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Sample records for wax palm ceroxylon

  1. The Neogene rise of the tropical Andes facilitated diversification of wax palms (Ceroxylon: Arecaceae) through geographic colonization and climatic niche separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanín, M.J.; Kissling, W.D.; Bacon, C.D.; Borchsenius, F.; Galeano, G.; Svenning, J.-C.; Olivera, J.; Ramírez, R.; Trénel, P.; Pintaud, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    The tropical Andes are a biodiversity hotspot, partly due to their rich and complex floristic composition. A fundamental question regarding this outstanding biodiversity is what role the Andean orogeny has played in species diversification. Ceroxylon is a genus of endemic Andean palms that stands

  2. Juvenile Resilience and Adult Longevity Explain Residual Populations of the Andean Wax Palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanín, María José; Anthelme, Fabien; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Galeano, Gloria; Bernal, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1) adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2) adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m2 in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience) explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology. PMID:24194823

  3. Juvenile resilience and adult longevity explain residual populations of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Sanín

    Full Text Available Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1 adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2 adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m(2 in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology.

  4. The Neogene rise of the tropical Andes facilitated diversification of wax palms (Ceroxylon: Arecaceae) through geographical colonization and climatic niche separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanín, María José; Kissling, W. Daniel; Bacon, Christine D.

    2016-01-01

    The tropical Andes are a biodiversity hotspot, partly due to their rich and complex floristic composition. A fundamental question regarding this outstanding biodiversity is what role the Andean orogeny has played in species diversification. Ceroxylon is a genus of endemic Andean palms that stands...... gradients. Ancestral areas were reconstructed under a model allowing for founder-event speciation and climatic niches were inferred from climatic variables at present-day occurrences of all species. Niche evolution in a phylogenetic framework was evaluated by testing differences between the climatic niches...... of clades. Our analyses identified four main clades, with a general pattern of diversification through geographical colonization from south to north after the Pliocene uplift of the northern Andes. Adaptation to low temperatures was conserved at the generic level, with climatic niche differentiation among...

  5. Up and down the blind alley: population divergence with scant gene flow in an endangered tropical lineage of Andean palms (Ceroxylon quindiuense clade: Ceroxyloideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanín, María José; Zapata, Patricia; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Galeano, Gloria; Bohórquez, Adriana; Tohme, Joseph; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2017-02-10

    Given the geographical complexity of the Andes, species distributions hold interesting information regarding the history of isolation and gene flow across geographic barriers and ecological gradients. Moreover, current threats to the region’s enormous plant diversity pose an additional challenge to the understanding of these patterns. We explored the geographic structure of genetic diversity within the Ceroxylon quindiuense species complex (wax palms) at a regional scale, using a model-based approach to disentangle the historical mechanisms by which these species have dispersed over a range encompassing 17° of latitude in the tropical Andes. A total of 10 microsatellite loci were cross-amplified in 8 populations of the 3 species comprising the C. quindiuense complex. Analyses performed include estimates of molecular diversity and genetic structure, testing for genetic bottlenecks and an evaluation of the colonization scenario under approximate Bayesian computation. We showed that there was a geographical diversity gradient reflecting the orogenetic pattern of the northern Andes and its end at the cordilleras facing the Caribbean Sea. A general pattern of diversity suggests that the cordilleras of Colombia have served as historical recipients of gene flow occurring only scantly along the northern Andes. We provided evidence of important isolation between the largest populations of this complex, suggesting that both historical constraints to dispersal but also current anthropogenic effects might explain the high levels of population structuring. We provide a list of advisable measures for conservation stakeholders.

  6. Landscape genetics, historical isolation and cross-Andean gene flow in the wax palm, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, P.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Nordmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    -Huancabamba zone (AHZ) of southern Ecuador/northern Peru, as indicated by observations on fruit morphology. Second, we assessed the timeframe of cross-Andean divergence, and third, we investigated the impact of contemporary and historical landscape features on observed spatio-genetic patterns. Individual-based...... Bayesian clustering (BC) identified a northeastern, southeastern, southwestern, and northwestern cluster, with areas of genetic discontinuity coinciding with the Andes and the Giron-Paute deflection. F-statistics derived from BC suggested an east-to-west dispersal history. Population-based analyses...... impact of climatic friction. Coalescent analysis revealed that cross-Andean divergence took place during the Quaternary. Significant historical isolation (RST > FST) was found in the southwestern population. The current study illustrates a joint effect of founder dynamics, divergence by distance...

  7. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil and vegetables (jojoba which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C, the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL, the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters.

  8. ETHNOECOLOGY AND ETHNOBOTANY OF THE PALM CARNAUBA WAX IN BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Sousa; Richeliel Albert Rodrigues Silva; Talita Geovanna Fernandes Rocha; José Augusto da Silva Santana; Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of ethnoecological and ethnobotanical of carnauba wax (Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore, Arecaceae) in an extractive community of municipality of Ipanguaçu, Rio Grande do Norte state. We interviewed key informants, using the technique of inducing nonspecific, guided tour and direct observation to confirm the data. According to most residents of Pedro Ezequiel Araújo community, the area of carnauba wax in the region is natural. In the r...

  9. ETHNOECOLOGY AND ETHNOBOTANY OF THE PALM CARNAUBA WAX IN BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of ethnoecological and ethnobotanical of carnauba wax (Copernicia prunifera (Miller H. E. Moore, Arecaceae in an extractive community of municipality of Ipanguaçu, Rio Grande do Norte state. We interviewed key informants, using the technique of inducing nonspecific, guided tour and direct observation to confirm the data. According to most residents of Pedro Ezequiel Araújo community, the area of carnauba wax in the region is natural. In the research ethnoecological, 73% of informants reported the occurrence of “a different kind of carnauba”, known as “white carnauba” phenotypically distinct from the “common carnauba wax” by presenting clear stipe, smaller fruits and absence of spines on the petiole, and is rare at the study site. Much of the informants observed phenological phases of carnauba wax, being consistent in stating that the species has fruits dispersed by bats. In ethnobotany, powder wax was cited by all as the most important product extracted from leaves of carnauba and the most used, followed by fruit, stem and root. Were still reported the division of work in the extraction of powder wax from the carnauba. The results of this research will contribute to knowledge of ethnobotanical and ethnoecological carnauba, supporting strategies for management and conservation of natural populations.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard...

  11. Mid-tertiary dispersal, not gondwanan vicariance explains distribution patterns in the wax palm subfamily (Ceroxyloideae: Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, Philipp; Gustafsson, Mats H.G.; Baker, William J.

    2007-01-01

    The Ceroxyloideae is a small but heterogeneous subfamily of palms (Arecaceae, Palmae). It includes a Caribbean lineage (tribe Cyclospathae), a southern hemisphere disjunction (tribe Ceroxyleae), and an amphi-Andean element (tribe Phytelepheae), until recently considered a distinct subfamily (Phyt...

  12. Post-partum reproductive activity and estrus synchronization responsiveness in anglonubian x sprd fed with dried carnauba wax palm fruit (Copernicia prunifera long term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maia Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of dried carnauba wax palm fruit in 28 postpartum goats fed diets containing Bermudagrass hay and either corn (WCWP or carnauba-based (CWP concentrated feed. Estrus synchronization was performed 90 days postpartum, and the goats were mated. In the CWP group, compared to the WCWP group, the daily dry matter intake was significantly reduced (646.48 ± 11.03 g vs. 739.29 ± 3.24 g, respectively; P < 0.01. The time to the first functional corpus luteum was similar between the groups, occurring a mean 66 days postpartum. During estrus synchronization, the CWP group had a decreased sternal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness when compared to the WCWP group (11.93 ± 0.45 mm vs. 13.69 ± 0.57 mm, respectively; P < 0.05 and a lower pregnancy rate (86.67% vs. 46.15%, respectively; P < 0.02. The embryonic vesicle and crown-rump length growth rates, and the biparietal, thoracic, and abdominal diameters at 45 days of pregnancy were within normal range for goats in both groups. Litter size at birth was similar between the groups at a mean 1.39 ± 0.11. In conclusion, the substitution of corn with dehydrated carnauba wax palm fruit in concentrated feed for postpartum goats showed no positive effects. Reduced feed intake in the does consuming the carnauba diet caused decreased body reserves, which probably resulted in a decreased pregnancy rate in the affected does.

  13. Ear wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  14. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  15. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  16. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  17. Preparing paraffin wax, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-12-27

    A process is described for preparing paraffin wax by separation from substances containing bitumen, consisting of treating the raw material at an elevated temperature under such moderate conditions and by means of such organic solvents that the bitumen present in the raw material or formed in the process dissolves as well as the asphaltic and phenolic substances and the humic acids which may be said to be neither extracts nor decomposed materials, and then submitting the products and extracts to a treatment with hydrogen gas, which is effected below 300/sup 0/C, and passing the material over fixed hydrogenation catalysts above 300/sup 0/C by means of hydrogenation catalysts finely dispersed in carbonaceous materials all avoiding decomposition with the formation of volatile products.

  18. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  19. Feasibility study of palm-based fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi Ahmad, M.; Abidin, Razali; Taha, A. Latif; Anudip, Amzaryi

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the combined analysis done in pure palm-based wax that can be used as solid fuel in a hybrid rocket engine. The measurement of pure palm wax calorific value was performed using a bomb calorimeter. An experimental rocket engine and static test stand facility were established. After initial measurement and calibration, repeated procedures were performed. Instrumentation supplies carried out allow fuel regression rate measurements, oxidizer mass flow rates and stearic acid rocket motors measurements. Similar tests are also carried out with stearate acid (from palm oil by-products) dissolved with nitrocellulose and bee solution. Calculated data and experiments show that rates and regression thrust can be achieved even in pure-tested palm-based wax. Additionally, palm-based wax is mixed with beeswax characterized by higher nominal melting temperatures to increase moisturizing points to higher temperatures without affecting regression rate values. Calorie measurements and ballistic experiments were performed on this new fuel formulation. This new formulation promises driving applications in a wide range of temperatures.

  20. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. Crystallography of waxes - an electron diffraction study of refined and natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1997-02-01

    The crystal structure of four waxes has been investigated by electron crystallography. Two of these waxes, including a refined petroleum product (Gulfwax) and a material from lignite (montan wax), form well ordered crystals and their structure could be solved quantitatively from the observed 0022-3727/30/3/018/img1 diffraction patterns. As also found previously for simpler binary n-paraffin solid solutions, the average structure resembles that of a pure paraffin (e.g. n-0022-3727/30/3/018/img2) but with a Gaussian distribution of atomic occupancies near the chain ends to account for the statistical distribution of chain lengths within a lamella. Two other waxes from living organisms, South African bee honeycomb and the leaves of the Brazilian carnauba palm, are much less ordered, even though they share the same methylene subcell packing of the most crystalline parts of the previous materials. It appears that these waxes cannot fully separate into distinct lamellae, perhaps due to the presence of very long `tie' molecules, and are therefore `frustrated' crystal structures.

  2. Production of wax esters via microbial oil synthesis from food industry waste and by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Aguieiras, Erika C G; Freire, Denise M G; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-12-01

    The production of wax esters using microbial oils was demonstrated in this study. Microbial oils produced from food waste and by-product streams by three oleaginous yeasts were converted into wax esters via enzymatic catalysis. Palm oil was initially used to evaluate the influence of temperature and enzyme activity on wax ester synthesis catalysed by Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme lipases using cetyl, oleyl and behenyl alcohols. The highest conversion yields (up to 79.6%) were achieved using 4U/g of Novozyme 435 at 70°C. Transesterification of microbial oils to behenyl and cetyl esters was achieved at conversion yields up to 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. Novozyme 435 was efficiently reused for six and three cycles during palm esters and microbial esters synthesis, respectively. The physicochemical properties of microbial oil derived behenyl esters were comparable to natural waxes. Wax esters from microbial oils have potential applications in cosmetics, chemical and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of waxes, as a complement to hydrothermal immersion, on the quality of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. Pococí hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gustavo Corra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Different waxes were evaluated as a complement to hydrothermal treatment on the overall papaya fruit quality parameters. The fruits were harvested, washed in water, disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and exposed to hydrothermal immersion treatment at 49°C/20 min (HT; then treatments were applied: 1 bees wax +palm oil 5% solution; 2 fatty acids wax mixture 4.7%; 3 chitosan 0.1%; 4 only HT; 5 control (no hydrothermal immersion nor wax. The fruit was stored for 15 days at 12°C, then at 20°C. Significant differences (p≤0.05 were found between fruits receiving HT complemented with 5% bees + palm oil wax, which exhibited lower respiration rate (12.27 ml CO2/kg*h a 8 days after leaving cold storage, as compared with those receiving only HT (16.72 ml CO2/ kg*h or control fruits (17.01 ml CO2/kg*h. The lesser percent of acumulated weight loss was registered whit TH plus bees wax cund palm oil. The color parameters were not affected, except for treatment 2, fatty acids wax mixture, which induced a delay in color development (p≤0.05. No changes were observed in internal or external firmness, nor in degrees brix. HT reduced the incidence of peduncular rot and anthracnose severity (p≤0.05, and extended useful life time. The use of waxes as a complement to HT can contribute to preserving some of the parameters which influence the final papaya fruit quality.

  4. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  5. Physical properties of beeswax, sunflower wax, and candelilla wax mixtures and organogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increased interest in natural waxes as alternatives to partially hydrogenated oils and saturated fats as oil structuring agents. Using relatively low concentrations (0.5-5%), natural waxes are able to form crystalline networks, or organogels, which bind liquid oil. Each natural wax is uniqu...

  6. Surfactants from petroleum paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.; Hussein, M.H.; El Sayed, A.S.

    Paraffin wax from Egyptian petroleum was purified and then oxidized to fatty acids which were esterified to form their methyl esters, fractionated and then hydrolysed. The obtained fatty acids were converted into the corresponding primary amines which were converted with ethylene oxide to form nonionic surfactants. The prepared primary amines were also converted into tertiary amines and then converted into cationic surfactants through condensation with benzyl chloride or 1-chloromethylnaphthalene. Also, amine oxide surfactants were prepared by oxidation of the tertiary amines with hydrogen peroxide. The surface active properties of all the prepared surfactants were determined, and the effect of their chemical structure on the surfactant properties are discussed in this paper.

  7. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  8. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  9. Aplikasi Wax Sebagai Salah Satu Material Di Bidang Kedokteran Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Jamilah Israwati Lubis

    2008-01-01

    Wax merupakan salah satu bahan termoplastik yang terdiri dari berbagai bahan organis dan bahan alami sehingga membuatnya sebagai bahan dengan sifat-sifat yang sangat berguna. Unsur-unsur pokok dental wax terdiri dari 3 suraber utama, yaitu : mineral, serangga (hewani), dan sayur-sayuran (tumbuh-tumbuhan). Wax yang berasal dari bahan mineral diantaranya adalah paraffin wax dan microcrystallin wax yang diperoleh dari hasil residu petroleum melalui proses destilasi. Wax yang berasal dari serangg...

  10. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  11. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made metal...

  12. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  13. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  14. Vanglateenistuse enesekaitsekoolitus / Henri Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Vanglateenistus korraldab Tartus, Tallinnas ja Jõhvis enesekaitsekoolitusi gümnaasiumiõpilastele. Jakob Westholmi abiturient Henri Palm on osalenud treeningutel osalenud kolm aastat ning jagab kogemusi

  15. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at aroun...

  16. Extracting paraffin and mineral waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, I C

    1930-01-17

    In a process for freezing liquids, particularly for precipitating wax from oils such as petroleum or shale oils, the liquid to be treated is cooled first in vessels 10, 11, and 12 by chilled liquid from the final separating tanks 22, then in vessels 13, 14 and 15 by brine cooled by an evaporator 38 and finally in vessels 16,17, 18 directly by the evaporator of a refrigerating plant. The cooling in vessels 10, 11, 12 is regulated by recirculating some of the chilled liquid through the valved pipe 30 while that in tanks 13, 14, 15 is regulated by short-circuiting the brine circulation through a tank 35. Refrigerant vapour from the evaporators in vessels 16, 17, 18 may return through pipe 61 to the compressor or absorber of the plant 45 or it may be withdrawn by pump 58. By the operation of valves A, B, 47, and a valve in pipe 61, the pressures in the evaporators may be varied individually to regulate the cooling in each vessel. Mechanical stirrers are provided in tanks 16, 17, 18.

  17. Refining of wax-containing oil by distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-28

    A continuous method is disclosed for producing low cold test oil from wax-containing mineral oil, which comprises continuously heating the oil in a tubular heater with avoidance of cracking, and fractionating the resulting liquid and vapor in a fractionating tower with reflux to produce a wax-containing fraction having therein substantially all of the amorphous wax and being sufficiently free of crystalline wax so as to be waxable by a method suitable for the removal of amorphous wax.

  18. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing; Yi, Xin; Xiao, Kang; Li, Shunbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  19. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing

    2013-10-10

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  20. The palm family (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadot, Sophie; Alapetite, Elodie; Baker, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Among the 416 angiosperm families, palms (Arecaceae) are striking in possessing almost all possible combinations of hermaphroditic and/or unisexual flowers, making them a particularly interesting subject for studies of the evolution of plant sexuality. The purpose of this review is to highlight...... the amazing diversity of sexual expression in palms with a view to proposing scenarios to explain the evolution of this character, drawing on the numerous advances that have been made over the last 20 years in palm systematics, ecology, developmental biology, phylogenetics and genomics. We provide an overview...... of the variability of sexual expression in palms, with illustrations of the associated morphological diversity and its significance to reproduction. We discuss the evolution of sexual systems using the most recent phylogenetic framework available for palms. Finally, we review advances made towards unravelling...

  1. Understanding the distribution of natural wax in starch-wax films using synchrotron-based FTIR (S-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Delina; Tobin, Mark J; Guo, Qipeng; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-02-15

    High amylose starch-glycerol (HAG) films were produced incorporating beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax in the presence and absence of Tween-80 in order to determine the distribution of wax in the films during the film formation process. The distribution of these waxes within the film was studied using Synchrotron based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (S-FTIR) which provided 2D mapping along the thickness of the film. The incorporation of 5% and 10% wax in HAG films produced randomly distributed wax or wax-rich domains, respectively, within these films. Consequently, the addition of these waxes to HAG increased the surface roughness and hydrophobicity of these films. The addition of Tween-80 caused variations in wax-rich bands within the films. The HAG+carnauba wax+Tween-80 films exhibited domed wax-rich domains displayed with high integrated CH2 absorption value at the interior of the films, rougher surface and higher contact angle values than the other films. The S-FTIR 2D images indicated that the distribution of wax in starch-wax films correlated with the roughness and hydrophobicity of the starch-wax films. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bugarski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  3. Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  4. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is

  5. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetaminophen-wax matrix tablet and hence its implication on dissolution profile. Acetaminophen-wax ... inertness, cost effectiveness, non- toxicity and more importantly their ... Liver Poole, England) at constant load (30 arbitrary units on the ...

  6. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.

    1994-01-01

    In xerophytes, like conifers, the epicuticular wax is well developed. Especially in and around stomatal entrances, a thick wax coating is present. Epicuticular waxes are modified by changes in plant growth conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, irradiance, and wind, or acid rain. The fine structure of epicuticular waxes, their chemistry, and ecophysiological function are modified, especially in evergreen, long-lived conifer needles with characteristic crystalline wax structures. During needle flushing and development, wax structure is easily modified. Acid rain-treated Scots pine needles had 50% less epicuticular waxes in early August. Pollution-induced delayed development, destruction, and disturbances have been identified in many plant species. The structural changes in wax crystals are known. Acid rain or polluted air can destroy the crystalloid epicuticular waxes in a few weeks. In Pinus sylvestris, the first sign of pollution effect is the fusion of wax tubes. In Picea abies and P. sitchensis, modifications of crystalloid wax structure are known. In Californian pine trees phenomena of recrystallization of wax tubes on second-year needles were observed after delayed epicuticular wax development in Pinus ponderosa and P. coulteri. Thus, the effects of air pollutants are modified by climate. Accelerated senescence of leaves and needles have been associated with natural and anthropogenic stresses. The accelerated erosion rate of epicuticular waxes has been measured under air pollution conditions. Many short-term air pollution experiments have failed to show any structural changes in epicuticular wax structures. The quantity and quality of needle waxes grown in open-top chambers, glass houses, or polluted air before treatment, differ from field conditions and make it difficult to detect effects of any treatment. (orig.)

  7. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  8. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax... contained in USITC Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China...

  9. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register... it is very hygroscopic and will react with some metal containers in the presence of air. Phosphoric... high enough to keep the wax melted. (Note: In preheating the sulfoxide-acid mixture, remove the stopper...

  10. Chemical composition of raw and deresinated peat waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' kevich, P I; Ivanova, L A; Piskunova, T A; Tserlyukevich, Ya V; Yurkevich, E A

    1980-01-01

    Research was conducted using absorption chromatography and spectroscopy to study the changes in the chemical composition of raw peat wax taking place in the deresination process. Characteristics of the raw, deresinated waxes and resins removed are given. The fractions obtained showed that both raw and deresinated wax contain the same basic compound classes: hydrocarbons, alcohols, complex ether and acids; but their proportions in the waxes are different. After deresination most of the dark-colored polyfunctional compounds, a portion of the soluble unsaturated hydrocarbons and alcohols, and all the sterenes transfer into the resin. This causes the light color and specific physical properties of deresinated wax. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  11. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; McQuattie, C.J.; Rebbeck, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  12. Sintering of wax for controlling release from pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Reena; Poddar, S S; Chivate, Amit

    2007-09-14

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate incorporation of hydrophobic (ie, waxy) material into pellets using a thermal sintering technique and to evaluate the pellets in vitro for controlled release. Pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology were formulated with a water-soluble drug, microcrystalline cellulose, and carnauba wax. Powdered carnauba wax (4%-20%) prepared by grinding or by emulsification was studied with an attempt to retard the drug release. The inclusion of ground or emulsified carnauba wax did not sustain the release of theophylline for more than 3 hours. Matrix pellets of theophylline prepared with various concentrations of carnauba wax were sintered thermally at various times and temperatures. In vitro drug release profiles indicated an increase in drug release retardation with increasing carnauba wax concentration. Pellets prepared with ground wax showed a higher standard deviation than did those prepared with emulsified wax. There was incomplete release at the end of 12 hours for pellets prepared with 20% ground or emulsified wax. The sintering temperature and duration were optimized to allow for a sustained release lasting at least 12 hours. The optimized temperature and duration were found to be 100 degrees C and 140 seconds, respectively. The sintered pellets had a higher hydrophobicity than did the unsintered pellets. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the carnauba wax moved internally, thereby increasing the surface area of wax within the pellets.

  13. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  14. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  15. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  16. Surfactants and Desensitizing Wax Substitutes for TNT-Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    greatly with the source of crude oil. Some crudes contain little wax. The U.S. crudes from Pennsylvania and the midcontinent areas contain high...years ago in Egypt for many different purposes. The term wax comes to us from the Anglo-Saxon "weax," the name given to material from the bee ...usually produced in the wild and not by large scale cultivation. Although plants produce small amounts of waxes in their tissues, seeds and pollen

  17. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Ma

    Full Text Available Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  18. Effect of solvent extraction on Tunisian esparto wax composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saâd Inès

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of needs for renewable and vegetable based materials will help to drive the market growth of vegetable waxes. Because of their highly variable composition and physicochemical properties, plant waxes have found numerous applications in the: food, cosmetic, candle, coating, polish etc... The aim of this project is to determine the effect of solvent extraction (petroleum ether and ethanol on Tunisian esparto wax composition. The GC-MS was applied in order to determine the waxes compositions. Then, physicochemical parameters of these two samples of waxes: acid value, saponification value, iodine value and melting point were measured in order to deduct their properties and possible fields of uses. Results showed that esparto wax composition depended on the solvent extraction and that major components of the two samples of waxes were: alkanes, esters of fatty acids and phenols. Furthermore, esparto waxes were characterized by an antioxidant and antibacterial activities but the potential of these activities depended on the solvent of wax extraction.

  19. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  20. Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

    1991-01-01

    This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Study of phase transition in hard microcrystalline waxes and wax blends by differential scanning calorimetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, S.; Agrawal, K. M.; Khan, H. U.; Sikora, Antonín

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, 3 & 4 (2004), s. 337-345 ISSN 1091-6466 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : phase transition * hard microscrystalline waxes * differential scanning calorimetry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004

  2. Presence of carotinoids in peat wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurkevich, E.A.; Dolidovich, E.F.; Bel' kevich, P.I.; Sheremet, L.S.; Drozdovskaya, S.V.

    1986-05-01

    Discusses biologically active substances present in peat which have various pharmacological properties. Describes separation of fractions rich in carotinoids from extracts of wax tar obtained by benzine treatment of highly decomposed pine-cotton grass peat. Extraction was carried out using hot ethanol. States that although identification of individual carotinoid in the fractions separated is very difficult due to complicity of composition, the tests carried out made it possible to infer that fractions studied contain not only xanthophylls but also fucoxanthains (formed in small amounts in nature) with fairly stable structure. Ultraviolet and infrared spectra of the carotinoid containing fraction in ethanol extracts are given. 6 refs.

  3. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  4. Palm webOS

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    A Note from the Author and from O'Reilly Media about what this bookdoes--and doesn't--do: Palm webOS is a brand new platform and represents a very different type ofoperating system where the web runtime is used as the basis for the UI andApplication model. Palm and O'Reilly felt that it was important to have abook available to help developers get a basic understanding of the new Palmplatform at the time that the SDK was released; this timing played a majorrole in the content and structure of the book. Ideally this book would have been a complete reference of the new platformbut that wasn't

  5. Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. | Eziyi | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impacted wax has been classified as an ear disease. It can cause pain, itching, tinnitus hearing loss or otitis externa. The prevalence of cerumen impaction varies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impacted ear wax in primary school children and to determine, if there is any association ...

  6. Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wenseleers, Tom; Dawson, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that the wax combs are important in the acquisition of colony odour in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory or under artificial conditions. We investigated the role of the wax combs in nestmate recognition in the natural...

  7. Gluconeogenesis from storage wax in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, R A; Huang, A H

    1977-08-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the beta oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings.

  8. Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, M R; Madgulkar, A R; Sheladiya, D D; Kshirsagar, S J; Wable, N D; Desale, S S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X(1)) and bees wax (X(2)) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t(50)) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t(50) but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings.

  9. Influence of Different Waxes on the Physical Properties of Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-12-22

    Dec 22, 2005 ... viscosity of a polymer melt. In many instances it ... amounts of different waxes on the viscosity (melt flow) of ..... Since the MFI is a direct measure of the viscosity .... melt flow index increasing with increasing wax content. There.

  10. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  11. Geometric accuracy of wax bade models manufactured in silicon moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the test results of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models manufactured in silicon moulds in the Rapid Tooling process, with the application of the Vacuum Casting technology. In batch production casting waxes are designed for the manufacture of models and components of model sets through injection into a metal die. The objective of the tests was to determine the possibility of using traditional wax for the production of casting models in the rapid prototyping process. Blade models made of five types of casting wax were measured. The definition of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models makes it possible to introduce individual modifications aimed at improving their shape in order to increase the dimensional accuracy of blade models manufactured in the rapid prototyping process.

  12. Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caifu; Liu, Qian; Mei, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration. Considering the viscosity of the oil phase and the interfacial tension, we conclude that the wax is liquid-like during the high temperature emulsification process, but during cooling wax crystals appear around the oil/water interface and stabilize the droplets. The oil/water ratio has minimal effect on the emulsions between ratios of 3:7 and 7:3. The Laponite is believed to stabilize the emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase and also by adsorbing at the oil/water interface, thus providing a physical barrier to coalescence.

