were identified as T lymphocytes on the basis of surface marker and enzyme cytochemical characterizations. Colony formation increased as a power function over a wide range of cell concentrations above a critical minimal concentration. The whole blood culture system eliminates possible selective effects of lymphocyte colony techniques utilizing gradient-enriched lymphocyte fractions and more closely approximates the in vivo milieu. The whole blood colony method is more sensitive for the detection of low-level radiation effects on lymphocytes than widely used tests that measure 3 H-thymidine incorporation. In preliminary studies, researchers used the whole blood method to determine the relative radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from humans with various hematopoietic disorders, and observed abnormalities in mitogen responsiveness and colony formation in some of the patient groups. This method has wide application for studies in cellular and clinical immunology

  4. In vitro sensitization of human lymphocytes to a myeloma cell-related antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.E.; Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.; Solomon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal human donors were cocultivated with cells from two established human multiple myeloma cell lines, RPMI 8226 and K-737, and with lymphoblastoid cells from a third B cell line, RAMM. After a comparison of three methods of lymphocyte sensitization, a 6-day incubation protocol with equal numbers of normal lymphocytes and mitomycin C-treated tumor cells was selected. Cells fom the RPMI 8226 myeloma line stimulated the differentiation of lymphocytes into cytotoxic effector cells as measured by 51 Cr release from labeled target cells. The RPMI 8226-sensitized lymphocytes were cytotoxic for myeloma cells (RPMI 8226 and K-737) and for lymphoblastoid cells (RAMM) but not for cells from human lung tumor lines (A549, A427, MB9812), a breast carcinoma line (ALAB), a normal diploid fibroblast line (HSBP), or normal lymphocytes

  5. In vitro sensitization of human lymphocytes to a myeloma cell-related antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitson, M.E. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia); Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.; Solomon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal human donors were cocultivated with cells from two established human multiple myeloma cell lines, RPMI 8226 and K-737, and with lymphoblastoid cells from a third B cell line, RAMM. After a comparison of three methods of lymphocyte sensitization, a 6-day incubation protocol with equal numbers of normal lymphocytes and mitomycin C-treated tumor cells was selected. Cells fom the RPMI 8226 myeloma line stimulated the differentiation of lymphocytes into cytotoxic effector cells as measured by /sup 51/Cr release from labeled target cells. The RPMI 8226-sensitized lymphocytes were cytotoxic for myeloma cells (RPMI 8226 and K-737) and for lymphoblastoid cells (RAMM) but not for cells from human lung tumor lines (A549, A427, MB9812), a breast carcinoma line (ALAB), a normal diploid fibroblast line (HSBP), or normal lymphocytes.

  6. Changes in helper and suppressor T lymphocytes following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, G.H.; Rees, G.J.G.; Jones, R.S.J.; Grove, E.A.; Preece, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in total lymphocyte, T lymphocyte, T helper and T suppressor lymphocyte numbers were studied in 22 patients with breast cancer before and after radiotherapy. T lymphocyte subsets were measured using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence microscopy. After treatment the total lymphocyte count fell significantly and was still reduced 9 months later, but the proportion of cells labelled as T lymphocytes was unchanged during this period. The helper-suppressor ratio, which was within the normal range before radiotherapy, was significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months after. Following treatment both T helper and T suppressor cell numbers were significantly reduced. T helper cell numbers remained reduced throughout the study period but T suppressor cell numbers showed a recovery to normal values 9 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Reactivity of eleven anti-human leucocyte monoclonal antibodies with lymphocytes from several domestic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Larsen, Else Bang

    1988-01-01

    Nine commercially available monoclonal antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies from The American Type Culture Collection, raised against various human leucocyte surface antigens, were tested on lymphocytes from cow, sheep, goat, swine, horse, cat, dog, mink, and rabbit as well as man. Four...... antibodies bound to lymphocytes from some of the animals. These were the antibodies against CD8 and CD4 antigen, the antibody to C3b-receptor, and the antibody to the HLA-DR antigen. The CD8 antigen-reactive antibody reacted with lymphocytes from mink, cat, dog, and sheep, while the CD4 antigen......-reactive antibody reacted with lymphocytes from mink. The anti-C3b-R antibody reacted with lymphocytes from horse, swine, dog, and cat, and the anti-HLA-DR reacted with lymphocytes from cow, goat, sheep, horse, dog, cat, and mink....

  8. 2-(4-Fluorobenzylidenepropanedinitrile: monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Agrody

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H5FN2, is a monoclinic (P21/c polymorph of the previously reported triclinic (P-1 form [Antipin et al. (2003. J. Mol. Struct. 650, 1–20]. The 13 non-H atoms in the title polymorph are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.020 Å; a small twist between the fluorobenzene and dinitrile groups [C—C—C—C torsion angle = 175.49 (16°] is evident in the triclinic polymorph. In the crystal, C—H...N interactions lead to supramolecular layers parallel to (-101; these are connected by C—F...π interactions.

  9. Hapsembler: An Assembler for Highly Polymorphic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Nilgun; Brudno, Michael

    As whole genome sequencing has become a routine biological experiment, algorithms for assembly of whole genome shotgun data has become a topic of extensive research, with a plethora of off-the-shelf methods that can reconstruct the genomes of many organisms. Simultaneously, several recently sequenced genomes exhibit very high polymorphism rates. For these organisms genome assembly remains a challenge as most assemblers are unable to handle highly divergent haplotypes in a single individual. In this paper we describe Hapsembler, an assembler for highly polymorphic genomes, which makes use of paired reads. Our experiments show that Hapsembler produces accurate and contiguous assemblies of highly polymorphic genomes, while performing on par with the leading tools on haploid genomes. Hapsembler is available for download at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/hapsembler.

