WorldWideScience

Sample records for waves polar cap

  1. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  2. Theoretical model of polar cap auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.R.; Burke, W.J.; USAF, Bedford, MA)

    1985-01-01

    A theory of the polar cap auroral arcs is proposed under the assumption that the magnetic field reconnection occurs in the cusp region on tail field lines during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Requirements of a convection model during northward IMF are enumerated based on observations and fundamental theoretical considerations. The theta aurora can be expected to occur on the closed field lines convecting sunward in the central polar cap, while the less intense regular polar cap arcs can occur either on closed or open field lines. The dynamo region for the polar cap arcs is required to be on closed field lines convecting tailward in the plasma sheet which is magnetically connected to the sunward convection in the central polar cap. 43 references

  3. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  4. Eddy intrusion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Gorney, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    We present plasma and electric field data obtained by the S3-3 satellite over the polar caps. We demonstrate that: (1) plasma signatures in the polar cap arc formation region near 5000 km altitude show clear intrusions of plasma sheet (approx.keV) and magneto sheath (approx.100 eV) plasma into a background of low-energy polar cap plasma; (2) the combined plasma and electric field signatures (electron inverted-V, ion beam and delxE<0) are exactly the same as in the evening discrete arc. We interpret this equivalence of polar cap and evening discrete arc signatures as indication that their formation processes are identical. The spatial structures of polar cap electric fields and the associated plasma signatures are consistent with the hypothesis that plasma intrusion into the polar cap takes the form of multiple cellular eddies. This hypothesis provides a unifying view of arc formation and arc configurations

  5. Dynamics of the quiet polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Work in the past has established that a few percent of the time, under northward interplanetary magnetic field and thus magnetically quiet conditions, sun aligned arcs are found in the polar cap with intensities greater than the order of a kilo Rayleigh in the visible. Here we extend this view. We first note that imaging systems with sensitivity down to tens of Rayleighs in the visible find sun aligned arcs in the polar cap far more often, closer to half the time than a few percent. Furthermore, these sun aligned arcs have simple electrodynamics. They mark boundaries between rapid antisunward flow of ionospheric plasma on their dawn side and significantly slower flow, or even sunward flow, on their dusk side. Since the sun aligned arcs are typically the order of 1000 km to transpolar in the sun-earth direction, and the order of 100 km or less in the dawn-dusk direction, they demarcate lines of strongly anisotropic ionospheric flow shears or convection cells. The very quiet polar cap (strongly northward IMF) is in fact characterized by the presence of sun aligned arcs and multiple highly anisotropic ionospheric flow shears. Sensitive optical images are a valuable diagnostic with which to study polar ionospheric convection under these poorly understood conditions. (author)

  6. Convection flow structure in the central polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    A previous study of spatially averaged flow velocity in the central polar cap [Bristow et al., 2015] observed under steady IMF conditions found that it was extremely rare for the average to exceed 850 m/s (less than 0.2 % of the time). Anecdotally, however it is not uncommon to observe line-of-sight velocities in excess of 100 m/s in the McMurdo radar field of view directly over the magnetic pole. This discrepancy motivated this study, which examines the conditions under which high-velocity flows are observed at latitudes greater than 80° magnetic latitude. It was found that highly structured flows are common in the central polar cap, which leads to the flow within regions to have significant deviation from the average. In addition, the high-speed flow regions are usually directed away from the earth-sun line. No specific set of driving conditions was identified to be associated with high-speed flows. The study did conclude that 1)Polar cap velocities are generally highly structured. 2)Flow patterns typically illustrate narrow channels, vortical flow regions, and propagating features. 3) Persistent waves are a regular occurrence. 3)Features are observed to propagate from day side to night side, and from night side to day side.. 4)Convection often exhibits significant difference between the two hemispheres. And 5)About 10% of the time the velocity somewhere in the cap exceeds 1 Km/s The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the physical reasons for the flow structure. Bristow, W. A., E. Amata, J. Spaleta, and M. F. Marcucci (2015), Observations of the relationship between ionospheric central polar cap and dayside throat convection velocities, and solar wind/IMF driving, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021199.

  7. Polar cap deflation during magnetospheric substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. J.; Siscoe, G. L.; Heelis, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The expanding/contracting polar cap model has been used to simulate DE-2 ion drift data during substorms as determined using the AL index. Of the 39 cases modeled, 57 percent required the opening of a nightside gap which maps to where reconnection occurs in the tail; 75 percent of the 16 recovery phase cases required a nightside gap, while only 29 percent of the 17 expansion phase cases required a nightside gap. On the basis of this result, it is concluded that if a nightside gap implies tail reconnection, then reconnection probably occurs after expansion phase onset and continues throughout most of the recovery phase of a substorm.

  8. A simplified model of polar cap electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A simple-minded 'model' is used in order to visualize the gross features of polar cap electric fields, in particular the 'diode' effect which had emerged already from earlier observations and the asymmetry between the electric fields observed on the dawn and dusk sides of the polar cap, which depends on Bsub(y)

  9. Polar cap index as a proxy for hemispheric Joule heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, F.K.; Knipp, D.J.; McHarg, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The polar cap (PC) index measures the level of geomagnetic activity in the polar cap based on magnetic perturbations from overhead ionospheric currents and distant field-aligned currents on the poleward edge of the nightside auroral oval. Because PC essentially measures the main sources of energy...... input into the polar cap, we propose to use PC as a proxy for the hemispheric Joule heat production rate (JH). In this study, JH is estimated from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure. We fit hourly PC values to hourly averages of JH. Using a data base approximately...

  10. North-Polar Martian Cap as Habitat for Elementary Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, M. K.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2008-09-01

    through the dirt-encrusted ice cliff [7]. Thermal conduction through the dirt crust limits sublimation of underlying ice. This allows use of the thermal wave solution: where the thermal diffusivity α combining conductivity and specific heat is taken constant and τ0 = 1.88 yr is the martian year. As in [6] we adopt a sinusoidal temperature variation and take α = 0.0001 m²/hour. Like the martian ground ice case, the transition from dirt to ice is quite sharp. The surface temperature variation at the polar cap determined from local radiative balance is largely determined by albedo, while sublimation losses from a south-facing cliff are concentrated in the summer months. For fresh frost, the albedo is close to unity but values 0.6-0.8 allow for varying amounts of exposed dirt or dust, as explored in Figure 1. This shows the integrated ice loss over one martian year (687 Earth days) using the thermal wave solution and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for ice sublimation: for T in degrees Kelvin. The solutions in Fig. 1 indicate a 10-15cm dirt crust develops quite quickly, within a few decades, becoming thick enough to choke back the sublimation rate to under 1mm/yr, compatible with the age of the cliffs. Less steep slopes develop rather thinner crusts. The seasonal thermal wave of Equ.1 applies for depths exceeding ~5cm (two diurnal skin depths). For A of 0.6, Fig. 1 shows a 10 cm thick crust builds up in ~30yr; this thick a crust may plausibly be maintained against weathering processes. If A10 cm within a few years and the self-sealing (deposition) and flow-retarding (adsorption/desorption) properties become significant in the thicker and hotter crust [5]. For A>0.7, a 5 cm crust cuts the sublimation rate to law to Δ > 10 m and gives a functional fit Ψ = 1.5 x 10-12 Δ-3.1 / km2.yr from Δ = 10 m to 100 m. (3) The volume integral of the excavated mass equates to an average `gardening' rate ~1 cm / Myr, dominated by the smallest craters ~ 0.3m deep. The craters are sparse

  11. Evidence that polar cap arcs occur on open field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Hardy, D.A.; Rich, F.J.; Mullen, E.G.; Redus, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of polar cap arc occurrence are reviewed to show that the assumption of a closed magnetospheric magnetic field topology at very high latitudes when the IMF B z is strongly northward is difficult to reconcile with a wide variety of observational and theoretical considerations. In particular, we consider the implications of observations of particle entry for high and low energy electrons, magnetic flux conservation between the near and far tail, the time sequencing in polar cap arcs events, and the hemispherical differences in polar cap arc observations. These points can be explained either by excluding the need for a major topological magnetic field change from explanations of polar cap arc dynamics, or by assuming a long-tailed magnetosphere for all IMF orientations in which magnetic field lines eventually merge with solar wind field lines in either a smooth or a patchy fashion. (author)

  12. A study of auroral activity in the nightside polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Using various ground observations at South Pole, Antarctica (invariant magnetic latitude -74 degree) and its conjugate point, Frobisher Bay, Canada, the author has studied the following aspects of nightside polar cap auroral activity: the appearance and disappearance of polar cap auroras (diffuse and discrete) associated with substorms and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) variations; auroral optical emission line intensities; and the seasonal variation of auroral conjugacy. The observations show that the polar cap auroras usually fade away before the expansive phase of a substorm and bright auroral arcs reach high latitude (-74 degree) near the recovery phase. Just before the auroras fade away the discrete polar cap auroral arcs, which are usually on the poleward boundary of the diffuse aurora, intensify for 1 to 2 minutes. The observations also indicate the IMF may have stronger control over polar cap auroral activity than do substorms. A search for energy spectral variation of precipitating electrons using the intensities of 630.0 nm (0) and 427 nm (N 2 + ) auroral emission lines reveals no dramatic changes in the energy spectrum; instead, the data show possible atmospheric scattering and geometric effects on the photometric measurements while the bright auroral arc is moving into the polar cap. The conjugate observations show that the stormtime auroral electrojet current, which is associated with the bright auroral arc, in most cases reaches higher (lower) latitudes in the winter (summer) hemisphere. An asymmetric plasma sheet (with respect to the neutral sheet) is proposed, which expands deeper into the winter lobe, under a tilted geomagnetic dipole. Accordingly, the winter polar cap would have smaller area and the auroral electrojet would be at higher latitude

  13. Polar cap contraction and expansion during a period of substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikio, Anita; Pitkänen, Timo; Honkonen, Ilja; Palmroth, Minna; Amm, Olaf

    We have studied the variations in the polar cap area and related parameters during a period of four substorms on February 18, 2004, following an extended quiet period. The measurements were obtained by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, MIRACLE magnetometers, Geotail and solar wind satellites. In addition, the event is modeled by the GUMICS-4 MHD simulation. By using the measured and modeled data, the dayside and nightside reconnection voltages are calculated. The results show a good general agreement in the polar cap boundary (PCB) location as estimated by the EISCAT radars and the GUMICS simulation. Deviations are found, too, like shorter durations of expansion phases in the simulation. Geotail measurements of the inclination angle of the magnetic field in the tail (Xgsm= -22 Re) agree with the PCB latitude variations measured by EISCAT at a different MLT. We conclude that a large polar cap corresponds to a stretched tail configuration in the near-Earth tail and a small polar cap to a more dipolar configuration. The substorm onsets took place during southward IMF. A specific feature is that the substorm expansion phases were not associated with significant contractions of the polar cap. Even though nightside reconnection voltages started to increase during expansion phases, maximum closure of open flux took place in the recovery phases. We shortly discuss implications of the observation to the definition of the recovery phase.

  14. The evolution of polar caps in magnetic cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.; Chanmugam, G.

    1986-01-01

    A simple analysis of the evolution of the size of the magnetic polar cap in accreting white dwarfs is made on the basis of current theories of the secular evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. For white dwarfs with dipolar fields it is shown that the size of the polar cap in DQ Her binaries is larger than in AM Her binaries. The size of the former is, however, smaller than deduced from interpretation of their X-ray light curves, while that of the latter is in rough agreement. If the dwarf contains an aligned magnetic quadrupole the size of the polar caps of the DQ Her binaries is significantly increased. Magnetic field decay of the quadrupole moment in the older AM Her binaries implies that their fields are predominantly dipolar. (author)

  15. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice K. Harding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. Particle acceleration and high-energy emission from the polar caps is expected to occur in connection with electron-positron pair cascades. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and associated slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting, population synthesis and phase-resolved spectroscopy.

  16. Variations in the polar cap area during two substorm cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study employs observations from several sources to determine the location of the polar cap boundary, or open/closed field line boundary, at all local times, allowing the amount of open flux in the magnetosphere to be quantified. These data sources include global auroral images from the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI instrument on board the Polar spacecraft, SuperDARN HF radar measurements of the convection flow, and low altitude particle measurements from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellites, and the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST spacecraft. Changes in the open flux content of the magnetosphere are related to the rate of magnetic reconnection occurring at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail, allowing us to estimate the day- and nightside reconnection voltages during two substorm cycles. Specifically, increases in the polar cap area are found to be consistent with open flux being created when the IMF is oriented southwards and low-latitude magnetopause reconnection is ongoing, and decreases in area correspond to open flux being destroyed at substorm breakup. The polar cap area can continue to decrease for 100 min following the onset of substorm breakup, continuing even after substorm-associated auroral features have died away. An estimate of the dayside reconnection voltage, determined from plasma drift measurements in the ionosphere, indicates that reconnection can take place at all local times along the dayside portion of the polar cap boundary, and hence presumably across the majority of the dayside magnetopause. The observation of ionospheric signatures of bursty reconnection over a wide extent of local times supports this finding.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; polar ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  17. Polar cap particle precipitation and aurora: Review and commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Patrick T.; Liou, Kan; Wilson, Gordon R.

    2009-02-01

    Polar rain has a beautiful set of symmetry properties, individually established, but not previously discussed collectively, which can be organized by a single unifying principle. The key polar rain properties are favored hemisphere (controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field Bx), dawn/dusk gradient (IMF By), merging rate (IMF Bz or more generally d[Phi]MP/dt), nightside/dayside gradient, and seasonal effect. We argue that all five properties involve variants on a single theme: the further downstream a field line exits the magnetosphere (or less directly points toward the solar wind electron heat flux), the weaker the polar rain. This effect is the result of the requirements of charge quasi-neutrality, and because the ion thermal velocity declines and the tailward ion bulk flow velocity rises moving down tail from the frontside magnetopause. Polar cap arcs (or more properly, high-latitude sun-aligned arcs) are largely complementary to the polar rain, occurring most frequently when the dayside merging rate is low, and thus when polar rain is weak. Sun-aligned arcs are often considered as originating either in the polar rain or the expansion of the plasma sheet into the polar cap. In fact three quite distinct types of sun-aligned high-latitude arcs exist, two common, and one rare. One type of arc occurs as intensifications of the polar rain, and is common, but weak, typically 0.1 ergs/cm2 s usually occurs adjacent to the auroral oval, and includes ion precipitation. The plasma regime of these common, and at times intense, arcs is often distinct from the oval which they abut. Convection alone does not specify the open/closed nature of these arcs, because multiple narrow convection reversals are common around such arcs, and the arcs themselves can be embedded within flows that are either sunward or anti-sunward. These observational facts do not neatly fit into either a plasma sheet origin or a polar rain origin (e.g., the necessity to abut the auroral oval, and the

  18. Mars polar cap: a habitat for elementary life1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, M. K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2009-04-01

    Ices in the Martian polar caps are potential habitats for various species of microorganisms. Salts in the ice and biological anti-freeze polymers maintain liquid in cracks in the ices far below 0°C, possibly down to the mean 220-240 K. Sub-surface microbial life is shielded from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, but could potentially be activated on south-facing slopes under the midday, midsummer Sun. Such life would be limited by low levels of vapour, little transport of nutrients, low light levels below a protective dirt-crust, frost accumulation at night and in shadows, and little if any active translocation of organisms. As in the Antarctic and in permafrost, movement to new habitats depends on geo-climatic changes, which for Mars's north polar cap occur on a 50 000 year scale, except for rare meteorite impacts.