  13. Purifying oils and waxes. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1926-01-27

    Fractions of petroleum, shale oil, coal oil, and paraffin wax are refined by passing the vapour under reduced pressure through fuller's earth, bauxite, silica gel, or other adsorbent at a temperature not substantially more than sufficient to maintain the vapour phase. The vapour may be passed in succession through adsorbent of increasing strength. Treatment with sulphuric acid, or with alkali, or with both may precede treatment with absorbent, and this successive treatment may be repeated any number of times. The action is accelerated by passing a current of inert gas insufficient to affect the vacuum materially along with the vapours. In an example a 160 to 225/sup 0/C kerosene fraction is treated with sulphuric acid of 10 percent strength, and passed into a fuller's earth chamber under a vacuum of 27 in. of mercury and heated by steam to about 140/sup 0/C. The apparatus is described.

  14. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    -medicinal data on African palms, and investigate patterns of palm uses in traditional medicine; and highlight possible under-investigated areas. Materials and methods References were found through bibliographic searches using several sources including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar and search engines...... in traditional medicine, with most of the uses related to fruit (and palm oil), root, seed and leaf. Palms were used in traditional medicine mostly without being mixed with other plants, and less commonly in mixtures, sometimes in mixture with products of animal origin. Future ethno-botanical surveys should...... were able to demonstrate the value of palms in traditional medicine, and provide recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys....

  15. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  16. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  17. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.

  18. Pediatric Age Palm Oil Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genova, Lorenza; Cerquiglini, Laura; Penta, Laura; Biscarini, Anna; Esposito, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Palm oil is widely used in the food industry for its chemical/physical properties, low cost and wide availability. Its widespread use has provoked an intense debate about whether it is a potential danger to human health. In a careful review of the scientific literature, we focused on nutritional characteristics and health effects of the use of palm oil with regards to children, seeking to determine whether there is evidence that justifies fears about the health effects of palm oil. Our review showed that palm oil represents a significant source of saturated fatty acids, to which scientific evidence attributes negative health effects when used in excess, especially with regards to cardiovascular diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence about the harmful effects of palm oil on the health of children. Nevertheless, palm oil has possible ill health effects linked to its composition of fatty acids: its consumption is not correlated to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young people with a normal weight and cholesterol level; the elderly and patients with dyslipidaemia or previous cardiovascular events or hypertension are at a greater risk. Therefore, the matter is not palm oil itself but the fatty-acid-rich food group to which it belongs. The most important thing is to consume no more than 10% of saturated fatty acids, regardless of their origin and regardless of one's age. Correct information based on a careful analysis of the scientific evidence, rather than a focus on a singular presumed culprit substance, should encourage better lifestyles.

  19. Structure and Biosynthesis of Branched Wax Compounds on Wild Type and Wax Biosynthesis Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, Lucas; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    The cuticle is a waxy composite that protects the aerial organs of land plans from non-stomatal water loss. The chemical make-up of the cuticular wax mixture plays a central role in defining the water barrier, but structure-function relationships have not been established so far, in part due to gaps in our understanding of wax structures and biosynthesis. While wax compounds with saturated, linear hydrocarbon tails have been investigated in detail, very little is known about compounds with modified aliphatic tails, which comprise substantial portions of some plant wax mixtures. This study aimed to investigate the structures, abundances and biosynthesis of branched compounds on the species for which wax biosynthesis is best understood: Arabidopsis thaliana. Microscale derivatization, mass spectral interpretation and organic synthesis identified homologous series of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on flowers and leaves, respectively. These comprised approximately 10-15% of wild type wax mixtures. The abundances of both branched wax constituents and accompanying unbranched compounds were reduced on the cer6, cer3 and cer1 mutants but not cer4, indicating that branched compounds are in part synthesized by the same machinery as unbranched compounds. In contrast, the abundances of unbranched, but not branched, wax constituents were reduced on the cer2 and cer26 mutants, suggesting that the pathways to both types of compounds deviate in later steps of chain elongation. Finally, the abundances of branched, but not unbranched, wax compounds were reduced on the cer16 mutant, and the (uncharacterized) CER16 protein may therefore be controlling the relative abundances of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on Arabidopsis surfaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  1. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  2. Reproduction and subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Re, T A; Babish, J G; Cox, G E; Voss, K A; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    The reproductive performance of Wistar rats fed carnauba wax at levels of 0.1, 0.3 or 1% in the diet and the effects of subchronic administration of carnauba wax at these dose levels on the resultant progeny were studied. Reproductive indices, body-weight gain, food consumption, haematological and clinical chemical data, ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations were used to study the possible toxic or pathological effects. Serum free fatty acid levels were found to be decreased in male and female rats fed carnauba wax at dietary levels of 0.3 and 1.0%. No other effects of feeding carnauba wax at levels up to 1.0% of the diet were observed.

  3. The effects of magnetic fields on carnauba wax electret formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clator, Irvin G.

    1987-08-01

    The results of thermally stimulated depolarization current and effective surface charge-density measurements indicate that magnetic fields do not produce carnauba wax electrets and that previously reported data can be attributed to nonmagnetic effects.

  4. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Charumanee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examined and compared to those of beeswax, carnauba wax and paraffin wax. The results showed that the genotype of Kluai Namwa was Musa acuminata X M. balbisiana (ABB group cv. Pisang Awak. The highest amount of wax extracted was 274 μg/cm2 surface area. The fatty acid composition and the physicochemical properties of the wax were similar to those of carnauba wax. It could be suggested that the banana wax could be used as a replacement for carnauba wax in various utilizing areas.

  5. CARNAUBA WAX USED AS AN HYDROPHOBIC AGENT FOR EXPANDED VERMICULITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.F. Melo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the use of carnauba wax as an expansion and hydrophobicity agent for vermiculite, to be utilized in the sorption process of oil in water. Evaluation of the system (oil-water-hydrophobic vermiculite submersion percentage was considered in assessing the performance of vermiculite in comparison to a Mexican turf. Carnauba wax seems to be more efficient in both fresh and salt waters.

  6. Subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Cox, G E; Babish, J G; Gallo, M A; Hess, F G; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    Carnauba wax fed at levels of 0.1, 0.3 and 1% in the diet to beagle dogs for 28 wk did not produce evidence of toxicity or pathological effects. Body weight gain, food consumption, clinical chemical, haematological, and urine analysis data, and organ weights of animals fed carnauba wax were comparable with those of control animals. Ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations revealed no significant treatment-related findings.

  7. Sintering of wax for controlling release from pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Reena; Poddar, S. S.; Chivate, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate incorporation of hydrophobic (ie, waxy) material into pellets using a thermal sintering technique and to evaluate the pellets in vitro for controlled release. Pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology were formulated with a water-soluble drug, microcrystalline cellulose, and carnauba wax. Powdered carnauba wax (4%–20%) prepared by grinding or by emulsification was studied with an attempt to retard the drug release. The inclusio...

  8. Effects of UV-B radiation on wax biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Paul, N.; Percy, K.; Broadbent, P.; McLaughlin, C.; Mullineaux, P.; Creissen, G.; Wellburn, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two genotypes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were exposed in controlled environment chambers to three levels of biologically effective ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B BE ; 280-320nm): 0, 4.54 (ambient) and 5.66 (∼ 25% enhancement) kJ m -2 d -1 . After 28 days, the quantity of wax deposited on leaf surfaces was determined gravimetrically; epicuticular wax chemical composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography with homologue assignments confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Leaf wettability was assessed by measuring the contact angle of water droplets placed on leaf surfaces. Tobacco wax consisted of three major hydrocarbon classes: Straight-chain alkanes (C 27 -C 33 ) which comprised ∼ 59% of the hydrocarbon fraction, containing a predominance of odd-chain alkanes with C 31 as the most abundant homologue; branched-chain alkanes (C 25 -C 32 ) which comprised ∼38% of the hydrocarbon fraction with anteiso 3-methyltriacontane (C 30 ) as the predominant homologue; and fatty acids (C 14 -C 18 ) which comprised ∼ 3% of the wax. Exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation reduced the quantity of wax on the adaxial surface of the transgenic mutant, and resulted in marked changes in the chemical composition of the wax on the exposed leaf surface. Enhanced UV-B decreased the quantity of straight-chain alkanes, increased the quantity of branched-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and resulted in shifts toward shorter straight-chain lengths. Furthermore, UV-B-induced changes in wax composition were associated with increased wettability of tobacco leaf surfaces. Overall, the data are consistent with the view that UV-B radiation has a direct and fundamental effect on wax biosynthesis. Relationships between the physico-chemical nature of the leaf surface and sensitivity to UV-B radiation are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...

  10. Nest wax triggers worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In this study, we have examined the influence of chemical cues from the nest wax on the onset of worker reproduction. Chemical analyses of wax extracts have revealed that the patterns and amounts of cuticular lipids change considerably during colony development. These changes in wax scent mirror worker abundance and the presence of fertile workers. In bioassays with queen-right worker groups, wax affects the dominance behaviour and ovarian development of workers. When exposed to wax from a colony in competition phase, workers start to compete for reproduction. We suggest that wax scent enables workers to time their reproduction by providing essential information concerning the social condition of the colony.

  11. Phototransformation of the herbicide sulcotrione on maize cuticular wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Halle, Alexandra; Drncova, Daniela; Richard, Claire

    2006-05-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in environmental cycling and the fate of many organic pollutants. This is especially the case for pesticides because plant leaves are their first reaction environment after application. It is commonly accepted that photochemical reactions of pollutants on plants predominantly take place in the cuticular wax coating of the leaves. Thus, we used films made of either cuticular wax extracted from maize or carnauba gray wax as a model support. Under simulated sunlight irradiation, sulcotrione (a new class of triketone herbicides) sorbed on cuticular wax films was photolyzed and mainly underwent an intramolecular cyclization. The photoproduct is a chromone derivative which was isolated and fully characterized. It is reported for the first time as a sulcotrione degradation product. The photoreactivity of formulated sulcotrione at the surface of cuticular waxes was investigated too. It photodegraded more rapidly than nonformulated sulcotrione. This study also shows that the rate of sulcotrione photolysis was much faster than the rate of penetration into the wax; photolysis should be, thus, a relevant process in real conditions.

  12. Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.

  13. Declining Yield of Oil Palm: A case study of Four Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the achievable yield and extent of oil palm yield decline over time in four large oil palm plantations in Nigeria and Cameroon. In Nigeria the highest achieved palm oil yield was 2.64 tonnes per hectare for 9-year-old palms in one of the plantations studied. By the eighteenth year, the yield had ...

  14. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ntushk

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic ... lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly ..... Immunodominant membrane protein (imp) Gene.

  15. Palm Harvest Impact on Tropical Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forest in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different forest...... formations and determine the number of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. We determine how much...... palms are used for subsistence purposes by carrying out quantitative, ethnobotanical research in different forest types and we also study trade patterns for palm products from local markets to markets that involve export to other countries and continents. We study different ways in which palms...

  16. Content of Wax during Dewaxing Process: Adopting a DOE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Eghbali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil content of the wax produced in a dewaxing process is the key economic parameter that should be reduced as much as possible. Some factors such as the type of solvents, cooling rate, temperature, and solvent to oil ratio influence the dewaxing process. Due to the fact that crude oil differs from place to place and since the operational conditions for wax extraction vary for different types of crude oil, the objective of this work is to study the operational conditions for wax production from an Iranian raffinate sample used in Sepahan Oil Company. All the experiments are conducted based on a design of experiment (DOE technique for minimizing the oil content of the wax produced. The effects of five factors have been determined quantitatively and appropriate levels are suggested for reducing the oil content. The results show that the solvent ratio, solvent composition, and cooling rate play the most important role in minimizing the oil content of the produced wax.

  17. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  18. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  19. Do you believe in palm trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Palms are real, but are they really trees? The answer depends on definitions. As usually tall, peremrial plants with roots, stems, and leaves, palms seem to qualify. Palms should also qualify because arborists care for them, and arborists care for trees, right? My introduction to botany class defined trees as plants that produce wood. Unraveling the question of whether...

  20. Blending of palm oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil in the preparation of table and pastry margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlida, H M; Md Ali, A R; Muhadhir, I

    1996-01-01

    Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of pastry margarine.

  1. Unheimlich. From Wax Figures to the Uncanny Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Conte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his pioneering History of Portraiture in Wax, Julius von Schlosser traced back the age-old history of a material which at that time seemed to be already antiquated, if not obsolete. Wax sculptures were rejected and ousted from art history because of their excessive similarity and adherence to models. One hundred years later, however, hyperrealism got its revenge with Maurizio Cattelan’s celebrated hanging children. Moving from that controversial artwork and focusing on the heated polemics over it, my paper will address the question of the well-known Unheimlichkeit of wax figures, investigated by Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud in the early Twentieth Century and nowadays becoming increasingly topical thanks to the recent debate about the existence and nature of the so called Uncanny Valley.

  2. Oils; lubricants; paraffin-wax compositions; hydrocarbon condensation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-04-04

    Petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene, Diesel fuel oil, lubricating-oil, and paraffin wax, and like hydrocarbons such as are obtainable from shale oil and by the hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, are improved by addition of products obtained by condensing a cyclic hydrocarbon with a saturated dihalogen derivative of an aliphatic hydrocarbon containing less than five carbon atoms. The addition of the condensation products increases the viscosity of the hydrocarbon oils specified, and is particularly useful in the case of lubricating-oils; addition of the condensation products to paraffin wax increases the transparency and adherent properties of the wax, and is useful in the manufacture of moulded articles such as candles; the products may also be used in solid lubricating-compositions.

  3. Palm oil use in Mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Pérez Dubé

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm (Elaeis guineensis oil and its fractions can be combined to obtain designed fats with desired composition and physical properties. Incorporation of this type of ingredient in meat products can influence meat products process and sensory quality. In this study, a mixture of palm refined oil and stearin were employed to replace pork fat in a mortadella type product. A two-component mixture design was employed by the D-optimum design. Moisture, fat, protein, cocking losses and instrumental texture profiles were determined, besides a sensory evaluation. Results indicate that 8.8 % of pork fat can be replaced to obtain a good quality mortadella. Maximum palm fat in formulation was 44% of total fat content.

  4. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 μm. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 μm and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 μm beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk

  5. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekel, C. E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 {mu}m. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 {mu}m and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 {mu}m beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk.

  6. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 μm. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 μm and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 μm beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk.

  7. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows sub......-temperature and low-temperature forms, are pure. Model calculations compare well with the data of Pauly et al. for C18 to C30 waxes precipitating from n-decane solutions. (C) 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....

  9. Three-dimensional wax patterning of paper fluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Christophe; Koehne, Jessica; Ricco, Antonio J; Crooks, Richard M

    2014-06-17

    In this paper we describe a method for three-dimensional wax patterning of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The method is rooted in the fundamental details of wax transport in paper and provides a simple way to fabricate complex channel architectures such as hemichannels and fully enclosed channels. We show that three-dimensional μPADs can be fabricated with half as much paper by using hemichannels rather than ordinary open channels. We also provide evidence that fully enclosed channels are efficiently isolated from the exterior environment, decreasing contamination risks, simplifying the handling of the device, and slowing evaporation of solvents.

  10. BIODIESEL FUELS FROM PALM OIL, PALM OIL METHYLESTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    determined by methods outlined by A.O.C.S. (American Oil Chemist Society) [12], Usoro et al. [15], Clark [2], and ... diesel have shown that novel vegetable diesels could be obtained from palm oil. .... C-H stretch for alkenes and aromatics.

  11. African fan palm (Borassus aethiopum) and oil palm (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joao Bila

    In this study, potential alternate hosts of the phytoplasma causing coconut lethal yellowing disease. (CLYD) in Mozambique were investigated based on 16S rRNA and secA genes. The results reveal that the naturalized palm species, Elaeis guineensis and Borassus aethiopum are alternate hosts of CLYD phytoplasma in ...

  12. ASPHALT-RESIN-WAX DEPOSITS ANALYSIS WITH PETROLEUM REFINERY EQUIPMENT USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Bondar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The methodology and analysis of wax deposits formed in-water-cooling tower, cistern and tank from wax petroleum were developed. It was shown, that deposits consist of organic (>90% and inorganic components – the first one was enriched by high molecular wax hydrocarbons, the second one – by mechanical impurities. The methods of deposits utilization were proposed

  13. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  14. Diversity of cuticular wax among Salix species and Populus species hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Bevilacqua, Eddie; Smart, Lawrence B

    2002-08-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of three Salix species and two Populus species hybrids, selected for their ability to produce high amounts of biomass, were characterized. Samples were extracted in CH(2)Cl(2) three times over the growing season. Low kV SEM was utilized to observe differences in the ultrastructure of leaf surfaces from each clone. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups, and the variation in wax components due to clone, sample time, and their interaction was identified. All Salix species and Populus species hybrids showed differences in total wax load at each sampling period, whereas the pattern of wax deposition over time differed only between the Salix species. A strong positive relationship was identified between the entire homologous series of alcohols and total wax load in all clones. Similarly strong relationships were observed between fatty acids and total wax load as well as fatty acids and alcohols in two Salix species and one Populus species hybrid. One Salix species, S. dasyclados, also displayed a strong positive relationship between alcohols and alkanes. These data indicate that species grown under the same environmental conditions produce measurably different cuticular waxes and that regulation of wax production appears to be different in each species. The important roles cuticular waxes play in drought tolerance, pest, and pathogen resistance, as well as the ease of wax extraction and analysis, strongly suggest that the characteristics of the cuticular wax may prove to be useful selectable traits in a breeding program.

  15. Long-term response of Caribbean palm forests to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J.L. Frangi

    2016-01-01

    We studied the response of Prestoea montana (Sierra Palm, hereafter Palm) brakes and a Palm floodplain forest to hurricanes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Over a span of 78 years, 3 hurricanes passed over the study sites for which we have 64 years of measurements for Palm brakes and 20 years for the Palm floodplain forest. For each stand, species...

  16. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  17. Effects of wax treatment on quality and postharvest physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cell membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content when compared with those in control. This waxing also improved total sugars and the contents of ascorbic acid in pineapple fruits. These results suggested that this treatment might be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury and maintain fruit quality during ...

  18. Structural characterization of wax esters by electron ionization mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Klára; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Valterová, Irena; Háková, Martina; Cvačka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 204-213 ISSN 0022-2275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : interpretation * neutral lipids * spectral database * waxes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.386, year: 2012

  19. Uncovered secret of a Vasseur-Tramond wax model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J F; Gutiérrez, B; Montes, J M; Ballestriero, R

    2016-01-01

    The technique of anatomical wax modelling reached its heyday in Italy during the 18th century, through a fruitful collaboration between sculptors and anatomists. It soon spread to other countries, and prestigious schools were created in England, France, Spain and Austria. Paris subsequently replaced Italy as the major centre of manufacture, and anatomical waxes were created there from the mid-19th century in workshops such as that of Vasseur-Tramond. This workshop began to sell waxes to European Faculties of Medicine and Schools of Surgery around 1880. Little is known of the technique employed in the creation of such artefacts as this was deemed a professional secret. To gain some insight into the methods of construction, we have studied a Vasseur-Tramond wax model in the Valladolid University Anatomy Museum, Spain, by means of multi-slice computerised tomography and X-ray analysis by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the hair. These results have revealed some of the methods used to make these anatomical models and the materials employed. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  20. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield s...

  1. Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schäfer, I. K.; Lanny, V.; Franke, J.; Eglinton, T. I.; Zech, M.; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Zech, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2016), s. 551-564 ISSN 2199-3971 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : leaf waxes * soil s Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www. soil -journal.net/2/551/2016/ soil -2-551-2016.pdf

  2. Investigation of wax precipitation in crude oil: Experimental and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Jafari Behbahani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of experiments were carried to investigation of rheological behavior of crude oil using waxy crude oil sample in the absence/presence of flow improver such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The rheological data covered the temperature range of 5–30 °C. The results indicated that the performance of flow improver was dependent on its molecular weight. Addition of small quantities of flow improver, can improve viscosity and pour point of crude oil. Also, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP topology has been developed to account wax appearance temperature and the amount of precipitated wax and the model was verified using experimental data given in this work and reported in the literature. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model based on Artificial Neural Network, the wax precipitation experimental data at different temperatures were predicted using solid solution model and multi-solid phase model. The results showed that the developed model based on Artificial Neural Network can predict more accurately the wax precipitation experimental data in comparison to the previous models such as solid solution and multi-solid phase model with AADs less than 0.5%. Furthermore, the number of parameters required for the Artificial Neural Network (ANN model is less than the studied thermodynamic models.

  3. EPICUTICULAR WAX COMPOSITION OF SOME EUROPEAN SEDUM SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; BOLCK, A; ZWAVING, JH; MALINGRE, TM

    Epicuticular waxes from 30 species of Sedum and 2 species of Sempervivoideae, i.e. Aeonium spathulatum and Sempervivum nevadense, have been analysed by GC and GC-MS. The Sedum taxa examined were S. acre, S. album, S. series Alpestria (13 species), S. anglicum, S. brevifolium, S. litoreum, S. lydium,

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterize indomethacin (IM) microspheres prepared with sugar cane wax microsperes. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by melt-emulsified dispersion and cooling-induced solidification method. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differntial scanning calorimetry ...

  5. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Palm nut shell is an aggregate replacement material in concrete production [1]. It is also an economically and ... requirements amongst the machine parameters of vegetable oil expellers. A manually-operated screw ... using such indices as feed rate, capacity, percentage oil recovery, machine efficiency, and oil yield.

  6. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  7. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers ( sn) -2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  8. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  9. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  10. Development of a Parafin Wax deposition Unit for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Greta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pedersen, David Bue

    2014-01-01

    . This project illustrates the redesign of an extrusion unit for the deposition of paraffin wax in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) instead of the conventional polymeric materials. Among the benefits and brought by the use of paraffin wax in such system are: the possibility to make highly complex and precise...... parts to subsequently use in a Lost Wax Casting process, multi-material Additive Manufacturing and the use of wax as support material during the production of complicated parts. Moreover it is believed that including waxes among the materials usable in FDM would promote new ways of using and exploring...

  11. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  12. The palms of South America: diversity, distribution and evolutionary history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.

  13. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    ... affecting oil palm production in predominantly oil palm producing areas of Ondo state of Nigeria. ... This was because the mangrove swamp zone does not .... Research stations e.g. NIFOR. Radio .... palm production management practices.

  14. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  15. Studies on Hydrotreating Process of Microcrystalline Wax Produced from Marine Belayim Crude Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Karashi, S.; Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Microcrystalline wax was produced from solvent dewaxing process of vacuum residue raffinate produced from Marine Belayim origin. The untreated microcrystalline wax contains trace amounts of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and organometallic compounds as well as heavy aromatics which affect the properties of wax applications in pharmaceutical and technical fields . Microcrystalline wax hydrotreating process was studied using digital controlled unit and Ni O-MoO 3 / Al 2 O 3 catalyst, where operating parameters that controlled the efficiency of the hydrotreated wax were studied separately at different values including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio . Hydrotreated microcrystalline wax at operating conditions (temperature 300 degree C, pressure 73 kg/cm 2 , LHS V 0.52 h-l and H 2 /HC ratio 266.6 Nm 3 /m 3 ) has the best quality to be used as food grade wax

  16. Radiotherapic Valuation of Paraffin Wax for Patients with Oral Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Kyung Su; Seo, Seuk Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Yoo, Sook Heun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hosdital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    This study is designed to investigate radiotherapic valuation of Paraffin Wax, which is newly formed for this study and generally utilized in dentistry, and Mouth Piece and Putty impression, which are commonly used in radiotherapy, for oral cavity as a compensator. Each compensator was formed by 10 x 10 x 1 cm and measured radiation dose attenuation ratio with reference of water phantom which is made of tissue-equivalent materials. Two patients with oral cancer underwent DRR (Digitally Reconstructed Radiogrph) of Offline Review Program of Aria System and Portal vision for 5 times for each material to evaluate reproducibility by each filling materials. Moreover, MU (monitor unit) changes by dose absorption were considered in the case of inevitable implication of an filling materials in the range for radiotherapy. Radiation dose attenuation ratios were shown -0.7{approx}+3.7% for Mouth Piece, +0.21{approx}+0.39% for Paraffin Wax and -2.71{approx}-1.76% for Putty impression. Error ranges of reproducibility of positions were measured {+-}3 mm for Mouth Piece, {+-}2 mm for Paraffin Wax and {+-}2 mm for Putty impression. Difference of prescription MU from dose absorption with an filling material increased +7.8% (250 MU) in Putty impression and -0.9% (230 MU) in Paraffin Wax as converted into a percentage from the standard phantom, Water 232 MU. Dose reduction of boundary between cavity and tissue was observed for Mouth Piece. Mouth Piece also had low reproducibility of positions as it had no reflection of anatomy of oral cavity even though it was a proper material to separate Maxilla and Mandible during therapy. On the other hand, Putty impression was a suitable material to correctly re-position oral cavity as before. However, it risked normal tissues getting unnecessary over irradiation and it caused radiation dose decrease by -2.5% for 1cm volume in comparison of it of water phantom. Dose reduction in Paraffin Wax, Fat Tissue-Equivalent Material, was smaller than other

  17. Radiotherapic Valuation of Paraffin Wax for Patients with Oral Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Kyung Su; Seo, Seuk Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Yoo, Sook Heun

    2011-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate radiotherapic valuation of Paraffin Wax, which is newly formed for this study and generally utilized in dentistry, and Mouth Piece and Putty impression, which are commonly used in radiotherapy, for oral cavity as a compensator. Each compensator was formed by 10 x 10 x 1 cm and measured radiation dose attenuation ratio with reference of water phantom which is made of tissue-equivalent materials. Two patients with oral cancer underwent DRR (Digitally Reconstructed Radiogrph) of Offline Review Program of Aria System and Portal vision for 5 times for each material to evaluate reproducibility by each filling materials. Moreover, MU (monitor unit) changes by dose absorption were considered in the case of inevitable implication of an filling materials in the range for radiotherapy. Radiation dose attenuation ratios were shown -0.7∼+3.7% for Mouth Piece, +0.21∼+0.39% for Paraffin Wax and -2.71∼-1.76% for Putty impression. Error ranges of reproducibility of positions were measured ±3 mm for Mouth Piece, ±2 mm for Paraffin Wax and ±2 mm for Putty impression. Difference of prescription MU from dose absorption with an filling material increased +7.8% (250 MU) in Putty impression and -0.9% (230 MU) in Paraffin Wax as converted into a percentage from the standard phantom, Water 232 MU. Dose reduction of boundary between cavity and tissue was observed for Mouth Piece. Mouth Piece also had low reproducibility of positions as it had no reflection of anatomy of oral cavity even though it was a proper material to separate Maxilla and Mandible during therapy. On the other hand, Putty impression was a suitable material to correctly re-position oral cavity as before. However, it risked normal tissues getting unnecessary over irradiation and it caused radiation dose decrease by -2.5% for 1cm volume in comparison of it of water phantom. Dose reduction in Paraffin Wax, Fat Tissue-Equivalent Material, was smaller than other impressions and

  18. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  19. Mechanical properties of carving wax with various Ca-bentolite filter composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjijono Widjijono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The carving wax is used as a medium in dental anatomy study. This wax composes of many waxes and sometimes a filler is added. Carving wax is not sold in Indonesian market. Whereas the gradients of carving wax such as beeswax, paraffin and bentonite are abundant in Indonesia. Based on that fact, to make high quality and standard,the exact composition if this carving wax should be known. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carving wax composition with Ca-bentonite filler on the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion. Methods: Five carving wax compositions were made with paraffin, Ca-bentonite, carnauba wax, and beeswax in ratio (% weight: 50:20:25:5 (KI, 55:15:25:5 (KII, 60:10:25:5 (KIII, 65:5:25:5 (KIV, 70:0:25:5(KV. All components were melted, then poured into the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion moulds (n = 5. Three carving wax properties were tested: melting point by melting point apparatus; hardness by penetrometer; thermal expansion by digital sliding caliper. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD0.05. Result: The Ca-bentonite addition influenced the melting point and thermal expansion of carving wax with significant differences between KI and other groups (p < 0.05. Ca-bentonite addition influenced the carving wax hardness and the mean differences among the groups were significant (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Ca-bentonite filler addition on the composition of carving wax influenced the physical and mechanical properties. The carving wax with high Ca-bentonite concentration had high melting point and hardness, but low thermal expansion.