  10. Investigation of drug polymorphism: Case of artemisinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horosanskaia, E.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.; Lorenz, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Artemisinin dimorphic system was found to be enantiotropic. • The Orthorhombic modification is the form stable at low-temperatures and the triclinic modification the form stable at high-temperatures. • The polymorphic phase transition occurs at ∼130 °C. - Abstract: The polymorphism of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin was examined. The phase behavior of solid artemisinin has experimentally been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and temperature-resolved X-Ray powder diffraction. In addition, complementary solution studies and suspension experiments were performed. The results clearly confirm the existence of two modifications of artemisinin, which are related enantiotropically. The orthorhombic modification is the thermodynamically stable form at low temperatures, while the triclinic form is the stable one at higher temperatures with a transition temperature of ∼130 °C. Problems associated with analysis of the polymorphic phase behavior are comprehensively addressed

  11. Absorption and fluorescence studies of curcumin bound to liposomes and lymphocytes: effect of {gamma}- irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunwar, Amit; Barik, A; Indira Priyadarsini, K [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Pandey, R [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2006-01-15

    Absorption and fluorescence spectral changes in curcumin were employed to follow its binding to liposomes and lymphocytes. The association constants indicated high affinity of curcumin to liposomes. Tumor lymphocytes show mere intense fluorescence of curcumin over the normal lymphocytes. The loss of curcumin in cells after {gamma}-irradiation could be followed by reduction in curcumin fluorescence. The studies indicate that such fluorescence changes can be used as markers to understand the preferential loading of curcumin to cells. (author)

  12. Cytogenetic analysis of the combined action of pesticides and radiation on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.I.; Fesenko, Eh.V.; Antoshchina, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of the combined action of pesticides and irradiation at the G 0 stage was studied in cultured human lymphocytes. Carbophos (malathion) increased the yield of chromosome and chromatid fragments in irradiated lymphocytes. Herbicide 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) raised lymphocyte radiosensitivity by increasing the yield of chromosome type aberrations, the radiosensitizing effect of the herbicide decreased as its concentration increased. 4 refs

  13. Absorption and fluorescence studies of curcumin bound to liposomes and lymphocytes: effect of γ- irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunwar, Amit; Barik, A.; Indira Priyadarsini, K.; Pandey, R.

    2006-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectral changes in curcumin were employed to follow its binding to liposomes and lymphocytes. The association constants indicated high affinity of curcumin to liposomes. Tumor lymphocytes show mere intense fluorescence of curcumin over the normal lymphocytes. The loss of curcumin in cells after γ-irradiation could be followed by reduction in curcumin fluorescence. The studies indicate that such fluorescence changes can be used as markers to understand the preferential loading of curcumin to cells. (author)

  14. Combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bingchai; Lu Jiaben; Wang Zongwu; Chen Tiehe

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberration, micronucleus and transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied. The results indicated that there were no significant influence for effects of high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberrations, transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced γ-ray radiation, and that high atmospheric pressure increased effect of micronucleus in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro induced γ-ray radiation

  15. Is total lymphocyte count related to nutritional markers in hospitalized older adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Aparecida LEANDRO-MERHI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Older patients are commonly malnourished during hospital stay, and a high prevalence of malnutrition is found in hospitalized patients aged more than 65 years. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether total lymphocyte count is related to other nutritional markers in hospitalized older adults. METHODS Hospitalized older adults (N=131 were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Their nutritional status was assessed by the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, anthropometry, and total lymphocyte count. The statistical analyses included the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney test. Spearman's linear correlation coefficient determined whether total lymphocyte count was correlated with the nutritional markers. Multiple linear regression determined the parameters associated with lymphocyte count. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS According to the NRS, 41.2% of the patients were at nutritional risk, and 36% had mild or moderate depletion according to total lymphocyte count. Total lymphocyte count was weakly correlated with mid-upper arm circumference (r=0.20507; triceps skinfold thickness (r=0.29036, and length of hospital stay (r= -0.21518. Total lymphocyte count in different NRS categories differed significantly: older adults who were not at nutritional risk had higher mean and median total lymphocyte count ( P =0.0245. Multiple regression analysis showed that higher lymphocyte counts were associated with higher triceps skinfold thicknesses and no nutritional risk according to the NRS. CONCLUSION Total lymphocyte count was correlated with mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and nutritional risk according to the NRS. In multiple regression the combined factors that remained associated with lymphocyte count were NRS and triceps skinfold thickness. Therefore, total lymphocyte count may be considered a nutritional marker. Other studies should confirm these findings.

  16. Lymphocytic gastritis: a newly described entity: a retrospective endoscopic and histological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Haot, J; Hamichi, L; Wallez, L; Mainguet, P

    1988-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis is a histopathological entity characterised by the accumulation of small lymphocytes in the surface and foveolar epithelium. In order to investigate the correlation between endoscopy and histology in this condition, 192 observations selected on the basis of a presumed diagnosis of erosive or varioliform gastritis were reviewed. Ninety two instances corresponded to lymphocytic gastritis, while 100 did not show any particular microscopic feature and were labelled non-speci...

  17. Polymorphic transformation of helical flagella of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sookkyung; Howard Berg Collaboration; William Ko Collaboration; Yongsam Kim Collaboration; Wanho Lee Collaboration; Charles Peskin Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria such as E. coli swim in an aqueous environment by utilizing the rotation of flagellar motors and alternate two modes of motility, runs and tumbles. Runs are steady forward swimming driven by bundles of flagellar filaments whose motors are turning CCW; tumbles involve a reorientation of the direction of swimming triggered by motor reversals. During tumbling, the helical flagellum undergoes polymorphic transformations, which is a local change in helical pitch, helical radius, and handedness. In this work, we investigate the underlying mechanism of structural conformation and how this polymorphic transition plays a role in bacterial swimming. National Science Foundation.

  18. The monoclinic polymorph of dimethylarsinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Betz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C2H7AsO2 or [As(CH32O(OH], is an organic derivative of arsinic acid, and is also known by its trivial name cacodylic acid. In contrast to the first polymorph (triclinic, space group Poverline{1}, Z = 2, the current study revealed monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/c, Z = 8 for the second polymorph. The configuration of the tetrahedral molecule shows approximate Cs symmetry. Strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds connect the molecules to infinite zigzag chains along [010], which are further connected by weak intermolecular C—H...O contacts into a three-dimensional network.

  19. The common polymorphism of apolipoprotein E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    from only 10-15% in southern Europe to 40-50% in the north. The gradient may be a trace of the demic expansion of agriculture that began about 10,000 years ago, but it may also reflect the possibility that APOE*4 carriers are less likely to develop vitamin D deficiency. The common APOE polymorphism......Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has important functions in systemic and local lipid transport, but also has other functions. The gene (APOE) shows a common polymorphism with three alleles--APOE*2, APOE*3, and APOE*4. Their frequencies vary substantially around the world, but APOE*3 is the most common...