  19. Polar cap flow channel events: spontaneous and driven responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present two case studies of specific flow channel events appearing at the dusk and/or dawn polar cap boundary during passage at Earth of interplanetary (IP coronal mass ejections (ICMEs on 10 January and 25 July 2004. The channels of enhanced (>1 km/s antisunward convection are documented by SuperDARN radars and dawn-dusk crossings of the polar cap by the DMSP F13 satellite. The relationship with Birkeland currents (C1–C2 located poleward of the traditional R1–R2 currents is demonstrated. The convection events are manifest in ground magnetic deflections obtained from the IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects Svalbard chain of ground magnetometer stations located within 71–76° MLAT. By combining the ionospheric convection data and the ground magnetograms we are able to study the temporal behaviour of the convection events. In the two ICME case studies the convection events belong to two different categories, i.e., directly driven and spontaneous events. In the 10 January case two sharp southward turnings of the ICME magnetic field excited corresponding convection events as detected by IMAGE and SuperDARN. We use this case to determine the ground magnetic signature of enhanced flow channel events (the NH-dusk/By<0 variant. In the 25 July case a several-hour-long interval of steady southwest ICME field (Bz<0; By<0 gave rise to a long series of spontaneous convection events as detected by IMAGE when the ground stations swept through the 12:00–18:00 MLT sector. From the ground-satellite conjunction on 25 July we infer the pulsed nature of the polar cap ionospheric flow channel events in this case. The typical duration of these convection enhancements in the polar cap is 10 min.

  20. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  1. Estimation of the polar cap dimensions from photometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besprozvannaya, A.S.; Vorob'ev, V.G.; Ruga, G.N.; Shchuka, T.I.; Yagodkina, O.I.

    1992-01-01

    The moment of crossing near-polar boundary of auroral oval by the is. Heis station (Φ L =74,4 deg) according to simultaneous optical and ionospheric observations during the period, dated 25.12.83-10.01.84, is investigated. It is shown that time of the station appearance in the polar cap area, characterized by decrease in luminescence intensity of the basic auroral emissions by the background one and by appearance in the UT afternoon hours of flat layers, coincide. Correlation coefficient - r=0.95

  2. The thermospheric effects of a rapid polar cap expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Idenden

    Full Text Available In a previous publication we used results from a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model to illustrate a new mechanism for the formation of a large-scale patch of ionisation arising from a rapid polar cap expansion. Here we describe the thermospheric response to that polar cap expansion, and to the ionospheric structure produced. The response is dominated by the energy and momentum input at the dayside throat during the expansion phase itself. These inputs give rise to a large-scale travelling atmospheric disturbance (TAD that propagates both antisunward across the polar cap and equatorward at speeds much greater than both the ion drifts and the neutral winds. We concentrate only on the initially poleward travelling disturbance. The disturbance is manifested in the neutral temperature and wind fields, the height of the pressure level surfaces and in the neutral density at fixed heights. The thermospheric effects caused by the ionospheric structure produced during the expansion are hard to discern due to the dominating effects of the TAD.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interaction; modeling and forecasting; plasma convection.

  3. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  4. Modeling the Quiet Time Outflow Solution in the Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We use the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) to study the geomagnetically quiet conditions in the polar cap during solar maximum, The PWOM solves the gyrotropic transport equations for O(+), H(+), and He(+) along several magnetic field lines in the polar region in order to reconstruct the full 3D solution. We directly compare our simulation results to the data based empirical model of Kitamura et al. [2011] of electron density, which is based on 63 months of Akebono satellite observations. The modeled ion and electron temperatures are also compared with a statistical compilation of quiet time data obtained by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and Intercosmos Satellites (Kitamura et al. [2011]). The data and model agree reasonably well. This study shows that photoelectrons play an important role in explaining the differences between sunlit and dark results, ion composition, as well as ion and electron temperatures of the quiet time polar wind solution. Moreover, these results provide validation of the PWOM's ability to model the quiet time ((background" solution.

  5. Drifting field-aligned density structures in the night-side polar cap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santolík, Ondřej; Persoon, A. M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Décréau, P. M. E.; Pickett, J. S.; Maršálek, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2005), L06106-1 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0832; GA MŠk ME 650; GA MŠk 1P05ME811 Grant - others: NASA (US) NAG5-9974; NASA (US) NNG04GB98G; NSF(US) 0307319; ESA PECS(XE) 98025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Magnetospheric Physics * Plasma convection * Plasma waves and instabilities * Polar cap phenomena * Magnetospheric configuration and dynamics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.491, year: 2005

  6. Simple model for polar cap convection patterns and generation of theta auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The simple addition of a uniform interplanetary magnetic field and the Earth's dipole magnetic field is used to evaluate electric field convection patterns over the polar caps that result from solar wind flow across open geomagnetic field lines. This model is found to account for observed polar-cap convection patterns as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field components B/sub y/ and B/sub z/. In particular, the model offers an explanation for sunward and antisunward convection over the polar caps for B/sub z/>0. Observed field-aligned current patterns within the polar cap and observed auroral arcs across the polar cap are also explained by the model. In addition, the model gives several predictions concerning the polar cap that should be testable. Effects of solar wind pressure and magnetospheric currents on magnetospheric electric and magnetic fields are neglected. That observed polar cap features are reproduced suggests that the neglected effects do not modify the large-scale topology of magnetospheric electric and magnetic fields along open polar cap field lines. Of course, the neglected effects significantly modify the magnetic geometry, so that the results of this paper are not quantitatively realistic and many details may be incorrect. Nevertheless, the model provides a simple explanation for many qualitative features of polar cap convection

  7. A multi-satellite study of accelerated ionospheric ion beams above the polar cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of nearly field-aligned outflowing ion beams observed on the Cluster satellites over the polar cap. Data are taken at geocentric radial distances of the order of 5–9 RE. The distinction is made between ion beams originating from the polar cusp/cleft and beams accelerated almost along the magnetic field line passing by the spacecraft. Polar cusp beams are characterized by nearly field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with an energy ratio EO+ / EH+, of the order of 3 to 4, due to the ion energy repartition inside the source and to the latitudinal extension of the source. Rapid variations in the outflowing ion energy are linked with pulses/modifications of the convection electric field. Cluster data allow one to show that these perturbations of the convection velocity and the associated ion structures propagate at the convection velocity. In contrast, polar cap local ion beams are characterized by field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with similar energies. These beams show the typical inverted V structures usually observed in the auroral zone and are associated with a quasi-static converging electric field indicative of a field-aligned electric field. The field-aligned potential drop fits well the ion energy profile. The simultaneous observation of precipitating electrons and upflowing ions of similar energies at the Cluster orbit indicates that the spacecraft are crossing the mid-altitude part of the acceleration region. In the polar cap, the parallel electric field can thus extend to altitudes higher than 5 Earth radii. A detailed analysis of the distribution functions shows that the ions are heated during their parallel acceleration and that energy is exchanged between H+ and O+. Furthermore, intense electrostatic waves are observed simultaneously. These observations could be due to an ion-ion two-stream instability.

  8. A Novel Approach to Exploring the Mars Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Carsey, Frank D.; Rodgers, David H.; Soderblom, L. A.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2000-01-01

    The Martian polar caps contain some of the most important scientific sites on the planet. There is much interest in exploring them with a view to understanding their role in the Mars climate system. By gaining access to the stratigraphy of the polar terrain, it is probable that one can access the climate history of the planet. Additionally, investigations aimed at localizing subsurface water--liquid or solid--are not only of great scientific interest but are also germane to the long-term interests of the manned space flight program. A major difficulty with polar exploration is access. Current techniques using chemical propulsion, Holman transfers, and direct-entry landers with aeroshells have limited capability to access the polar terrain. For the near term the authors propose a new approach to solving this transportation issue by using Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP), recently flight demonstrated on NASA's DS1 Mission to an asteroid and a comet. For a longer-term approach there are additional ways in which access to Mars, as well as other planets, can be significantly improved. These include the use of Chaos orbit theory to enable transportation between LaGrange points in the solar system, gossamer structures enabling very low-mass mobility, and advanced ascent vehicles. In this paper the authors describe how a 1000-kG payload can be transported to the surface of Mars and a polar sample obtained and returned to Earth in less than five years using SEP. A vision of how this approach can be integrated into a long-term Mars exploration strategy building toward the future is also discussed.

  9. A Novel Approach to Exploring the Mars Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Carsey, Frank D.; Rodgers, David H.; Soderblom, L. A.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2000-08-01

    The Martian polar caps contain some of the most important scientific sites on the planet. There is much interest in exploring them with a view to understanding their role in the Mars climate system. By gaining access to the stratigraphy of the polar terrain, it is probable that one can access the climate history of the planet. Additionally, investigations aimed at localizing subsurface water--liquid or solid--are not only of great scientific interest but are also germane to the long-term interests of the manned space flight program. A major difficulty with polar exploration is access. Current techniques using chemical propulsion, Holman transfers, and direct-entry landers with aeroshells have limited capability to access the polar terrain. For the near term the authors propose a new approach to solving this transportation issue by using Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP), recently flight demonstrated on NASA's DS1 Mission to an asteroid and a comet. For a longer-term approach there are additional ways in which access to Mars, as well as other planets, can be significantly improved. These include the use of Chaos orbit theory to enable transportation between LaGrange points in the solar system, gossamer structures enabling very low-mass mobility, and advanced ascent vehicles. In this paper the authors describe how a 1000-kG payload can be transported to the surface of Mars and a polar sample obtained and returned to Earth in less than five years using SEP. A vision of how this approach can be integrated into a long-term Mars exploration strategy building toward the future is also discussed.

  10. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  11. Velocity Memory Effect for polarized gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    Circularly polarized gravitational sandwich waves exhibit, as do their linearly polarized counterparts, the Velocity Memory Effect: freely falling test particles in the flat after-zone fly apart along straight lines with constant velocity. In the inside zone their trajectories combine oscillatory and rotational motions in a complicated way. For circularly polarized periodic gravitational waves some trajectories remain bounded, while others spiral outward. These waves admit an additional "screw" isometry beyond the usual five. The consequences of this extra symmetry are explored.

  12. Magnetospheric convection and current system in the dayside polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, A.; Mukai, T.; Tsuruda, K.; Hayakawa, H.

    1992-01-01

    Field and particle observations on EXOS-D (Akebono) have yielded new information on convection and current system in the dayside polar cap. Convection patterns are distinctly different depending upon whether IMF B z is northward or southward. The number of convection cells is two when B z is southward but four when B z is northward. Lobe cells in which plasma flows sunward in the region of open field lines are observed as a pair (of which one is in the dawn and the other in the dusk sector) for any polarity of IMF B y and B z . Ions in the keV range precipitate not only in the dayside cusp region but also along the sunward directed streamlines of the dawn and dusk lobe cells. These observations require reconsideration on the position and the extent of the reconnection region on the magnetopause. They also suggest that the magnetotail plays a vital role in some phenomena which have been ascribed to dayside magnetopause processes. We have not been able to find evidence to prove the presence of the viscous cell under southward IMF

  13. Electron polar cap and the boundary of open geomagnetic field lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L. C.; Stone, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 333 observations of the boundary of the polar access region for electrons (energies greater than 530 keV) provides a comprehensive map of the electron polar cap. The boundary of the electron polar cap, which should occur at the latitude separating open and closed field lines, is consistent with previously reported closed field line limits determined from trapped-particle data. The boundary, which is sharply defined, seems to occur at one of three discrete latitudes. Although the electron flux is generally uniform across the polar cap, a limited region of reduced access is observed about 10% of the time.

  14. Pulsar bi-drifting: implications for polar cap geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Geoff; Weltevrede, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    For many years it has been considered puzzling how pulsar radio emission, supposedly created by a circulating carousel of sub-beams, can produce the drift bands demonstrated by PSR J0815+0939, and more recently PSR B1839-04, which simultaneously drifts in opposing directions. Here, we suggest that the carousels of these pulsars, and hence their beams, are not circular but elliptical with axes tilted with respect to the fiducial plane. We show that certain relatively unusual lines of sight can cause bi-drifting to be observed, and a simulation of the two known exemplars is presented. Although bi-drifting is rare, non-circular beams may be common among pulsars and reveal themselves by having profile centroids displaced from the fiducial plane identified by polarization position angle swings. They may also result in profiles with asymmetric- and frequency-dependent component evolution. It is further suggested that the carousels may change their tilt by specific amounts and later reverse them. This may occur suddenly, accompanying a mode change (e.g. PSR B0943+10), or more gradually and short lived as in `flare' pulsars (e.g. PSR B1859+07). A range of pulsar behaviour (e.g. the shifting drift patterns of PSRs B0818-41 and B0826-34) may also be the result of non-circular carousels with varying orientation. The underlying nature of these carousels - whether they are exclusively generated by polar cap physics or driven by magnetospheric effects - is briefly discussed.