  20. Study of Plant Waxes Using Low Temperature Method for ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Schiebertová, P.; Zajícová, I.; Schwarzerová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1180-1181 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1211 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ESEM * plant waxes * low temperature method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  1. Wax solidification of drying agents containing tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishikawa, M.; Kido, H.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary to immobilize the tritium not to give any impact on the environmental biosphere because tritium may give profound effects in the metabolic pathway. One of the most probable methods of immobilizing tritium would be incorporation of tritiated water in solid forms. Any drying or dehydration technique would be effective in a tritium cleanup system for off-gas streams containing tritium or tritiated water. Commonly used drying agents such as activated alumina, silica gel, molecular sieves and calcium sulfate are of value for removal of water vapour from air or other gases. For long term tritium storage, however, these adsorptive materials should be enveloped to prevent contact with water or water vapour because the rate of leaching, evaporation or diffusion of tritium from these porous materials is so large. The beeswax solidification method of the packed bed of drying agents adsorbing tritiated water is developed in this study, where the wax solidification procedure is performed by pouring the melt of wax into the void space of the packed bed of the drying agents and successive gradual cooling. The observed values of diffusivity or permeability of tritium in the wax solidified materials are about one-thousandth of those obtained for the cement block. Effect of coating on the rate of leaching is also discussed

  2. Radiological properties of a wax-gypsum compensator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessis, F.C.P. du; Willemse, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the radiological properties of a compensator material consisting of wax and gypsum is presented. Effective attenuation coefficients (EACs) have been determined from transmission measurements with an ion chamber in a Perspex phantom. Measurements were made at 80 and 100 cm source-to-skin distance (SSD) for beam energies of 6, 8, and 15 MV, for field sizes ranging from narrow beam geometries up to 40x40 cm 2 , and at measurement depths of maximum dose build-up, 5 and 10 cm. A parametrization equation could be constructed to predict the EAC values within 4% uncertainty as a function of field size and depth of measurement. The EAC dependence on off-axis position was also quantified at each beam energy and SSD. It was found that the compensator material reduced the required thickness for compensation by 26% at 8 MV when compared to pure paraffin wax for a 10x10 cm 2 field. Relative surface ionization (RSI) measurements have been made to quantify the effect of scattered electrons from the wax-gypsum compensator. Results indicated that for 80 cm SSD the RSI would exceed 50% for fields larger than 15x15 cm 2 . At 100 cm SSD the RSI values were below 50% for all field sizes used

  3. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Characterization of a plant leaf cuticle model wax, phase behaviour of model wax–water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerström, Anton; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin; Mamontova, Varvara; Engblom, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system. • Eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated model wax. • The total transition enthalpy is smaller for the cuticle wax than for the model wax. • Water has a large plasticizing effect on cuticle wax. • The thermotropic transitions of model wax fit in the window of extracted leaf waxes. - Abstract: We investigated the thermotropic phase behaviour of plant leaf intracuticular wax and two representatives of its main components, 1-docosanol (C 22 H 45 OH) and dotriacontane (C 32 H 66 ), in dry and hydrated state. One objective was to obtain a model wax, which can be used to estimate formulations effects on cuticle diffusivity in vitro. The two wax components were chosen based on results from Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry analysis of cuticular wax. The wax was extracted from Clivia Miniata Regel leaves and contained 68% primary alcohols (C 16 –C 32 ) and 16% n-alkanes (C 21 –C 33 ). Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Polarized Light Microscopy and Small- and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction were used to characterize the cuticular extract and the phase behaviour of the C 22 H 45 OH/C 32 H 66 /H 2 O model system. Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system and eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated state. The thermotropic transitions of the model wax occur within the broader transition region of the extracted leaf wax

  5. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G″/G' (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes.

  6. Characterization of a plant leaf cuticle model wax, phase behaviour of model wax–water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerström, Anton, E-mail: anton.fagerstrom@mah.se [Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Kocherbitov, Vitaly [Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin [Agro Applications Europe, AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry AB, Stenungsund (Sweden); Mamontova, Varvara [Ecological and Chemical Research, St. Petersburg Scientific Research Center for Ecological Safety, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Engblom, Johan [Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden)

    2013-11-10

    Highlights: • Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system. • Eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated model wax. • The total transition enthalpy is smaller for the cuticle wax than for the model wax. • Water has a large plasticizing effect on cuticle wax. • The thermotropic transitions of model wax fit in the window of extracted leaf waxes. - Abstract: We investigated the thermotropic phase behaviour of plant leaf intracuticular wax and two representatives of its main components, 1-docosanol (C{sub 22}H{sub 45}OH) and dotriacontane (C{sub 32}H{sub 66}), in dry and hydrated state. One objective was to obtain a model wax, which can be used to estimate formulations effects on cuticle diffusivity in vitro. The two wax components were chosen based on results from Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry analysis of cuticular wax. The wax was extracted from Clivia Miniata Regel leaves and contained 68% primary alcohols (C{sub 16}–C{sub 32}) and 16% n-alkanes (C{sub 21}–C{sub 33}). Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Polarized Light Microscopy and Small- and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction were used to characterize the cuticular extract and the phase behaviour of the C{sub 22}H{sub 45}OH/C{sub 32}H{sub 66}/H{sub 2}O model system. Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system and eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated state. The thermotropic transitions of the model wax occur within the broader transition region of the extracted leaf wax.

  7. Biology of the Mangrove Palm, Nypa fruticans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.

    The Southeast Asian mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurmb occurs in large, monospecific stands in estuaries and along rivers. It is the only member of the subfamily Nypoideae, which derived early in palm evolution and is known from a fossil record extending back in time at least 70 millions years...

  8. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm yellows phytoplasmas have been a subject of debate because of two recent outbreaks. Firstly, a lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly the genus Phoenix in Florida in 2008. Shortly afterwards, Sabal palmetto which has never been threatened by a ...

  9. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  10. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...... result is used to study functional summaries for log Gaussian Cox processes....

  11. Effect of waste wax and chain structure on the mechanical and physical properties of polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. AlMaadeed

    2015-05-01

    The wax dispersion in the matrix strongly depends on the percentage of wax added to the polymer and the molecular structure of the polymer. It was found that increasing the wax content enhances the phase separation. LDPE undergoes less phase separation due to its highly branched structure composed of a network of short and long chain branches. The wax has no pronounced plasticising effect on the polymer. This is clearly manifested in LDPE as no change in the melting temperature occurred. LLDPE and HDPE were slightly affected by a high concentration of wax (30% and 40%. This is due to the non-uniform distribution of short chain branching along the LLDPE and HDPE main chains, which can interact with the wax structure.

  12. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  13. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  14. Effect Of Weed On Oil Palm Inflorenscence Production: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weed consistently depressed the performance of oil palm and this depressive effect was attributed to aggressive growth resources, smothering of the oil palm and preventing the palm from proper ventilation and solar radiation. Weed interference on inflorescence production of oil palm was assessed with the view of ...

  15. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suporn Charumanee; Songwut Yotsawimonwat; Panee Sirisa-ard; Kiatisak Pholsongkram

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examin...

  16. Methods for separating boron from borated paraffin wax and its determination by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyakumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Boron compounds are found to be useful in shielding against high-energy neutrons. In radiotherapy treatments, in order to protect occupational workers and patients from the undesirable neutron and gamma doses, paraffin wax containing B 4 C/boric acid is used. Low-level borate wastes generated from the nuclear power plants have been immobilized with paraffin wax using a concentrate waste drying system (CWDS). Borated paraffin waxes are prepared by mixing calculated amounts of either boric acid or boron carbide with the molten wax. This necessitates the determination of boron at different locations in order to check the homogeneous distribution of B over the borated wax. The determination of boron in nuclear materials is inevitable due to its high neutron absorption cross section. For the determination of boron in borated waxes, not many methods have been reported. A method based on the pyrohydrolysis extraction of boron and its quantification with ion chromatography was proposed for paraffin waxes borated with H 3 BO 3 and B 4 C. The B 4 C optimum pyrohydrolysis conditions were identified. Wax samples were mixed with U 3 O 8 , which prevents the sample from flare up, and also accelerates the extraction of boron. Pyrohydrolysis was carried out with moist O 2 at 950℃ for 60 and 90 min for wax with H 3 BO 3 and wax with B 4 C, respectively. Two simple methods of separation based on alkali extraction and melting wax in alkali were also developed exclusively for wax with H 3 BO 3 . In all the separations, the recovery of B was above 98%. During IC separation, B was separated as boron-mannitol anion complex. Linear calibration was obtained between 0.1 and 50 ppm of B, and LOD was calculated as 5 ppb (S/N=3). The reproducibility was better than 5% (RSD)

  17. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  18. The MIEL1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Negatively Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Gil; Kim, Juyoung; Suh, Mi Chung; Seo, Pil Joon

    2017-07-01

    Cuticular wax is an important hydrophobic layer that covers the plant aerial surface. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is shaped by multiple layers of regulation. In particular, a pair of R2R3-type MYB transcription factors, MYB96 and MYB30, are known to be the main participants in cuticular wax accumulation. Here, we report that the MYB30-INTERACTING E3 LIGASE 1 (MIEL1) E3 ubiquitin ligase controls the protein stability of the two MYB transcription factors and thereby wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. MIEL1-deficient miel1 mutants exhibit increased wax accumulation in stems, with up-regulation of wax biosynthetic genes targeted by MYB96 and MYB30. Genetic analysis reveals that wax accumulation of the miel1 mutant is compromised by myb96 or myb30 mutation, but MYB96 is mainly epistatic to MIEL1, playing a predominant role in cuticular wax deposition. These observations indicate that the MIEL1-MYB96 module is important for balanced cuticular wax biosynthesis in developing inflorescence stems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2014-01-01

    Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (Φ). A linear relationship between t/l and Φ (t/l ∼ Φ 0.89 ) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, μ = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 10 9 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 10 9 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress. (papers)

  20. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaka A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminu Ishaka,1,2 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Rozi Mahamud,3 Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki,4 Ismail Maznah1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56–94.52 nm, with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV, pH (6.79–6.92 and refractive index (1.50; these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. Keywords: rice bran wax, policosanol, nanoemulsion, characterization

  1. Penetuan Bilangan Iodin pada Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) dan Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Monica Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Have been conducted Determination of Iodin Value by method titration to some Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) and Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO). The result of analysis obtained the Iodin Value in Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 0,16 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (B) = 0,20 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (C) = 0,24 gr I2/100gr. And in Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 17,51 gr I2/100gr, Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel ...

  2. Laser-assisted fabrication of batteries on wax paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, G; Ziaie, B; Tan, T

    2013-01-01

    The functionality of paper-based diagnostic devices can be significantly enhanced by their integration with an on-board energy source. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of paper-based electrochemical cells on wax paper using CO 2 laser surface treatment and micromachining. A four cell zinc–copper battery shows a steady open-circuit voltage of ∼3 V and can provide 0.25 mA for at least 30 min when connected to a 10 kΩ load. Higher voltages and current values can be obtained by adjusting the number and size of electrochemical cells in the battery without changing the fabrication process. (paper)

  3. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  4. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balslev Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.

  5. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of an aqueous wax emulsion for controlled-release coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, P S; Stout, P J; Turton, R

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of an aqueous carnauba wax emulsion (Primafresh HS, Johnson Wax) in a spray-coating process. This involved assessing the effectiveness of the wax in sustaining the release of the drug, theophylline. Second, the process by which the drug was released from the wax-coated pellets was modeled. Finally, a method to determine the optimum blend of pellets with different wax thicknesses, in order to yield a zero-order release profile of the drug, was addressed. Nonpareil pellets were loaded with theophylline using a novel powder coating technique. These drug-loaded pellets were then coated with different levels of carnauba wax in a 6-in. diameter Plexiglas fluid bed with a 3.5-in. diameter Wurster partition. Drug release was measured using a spin-filter dissolution device. The study resulted in continuous carnauba wax coatings which showed sustained drug release profile characteristics typical of a barrier-type, diffusion-controlled system. The effect of varying wax thickness on the release profiles was investigated. It was observed that very high wax loadings would be required to achieve long sustained-release times. The diffusion model, developed to predict the release of the drug, showed good agreement with the experimental data. However, the data exhibited an initial lag-time for drug release which could not be predicted a priori based on the wax coating thickness. A method of mixing pellets with different wax thicknesses was proposed as a way to approximate zero-order release.

  7. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  8. Composition of epicuticular wax on Prosopis glandulosa leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeux, H.S. Jr.; Wilkinson, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Epicuticular wax on leaves of field-grown honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) trees consisted of 35% esters, 32% alkanes, 25% free fatty alcohols, and 7% free fatty acids. Aldehydes were present in very low concentrations. The number of carbon atoms (C n ) of alkanes ranged from 25 to 31, with a maximum (57%) at 29. Esters consisted of fatty acids with C n of 16, 18, and 20, with most (70%) at 18 and fatty alcohols with C n of 24-32. The C n of free fatty alcohols and free fatty acids also ranged from 24 to 32. Only primary alcohols were present. Immediately after exposure of glasshouse-grown seedlings to 14 CO 2 for 4 h, 60% of the recovered 14 C was incorporated into free fatty acids; the percentage decreased progressively to 18% 8 h after exposure and remained stable thereafter. The proportion of 14 C in free fatty alcohols increased from ca. 12% immediately after exposure to 14 CO 2 to 55% at 8 h. Little 14 C was associated with other wax components over the 24-h period; 3% or less was incorporated into alkanes

  9. Characterisation of wax works of art by gas chromatographic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regert, M; Langlois, J; Colinart, S

    2005-10-14

    To identify the various natural and synthetic substances used by sculptors at the end of the 19th century, several contemporary reference samples were investigated by high temperature gas chromatography (HT GC) and HT GC-MS. Using specific chromatographic conditions and minimising sample preparation, we could separate, detect and identify a wide range of biomolecular markers covering a great variety of molecular weights and volatilities, with a minimum amount of sample, in a single run. Beeswax, spermaceti, carnauba, candellila and Japan waxes as well as pine resin derivatives, animal fats, paraffin, ozokerite and stearin, used as additives in wax works of art, were chemically investigated. In the case of low volatile compounds, transbutylation was performed. The structure of long-chain esters of spermaceti was elucidated for the first time by HT GC-MS analysis. Such a method was then carried out on 10 samples collected on a statuette of Junon by Antoine-Louis Barye (Louvre Museum, Paris, France) and on a sculpture by Aimé-Jules Dalou (Musée de la Révolution Française, Vizille, France). The analytical results obtained provide new data on the complex recipes elaborated by sculptors at the end of the 19th century.

  10. Thermal Cracking to Improve the Qualification of the Waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Agblevor, F. A.; Chen, C. G.; Feng, J.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal cracking of waxes at mild conditions (430-500°C) has been reconsidered as a possible refining technology for the production of fuels and chemicals. In this study, the more moderate thermal cracking was investigated to process Uinta Basin soft waxes to achieve the required pour point so that they can be pumped to the refineries. The best thermal cracking conditions were set 420°C and 20 minutes. The viscosity and density of the final liquid product were respectively achieved as 2.63 mP•s and 0.784 g/cm3 at 40°C. The result of FT-IR analysis of the liquid product indicated that the unsaturated hydrocarbons were produced after thermal cracking, which was corroborated by the 13C NMR spectrum. The GC analysis of the final gas product indicated that the hydrogen was produced; the dehydrogenation reaction was also proved by the elemental analysis and HHV results. The pour point of the final liquid product met the requirement.

  11. Inverse gradients in leaf wax δD and δ13C values along grass blades of Miscanthus sinensis: implications for leaf wax reproduction and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Huang, Yongsong

    2013-06-01

    Compound specific hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of higher plant leaf waxes have been extensively used in paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. However, studies so far have focused on the comparison of leaf wax isotopic differences in bulk leaf samples between different plant species. We sampled three different varieties of tall grasses (Miscanthus sinensis) in six segments from base to tip and determined hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of leaf waxes, as well as hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of leaf water samples. We found an increasing, base-to-tip hydrogen isotopic gradient along the grass blades that can probably be attributed to active leaf wax regeneration over the growth season. Carbon isotopic ratios, on the other hand, show opposite trends to hydrogen isotopic ratios along the grass blades, which may reflect different photosynthetic efficiencies at different blade locales.

  12. A news magnetic tools designed by ECOPETROL to inhibit wax in the petroleum production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez U, C.; Medina Z, C. [ECOPETROL, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (Colombia); Pena C, A. [INSERPET, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    The deposition of wax and asphaltenes in production systems cause plugging in the flow lines reducing the oil production and increasing significantly the produced barrels prices. A wax magnetic inhibition technique has been tested with great success. The method has been improved with the use of magnetic tools. This work describes the experience and the results obtained with these tools. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Changes in Cuticular Wax Composition of Two Blueberry Cultivars during Fruit Ripening and Postharvest Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Wu, Weijie; Fang, Xiangjun

    2018-03-21

    Cuticular wax plays an important role for the quality of blueberry fruits. In this study, the cuticular wax composition of two blueberry cultivars, 'Legacy' ( Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Brightwell' ( Vaccinium ashei), was examined during fruit ripening and postharvest cold storage. The results showed that wax was gradually deposited on the epidermis of blueberry fruits and the content of major wax compounds, except that for diketones, increased significantly during fruit ripening. The total wax content was 2-fold greater in 'Brightwell' blueberries than that in 'Legacy' blueberries during fruit ripening. The total wax content of both cultivars decreased during 30 days of storage at 4 °C, and the variation of cuticular wax composition was cultivar-dependent. The content of diketones decreased significantly in 'Legacy' blueberries, while the content of triterpenoids and aliphatic compounds showed different fold changes in 'Brightwell' blueberries after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. Overall, our study provided a quantitative and qualitative overview of cuticular wax compounds of blueberry fruits during ripening and postharvest cold storage.

  14. Development and Performance Evaluation of Image-Based Robotic Waxing System for Detailing Automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Hsu, Bing-Cheng

    2018-05-14

    Waxing is an important aspect of automobile detailing, aimed at protecting the finish of the car and preventing rust. At present, this delicate work is conducted manually due to the need for iterative adjustments to achieve acceptable quality. This paper presents a robotic waxing system in which surface images are used to evaluate the quality of the finish. An RGB-D camera is used to build a point cloud that details the sheet metal components to enable path planning for a robot manipulator. The robot is equipped with a multi-axis force sensor to measure and control the forces involved in the application and buffing of wax. Images of sheet metal components that were waxed by experienced car detailers were analyzed using image processing algorithms. A Gaussian distribution function and its parameterized values were obtained from the images for use as a performance criterion in evaluating the quality of surfaces prepared by the robotic waxing system. Waxing force and dwell time were optimized using a mathematical model based on the image-based criterion used to measure waxing performance. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robotic waxing system and image-based performance evaluation scheme.

  15. Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1977-01-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

  16. Simple Synthesis Hydrogenated Castor Oil Fatty Amide Wax and Its Coating Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuzhu; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for incorporating amine groups in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) to produce wax for beeswax or carnauba wax substitution in packaging and coating was developed. From the conversion rate of the products, HCO was reacted with ethanolamine at 150°C for 5 h, and the molar ratio of HCO and ethanolamine was 1:4. The hardness of the final product was seven times higher than that of beeswax, the cohesiveness of the final product was 1.3 times higher than that of beeswax and approximately one half of that of carnauba wax, and the melting point of the final product is 98°C. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy showed that the amide groups were incorporated to form the amide products. In coating application, the results showed that the force of the final product coating cardboard was higher than that of beeswax and paraffin wax and less than that of carnauba wax. After 24 h soaking, the compression forces were decreased. HCO fatty acid wax can be an alternative wax for carnauba wax and beeswax in coating applications.

  17. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bačić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill., both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fused and agglomerated rapidly to various extents of morphologically different types of amorphous wax crusts, primarily compact and particulate ones. This process begins very early, especially in polluted Risnjak site, and may be interpreted as a possible result of air pollution. However, the recrystalization, or production of new tubules, also appears relatively quickly in mostly cases. Quantitative estimations indicate a very large total amount of amorphous wax crusts in the current-year needles, and a very high percentage of the same wax in previous-year needles. Amorphous wax crusts cover stomatal pores, as well as the rims, disturbing the normal gas exchange. Statistically there is a signicant tendency of increase in wax degradation in the needles of the polluted site in comparison with those of the unpolluted one, but there is an insignificant wax degradation among the needles of damaged trees within each site. These results confirmed most of the research done in our preliminary report.

  18. A news magnetic tools designed by ECOPETROL to inhibit wax in the petroleum production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez U, C; Medina Z, C [ECOPETROL, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (Colombia); Pena C, A [INSERPET, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1997-12-31

    The deposition of wax and asphaltenes in production systems cause plugging in the flow lines reducing the oil production and increasing significantly the produced barrels prices. A wax magnetic inhibition technique has been tested with great success. The method has been improved with the use of magnetic tools. This work describes the experience and the results obtained with these tools. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Effect of soil moisture management on the quality of wax apple | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax apple (Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry) was one of the economically planted fruits in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of different soil moisture management on increasing wax apple quality. It was preceded at two different soil properties (shallow soil and alluvial soil) in Pingtung, ...

  20. Morphology and accumulation of epicuticular wax on needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; William C. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have documented differences in epicuticular wax among several tree species but little attention has been paid to changes in accumulation of foliar wax that can occur during the year. We sampled current-year needles from the terminal shoots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in late June/early...

  1. Rainforests for palm oil?; Regenwaldopfer fuer Palmoel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, C.

    2007-07-02

    Environmentalists are all fired up as rainforests are cut down for palm oil production in south eastern Asia. An international certification system is to ensure sustainable production and save the rainforests. (orig.)

  2. Phylogeny and palm diversity across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Baker, William J.

    spatial scales. Among others, we ask the following questions: To what extent can niche conservatism explain large-scale distribution patterns? Which assembly mechanisms are responsible for palm community composition on different spatial scales? What is the role of phylogenetic history for spatial patterns...... clustering. On a continental scale in the New World, we inferred from phylogenetic turnover that palms diversified mainly within seven biogeographic regions. This pattern of in situ diversification is strongly driven by a combination of phylogenetic niche conservatism, environmental filtering and dispersal...... limitation. Niche conservatism with respect to temperature seasonality and extremes emerges as an important determinant of palm species and clade distributions and thus there is concern that palms might be considerably vulnerable to climate change. On a regional to local scale in the Western Amazon...

  3. Eero Palm arhitekt / intervjueerinud Kristjan Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Eero, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Eero Palm arhitektiks saamisest, oma töödest, tööprotsessist, enda eramust, küsimustest, mida arhitekt peab lahendama objekti luues, kompromissidest, arengutest ehitusturul. Loetletud Eero Palmi töid

  4. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of cuticular wax on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Zheng, Yonghua

    2018-01-15

    The blueberry fruit has a light-blue appearance because its blue-black skin is covered with a waxy bloom. This layer is easily damaged or removed during fruit harvesting and postharvest handling. We investigated the effects of wax removal on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit and their possible mechanisms. The removal of natural wax on the fruit was found to accelerate the postharvest water loss and decay, reduce the sensory and nutritional qualities, and shorten the shelf-life. Wax removal decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants, and accelerated accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation, especially at the later period of storage. Moreover, the organellar membrane structure was disrupted in fruit with wax removed. These results indicate that cuticular wax plays an important role in maintaining the postharvest quality and delaying fruit senescence. The results should improve our understanding for better preservation of postharvest quality of blueberry fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Astimar Abdul Aziz; Ravigadevi Sambathamurthi; Mohd Basri Wahid

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

  7. Useful palms (Arecaceae near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Balslev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the uses of 64 species of palms in 28 villages in Departamento de Loreto, Peru. There, the palms are of great use as food (Bactris gasipaes, Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, for fiber production (Astrocaryum chambira, Aphandra natalia, for construction of houses (Euterpe precatoria, Iriartea deltoidea,Socratea exorrhiza, thatching (many species of Attalea, Lepidocaryum tenue and for many medicinal purposes (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua.

  8. Pollutant in palm oil production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

  9. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  10. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From... Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from... order on petroleum wax candles from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  11. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  12. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron ...

  13. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  14. Marginal adaptation of four inlay casting waxes on stone, titanium, and zirconia dies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Kapsampeli, Vassiliki; Kitsou, Aikaterini; Kirmanidou, Yvone; Fotiou, Anna; Pissiotis, Argirios L; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kudara, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    Different inlay casting waxes do not produce copings with satisfactory marginal accuracy when used on different die materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal accuracy of 4 inlay casting waxes on stone dies and titanium and zirconia abutments and to correlate the findings with the degree of wetting between the die specimens and the inlay casting waxes. The inlay casting waxes tested were Starwax (Dentaurum), Unterziehwachs (Bredent), SU Esthetic wax (Schuler), and Sculpturing wax (Renfert). The marginal opening of the waxes was measured with a stereomicroscope on high-strength stone dies and on titanium and zirconia abutments. Photographic images were obtained, and the mean marginal opening for each specimen was calculated. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Wetting between die materials and waxes was determined after fabricating stone, titanium, and zirconia rectangular specimens. A calibrated pipette was used to place a drop of molten wax onto each specimen. The contact angle was calculated with software after an image of each specimen had been made with a digital camera. Collected data were subjected to a 2-way analysis of variance (α=.05). Any association between marginal accuracy and wetting of different materials was found by using the Pearson correlation. The wax factor had a statistically significant effect both on the marginal discrepancy (F=158.31, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=68.09, P<.001). A statistically significant effect of the die material factor both on the marginal adaptation (F=503.47, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=585.02, P<.001) was detected. A significant correlation between the marginal accuracy and the contact angle values (Pearson=0.881, P=.01) was also found. Stone dies provided wax copings with the best marginal integrity, followed by titanium and zirconia abutments. Unterziehwachs (Bredent), wax produced the best marginal adaptation on different die materials. A significant correlation was found

  15. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  16. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence

  17. The effect of the environment on the structure, quantity and composition of spruce needle wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenthardt-Goerg, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The tubular structure (10-nonacosanol), as formed in spring on the wax surface of new spruce needles (Picea abies (L.)Karst.), or as regenerated on previous-year needles, becomes gradually fused and flattened in relation to needle exposure, particularly wind and rain. Structural flattening does not necessarily imply changes in wax quantity, composition or lead to changes in needle transpiration or photosynthesis, and was approximately reproduced by bathing excised twigs in water (with pH having little effect). In 4-year-old plants of one clone planted out at a Swiss plateau and alpine sites, changes in wax structure were similar to those found in mature trees. No such changes were found in plants with O 3 , SO 2 , ambient air, charcoal-filtered air, or in plants grown outside the chambers but shielded from rain. Area-related needle wax quantity in mature trees differed between the two sites, but did not differ in young plants under different treatments (fumigation or planted out at the sites). Minor differences in wax composition, however, were found to be related to the ozone dose of the fumigation or the ambient ozone dose at the sites. In each needle wax sample, 68 compounds grouped into 12 constituent classes were quantified. The quantity of the individual substituent classes varied among wax samples from genetically different mature trees at the two sites in a tree-specific way. Variation of these quantities was not larger than among young cloned plants after different treatments. (orig.)