  20. Alteration of lymphocyte functions by 8-methoxypsoralen and longwave ultraviolet radiation. I. Suppressive effects of PUVA on T-lymphocyte migration in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, H.; Takigawa, M.; Horio, T.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the influence of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus long-wave ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) on lymphocyte migration in vitro. Nylon wool-purified, mouse splenic T lymphocytes showed locomotive responses to casein, normal mouse serum (NMS), and zymosan-activated mouse serum (ZAS). Migratory responses to casein and NMS, and to ZAS were remarkably suppressed in lymphocytes exposed to 0.5 J/cm2 UVA plus 0.1 micrograms/ml 8-MOP and to 0.8 J/cm2 UVA plus 8-MOP, respectively. The PUVA treatment used in the present study had no effect on random movement and lymphocyte viability. T lymphocytes cultured in the absence of mitogenic agent for 24 h demonstrated a greater increase in their migration activity than noncultured cells, while lymphocytes cultured after 1.0 J/cm2 PUVA pretreatment remained low. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of PUVA on inflammatory skin disorders may be due in part to the suppression of lymphocyte migration

  1. Evidence for the replication of bovine leukemia virus in the B lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.S.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.; Handwerger, B.S.; Soper, F.F.; Sorensen, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    Bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes from a cow with persistent lymphocytosis were separated on nylon wool columns into nylon-adherent and nonadherent populations. Nylon-adherent cells were highly enriched for surface immunoglobulin (SIg) bearing B lymphocytes (95.5%) and nonadherent cells for SIg negative non-B cells, presumably T lymphocytes (96.3%). The B lymphocytes were found to be the major producers for bovine leukemia virus. A total of 39% of the B-enriched cells, surviving after 72 hours in culture, produced bovine leukemia virus as compared with 0.5% of the non-B cells

  2. Resting lymphocyte transduction with measles virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors relies on CD46 and SLAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qi; Schneider, Irene C.; Gallet, Manuela; Kneissl, Sabrina; Buchholz, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) glycoproteins hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) were recently shown to mediate transduction of resting lymphocytes by lentiviral vectors. MV vaccine strains use CD46 or signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as receptor for cell entry. A panel of H protein mutants derived from vaccine strain or wild-type MVs that lost or gained CD46 or SLAM receptor usage were investigated for their ability to mediate gene transfer into unstimulated T lymphocytes. The results demonstrate that CD46 is sufficient for efficient vector particle association with unstimulated lymphocytes. For stable gene transfer into these cells, however, both MV receptors were found to be essential.

  3. Adherence of murine lymphocytes to high endothelial venules in vitro and its radiation effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lixin, Liu; Zijun, Mao; Zhiwei, Yin [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China). Dept. of Pathophysiology

    1991-02-01

    Using the assay of specific adhesion of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules (HEV) on cryostat sections of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), the effects of different doses (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 Gy) of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiation of murine MLN lymphocytes in vitro on adhesion to normal HEV was observed. The results showed that in the irradiated murine MLN lymphocytes the ability to adhere to HEV of normal MLN was reduced. Statistical significance was revealed at 2, 4, 8 Gy irradiations. This results suggests that irradiation can inhibit the specific recognition and adhesion of lymphocytes to HEV to a certain extent.

  4. Increased radiosensitivity of a subpopulation ot T-lymphocyte progenitors from patients with Fanconi's anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrine, M.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Reeves, J.D.; Misra, H.

    1981-01-01

    In vitro radiation survival of peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied in 15 clinically normal adults and 4 patients with Fanconi's anemia. Tritiated thymidine incorporation in a whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and a newly developed whole blood T-lymphocyte colony assay were used to measure lymphocyte blastogenesis and colony formation in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulation. Lymphocyte colony formation was found to be consistently more sensitive than the LST for detection of low-level radiation effects using both normal cells and lymphocytes from Fanconi's anemia patients. Lymphocytes from patients with Fanconi's anemia were significantly more sensitive to in vitro x-irradiation than lymphocytes from clinically normal individuals as measured by their ability to divide when stimulated by PHA in the LST (patients, D37 . 198 R; normals, D37 . 309 R, p . 0.057) and colony formation assay (patients, D37 . 53 R; normals, D37 . 109 R, p . 0.016). No significant difference in the radiosensitivity of the Con-A response was observed between the two groups. The PHA-responsive T-lymphocyte subpopulation in Fanconi's anemia patients appears to be intrinsically defective. The nature of this defect, significance in the disease process, and relevancy of these findings to the establishment of radiation protection standards are discussed

  5. Increased radiosensitivity of a subpopulation of T-lymphocyte progenitors from patients with Fanconi's anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrine, M.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Reeves, J.D.; Misra, H.

    1981-01-01

    In vitro radiation survival of peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied in 15 clinically normal adults and 4 patients with Fanconi's anemia. Tritiated thymidine incorporation in a whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and a newly developed whole blood T-lymphocyte colony assay were used to measure lymphocyte blastogenesis and colony formation in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulation. Lymphocyte colony formation was found to be consistently more sensitive than the LST for detection of low-level radiation effects using both normal cells and lymphocytes from Fanconi's anemia patients. Lymphocytes from patients with Fanconi's anemia were significantly more sensitive to in vitro x irradiation than lymphocytes from clinically normal individuals as measured by their ability to divide when stimulated by PHA in the LST and colony formation assay. No significant difference in the radiosensitivity of the Con-A response was observed between the two groups. The PHA-responsive T-lymphocyte subpopulation in Fanconi's anemia patients appears to be intrinsically defective. The nature of this defect, significance in the disease process, and relevancy of these findings to the establishment of radiation protection standards are discussed

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases

  7. Human mixed lymphocyte cultures. Evaluation of microculture technique utilizing the multiple automated sample harvester (MASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, G. B.; Strong, D. M.; Ahmed, A.; Green, S. S.; Sell, K. W.; Hartzman, R. J.; Bach, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Use of lymphocyte cultures for in vitro studies such as pretransplant histocompatibility testing has established the need for standardization of this technique. A microculture technique has been developed that has facilitated the culturing of lymphocytes and increased the quantity of cultures feasible, while lowering the variation between replicate samples. Cultures were prepared for determination of tritiated thymidine incorporation using a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). Using this system, the parameters that influence the in vitro responsiveness of human lymphocytes to allogeneic lymphocytes have been investigated. PMID:4271568