  15. ON THE POLAR CAP CASCADE PAIR MULTIPLICITY OF YOUNG PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timokhin, A. N.; Harding, A. K., E-mail: andrey.timokhin@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We study the efficiency of pair production in polar caps of young pulsars under a variety of conditions to estimate the maximum possible multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres. We develop a semi-analytic model for calculation of cascade multiplicity which allows efficient exploration of the parameter space and corroborate it with direct numerical simulations. Pair creation processes are considered separately from particle acceleration in order to assess different factors affecting cascade efficiency, with acceleration of primary particles described by recent self-consistent non-stationary model of pair cascades. We argue that the most efficient cascades operate in the curvature radiation/synchrotron regime, the maximum multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres is ∼few × 10{sup 5}. The multiplicity of pair plasma in magnetospheres of young energetic pulsars weakly depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of magnetic field lines and has a stronger dependence on pulsar inclination angle. This result questions assumptions about very high pair plasma multiplicity in theories of pulsar wind nebulae.

  16. O+ trough zones in the polar cap ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, James; Zeng, Wen; Jaafari, Fajer

    Regions of low-density troughs in O+ have been observed at 1 RE altitude in the polar cap ionosphere-magnetosphere region by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment(TIDE) on the POLAR spacecraft. In this presentation, the UT Arlington Dynamic Fluid-Kinetic (DyFK) code is employed to investigate the formation of such O+ density troughs. We utilize convection paths of flux tubes in the high-latitude region as prescribed by an empirical convection model with solar wind inputs to track the evolution of ionospheric plasma transport and in particular O+ densities along these tubes with time/space. The flux tubes are subjected to auroral processes of precipitation and wave-driven ion heating when they pass through the auroral oval, which tends to elevate the plasma densities in these tubes. When the F-regions of such tubes traverse locations where the F-region is in darkness, recombination there causes the higher-altitude regions to drain and the densities to decline throughout. Owing to the varying effects of these processes, significant and low trough-like densities at higher altitudes developed along these flux tubes. The modeled densities near 6000 km altitudes will be compared with multiple POLAR passes featuring POLAR/TIDE-measured O+ densities for inside and outside of such trough regions.

  17. A multi-satellite study of accelerated ionospheric ion beams above the polar cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of nearly field-aligned outflowing ion beams observed on the Cluster satellites over the polar cap. Data are taken at geocentric radial distances of the order of 5–9 RE. The distinction is made between ion beams originating from the polar cusp/cleft and beams accelerated almost along the magnetic field line passing by the spacecraft. Polar cusp beams are characterized by nearly field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with an energy ratio EO+ / EH+, of the order of 3 to 4, due to the ion energy repartition inside the source and to the latitudinal extension of the source. Rapid variations in the outflowing ion energy are linked with pulses/modifications of the convection electric field. Cluster data allow one to show that these perturbations of the convection velocity and the associated ion structures propagate at the convection velocity.

    In contrast, polar cap local ion beams are characterized by field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with similar energies. These beams show the typical inverted V structures usually observed in the auroral zone and are associated with a quasi-static converging electric field indicative of a field-aligned electric field. The field-aligned potential drop fits well the ion energy profile. The simultaneous observation of precipitating electrons and upflowing ions of similar energies at the Cluster orbit indicates that the spacecraft are crossing the mid-altitude part of the acceleration region. In the polar cap, the parallel electric field can thus extend to altitudes higher than 5 Earth radii. A detailed analysis of the distribution functions shows that the ions are heated during their parallel acceleration and that energy is exchanged between H+ and O+. Furthermore, intense electrostatic waves are observed simultaneously. These observations could be due to an ion-ion two-stream instability.

  18. Pulsar Pair Cascades in Magnetic Fields with Offset Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PC) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L(sub sd). We also give an estimate of the distribution of heating flux from returning positrons on the PC for different offsets. We find that even modest offsets can produce significant increases in pair multiplicity, especially for pulsars that are near or beyond the pair death lines for centered PCs, primarily because of higher accelerating fields. Pair spectra cover several decades in energy, with the spectral range of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) two orders of magnitude higher than for normal pulsars, and PC offsets allow significant extension of all spectra to lower pair energies. We find that the total PC pair luminosity L(sub pair) is proportional to L(sub sd), with L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -3) L(sub sd) for normal pulsars and L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -2) L(sub sd) for MSPs. Remarkably, the total PC heating luminosity for even large offsets increases by less than a factor of two, even though the PC area increases by much larger factors, because most of the heating occurs near the magnetic axis.

  19. Simultaneous observations of sun-aligned polar cap arcs in both hemispheres by EXOS-C and viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, T.; Kitayama, M.; Mukai, T.; Kaya, N.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    On September 25, 1986, the EXOS-C satellite traversed an intense electron precipitation in the southern polar cap, while the Viking satellite simultaneously obtained image data of the polar cap arc in the northern hemisphere. The energy spectrum of the precipitation, measured by instrumentation aboard EXOS-C, was very similar to that of adjacent (typical) auroral arcs, and the precipitation in the southern polar cap was observed in the same local time sector in which the arc was found in the northern polar cap. Observations seem to support the view that the polar cap arc occurs on closed field lines and is conjugate in both hemispheres. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  20. The Martian polar caps: Stability and water transport at low obliquities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal cycle of water on Mars is regulated by the two polar caps. In the winter hemisphere, the seasonal CO2 deposits at a temperature near 150 K acts as a cold trap to remove water vapor from the atmosphere. When summer returns, water is pumped back into the atmosphere by a number of mechanisms, including release from the receding CO2 frost, diffusion from the polar regolith, and sublimation from a water-ice residual cap. These processes drive an exchange of water vapor between the polar caps that helps shape the Martian climate. Thus, understanding the behavior of the polar caps is important for interpreting the Martian climate both now and at other epochs. Mars' obliquity undergoes large variations over large time scales. As the obliquity decreases, the poles receive less solar energy so that more CO2 condenses from the atmosphere onto the poles. It has been suggested that permanent CO2 condenses from the atmosphere onto the poles. It has been suggested that permanent CO2 caps might form at the poles in response to a feedback mechanism existing between the polar cap albedo, the CO2 pressure, and the dust storm frequency. The year-round presence of the CO2 deposits would effectively dry out the atmosphere, while diffusion of water from the regolith would be the only source of water vapor to the atmosphere. We have reviewed the CO2 balance at low obliquity taking into account the asymmetries which make the north and south hemispheres different. Our analysis linked with a numerical model of the polar caps leads us to believe that one summertime cap will always lose its CO2 cover during a Martian year, although we cannot predict which cap this will be. We conclude that significant amounts of water vapor will sublime from the exposed cap during summer, and the Martian atmosphere will support an active water cycle even at low obliquity.

  1. Pair Cascades and Deathlines in Magnetic Fields with Offset Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of electron-positron pair cascade simulations in a dipole magnetic field whose polar cap is offset from the dipole axis. In such a field geometry, the polar cap is displaced a small fraction of the neutron star radius from the star symmetry axis and the field line radius of curvature is modified. Using the modified parallel electric field near the offset polar cap, we simulate pair cascades to determine the pair deathlines and pair multiplicities as a function of the offset. We find that the pair multiplicity can change dr;unatically with a modest offset, with a significant increase on one side of the polar cap. Lower pair deathlines allow a larger fraction of the pulsar population, that include old and millisecond pulsars, to produce cascades with high multiplicity. The results have some important implications for pulsar particle production, high-energy emission and cosmic-ray contribution.

  2. The Mars water cycle at other epochs - Recent history of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model is presented of the integrated role of seasonal water cycle on the evolution of polar deposits on Mars over the last 10 million years. From the model, it is concluded that the only major difference between the polar caps which affects their long-term behavior is ultimately the difference in their elevations. Because of that difference, there is a preference for CO2 frost to stay longer on the northern polar cap. The average difference in sublimation at the caps results in a net south-to-north transport of water ice over long time scales. Superimposed on any long-term behavior is a transfer of water ice between the caps on the 10 exp 5 - 10 exp 6 yr time scales. The amount of water exchanged is small compared to the total ice content of the polar deposits.

  3. Polar Ice Caps: a Canary for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsaker, W.; Lowell, T. V.; Sagredo, E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hall, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Ice caps are glacier masses that are highly sensitive to climate change. Because of their hypsometry they can have a binary state. When relatively slight changes in the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) either intersect or rise above the land the ice can become established or disappear. Thus these upland ice masses have a fast response time. Here we consider a way to extract the ELA signal from independent ice caps adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. It may be that these ice caps are sensitive trackers of climate change that also impact the ice sheet margin. One example is the Istorvet Ice Cap located in Liverpool Land, East Greenland (70.881°N, 22.156°W). The ice cap topography and the underlying bedrock surface dips to the north, with peak elevation of the current ice ranging in elevation from 1050 to 745 m.a.s.l. On the eastern side of the ice mass the outlet glaciers extending down to sea level. The western margin has several small lobes in topographic depressions, with the margin reaching down to 300 m.a.s.l. Topographic highs separate the ice cap into at least 5 main catchments, each having a pair of outlet lobes toward either side of the ice cap. Because of the regional bedrock slope each catchment has its own elevation range. Therefore, as the ELA changes it is possible for some catchments of the ice cap to experience positive mass balance while others have a negative balance. Based on weather observations we estimate the present day ELA to be ~1000 m.a.s.l, meaning mass balance is negative for the majority of the ice cap. By tracking glacier presence/absence in these different catchments, we can reconstruct small changes in the ELA. Another example is the High Ice Cap (informal name) in Milne Land (70.903°N, 25.626°W, 1080 m), East Greenland. Here at least 4 unconformities in ice layers found near the southern margin of the ice cap record changing intervals of accumulation and ablation. Therefore, this location may also be sensitive to slight

  4. Polar cap electric field structures with a northward interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, W.J.; Kelley, M.C.; Sagalyn, R.C.; Smiddy, M.; Lai, S.T.

    1979-01-01

    Polar cap electric fields patterns are presented from times when the S3-2 Satellite was near the dawn-dusk meridian and IMF data were available. With B/sub z/> or =0.7γ, two characteristic types of electric field patterns were measured in the polar cap. In the sunlit polar cap the convection pattern usually consisted of four cells. Two of the cells were confined to the polar cap with sunward convection in the central portion of the cap. The other pair of cells were marked by anti-sunward flow along the flanks of the polar cap and by sunward flow in the auroral oval. These observations are interpreted in terms of a model for magnetic merging at the poleward wall of the dayside polar cusp. The sunward flow in the auroral zone is not predicted by the magnetic model and may be due to a viscous interaction between the solar wind and and magnetosphere. The second type, which was observed in some of the summer hemisphere passes and all of the winter ones, was characterized by an electric field pattern which was very turbulent, and may be related to inhomogeneous merging

  5. Inclined Pulsar Magnetospheres in General Relativity: Polar Caps for the Dipole, Quadrudipole, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Philippov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    In the canonical model of a pulsar, rotational energy is transmitted through the surrounding plasma via two electrical circuits, each connecting to the star over a small region known as a “polar cap.” For a dipole-magnetized star, the polar caps coincide with the magnetic poles (hence the name), but in general, they can occur at any place and take any shape. In light of their crucial importance to most models of pulsar emission (from radio to X-ray to wind), we develop a general technique for determining polar cap properties. We consider a perfectly conducting star surrounded by a force-free magnetosphere and include the effects of general relativity. Using a combined numerical-analytical technique that leverages the rotation rate as a small parameter, we derive a general analytic formula for the polar cap shape and charge-current distribution as a function of the stellar mass, radius, rotation rate, moment of inertia, and magnetic field. We present results for dipole and quadrudipole fields (superposed dipole and quadrupole) inclined relative to the axis of rotation. The inclined dipole polar cap results are the first to include general relativity, and they confirm its essential role in the pulsar problem. The quadrudipole pulsar illustrates the phenomenon of thin annular polar caps. More generally, our method lays a foundation for detailed modeling of pulsar emission with realistic magnetic fields.

  6. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: History of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The atmospheric water cycle at the present epoch involves summertime sublimation of water from the north polar cap, transport of water through the atmosphere, and condensation on one or both winter CO2 caps. Exchange with the regolith is important seasonally, but the water content of the atmosphere appears to be controlled by the polar caps. The net annual transport through the atmosphere, integrated over long timescales, must be the driving force behind the long-term evolution of the polar caps; clearly, this feeds back into the evolution of the layered terrain. We have investigated the behavior of the seasonal water cycle and the net integrated behavior at the pole for the last 10 exp 7 years. Our model of the water cycle includes the solar input, CO2 condensation and sublimation, and summertime water sublimation through the seasonal cycles, and incorporates the long-term variations in the orbital elements describing the Martian orbit.

  7. EISCAT and Cluster observations in the vicinity of the dynamical polar cap boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar cap boundary and auroral oval in the nightside ionosphere are studied during late expansion and recovery of a substorm from the region between Tromsø (66.6° cgmLat and Longyearbyen (75.2° cgmLat on 27 February 2004 by using the coordinated EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, MIRACLE magnetometer and Cluster satellite measurements. During the late substorm expansion/early recovery phase, the polar cap boundary (PCB made zig-zag-type motion with amplitude of 2.5° cgmLat and period of about 30 min near magnetic midnight. We suggest that the poleward motions of the PCB were produced by bursts of enhanced reconnection at the near-Earth neutral line (NENL. The subsequent equatorward motions of the PCB would then represent the recovery of the merging line towards the equilibrium state (Cowley and Lockwood, 1992. The observed bursts of enhanced westward electrojet just equatorward of the polar cap boundary during poleward expansions were produced plausibly by particles accelerated in the vicinity of the neutral line and thus lend evidence to the Cowley-Lockwood paradigm.

    During the substorm recovery phase, the footpoints of the Cluster satellites at a geocentric distance of 4.4 RE mapped in the vicinity of EISCAT measurements. Cluster data indicate that outflow of H+ and O+ ions took place within the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL as noted in some earlier studies as well. We show that in this case the PSBL corresponded to a region of enhanced electron temperature in the ionospheric F region. It is suggested that the ion outflow originates from the F region as a result of increased ambipolar diffusion. At higher altitudes, the ions could be further energized by waves, which at Cluster altitudes were observed as BBELF (broad band extra low frequency fluctuations.