  18. Wax inhibitor based on ethylene vinyl acetate with methyl methacrylate and diethanolamine for crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Abang, S.; Bono, A.; Krishnaiah, D.; Karali, R.; Safuan, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Wax precipitation and deposition is one of the most significant flow assurance challenges in the production system of the crude oil. Wax inhibitors are developed as a preventive strategy to avoid an absolute wax deposition. Wax inhibitors are polymers which can be known as pour point depressants as they impede the wax crystals formation, growth, and deposition. In this study three formulations of wax inhibitors were prepared, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl acetate co-methyl methacrylate (EVA co-MMA) and ethylene vinyl acetate co-diethanolamine (EVA co-DEA) and the comparison of their efficiencies in terms of cloud point¸ pour point, performance inhibition efficiency (%PIE) and viscosity were evaluated. The cloud point and pour point for both EVA and EVA co-MMA were similar, 15°C and 10-5°C, respectively. Whereas, the cloud point and pour point for EVA co-DEA were better, 10°C and 10-5°C respectively. In conclusion, EVA co-DEA had shown the best % PIE (28.42%) which indicates highest percentage reduction of wax deposit as compared to the other two inhibitors.

  19. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  20. Phase Change Insulation for Energy Efficiency Based on Wax-Halloysite Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yafei; Thapa, Suvhashis; Weiss, Leland; Lvov, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have gained extensive attention in thermal energy storage. Wax can be used as a PCM in solar storage but it has low thermal conductivity. Introducing 10% halloysite admixed into wax yields a novel composite (wax-halloysite) which has a thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/mK. To increase the base conductivity, graphite and carbon nanotubes were added into the PCM composite improving its thermal energy storage. Thermal conductivity of wax-halloysite-graphite (45/45/10%) composite showed increased conductivity of 1.4 W/mK (3 times higher than the base wax-halloysite composite). Wax- halloysite-graphite-carbon nanotubes (45/45/5/5%) composite showed conductivity of 0.85 W/mK while maintaining the original shape perfectly until 91 °C (above the original wax melting point). Thermal conductivity can be further increased with higher doping of carbon nanotubes. This new composites are promising heat storage material due to good thermal stability, high thermal/electricity conductivity and ability to preserve its shape during phase transitions

  1. Molecular and Evolutionary Mechanisms of Cuticular Wax for Plant Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Xue

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature. Drought, a major type of abiotic stress, poses huge threats to global food security and health of terrestrial ecosystem by limiting plant growth and crop productivity. The composition, biochemistry, structure, biosynthesis, and transport of plant cuticular wax have been reviewed extensively. However, the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms of cuticular wax in plants in response to drought stress are still lacking. In this review, we focus on potential mechanisms, from evolutionary, molecular, and physiological aspects, that control cuticular wax and its roles in plant drought tolerance. We also raise key research questions and propose important directions to be resolved in the future, leading to potential applications of cuticular wax for water use efficiency in agricultural and environmental sustainability.

  2. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Climate Change Adaptation Needs of Male and Female Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2008 and Ayodele, 2010) and also results in an increase in demand for palm oil. The demand .... climate change adaptation practice needs of oil palm entrepreneurs in Edo State, .... female respondents had one form of education or the other.

  4. Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment with cyclophosphamide among rats. ... Background and purpose: Palm pollen is a good source of natural antioxidants and has a high level of health ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Turning palm leaves into wood: Opportunities for Egypt's rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Bedouin women weave handmade baskets, hats, and lamps using dried palm leaves. ... palm tree leaves into hardwood and high-quality wooden products, ... of wood and open doors to job opportunities for rural communities.

  6. Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash-Derived Alkali and ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The remedial process involved subjecting the dried palm bunch matter to total combustion, ...

  7. Health promoting effects of phytonutrients found in palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, R; Selvaduray, K R; Nesaretnam, K; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2010-08-01

    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.

  8. germplasm collection of highland palms of afikpo in eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    1Plant Breeding Division, Nigerian Institute For Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) P.M.B 1030 .... computed following standard statistical methods (Steel .... The production of NIFOR elite ... Malaysia Palm Oil Board, Kualar Lumpur, pp 171 – 237.

  9. Accuracy of ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination technique: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rahul; Al-Keraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Kathuria, Nidhi; Gandhi, P V; Bhide, S V

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination techniques can be combined to offer a cost-effective, clinically acceptable, and time-saving alternative for fabricating single unit castings in fixed prosthodontics. Sixty standardized wax copings were fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a stainless steel die. The wax patterns were divided into four groups. The first group was cast using the ringless investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the second group was cast using the ringless investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method; the third group was cast using the conventional metal ring investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the fourth group was cast using the metal ring investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method. The vertical marginal gap was measured at four sites per specimen, using a digital optical microscope at 100× magnification. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA to determine statistical significance. The vertical marginal gaps of castings fabricated using the ringless technique (76.98 ± 7.59 μm) were significantly less (p castings fabricated using the conventional metal ring technique (138.44 ± 28.59 μm); however, the vertical marginal gaps of the conventional (102.63 ± 36.12 μm) and accelerated wax-elimination (112.79 ± 38.34 μm) castings were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The ringless investment technique can produce castings with higher accuracy and can be favorably combined with the accelerated wax-elimination method as a vital alternative to the time-consuming conventional technique of casting restorations in fixed prosthodontics. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Tectonic microplates in a wax model of sea-floor spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Richard F; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Rotating, growing microplates are observed in a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. Based on the wax observations, a theory for the nucleation of overlapping spreading centres, the precursors of tectonic microplates, is developed

  11. Caffeine and theobromine in epicuticular wax of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, M L; Coelho, G C; Schenkel, E P

    2000-12-01

    Caffeine and theobromine were identified and quantified in leaf epicuticular waxes of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. (Aquifoliaceae). The total epicuticular leaf wax content was ca. 0.5% on average of dry leaf weight. Epicuticular caffeine and theobromine contents varied from 0.16 to 127.6 microg/mg and from 0 to 9.5 microg/mg of wax, respectively. For some selected samples, the intracellular methylxanthine concentration was also determined. A positive correlation was found between inner and epicuticular caffeine contents.

  12. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.

  13. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  14. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Penetration of RBD palm olein in a lyotropic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan bin Suhaimi; Anuar bin Kasim

    1993-01-01

    The inner structure of lamellar liquid crystal before and after addition of RDB palm olein was characterised employing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and optical microscopy. Results show that the addition of RDB palm olein to both layered structure indicate a temporary disturbance resulting in penetration of RDB palm olein into the layered structure

  16. The Performance Of Oil Palm And Different Food Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out between 1996 and 2004 to determine the productivity and economic returns to the resource base of farmers practicing different oil palm/food crop intercropping in an intensive four-year sequential cropping using the standard oil palm density. Oil palm was intercropped for four years, ...

  17. Challenges and Prospects of Smallholder Oil Palm Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges and prospects of smallholder oil palm production in Awka Agricultural Zone of Anambra State. Seventy two smallholder oil palm farmers were interviewed for the purpose of eliciting information. Smallholder oil palm farmers in Awka Agricultural Zone were educated (79.2% - Senior ...

  18. Genetic comparisons of Egyptian date palm cultivars (Phoenix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to compare genetic material from four females date palm and four unknown male trees of Egyptian date palm. The genetic similarity between the four females date palm (Zaghloul, Amhat, Samany and Siwi) ranged from 87.5 to 98.9%. The banding profiles obtained ...

  19. Zero additives preservation of Raphia palm wine | Dioha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm wine obtained from Raphia palm (Raphia hookeri) in Ayingba, Kogi State, Nigeria, was pasteurized through zero addition of preservative and placed on the shelf for 6 months. After 6 months, another sample of palm wine obtained from the same area was fetched and comparative analysis was carried out on both wine ...

  20. Nanofibers extraction from palm mesocarp fiber for biodegradable polymers incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuana, Vanessa A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa B.; Takahashi, Marcio C.; Campos, Adriana de; Sena Neto, Alfredo R.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Marconcini, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The palm mesocarp fibers are residues produced by the palm oil industries. The objective of this paper is to determine an efficient treatment to extract crystal cellulose nanofibers from the palm mesocarp fibers to be incorporated in biodegradable polymeric composites. The fibers were saponified, bleached and analyzed with thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  1. A tutorial on Palm distributions for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to Palm distributions for spatial point processes. Initially, in the context of finite point processes, we give an explicit definition of Palm distributions in terms of their density functions. Then we review Palm distributions in the general case. Finally, we...

  2. Economic Assessment of Palm Oil Processing in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on economic analysis of palm oil processing in Owerri Agricultural zone of Imo State, it was designed to determine the costs and returns of palm oil processing in the area of study. Seventy five (75) palm oil processors were randomly sampled from the study location and a structured interview schedule was ...

  3. Characterization of Diclofenac Liposomes Formulated with Palm Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterize diclofenac sodium (DS) liposomes prepared using palm oil fractions. Methods: Reverse-phase evaporation method was used to prepare liposomes containing 10, 20, 30 , 40 or 50% palm oil fractions. The effect of palm oil content on liposome formation, surface morphology, shape, size and zeta ...

  4. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of o...

  5. Camphor Burns on the Palm: An Unusual New Presentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the center), and Type 3 (a full‑thickness burn exposing the palmar fascia). Conclusion: Different types of camphor burns on the palm are described in this study. This is the first study to report ring‑shaped blisters and ring‑shaped partially thick camphor burns caused on the palm. KEYWORDS: Camphor, palm burn, ring ...

  6. Predictive Model Equations for Palm Kernel (Elaeis guneensis J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated error of ± 0.18 and ± 0.2 are envisaged while applying the models for predicting palm kernel and sesame oil colours respectively. Keywords: Palm kernel, Sesame, Palm kernel, Oil Colour, Process Parameters, Model. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 6 (1) 2006 pp. 34-38 ...

  7. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.

  8. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  9. IMPACT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on some anti ... In Nigeria, palm oil production ... crude palm oil produced, 5-7.5 tonnes of water ... inter group comparison using least significant .... York, U.S.A. pp.

  10. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from gut of red palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver is one of the insects that attack date palm trees directly and cause its death. This infection poses serious economical consequences in Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries. RPW assimilates the components of palm tree tissues. Significant amount of microbiota in ...

  11. Species Diversity and Growth Forms in Tropical American Palm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Kahn, Francis; Millán, Betty

    2011-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the processes that govern the assembly of palm communities and the local coexistence of numerous palm species, we here synthesize available information in the literature on species diversity and growth-form composition in palm communities across the Americas. Ameri...

  12. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last few decades, rapid global demand for edible oils has resulted in a significant increase in the land area of oil crop cultivation. In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm pressed fibre (PPF) are generated as waste products. This research was undertaken to evaluate ...

  13. Oil Palm Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon (2006-2014): Effects of the 2010 Sustainable Oil Palm Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has the world's largest suitable land area for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) establishment, with estimates as high as 238 million ha. To promote oil palm development, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) in 2010 and delineated 30 million ha for its growth that excluded forested areas and indigenous reserves. Here we examine oil palm expansion (2006-2014) as well as the SPOPP's effectiveness in Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil. By combining analyses of satellite imagery, land registration data, and site based interviews, we found that oil palm area expanded 205%. Although >50% of oil palm parcels were located within 0.5 km of intact forests, lands. Direct intact forest conversion pre- and post-SPOPP declined from 4% to <1%; however, <1% of the 30 million ha promoted for oil palm was developed by 2014. To explore the major factors that may have constrained oil palm expansion under the SPOPP, we conducted microeconomic simulations of oil palm production, combined with interviews with actors/individuals from oil palm companies, civil society, researchers at universities and NGOs, and governmental agencies. Brazil's oil palm-deforestation dynamics, policies, and economic conditions will be discussed.

  14. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  15. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  16. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Hilmi Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  17. A study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J. Y.; Ng, W. P. Q.; Law, K. H.

    2017-06-01

    In the past decades, palm industry is booming due to its profitable nature. An environmental concern regarding on the palm industry is the enormous amount of waste produced from palm industry. The waste produced or palm biomass is one significant renewable energy source and raw material for value-added products like fiber mats, activated carbon, dried fiber, bio-fertilizer and et cetera in Malaysia. There is a need to establish the palm biomass industry for the recovery of palm biomass for efficient utilization and waste reduction. The development of the industry is strongly depending on the two reasons, the availability and supply consistency of palm biomass as well as the availability of palm biomass processing facilities. In Malaysia, the development of palm biomass industry is lagging due to the lack of mature commercial technology and difficult logistic planning as a result of scattered locality of palm oil mill, where palm biomass is generated. Two main studies have been carried out in this research work: i) industrial study of the feasibility of decentralized and centralized palm biomass processing in Sarawak and ii) development of a systematic and optimized palm biomass processing planning for the development of palm biomass industry in Sarawak, Malaysia. Mathematical optimization technique is used in this work to model the above case scenario for biomass processing to achieve maximum economic potential and resource feasibility. An industrial study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak has been carried out to evaluate the optimality of centralized processing and decentralize processing of the local biomass industry. An optimal biomass processing strategy is achieved.

  18. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  19. Effect of matrix granulation and wax coating on the dissolution rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disintegrating) granules consisting of paracetamol (drug) and acrylatemethacrylate copolymer, a matrix forming material. The effect of coating the matrix granules with wax on the drug release profiles was also investigated. The objective was to ...

  20. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-01

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  1. Development and Properties of a Wax Ester Hydrolase in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony H. C.; Moreau, Robert A.; Liu, Kitty D. F.

    1978-01-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent Km value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 μM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax). PMID:16660288

  2. Development and properties of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A H; Moreau, R A; Liu, K D

    1978-03-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent K(m) value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 muM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax).

  3. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Liu, Yang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct

  4. "Wax bloom" on beeswax cultural heritage objects: exploring the causes of the phenomenon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartl, B.; Kobera, Libor; Drábková, K.; Ďurovič, M.; Brus, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 7 (2015), s. 509-513 ISSN 0749-1581 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : 13-C NMR * wax bloom * efflorescence Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  5. Bee waxes: a model of characterization for using as base simulator tissue in teletherapy with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rogerio Matias Vidal da; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model of characterization and selection of bee waxes which makes possible to certify the usage viability of that base simulator tissue in the manufacture of appropriated objects for external radiotherapy with mega volt photon beams. The work was divide into three stages, where was evaluated physical and chemical properties besides the aspects related to the capacity of beam attenuation. All the process was carefully accompanied related to the wax origin such as the bee specimen and the flora surrounding the beehives. The chemical composition of the waxes is similar to others simulators usually used in radiotherapy. The behavior of mass attenuation coefficient in the radiotherapeutic energy range is comparable to other simulators, and consequently to the soft tissue. The proposed model is efficient and allows the affirmative that the usage of determined bee wax as base simulator tissue is convenient

  6. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  7. Accuracy of Digitally Fabricated Wax Denture Bases and Conventional Completed Complete Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Stawarczyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the accuracy of digitally fabricated wax trial dentures and conventionally finalized complete dentures in comparison to a surface tessellation language (STL-dataset. A generated data set for the denture bases and the tooth sockets was used, converted into STL-format, and saved as reference. Five mandibular and 5 maxillary denture bases were milled from wax blanks and denture teeth were waxed into their tooth sockets. Each complete denture was checked on fit, waxed onto the dental cast, and digitized using an optical laboratory scanning device. The complete dentures were completed conventionally using the injection method, finished, and scanned. The resulting STL-datasets were exported into the three-dimensional (3D software GOM Inspect. Each of the 5 mandibular and 5 maxillary complete dentures was aligned with the STL- and the wax trial denture dataset. Alignment was performed based on a best-fit algorithm. A three-dimensional analysis of the spatial divergences in x-, y- and z-axes was performed by the 3D software and visualized in a color-coded illustration. The mean positive and negative deviations between the datasets were calculated automatically. In a direct comparison between maxillary wax trial dentures and complete dentures, complete dentures showed higher deviations from the STL-dataset than the wax trial dentures. The deviations occurred in the area of the teeth as well as in the distal area of the denture bases. In contrast, the highest deviations in both the mandibular wax trial dentures and the mandibular complete dentures were observed in the distal area. The complete dentures showed higher deviations on the occlusal surfaces of the teeth compared to the wax dentures. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM-fabricated wax dentures exhibited fewer deviations from the STL-reference than the complete dentures. The deviations were significantly greater in the

  8. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman; Rida, Anak Tajau; Mek Zah Salleh; Rosley Che Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  9. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

    2005-01-01

    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  10. Isolation and recrystallization of epicuticular waxes from Sorbus and Cotoneaster leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Ganeva Tsveta; Stefanova Miroslava; Koleva Dimitrina; Ruiz Segundo Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Wax morphology and chemical composition are widely accepted to be important for the protective properties of the leaf’s surface and also valuable characteristics in plant systematics. The leaves of Sorbus domestica L. and Cotoneaster granatensis Boiss., species of two large genera with intricate taxonomy referred to subtribe Pyrinae, Rosaceae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and performing different methods of wax isola...

  11. Policosanol fabrication from insect wax and optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhongquan; Wang, Youqiong; Li, Kai; Chen, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is a famous biological resource for the role in economic production in China. Insect wax is a good source of policosanol, which may is a candidate supplement in foodstuff and pharmaceuticals that has important physiological activities. Therefore, this work aims to investigate a high-yield and rapid method for policosanol fabrication from insect wax. The conditions for policosanol fabrication were optimized as follows: an oil bath temperature of 112.7°C and reductant dosage of 0.97 g (used for the reduction of 10.00 g of insect wax). The yield of policosanol reached 83.20%, which was 4 times greater than that of existing methods, such as saponification. The total content of policosanol obtained under the optimal conditions reached 87%. In other words, a high yield of policosanol was obtained from insect wax (723.84 mg/g), that was 55 times higher than that generated from beeswax-brown via saponification. The concentrations of metal residues in policosanol were within the limits of the European Union regulations and EFSA stipulation. The LD50 values for oral doses of insect wax and policosanol were both > 5 g/kg. Policosanol was fabricated via solvent-free reduction from insect wax using LiAlH4 at a high yield. The fabrication conditions were optimized. Policosanol and insect wax showed high security, which made them potential candidates as supplements in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The rapid and high-yield method has great potential for commercial manufacturing of policosanol.

  12. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Bačić; Ljiljana Krstin; Jadranka Roša; Željko Popović

    2011-01-01

    Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.), both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fuse...

  13. A review of the performance and structural considerations of paraffin wax hybrid rocket fuels with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Kirsty; Adali, Sarp; Pitot, Jean; Brooks, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Paraffin wax as a hybrid rocket fuel has not been comprehensively characterised, especially regarding the structural feasibility of the material in launch applications. Preliminary structural testing has shown paraffin wax to be a brittle, low strength material, and at risk of failure under launch loading conditions. Structural enhancing additives have been identified, but their effect on motor performance has not always been considered, nor has any standard method of testing been identified between research institutes. A review of existing regression rate measurement techniques on paraffin wax based fuels and the results obtained with various additives are collated and discussed in this paper. The review includes 2D slab motors that enable visualisation of liquefying fuel droplet entrainment and the effect of an increased viscosity on the droplet entrainment mechanism, which can occur with the addition of structural enhancing polymers. An increased viscosity has been shown to reduce the regression rate of liquefying fuels. Viscosity increasing additives that have been tested include EVA and LDPE. Both these additives increase the structural properties of paraffin wax, where the elongation and UTS are improved. Other additives, such as metal hydrides, aluminium and boron generally offer improvements on the regression rate. However, very little consideration has been given to the structural effects these additives have on the wax grain. A 40% aluminised grain, for example, offers a slight increase in the UTS but reduces the elongation of paraffin wax. Geometrically accurate lab-scale motors have also been used to determine the regression rate properties of various additives in paraffin wax. A concise review of all available regression rate testing techniques and results on paraffin wax based hybrid propellants, as well as existing structural testing data, is presented in this paper.

  14. Monitoring agrochemical diffusion through cuticle wax with coherent Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Nicholas P.; Thomson, Niall; Padia, Faheem; Moger, Julian

    2018-02-01

    The world's population is increasing rapidly and higher calorific diets are becoming more common; as a consequence the demand for grain is predicted to increase by more than 50% by 2050 without a significant increase in the available agricultural land. Maximising the productivity of the existing agricultural land is key to maintaining food security and agrochemicals continue to be a key enabler for the efficiency gains required. However, agrochemicals can be susceptible to significant losses and thus often require further chemical to be applied to compensate. Sources of such losses include spray drift, poor spray retention/capture by the target and poor penetration through the plant cuticle. Adjuvants can be used to help mitigate such losses but characterising how they alter the movement of the active ingredients (AIs) can be challenging. In this contribution we demonstrate the use of coherent Raman Scattering (CRS) as a tool to enable in-situ, real-time, label free characterisation of agrochemical AI as they move through wax.

  15. Mineral and tar oils and paraffin and mineral waxes, extracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-09-01

    In the extraction of soluble bodies from coal and the like carbonaceous material, the coal is preheated in a closed vessel and then heated under pressure with the solvent. The pressure in either or both stages may be increased by gases or vapours more or less inert under the conditions, e.g. hydrogen, steam, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. In an example, brown coal is maintained at 300/sup 0/C for 10 hours, thus producing a pressure of 100 atmospheres, and is then extracted for 10 hours at 300/sup 0/C and 100 atmospheres with benzene in a closed vessel. Over 60 per cent of the coal is dissolved. After separation of the undissolved coal and removal of the solvent the soluble products may be treated with either to extract resinous matter, and then with cyclohexane to extract wax-like matters. Alternatively the soluble products, alone or in solution or with the undissolved coal, may be destructively hydrogenated, or be cracked in presence of activated aluminium and hydrogen chloride.

  16. Testing of sawdust-wax firelogs in an open fireplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, J.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 14 emissions tests of sawdust-wax firelogs were conducted in an open fireplace. Twelve tests used a cold-to-cold test cycle (i.e., they included the initial light-up and final charcoal phases which are not included in certification tests for wood stoves). Of these 12 tests, half were with wood and half with firelogs. Firelogs were equivalent to or better than wood in all measured parameters except heat output rate, Specifically, the firelogs had lower PM and CO emission rates by about 66 and 78 percent, respectively, had lower creosote accumulation per hour by about 66 percent, had lower opacity, and had comparable efficiency despite a lower burn rate. The heat output rate from the wood fires rose faster and peaked earlier, but the average heat output for the main load (2 hours) phases was about the same (about 6000 to 7000 BTU/hr) for the large size firelogs. Opacity was measured continuously and never exceeded the limits of 20 and 40 percent in the Washington State 1988 woodburning emissions regulation. All these results are based on using the firelogs as their instructions specify - namely using one log at a time and starting it with a match in a room temperature fireplace

  17. Physico-chemical properties and efficacy of silk fibroin fabric coated with different waxes as wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanokpanont, Sorada; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used as a wound dressing material due to its suitable physical and biological characteristics. In this study, a non-adhesive wound dressing which applies to cover the wound surface as an absorbent pad that would absorb wound fluid while accelerate wound healing was developed. The modification of SF fabrics by wax coating was purposed to prepare the non-adhesive wound dressing that is required in order to minimize pain and risk of repeated injury. SF woven fabrics were coated with different types of waxes including shellac wax, beeswax, or carnauba wax. Physical and mechanical properties of the wax-coated SF fabrics were characterized. It was clearly observed that all waxes could be successfully coated on the SF fabrics, possibly due to the hydrophobic interactions between hydrophobic domains of SF and waxes. The wax coating improved tensile modulus and percentage of elongation of the SF fabrics due to the denser structure and the thicker fibers coated. The in vitro degradation study demonstrated that all wax-coated SF fabrics remained up to 90% of their original weights after 7 weeks of incubation in lysozyme solution under physiological conditions. The wax coating did not affect the degradation behavior of the SF fabrics. A peel test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was carried out in the partial- and full-thickness wounds of porcine skin in comparison to that of the commercial wound dressing. Any wax-coated SF fabrics were less adhesive than the control, as confirmed by less number of cells attached and less adhesive force. This might be that the wax-coated SF fabrics showed the hydrophobic property, allowing the loosely adherence to the hydrophilic wound surface. In addition, the in vivo biocompatibility test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with subcutaneous model. The irritation scores indicated that the carnauba wax-coated SF fabric was not irritant while the shellac wax or beeswax-coated SF

  18. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  19. Problems in interpreting effects of air pollutants on spruce epicuticular waxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermadinger-Stabentheiner, E.

    1994-01-01

    Spruce needles are covered with rod-like crystals, which also fill the antechambers of the stomata with a dense meshwork. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is very useful for studying epicuticular wax structure; with no intricate or laborious preparation, it is possible to obtain valuable information about the needle surface. Because the epicuticular wax layer forms a barrier between the plant and its environment, all influences that reach the surface from outside impact on this layer and, therefore, changes in epicuticular wax structure serve as diagnostic criteria for damage caused by air pollutants. This pollution influence begins as fusion of wax rods at the tips and results finally in total loss of the crystalline structure. Despite the simplicity of SEM investigations, alterations (artefacts) can occur to wax structures that may be confused with alterations caused by air pollutants (i.e., a too dense layer of twigs and needles, or careless handling with tweezers, results in mechanical damage that often influences the entire surface). Overheating occurring during transport or preparation and/or incorrect storage also produce artefacts. If the occurrence of such artefacts is taken into consideration, several contradictory interpretations of effects of air pollutants on epicuticular waxes can be explained. (orig.)

  20. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS METHOD OF DETECTION OF WAX CONTENT IN GORENGAN USING SMARTPHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yulia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wax is one of the compounds that can be misused to be added to Gorengan, Indonesian fritter, to keep them crispy. Gorengan containing wax is difficult to identify visually, so a quick and easy method of detecting wax content is required. The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate the analytical performance of detecting wax content in gorengan using smartphone. Gorengan sample was dissolved with hexane and then added reagent that will give discoloration followed by analysis using smartphone. Some analysis performance parameters were evaluated in terms of linearity and detection limit, qualitative analysis capability, precision, and selectivity test. The developed method was also applied in some gorengan samples. The result shows that the detection of wax content in gorengan can be conducted by using reagent consisting of NaOH, Schift, and curcumin (1 : 2 : 2. Performance analysis shows that the linearity measurement at concentration between 10% and 25% has correlation coefficient (r of 0.9537 with detection limit at concentration of 2% and precision (%RSD less than 3%. The developed method can be applied for the detection of wax content in gorengan in the market.

  1. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  2. Electrochemical behaviors of wax-coated Li powder/Li 4Ti 5O 12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Eol; Seong, Il Won; Yoon, Woo Young

    The wax-coated Li powder specimen was effectively synthesized using the drop emulsion technique (DET). The wax layer on the powder was verified by SEM, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), EDX and XPS. The porosity of a sintered wax-coated Li electrode was measured by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and compared with that of a bare, i.e., un-coated Li electrode. The electrochemical behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode cell was examined by the impedance analysis and cyclic testing methods. The cyclic behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode with the Li 4Ti 5O 12 (LTO) cathode cell was examined at a constant current density of 0.35 mA cm -2 with the cut-off voltages of 1.2-2.0 V at 25 °C. Over 90% of the initial capacity of the cell remained even after the 300th cycle. The wax-coated Li powder was confirmed to be a stable anode material.

  3. The use of paraffin wax in a new solar cooker with inner and outer reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabacigil Bihter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the potential use and effectiveness of paraffin wax in a new solar cooker was experimentally investigated during daylight and late evening hours. For these experiments, a cooker having an inner reflecting surface was designed, constructed by filling paraffin wax and metal shavings. The side- and sub-surface temperatures of the paraffin wax in the cooker are measured in the summer months of June and July. The thermal efficiency of the cooker was tested on different conditions. The results show that the optimum angle of the outer reflector is 30°. Here, the peak temperature of the paraffin wax in the solar cooker was 83.4 °C. The average solar radiation reflected makes a contribution of 9.26% to the temperature of paraffin wax with the outer reflector. The solar cooker with the outer reflector angle of 30° receives also reflected radiation from the inner reflectors. Besides, the heating time is decreased to approximately 1 hour. The designed solar cooker can be effectively used with 30.3% daily thermal efficiency and paraffin wax due to the amount of energy stored.