  8. Studies of lymphocyte growth and differentiation. Progress report, September 1, 1975--July 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were continued on ribonuclear protein synthesis and the assembly of ribosomes in resting and stimulated lymphocytes. We demonstrated the interdependency of protein synthesis and RNA synthesis in the formation and processing of nascent ribonuclear protein particles. We further explored lymphocyte nuclei in a cell-free system. By isolating lymphocyte chromatin we showed a direct effect of PHA on the ability of this nuclear structure to incorporate radioactivity into acid precipitable RNA. We returned to our previous studies on the delayed response of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lymphocytes to PHA. We traced this alternate response identifying it as a characteristic of the CLL cell. The evidence questioned the generally accepted conclusion that CLL represents a B cell malignancy. We went on further to describe delayed reacting lymphocytes in the circulation of patients with nodular lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ALL, unlike the lymphoma and CLL cells, showed a normal magnitude of response, even though it was delayed. We described the technique which might be employed as a diagnostic test for detecting abnormal lymphocytes in patients with lymphocytic lymphoma and leukemia and could help distinguish these diseases from benign lymphoid hyperplasia and other forms of non-lymphocytic leukemia.

  9. Effect of thapsigargin on cytoplasmic Ca2+ and proliferation of human lymphocytes in relation to AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, O; Foder, B; Thastrup, Ole

    1988-01-01

    The tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin, induced a dose-dependent increase of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([ Ca2+]i) in human lymphocytes from a resting level between 100 and 150 nM up to about 1 microM. Half-maximum response was found at about 1 nM of thapsigargin, full...... of the lymphocytes, which was much higher than that caused by the PHA treatment, even in AIDS lymphocytes. Moreover, the thapsigargin/PMA treatment stimulated the expression of the IL-2 receptors on both normal and AIDS lymphocytes, similar to the effect of PHA. It is concluded that thapsigargin exerts its effects...

  10. Caspase Cleavages of the Lymphocyte-oriented Kinase Prevent Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin Phosphorylation during Apoptosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Catherine; Belkina, Natalya V.; Long, Thavy; Deruy, Emeric; Dissous, Colette; Shaw, Stephen; Tulasne, David

    2016-01-01

    The lymphocyte-oriented kinase (LOK), also called serine threonine kinase 10 (STK10), is synthesized mainly in lymphocytes. It is involved in lymphocyte migration and polarization and can phosphorylate ezrin, radixin, and moesin (the ERM proteins). In a T lymphocyte cell line and in purified human lymphocytes, we found LOK to be cleaved by caspases during apoptosis. The first cleavage occurs at aspartic residue 332, located between the kinase domain and the coiled-coil regulation domain. This cleavage generates an N-terminal fragment, p50 N-LOK, containing the kinase domain and a C-terminal fragment, which is further cleaved during apoptosis. Although these cleavages preserve the entire kinase domain, p50 N-LOK displays no kinase activity. In apoptotic lymphocytes, caspase cleavages of LOK are concomitant with a decrease in ERM phosphorylation. When non-apoptotic lymphocytes from mice with homozygous and heterozygous LOK knockout were compared, the latter showed a higher level of ERM phosphorylation, but when apoptosis was induced, LOK−/− and LOK+/− lymphocytes showed the same low level, confirming in vivo that LOK-induced ERM phosphorylation is prevented during lymphocyte apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cleavage of LOK during apoptosis abolishes its kinase activity, causing a decrease in ERM phosphorylation, crucial to the role of the ERM proteins in linking the plasma membrane to actin filaments. PMID:26945071

  11. Caspase Cleavages of the Lymphocyte-oriented Kinase Prevent Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin Phosphorylation during Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Catherine; Belkina, Natalya V; Long, Thavy; Deruy, Emeric; Dissous, Colette; Shaw, Stephen; Tulasne, David

    2016-05-06

    The lymphocyte-oriented kinase (LOK), also called serine threonine kinase 10 (STK10), is synthesized mainly in lymphocytes. It is involved in lymphocyte migration and polarization and can phosphorylate ezrin, radixin, and moesin (the ERM proteins). In a T lymphocyte cell line and in purified human lymphocytes, we found LOK to be cleaved by caspases during apoptosis. The first cleavage occurs at aspartic residue 332, located between the kinase domain and the coiled-coil regulation domain. This cleavage generates an N-terminal fragment, p50 N-LOK, containing the kinase domain and a C-terminal fragment, which is further cleaved during apoptosis. Although these cleavages preserve the entire kinase domain, p50 N-LOK displays no kinase activity. In apoptotic lymphocytes, caspase cleavages of LOK are concomitant with a decrease in ERM phosphorylation. When non-apoptotic lymphocytes from mice with homozygous and heterozygous LOK knockout were compared, the latter showed a higher level of ERM phosphorylation, but when apoptosis was induced, LOK(-/-) and LOK(+/-) lymphocytes showed the same low level, confirming in vivo that LOK-induced ERM phosphorylation is prevented during lymphocyte apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cleavage of LOK during apoptosis abolishes its kinase activity, causing a decrease in ERM phosphorylation, crucial to the role of the ERM proteins in linking the plasma membrane to actin filaments. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Dynanics of populations of T- and B-lymphocytes in the irradiated body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarilin, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of literary data analysis the estimation of lymphocyte radiosensitivity with the account of dividing this cell type into numerous varieties is given. Estimation results have shown that during in vitro irradiation at 1000 P dose rate in the first day 80 percent of blood B-cells and about 30 percent of T cells are killed. By the fourth day lymphocyte killing approaches maximum: B cells vanish practically completely, and T cells make up 6-8% of the initial content. The lymphocyte reduction greatly depends on an injury character. T and B lymphocyte reduction dynamics is in principle analogous except for some difference in reduction periods

  13. Expression of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Zülow, I

    1997-01-01

    Open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and abdominal surgery are associated with lymphocytopenia. We measured a panel of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes to clarify possible association of CPB with increased expression of these molecules. Eight patients undergoing open...... open-heart and abdominal surgery. The proportion of CD11a/CD18-positive lymphocytes rose from 67.6 +/- 8% to 86.4 +/- 3% after aortic declamping (p ... was associated with increased expression of the adhesion molecule CD11a/CD18 on lymphocytes, while the expression of activation molecules on lymphocytes was unchanged....