    The four-satellite configuration of Cluster revealed a sudden poleward expansion of the PSBL by 2° during

  8. Penetration of geomagnetic pulsations from one polar cao cap to the other one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, Yu.P.; Lyatskij, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical study is made of penetration of geomagnetic pulsations, excited in one polar cap in the region of open field lines, into the other one. The geomagnetic pulsations excited in a polar cap in the region of open field lines are also observed in the opposite polar cap. This is connected with the flow of ionospheric perturbation currents from one hemisphere to another over the boundary of the region with closed magnetic lines. In case of long-period oscillations under symmetrical conditions, both in the north and south polar caps, the ionospheric effect of the opposite hemisphere results in the fact that the electrical currents flowing from a source to the polar cap boundary grow 1.5 times as high. In case of short-period oscillations a portion of longitudinal current flowing between the hemispheres is branched away for polarization currents. As a result, the electrical field and currents in the ionosphere of the opposite hemisphere can substantially decrease as compared to the long-period oscillations

  9. Substorms and polar cap convection: the 10 January 2004 interplanetary CME case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Andalsvik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion-contraction model of Dungey cell plasma convection has two different convection sources, i.e. reconnections at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail. The spatial-temporal structure of the nightside source is not yet well understood. In this study we shall identify temporal variations in the winter polar cap convection structure during substorm activity under steady interplanetary conditions. Substorm activity (electrojets and particle precipitations is monitored by excellent ground-satellite DMSP F15 conjunctions in the dusk-premidnight sector. We take advantage of the wide latitudinal coverage of the IMAGE chain of ground magnetometers in Svalbard – Scandinavia – Russia for the purpose of monitoring magnetic deflections associated with polar cap convection and substorm electrojets. These are augmented by direct observations of polar cap convection derived from SuperDARN radars and cross-track ion drift observations during traversals of polar cap along the dusk-dawn meridian by spacecraft DMSP F13. The interval we study is characterized by moderate, stable forcing of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system (EKL = 4.0–4.5 mV m−1; cross polar cap potential (CPCP, Φ (Boyle = 115 kV during Earth passage of an interplanetary CME (ICME, choosing an 4-h interval where the magnetic field pointed continuously south-west (Bz By By polarity of the ICME magnetic field, a clear indication of a nightside source.

  10. Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (Lpaper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.

  11. The instantaneous relationship between polar cap and oval auroras at times of northward interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphree, J.S.; Anger, C.D.; Cogger, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Optical images of the polar cap region at both 5577 and 3914 A obtained from 1400 km above the earth have been used to study the relationship between polar cap and oval aurora during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field is strongly northward, i.e., B > 3.5 nT. When this rather rare condition occurs, distinction between the two types of aurora is no longer as clear as depicted on the basis of statistical definitions of the auroral oval. Diffuse, weak emission can fill in the region between the auroral oval and discrete auroral features in the polar cap. The polar cap discrete features can appear very similar to auroral oval arcs in intensity, intensity ratio, and structure. Even more striking are the situations where discrete polar cap features merge with oval auroras. From this study it is concluded that under conditions of large positive B the region of closed magnetic field lines can expand poleward to occupy much of the high latitude region

  12. DMSP optical and electron measurements in the vicinity of polar cap arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.A.; Burke, W.J.; Gussenhoven, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed an extensive analysis of the electron and optical data from the DMSP satellites for an external period of polar cap arc occurrences on December 12, 1977. The polar cap arcs are observed in three distinct intervals in a period of quieting after a time of intense substorm activity. The observation of polar cap arcs is associated with the admittance of large and variable fluxes of low-energy electrons into a major portion of both the northern and southern hemisphere polar caps. These fluxes fall into the following categories: First, nearly Maxwellian distributions of electrons with temperatures between 50 eV and 200 eV and number densities varying from 0.03/cm 3 to 4/cm 3 . The highest densities are found at the poleward boundary of the diffuse aurorae and near the visible polar cap arcs. The lowest densities are associated with the polar rain. Second, distributions of electrons peaked between 50 eV and 200 eV. These distributions result from accelertion of the cold Maxwellian distribution through a potential of 50 to 200 V without any heating of the electrons. Third, distributions of electrons displaying two populations; an intense low-energy component with a temperature of approx.20 eV and a much weaker high-energy component with a temperature of 180 eV. We interpret such distributions as evidence of direct admittance of magnetosheath electrons into the polar cap. Fourth,, distributions of electrons peaked at approx.1 keV. These distributions produce the visible arcs. They result from the acceleration of a two-component electron population with temperatures of 100 and 350 eV through a potential drop of approx.750 V

  13. Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Trallero-Giner, C; García-Moliner, F; Garc A-Moliner, F; Perez-Alvarez, R; Garcia-Moliner, F

    1998-01-01

    Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quantum wires and dots. Also to allow anyone reading the book to apply the techniques discussed for planar heterostructures, the scope has been widened to include cylindrical and spherical geometries. The book is intended as an introductory text which guides the reader through basic questions and expands to cover state-of-the-art professional topics. The book is relevant to experimentalists wanting an instructive presentatio...

  14. Characteristics of magnetospheric convective electric fields as mapped onto the polar caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    A study is made of the open connected magnetosphere using two numerical computer models: the Hones-Taylor (1965), with image and internal dipoles being the only sources, and the Mead-Williams (1965) with a current sheet added. The objectives of the study are to demonstrate that steady state field line connection across the magnetopause is a possible mechanism for producing the polar cap electric fields detected there, and to show the interesting characteristics of such fields. A review of the literature pertinent to the polar cap electric fields is included

  15. Modeling polar cap F-region patches using time varying convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, J.J.; Bowline, M.D.; Schunk, R.W.; Decker, D.T.; Valladares, C.E.; Sheehan, R.; Anderson, D.N.; Heelis, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Here the authors present the results of computerized simulations of the polar cap regions which were able to model the formation of polar cap patches. They used the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) and the Phillips Laboratory (PL) F-region models in this work. By allowing a time varying magnetospheric electric field in the models, they were able to generate the patches. This time varying field generates a convection in the ionosphere. This convection is similar to convective changes observed in the ionosphere at times of southward pointing interplanetary magnetic field, due to changes in the B y component of the IMF

  16. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: Recent history of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The Martian polar caps and layered terrain presumably evolves by the deposition and removal of small amounts of water and dust each year, the current cap attributes therefore represent the incremental transport during a single year as integrated over long periods of time. The role was studied of condensation and sublimation of water ice in this process by examining the seasonal water cycle during the last 10(exp 7) yr. In the model, axial obliquity, eccentricity, and L sub s of perihelion vary according to dynamical models. At each epoch, the seasonal variations in temperature are calculated at the two poles, keeping track of the seasonal CO2 cap and the summertime sublimation of water vapor into the atmosphere; net exchange of water between the two caps is calculated based on the difference in the summertime sublimation between the two caps (or on the sublimation from one cap if the other is covered with CO2 frost all year). Results from the model can help to explain (1) the apparent inconsistency between the timescales inferred for layer formation and the much older crater retention age of the cap and (2) the difference in sizes of the two residual caps, with the south being smaller than the north.

  17. IR SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE MARTIAN SOUTH POLAR RESIDUAL CAP USING CRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campbell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are considered to be important in theories of abiogenesis (Allamandola, 2011 . There is evidence that PAHs have been detected on two icy Saturnian satellites using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS on the Cassini spacecraft (Cruikshank et al., 2007. The hypothesised presence of PAHs in Mars south polar cap has not been systematically examined even though the Mars south polar cap may allow the preservation of organic molecules that are typically destroyed at the Martian surface by UV radiation (Dartnell et al. 2012. This hypothesis is supported by recent analyses of South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC structural evolution (Thomas et al., 2009 that suggest the possibility that seasonal and long term sublimation may excavate dust particles from within the polar ice. Periodic sublimation is believed to be responsible for the formation of so-called “Swiss Cheese Terrain”, a unique surface feature found only in the Martian south polar residual cap consisting of flat floored, circular depressions (Byrne, 2009. We show the first examples of work towards the detection of PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain, using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, on board NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO. CRISM is designed to search for mineralogical indications of past and present water, thus providing extensive coverage of the south polar cap. In this work, we discuss whether CRISM infrared spectra can be used to detect PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain and demonstrate a number of maps showing shifts in spectral profiles over the SPRC.

  18. Mars Seasonal Polar Caps as a Test of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, Daivd Parry

    2011-01-01

    The seasonal polar caps of Mars can be used to test the equivalence principle in general relativity. The north and south caps, which are composed of carbon dioxide, wax and wane with the seasons. If the ratio of the inertial to gravitational masses of the caps differs from the same ratio for the rest of Mars, then the equivalence principle fails, Newton's third law fails, and the caps will pull Mars one way and then the other with a force aligned with the planet's spin axis. This leads to a secular change in Mars's along-track position in its orbit about the Sun, and to a secular change in the orbit's semimajor axis. The caps are a poor E6tv6s test of the equivalence principle, being 4 orders-of-magnitude weaker than laboratory tests and 7 orders-of-magnitude weaker than that found by lunar laser ranging; the reason is the small mass of the caps compared to Mars as a whole. The principal virtue of using Mars is that the caps contain carbon, an element not normally considered in such experiments. The Earth with its seasonal snow cover can also be used for a similar test.

  19. Mars seasonal polar caps as a test of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2011-01-01

    The seasonal polar caps of Mars can be used to test the equivalence principle in general relativity. The north and south caps, which are composed of carbon dioxide, wax and wane with the seasons. If the ratio of the inertial (passive) to gravitational (active) masses of the caps differs from the same ratio for the rest of Mars, then the equivalence principle fails, Newton's third law fails, and the caps will pull Mars one way and then the other with a force aligned with the planet's spin axis. This leads to a secular change in Mars's along-track position in its orbit about the Sun, and to a secular change in the orbit's semimajor axis. The caps are a poor Eoetvoes test of the equivalence principle, being 4 orders-of-magnitude weaker than laboratory tests and 7 orders-of-magnitude weaker than that found by lunar laser ranging; the reason is the small mass of the caps compared to Mars as a whole. The principal virtue of using Mars is that the caps contain carbon, an element not normally considered in such experiments. The Earth with its seasonal snow cover can also be used for a similar test.

  20. Propagation of low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations in Antarctica: comparison between two polar cap stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a statistical analysis of the coherence and phase difference of low frequency geomagnetic fluctuations between two Antarctic stations, Mario Zucchelli Station (geographic coordinates: 74.7° S, 164.1° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S, 307.7° E and Scott Base (geographic coordinates: 77.8° S 166.8° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S 326.5° E, both located in the polar cap. Due to the relative position of the stations, whose displacement is essentially along a geomagnetic parallel, the phase difference analysis allows to determine the direction of azimuthal propagation of geomagnetic fluctuations. The results show that coherent fluctuations are essentially detectable around local geomagnetic midnight and, in a minor extent, around noon; moreover, the phase difference reverses in the night time hours, indicating a propagation direction away from midnight, and also around local geomagnetic noon, indicating a propagation direction away from the subsolar point. The nigh time phase reversal is more clear for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, suggesting a relation with substorm activity.

    The introduction, in this analysis, of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions, gave interesting results, indicating a relation with substorm activity during nighttime hours.

    We also conducted a study of three individual pulsation events in order to find a correspondence with the statistical behaviour. In particular, a peculiar event, characterized by quiet magnetospheric and northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, shows a clear example of waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic noon; two more events, occurring during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, in one case even during a moderate storm, show waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic midnight.

  1. Propagation of low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations in Antarctica: comparison between two polar cap stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a statistical analysis of the coherence and phase difference of low frequency geomagnetic fluctuations between two Antarctic stations, Mario Zucchelli Station (geographic coordinates: 74.7° S, 164.1° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S, 307.7° E and Scott Base (geographic coordinates: 77.8° S 166.8° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S 326.5° E, both located in the polar cap. Due to the relative position of the stations, whose displacement is essentially along a geomagnetic parallel, the phase difference analysis allows to determine the direction of azimuthal propagation of geomagnetic fluctuations. The results show that coherent fluctuations are essentially detectable around local geomagnetic midnight and, in a minor extent, around noon; moreover, the phase difference reverses in the night time hours, indicating a propagation direction away from midnight, and also around local geomagnetic noon, indicating a propagation direction away from the subsolar point. The nigh time phase reversal is more clear for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, suggesting a relation with substorm activity. The introduction, in this analysis, of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions, gave interesting results, indicating a relation with substorm activity during nighttime hours. We also conducted a study of three individual pulsation events in order to find a correspondence with the statistical behaviour. In particular, a peculiar event, characterized by quiet magnetospheric and northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, shows a clear example of waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic noon; two more events, occurring during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, in one case even during a moderate storm, show waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic midnight.

  2. Rocket measurements within a polar cap arc - Plasma, particle, and electric circuit parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E. J.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Basu, S.; Carlson, H. C.; Hardy, D. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Kelley, M. C.; Fleischman, J. R.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from the Polar Ionospheric Irregularities Experiment (PIIE), conducted from Sondrestrom, Greenland, on March 15, 1985, designed for an investigation of processes which lead to the generation of small-scale (less than 1 km) ionospheric irregularities within polar-cap F-layer auroras. An instrumented rocket was launched into a polar cap F layer aurora to measure energetic electron flux, plasma, and electric circuit parameters of a sun-aligned arc, coordinated with simultaneous measurements from the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory. Results indicated the existence of two different generation mechanisms on the dawnside and duskside of the arc. On the duskside, parameters are suggestive of an interchange process, while on the dawnside, fluctuation parameters are consistent with a velocity shear instability.

  3. Polar cap geomagnetic field responses to solar sector changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    I made a computerized analysis of digitized magnetograms from Alert, Thule, Resolute Bay, Mould Bay, and Godhavn for 1965 and from Thule and Vostok for 1967 to determine the characteristic features of the day-to-day geomagnetic field variations related to the interplanetary solar sector field direction. Higher invariant latitude stations showed the sector effects most clearly. A sector-related phase shift in the characteristic diurnal variation of the field occurred principally for the dayside vertical geomagnetic component. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was related to Ap and could not be used to identify the sector direction. The quiet nighttime level of field Z component rose and fell on days when the interplanetary magnetic field was directed toward or away from the sun, respectively. When a station's base level field was determined from quiet magnetospheric conditions by using days with low values of Dst and AE indices, the mean field level of the Z component for the whole day increased or decreased (often over 100 γ) from this level as the solar sector direction was toward or away, respectively. With respect to the earth's main field direction the souther polar station field level changes were opposite those at the northern stations. This level shift corresponded with the two solar field directions during the summer months at polar stations for about 70% of the days in 1965 and 88% of the days in 1967. In 1967 the standoff locations of the magnetopause and magnetoshock boundaries were abotu 1 R/sub E/ more distant from the earth for the average toward sector days than for the away sector days

  4. Electron Cyclotron Waves Polarization in the TJII Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, A.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    This report describes the theoretical calculations related with the electron cyclotron (EC) waves polarization control in the TJII stellarator. Two main aspects will be distinguished: the determination of the vacuum polarization that the wave must exhibit if a given propagation mode in a cold plasma is desired and the calculation of the behavior of the grooved polarizers and other transmission systems used to launch the vacuum wave with the required polarization. (Author) 13 refs.