  4. Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, M; Van Benthum, W A J; Boer, B; Von Harras, J; Visser, A

    2006-11-01

    Water-soluble ingredients have been successfully encapsulated in wax using two preparation techniques. The first technique ('solid preparation') leads to relatively large wax particles. The second technique ('liquid preparation') leads to relatively small wax particles immersed in vegetable oil. On the first technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (dissolved at low concentration in water) has been achieved making use of beeswax and PGPR. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 2 mm, is about 30% after 16 weeks storage in water at room temperature. To form such capsules a minimum wax mass of 40% relative to the total mass is needed. High amounts of salt or acids at the inside water phase causes more leaking, probably because of the osmotic pressure difference. Osmotic matching of inner and outer phase can lead to a dramatic reduction in leakage. Fat capsules are less suitable to incorporate water soluble colourants. The reason for this could be a difference in crystal structure (fat is less ductile and more brittle). On the second technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (encapsulated in solid wax particles) has been achieved making use of carnauba wax. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 250 mm, is about 40% after 1 weeks storage in water at room temperature.

  5. Waxes and plastic film in relation to the shelf life of yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Wagner Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa reduces its postharvest conservation and availability, mainly for in natura consumption. These losses of quality and commercial value occur due to the high respiration and loss of water. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of a modified atmosphere - wax emulsions and plastic film - on the shelf life of the yellow passion fruit. Plastic film (Cryovac D-955, 15 mum thickness reduced fresh weight loss and fruit wilting, kept higher fruit and rind weight and higher pulp osmotic potential over the storage period. However, it was not efficient in the control of rottenness. Sparcitrus wax (22-23% polyethylene/maleyc resin caused injury to the fruit, high fruit weight losses and wilting and resulted in lower pulp osmotic potential; this wax lead to a higher concentration of acid and a lower relation of soluble solids/acidity. Among the tested waxes, Fruit Wax (18-21% carnauba wax was the best, promoting reduced weight loss, wilting and rottenness.

  6. Effects of Wax Coating on the Moisture Loss of Cucumbers at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wax coating on moisture loss of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinglv were investigated at different temperatures. Cucumbers were treated with 10% (volume : volume wax and then stored at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C and 55% relative humidity. The changes in the mass of samples were recorded every 6 h. Results showed that wax coating along with low temperature was very effective in preventing moisture loss of cucumbers during simulated distribution. After 48 h storage, moisture loss in wax treated cucumbers at 15°C was 45% lower than the control at 30°C. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to study the influence of temperature on moisture loss based on the Arrhenius law. The model successfully described changes in cucumber moisture loss at different temperatures during storage. The shelf life of cucumber was also predicted using the kinetic model. A synergistic effect was found between wax coating and storage temperature on cucumber shelf life. Wax coating combined with low storage temperature was an effective method to extend the shelf life of cucumber fruit.

  7. Electrically conductive carbon nanofiber/paraffin wax composites for electric thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kun; Han Baoguo; Yu Xun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/paraffin wax composite is found to be a promising electric thermal storage material. ► The thermal storage capacity of CNF/paraffin wax composite is five times of traditional electric thermal storage material. ► CNF is shown to be an effective conductive filler for the composite. - Abstract: The research of electric thermal storage (ETS) has attracted a lot of attention recently, which converts off-peak electrical energy into thermal energy and release it later at peak hours. In this study, new electric thermal storage composites are developed by employing paraffin wax as thermal storage media and carbon nanofiber (CNF) as conductive fillers. Electric heating and thermal energy release performances of the CNF/paraffin wax composites are experimentally investigated. Experimental results show that, when the composites are heated to about 70 °C, the developed electrically conductive CNF/paraffin wax composites present a thermal storage capacity of about 280 kJ/kg, which is five times of that of traditional thermal storage medium such as ceramic bricks (54 kJ/kg). The CNF/paraffin wax composites can also effectively store the thermal energy and release the thermal energy in later hours.

  8. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Advanced Biotechnology and Breeding Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P.O. Box 10620,. 50720 Kuala Lumpur .... Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves. The DNA ..... tries are essential to avoid the risk of genetic erosion. The.

  9. The Sustainability Status of Partnership of Palm Oil Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Daud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of existence determining factor of PBS palm oil is a harmonious relation with communities surroundings, thus the partnership between the palm oil plantation with the farmers surroundings is one of effort which has created the harmonization in palm oil plantation. The objective of the article is to express the sustainability of each pattern of palm oil PBS partnership, and this partnership form gives the sustainability advantages for the farmer and palm oil PBS in Central Kalimantan. The article used quantitative method through the survey approach, primary data and secondary data. The article result there are three main patterns of palm oil plantation partnership in Central Kalimantan, they are MSA, KKPA, and IGA. IGA has value as a form which has degree of continuing that higher than MSA and KKPA, thus make IGA can be the reference in frame of PBS palm oil partnership in Central Kalimantan with keeping the superiority and improving the weaknesses.

  10. Current status of ethnobotany research on palms from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Albán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.

  11. Composition of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarseveen, Clare; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-05-01

    Epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana were analyzed. All wax mixtures were found to contain approximately equal amounts of triterpenoids and very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives. The triterpenoid fraction consisted of glutinol (8-19% of the total wax) and friedelin (4-9%), together with smaller amounts of glutanol, glutinol acetate, epifriedelanol, germanicol and beta-amyrin. The VLCFA derivatives comprised C27-C35 alkanes (19-37% of the total wax), C32-C34 aldehydes (3-7%), C32 and C34 fatty acids (0.2-3%), C26-C36 primary alcohols (4-8%), and C42-C52 alkyl esters (2-9%). The wax layers were found to differ in triterpenoid amounts, with the intracuticular wax containing higher percentages of most triterpenoids than the epicuticular wax. Friedelin, the only triterpenoid ketone present, showed the opposite distribution with higher proportions in the epicuticular wax. VLCFA derivatives also accumulated to higher percentages in the epicuticular than in the intracuticular wax layer. Epicuticular wax crystals were observed on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  12. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  13. Wax on, wax off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Grinsted, Lena; Holman, Luke

    2011-01-01

    of a waxy layer of colony-specific hydrocarbons on the body surface. Genetic and environmental differences between colony members may confound recognition and social cohesion, so many species perform behaviors that homogenize the odor label, such as mouth-to-mouth feeding and allogrooming. Here, we test....... We also found evidence that olfactory cues on the nest soil influence nestmate recognition, but this effect was not observed in all colonies. These results demonstrate that cuticular hydrocarbons deposited on the nest soil are important in creating uniformity in the odor label and may also contribute...

  14. Bioactive compounds from palm fatty acid distillate and crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiasih, T.; Ahmadi, K.

    2018-03-01

    Crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) are rich sources of bioactive compounds. PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refinery that produce palm frying oil. Physical refining of palm oil by deodorization produces palm fatty acid distillate. CPO and PFAD contain some bioactive compounds such as vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols), phytosterol, and squalene. Bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD are vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene. Vitamin E of CPO and PFAD mainly comprised of tocotrienols and the remaining is tocopherol. Phytosterols of CPO and PFAD contained beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol. Tocotrienols and phytosterols of CPO and PFAD, each can be separated to produce tocotrienol rich fraction and phytosterol rich fraction. Tocotrienol rich fraction from PFAD has both antioxidant and cholesterol lowering properties. Bioactive compounds of PFAD silmultaneously have been proven to improve lipid profile, and have hepatoprotector effect, imunomodulator, antioxidant properties, and lactogenic effect in animal test experiment. It is possible to develop separation of bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD integratively with the other process that utilizes fatty acid.

  15. Draft genome sequence of an elite Dura palm and whole-genome patterns of DNA variation in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingjing; Lee, May; Bai, Bin; Sun, Yanwei; Qu, Jing; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Sugiharti, Maria; Wong, Limsoon; Ye, Jian; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is the world's leading source of vegetable oil and fat. Dura, Pisifera and Tenera are three forms of oil palm. The genome sequence of Pisifera is available whereas the Dura form has not been sequenced yet. We sequenced the genome of one elite Dura palm, and re-sequenced 17 palm genomes. The assemble genome sequence of the elite Dura tree contained 10,971 scaffolds and was 1.701 Gb in length, covering 94.49% of the oil palm genome. 36,105 genes were predicted. Re-sequencing of 17 additional palm trees identified 18.1 million SNPs. We found high genetic variation among palms from different geographical regions, but lower variation among Southeast Asian Dura and Pisifera palms. We mapped 10,000 SNPs on the linkage map of oil palm. In addition, high linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected in the oil palms used in breeding populations of Southeast Asia, suggesting that LD mapping is likely to be practical in this important oil crop. Our data provide a valuable resource for accelerating genetic improvement and studying the mechanism underlying phenotypic variations of important oil palm traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  16. Trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafisoye, O B; Oguntibeju, O O; Osibote, O A

    2017-05-03

    Oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) is one of the most productive oil producing plant in the world. Crude palm oil is composed of triglycerides supplying the world's need of edible oils and fats. Palm oil also provides essential elements and antioxidants that are potential mediators of cellular functions. Experimental studies have demonstrated the toxicity of the accumulation of significant amounts of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil that affects the health of consumers. It has been reported that uptake of trace elements and radionuclides from the oil palm tree may be from water and soil on the palm plantations. In the present review, an attempt was made to revise and access knowledge on the presence of some selected trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations based on the available facts and data. Existing reports show that the presence of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil may be from natural or anthropogenic sources in the environment. However, the available literature is limited and further research need to be channeled to the investigation of trace elements and radionuclides in soil, water, leaves, and palm oil from oil palm plantations around the globe.

  17. Application of Neuro-Fuzzy to palm oil production process | Odior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm oil is an important nutritional food requirement and in order to facilitate the production of palm oil for consumption, the production process of palm oil has been investigated. The basic operations involved in the production of edible palm oil include; purchase, transportation and reception of oil palm bunches; bunch ...

  18. Naturally p-Hydroxybenzoylated Lignins in Palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachuang Lu; Steven D. Karlen; Matt Regner; Hoon Kim; Sally A. Ralph; Run-Cang Sun; Ken-ichi Kuroda; Mary Ann Augustin; Raymond Mawson; Henry Sabarez; Tanoj Singh; Gerardo Jimenez-Monteon; Sarani Zakaria; Stefan Hill; Philip J. Harris; Wout Boerjan; Curtis G. Wilkerson; Shawn D. Mansfield; John Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The industrial production of palm oil concurrently generates a substantial amount of empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers that could be used as a feedstock in a lignocellulose based biorefinery. Lignin byproducts generated by this process may offer opportunities for the isolation of value-added products, such as p-hydroxybenzoate (pBz),...

  19. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.

  20. Hybridization of Palm Wine Yeasts ( Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haploid auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected from palm wine and propagated by protoplast fusion with Brewers yeast. Fusion resulted in an increase in both ethanol production and tolerance against exogenous ethanol. Mean fusion frequencies obtained for a mating types ranged between 8 x ...

  1. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji P Gopalan

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25–70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  2. Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, M; Torabi, K; Farjood, E; Khaledi, AAR

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Metal-ceramic crowns are most commonly used as the complete coverage restorations in clinical daily use. Disadvantages of conventional hand-made wax-patterns introduce some alternative ways by means of CAD/CAM technologies. Purpose: This study compares the marginal and internal fit of copings cast from CAD/CAM and conventional fabricated wax-patterns. Materials and Method: Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). CAD/CAM milling machine (Cori TEC 340i; imes-icore GmbH, Eiterfeld, Germany) was used to fabricate the CAD/CAM group wax-patterns. The copings cast from 24 wax-patterns were cemented to the corresponding dies. For all the coping-die assemblies cross-sectional technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal fit at 15 points. The Student’s t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). Results: The overall mean (SD) for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) was 254.46 (25.10) um for CAD/CAM group and 88.08(10.67) um for conventional group (control). The overall mean of internal gap total (IGT) was 110.77(5.92) um for CAD/CAM group and 76.90 (10.17) um for conventional group. The Student’s t-test revealed significant differences between 2 groups. Marginal and internal gaps were found to be significantly higher at all measured areas in CAD/CAM group than conventional group (pmarginal and internal fit than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique. All the factors for 2 groups were standardized except wax pattern fabrication technique, therefore, only the conventional group results in copings with clinically acceptable margins of less than 120um. PMID:24724133

  3. Analyses of Hypomethylated Oil Palm Gene Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J.; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

  4. Numerical performance study of paraffin wax dispersed with alumina in a concentric pipe latent heat storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valan Arasu Amirtham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat energy storage systems using paraffin wax could have lower heat transfer rates during melting/freezing processes due to its inherent low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of paraffin wax can be enhanced by employing high conductivity materials such as alumina (Al2O3. A numerical analysis has been carried out to study the performance enhancement of paraffin wax with nanoalumina (Al2O3 particles in comparison with simple paraffin wax in a concentric double pipe heat exchanger. Numerical analysis indicates that the charge-discharge rates of thermal energy can be greatly enhanced using paraffin wax with alumina as compared with a simple paraffin wax as PCM.

  5. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  6. Review of the Factors that Influence the Condition of Wax Deposition in Subsea Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Junyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When crude oil is transported via sub-sea pipeline, the temperature of the pipeline decreases at a deep depth which causes a difference in temperature with the crude oil inside. This causes the crude oil to dissipate its heat to the surrounding until thermal equilibrium is achieved. This is also known as the cloud point where wax begins to precipitate and solidifies at the walls of the pipeline which obstruct the flow of fluid. The main objective of this review is to quantify the factors that influence wax deposition such as temperature difference between the wall of the pipeline and the fluid flowing within, the flow rate of the fluid in the pipeline and residence time of the fluid in the pipeline. It is found the main factor that causes wax deposition in the pipeline is the difference in temperature between the petroleum pipeline and the fluid flowing within. Most Literature deduces that decreasing temperature difference results in lower wax content deposited on the wall of the pipeline. The wax content increases with rising flow rate. As for the residence time, the amount of deposited wax initially increases when residence time increases until it reaches a peak value and gradually decreases. Flow-loop system and cold finger apparatus were used in literature investigations to determine the trends above. Three new models are generated through a regression analysis based on the results from other authors. These new models form a relationship between temperature difference, flow rate, residence time and Reynolds number with wax deposition. These models have high values of R-square and adjusted R-square which demonstrate the reliability of these models.

  7. Anatomically realistic ultrasound phantoms using gel wax with 3D printed moulds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneas, Efthymios; Xia, Wenfeng; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Daher, Batol; Manimaran, Maniragav; Wong, Rui Yen J.; Chang, Chia-Wei; Rahmani, Benyamin; Capelli, Claudio; Schievano, Silvia; Burriesci, Gaetano; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L.; Finlay, Malcolm C.; West, Simeon J.; Vercauteren, Tom; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2018-01-01

    Here we describe methods for creating tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantoms based on patient anatomy using a soft material called gel wax. To recreate acoustically realistic tissue properties, two additives to gel wax were considered: paraffin wax to increase acoustic attenuation, and solid glass spheres to increase backscattering. The frequency dependence of ultrasound attenuation was well described with a power law over the measured range of 3-10 MHz. With the addition of paraffin wax in concentrations of 0 to 8 w/w%, attenuation varied from 0.72 to 2.91 dB cm-1 at 3 MHz and from 6.84 to 26.63 dB cm-1 at 10 MHz. With solid glass sphere concentrations in the range of 0.025-0.9 w/w%, acoustic backscattering consistent with a wide range of ultrasonic appearances was achieved. Native gel wax maintained its integrity during compressive deformations up to 60%; its Young’s modulus was 17.4  ±  1.4 kPa. The gel wax with additives was shaped by melting and pouring it into 3D printed moulds. Three different phantoms were constructed: a nerve and vessel phantom for peripheral nerve blocks, a heart atrium phantom, and a placental phantom for minimally-invasive fetal interventions. In the first, nerves and vessels were represented as hyperechoic and hypoechoic tubular structures, respectively, in a homogeneous background. The second phantom comprised atria derived from an MRI scan of a patient with an intervening septum and adjoining vena cavae. The third comprised the chorionic surface of a placenta with superficial fetal vessels derived from an image of a post-partum human placenta. Gel wax is a material with widely tuneable ultrasound properties and mechanical characteristics that are well suited for creating patient-specific ultrasound phantoms in several clinical disciplines.

  8. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  10. Oil palm mapping for Malaysia using PALSAR-2 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.

  11. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R. K.; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared...

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  14. EFFECT OF PALM EMPTY BUNCH ASH ON TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL INTO BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sibarani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel conversion from transesterification reaction palm oil with methanol was studied by using an ash of palm empty bunch as a base catalyst. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and indicator titration analysis were used as tools for characterization of ash sample. Chemical structure of biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of ash sample weight (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g immersed in 75 mL methanol and the methanol-palm oil mol ratio (3:1; 6:1; 9:1 and 12:1 toward the conversion of biodiesel were investigated. Biodiesel was prepared by refluxing palm oil and methanol containing ash sample. The reflux was done at room temperature for 2 h. Ester layer was distillated at 74 oC, extracted with aquadest and then dried using Na2SO4 anhydrous. The product was characterized by GC-MS, ASTM D 1298 (specific gravity 60/60 °F, ASTM D 97 (pour point, ASTM D 2500 (cloud point, ASTM D 93 (flash point, ASTM D 445 (kinematics viscosity 40 °C and ASTM D 482 (ash content. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that methyl palmitate is primary content of biodiesel product. A 15 g weight of ash sample gave the maximum biodiesel conversion. By increasing methanol mole quantity, biodiesel conversion increased progressively and maximum at 9:1 methanol-palm oil ratio (84.12 % and decreased on 12:1 ratio (75.58 %. Most of the biodiesel products were similar to those of the diesel physical characters.   Keywords: Biodiesel conversion, transesterification, palm oil, palm empty bunch

  15. Effect of high dose SO2 and ethylene exposure on the structure of epicuticular wax of picea pungens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrie, J.; Berg, V.

    1994-01-01

    Conifers in polluted air generally exhibit accelerated degradation of epicuticular wax, but it is not clear whether the change is due to direct exposure to the pollutant or some other mechanism. Needles from blue spruce (Picea pungens) were exposed to sulfur dioxide or ethylene gas at 0 to 10,000 microliters per liter for 2 to 196 h; samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Neither gas caused changes in the wax crystals, although late in the growing season a fungal infestation was associated with degradation of wax structures. This supports hypotheses explaining accelerated epicuticular wax degradation by indirect effects of exposure to air pollutants. (orig.)

  16. Impact of Nigerian Institute For Oil Palm Research (N.I.F.O.R.) on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIFOR) on oil palm industry in Nigeria. It interfaces of achievements and developmental strides of the Institute on oil palm industry in Nigeria from its was establishment during colonial period as Oil Palm Research Station (OPRS.) in 1939 ...

  17. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

  18. EFFECT OF OIL TEMPERATURE ON THE WAX DEPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL WITH COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  19. Role of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joensuu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.

  20. [Comparative adaptation of crowns of selective laser melting and wax-lost-casting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-qiang; Shen, Qing-yi; Gao, Jian-hua; Wu, Xue-ying; Chen, Li; Dai, Wen-an

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and wax-lost-casting method, so as to provide an experimental basis for clinic. Co-Cr alloy full crown were fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting for 24 samples in each group. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement and cut along longitudinal axis by line cutting machine. The gap between crown tissue surface and die was measured by 6-point measuring method with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting were compared statistically. The gap between SLM crowns were (36.51 ± 2.94), (49.36 ± 3.31), (56.48 ± 3.35), (42.20 ± 3.60) µm, and wax-lost-casting crowns were (68.86 ± 5.41), (58.86 ± 6.10), (70.62 ± 5.79), (69.90 ± 6.00) µm. There were significant difference between two groups (P casting method and SLM method provide acceptable marginal adaptation in clinic, and the marginal adaptation of SLM is better than that of wax-lost-casting method.

  1. Modeling the hydration process of bean grains coated with carnauba wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Almeida da Paixão

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Edible waxes are widely used to maintain foodstuff until they are consumed. However, some products may be subjected to industrial procedures, such as hydration, prior to their consumption. Hydration of a material is a complex process, which aims to reconstitute the original characteristics of a product when in contact with a liquid phase. An important agricultural product that requires this procedure is beans. Thus, the purpose of this work is to study the hydration process of beans (cultivar BRSMG Majestoso in different temperatures and concentrations of carnauba wax, which is applied on the product surface. Beans with initial moisture content of 0.2015, 0.1972 and 0.1745 (d.b. corresponding to treatments 0 (witness, 1 (wax diluted in water in the ratio 1:1, and 2 (carnauba wax, without dilution were used. Later, these samples were imbibed in distilled water at temperatures of 20, 30 and 40 ºC, for 15 h. The temperature and the carnauba wax influenced the water absorption rate. The Peleg model described satisfactory experimental data and the Mitscherlich model presented biased residual distribution. The constants C1 and C2 of the Peleg model exhibited opposite behaviors with increasing temperatures in the hydration process.

  2. Heat transfer enhancement in energy storage in spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettouney, Hisham; Alatiqi, Imad; Al-Sahali, Mohammad; Al-Hajirie, Khalida

    2006-01-01

    Energy storage is an attractive option to conserve limited energy resources, where more than 50% of the generated industrial energy is discarded in cooling water and stack gases. This study focuses on the evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in phase change energy storage units. The experiments are performed using spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads. The experiments are conducted by inserting a single spherical capsule filled with wax and metal beads in a stream of hot/cold air. Experimental measurements include the temperature field within the spherical capsule and in the air stream. To determine the enhancement effects of the metal beads, the measured data is correlated against those for a spherical capsule filled with pure wax. Data analysis shows a reduction of 15% in the melting and solidification times upon increasing the number and diameter of the metal beads. This reduction is caused by a similar decrease in the thermal load of the sphere due to replacement of the wax by metal beads. The small size of the spherical capsule limits the enhancement effects; this is evident upon comparison of the heat transfer in a larger size, double pipe energy storage unit, where 2% of the wax volume is replaced with metal inserts, result in a three fold reduction in the melting/solidification time and a similar enhancement in the heat transfer rate

  3. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2004-03-31

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of production since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase FTS. The separation problem is further compounded by catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. Existing pilot-scale equipment was modified to include a filtration test apparatus. After undergoing an extensive plant shakedown period, filtration tests with cross-flow filter modules using simulant FTS wax slurry were conducted. The focus of these early tests was to find adequate mixtures of polyethylene wax to simulate FTS wax. Catalyst particle size analysis techniques were also developed. Initial analyses of the slurry and filter permeate particles will be used by the research team to design improved filter media and cleaning strategies.

  4. Biodegradation of paraffin wax by crude Aspergillus enzyme preparations for potential use in removing paraffin deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Paraffin deposition problems have plagued the oil industry. Whist mechanical and chemical methods are problematic, microbiological method of paraffin removal is considered an alternative. However, studies have mainly investigated the use of bacteria, with little attention to the potential of fungi. The performance of six Aspergillus isolates to degrade paraffin wax was evaluated under laboratory conditions using solid enzyme preparations. The results showed that all the six enzyme preparations efficiently improved the solubility of paraffin wax in n-hexane and degraded n-alkanes in paraffin wax. The degradation process was accompanied by dynamic production of gases (CO2 and H2 ) and organic acids (oxalate and propionate). The shape of wax crystals markedly changed after enzymatic degradation, with a rough surface and a loose structure. This study indicates that extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus spp. can efficiently degrade paraffin wax. These enzyme preparations have the potential for use in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. Almost all palm species are used in rural communities...

  6. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  7. Palm oil and the heart:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in

  8. The Palm Wine Trade: Occupational and Health Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    L Mbuagbaw; SG Noorduyn

    2012-01-01

    The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a v...

  9. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  10. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermy Teti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic Crude Palm Oil price. Finally, the domesticCrude Palm Oil is significantly affected by international Crude Palm Oil price.Keywords: consumption, cooking oil price, crude palm oil price and cooking oil

  11. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.

  12. GC-MS Metabolomics to Evaluate the Composition of Plant Cuticular Waxes for Four Triticum aestivum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent D. Lavergne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important food crop, and biotic and abiotic stresses significantly impact grain yield. Wheat leaf and stem surface waxes are associated with traits of biological importance, including stress resistance. Past studies have characterized the composition of wheat cuticular waxes, however protocols can be relatively low-throughput and narrow in the range of metabolites detected. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolomics methods were utilized to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical composition of cuticular waxes in wheat leaves and stems. Further, waxes from four wheat cultivars were assayed to evaluate the potential for GC-MS metabolomics to describe wax composition attributed to differences in wheat genotype. A total of 263 putative compounds were detected and included 58 wax compounds that can be classified (e.g., alkanes and fatty acids. Many of the detected wax metabolites have known associations to important biological functions. Principal component analysis and ANOVA were used to evaluate metabolite distribution, which was attributed to both tissue type (leaf, stem and cultivar differences. Leaves contained more primary alcohols than stems such as 6-methylheptacosan-1-ol and octacosan-1-ol. The metabolite data were validated using scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular wax crystals which detected wax tubules and platelets. Conan was the only cultivar to display alcohol-associated platelet-shaped crystals on its abaxial leaf surface. Taken together, application of GC-MS metabolomics enabled the characterization of cuticular wax content in wheat tissues and provided relative quantitative comparisons among sample types, thus contributing to the understanding of wax composition associated with important phenotypic traits in a major crop.

  13. Cuticular waxes in alpine meadow plants: climate effect inferred from latitude gradient in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Guo, Na; He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Alpine meadow ecosystems are susceptible to climate changes. Still, climate impact on cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants is poorly understood. Assessing the variations of cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants across different latitudes might be useful for predicting how they may respond to climate change. We studied nine alpine meadows in a climate gradient in the east side of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, with mean annual temperature ranging from -7.7 to 3.2°C. In total, 42 plant species were analyzed for cuticular wax, averaged 16 plant species in each meadow. Only four plant species could be observed in all sampling meadows, including Kobresia humilis,Potentilla nivea,Anaphalis lacteal, and Leontopodium nanum. The amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax in the four plant species varied among sampling meadows, but no significant correlation could be observed between them and temperature, precipitation, and aridity index based on plant species level. To analyze the variations of cuticular wax on community level, we averaged the amounts of n-alkanes, aliphatic acids, primary alcohols, and total cuticular wax across all investigated plant species in each sampling site. The mean annual temperature, mean temperature in July, and aridity index were significantly correlated with the averaged amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax. The average chain length of n-alkanes in both plant and soil linearly increased with increased temperature, whereas reduced with increased aridity index. No significant correlation could be observed between mean annual precipitation and mean precipitation from June to August and the cuticular wax amounts and average chain length. Our results suggest that the survival of some alpine plants in specific environments might be depended on their abilities in adjusting wax deposition on plant leaves, and the alpine meadow plants as a whole respond to climate change, benefiting the stability of alpine meadow ecosystem.

  14. Gender Identification in Date Palm Using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Faisal Saeed; Maryam; Jaskani, Muhammad J; Sadia, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    Breeding of date palm is complicated because of its long life cycle and heterozygous nature. Sexual propagation of date palm does not produce true-to-type plants. Sex of date palms cannot be identified until the first flowering stage. Molecular markers such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) have successfully been used to identify the sex-linked loci in the plant genome and to isolate the corresponding genes. This chapter highlights the use of three molecular markers including RAPD, SCAR, and SSR to identify the gender of date palm seedlings.

  15. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  16. Molecular research on the genetic diversity of Tunisian date palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular research on the genetic diversity of Tunisian date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) using the random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methods.

  17. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  18. Oil palm deserves government attention in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, José R.; Goldemberg, José

    2015-07-01

    Englund et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044002) have recently analyzed biodiesel production from oil palm plantations as one possible way to mitigate climate change while providing cost effective results. They show that data for detailed quantification of biological carbon sequestration is available allowing a high confidence evaluation of positive impacts when oil palm plantation for food and biodiesel production is carried out in degraded, cultivated soil, and also with some varieties of natural vegetation in the Amazon. Nevertheless, economic risk associated with the future price of fossil fuels and uncertainties related with carbon subsidy are barriers. Here we discuss the assumptions under which such controversial proposal is based and suggest further analysis for Brazilian decision makers.