  14. Food allergens inducing a lymphocyte-mediated immunological reaction in canine atopic-like dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    SUTO, Akemi; SUTO, Yukinori; ONOHARA, Nozomi; TOMIZAWA, Yu; YAMAMOTO-SUGAWARA, Yukiko; OKAYAMA, Taro; MASUDA, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Canine atopic-like dermatitis (ALD) is suspected to be associated with food allergies, particularly those mediated by lymphocytes. In this study, 54 cases were included as ALD dogs, based on the negative IgE test results. In the dogs, the percentage of activated cells in helper-T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry using cultured peripheral lymphocytes under food allergen stimulation. We observed that 49 of the 54 ALD dogs (90.7%) had positive lymphocyte reactions against one or more f...

  15. Targeting BTK with ibrutinib in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, John C; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Flinn, Ian W; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Sharman, Jeff P; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Chang, Betty Y; Clow, Fong; Hedrick, Eric; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-07-04

    The treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has resulted in few durable remissions. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), an essential component of B-cell-receptor signaling, mediates interactions with the tumor microenvironment and promotes the survival and proliferation of CLL cells. We conducted a phase 1b-2 multicenter study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a first-in-class, oral covalent inhibitor of BTK designed for treatment of B-cell cancers, in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. A total of 85 patients, the majority of whom were considered to have high-risk disease, received ibrutinib orally once daily; 51 received 420 mg, and 34 received 840 mg. Toxic effects were predominantly grade 1 or 2 and included transient diarrhea, fatigue, and upper respiratory tract infection; thus, patients could receive extended treatment with minimal hematologic toxic effects. The overall response rate was the same in the group that received 420 mg and the group that received 840 mg (71%), and an additional 20% and 15% of patients in the respective groups had a partial response with lymphocytosis. The response was independent of clinical and genomic risk factors present before treatment, including advanced-stage disease, the number of previous therapies, and the 17p13.1 deletion. At 26 months, the estimated progression-free survival rate was 75% and the rate of overall survival was 83%. Ibrutinib was associated with a high frequency of durable remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma, including patients with high-risk genetic lesions. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01105247.).

  16. T lymphocytes and normal tissue responses to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaue, Dörthe; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that lymphocytes are a recurring feature in radiation damaged normal tissues, but assessing their functional significance has proven difficult. Contradictory roles have been postulated in both tissue pathogenesis and protection, although these are not necessarily mutually exclusive as the immune system can display what may seem to be opposing faces at any one time. While the exact role of T lymphocytes in irradiated normal tissue responses may still be obscure, their accumulation after tissue damage suggests they may be critical targets for radiotherapeutic intervention and worthy of further study. This is accentuated by recent findings that pathologically damaged “self,” such as occurs after exposure to ionizing radiation, can generate danger signals with the ability to activate pathways similar to those that activate adoptive immunity to pathogens. In addition, the demonstration of T cell subsets with their recognition radars tuned to “self” moieties has revolutionized our ideas on how all immune responses are controlled and regulated. New concepts of autoimmunity have resulted based on the dissociation of immune functions between different subsets of immune cells. It is becoming axiomatic that the immune system has the power to regulate radiation-induced tissue damage, from failure of regeneration to fibrosis, to acute and chronic late effects, and even to carcinogenesis. Our understanding of the interplay between T lymphocytes and radiation-damaged tissue may still be rudimentary but this is a good time to re-examine their potential roles, their radiobiological and microenvironmental influences, and the possibilities for therapeutic manipulation. This review will discuss the yin and yang of T cell responses within the context of radiation exposures, how they might drive or protect against normal tissue side effects and what we may be able do about it.

  17. Radiation induced chromosomal instability in lymphocytes of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, H.; Sagara, M.; Ban, S.; Noda, S.; Iwakawa, M.; Harada, Y.; Imai, T.; Cologne, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay has been extensively used to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human individuals. Using the CBMN assay, Scott et al (1998, 1999) demonstrated that a fraction of radiosensitive individuals in breast cancer case population was larger than in normal individual population. However, Vral et al were very skeptical about the Scott et al's findings (2002). Under the approval from the ethical committee of NIRS, peripheral blood was obtained from 46 normal healthy females, 131 breast cancer patients, 32 cervical cancer patients and 7 female head and neck cancer patients. Radiosensitivity of T-lymphocytes was assessed by using a CBMN assay. The frequencies of MN per binucleated cell in healthy donors were 0.031(±0.010) and 0.151(±0.066) for cells treated before and after X-ray-irradiation (2Gy), respectively. Spontaneous MN frequencies in cancer patients were significantly higher than healthy donors (p < 0.001). Radiation sensitivities of breast- and head and neck-cancer patients were significantly higher than normal individuals (p < 0.001). Cervical cancer patients were more resistant to irradiation than healthy donors, though the number of cases for statistical analysis was small. (p < 0.001). We are considering that the HPV infection affected the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cases. Because it is widely believed that one key mechanism which leads to spontaneous micronucleus formation involves an imbalance of chromosomal segregation and a chromosomal instability in patients' lymphocytes might be greater than that in normal individuals' lymphocytes. Recently, Kuschel et al (2002) demonstrated that ratios in two SNPs on XRCC3 were significantly different between cancer patients and healthy females. Then, we can suppose that the radiation-related genes with low penetrance may be involved in tumorigenesis of mammary- and head and neck-cells, and also, in patients' radiation susceptibility

  18. Stochastic Measurement Models for Quantifying Lymphocyte Responses Using Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Andrey; Pavlyshyn, Damian; Markham, John F.; Dowling, Mark R.; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses are complex dynamic processes whereby B and T cells undergo division and differentiation triggered by pathogenic stimuli. Deregulation of the response can lead to severe consequences for the host organism ranging from immune deficiencies to autoimmunity. Tracking cell division and differentiation by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes is a major method for measuring progression of lymphocyte responses, both in vitro and in vivo. In turn, mathematical modeling of cell numbers derived from such measurements has led to significant biological discoveries, and plays an increasingly important role in lymphocyte research. Fitting an appropriate parameterized model to such data is the goal of these studies but significant challenges are presented by the variability in measurements. This variation results from the sum of experimental noise and intrinsic probabilistic differences in cells and is difficult to characterize analytically. Current model fitting methods adopt different simplifying assumptions to describe the distribution of such measurements and these assumptions have not been tested directly. To help inform the choice and application of appropriate methods of model fitting to such data we studied the errors associated with flow cytometry measurements from a wide variety of experiments. We found that the mean and variance of the noise were related by a power law with an exponent between 1.3 and 1.8 for different datasets. This violated the assumptions inherent to commonly used least squares, linear variance scaling and log-transformation based methods. As a result of these findings we propose a new measurement model that we justify both theoretically, from the maximum entropy standpoint, and empirically using collected data. Our evaluation suggests that the new model can be reliably used for model fitting across a variety of conditions. Our work provides a foundation for modeling measurements in flow cytometry experiments thus