  5. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  6. Polar cap ion beams during periods of northward IMF: Cluster statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Above the polar caps and during prolonged periods of northward IMF, the Cluster satellites detect upward accelerated ion beams with energies up to a few keV. They are associated with converging electric field structures indicating that the acceleration is caused by a quasi-static field-aligned electric field that can extend to altitudes higher than 7 RE (Maggiolo et al., 2006; Teste et al., 2007. Using the AMDA science analysis service provided by the Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas, we have been able to extract about 200 events of accelerated upgoing ion beams above the polar caps from the Cluster database. Most of these observations are taken at altitudes lower than 7 RE and in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate the statistical properties of these ion beams. We analyze their geometry, the properties of the plasma populations and of the electric field inside and around the beams, as well as their dependence on solar wind and IMF conditions. We show that ~40 % of the ion beams are collocated with a relatively hot and isotropic plasma population. The density and temperature of the isotropic population are highly variable but suggest that this plasma originates from the plasma sheet. The ion beam properties do not change significantly when the isotropic, hot background population is present. Furthermore, during one single polar cap crossing by Cluster it is possible to detect upgoing ion beams both with and without an accompanying isotropic component. The analysis of the variation of the IMF BZ component prior to the detection of the beams indicates that the delay between a northward/southward turning of IMF and the appearance/disappearance of the beams is respectively ~2 h and 20 min. The observed electrodynamic characteristics of high altitude polar cap ion beams suggest that they are closely connected to polar cap auroral arcs. We discuss the implications of these Cluster observations above the polar cap on the magnetospheric

  7. Comparison of S3-3 polar cap potential drops with the interplanetary magnetic field and models of magnetopause reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wygant, J.R.; Torbert, R.B.; Mozer, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the cross polar cap electric potential, by the double probe electric field experiment aboard S3-3, from 55 orbits in the dawn-dusk plane are compared with the reconnection electric fields predicted by a variety of models, both theoretical and experimental. The purpose of these comparisons is to understand the extent to which nonreconnection contributes to the polar cap potential must be included, to determine the time response of the polar cap potential to time varying reconnection rates, and to determine the efficiency and saturation levels of the reconnection process. It is found that (1) After several hours of northward interplanetary magnetic field, the cross polar cap potential declines to progressively lower values than those after 1 hour of northward interplanetary magnetic field. This suggests that it requires several hours for the ionospheric polar cap potential to respond to the ''turning off'' of ''turning down'' of the reconnection process. (2) The decay of the polar cap potential is used to demonstrate that contirubtions to the polar cap potential not associated with the reconnection process can be limited to less than 20 kV. It is shown that contributions to the polar cap potential that scale with the dynamic pressure of the solar wind are limited to less than 1 kV. (3) The cross polar cap electric potential is best predicted by a weighted sum of contributions from interplanetary magnetic field parameter over the 4 hours previous to the measurement. The weighting functions have the form of an exponential decay 2--3 hours with the strongest weight on interplanetary parameters over the 1 hour previous to the measurement

  8. Combined ESR and EISCAT observations of the dayside polar cap and auroral oval during the May 15, 1997 storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-latitude ionospheric response to a major magnetic storm on May 15, 1997 is studied and different responses in the polar cap and the auroral oval are highlighted. Depletion of the F2 region electron density occurred in both the polar cap and the auroral zone, but due to different physical processes. The increased recombination rate of O+ ions caused by a strong electric field played a crucial role in the auroral zone. The transport effect, however, especially the strong upward ion flow was also of great importance in the dayside polar cap. During the main phase and the beginning of the recovery phase soft particle precipitation in the polar cap showed a clear relation to the dynamic pressure of the solar wind, with a maximum cross-correlation coefficient of 0.63 at a time lag of 5 min.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  9. Sublimation and transport of water from the north residual polar cap on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1990-01-01

    The possible role of the north residual cap in the current Martian water cycle was examined using models to assess the ability of the cap to supply water to the atmosphere and the ability of the atmospheric circulation to transport it out of the polar regions to low northern latitudes. Results indicate that rather extreme circumstances would be required for the cap to provide all of the observed increase in atmospheric water, such as a combination of high surface winds, low cap emissivities, or substantial evaporation from dark material. But even if these conditions could be met, the high-latitude circulation is too localized in scale to move much water vapor out of the polar environment. Both the present calculations and the data from the Viking's Mars Atmospheric Water Detection Experiment show that about two thirds of the water appearing in the Martian northern hemisphere during summer must be supplied by other sources. It is suggested that the additional source is water desorbing from the nonpolar regolith.

  10. Characteristics of the polar cap at ionospheric levels and present understanding of the physical processes that give rise to these characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relationship between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and various polar cap current systems, such as the DP2-system and the S /SUB q/ P-system. The disagreements concerning these systems are examined. Topics considered include the polar cap (a result of an open magnetosphere); studies of the polar cap magnetic field variations; the DP2-current system and its relation to the IMF; the polar cap current system during a northward IMF; the azimuthal component of IMF and its influence on the polar cap magnetic field variations; the electric potential distribution on the polar cap; rocket observations of the polar cap electric field; the auroral arcs as a visible trace of the ionospheric convection; neutral wind measurements in the polar cap F-region; and further studies of polar cap dynamics. The focus is on the polar region inside the auroral oval. It is suggested that more research is needed of the polar cap current system in order to understand the magnetosphereionosphere coupling, with the polar cap ionospheric conductivity distribution being the most crucial parameter

  11. Estimation of Polar Cap Potential and the Role of PC Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Hee Moon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polar cap potential has long been considered as an indicator for the amount of energy flowing in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Thus, the estimation of polar cap potential is important to understand the physical process of the magnetosphere. To estimate the polar cap potential in the Northern Hemisphere, merging electric field by Kan & Lee (1979 is adopted. Relationships between the PC index and calculated merging electric field (E* are examined during full-time and storm-time periods separately. For this purpose Dst, AL, and PC indices and solar wind data are utilized during the period from 1996-2003. From this linear relationship, polar cap potential (Φ* is estimated using the formula by Doyle & Burke (1983. The values are represented as 58.1 ± 26.9 kV for the full-time period and 123.7 ± 84.1 kV for a storm-time period separately. Considering that the average value of polar cap potential of Doyle & Burke (1983 is about 47 kV during moderately quiet intervals with the S3-2 measurements, these results are similar to such. The monthly averaged variation of Dst, AL, and PC indices are then compared. The Dst and AL indices show distinct characteristics with peaks during equinoctial season whereas the average PC index according to the month shows higher values in autumn than in spring. The monthly variations of the linear correlation coefficients between solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices are also examined. The PC-AL linear correlation coefficient is highest, being 0.82 with peaks during the equinoctial season. As with the AL index, the PC index may also prove useful for predicting the intensity of an auroral substorm. Generally, the linear correlation coefficients are shown low in summer due to conductance differences and other factors. To assess the role of the PC index during the recovery phase of a storm, the relation between the cumulative PC index and the duration is examined. Although the correlation coefficient lowers

  12. Motion of the dayside polar cap boundary during substorm cycles: II. Generation of poleward-moving events and polar cap patches by pulses in the magnetopause reconnection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter VHF and CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin-Located Auroral Sounding System HF radars, we study the formation of ionospheric polar cap patches and their relationship to the magnetopause reconnection pulses identified in the companion paper by Lockwood et al. (2005. It is shown that the poleward-moving, high-concentration plasma patches observed in the ionosphere by EISCAT on 23 November 1999, as reported by Davies et al. (2002, were often associated with corresponding reconnection rate pulses. However, not all such pulses generated a patch and only within a limited MLT range (11:00-12:00 MLT did a patch result from a reconnection pulse. Three proposed mechanisms for the production of patches, and of the concentration minima that separate them, are analysed and evaluated: (1 concentration enhancement within the patches by cusp/cleft precipitation; (2 plasma depletion in the minima between the patches by fast plasma flows; and (3 intermittent injection of photoionisation-enhanced plasma into the polar cap. We devise a test to distinguish between the effects of these mechanisms. Some of the events repeat too frequently to apply the test. Others have sufficiently long repeat periods and mechanism (3 is shown to be the only explanation of three of the longer-lived patches seen on this day. However, effect (2 also appears to contribute to some events. We conclude that plasma concentration gradients on the edges of the larger patches arise mainly from local time variations in the subauroral plasma, via the mechanism proposed by Lockwood et al. (2000.

  13. Mass balance of Mars' residual south polar cap from CTX images and other data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. C.; Calvin, W.; Cantor, B.; Haberle, R.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    Erosion of pits in the residual south polar cap (RSPC) of Mars concurrent with deposition and fluctuating cap boundaries raises questions about the mass balance and long term stability of the cap. Determining a mass balance by measurement of a net gain or loss of atmospheric CO2 by direct pressure measurements (Haberle, R.M. et al. [2014]. Secular climate change on Mars: An update using one Mars year of MSL pressure data. American Geophysical Union (Fall). Abstract 3947), although perhaps the most direct method, has so far given ambiguous results. Estimating volume changes from imaging data faces challenges, and has previously been attempted only in isolated areas of the cap. In this study we use 6 m/pixel Context Imager (CTX) data from Mars year 31 to map all the morphologic units of the RSPC, expand the measurement record of pit erosion rates, and use high resolution images to place limits on vertical changes in the surface of the residual cap. We find the mass balance in Mars years 9-31 to be -6 to +4 km3/♂y, or roughly -0.039% to +0.026% of the mean atmospheric CO2 mass/♂y. The indeterminate sign results chiefly from uncertainty in the amounts of deposition or erosion on the upper surfaces of deposits (as opposed to scarp retreat). Erosion and net deposition in this period appear to be controlled by summertime planetary scale dust events, the largest occurring in MY 9, another, smaller one in MY 28. The rates of erosion and the deposition observed since MY 9 appear to be consistent with the types of deposits and erosional behavior found in most of the residual cap. However, small areas (100 ♂y) of depositional and/or erosional conditions different from those occurring in the period since MY 9, although these environmental differences could be subtle.

  14. H2O grain size and the amount of dust in Mars' residual North polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    In Mars' north polar cap the probable composition of material residual from the annual condensation cycle is a mixture of fine dust and H2O grains of comparable size and abundance. However, metamorphism of such material will gradually lower its albedo by increasing the size of the H2O grains only. If the cap is undergoing net annual sublimation (as inferred from water vapor observations), late summer observations should be of old ice with H2O grain sizes of 100 ??m or more. Ice of this granularity containing 30% fine dust has a reflectivity similar to that of dust alone; the observed albedo and computed ice grain size imply dust concentrations of 1 part per 1000 or less. The brightness of the icy areas conflicts with what would be expected for a residual cap deposited by an annual cycle similar to that observed by Viking and aged for thousands of years. The residual cap surface cannot be "old dirty' ice. It could be old, coarse, and clean; or it could be young, fine, and dirty. This brings into question both the source of the late summer water vapor and the formation rate of laminated terrain. -Author

  15. Recession of the Northern polar cap from the PFS Mars Express observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, L. V.; Formisano, V.; Moroz, V. I.; Giuranna, M.; Grassi, D.; Hansen, G.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Maturilli, A.; Pfs Team

    Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) has two spectral channels, devoted to the thermal and solar reflected spectral range investigations. The first observations by PFS of the Northern hemisphere ,which includes the North pole, occurred at Ls= 342 (northern winter). Surface temperature alone the orbit shows that the CO2 ice polar cap, where the surface temperature is found around 150K and below, is extended down to about 62 N. The spectra at latitudes above 80 N are obtained at polar darkness and at latitudes below 80 at illumination by the low Sun. Retrieved temperature profiles of the atmosphere at darkness show that temperature of the atmosphere is low enough to allow the CO2 condensation up to about 25 km. Between 70 and 80 latitude the upper levels of the atmosphere are heated by the Sun, but condensation of the CO2 may occur in the near surface layer below 5 km. The water ice clouds exist at lower latitudes with maximum opacity at the edge of the polar cap. More detailed investigation of the data obtained in winter as well as of the measurements in the northern spring will be presented.

  16. Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-02-18

    A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Dependence of the cross polar cap potential saturation on the type of solar wind streams

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Lodkina, I. G.

    2013-01-01

    We compare of the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation during magnetic storms induced by various types of the solar wind drivers. By using the model of Siscoe-Hill \\citep{Hilletal1976,Siscoeetal2002a,Siscoeetal2002b,Siscoeetal2004,Siscoe2011} we evaluate criteria of the CPCP saturation during the main phases of 257 magnetic storms ($Dst_{min} \\le -50$ nT) induced by the following types of the solar wind streams: magnetic clouds (MC), Ejecta, the compress region Sheath before MC ($Sh_{M...