  19. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq

  20. Palm theory for random time changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakiyo Miyazawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm distributions are basic tools when studying stationarity in the context of point processes, queueing systems, fluid queues or random measures. The framework varies with the random phenomenon of interest, but usually a one-dimensional group of measure-preserving shifts is the starting point. In the present paper, by alternatively using a framework involving random time changes (RTCs and a two-dimensional family of shifts, we are able to characterize all of the above systems in a single framework. Moreover, this leads to what we call the detailed Palm distribution (DPD which is stationary with respect to a certain group of shifts. The DPD has a very natural interpretation as the distribution seen at a randomly chosen position on the extended graph of the RTC, and satisfies a general duality criterion: the DPD of the DPD gives the underlying probability P in return.

  1. Retained bone wax on CT at one year after dacryocystorhinostomy: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Dong Woo; Jeong, Jin Yeok; Lee, Jong Ah; Lee, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with chronic rhinosinusitis presented with a purulent, foul-smelling nasal discharge and obstruction. One year earlier he had been treated with a dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. During the procedure, bone wax had been used to control bleeding in the anterior upper nasal cavity. On computed tomographic imaging, a fat-density lesion was seen in the anterior upper sinonasal cavity and was found to be hypointense or signal-void on all magnetic resonance imaging sequences. The lesion, which proved to consist of bone wax, was surgically removed. Here, we present the imaging features of retained bone wax in a patient with clinically diagnosed chronic rhinosinusitis after dacryocystorhinostomy

  2. Retained bone wax on CT at one year after dacryocystorhinostomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Dong Woo; Jeong, Jin Yeok [Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Ah; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 71-year-old man with chronic rhinosinusitis presented with a purulent, foul-smelling nasal discharge and obstruction. One year earlier he had been treated with a dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. During the procedure, bone wax had been used to control bleeding in the anterior upper nasal cavity. On computed tomographic imaging, a fat-density lesion was seen in the anterior upper sinonasal cavity and was found to be hypointense or signal-void on all magnetic resonance imaging sequences. The lesion, which proved to consist of bone wax, was surgically removed. Here, we present the imaging features of retained bone wax in a patient with clinically diagnosed chronic rhinosinusitis after dacryocystorhinostomy.

  3. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorset, Douglas L. [Electron Diffraction Department, Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1999-06-07

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of 'bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene. (author)

  4. Low-pressure injection molding of alumina ceramics using a carnauba wax binder: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo Nogueira, R.E.F.; Bezerra, A.C.; Santos, F.C. dos [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Centro de Tecnologia-UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Sousa, M.R. de; Acchar, W. [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN-Campus Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Carnauba wax, a natural product from Northeastern Brazil, has found application in the processing of ceramics. However, the use of pure carnauba wax is not recommended due to its narrow melting range and poor mechanical properties. In the present work carnauba wax based organic vehicles with the addition of low-density polyethylene and stearic acid were developed for use in the low-pressure injection molding of alumina ceramics. Viscosimetric testing was employed for the determination of optimal composition of the organic vehicle. The optimal content of ceramic powder in the mixture was also determined. All the materials used are easily available in the Brazilian market. A simple ceramic part was injected at low pressures (0.6 MPa) using a semi-automatic injection molding machine. For this purpose a double cavity mold was designed and built. Preliminary results demonstrate the technical viability of the process using the organic vehicle developed. (orig.)

  5. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1999-06-01

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of `bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene.

  6. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-13

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 μm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  8. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yiqiang; Liu, Yang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 µm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. (technical note)

  9. Procedures for extraction and purification of leaf wax biomarkers from peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Nichols

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecological and palaeoclimate reconstruction, using leaf wax biomarkers, is a relatively new sub-discipline of peatland science. The ability to process large numbers of samples rapidly for biomarkers makes this type of analysis particularly appealing. This review is a guide to the preparation of leaf waxes for analysis by gas chromatography. The main phases of preparation are extraction of soluble organic compounds from sediment, separation of the total extract into fractions of differing polarity, and the derivatisation of polar functional groups. The procedures described here are not meant be exhaustive of all organic geochemical possibilities in peatlands, but a distillation of methods for the preparation of leaf waxes that are commonly and increasingly being used in palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological studies.

  10. Effects of irradiation in combination with waxing on the essential oils in orange peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of waxing and irradiation dose on the essential oils in orange peel. Mature oranges (Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0-2 kGy radiation. Volatiles in the peel were extracted and analyzed by G.C. D-limonene was significantly lower (P≤0.05) in waxed oranges; levels in samples treated with 2 kGy were higher than those treated with 0 or 1 kGy. Linalool, methyl anthranilate and 3.7-dimethyl-2.6-octadienal decreased as the dose increased. The analysis of variance indicates that only linalool was influenced by post-irradiation storage time. The level of this compound increased with storage time. (author)

  11. Olof Palme: One Life, Many Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Quirico

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this article is not only to review the latest three biographies of Olof Palme, - written respectively by Kjell Östberg (2007-9, Klas Eklund (2010 and Henrik Berggren (2010 - but also and above all to identify their methodology, so as to single out some of the controversial points in Palme’s political career, yet leaving out both scandals and vulgar attacks.

  12. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Lutz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biodiesel is similar to the quantity observed in the biodegradation of 1.0 mM solutions of simple substrates such as carbohydrates or amino acids.Palm methyl or ethyl biodiesel is subjected to facile aerobic biodegradation by wild-type bacteria commonly present in natural open environments. This result should lessen any environmental concern for its use as alternative fuel, solvent or lubricant. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1: 59-63.Epub 2006 Mar 31.La cinética de la biodegradación de los ésteres metílicos y etílicos derivados de palma (biodiesel por una población silvestre de bacterias aeróbicas fue medida a 20 °C, como medición manométrica del consumo de oxígeno. Los ésteres metílicos y etílicos se obtuvieron por transesterificación del aceite de palma con metanol y etanol,respectivamente. La flora bacteriana incluyó a los géneros Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter y Enterobacter. Las velocidades de consumo de oxígeno para las muestras de biodiesel fueron similares a lo observado en la biodegradación de disoluciones 1.0 mM de sustratos sencillos solubles en agua, tales como carbohidratos, aminoácidos y albúmina de huevo.

  13. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon, E-mail: jkkim@kau.ac.kr

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  14. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  15. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-metabolism of DDT by the newly isolated bacterium, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial degradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDT is the most promising way to clean up DDT residues found in the environment. In this paper, a bacterium designated as wax, which was capable of co-metabolizing DDT with other carbon sources, was isolated from a long-term DDT-contaminated soil sample by an enrichment culture technique. The new isolate was identified as a member of the Pseudoxanthomonas sp., based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, as well as by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In the presence of 100 mg l-1 glucose, the wax strain could degrade over 95% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 20 mg l-1, in 72 hours, and could degrade over 60% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 100 mg l-1, in 144 hours. The wax strain had the highest degradation efficiency among all of the documented DDT-degrading bacteria. The wax strain could efficiently degrade DDT at temperatures ranging from 20 to 37ºC, and with initial pH values ranging from 7 to 9. The bacterium could also simultaneously co-metabolize 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDD, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl-1,1-dichlorethylene (DDE, and other organochlorine compounds. The wax strain could also completely remove 20 mg kg-1 of DDT from both sterile and non-sterile soils in 20 days. This study demonstrates the significant potential use of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax for the bioremediation of DDT in the environment.

  17. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  18. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  19. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Cotton Epicuticular Wax in Defense Against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Muzaffar, Adnan; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-12-01

    Gossypium arboreumis resistant to Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate Cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite ( CLCuBuV and CLCuMB ). However, the G. arboreum wax deficient mutant (GaWM3) is susceptible to CLCuV . Therefore, epicuticular wax was characterized both quantitatively and qualitatively for its role as physical barrier against whitefly mediated viral transmission and co-related with the titer of each viral component (DNA-A, alphasatellite and betasatellite) in plants. The hypothesis was the CLCuV titer in cotton is dependent on the amount of wax laid down on plant surface and the wax composition. Analysis of the presence of viral genes, namely alphasatellite, betasatellite and DNA-A, via real-time PCR in cotton species indicated that these genes are detectable in G. hirsutum , G. harknessii and GaWM3, whereas no particle was detected in G. arboreum . Quantitative wax analysis revealed that G. arboreum contained 183 μg.cm -2 as compared to GaWM3 with only 95 μg.cm -2 . G. hirsutum and G. harknessii had 130 μg.cm -2 and 146 μg.cm -2 , respectively. The GCMS results depicted that Lanceol, cis was 45% in G. harknessii . Heptadecanoic acid was dominant in G. arboreum with 25.6%. GaWM3 had 18% 1,2,-Benenedicarboxylic acid. G. hirsutum contained 25% diisooctyl ester. The whitefly feeding assay with Nile Blue dye showed no color in whiteflies gut fed on G. arboreum . In contrast, color was observed in the rest of whiteflies. From results, it was concluded that reduced quantity as well as absence of (1) 3-trifluoroacetoxytetradecane, (2) 2-piperidinone,n-|4-bromo-n-butyl|, (3) 4-heptafluorobutyroxypentadecane, (4) Silane, trichlorodocosyl-, (5) 6- Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (6) Heptadecanoicacid,16-methyl-,methyl ester in wax could make plants susceptible to CLCuV , infested by whiteflies.

  20. The deformation of wax patterns and castings in investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional accuracy of the final casting of Inconel alloy 738 LC is affected by many aspects. One of them is the choice of method and time of cooling wax model for precision investment casting. The main objective was to study the initial deformation of the complex shape of the casting of the rotor blades. Various approaches have been tested for cooling wax pattern. When wax models are cooling on the air, without clamping in jig for cooling, deviations from the ideal shape of the casting are very noticeable (up to 8 mm and most are in extreme positions of the model. When blade is cooled in fixing jig in water environment, the resulting deviations compared with cooling in air are significantly larger, sometimes up to 10 mm. This itself does not mean that the final shape of the casting is dimensionally more accurate with usage of wax models, which have deviations from the ideal position smaller. Another deformation occurs when shell mould is produced around wax pattern and furthermore deformations emerge while casting of blade is cooling. This paper demonstrates first steps in describing complex process of deformations of Inconel alloy blades produced with investment casting technology by comparing results from thermal imagery, simulations in foundry simulation software ProCAST 2010 and measurements from CNC scanning system Carl Zeiss MC 850. Conclusions are so far not groundbreaking, but it seems deformations of wax pattern and deformations of castings do in some cases cancel each other by having opposite directions. Describing entirely whole process of deformations will help increase precision of blade castings so that models at the beginning and blades in the end are the same.

  1. Harvestable energy from the coconut palm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzon, J A

    1984-01-01

    The harvestable energy from the coconut palm is in the form of husks, shells and oil from the nuts and the leaf petioles with a regular monthly production of a bunch of nuts and one leaf. From the known energy content of the husks, nut shells and petioles, the number of palm trees required to provide the total energy for domestic cooking at wood equivalent to 1-3 kg firewood per day ranges from 5-14 for husks, shells and petioles, or 15-47 if the material is first converted to charcoal. In order to provide diesel fuel containing 10% coconut oil and cope with the annual increase in such a demand, the coconut crop would have to increase at the rate of 1 nut per bunch per month from 3-11 nuts to 12 nuts over the next 8 years. Highest coconut sap yield in ethanol terms, amounts to 109 MJ/month per palm which equals the oil in a 20-nut fruit bunch, thus indicating possible greater energy harvest from coconut sap than from coconut oil.

  2. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  3. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  4. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  5. SwissPalm: Protein Palmitoylation database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Mathieu; David, Fabrice; Abrami, Laurence; Migliozzi, Daniel; Armand, Florence; Bürgi, Jérôme; van der Goot, Françoise Gisou

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates many key biological processes, although the full extent and functions of protein S-palmitoylation remain largely unexplored. Recent developments of new chemical methods have allowed the establishment of palmitoyl-proteomes of a variety of cell lines and tissues from different species.  As the amount of information generated by these high-throughput studies is increasing, the field requires centralization and comparison of this information. Here we present SwissPalm ( http://swisspalm.epfl.ch), our open, comprehensive, manually curated resource to study protein S-palmitoylation. It currently encompasses more than 5000 S-palmitoylated protein hits from seven species, and contains more than 500 specific sites of S-palmitoylation. SwissPalm also provides curated information and filters that increase the confidence in true positive hits, and integrates predictions of S-palmitoylated cysteine scores, orthologs and isoform multiple alignments. Systems analysis of the palmitoyl-proteome screens indicate that 10% or more of the human proteome is susceptible to S-palmitoylation. Moreover, ontology and pathway analyses of the human palmitoyl-proteome reveal that key biological functions involve this reversible lipid modification. Comparative analysis finally shows a strong crosstalk between S-palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications. Through the compilation of data and continuous updates, SwissPalm will provide a powerful tool to unravel the global importance of protein S-palmitoylation.

  6. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-22

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax or acrylic glue, and characterized the affect of these and other microfluidic materials on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax or cyanoacrylate-based resin as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax or simple cyanoacrylate-based resin can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The wax bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by evacuating the channels of adhesive material in a hot-water. We applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation. Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein recombinant E. coli bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. The chip bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin was tested by measuring protein concentration and carrying out DNA capillary electrophoresis. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of our microfluidic chip fabrication technology, we tested the PCR compatibility of our chip materials along with various other common materials

  8. Cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance in wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wheat grain yield is seriously affected by drought stress, and leaf cuticular wax is reportedly associated with drought tolerance. However, most studies have focused on cuticular wax biosynthesis and model species. The effects of cuticular wax on wheat drought tolerance have rarely been studied. The aims of the current study were to study the effects of leaf cuticular wax on wheat grain yield under drought stress using the above-mentioned wheat NILs and to discuss the possible physiological mechanism of cuticular wax on high grain yield under drought stress. Compared to water-irrigated (WI conditions, the cuticular wax content (CWC in glaucous and non-glaucous NILs under drought-stress (DS conditions both increased; mean increase values were 151.1% and 114.4%, respectively, which was corroborated by scanning electronic microscopy images of large wax particles loaded on the surfaces of flag leaves. The average yield of glaucous NILs was higher than that of non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions in 2014 and 2015; mean values were 7368.37 kg·ha-1 and 7103.51 kg·ha-1. This suggested that glaucous NILs were more drought-tolerant than non-glaucous NILs (P = 0.05, which was supported by the findings of drought tolerance indices TOL and SSI in both years, the relatively high water potential and relative water content, and the low ELWL. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate (Pn of glaucous and non-glaucous wheat NILs under DS conditions decreased by 7.5% and 9.8%, respectively; however, glaucous NILs still had higher mean values of Pn than those of non-glaucous NILs, which perhaps resulted in the higher yield of glaucous NILs. This could be explained by the fact that glaucous NILs had a smaller Fv/Fm reduction, a smaller PI reduction and a greater ABS/RC increase than non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions. This is the first report to show that wheat cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance. Moreover

  9. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of carnauba wax (E 903) as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of carnauba wax (E 903). Carnauba wax (E 903) is authorised in the EU as food additive as glazing agent. It has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) who allocated an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 7 mg/kg bw/day. The SCF did not establish an ADI but considered the use of ca...

  10. Evaluation of experimental data for wax and diamondoids solubility in gaseous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Amir H.; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Eslamimanesh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The Leverage statistical approach is herein applied for evaluation of experimental data of the paraffin waxes/diamondoids solubility in gaseous systems. The calculation steps of this algorithm consist of determination of the statistical Hat matrix, sketching the Williams Plot, and calculation......-Santiago and Teja correlations are used to calculate/estimate the solubility of paraffin waxes (including n-C24H50 to n-C33H68) and diamondoids (adamantane and diamantane) in carbon dioxide/ethane gases, respectively. It can be interpreted from the obtained results that the applied equations for calculation...

  11. Anti-botrytis activity in epicuticular waxes of young grape berries of Vitis vinifera (Pinot noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Comménil

    1996-03-01

    The evidence of a substance which exhibits a strong inhibition on the conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea was made after epicuticular waxes chromatographic analysis and biological tests. This compound, characterized by a Rf (0,2 closely related to the Rf of the primary alcohols, was present in the wax extracts originated from bloom and immature grape berries stages and it was absent in the extracts issued to the mature grape berries. The concentration of the conidial germination inhibitor was markedly different between the sensible (S792 and tolerant (T7613 cultivars of Pinot vineyards. Also this antifungal product would be considereted as an hypothetical resistance marked against Botrytis cinerea.

  12. Forecasting Palm Oil Price Movements In Malaysia: Empirical Evidence from the Malaysian Palm Oil Futures Market.

    OpenAIRE

    Amran, Zulfathi

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry is one of the main commodity industries in South East Asia. This is the case for the two main producers and exporters of crude palm oil in the world, Malaysia and Indonesia, and thus there is an importance placed on the trading of the commodity in Malaysia, especially for hedging purposes for the producers. This is because; the main use of the product is for exporting purposes rather than for consumption, and thus it is important if there is a tool that the producers or ...

  13. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.H.A.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing

  14. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris canutus (Aves : Scolopacidae) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, MHA; Piersma, T; Damste, JSS; Dekker, Marlèn H.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing

  15. Geometrical effects of conventional and digital prosthodontic planning wax-ups on lateral occlusal contact number, contact area, and steepness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the effect of conventional and digital wax-ups on three lateral occlusion variables: contact number, contact area, and steepness. Dental casts of 10 patients with Angle Class I relationship were included in the study. All patients required fixed prosthodontic treatment that would affect lateral occlusion. The casts of all patients received conventional and digital wax-ups. For pretreatment, conventional wax-up, and digital wax-up casts, contact number, contact area, and occlusion steepness were measured at four lateral positions, that is, at excursions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm from maximal intercuspation. Lateral occlusion scheme variables were affected by use of diagnostic wax-ups. For all types of casts, contact number decreased as excursion increased. The two types of wax-ups had similar contact number patterns, and contact number was significantly greater for these casts than for pretreatment casts in the earlier stages of excursion. Similarly, contact area gradually decreased with increasing excursion in the pretreatment and conventional and digital wax-up casts. There was only a minimal decrease in occlusion steepness as excursion increased. However, lateral occlusion was generally steeper for digital wax-up casts.

  16. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  17. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  18. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  19. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  20. Catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures containing aluminum chloride and bromide. [Wax obtained in the process of dewaxing lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y; Oizumi, K; Tamai, Y

    1983-09-01

    The catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures of AlCl/sub 3/ (aluminum chloride) and AlBr/sub 3/ (aluminum bromide) was investigated in an atmospheric semi-batch reactor at low temperatures of 100 to 160/sup 0/C. The cracking rate was proportional to the amount of unreacted wax. The conversion at 135/sup 0/C reached 25 wt % under typical reaction conditions. About 95 wt % of the cracking products consisted of isobutane, 2-methylbutane, and methylpentanes, ca. 50% of these isoparaffins being isobutane. The difference in cracking activity between this catalyst and a solid acid catalyst is discussed based on the product distribution. Hardly any reaction took place without HCl, which shows that the presence of HCl is essential for this cracking. The cracking rate increased sharply with an increase in the amount of the catalyst. The rate did not depend on the composition of the AlCl/sub 3//sup -/ AlBr/sub 3/ catalyst, but the product distribution did depend on it and the content of the gasoline fraction in the products increased with an increase in the concentration of AlBr/sub 3/. The cracking residue was characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The results show that the cracking reaction probably occurs heterogeneously at the interface between the liquid wax and the molten catalyst. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Online estimation of wax deposition thickness in single-phase sub-sea pipelines based on acoustic chemometrics: A feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Halstensen, Maths; Arvoh, Benjamin Kaku; Amundsen, Lene; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Wax deposition in sub-sea oil producing pipelines is a concern to the oil producing companies. The deposition of wax in pipelines can cause serious economic implications if not monitored and controlled. Several researchers have developed models and investigated the deposition of wax in crude oil pipelines. As of today, there is no off the shelf instrument available for reliable online estimation of the wax depo- sition thickness in sub-sea pipelines. Acoustic chemometrics was applied to inves...

  2. Oil palm growth, yield and financial returns from interplanted food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize, soyabean and pigeon pea were inter-planted with a juvenile oil palm plantation in 1999-2002 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (7°15'N, 3°25', altitude 144m above sea level) to evaluate the growth of the interplanted oil palm as well as yield and overall economic returns ...

  3. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Date palm is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of several countries, including Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, North Africa etc. Inflorescence rot is a serious disease of date palm which limits its yield. The identification of the causal organism is a key step to tackling this disease, and such studies ...

  4. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  5. Effect of Palm Kernel Cake Replacement and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted for twelve weeks was conducted to study the performance of finisher pigs fed five different levels of palm kernel cake replacement for maize (0%, 40%, 40%, 60%, 60%) in a maize-palm kernel cake based ration with or without enzyme supplementation. It was a completely randomized design ...

  6. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muharnif; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 10 6 ty -1 ) of palm oil from 38.6 x 10 6 ty - 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), shell (2.3 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 10 6 ty - 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  7. Adoption of improved oil palm processing technology in Umuahia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that a large percentage of the respondents were aware of the 5 improved oil palm processing technologies with friends and relatives as major source of information. Adoption was significant for 3 out of 5 technologies under study. The major constraints to improved oil palm processing technologies were high ...

  8. Characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in Anambra State, Nigeria. All the palm oil producers in Anambra State formed the population of the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected from primary source through ...

  9. A review of the palm genus Acrocomia: Neotropical green gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Acrocomia, popularly known as macaw palm or macaúba, occurs in savanna areas and open forests of tropical America, with distribution from Central to southern South America. They are important oleaginous palm trees, due to their role in ecosystems, local economies, and their potential for b...

  10. Palm oil fresh fruit bunch ripeness grading identification using color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigates the ripeness grading identification of the palm oil FFB using color features that are color histogram, color moment and color correlogram. Palm is harvested during the optimum stage of its ripeness since it improves the FFB oil quality and quantity. Harvesting wrong bunches decreases the oil ...

  11. English-Igbo glossary creation of palm oil production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Igbo speaking people are well known for palm oil production and processing in Nigeria. This occupation is one of the lucrative ventures among other trades or occupations for which the Igbo are known. With recent technological advancement in the method of production and processing palm oil, more English terms that ...

  12. Effect Of Palm Oil Supplementation On The Performance Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...

  13. Enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.

  14. Proposed Average Values of Some Engineering Properties of Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to know what values of engineering properties of palm kernels to use for rational design of handling and processing systems for palm kernels prompted a literature search for collation of published values. These values are presented in this work. And to manage the discrepancies observed among values published ...

  15. Degradation of Palm Oil Induced By Ionizing Radiation | Egbe | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-irradiated Palm Oil of the Elaeis guineensis specie was studied by assessing the effect of the radiation on the Peroxide, Iodine and Fatty acid values of the oil. These were compared with values of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil. Results showed a rise in the peroxide value by as much as 52.5% for thermoxidized oil and ...

  16. Pollination mechanisms in palms – a synoecological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    closed forest. The palm inflorescence constitutes the structural and chemical framework within which interaction with the visiting insects take place. By investing in protective features such as sclerenchyme, raphide-containing ideoblasts and tannin rich tissues the palm may prevent destructive...

  17. production of materials from Raffia palm leaves: Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The palm family which is very versatile, of great service to man, and in great abundance in the tropics has not attracted the desired research efforts. In this work, raffia palm leaves, serving as raw materials, have been processed into a refined, researchful, value added form and produced into specimens which are then ...

  18. Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. JO Nordiana, K ...

  19. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm is caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zulfiqar-Ali

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Key words: Fusarium proliferatum, ITS1, ITS4, pathogenecity, PCR, isolates, phylogeny. INTRODUCTION. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of. Iraq, Iran and North Africa. Date palm trees are infected by several pathogens like fungi, ...

  20. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...

  1. Economic assessment of oil palm projects in Nigeria. | Nwawe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this study was designed to economically assess oil palm projects in Nigeria. Secondary data used for this study were collected from Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) and related journals. The data collected were analyzed using discounted cash flow techniques. The result shows that at 32% interest ...

  2. Production of Mineral Water Using Palm Bunch Ash (PBA) From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A public health strategy for increasing the potassium and magnesium intake of the population was explored. These electrolytes have been confirmed by epidemiological studies to have some health benefits. A process for production of mineral water using palm bunch ash was developed. The composition of the palm bunch ...

  3. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  4. Effects of drying temperature on viability of macaw palm ( Acrocomia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response to a growing interest in improving seedling production of oilseed species (like macaw palm), a fruit drying protocol for facilitating seed extraction was proposed. This enabled the production of macaw palm seedlings, but the temperature most suitable for seed extraction without losing its physiological quality is ...

  5. Analysis of profitability and cost determinants of smallholder oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm processing is a source of livelihood to many people. The study analyzed cost determinants and profitability of smallholders' oil palm processors using traditional and improved processing technologies. A multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected through questionnaire; ...

  6. Ecology and behaviour of Palm-nut Vultures Gypohierax angolensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of many vulture species have undergone substantial declines. In Africa, 82% are threatened and although research on vultures has increased, the biology and ecology of several species is still poorly known. The Palm-nut Vulture Gypohierax angolensis has peculiar ecological characteristics, feeding on palm ...

  7. Somaclonal variation associated with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... Malaysia and Indonesia together accounting for around. 83% of world palm oil production in 2001 (Wahid et al.,. 2004). The oil palm is an important economic crop, producing food and raw materials for the food, confectionary, cosmetics and ... inherently very slow, and high heterogeneity is still observed ...

  8. Increased accumulation of cuticular wax and expression of lipid transfer protein in response to periodic drying events in leaves of tree tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Cuticular wax deposition and composition affects drought tolerance and yield in plants. We examined the relationship between wax and dehydration stress by characterizing the leaf cuticular wax of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L. Graham) grown under periodic dehydration stress. Total leaf cuticular wax load increased after each of three periods of dehydration stress using a CH2Cl2 extraction process. Overall, total wax load increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold, but composition of the wax was not altered. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups; n-hentriacontane was the largest component (>75%) with alcohols and fatty acids representing drying event. Leaves excised from plants subjected to multiple drying events were more resistant to water loss compared to leaves excised from well-watered plants, indicating that there is a negative relationship between total wax load and epidermal conductance. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are thought to be involved in the transfer of lipids through the extracellular matrix for the formation of cuticular wax. Using northern analysis, a 6-fold increase of tree tobacco LTP gene transcripts was observed after three drying events, providing further evidence that LTP is involved in cuticle deposition. The simplicity of wax composition and the dramatic wax bloom displayed by tree tobacco make this an excellent species in which to study the relationship between leaf wax deposition and drought tolerance.

  9. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace ...

  10. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  11. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  12. Effect of Zeolite Treatment on the Blooming Behavior of Paraffin Wax in Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan B. Pajarito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The blooming behavior of paraffin wax in natural rubber (NR composites was studied as function of zeolite treatment. Three types of zeolite treatment were treated as factors: acid activation using hydrochloric acid (HCl solution, ion exchange using tetradecyldimethyl amine (TDA chloride salt, and organic modification using glycerol monostearate (GMS. The zeolite was treated according to a 23 full factorial design of experiment. Attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical structure of treated zeolite. Treated zeolite was applied as filler to NR composites deliberately compounded with high amount of paraff in wax. The amount of bloomed wax in surface of NR composite sheets was monitored with time at 50oC. Results show the bloom amount to be linear with the square root of time. NR composites reinforced with untreated, acid-activated, and ion-exchanged zeolite fillers indicate reduction in wax blooming as compared to unfilled NR. The bloom rate (slope and initial bloom (y-intercept were determined from the experimental plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA shows the bloom rate to be signif icantly increased when zeolite fillers are treated with GMS. Meanwhile, initial bloom was significantly enhanced when zeolite fillers are treated with TDA chloride salt and GMS. The significant increase in bloom rate and initial bloom can be attributed to the softening of the NR matrix at high amounts of TDA chloride salt and GMS.