  19. Atypical lymphocytes in malaria mimicking dengue infection in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polrat Wilairatana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polrat Wilairatana1, Noppadon Tangpukdee1, Sant Muangnoicharoen1, Srivicha Krudsood2, Shigeyuki Kano31Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria usually present with acute febrile illness and thrombocytopenia similar to dengue infection. We retrospectively studied atypical lymphocytes (AL and atypical lymphocytosis (ALO, defined as AL > 5% of total white blood cells in 1310 uncomplicated malaria patients. In 718 falciparum malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 53.2% and 5.7% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–10%, whereas in 592 vivax malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 55.4% and 9.5% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–14%. After antimalarial treatment, AL and ALO declined in both falciparum and vivax malaria. However, AL and ALO remained in falciparum malaria on days 7, 14, and 21, whereas AL and ALO remained in vivax malaria on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. In both falciparum and vivax malaria patients, there was a positive correlation between AL and total lymphocytes, but a negative correlation between AL and highest fever on admission, white blood cells, and neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets (P < 0.05. In conclusion, AL or ALO may be found in uncomplicated falciparum and vivax malaria mimicking dengue infection. In tropical countries where both dengue and malaria are endemic, presence of AL or ALO in any acute febrile patients with thrombocytopenia (similar to the findings in dengue malaria could not be excluded. Particularly if the patients have risk of malaria infection, confirmative microscopic examination for malaria should be carried out

  20. Residual activation events functional after irradiation of mouse splenic lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.D.; Lawrence, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    We have sought to identify the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes by determining the extent of activation of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes previously exposed to growth-inhibiting doses of radiation. Mouse splenic lymphocytes were exposed to 0-15 Gy 137Cs radiation, and structural and functional damage were assayed. Although damage to cellular thiols and nonprotein thiols was modest, there was a significant loss of viability by 6 h as determined by uptake of propidium iodide (PI). Since cells did not die immediately after irradiation, the activation events which remained were evaluated. Growth-inhibiting doses of radiation left cells partially responsive to mitogen, in that cells were able to exit G0 phase, but they could progress no further into the cell cycle than G1a phase. It is important to note that assessment of viability by uptake of PI indicated substantial cell death after 15 Gy (45%, 6 h; 90%, 24 h); however, cell cycle analysis at 24 h indicated no significant decrease in progression from G0 to G1a phase. The LPS-stimulated response of B cells was more radiosensitive than the Con A-stimulated response of T cells. Further analysis of the Con A response indicated that production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) was unaffected, but expression of the IL-2 receptor was inhibited. Inhibition of poly-ADP-ribosylation and damage to lipids did not prevent the lack of mitogen responsiveness, since neither the ADP-ribose transferase inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide nor lipid radical scavengers had restorative effects on the mitogenic response. Nor was Con A-stimulated incorporation of [3H]thymidine restored with inhibitors of prostaglandin or leukotriene synthesis, suggesting that inhibition was due to direct effects on the Con A responders, and not indirect effects mediated by arachidonate metabolites

  1. Radiation-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Lee, Tae Bum; Nam, Taek Keun; Kee, Keun Hong; Choi, Cheol Hee

    2003-01-01

    This study quantitatively evaluated the apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using flow cytometry, and investigated the possibility of using this method, with a small amount of blood, and the time and dose dependence of radiation-induced apoptosis. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from the heparinized venous blood of 11 healthy volunteers, 8 men and 3 women, with each 10 ml of blood being divided into 15 samples. The blood lymphocytes were irradiated using a linear accelerator at a dose rate of 2.4 Gy/min, to deliver doses of 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 Gy. The control samples, and irradiated cells, were maintained in culture medium for 24, 48 and 72 hours following the irradiation. The number of apoptotic cells after the in vitro X-irradiation was measured by flow cytometry after incubation periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours. We also observed the apoptotic cells using a DNA fragmentation assay and electron microscopy. The rate of spontaneous apoptosis increased in relation to the time interval following irradiation (1.761±0.161, 3.563±0.564, 11.098±2.849, at 24, 48, and 72 hours). The apoptotic cells also increased in the samples irradiated with 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 Gy, in a radiation dose and time interval after irradiation manner, with the apoptosis being too great at 72 hours after irradiation. The dose-response curves were characterized by an initial steep increase in the number of apoptotic cells for irradiation doses below 2 Gy, with a flattening of the curves as the dose approached towards 5 Gy. The flow cytometric assay technique yielded adequate data, and required less than 1 mL of blood. The time and dose dependence of the radiation-induced apoptosis, was also shown. It is suggested that the adequate time interval required for the evaluation of apoptosis would be 24 to 48 hours after blood sampling

  2. Effect of Weightlessness on Neutrophils and Lymphocytes of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusi Muhammad Saqib, Zia-ur-Rahman1 and Saeed Ahmad Nagra2

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, two hundreds and forty healthy albino young (n=120 and old (n=120 rats were used during winter and summer season. Rats were divided into four groups in each season i.e. young and old, consisting of male (n=30 and female (n=30 in each age category. In each age  sex matched rats, three subgroups were made and have been given the name as cage control (CC group, horizontal restrained group (HR and head down suspended (HDS group. For winter season, the room temperature of experimental period ranged from 20 to 23°C and for summer season, the experimental room temperature ranged from 30 to 33°C. A 12 hours light/12 hours dark cycle with ad libitum food offered each day to an individual rats as well as fresh water (at normal temperature were provided every day from 9-10 h (morning Rats were decapitated on day 7th (n=5 and day 28th (n=5 of experimental period from all groups to collected the blood in a hepranized tubes for the estimation of lymphocytes and neutrophils. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed to estimate the difference between age, days, treatments and their possible interactions during each season. During winter and summer seasons, male and female rats did show a significant decrease in lymphocytes, however a significant increase in the neutrophils percent was also observed in the HR and HDS groups. During summer, a significant increase in neutrophils and a decrease in lymphocytes were observed in male and female rats of HR and HDS groups.