  18. Convection and field-aligned currents, related to polar cap arcs, during strongly northward IMF (11 January 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelevich, P.L.; Podgorny, I.M.; Kuzmin, A.K.; Nikolaeva, N.S.; Dubinin, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Electric and magnetic fields and auroral emissions have been measured by the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite on 10-11 January 1983. The measured distributions of the plasma drift velocity show that viscous convection is diminished in the evening sector under IMF B y y > 0. A number of sun-aligned polar cap arcs were observed at the beginning of the period of strongly northward IMF and after a few hours a θ-aurora appeared. The intensity of ionized oxygen emission increased significantly reaching up to several kilo-Rayleighs in the polar cap arc. A complicated pattern of convection and field-aligned currents existed in the nightside polar cap which differed from the four-cell model of convection and NBZ field-aligned current system. This pattern was observed during 12 h and could be interpreted as six large scale field-aligned current sheets and three convective vortices inside the polar cap. Sun-aligned polar cap arcs may be located in regions both of sunward and anti-sunward convection. Structures of smaller spatial scale-correspond to the boundaries of hot plasma regions related to polar cap arcs. Obviously these structures are due to S-shaped distributions of electric potential. Parallel electric fields in these S-structures provide electron acceleration up to 1 keV at the boundaries of polar cap arcs. The pairs of field-aligned currents correspond to those S-structures: a downward current at the external side of the boundary and an upward current at the internal side of it. (author)

  19. Distribution of convection potential around the polar cap boundary as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, G.; Reiff, P.H.; Karty, J.L.; Hairston, M.R.; Heelis, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma flow data from the AE-C, AE-D and DE 2 satellites have been used to systematically study the distribution of the convection potential around the polar cap boundary under a variety of different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. For either a garden hose (B x B y x B y >0) orientation of the IMF, the potential distribution is mainly affected by the sign of B y . In the northern hemisphere, the zero potential line (which separates the dusk convection cell from the dawn cell) on the dayside shifts duskward as B y changes from positive to negative. But in the southern hemisphere, a dawnward shift has been found, although the uncertainties are large. The typical range of displacement is about ±1.5 hours MLT. Note that this shift is in the opposite direction from most simple schematic models of ionospheric flow; this reflects the fact that the polar cap boundary is typically more poleward than the flow reversal associated with the region 1 current system, which shifts in the opposite direction. Thus the enhanced flow region typically crosses noon. In most cases a sine wave is an adequate representation of the distribution of potential around the boundary. However, in a few cases the data favors (at the 80% confidence level) a steeper gradient near noon, more indicative of a throat. The potential drop at the duskside boundary is almost greater than at the dawnside boundary. A slight duskward shift of the patterns observed as the IMF changes from garden hose to ortho-garden hose conditions. Analytic equipotential contours, given the potential function as a boundary condition, are constructed for several IMF conditions

  20. Optimization of incident EC wave polarization in real-time polarization scan experiments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Toru I.; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Makino, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    Real-time polarization scan experiments were performed on the Large Helical Device (LHD) to search an optimal incident wave polarization for electron cyclotron resonance heating. The obtained optimal polarization state to maximize the power absorption to the LHD plasma is compared with the ray-tracing code that includes mode content analyses, which indicates that the calculated results are generally in good agreement with the experimental results. The analyses show that optimal coupling to plasma waves requires a fine adjustment for an incident wave polarization even for perpendicular injection due to the finite density profile and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region. (author)

  1. A Study on Millimetre-Wave Tunable Bandpass Filter Based on Polymer Cap Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Alain Rolland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new tuning mechanism for millimetre-wave BPF based on deflection of the BCB membrane of BCB packaging cap. A 3-pole parallel-coupled microstrip filter operating at 60 GHz is first implemented on 30 µm-thick BCB polymer substrate and then BCB-capped through our new anti-adhesion layer assisted wafer-level transfer technique. Gold electrodes are fabricated on top of the BCB cap for DC actuation. The implemented BCB capped BPF showed the tuning range of 1.49 GHz from 63.36 GHz to 64.85 GHz with the associated insertion losses of −9.7 dB and −9.4 dB and the return losses better than −11 dB over the tuning range.

  2. Polar cap arcs from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere: kinetic modelling and observations by Cluster and TIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On 1 April 2004 the GUVI imager onboard the TIMED spacecraft spots an isolated and elongated polar cap arc. About 20 min later, the Cluster satellites detect an isolated upflowing ion beam above the polar cap. Cluster observations show that the ions are accelerated upward by a quasi-stationary electric field. The field-aligned potential drop is estimated to about 700 V and the upflowing ions are accompanied by a tenuous population of isotropic protons with a temperature of about 500 eV. The magnetic footpoints of the ion outflows observed by Cluster are situated in the prolongation of the polar cap arc observed by TIMED GUVI. The upflowing ion beam and the polar cap arc may be different signatures of the same phenomenon, as suggested by a recent statistical study of polar cap ion beams using Cluster data. We use Cluster observations at high altitude as input to a quasi-stationary magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI coupling model. Using a Knight-type current-voltage relationship and the current continuity at the topside ionosphere, the model computes the energy spectrum of precipitating electrons at the top of the ionosphere corresponding to the generator electric field observed by Cluster. The MI coupling model provides a field-aligned potential drop in agreement with Cluster observations of upflowing ions and a spatial scale of the polar cap arc consistent with the optical observations by TIMED. The computed energy spectrum of the precipitating electrons is used as input to the Trans4 ionospheric transport code. This 1-D model, based on Boltzmann's kinetic formalism, takes into account ionospheric processes such as photoionization and electron/proton precipitation, and computes the optical and UV emissions due to precipitating electrons. The emission rates provided by the Trans4 code are compared to the optical observations by TIMED. They are similar in size and intensity. Data and modelling results are consistent with the scenario of quasi

  3. Near-surface compressional and shear wave speeds constrained by body-wave polarization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Ishii, Miaki

    2018-06-01

    A new technique to constrain near-surface seismic structure that relates body-wave polarization direction to the wave speed immediately beneath a seismic station is presented. The P-wave polarization direction is only sensitive to shear wave speed but not to compressional wave speed, while the S-wave polarization direction is sensitive to both wave speeds. The technique is applied to data from the High-Sensitivity Seismograph Network in Japan, and the results show that the wave speed estimates obtained from polarization analysis are compatible with those from borehole measurements. The lateral variations in wave speeds correlate with geological and physical features such as topography and volcanoes. The technique requires minimal computation resources, and can be used on any number of three-component teleseismic recordings, opening opportunities for non-invasive and inexpensive study of the shallowest (˜100 m) crustal structures.

  4. Parameterizing the Magnetopause Reconnection Rate from Observations of the Expanding Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Gosling, J. S.; Hubert, B.

    2012-04-01

    We determine an expression for the magnetopause reconnection rate in terms of upstream interplanetary parameters. We quantify the dayside reconnection rate from observations of the expanding polar cap when the nightside reconnection rate is assumed to be zero. The polar cap open flux is calculated from auroral images collected by the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Far Ultraviolet camera (FUV), and its rate of increase is correlated with upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements from the OMNI data-set. We find that the reconnection rate is successfully reproduced by considering the magnetic flux transport within a 4 Re-wide channel within the solar wind (with an additional small correction for the solar wind velocity) and an IMF clock angle dependence with an exponent of 9/2. Contrary to several previous studies we do not find a dependence of the reconnection rate on solar wind density. We discuss our findings in the context of previous studies and solar wind-magnetosphere coupling models.

  5. Mapping of the solar wind electric field to the Earth's polar caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffoletto, F.R.; Hill, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we describe a quantitative model of a magnetically interconnected (open) magnetosphere, developed as a perturbation to Voigt's closed magnetosphere model with a given magnetopause shape. The ''interconnection'' (perturbation) field is obtained as a solution to a Neumann boundary value problem, with the magnetopause normal component distribution as a boundary condition. The normal component at the magnetopause is required to be time independent and is specified in accordance with one of two hypotheses: the subsolar point merging hypothesis and Crooker's antiparallel merging hypothesis. The resulting open magnetospheric configuration is used to map the magnetopause electric field down to the polar cap ionosphere. We present ionospheric convection patterns derived from three representative interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations for each of the two dayside merging geometries. Both merging geometries reproduce the observed convergence of convection streamlines near noon in a convection ''throat,'' and the east-west deflection of these streamlines in response to the east-west IMF component. The major difference between the two dayside merging geometries occurs for nonsouthward IMF, and consists of a Sun-aligned convection gap that bifurcates the polar cap in the case of the antiparallel merging geometry but not in the subsolar point merging geometry. This convection gap may plausibly be associated with the ''theta aurora'' structure observed when the IMF has a northward component. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  6. Automated identification and tracking of polar-cap plasma patches at solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burston

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A method of automatically identifying and tracking polar-cap plasma patches, utilising data inversion and feature-tracking methods, is presented. A well-established and widely used 4-D ionospheric imaging algorithm, the Multi-Instrument Data Assimilation System (MIDAS, inverts slant total electron content (TEC data from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers to produce images of the free electron distribution in the polar-cap ionosphere. These are integrated to form vertical TEC maps. A flexible feature-tracking algorithm, TRACK, previously used extensively in meteorological storm-tracking studies is used to identify and track maxima in the resulting 2-D data fields. Various criteria are used to discriminate between genuine patches and "false-positive" maxima such as the continuously moving day-side maximum, which results from the Earth's rotation rather than plasma motion. Results for a 12-month period at solar minimum, when extensive validation data are available, are presented. The method identifies 71 separate structures consistent with patch motion during this time. The limitations of solar minimum and the consequent small number of patches make climatological inferences difficult, but the feasibility of the method for patches larger than approximately 500 km in scale is demonstrated and a larger study incorporating other parts of the solar cycle is warranted. Possible further optimisation of discrimination criteria, particularly regarding the definition of a patch in terms of its plasma concentration enhancement over the surrounding background, may improve results.

  7. Solar Cycle Variations in Polar Cap Area Measured by the SuperDARN Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a long term study, from January 1996 - August 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) measured at midnight using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection, and is used in this study as a measure of the global magnetospheric dynamics and activity. We find that the yearly distribution of HMB latitudes is single-peaked at 64° magnetic latitude for the majority of the 17-year interval. During 2003 the envelope of the distribution shifts to lower latitudes and a second peak in the distribution is observed at 61°. The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function derived by Milan et al. (2012) suggests that the solar wind driving during this year was significantly higher than during the rest of the 17-year interval. In contrast, during the period 2008-2011 HMB distribution shifts to higher latitudes, and a second peak in the distribution is again observed, this time at 68° magnetic latitude. This time interval corresponds to a period of extremely low solar wind driving during the recent extreme solar minimum. This is the first statistical study of the polar cap area over an entire solar cycle, and the results demonstrate that there is a close relationship between the phase of the solar cycle and the area of the polar cap on a large scale statistical basis.

  8. Pitch Angle Scattering of Upgoing Electron Beams in Jupiter's Polar Regions by Whistler Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Clark, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Juno spacecraft's Jupiter Energetic-particle Detector Instrument has observed field-aligned, unidirectional (upgoing) electron beams throughout most of Jupiter's entire polar cap region. The Waves instrument detected intense broadband whistler mode emissions occurring in the same region. In this paper, we investigate the pitch angle scattering of the upgoing electron beams due to interactions with the whistler mode waves. Profiles of intensity versus pitch angle for electron beams ranging from 2.53 to 7.22 Jovian radii show inconsistencies with the expected adiabatic invariant motion of the electrons. It is believed that the observed whistler mode waves perturb the electron motion and scatter them away from the magnetic field line. The diffusion equation has been solved by using diffusion coefficients which depend on the magnetic intensity of the whistler mode waves.

  9. Early results of patellofemoral inlay resurfacing arthroplasty using the HemiCap Wave prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Akash; Haider, Zakir; Anand, Amarjit; Spicer, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Common surgical treatment options for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis include arthroscopic procedures, total knee replacement and patellofemoral replacement. The HemiCap Wave patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis is a novel inlay design introduced in 2009 with scarce published data on its functional outcomes. We aim to prospectively evaluate early functional outcomes and complications, for patients undergoing a novel inlay resurfacing arthroplasty for isolated patellofemoral arthrosis in an independent centre. From 2010 to 2013, 16 consecutive patients underwent patellofemoral resurfacing procedures using HemiCap Wave (Arthrosurface Inc., Franklin, Massachusetts, USA) for anterior knee pain with confirmed radiologically and/or arthroscopically isolated severe patellofemoral arthrosis. Standardized surgical technique, as recommended by the implant manufacturer, was followed. Outcome measures included range of movement, functional knee scores (Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36)), radiographic disease progression, revision rates and complications. Eight men and eight women underwent patellofemoral HemiCap Wave resurfacing, with an average age of 63 years (range: 46-83). Average follow-up was 24.1 months (6-34). Overall, post-operative scores were excellent. There was a statistically significant improvement in the post-operative OKS, KOOS and SF-36 scores ( p patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis has excellent early results in terms of functional outcomes, radiological outcomes and low complication rates. At the very least, early results show that the HemiCap Wave is comparable to more established onlay prostheses. The HemiCap Wave thus provides a safe and effective surgical option in the treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis in selected patients.

  10. Azimuthal Structure of the Sand Erg that Encircles the North Polar Water-Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, L. A.; Elphic, R. C.; Eke, V. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Maurice, S.; Pathare, A.

    2011-12-01

    The sand erg that completely encircles the perennial water-ice cap that covers the Martian north geographic pole displays considerable azimuthal structure as seen in visible and near-IR images. Much of this structure is associated with the terminations of the many steep troughs that cut spiral the approximately 3 km thick polar ice cap. Other contributions come from the katabatic winds that spill over steep-sided edges of the cap, such as what bounds the largest set of dunes that comprise Olympia Undae. During the spring and summer months when these winds initiate from the higher altitudes that contain sublimating CO2 ice, which is very cold and dry, heat adiabatically when they compress as they lose altitude. These winds should then remove H2O moisture from the uppermost layer of the sand dunes that are directly in their path. Two likely locations where this desiccation may occur preferentially is at the termination of Chasma Boreale and the ice cap at Olympia Undae. We will search for this effect by sharpening the spatial structure of the epithermal neutron counting rates measured at northern high latitudes using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer (MONS). The epithermal range of neutron energies is nearly uniquely sensitive to the hydrogen content of surface soils, which should likely be in the form of H2O/OH molecules/radicals. We therefore convert epithermal counting rates in terms of Water-Equivalent-Hydrogen, WEH. However, MONS counting-rate data have a FWHM of ~550 km., which is sufficiently broad to prevent a close association of WEH variability with images of geological features. In this study, we reduce spurious features in the instrument smeared neutron counting rates through deconvolution. We choose the PIXON numerical deconvolution technique for this purpose. This technique uses a statistical approach (Pina 2001, Eke 2001), which is capable of removing spurious features in the data in the presence of noise. We have previously carried out a detailed

  11. The temporal and spatial variations of low frequency geomagnetic pulsations at polar cusp and cap latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimenova, N.; Kozyreva, O.V.; Francia, P.; Villante, U.

    1999-01-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements at two Antarctic are compared during two weeks in the local summer (January 1-15, 1992). Low frequency (0.6 mHz) pulsations are observed at each station near local magnetic noon. The same wave packets appear in some case also at the other station, although with a significant attenuation, more clearly in the morning sector; the wave show a near noon reversal of the polarization sense from counterclockwise in the morning to clockwise in the afternoon indicating a westward and an eastward propagation, respectively

  12. The temporal and spatial variations of low frequency geomagnetic pulsations at polar cusp and cap latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bitterly

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic field measurements at two Antarctic stations are compared during two weeks in the local summer (January 1-15, 1992. Low frequency (0.6-6 mHz pulsations are observed at each station near local magnetic noon. The same wave packets appear in some cases also at the other station, although with a significant attenuation, more clearly in the morning sector; the waves show a near noon reversal of the polarization sense from counter-clockwise in the morning to clockwise in the afternoon indicating a westward and an eastward propagation, respectively.