  13. Thermodynamics Prediction of Wax Precipitation in Black Oil Using Regular Solution Model and Plus Fraction Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation of wax/solid paraffin during production, transportation, and processing of crude oil is a serious problem. It is essential to have a reliable model to predict the wax appearance temperature and the amount of solid precipitated at different conditions. This paper presents a work to predict the solid precipitation based on solid-liquid equilibrium with regular solution-molecular thermodynamic theory and characterization of the crude oil plus fraction. Due to the differences of solubility characteristics between solid and liquid phase, the solubility parameters of liquid and solid phase are calculated by a modified model. The heat capacity change between solid and liquid phase is considered and estimated in the thermodynamic model. An activity coefficient based thermodynamic method combined with two characteristic methods to calculate wax precipitation in crude oil, especially heavy oil, has been tested with experimental data. The results show that the wax appearance temperature and the amount of weight precipitated can be predicted well with the experimental data.

  14. Morphology evaluation of biodegradable copolyesters based on dimerized fatty acid studied by DSC, SAXS and WAXS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozlowska, A.; Gromadzki, Daniel; El Fray, M.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2008), s. 85-88 ISSN 1230-3666 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : multiblock copolymers * DSC * WAXS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2008

  15. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...

  16. New MALDI matrices based on lithium salts for the analysis of hydrocarbons and wax esters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Petra; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hanus, Robert; Pecková, K.; Cvačka, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 7 (2014), s. 628-638 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * lipids * lithium attachment * MALDI matrix * waxes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2014

  17. Clustering of comb and propolis waxes based on the distribution of aliphatic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custodio Angela R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition data for 41 samples of propolis waxes and 9 samples of comb waxes of Apis mellifera collected mainly in Brazil were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. For chemometrical analysis, the distribution of hydrocarbons and residues of alcohols and carboxylic acids of monoesters were considered. The clustering obtained revealed chemical affinities and differences not previously grasped by simple eye-inspection of the data. No consistent differences were detected between comb and propolis waxes. These and previous results suggest that hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, aliphatic alcohols and esters from both comb and propolis waxes are bee-produced compounds and, hence, the differences detected between one and another region are dependent on genetic factors related to the insects rather than the local flora. The samples analyzed were split into two main clusters, one of them comprising exclusively material collected in the State of São Paulo. The results are discussed with respect to the africanization of honeybees that first took place in that State and therefrom irradiated to other parts of Brazil.

  18. The casting of western sculpture during the XIXth century: sand casting versus lost wax casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, T.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss research into bronze casting techniques as practiced during the XIXth and early XXth century. Both natural sand casting (fonte au sable naturel) and lost wax casting (fonte à la cire perdue) were employed during this period and sometimes rivalled for commissions. Before the

  19. A prediction method for the wax deposition rate based on a radial basis function neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The radial basis function neural network is a popular supervised learning tool based on machinery learning technology. Its high precision having been proven, the radial basis function neural network has been applied in many areas. The accumulation of deposited materials in the pipeline may lead to the need for increased pumping power, a decreased flow rate or even to the total blockage of the line, with losses of production and capital investment, so research on predicting the wax deposition rate is significant for the safe and economical operation of an oil pipeline. This paper adopts the radial basis function neural network to predict the wax deposition rate by considering four main influencing factors, the pipe wall temperature gradient, pipe wall wax crystal solubility coefficient, pipe wall shear stress and crude oil viscosity, by the gray correlational analysis method. MATLAB software is employed to establish the RBF neural network. Compared with the previous literature, favorable consistency exists between the predicted outcomes and the experimental results, with a relative error of 1.5%. It can be concluded that the prediction method of wax deposition rate based on the RBF neural network is feasible.

  20. Physical characteristics of tetrahydroxy and acylated derivatives of jojoba liquid wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols, mainly (C38:2-C46:2). The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and therefore is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the Jojoba (Simmondsia...

  1. In vitro and In vivo Characterisation of Piroxicam-Loaded Dika Wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate piroxicam-loaded lipospheres and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo properties. Method: Piroxicam-loaded lipospheres were prepared by hot homogenization technique using dika wax and Phospholipon® 90G (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1) as the lipid matrix. Characterisation, based on particle size

  2. 1H and 13C NMR spectral assignments of four dammarane triterpenoids from carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysne, Juliana de Brito; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Assunção, Marcus Vinícius; Uchoa, Daniel E de Andrade; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2006-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of carnauba wax led to the isolation of three new dammarane triterpenoids 1, 2 and 4, together with the known triterpene 3. The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with published data for closely related compounds. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Simulation of temperature-pressure profiles and wax deposition in gas-lift wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevic Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-lift is an artificial lift method in which gas is injected down the tubing- -casing annulus and enters the production tubing through the gas-lift valves to reduce the hydrostatic pressure of the formation fluid column. The gas changes pressure, temperature and fluid composition profiles throughout the production tubing string. Temperature and pressure drop along with the fluid composition changes throughout the tubing string can lead to wax, asphaltenes and inorganic salts deposition, increased emulsion stability and hydrate formation. This paper presents a new model that can sucesfully simulate temperature and pressure profiles and fluid composition changes in oil well that operates by means of gas-lift. This new model includes a pipe-in-pipe segment (production tubing inside production casing, countercurrent flow of gas-lift gas and producing fluid, heat exchange between gas-lift gas and the surrounding ambient – ground; and gas-lift gas with the fluid in the tubing. The model enables a better understanding of the multiphase fluid flow up the production tubing. Model was used to get insight into severity and locations of wax deposition. The obtained information on wax deposition can be used to plan the frequency and depth of wax removing operations. Model was developed using Aspen HYSYS software.

  4. Plumage reflectance is not affected by preen wax composition in red knots Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, J; Korsten, P

    It has recently been shown that sandpipers (Scolopacidae) abruptly switch the chemical composition of their preen gland secretions from mono- to diester waxes just before the period of courtship. The timing and context of the shift suggested that diesters could provide a visible quality signal

  5. Wax co-cracking synergism of high density polyethylene to alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Motawie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempts have been made to understand the thermal degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE and their combined co-cracking using different ratios of HDPE and petroleum wax under nitrogen atmosphere. We have conducted the experiments using HDPE as the raw material and petroleum wax as co-feed by at 400 and 450 °C reaction temperatures. The product distribution was noted along with reaction time of 0.5–3 h for the degradation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA technique was used to measure the weight change of the feedstock as a function of temperature and time. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to determine the degradation temperature. Products were characterized using gas chromatography (GC and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, some other standard physical methods were used to determine the main properties of the liquid products. Results show that the mixed plastic-wax samples could be converted into gases, gasoline, and middle distillate depending upon the composition of feed polymer/wax ratio. It was found that the products mostly consisted of paraffin and olefin compounds, with carbon numbers of C1–C4, C5–C9 and C10–C19 in the case of gases, gasoline and middle distillate respectively.

  6. Cross-linking of LDPE/wax blends by using dicumyl peroxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igor Krupa

    They are not soluble in many solvents due to their high crystallinity, but they ... macroradical formation via thermal decomposition of organic peroxides.6,7,8 A ... as potential applications of LDPE/wax blends are concerned, lower viscosity of ...

  7. Investigation of Carnuba Wax as Matrix in the Formulation of Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the drug entrapment efficiency, release potential and drug release mechanisms of solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) prepared with different concentrations of two non ionic surfactants using carnauba wax as the lipid matrix. SLMs were prepared by melt dispersion technique, whereby ...

  8. Spectroscopic characterization of D-003 obtained from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  9. Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial and antifungal effects of high pH (9, 10) and paraffin wax were determined. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by aerobic mesophilic count of bacteria and fungi on the surface of the tomatoes, peppers and oranges using serial dilution and pour ...

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of Simultaneous determination of Albendazol from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo, Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  11. A review of remote sensing applications for oil palm studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khai Loong Chong; Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Christine Pohl; Kian Pang Tan

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm becomes an increasingly important source of vegetable oil for its production exceeds soybean,sunflower,and rapeseed.The growth of the oil palm industry causes degradation to the environment,especially when the expansion of plantations goes uncontrolled.Remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor the development of oil palm plantations.In order to promote the use of remote sensing in the oil palm industry to support their drive for sustainability,this paper provides an understanding toward the use of remote sensing and its applications to oil palm plantation monitoring.In addition,the existing knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations for further research are given.

  12. Palm Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Douglas E.; Holliday, Ezekiel

    2007-01-01

    A prototype 35We, JP-8 fueled, soldier-wearable power system for the DARPA Palm Power program has been developed and tested by Sunpower. A hermetically-sealed 42We Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) with integral linear alternator is the prime mover for this system. To maximize system efficiency over a broad range of output power, a non-dissipative, highly efficient electronic control system which modulates engine output power by varying piston stroke and converts the AC output voltage of the FPSE into 28Vdc for the Palm Power end user, has been designed and demonstrated as an integral component of the Palm Power system. This paper reviews the current status and progress made in developing the control electronics for the Palm Power system, in addition to describing the operation and demonstrated performance of the engine controller in the context of the current JP-8 fueled Palm Power system.

  13. Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyabilah, R.; Hanim, S.S.; Norsuhaila, M.H.; Noraishah, A.K.; Siti Kartina

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

  14. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Gong, Xiuqing; Li, Shunbo; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yi, Xin

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax or cyanoacrylate-based resin as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax or simple cyanoacrylate-based resin can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The wax bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by evacuating the channels of adhesive material in a hot-water. We applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation. Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein recombinant E. coli bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. The chip bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin was tested by measuring protein concentration and carrying out DNA capillary electrophoresis. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of our microfluidic chip fabrication technology, we tested the PCR compatibility of our chip materials along with various other common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips including: silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives, etc. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components

  15. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored

  16. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... Key words: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., free fatty acid content, crude palm oil, inheritance. INTRODUCTION. The oil palm (Elaeis ... of world's production of vegetable oils. The highest palm oil producing countries ... Without prior refining, acidic palm oil is improper for human consumption (Anonymous, 2005).

  17. Optimum drying time for palm nuts for efficient nut cracking in small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm kernel, one of the end products of oil palm fruit processing is recovered by the cracking of the palm nuts which is first dried to aid efficient kernel recovery. In small-scale mills palm nuts are air-dried. This paper investigates the optimum drying time necessary for efficient nut cracking. Such factors as wholeness of kernel, ...

  18. Properties of palm wine yeasts and its performance in wine making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh palm wine samples were obtained from oil palm and raffia palm into sterile flasks. The samples were examined for yeasts properties and performance in wine making using grapes. The yeasts in the palm wine were characterized, identified, and screened for their sedimentation rate, ethanol tolerance, alcohol content, ...

  19. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  20. Is there a sex difference in palm print ridge density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Aparna, K R; Shyamsundar, S

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of fingerprints and palm prints at the crime scene is vital to identify the suspect and establish a crime. Dermatoglyphics can even be valuable in identification of a dismembered hand during medicolegal investigations to establish the identity of an individual in cases of mass disasters/mass homicides. The present research studies the variation in ridge density in different areas of the palm prints among men and women. The four prominent areas were analysed on the palm prints that included central prominent part of the thenar eminence (P1), hypothenar region; inner to the proximal axial triradius (P2), medial mount; proximal to the triradius of the second digit (P3) and lateral mount; proximal to the triradius of the fifth digit (P4). The mean palm print ridge density was significantly higher among women than men in all the designated areas in both hands except for the P3 area in the right hand. Statistically significant differences were observed in the palm print ridge density between the different palm areas in men and women in right and left hands. No significant right-left differences were observed in the palm print ridge density in any of the four areas of palm prints among men. In women, right-left differences were observed only in the P3 and P4 areas of palm prints. This preliminary study indicates that though the palm print ridge density is a sexually dimorphic variable, its utility for estimation of sex in forensic identification may be limited owing to significant overlapping of values.

  1. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, poil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  2. THE STUDY ON IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF SOAKED PALM OIL FIBER BY FILTRATED PALM OIL FRUIT BUNCH ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari L. Darmawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil fiber has its potency as feed fiber source for ruminant, but contains high lignin and causes limited digestibility. This research was carried out to find the effect of soaking palm oil fiber in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash (FPOFBA on in vitro digestibility. This experiment used a completely randomized design that repeated for 4times. Palm oil fruit bunch ash was mixed in water and entered into container for 24 hours within concentrations, consists of: 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/L. Moreover, this filtrate used to soak palm oil fiber for 3 hours. The processed products were analyzed for their level of lignin and crude fiber. Meanwhile, in vitro test was used to measure digestibility. It showed that soaking in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash gave significant effect to decrease level of lignin and crude fiber (P0.05, such as 23.48 and 24.12% as well as 16.70 and 17.06 % in each. It can be concluded that soaked palm oil fiber with 150 g/L concentration of filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash was more effective in improving digestibility.

  3. Rapid atmospheric transport and large-scale deposition of recently synthesized plant waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Schubert, Carsten J.; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2018-02-01

    Sedimentary plant wax 2H/1H ratios are important tools for understanding hydroclimate and environmental changes, but large spatial and temporal uncertainties exist about transport mechanisms from ecosystem to sediments. To assess atmospheric pathways, we collected aerosol samples for two years at four locations within a ∼60 km radius in northern Switzerland. We measured n-alkane distributions and 2H/1H ratios in these samples, and from local plants, leaf litter, and soil, as well as surface sediment from six nearby lakes. Increased concentrations and 2H depletion of long odd chain n-alkanes in early summer aerosols indicate that most wax aerosol production occurred shortly after leaf unfolding, when plants synthesize waxes in large quantities. During autumn and winter, aerosols were characterized by degraded n-alkanes lacking chain length preferences diagnostic of recent biosynthesis, and 2H/1H values that were in some cases more than 100‰ higher than growing season values. Despite these seasonal shifts, modeled deposition-weighted average 2H/1H values of long odd chain n-alkanes primarily reflected summer values. This was corroborated by n-alkane 2H/1H values in lake sediments, which were similar to deposition-weighted aerosol values at five of six sites. Atmospheric deposition rates for plant n-alkanes on land were ∼20% of accumulation rates in lakes, suggesting a role for direct deposition to lakes or coastal oceans near similar production sources, and likely a larger role for deposition on land and transport in river systems. This mechanism allows mobilization and transport of large quantities of recently produced waxes as fine-grained material to low energy sedimentation sites over short timescales, even in areas with limited topography. Widespread atmospheric transfer well before leaf senescence also highlights the importance of the isotopic composition of early season source water used to synthesize waxes for the geologic record.

  4. A review on wax printed microfluidic paper-based devices for international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundemir, S; Uguz, A K; Ulgen, K

    2017-07-01

    Paper-based microfluidics has attracted attention for the last ten years due to its advantages such as low sample volume requirement, ease of use, portability, high sensitivity, and no necessity to well-equipped laboratory equipment and well-trained manpower. These characteristics have made paper platforms a promising alternative for a variety of applications such as clinical diagnosis and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological substances. Among the wide range of fabrication methods for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices ( μ PADs), the wax printing method is suitable for high throughput production and requires only a commercial printer and a heating source to fabricate complex two or three-dimensional structures for multipurpose systems. μ PADs can be used by anyone for in situ diagnosis and analysis; therefore, wax printed μ PADs are promising especially in resource limited environments where people cannot get sensitive and fast diagnosis of their serious health problems and where food, water, and related products are not able to be screened for toxic elements. This review paper is focused on the applications of paper-based microfluidic devices fabricated by the wax printing technique and used for international health. Besides presenting the current limitations and advantages, the future directions of this technology including the commercial aspects are discussed. As a conclusion, the wax printing technology continues to overcome the current limitations and to be one of the promising fabrication techniques. In the near future, with the increase of the current interest of the industrial companies on the paper-based technology, the wax-printed paper-based platforms are expected to take place especially in the healthcare industry.

  5. Metabolism of dietary fatty alcohol, fatty acid, and wax ester in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankura, Mitsumasa; Kayama, Mitsu; Iijima, Noriaki.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids in various tissues of the carp, Cyprinus carpio were analyzed. The fates of force-fed [1- 14 C]palmitic acids, [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol, and oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate, were compared with those given in vitro experiments. Major lipid classes in all except adipose tissue were found to be polar lipids (phospholipids) and triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in nearly all the tissues were 16 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2, and 22 : 6. Although the radioactivity incorporation into wax esters from [1- 14 C]palmitic acid and [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol for various tissue homogenates was quite high, in vivo incorporation of these labelled compounds into wax esters was very low and radioactivity was distributed mainly in the lipids of muscle, skin, hepatopancreas, intestine, and gill. Almost all the radioactivity in various tissues was present in phospatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Most of the oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was easily hydrolyzed by various tissue homogenates. Force-fed oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was hydrolyzed in the intestine and then transported to other tissues, such as muscle, kin, gill, and hepatopancreas. Moreover, released radioactivity from oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was present in mainly phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Radioactivity was also detected in wax esters in plasma. Certain amounts for fatty acids released from [1- 14 C]triolein in the hepatopancreas homogenates were incorporated into wax esters; this was stimulated by the addition of oleyl alcohol. The present results indicate extensive hydrolysis of wax ester to possibly occur in the intestine and certain portions of the fatty alcohol moiety to be resterfied. The portions may be oxidized to fatty acids and which subsequently behave as dietary fatty acids. (author) 50 ref

  6. Experimental analysis, modeling and simulation of a solar energy accumulator with paraffin wax as PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, A.; Henríquez-Vargas, L.; Aravena, R.; Sepúlveda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhancement of paraffin wax thermal conductivity using soft drink can stripes. • Thermal analysis and simulations results agree well with experimental data. • Increase in accumulator thermal efficiencies through addition of external aluminum stripes. • Proposed accumulator allows up to 13,000 kJ of energy storage. - Abstract: Soft drink cans filled with paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes, obtained from disposable cans, doubled the thermal conductivity of cans filled only with paraffin wax. Promising results obtained in a prototype heat exchanger encouraged the construction of this unit 6 times bigger. We experimentally evaluated and model a heat exchanger for solar energy accumulation, composed by 300 disposable soft drink cans filled with a total of 59.25 kg of paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes. The effect of adding 2.75 kg of aluminum fins for enhancing heat transfer from the outer surface of the cans to the circulant air was experimentally analyzed. In sunny days, the wax melted completely in about 4 h. The accumulated energy in form of latent heat (about 13,000 kJ) allowed to increase the temperature of 0.040 kg/s of circulant air in at least 20 °C during a period of 2.5 h. For an air mass rate of 0.018 kg/s the period was extended practically to 5 h. The accumulator thermal analysis was presented and a subsequent numerical simulation with Matlab was performed to compare with the experimental results obtaining good agreement specially for higher air mass flow rates. The low cost accumulator presented is of simple construction and will allow extended use of solar energy for applications such as drying processes or household calefaction system.

  7. Effects of Chemical Inter esterification on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti, M. F.H.; Norizzah, A. R.; Zaliha, O.

    2012-01-01

    Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)

  8. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax δD, δ13C, and Δ14C analyses in two lake sediment cores from southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change. Plant-wax specific Δ14C ages indicate a large input of pre-aged plant waxes into lake sediment. Comparison of plant-wax δD records with other regional hydroclimate proxy records suggest that plant-wax ages are evenly distributed around plant-wax radiocarbon ages, and that applying an age model based on plant-wax radiocarbon ages is appropriate for these lake sediments. We evaluate how differences in plant-wax age distributions influence stable isotope records to assess the age uncertainty associated with records of climate and vegetation change derived from plant-wax stable isotopes. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax δ13C is largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δ13C would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analysis of plant-wax δD and δ13C from both lakes indicates increasingly divergent trends following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend to correspond with low plant-wax δ13C values and vice versa. This pattern is consistent with

  9. Identification of In-Chain-Functionalized Compounds and Methyl-Branched Alkanes in Cuticular Waxes of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu C Racovita

    Full Text Available In this work, cuticular waxes from flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem were investigated in search for novel wax compounds. Seven wax compound classes were detected that had previously not been reported, and their structures were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives. Six of the classes were identified as series of homologs differing by two methylene units, while the seventh was a homologous series with homologs with single methylene unit differences. In the waxes of flag leaf blades, secondary alcohols (predominantly C27 and C33, primary/secondary diols (predominantly C28 and esters of primary/secondary diols (predominantly C50, combining C28 diol with C22 acid were found, all sharing similar secondary hydroxyl group positions at and around C-12 or ω-12. 7- and 8-hydroxy-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, 7- and 8-oxo-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, and 4-alkylbutan-4-olides (predominantly C28 were found both in flag leaf and peduncle wax mixtures. Finally, a series of even- and odd-numbered alkane homologs was identified in both leaf and peduncle waxes, with an internal methyl branch preferentially on C-11 and C-13 of homologs with even total carbon number and on C-12 of odd-numbered homologs. Biosynthetic pathways are suggested for all compounds, based on common structural features and matching chain length profiles with other wheat wax compound classes.

  10. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tolokh, Igor S. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Drozdetski, Aleksander [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Baker, Nathan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Onufriev, Alexey V. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however, the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively characterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight into understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  11. Compound-Specific Radiocarbon Dating Reveals the Age Distribution of Plant-Wax Biomarkers Exported to the Bengal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, V.; French, K. L.; Hein, C. J.; Haghipour, N.; Wacker, L.; Kudrass, H.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of leaf-wax compounds preserved in lacustrine and marine sediments has been widely used to reconstruct terrestrial paleo-environments. However, the timescales of plant-wax storage in continental reservoirs before riverine export are not well known, representing a key uncertainty in paleo-environment studies. We couple numerical models with bulk and leaf-wax fatty acid organic 13C and 14C signatures hosted in a high-deposition-rate sediment core from the Bengal shelf canyon in order to estimate storage timescales within the Ganges-Brahmaputra catchment area. The fatty acid 14C record reveals a muted nuclear weapons bomb spike, requiring that the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system exports a mixture of young and old (pre-aged) leaf-wax compounds. According to numerical simulations, 79-83% of the leaf-wax fatty acids in this core are sourced from continental reservoirs that store organic carbon on an average of 1000-1200 calendar years, while the remainder has an average age of 15 years. These results demonstrate that a majority of the leaf-wax compounds produced in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin was stored in soils, floodplains, and wetlands prior to its export to the Bengal Fan. We will discuss the implications of these findings for plant-wax based paleoenvironmental records.

  12. Effect of spatial distribution of wax and PEG-isocyanate on the morphology and hydrophobicity of starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Delina; Adhikari, Raju; Tobin, Mark J; McKnight, Stafford; Wakeling, Lara; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-10-13

    This study proposes a novel method for improving surface hydrophobicity of glycerol plasticized high amylose (HAG) films. We used polyethylene glycol isocyanate (PEG-iso) crosslinker to link HAG and three natural waxes (beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax) to produce HAG+wax+PEG-iso films. The spatial distributions of wax and PEG-iso across the thickness of these films were determined using Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the films were determined using contact angle (CA) and scanning electron microscopic measurements, respectively. The distribution patterns of wax and the PEG-iso across the thickness of the film, and the nature of crystalline patterns formed on the surface of these films were found to be the key factors affecting surface hydrophobicity. The highest hydrophobicity (CA >90°) was created when the PEG-iso was primarily distributed in the interior of the films and a hierarchical circular pinnacle structure of solidified wax was formed on the surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  14. Leaf surface wax is a source of plant methane formation under UV radiation and in the presence of oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Rolsted, M. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    to this, we demonstrated that the UV radiation-induced CH4 emission is independent of leaf area index above unity. Further, we observed that the presence of O2 in the atmosphere was necessary for achieving the highest rates of CH4 emission. Methane formation from leaf surface wax is supposedly a two...... investigated the potential of the leaf surface wax itself as a source of UV radiationinduced leaf aerobic CH4 formation. Isolated leaf surface wax emitted CH4 at substantial rates in response to UV radiation. This discovery has implications for how the phenomenon should be scaled to global levels. In relation...

  15. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant E...

  16. Camphor Burns on the Palm: An Unusual New Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Ramesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Camphor burns on the palm are uncommon and rarely encountered by a plastic surgeon. Aim: This study aims to analyze different patterns of camphor burns on the palm. Methods: Five women and one man presented with camphor burns on their palm. All patients had burns on their right palm. The shape of camphor, the duration of contact with the ignited camphor on the palm, and post-burn treatments were evaluated. Results: Three types of camphor burns were noted: Type 1 (a ring-shaped or a dome-shaped blister with unburned skin in the center, Type 2 (an oval-shaped partially thick burn with unburned skin in the center, and Type 3 (a full-thickness burn exposing the palmar fascia. Conclusion: Different types of camphor burns on the palm are described in this study. This is the first study to report ring-shaped blisters and ring-shaped partially thick camphor burns caused on the palm.

  17. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biodiesel's Characteristics Preparation from Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilani Hamid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separated from glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels' properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

  19. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  20. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  1. The hidden carbon liability of Indonesian palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This report highlights the urgent need for global palm oil consumers and investors to support Unilever's call for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance in Indonesia. This report focuses on Unilever, which shares major institutional investors with other leading corporations including Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft. Not only do these corporations share investors, they also share growing carbon liability within their raw material supply chains through the expansion in the palm oil sector in Indonesia. Unilever has recognised the global problems associated with palm oil expansion and the need for drastic reform to this sector. Unilever has taken a bold move in calling for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance. While Unilever's position is strengthened by its status as the largest palm oil consumer in the world, this report shows how, unless companies like Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft support its call for a halt to deforestation, the palm oil industry will continue to present a massive carbon liability over the coming years. This report uses Unilever's palm oil supply chains as a case study to help quantify the carbon liability and collateral risks associated with the Indonesian palm oil sector. It shows how, by buying palm oil from suppliers who account for more than one-third of Indonesia's palm oil production, Unilever and its competitors are increasing their potential carbon liability and thus leaving investors exposed to potentially significant levels of hidden risk, compromising long-term financial and brand stability.

  2. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C 29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C 31 or C 33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Dynamics of Polymorphic Transformations in Palm Oil, Palm Stearin and Palm Kernel Oil Characterized by Coupled Powder XRD-DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliha, Omar; Elina, Hishamuddin; Sivaruby, Kanagaratnam; Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-06-01

    The in situ polymorphic forms and thermal transitions of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO), palm stearin (RBDPS) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were investigated using coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the DSC onset crystallisation temperature of RBDPO was at 22.6°C, with a single reflection at 4.2Å started to appear from 23.4 to 17.1°C, and were followed by two prominent exothermic peaks at 20.1°C and 8.5°C respectively. Further cooling to -40°C leads to the further formation of a β'polymorph. Upon heating, a of β'→βtransformation was observed between 32.1 to 40.8°C, before the sample was completely melted at 43.0°C. The crystallization onset temperature of RBDPS was 44.1°C, with the appearance of the α polymorph at the same temperature as the appearance of the first sharp DSC exothermic peak. This quickly changed from α→β´ in the range 25 to 21.7°C, along with the formation of a small β peak at -40°C. Upon heating, a small XRD peak for the β polymorph was observed between 32.2 to 36.0°C, becoming a mixture of (β´+ β) between 44.0 to 52.5°C. Only the β polymorph survived further heating to 59.8°C. For RBDPKO, the crystallization onset temperature was 11.6°C, with the formation of a single sharp exothermic peak at 6.5°C corresponding to the β' polymorphic form until the temperature reached -40°C. No transformation of the polymorphic form was observed during the melting process of RBDPKO, before being completely melted at 33.2°C. This work has demonstrated the detailed dynamics of polymorphic transformations of PKO and PS, two commercially important hardstocks used widely by industry and will contribute to a greater understanding of their crystallization and melting dynamics.