  3. Light microscope observation of circulating human lymphocytes cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the isolation and a light microscopy technique for cultured lymphocytes. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture with an anticoagulant added and centrifuged in a Percoll density gradient to separate the leukocytes. Lymphocytes were placed in 25 cm ³ tissue culture flasks at 37ºC. After culturing, they were fixed and stained with the methods used for blood smears. Results showed that not all fixing solutions and stains were an equally good choice for cultured lymphocytes.Os linfócitos são células importantes do sistema imune e têm sido largamente utilizados em estudos morfológicos. Entretanto, a literatura sobre técnicas de preparação dessas células é escassa e antiga, especialmente para linfócitos cultivados in vitro. Portanto, o objetivo desse estudo foi relatar com detalhes as técnicas de isolamento e microscopia de luz de linfócitos mantidos em cultura. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas por punção venosa e centrifugadas em gradiente de densidade de Percoll, para separar os leucócitos. Os linfócitos foram mantidos em frascos de cultura de 25 cm³ a 37ºC. Após a cultura, as células foram fixadas e coradas de acordo com a metodologia utilizada para esfregaços sanguíneos. Nossos resultados mostraram que nem todos os fixadores e corantes utilizados para esfregaços sanguíneos são uma boa escolha para linfócitos cultivados in vitro.

  4. Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, D S; Monaghan, S F; Ayala, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis remain leading causes of death. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Here, we investigate whether integrin expression, specifically β1 (CD29) and β2 (CD18), are disrupted in SIRS and sepsis, and assess differences in integrin expression between these two critically ill clinical categories. T-Lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood collected from ICU patients exhibiting SIRS or sepsis. Samples were analyzed for CD18 (β2) and CD29 (β1) on CD3 + T cells through flow cytometry. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. CD18 was almost ubiquitously expressed on CD3 + T cells irrespective of clinical condition. However, CD29 (β1 integrin) was lowest in SIRS patients (20.4% of CD3 + T cells) when compared with either septic patients (35.5%) or healthy volunteers (54.1%). Furthermore, there was evidence of compartmentalization in septic patients, where abdominal sources had a greater percentage of CD3 + CD29 + T cells (41.7%) when compared with those with non-abdominal sources (29.5%). Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis. Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis.

  5. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease: a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sumit; Ganesan, Chitra; Pant, Manish; Lai, Catherine; Tabbara, Imad A

    2013-02-01

    Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that is recognized as a separate histopathological entity. This disease tends to have multiple relapses, but has an overall good prognosis. Owing to its rarity, and the prolonged time period between recurrence and transformation events, there is no consensus regarding optimal management. However, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines indicate that for early stages, appropriate treatment is radiotherapy. Several management options have been reported including observation, radiation, chemotherapy, combined chemoradiotherapy, and anti-CD20 antibody therapy. Salvage therapy remains effective in inducing prolonged remission in patients with relapsed/refractory disease.

  6. Aureobasidium pullulans infection in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saprophytic fungi are being increasingly recognized as etiologic agents of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of subcutaneous infiltration by Aureobasidium pullulans, likely due to traumatic inoculation, in a neutropenic patient during chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate but was subsequently switched to itraconazole, which improved the lesion. This case highlights the importance of considering unusual fungal infections in critically ill patients such as those who are immunosuppressed due to chemotherapy. Diagnostic techniques and effective antifungal therapy have improved the prognosis of these cases.

  7. Hypercalcaemia associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in a Giant Schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiter, M; Hirt, R; Kirtz, G; Day, M J

    2001-05-01

    A 7-year-old male Giant Schnauzer was referred with a history of severe vomiting, lethargy, weight loss, polydipsia and polyuria. Detailed investigations revealed leucocytosis with a marked lymphocytosis, mild non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hypercalcaemia and azotaemia. Circulating lymphocytes were small and well-differentiated, and the same lymphoid population was present in bone marrow. Chronic lymphocyctic leukaemia with associated paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia was diagnosed. Immunohistochemical staining of a bone marrow biopsy revealed a neoplastic B-cell line expressing CD79. The dog responded to therapy with prednisolone and chlorambucil for a period of 8 months.

  8. CRUSTED SCABIES IN A PATIENT WITH ACUTE LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17 year s old male patient presented with diffuse, ill defined, hyperpigmented, scaly plaques on the body, for the past 15 days. Lesions were more over the groin and also on both elbows and wrists. Patient is a known case of acute lymphocytic leukaemia, diagnosed a t the age of 13 years and has been on treatment ever since. A KOH ( 10% mount of the scales showed the presence of sarcoptes scabiei and skin biopsy with haematoxylin and eosin showed fragments of mite in the excised skin.

  9. Ibrutinib as Initial Therapy for Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jan A; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Barr, Paul M; Robak, Tadeusz; Owen, Carolyn; Ghia, Paolo; Bairey, Osnat; Hillmen, Peter; Bartlett, Nancy L; Li, Jianyong; Simpson, David; Grosicki, Sebastian; Devereux, Stephen; McCarthy, Helen; Coutre, Steven; Quach, Hang; Gaidano, Gianluca; Maslyak, Zvenyslava; Stevens, Don A; Janssens, Ann; Offner, Fritz; Mayer, Jiří; O'Dwyer, Michael; Hellmann, Andrzej; Schuh, Anna; Siddiqi, Tanya; Polliack, Aaron; Tam, Constantine S; Suri, Deepali; Cheng, Mei; Clow, Fong; Styles, Lori; James, Danelle F; Kipps, Thomas J

    2015-12-17

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) primarily affects older persons who often have coexisting conditions in addition to disease-related immunosuppression and myelosuppression. We conducted an international, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial to compare two oral agents, ibrutinib and chlorambucil, in previously untreated older patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. We randomly assigned 269 previously untreated patients who were 65 years of age or older and had CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma to receive ibrutinib or chlorambucil. The primary end point was progression-free survival as assessed by an independent review committee. The median age of the patients was 73 years. During a median follow-up period of 18.4 months, ibrutinib resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than did chlorambucil (median, not reached vs. 18.9 months), with a risk of progression or death that was 84% lower with ibrutinib than that with chlorambucil (hazard ratio, 0.16; PIbrutinib significantly prolonged overall survival; the estimated survival rate at 24 months was 98% with ibrutinib versus 85% with chlorambucil, with a relative risk of death that was 84% lower in the ibrutinib group than in the chlorambucil group (hazard ratio, 0.16; P=0.001). The overall response rate was higher with ibrutinib than with chlorambucil (86% vs. 35%, Pibrutinib. Adverse events of any grade that occurred in at least 20% of the patients receiving ibrutinib included diarrhea, fatigue, cough, and nausea; adverse events occurring in at least 20% of those receiving chlorambucil included nausea, fatigue, neutropenia, anemia, and vomiting. In the ibrutinib group, four patients had a grade 3 hemorrhage and one had a grade 4 hemorrhage. A total of 87% of the patients in the ibrutinib group are continuing to take ibrutinib. Ibrutinib was superior to chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma, as assessed by progression-free survival, overall