  13. The response of ionospheric convection in the polar cap to substorm activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lester

    Full Text Available We report multi-instrument observations during an isolated substorm on 17 October 1989. The EISCAT radar operated in the SP-UK-POLI mode measuring ionospheric convection at latitudes 71°λ-78°λ. SAMNET and the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross provide information on the timing of substorm expansion phase onset and subsequent intensifications, as well as the location of the field aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the substorm current wedge. IMP-8 magnetic field data are also included. Evidence of a substorm growth phase is provided by the equatorward motion of a flow reversal boundary across the EISCAT radar field of view at 2130 MLT, following a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. We infer that the polar cap expanded as a result of the addition of open magnetic flux to the tail lobes during this interval. The flow reversal boundary, which is a lower limit to the polar cap boundary, reached an invariant latitude equatorward of 71°λ by the time of the expansion phase onset. A westward electrojet, centred at 65.4°λ, occurred at the onset of the expansion phase. This electrojet subsequently moved poleward to a maximum of 68.1°λ at 2000 UT and also widened. During the expansion phase, there is evidence of bursts of plasma flow which are spatially localised at longitudes within the substorm current wedge and which occurred well poleward of the westward electrojet. We conclude that the substorm onset region in the ionosphere, defined by the westward electrojet, mapped to a part of the tail radially earthward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux, the "distant" neutral line. Thus the substorm was not initiated at the distant neutral line, although there is evidence that it remained active during the expansion phase. It is not obvious whether the electrojet mapped to a near-Earth neutral line, but at its most poleward, the expanded electrojet does not reach the estimated latitude of the polar cap

  14. On the polarization and depolarization of the electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, Ferdinando; Denti, Paolo; Saija, Rosalba; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a general description of the polarization of monochromatic electromagnetic waves that proves useful when the customary description in terms of Stokes parameters does not apply. We also show how this description can be exploited to study the depolarization of linearly polarized waves in the interior of porous model cosmic dust grains. The results that we discuss may affect our understanding of several problems that are relevant for astrobiology

  15. Dispersion properties of transverse waves in electrically polarized BECs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A; Kuz'menkov, L S

    2014-01-01

    Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in applications for Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider the evolution of polarization direction along with particle movement, we have developed a corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization-current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum-balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse waves, including the electromagnetic waves propagating through the BECs, are considered. To this end, we consider a full set of the Maxwell equations for the description of electromagnetic field dynamics. This approximation gives us the possibility of considering the electromagnetic waves along with the matter waves. We find a splitting of the electromagnetic-wave dispersion on two branches. As a result, we have four solutions, two for the electromagnetic waves and two for the matter waves; the last two are the concentration-polarization waves appearing as a generalization of the Bogoliubov mode. We also find that if the matter wave propagates perpendicular to the external electric field then the dipolar contribution does not disappear (as it follows from our generalization of the Bogoliubov spectrum). A small dipolar frequency shift exists in this case due to the transverse electric field of perturbation. (paper)

  16. Combined ESR and EISCAT observations of the dayside polar cap and auroral oval during the May 15, 1997 storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    Full Text Available The high-latitude ionospheric response to a major magnetic storm on May 15, 1997 is studied and different responses in the polar cap and the auroral oval are highlighted. Depletion of the F2 region electron density occurred in both the polar cap and the auroral zone, but due to different physical processes. The increased recombination rate of O+ ions caused by a strong electric field played a crucial role in the auroral zone. The transport effect, however, especially the strong upward ion flow was also of great importance in the dayside polar cap. During the main phase and the beginning of the recovery phase soft particle precipitation in the polar cap showed a clear relation to the dynamic pressure of the solar wind, with a maximum cross-correlation coefficient of 0.63 at a time lag of 5 min.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  17. Graphene-based magnetless converter of terahertz wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Veronica S.; Polischuk, Olga V.; Popov, Vyacheslav V.

    2016-04-01

    The polarization conversion of terahertz radiation by the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons located at the surface of a high-refractive-index dielectric substrate (terahertz prism) is studied theoretically. Giant polarization conversion at the plasmon resonance frequencies takes place without applying external DC magnetic field. It is shown that the total polarization conversion can be reached at the total internal reflection of THz wave from the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons even at room temperature.

  18. Interannual observations and quantification of summertime H2O ice deposition on the Martian CO2 ice south polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Titus, Timothy N.

    2014-01-01

    The spectral signature of water ice was observed on Martian south polar cap in 2004 by the Observatoire pour l'Mineralogie, l'Eau les Glaces et l'Activite (OMEGA) ( Bibring et al., 2004). Three years later, the OMEGA instrument was used to discover water ice deposited during southern summer on the polar cap ( Langevin et al., 2007). However, temporal and spatial variations of these water ice signatures have remained unexplored, and the origins of these water deposits remains an important scientific question. To investigate this question, we have used observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft of the southern cap during austral summer over four Martian years to search for variations in the amount of water ice. We report below that for each year we have observed the cap, the magnitude of the H2O ice signature on the southern cap has risen steadily throughout summer, particularly on the west end of the cap. The spatial extent of deposition is in disagreement with the current best simulations of deposition of water ice on the south polar cap (Montmessin et al., 2007). This increase in water ice signatures is most likely caused by deposition of atmospheric H2O ice and a set of unusual conditions makes the quantification of this transport flux using CRISM close to ideal. We calculate a ‘minimum apparent‘ amount of deposition corresponding to a thin H2O ice layer of 0.2 mm (with 70% porosity). This amount of H2O ice deposition is 0.6–6% of the total Martian atmospheric water budget. We compare our ‘minimum apparent’ quantification with previous estimates. This deposition process may also have implications for the formation and stability of the southern CO2 ice cap, and therefore play a significant role in the climate budget of modern day Mars.

  19. Palmer Quest: A Feasible Nuclear Fission "Vision Mission" to the Mars Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F. D.; Beegle, L. W.; Nakagawa, R.; Elliott, J. O.; Matthews, J. B.; Coleman, M. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Ivaniov, A. B.; Head, J. W.; Milkovich, S.

    2005-01-01

    We are engaged in a NASA Vision Mission study, called Palmer Quest after the American Antarctic explorer Nathaniel Palmer, to assess the presence of life and evaluate the habitability of the basal domain of the Mars polar caps. We address this goal through four objectives: 1. Determine the presence of amino acids, nutrients, and geochemical heterogeneity in the ice sheet. 2. Quantify and characterize the provenance of the amino acids in Mars ice. 3. Assess the stratification of outcropped units for indications of habitable zones. 4. Determine the accumulation of ice, mineralogic material, and amino acids in Mars ice caps over the present epoch. Because of the defined scientific goal for the vision mission, the Palmer Quest focus is astrobiological; however, the results of the study make us optimistic that aggressive multi-platform in-situ missions that address a wide range of objectives, such as climate change, can be supported by variations of the approach used on this mission. Mission Overview: The Palmer Quest baseline

  20. Plasma drifts associated with a system of sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, S.B.; Doolittle, J.H.; Robinson, R.M.; Vondrak, R.R.; Rich, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A series of four sun-aligned arcs passed over Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland, on the night of the 17th and 18th of February, 1985. Observations of these arcs were made using the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and an intensified all-sky imaging TV system that was operated at the radar site. The first of the four arcs crossed the Sondre Stromfjord meridian just before local midnight moving westward, and the other three arcs followed at approximately half-hour intervals. When we account for the earth's rotation, the arc drift in an inertial frame was eastward, or dusk to dawn. The half-hour interval between meridian crossings of the arcs implies that the mean spacing between the arcs was 180 km. A Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F6 satellite pass at 0110 UT revealed the presence of highly structured electron and ion precipitation throughout the polar cap. The DMSP visible imager detected a single, sun-aligned arc associated with the largest peak in precipitating electron flux. This arc was also observed at Thule, Greenland, with an intensified film camera. These observations suggest that at least one of the arcs that were observed at Sondre Stromfjord extended across a large part of the polar cap. The radar at Sondre Stromfjord measured electron density and ion drift velocities associated with the four arcs. The radar drift measurements were superimposed on the all-sky video images to determine the location of the measurements relative to the arcs. Plasma drifts outside the arcs were found to be both sunward and antisunward, while within the arcs the drifts were predominantly antisunward. The variability of the drifts in the direction parallel to the arcs indicates that the electric fields were highly structured even though the configuration and motion of the arcs were well behaved

  1. Spectrum of spin waves in cold polarized gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, T. L., E-mail: phdocandreeva@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The spin dynamics of cold polarized gases are investigated using the Boltzmann equation. The dispersion relation for spin waves (transverse component of the magnetic moment) and the spin diffusion coefficient of the longitudinal component of the magnetic moment are calculated without using fitting parameters. The spin wave frequency and the diffusion coefficient for rubidium atoms are estimated numerically.

  2. Chiral retrieval method based on right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Ernesto; Muñoz, Juan; Margineda, José; Molina-Cuberos, Gregorio J; García-Collado, Ángel J

    2014-01-01

    The free-wave characterization of metamaterials is usually carried out by illuminating a sample with a linearly polarized plane electromagnetic wave. At points before and after the sample, sensors are introduced to measure the transverse components of the field, in order to compute the reflection and transmission coefficients related with the co- and cross-polar field components. Based on this information, retrieval algorithms allow parameters like rotation angle, effective chirality and refraction index to be calculated. Here we propose to use the transmission signals under illumination with plane circularly polarized waves, without sensing the reflection signal, to calculate the chirality parameter and the rotation angle due to the electromagnetic activity of the material. This new method, which allows a simpler characterization of a chiral slab, is applied to the study of metamaterials composed of both periodic and random distributions of metallic structures with chiral symmetry. The experimental results are contrasted with simulations and alternative measurements obtained using linearly polarized waves. (paper)

  3. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  4. IDENTIFYING SURFACE CHANGES ON HRSC IMAGES OF THE MARS SOUTH POLAR RESIDUAL CAP (SPRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. D. Putri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars has been an object of interest for planetary research since the launch of Mariner 4 in 1964. Since then different cameras such as the Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO Context Camera (CTX and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE have been imaging its surface at ever higher resolution. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC on board of the European Space Agency (ESA Mars Express, has been imaging the Martian surface, since 25th December 2003 until the present-day. HRSC has covered 100 % of the surface of Mars, about 70 % of the surface with panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98 % at better than 100 m/pixel (Neukum et. al., 2004, including the polar regions of Mars. The Mars polar regions have been studied intensively recently by analysing images taken by the Mars Express and MRO missions (Plaut et al., 2007. The South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC does not change very much in volume overall but there are numerous examples of dynamic phenomena associated with seasonal changes in the atmosphere. In particular, we can examine the time variation of layers of solid carbon dioxide and water ice with dust deposition (Bibring, 2004, spider-like channels (Piqueux et al., 2003 and so-called Swiss Cheese Terrain (Titus et al., 2004. Because of seasonal changes each Martian year, due to the sublimation and deposition of water and CO2 ice on the Martian south polar region, clearly identifiable surface changes occur in otherwise permanently icy region. In this research, good quality HRSC images of the Mars South Polar region are processed based on previous identification as the optimal coverage of clear surfaces (Campbell et al., 2015. HRSC images of the Martian South Pole are categorized in terms of quality, time, and location to find overlapping areas, processed into high quality Digital Terrain Models (DTMs and

  5. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  6. Polar cap mesosphere wind observations: comparisons of simultaneous measurements with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a field-widened Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G M; Killeen, T L; Wu, Q; Reeves, J M; Hays, P B; Gault, W A; Brown, S; Shepherd, G G

    2000-08-20

    Polar cap mesospheric winds observed with a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a circle-to-line interferometer optical (FPI/CLIO) system have been compared with measurements from a field-widened Michelson interferometer optimized for E-region winds (ERWIN). Both instruments observed the Meinel OH emission emanating from the mesopause region (approximately 86 km) at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.9 degrees N, 94.9 degrees W). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that winds measured simultaneously from a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer and a ground-based Michelson interferometer have been compared at the same location. The FPI/CLIO and ERWIN instruments both have a capability for high temporal resolution (less than 10 min for a full scan in the four cardinal directions and the zenith). Statistical comparisons of hourly mean winds for both instruments by scatterplots show excellent agreement, indicating that the two optical techniques provide equivalent observations of mesopause winds. Small deviations in the measured wind can be ascribed to the different zenith angles used by the two instruments. The combined measurements illustrate the dominance of the 12-h wave in the mesopause winds at Resolute Bay, with additional evidence for strong gravity wave activity with much shorter periods (tens of minutes). Future operations of the two instruments will focus on observation of complementary emissions, providing a unique passive optical capability for the determination of neutral winds in the geomagnetic polar cap at various altitudes near the mesopause.

  7. IMF B(y) and day-night conductivity effects in the expanding polar cap convection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. J.; Gorney, D. J.; Siscoe, G. L.; Crooker, N. U.

    1987-01-01

    During southward B(z) periods the open field line region in the ionosphere (polar cap) expands due to increased dayside merging. Ionospheric plasma flow patterns result which can be classified by the sign of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(y) component. In this paper, a time-dependent ionospheric convection model is constructed to simulate these flows. The model consists of a spiral boundary with a gap in it. The sign of the IMF B(y) component determines the geometry of the gap. A potential is applied across the gap and distributed around the boundary. A flow results which enters the polar cap through the gap and uniformly pushes the boundary outward. Results of the model show that B(y) effects are greatest near the gap and virtually unnoticeable on the nightside of the polar cap. Adding a day-night ionospheric conductivity gradient concentrates the polar cap electric field toward dawn. The resulting flow curvature gives a sunward component that is independent of B(y). These patterns are shown to be consistent with published observations.

  8. On the role of IMF By in generating the electric field responsible for the flow across the polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennerstroem, S.; Friis-Christensen, E.