  4. Variation patterns of pollen production in palm flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Elodie; Barfod, Anders; Albert, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    pollen production and stamen number has never been so far investigated. The diversity in stamen number observed among palms species and genera provides an ideal case study to test for such a correlation, taking into account phylogenetic constraints. Based on a survey of flowers from 82 species...... representative of the various palm tribes and compared it to stamen number, we show that pollen production in palms ranges from hundreds to millions grains. There is a relationship between stamen number and pollen production in our sampling, particularly in Coryphoideae and Arecoideae where there is a tendency...

  5. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  6. Predicting Malaysian palm oil price using Extreme Value Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chuangchid, K; Sriboonchitta, S; Rahman, S; Wiboonpongse, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the extreme value theory (EVT) to predict extreme price events of Malaysian palm oil in the future, based on monthly futures price data for a 25 year period (mid-1986 to mid-2011). Model diagnostic has confirmed non-normal distribution of palm oil price data, thereby justifying the use of EVT. Two principal approaches to model extreme values – the Block Maxima (BM) and Peak-Over- Threshold (POT) models – were used. Both models revealed that the palm oil price will peak at ...

  7. Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO 2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO 2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: → We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. → Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. → Co-composting of EFB and

  8. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  9. Co-occurrence and community assembly in Amazonian palms (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea

    where palms abound in all major habitats. Using a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals in 430 transects, we analysed species richness, compositional turnover, and phylogenetic structure of palm assemblages in this region. We found a strong relationship of alpha-diversity and species turnover...... to habitat, indicating niche assembly. Habitat associations were phylogenetically non- random, leading to, e.g., co-existence of close relatives on flood plains. Dispersal and biogeographic history had a clear effect on alpha diversity, gamma diversity, and species turnover, and to a lesser degree...

  10. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  11. Positive and Negative Impacts of Oil Palm Expansion in Indonesia and the Prospect to Achieve Sustainable Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahputra, M. A.; Zen, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen understanding the role of palm oil on Indonesian economy, poverty elevation and to investigate the positive and negative impacts of oil palm expansion, due to the burden of GHG emissions; and prospect to be more sustainable palm oil industry. The statistics show that average rural poverty tends to be lower and Gross Regional Product tends to be higher in provinces which have greater levels of oil palm cultivation. Indonesian oil palm will grow from 10.6 in 2013 to 13.7 million ha by 2020. This will release 135.59 million tons of CO2 if nothing is done to mitigate BAU emissions. Unless there are sustained efforts to redirect development and expansion of oil palm, plantation growth will continue to encroach on intact forest and peat land.. In fact Indonesia has large areas of degraded land, an estimated total 19,144,000 ha is available for planting oil palm and other crops. A large-scale expansion program driven by estate companies needs to be accompanied by effective smallholder development program in order to achieve the best outcome for local farmers and avoid the conflicts.

  12. Irradiation effect on chemical components of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm press fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Hitoshi Ito; Shinpei Matsuhashi; Ishigaki, I.

    1998-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF), which are major by-products of the oil palm industries, were studied for upgrading their utilisation as animal feed by radiation-fermentation process. Comparative analyses of raw EFB and PPF from 3 different mills showed significant variations in some of their chemical components. Significant differences were also observed between the chemical components of EFB and PPF samples. The water holding capacities (WHC) of both EFB and PPF suggested their suitability for use as fermentation media. Gamma irradiation of up to 50 kGy have little effect on the components of both EFB and PPF. Irradiation dose of 25 kGy appeared to produce enhancement effect on cellulase hydrolysis of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose of EFB but a retarding effect on hydrolysis of PPF

  13. Study on effective utilization of palm oil (Part 2). Extraction of carotenes from palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuro, Hideo; Kubota, Yasuhiko; Shiina, Hisako; Nakasato, Satoshi

    1987-01-08

    This report is a part of the result of an international cooperation project with Malaysia Palm Oil Research Institute. Extraction of carotenes from palm oil was carried out by means of molecular distillation or adsorption method. High recovery and enrichment of carotene was obtained from the sample treated with phosphoric acid or polyphosphoric acid. However, even the maximum enrichment was only 3.8 times of carotene concentration of the sample, which was far remote from the target value of 10. The yield of recovery was also as low as 40%. Adsorption of carotenes was found to be chemisorptive in nature. The highest enrichment and recovery were obtained in the caseof oil pretreated with the phosphorous pentoxide, the recovery was 34.3% and enrichment was 11.3 which exceeded the target of 10. This adsorption process may be commercialized if the demand for carotene will grow to justify it. (2 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs)

  14. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisah Jahi; Ling, E.S.; Rizafizah Othaman; Suria Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  15. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants. - Tubular wax on the pine needle surface reflects changes/differences in industrial emissions

  16. Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu; Othman, Z.BT.; Awang, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author)

  17. Designing maleic anhydride-{alpha}-olifin copolymeric combs as wax crystal growth nucleators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Hemant P. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002 (India); Kiranbala; Bharambe, D.P. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 001 (India); Agrawal, K.S. [Department of Petrochemical Technology, Polytechnic, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002 (India); Nagar, A. [MH ASSET, ONGC, Mumbai (India)

    2010-09-15

    Modification of the wax crystal habit is of great practical interest during transportation and processing of crude oil at low temperature. Various pour point depressant (PPD) additives can facilitate this modification by different mechanisms. Comb shaped polymer additives are known to depress the pour point of crude oil by providing different nucleation sites for the precipitation of wax. This paper describes performance based design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation of comb shaped polymeric diesters. Copolymers of maleic anhydride with different unsaturated C{sub 22} esters were synthesized and copolymers then reacted with two unsaturated fatty alcohols. All products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Rheological properties of crude (with and without additive) were studied by Advance Rheometer AR-500. In this study the additive based on oleic acid was evaluated as good PPD and rheology modifier. (author)

  18. MEDITERRANEAN FOREST TREE DECLINE IN ITALY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DROUGHT, POLLUTANTS AND THE WAX STRUCTURE OF LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PAOLETTI

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available After presenting the situation of forest decline in Italy and analyzing the factors that play a contributing role, tbis paper studies the response of the epicuticular wax structures and the stomata in ten broadleaf species and one conifer to fog-like treatments with acids andlor surfactants and to severe water stress. The main results are that wax structure alterations vary in intensity in the different species studied and that the microstructural alterations observed in field conditions cannot be attributed only to severe drought. since sample trccs put through water stress simulations do nol differ significantly from controls. In the artificial surfactant treatment, a positive relationship between structural damage to tbe stomata and transpiration suggests possible synergies between the effects of drought and those of pollutants in inducing stress conditions in Mediterranean vegetation.

  19. Comparison of ossification of demineralized bone, hydroxyapatite, Gelfoam, and bone wax in cranial defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papay, F A; Morales, L; Ahmed, O F; Neth, D; Reger, S; Zins, J

    1996-09-01

    Demineralized bone allografts in the repair of calvarial defects are compared with other common bone fillers. This study uses a video-digitizing radiographic analysis of calvarial defect ossification to determine calcification of bone defects and its relation to postoperative clinical examination and regional controls. The postoperative clinical results at 3 months demonstrated that bony healing was greatest in bur holes filled with demineralized bone and hydroxyapatite. Radiographic analysis demonstrated calcification of demineralized bone-filled defects compared to bone wax- and Gelfoam-filled regions. Hydroxyapatite granules are radiographically dense, thus not allowing accurate measurement of true bone healing. The results suggest that demineralized bone and hydroxyapatite provide better structural support via bone healing to defined calvarial defects than do Gelfoam and bone wax.

  20. The Effect of Paraffin Wax to Properties of Radiation Vulcanization Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim; Sofian Ibrahim; Muhammad Saiful Omar

    2015-01-01

    Dipping factories often encounter a serious problem with high tackiness of the finish products during storage. The tackiness effect can be lead to rejection of products. This tackiness effect of natural (NR) rubber film originates in the free rubber chain ends at the surface of the film. The tackiness is not depends on the degree of crosslinking (vulcanization), since radiation itself unable to reduce the tackiness effect. The RVNRL requires addition of additive or anti-tack agent into formulation to reduce tackiness effect. In this experiment, paraffin wax manufactured by Emulco Sdn Bhd under the trade name Aquawax 48 was added into RVNRL formulation as anti-tack and the effect of paraffin wax to physical and mechanical properties of RVNRL was study. (author)

  1. A comparison of epicuticular wax of Pinus sylvestris needles from three sites in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, A.; Dowding, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three forest stands of Pinus sylvestris were chosen for comparison in Ireland. Needles from three year classes were collected. Cuticular transpiration curves showed that the rate of water loss from 1-year-old needles was faster than either 2-year-old or current-year needles at all sites. The amount of epicuticular wax extracted was similar to that reported in the literature. Needle wettability increased with needle age. Amorphous wax coverage was estimated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was found to increase with needle age. Algal cells were noted on needles of all ages at one site and appeared to affect transpiration and microroughness. The presence of fungal hyphae was also noted. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Wax Mixtures Obtained From Recycling of Patterns Used in Precision Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the properties of selected certified mixtures used to make wax patterns for the production of precision castings for the aerospace industry. In addition, an assessment of the recycled mixtures consisting of certified wax materials recovered during autoclaving was carried out. Hardness was tested via a proposed method based on penetration, creep related deformation, bending strength and linear contraction. The hardness was studied on laboratory specimens and patterns made with the use of injection molding equipment. For these patterns, linear contraction was estimated at variable pressure and for different temperature injection parameters. Deformations connected with creep and resistance were evaluated on cylindrical specimens. Differences in creep resistance in relation to the hardness were observed depending on the type of pattern mixtures. Recycled mixture has a greater resistance and smaller linear contraction than certified mixtures used for making sprue, raisers and other parts of filler system.

  3. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  4. Population matrix models and palm resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available MATRICES DE POPULATIONS ET MISE EN VALEUR DES PALMIERS. Au cours des 20 dernières années, les structures de population de nombreuses espèces de palmiers ont été décrites et discutées. La croissance et la stabilité des populations ont été analysées à l’aide de matrices. Dans cet article, nous reprenons un modèle et en discutons les aspects méthodologiques en vue d’une estimation des paramètres de l’histoire de la vie des palmiers. Les généralisations résultant de précédentes études sont présentées et les conséquences pour la mise en valeur des palmiers, concernant en particulier la confection de toitures, les fruits, la récolte des stipes, sont discutées. MATRICES DE POBLACIONES Y MANEJO DE PALMERAS. En los últimos 20 años, las estructuras de población de numerosas especies de palmeras han sido descritas y discutidas. El crecimiento y la estabilidad de las poblaciones han sido analizadas, utilizando matrices. En el presente artículo, presentamos un modelo y discutimos los aspectos metodológicos específicos para hacer una estimación de los parámetros de la historia de la vida de las palmeras. Son presentadas las generalizaciones diseñadas por estudios previos, y discutidas las implicancias en el manejo de las palmeras, en cuanto a techado, frutas, cosecha de los estípites. Population structures of numerous palm species have been described and discussed in the last 20 years. Population growth and stability have been analyzed with matrix models. In this paper we review matrix models and discuss methodological issues specific to estimating palm life history parameters. Generalizations drawn from previous studies are presented and implications for palm resource management, specifically for thatch, fruit, and stem harvest, are discussed.

  5. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomed......Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African...... guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other...

  6. The importance of being Florentine: a journey around the world for wax anatomical Venuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This article reconstructs the 19th century history of events regarding a few female wax anatomical models made in Florence. More or less faithful copies of those housed in Florence's Museum of Physics and Natural History, these models were destined for display in temporary exhibitions. In their travels through Europe and the United States, they transformed the expression "Florentine Venus" into a sort of brand name used to label and offer respectability to pieces of widely varying quality.

  7. Effect of expanded graphite on the phase change materials of high density polyethylene/wax blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlMaadeed, M.A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, 2713 Doha (Qatar); Labidi, Sami [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, 2713 Doha (Qatar); Krupa, Igor [QAPCO Polymer Chair, Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Karkri, Mustapha [Université Paris-Est CERTES, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France)

    2015-01-20

    Highlights: • Expanded graphite (EG) and low melting point (42.3 °C) wax were added to HDPE to form phase change material. • EG was well dispersed in the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. • EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. • The addition of a relatively small quantity of EG enhances the heat conduction in the composite. • HDPE/40% RT42 that contained up to 15% EG demonstrated excellent mechanical and thermal properties and can be used as PCM. - Abstract: Phase change materials fabricated from high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with 40 or 50 wt% commercial wax (melting point of 43.08 °C) and up to 15 wt% expanded graphite (EG) were studied. Techniques including scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and an experimental device to measure diffusivity and conductivity (DICO) were used to determine the microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The composites possessed good mechanical properties. Additionally, no leaching was observed during material processing or characterization. Although the Young’s modulus increased with the addition of EG, no significant changes in tensile strength were detected. The maximum Young’s modulus achieved was 650 MPa for the HDPE/40% wax composite with 15 wt% EG. The EG was well dispersed within the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. The incorporation of EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. The intensification of thermal conductivity occurred with increasing fractions of EG, which was attributed to the high thermal conductivity of graphite. The maximum quantity of heat stored by latent heat was found for the HDPE/40% wax composite with EG. The addition of a relatively small quantity

  8. Effect of expanded graphite on the phase change materials of high density polyethylene/wax blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMaadeed, M.A.; Labidi, Sami; Krupa, Igor; Karkri, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanded graphite (EG) and low melting point (42.3 °C) wax were added to HDPE to form phase change material. • EG was well dispersed in the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. • EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. • The addition of a relatively small quantity of EG enhances the heat conduction in the composite. • HDPE/40% RT42 that contained up to 15% EG demonstrated excellent mechanical and thermal properties and can be used as PCM. - Abstract: Phase change materials fabricated from high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with 40 or 50 wt% commercial wax (melting point of 43.08 °C) and up to 15 wt% expanded graphite (EG) were studied. Techniques including scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and an experimental device to measure diffusivity and conductivity (DICO) were used to determine the microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The composites possessed good mechanical properties. Additionally, no leaching was observed during material processing or characterization. Although the Young’s modulus increased with the addition of EG, no significant changes in tensile strength were detected. The maximum Young’s modulus achieved was 650 MPa for the HDPE/40% wax composite with 15 wt% EG. The EG was well dispersed within the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. The incorporation of EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. The intensification of thermal conductivity occurred with increasing fractions of EG, which was attributed to the high thermal conductivity of graphite. The maximum quantity of heat stored by latent heat was found for the HDPE/40% wax composite with EG. The addition of a relatively small quantity

  9. Diagnosis of lymphoma in paraffin wax sections by nested PCR and immunohistochemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, Y; Nanba, E; Inui, S; Tanigawa, T; Ichihara, K

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry can be used to diagnose malignant lymphoma. METHODS: Paraffin wax embedded tissue sections from 31 patients with malignant lymphoma were analysed by nested PCR and immunohistochemistry using standard protocols. RESULTS: Nested PCR amplification of 1 pg DNA confirmed monoclonality in B cell lymphoma; PCR amplification of 10 pg DNA confirmed monoclonality in T cell lymphoma. Twenty seven (87%) samples w...

  10. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome, and development of SSR markers in wax gourd (Benicasa hispida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wax gourd is a widely used vegetable of Cucuribtaceae, and also has important medicinal and health values. However, the genomic resources of wax gourd were scarcity, and only a few nucleotide sequences could be obtained in public databases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we examined transcriptome in wax gourd. More than 44 million of high quality reads were generated from five different tissues of wax gourd using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 4 Gbp data were generated, and de novo assembled into 65,059 unigenes, with an N50 of 1,132 bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known protein database, 36,070 (55.4% showed significant similarity to known proteins in Nr database, and 24,969 (38.4% had BLAST hits in Swiss-Prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,994 of wax gourd unigenes were assigned to GO term annotation, and 23,977 were found to have COG classifications. In addition, a total of 18,713 unigenes were assigned to 281 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 6,242 microsatellites (simple sequence repeats were detected as potential molecular markers in wax gourd. Two hundred primer pairs for SSRs were designed for validation of the amplification and polymorphism. The result showed that 170 of the 200 primer pairs were successfully amplified and 49 (28.8% of them exhibited polymorphisms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study enriches the genomic resources of wax gourd and provides powerful information for future studies. The availability of this ample amount of information about the transcriptome and SSRs in wax gourd could serve as valuable basis for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, molecular genetics and molecular breeding of this important vegetable crop.

  11. Real-time monitoring and measurement of wax deposition in pipelines via non-invasive electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock Sow Mei, Irene; Ismail, Idris; Shafquet, Areeba; Abdullah, Bawadi

    2016-02-01

    Tomographic analysis of the behavior of waxy crude oil in pipelines is important to permit appropriate corrective actions to be taken to remediate the wax deposit layer before pipelines are entirely plugged. In this study, a non-invasive/non-intrusive electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system has been applied to provide real-time visualization of the formation of paraffin waxes and to measure the amount of wax fraction from the Malay Basin waxy crude oil sample under the static condition. Analogous expressions to estimate the wax fraction of the waxy crude oil across the temperatures range of 30-50 °C was obtained by using Otsu’s and Kuo’s threshold algorithms. Otsu’s method suggested that the wax fraction can be estimated by the correlation coefficient β =0.0459{{T}3}-5.3535{{T}2}+200.36T-2353.7 while Kuo’s method provides a similar correlation with β =0.0741{{T}3}-8.4915{{T}2}+314.96T-3721.2 . These correlations show good agreements with the results which are obtained from the conventional weighting method. This study suggested that Kuo’s threshold algorithm is more promising when integrated into the ECT system compared to Otsu’s algorithm because the former provides higher accuracy wax fraction measurement results below the wax appearance temperature for waxy crude oil. This study is significant because it serves as a preliminary investigation for the application of ECT in the oil and gas industry for online measurement and detection of wax fraction without causing disturbance to the process flow.

  12. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza; Golam, Faruq; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3) on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing) of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fr...

  13. Fruit maturation and in vitro germination of macaw palm embryos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -industrial potential. Seed dormancy in palm species may be due to embryo immaturity, which could result from delayed embryogenesis. We evaluated the correspondence between the visual characteristics of maturing fruits and their ...

  14. Plantform Bioreactor for Mass Micropropagation of Date Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almusawi, Abdulminam H A; Sayegh, Abdullah J; Alshanaw, Ansam M S; Griffis, John L

    2017-01-01

    A novel protocol for the commercial production of date palm through micropropagation is presented. This protocol includes the use of a semisolid medium alternation or in combination with a temporary immersion system (TIS, Plantform bioreactor) in date palm micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor for date palm results in an improved multiplication rate, reduced micropropagation time, and improved weaning success. It also reduces the cost of saleable units and thus improves economic return for commercial micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor successfully addresses other hindrances that can occur during the scale-up of date palm micropropagation, including asynchrony of somatic embryos, limited maturation of somatic embryos, and highly variable germination frequencies of embryos.

  15. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 4

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... (PK) of oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis S.L.Dura) produced in Hainan, China were investigated. The ..... MS conditions: ionization type, .... number of fatty acids of low molecular weight.

  16. Proposed average values of some engineering properties of palm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... ture resistance, toughness, deformation, and hardness of palm ... useful in the determination of the amount of heat re- quired for ... to measure the volume required for the investigation. A result of .... vanized steel, and glass.

  17. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  18. ENGLISH-IGBO GLOSSARY CREATION OF PALM OIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    Abstract. The Igbo speaking people are well known for palm oil production ... ventures among other trades or occupations for which the Igbo are known. .... Q na-eme aka ntxtx vii. ..... Professionals – teachers, lawyers, writers, journalists and.

  19. Bioconversion of palm kernel meal for aquaculture: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... es as well as food supplies have existed traditionally with coastal regions of Liberia and ..... Contamination of palm kernel meal with Aspergillus ... Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia. Aquacult. Res.

  20. Research Note: Comparative antibacterial activities of oil-palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note: Comparative antibacterial activities of oil-palm Elaeis ... The antimicrobial activities liquid pyrolysates (obtained by destructive distillation), their ... respective chloroform fractions which showed higher activities than the crude ...

  1. Dense Medium Machine Processing Method for Palm Kernel/ Shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Cracked palm kernel is a mixture of kernels, broken shells, dusts and other impurities. In ... machine processing method using dense medium, a separator, a shell collector and a kernel .... efficiency, ease of maintenance and uniformity of.

  2. Accelerated in vitro propagation of elite oil palm genotypes (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2016-12-14

    Dec 14, 2016 ... Thus, this study aimed to apply a cloning protocol, using somatic embryogenesis, .... A: Cutting of an adult plant oil palm to perform stem slitting and measurements, in ..... strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species.

  3. Indigenous fungal entomopathogens associated with the oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-11-30

    Nov 30, 2014 ... is the most devastating insect pest of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin. Like most insect ... (Carrere, 2006). Malaysia and Indonesia, the world's ... environment, and residues in the fruits produced, it has become ...

  4. Ocular Dynamics of Bolus Ingestion of Eleis guineensis Sap (Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elaeis guineensis), and is widely consumed among the various ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. The effect of bolus ingestion of 600ml, palm wine was undertaken so as to determine its ocular dynamics in healthy volunteers. Results showed that ...

  5. The effect of irradiation on date palm pollen grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M M; Alajaily, F R [The National Academy for Scientific Research Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-10-01

    The evaluation of male date palm is very important in date palm culture, it is very well known that the source of pollen has its influence on fruit set, physical and chemical characters of the fruits. Date pollen was collected from previously studied male date palm trees. The pollen was subjected to the following irradiation treatments: 0,5, 10, 20, 40, 80 krad. The irradiated pollen was treated with acetocarmine and its viability was studied under the light microscope. No differences were observed between the treated pollen and the control. The pollen was germinated on agar, sucrose and boric acid media in an incubator at 27 degree C for hours. Germination count under the light microscope indicated that there were no significant differences between 5, 10, 20 krad treatments and the control, but the high doses reduced the germination percentage. The irradiated pollen used to pollinate date palm trees and the effect of metaxynia was studied. 3 tabs.

  6. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bola

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Seven different substrates (A to G) were prepared from saw dust, palm press ... can grow in a wide range of soil types with relatively low ..... documented to include; cotton waste, sugar cane ..... Canada wood ash sources. Can.

  7. Gender Role in Sustainable Palm Oil Production in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Abstracted by: EBSCOhost, Electronic Journals Service (EJS),. Vol. .... food processing and pharmaceutical industries, production of toiletries, paints, etc.) .... strides witnessed in Malaysia who collected palm fruits from Nigeria can be traced to.

  8. PALM-COEIN Nomenclature for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneris, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 30% of women will experience abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) during their life time. Previous terms defining AUB have been confusing and imprecisely applied. As a consequence, both clinical management and research on this common problem have been negatively impacted. In 2011, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Menstrual Disorders Group (FMDG) published PALM-COEIN, a new classification system for abnormal bleeding in the reproductive years. Terms such as menorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, metrorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and uterine hemorrhage are no longer recommended. The PALM-COEIN system was developed to standardize nomenclature to describe the etiology and severity of AUB. A brief description of the PALM-COEIN nomenclature is presented as well as treatment options for each etiology. Clinicians will frequently encounter women with AUB and should report findings utilizing the PALM-COEIN system. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  10. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progenies. Benoit Constant Likeng-Li-Ngue, Joseph Martin Bell, Georges Franck Ngando-Ebongue, Godswill Ntsefong Ntsomboh, Hermine Bille Ngalle ...

  11. development of motorized development of motorized oil palm fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    industrial activity in a number of developing West. African and ... pharmaceutical industries for the manufacture of drugs. ... production line of which oil palm fruit digestion is one. Thus, one ... For effective design of the machine, it was necessary.

  12. determining the optimum combination of palm kernel cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Twenty (20) female grasscutters at 14 months of age were used for the study, which lasted for ten ... commercial production of grasscutter would boost efforts .... Range test (Steel and Torrie, 1980). .... based on oil palm by-products in Malaysia.

  13. PALM and STORM: unlocking live-cell super-resolution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henriques, R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available microscopy methods such as PALM and STORM to achieve this important goal. ? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 95: 322?331, 2011. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bip.21586/abstract ...

  14. Factors of enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ika

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study ... of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. ... Increasing energy crisis and environmental concerns by.

  15. Economics of palm oil marketing in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of palm oil marketing in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. ... Data on trades socio economic factors, marketing cost and marketing margin were collected from 80 traders randomly selected from the ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan, and fuelling climate change. In November 2007, Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an 82-page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption. This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

  17. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  18. Effects of ozone exposures on epicuticular wax of ponderosa pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Turunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings were exposed during the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons to ozone in open-top chambers placed in a forested location at Shirley Meadow, Greenhorn Mountain Range, Sierra Nevada. The ozone treatments were as follows: charcoal-filtered air (CF); charcoal-filtered air with addition of ambient concentrations of ozone (CF + O 3 ); and charcoal-filtered air with addition of doubled concentrations of ozone (CF + 2 x O 3 ). Ozone effects on ponderosa pine seedlings progressed and accumulated over two seasons of exposure. Throughout the first season, increased visible injury and accelerated senescence of the foliage were noted. Subsequently, during the second season of ozone exposure, various physiological and biochemical changes in the foliage took place. All these changes led to reduced growth and biomass of the seedlings. Epistomatal waxes of needles from the CA + 2 x O 3 treatment had an occluded appearance. This phenomenon may be caused by earlier phenological development of needles from the high-ozone treatments and disturbed development and synthesis of waxes. It may also be caused by chemical degradation of waxes by exposures to high ozone concentrations. (orig.)

  19. Trimethylamine (fishy odor) adsorption by biomaterials: effect of fatty acids, alkanes, and aromatic compounds in waxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2015-03-02

    Thirteen plant leaf materials were selected to be applied as dried biomaterial adsorbents for polar gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) adsorption. Biomaterial adsorbents were efficient in adsorbing gaseous TMA up to 100% of total TMA (100 ppm) within 24 h. Sansevieria trifasciata is the most effective plant leaf material while Plerocarpus indicus was the least effective in TMA adsorption. Activated carbon (AC) was found to be lower potential adsorbent to adsorb TMA when compared to biomaterial adsorbents. As adsorption data, the Langmuir isotherm supported that the gaseous TMA adsorbed monolayer on the adsorbent surface and was followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Wax extracted from plant leaf could also adsorb gaseous TMA up to 69% of total TMA within 24 h. Another 27-63% of TMA was adsorbed by cellulose and lignin that naturally occur in high amounts in plant leaf. Subsequently, the composition appearing in biomaterial wax showed a large quantity of short-chain fatty acids (≤C18) especially octadecanoic acid (C18), and short-chain alkanes (C12-C18) as well as total aromatic components dominated in the wax, which affected TMA adsorption. Hence, it has been demonstrated that plant biomaterial is a superior biosorbent for TMA removal.

  20. Biodiesel from Jojoba oil-wax: Transesterification with methanol and properties as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Alcantara, Ramon; Garcia-Martinez, Jesus; Carrasco, Jesus [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, School of Mines, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003-Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi desert areas in some parts of the world. The main uses of Jojoba oil-wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the Jojoba oil-wax to biodiesel by transesterification with methanol, catalysed with sodium methoxide (1wt% of the oil). The transesterification reaction has been carried out in an autoclave at 60 deg C, with a molar ratio methanol/oil 7.5:1, and vigorous stirring (600rpm), reaching a quantitative conversion of the oil after 4h. The separation of the fatty acid methyl esters (the fraction rich in FAME, 79% FAME mixture; 21% fatty alcohols; 51% of methyl cis-11-eicosenoate) from the fatty alcohols rich fraction (72% fatty alcohols; 28% FAME mixture; 26% of cis-11-eicosen-1-ol, 36% of cis-13-docosen-1-ol) has been accomplished in a single crystallization step at low temperature (-18 deg C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. The fraction rich in FAME has a density (at 15 deg C), a kinematic viscosity (at 40 deg C), a cold filter plugging point and a high calorific value in the range of the European standard for biodiesel (EN 14214)