  10. Kidney graft rejection studies with labeled platelets and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Comin, J.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of In-111-labelled platelets and lymphocyte scintigraphy in acute kidney graft rejection is evaluated in 155 patients. Blood cells were labelled with 100-150 uCi of In-111-oxine and reinjected. Subsequently patients were scanned once daily from 2 hours post-reinjection up to a week. The graft/contralateral area activity ratio was calculated in all scans. It is concluded that In-111-labelled platelets scintigraphy is nowadays the method of choice for acute kidney graft rejection diagnosis, especially in patients under cyclosporine immunosuppression. (author)

  11. Serological Evidence of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Indirect fluorescent antibody method was applied for a detection of lymphocytic choriomenigitis virus (LCMV) antibody in colonies of laboratory animals in Japan. The results showed that the antibody exist in SPF mice (3/152,2.0%) and conventional mice (30/539, 5.6%) with the titers ranging from 1: 10 to 1: 160. The antibody was also detected in 2.2% (2/89) of Syrian golden hamsters, and 2.9% (2/68) of Apodemus agrarius, 21.4% (3/14) of Japanese harvest mice which have been maintained as labor...

  12. Effects of 415 MHz frequency on human lymphocyte genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Fucic, A.; Kubelka, D.; Vojvodic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The continuously increasing use of artificial sources of electromagnetic radiation in industry and medicine has been accompanied in everyday life with telecommunication systems which is followed with great interest in possible hazardous effects of this type of radiation. The interesting applications of mobile telecommunications and the use of cellular phones are of topic interest. Numerous cytogenetic investigations are focused on the effects of microwave radiation from mobile communications frequency of 450 and 950 MHz on isolated cells in vitro. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of microwaves from mobile telephone frequencies on human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in vitro. (author)

  13. Thyroid adenoma following treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaport, R.; Morishima, A.; Wolff, J.A.; Ryan, B.; Walters, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Sequelae of the treatment of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) include multiple effects on the endocrine system, especially as it relates to growth and puberty. Thyroid dysfunction, and in particular, the occurrence of thyroid neoplasia, has been only rarely described. We report the development of benign thyroid neoplasms in two patients 9 years following the diagnosis and treatment of ALL. Both patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid with noncystic cold nodules found on thyroid scan. In light of these observations, and along with previous reports of malignant thyroid neoplasia in children with ALL, long-term careful observation of children successfully treated for ALL is indicated. 17 references

  14. Effect of oral proguanil on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    In vitro studies have indicated that the antifolates pyrimethamine [4, 6] and cycloguanil (the active metabolite of proguanil) suppress the proliferation of stimulated human lymphocytes; proguanil has no effect [2]. During the early growth phase of the cells, 14C-thymidine (14C-TdR) incorporation...... is increased by pyrimethamine and cycloguanil, reflecting blockage of endogenous TdR synthesis [3]. Proguanil (Paludrine) is increasingly being used for malaria prophylaxis. It is considered the most innocuous of the antimalarials currently employed. Since nothing is known about the effect of oral proguanil...

  15. Direct Microbicidal Activity of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Oykhman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL are famous for their ability to kill tumor, allogeneic and virus-infected cells. However, an emerging literature has now demonstrated that CTL also possess the ability to directly recognize and kill bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Here, we review past and recent findings demonstrating the direct microbicidal activity of both CD4+ and CD8+ CTL against various microbial pathogens. Further, this review will outline what is known regarding the mechanisms of direct killing and their underlying signalling pathways.

  16. Germline cytotoxic lymphocytes defective mutations in Chinese patients with lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xue; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Fang; Wang, Mangju; Teng, Wen; Lin, Yuehui; Han, Xiangping; Jin, Fangyuan; Xu, Yuanli; Cao, Panxiang; Fang, Jiancheng; Zhu, Ping; Tong, Chunrong; Liu, Hongxing

    2017-01-01

    Certain patients with lymphoma may harbor mutations in perforin 1 (PRF1), unc-13 homolog D (UNC13D), syntaxin 11 (STX11), STXBP2 (syntaxin binding protein 2) or SH2 domain containing 1A (SH2D1A), which causes functional defects of cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data regarding the association between genetic defects and the development of lymphoma in Chinese patients are limited to date. In the present study, 90 patients with lymphoma were analyzed for UNC13D, PRF1, STXBP2, STX11, SH2D1A and X-linked ...

  17. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune synapse at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nele M G; Frazer, Gordon L; Asano, Yukako; Stinchcombe, Jane C; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2016-08-01

    The immune synapse provides an important structure for communication with immune cells. Studies on immune synapses formed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) highlight the dynamic changes and specialised mechanisms required to facilitate focal signalling and polarised secretion in immune cells. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we illustrate the different steps that reveal the specialised mechanisms used to focus secretion at the CTL immune synapse and allow CTLs to be such efficient and precise serial killers. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Polymorphism of the VEGF gene and its association with growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: VEGF gene, caprine, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), genetic variation, PCR-SSCP ... This field is strongly focusing on gene loci and polymorphisms that have ..... Enhance the efficiency of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis by short polyacrylamide gel and modified silver staining. Anal.

  19. Upper petal lip colour polymorphism in Collinsia heterophylla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the genetics of a polymorphic trait is important to predict its likely evolution. In Collinsia heterophylla, the upper petal lip colour can be either be white or white with a purple band, while the lower petal lip colour is invariably purple. Because the corolla is only partly polymorphic, the polymorphism can not have ...

  20. The V279F polymorphism might change protein character and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymorphisms at the protein level are also estimated to correlate with increased risk factors for heart attacks. One such polymorphism is the V279F polymorphism in Lp-PLA2 which results in a change in enzyme performance capability. This in turn implies a reduced risk of acute myocardial infarct (AMI) in Korean and ...