    1987-01-01

    During periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) the authors have examined the relationship between magnetic variations in the central polar cap and the IMF B y and B z components. The geomagnetic polar cap index PC that can be used as a measure of the flow across the polar cap has been derived using data from Thule in the IMS period. The results have been compared with IMP 8 measurements of the IMF and the solar wind velocity. The statistical analysis shows that the absolute value of the azimuthal component |B y | contributes to the cross-polar cap flow in the same manner as the southward component B s . The relative contributions of |B y | and B z have been examined and compared with the theoretical expression υB T sin 2 θ/2 for the merging electric field. It is found that the contribution of |B y | compared to B z is only half as big in the observations as in the theoretical expression. The B y effect on PC is compared to an earlier reported effect of B y on the geomagnetic index AL (Murayama et al., 1980) and found to be quite different from this. This is discussed in relation to interpretations in terms of merging site asymmetry

  9. Multi-station basis for Polar Cap (PC) indices: ensuring credibility and operational reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices, PCN (North) and PCS (South) are based on polar geomagnetic observations from Qaanaaq (Thule) and Vostok, respectively, processed to measure the transpolar plasma convection that may seriously affect space weather conditions. To establish reliable space weather forecasts based on PC indices, and also to ensure credibility of their use for scientific analyses of solar wind-magnetosphere interactions, additional sources of data for the PC indices are investigated. In the search for alternative index sources, objective quality criteria are established here to be used for the selection among potential candidates. These criteria are applied to existing PC index series to establish a quality scale. In the Canadian region, the data from Resolute Bay magnetometer are shown to provide alternative PCN indices of adequate quality. In Antarctica, the data from Concordia Dome-C observatory are shown to provide basis for alternative PCS indices. In examples to document the usefulness of these alternative index sources it is shown that PCN indices in a real-time version based on magnetometer data from Resolute Bay could have given 6 h of early warning, of which the last 2 h were "red alert", up to the onset of the strong substorm event on 13 March 1989 that caused power outage in Quebec. The alternative PCS indices based on data from Dome-C have helped to disclose that presently available Vostok-based PCS index values are corrupted throughout most of 2011.

  10. Relationships between the solar wind and the polar cap magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelier, A.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of solar wind conditions on magnetic activity is described in order to delineate the differences in the response of the magnetic activity to the arrival on the magnetopause of different typical solar wind variations. By determining a new index of local magnetic activity free from seasonal and diurnal effects we put in evidence the dependence of the various effects upon the invariant latitude. Most important results are: (1) the main increase of the magnetic activity does not occur at the same invariant latitude for different interplanetary variations, e.g. peaks of Bz tend to increase magnetic activity mainly in the auroral zones while peaks of B correspond to a uniform increase in magnetic activity over the polar cap and auroral zone; (2) there is a two steps response of magnetic activity to the high speed plasma streams; (3) an increase of magnetic activity is observed for large and northward Bz, which probably indicates that the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling is efficient under these circumstances. The specific influences of the IMF polarity are also briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  11. An unusual giant spiral arc in the polar cap region during the northward phase of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rosenqvist

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The shock arrival of an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME at ~09:50 UT on 22 November 1997 resulted in the development of an intense (Dst<−100 nT geomagnetic storm at Earth. In the early, quiet phase of the storm, in the sheath region of the ICME, an unusual large spiral structure (diameter of ~1000 km was observed at very high latitudes by the Polar UVI instrument. The evolution of this structure started as a polewardly displaced auroral bulge which further developed into the spiral structure spreading across a large part of the polar cap. This study attempts to examine the cause of the chain of events that resulted in the giant auroral spiral. During this period the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was dominantly northward (Bz>25 nT with a strong duskward component (By>15 nT resulting in a highly twisted tail plasma sheet. Geotail was located at the equatorial dawnside magnetotail flank and observed accelerated plasma flows exceeding the solar wind bulk velocity by almost 60%. These flows are observed on the magnetosheath side of the magnetopause and the acceleration mechanism is proposed to be typical for strongly northward IMF. Identified candidates to the cause of the spiral structure include a By induced twisted magnetotail configuration, the development of magnetopause surface waves due to the enhanced pressure related to the accelerated magnetosheath flows aswell as the formation of additional magnetopause deformations due to external solar wind pressure changes. The uniqeness of the event indicate that most probably a combination of the above effects resulted in a very extreme tail topology. However, the data coverage is insufficient to fully investigate the physical mechanism behind the observations.

  12. A study of the relationship between interplanetary parameters and large displacements of the nightside polar cap boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, M.; Freeman, M.P.; Southwood, D.J.; Waldock, J.A.; Singer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    On July 14, 1982 the Sweden and Britain Radar-Aurora Experiment (SABRE) observed the ionospheric flow reversal boundary at ∼ 0400 MLT to move equatorward across the radar field of view and then later to return poleward. The polar cap appeared to be considerably inflated at this time. Concurrent observations by ISEE-3 at the L1 libration point of the solar wind speed and density, and of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) indicated that the solar wind conditions were unusual throughout the interval under consideration. A mapping of the solar wind parameters from the L1 point to the subsolar magnetopause and thence to the SABRE local time sector indicates that the equatorward motion of the polar cap boundary was controlled by a southward turning of the IMF. The inference of a concomitant increase in open magnetic flux is supported by a comparison of the magnetopause location observed by ISEE-1 on an inbound pass in the 2,100 MLT sector with a magnetopause model based upon the solar wind measurements made by ISEE-3. Some 20 minutes after the expansion of the polar cap boundary was first seen by SABRE, there was a rapid contraction of the boundary, the casue of which was independent of the INF and solar wind parameters, and which had a poleward velocity component in excess of 1,900 m s -1 . the boundary as it moved across the radar field of view was highly structured and oriented at a large angle to the ionospheric footprints of the magnetic L shells. Observations in the premidnight sector by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) magnetometer array indicate that the polar cap contraction is caused by substorm draining of the polar cap flux and occurs without a clearly associated trigger in the interplanetary medium. The response time in the early morning local time sector to the substorm onset switch is approximately 20 minutes, equivalent to an ionospheric azimuthal phase velocity of some 5 km s -1

  13. Dayside and nightside contributions to the cross polar cap potential: placing an upper limit on a viscous-like interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations of changes in size of the ionospheric polar cap allow the dayside and nightside reconnection rates to be quantified. From these it is straightforward to estimate the rate of antisunward transport of magnetic flux across the polar regions, quantified by the cross polar cap potential ΦPC. When correlated with upstream measurements of the north-south component of the IMF, ΦPC is found to increase for more negative Bz, as expected. However, we also find that ΦPC does not, on average, decrease to zero, even for strongly northward IMF. In the past this has been interpreted as evidence for a viscous interaction between the magnetosheath flow and the outer boundaries of the magnetosphere. In contrast, we show that this is the consequence of flows excited by tail reconnection, which is inherently uncorrelated with IMF Bz.

  14. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  15. The electrodynamic, thermal, and energetic character of intense sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, C.E.; Carlson, H.C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report here measurements of two intense Sun-aligned arcs. The two arcs were diagnosed on two different nights (February 26 and March 1, 1987) using the Sondre Stromfjord radar as a stand-alone diagnostic. Repeatable patterns are found in mesoscale area (order 10 3 km by 10 3 km) maps of altitude profiles for observed electron and ion gas number densities, temperatures and line-of-sight velocities, and projected mesoscale area maps of derived electric fields, Pedersen and Hall conductivities (N e , T e , T i , V, E, Σ p , Σ H ), horizontal and field-aligned currents, joule heating rate, and Poynting flux. They confirm, for the first time with continuous mesoscale area maps, that the arcs have the anticipated simple arc electrodynamics. That is, the visual and enhanced ionization signatures of the arc are produced by incoming energetic electrons carrying the outgoing current from the electric field convergence in the arc. Strong electron temperature enhancements (>2,000 K) are found as expected within the sheets of ionizing particle precipitation. Dawn to dusk decreases in the antisunward plasma flow of order 1 km s -1 , across order 100 km, correspond to peak electron densities of order 10 5 cm -3 down to altitudes as low as 120 km, and upward currents of order 1 μA m -2 . These data also lead to important implications for the physics of polar cap arcs. The high-velocity (antisunward flow on the dawnside) edge of the arc marks the location of strong persistent Joule heating driven by downward Poynting flux. The deposition rate into the atmosphere of the net electromagnetic energy well exceeds the net particle energy deposited by the ionizing energetic electron flux. This heating is a substantial source of heat into the polar thermosphere

  16. ''Electron Conic'' Signatures observed in the nightside auroral zone and over the polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menietti, J.D.; Burch, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary search of the Dynamics Explorer 1 high-altitude plasma instrument data base has yielded examples of ''electron conic'' signatures. The three example passes show an association with regions of downward electron acceleration and upward ion beams, but this is not true of all the electron conic events. The electron conic signatures are clearly discernible on energy-flux-versus-time color spectrograms as pairs of discrete vertical bands which are symmetric about a pitch angle of approximately 180 0 . One of the examples is a polar cap pass with electron conic signatures observed at invariant latitudes from 84 0 to 75 0 . The other two cases are nightside auroral zone passes in which the regions of detectable electron conics are spatially more confined, covering only about 1 0 in invariant latitude. The conic signatures have been found at energies that range from 50 eV 0 is larger than expected for a loss cone feature. If the electrons conserve the first adiabatic invariant in a dipole magnetic field, and in some cases a parallel electric field, the mirroring altitude varies between about 500 km and 8000 km, which is above the atmospheric loss region. For this reason, and in analogy with the formation of ion conics, we suggest that the conic signatures are produced by heating of the electrons perpendicular to the magnetic field

  17. Hyperspectral characterisation of the Martian south polar residual cap using CRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. D.; Sidiropoulos, P.; Muller, J.-P.

    2017-09-01

    We present our research on hyperspectral characterization of the Martian South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC), with a focus on the detection of organic signatures within the dust content of the ice. The SPRC exhibits unique CO2 ice sublimation features known colloquially as 'Swiss Cheese Terrain' (SCT). These flat floored, circular depressions are highly dynamic, and may expose dust particles previously trapped within the ice in the depression walls and partially on the floors. Here we identify suitable regions for potential dust exposure on the SPRC, and utilise data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) satellite to examine infrared spectra of dark regions to establish their mineral composition, to eliminate the effects of ices on sub-pixel dusty features, and to assess whether ther might be signatures indicative of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Spectral mapping has identified compositional differences between depression rims and the majority of the SPRC and CRISM spectra have been corrected to minimise the influence of CO2 and H2O ice. Whilst no conclusive evidence for PAHs has been found, depression rims are shown to have higher water content than regions of featureless ice, and there are indications of magnesium carbonate within the dark, dusty regions.

  18. Rocket measurements within a polar cap arc: Plasma, particle, and electric circuit parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.J.; Ballenthin, J.O.; Basu, S.; Carlson, H.C.; Hardy, D.A.; Maynard, N.C.; Smiddy, M.; Kelley, M.C.; Fleischman, J.R.; Sheehan, R.E.; Pfaff, R.F.; Rodriguez, P.

    1989-01-01

    An instrumented rocket payload was launched into a polar cap F layer aurora to investigate the energetic particle, plasma, and electric circuit parameters of a Sun-aligned arc. On-board instruments measured energetic electron flux, ion composition and density fluctuations, electron density and temperature, electron density fluctuations, and ac and dc electric fields. Real-time all-sky imaging photometer measurements of the location and motion of the aurora, were used to determine the proper geophysical situation for launch. Comparison of the in situ measurements with remote optical measurements shows that the arc was produced by fluxes of low-energy (< 1 keV) electrons. Field-aligned potentials in the arc inferred from the electron spectra had a maximum value of approximately 300 V, and from the spectral shape a parent population of preaccelerated electrons characteristic of the boundary plasma sheet or magnetosheath was inferred. Electric field components along and across the arc show sunward flow within the arc and duskward drift of the arc consistent with the drift direction and speed determined from optical imaging. Thus this arc is drifting duskward under the influence of the convection electric field. Three possible explanations for this (field-aligned currents, chemistry, and transport) are considered. Finally, ionospheric irregularity and electric field fluctuations indicate two different generation mechanisms on the dawnside and duskside of the arc. On the duskside, parameters are suggestive of an interchange process, while on the dawnside, fluctuation parameters are consistent with a velocity shear instability

  19. Large-scale bedforms induced by supercritical flows and wave-wave interference in the intertidal zone (Cap Ferret, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Romain; Pittet, Bernard; Humbert, Thomas; Ferry, Serge

    2017-11-01

    The Cap Ferret sand spit is situated along the wave-dominated, tidally modulated Atlantic coast of western France, characterized by a semidiurnal macrotidal range. It displays peculiar dome-like bedforms that can be observed at low tide across the intertidal zone. These bedforms exhibit a wavelength of ca. 1.2 m and an elevation of ca. 30 cm. They occur only when the incident wave heights reach 1.5-2 m. The internal stratifications are characterized by swaley-like, sub-planar, oblique-tangential, oblique-tabular, as well as hummocky-like stratifications. The tabular and tangential stratifications comprise prograding oblique sets (defined as foresets and backsets) that almost always show variations in their steepness. Downcutting into the bottomsets of the oblique-tangential stratifications is common. The sets of laminae observed in the bedforms share common characteristics with those formed by supercritical flows in flume experiments of earlier studies. These peculiar bedforms are observed at the surf-swash transition zone where the backwash flow reaches supercritical conditions. This type of flow can explain their internal architecture but not their general dome-like (three-dimensional) morphology. Wave-wave interference induced by the geomorphology (i.e. tidal channel) of the coastal environment is proposed as explanation for the localized formation of such bedforms. This study highlights that the combination of supercritical flows occurring in the surf-swash transition zone and wave-wave interferences can generate dome-like bedforms in intertidal zones.

  20. Detectability of inflationary gravitational waves with microwave background polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamionkowski, M.; Kosowsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    Inflation predicts specific relations between the amplitudes and spectral indices of the primordial spectrum of density (scalar metric) perturbations and gravitational waves (tensor metric perturbations). Detection of a stochastic gravitational-wave background is essential for identifying this unmistakable signature. Polarization of the cosmic microwave background can isolate these tensor modes in a model-independent way and thereby circumvent the cosmic-variance limit to detecting a small tensor signal with only a temperature map. Here we assess the detectability of a gravity-wave background with a temperature and polarization map. For detector sensitivities better than 10 endash 20μK√ (sec) , the sensitivity to a tensor signal is always dominated by the polarization map. With a detector sensitivity of order 1μK√ (sec) , polarization could improve on a temperature-map sensitivity to tensor modes by two to three orders of magnitude. Even a small amount of reionization substantially enhances tensor-mode detectability. We also argue that the sensitivity of the Planck Surveyor to tensor modes is significantly improved with polarization, even taking into account the resulting degradation of the intensity determination in the high-frequency channels. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Estimation of the gravitational wave polarizations from a nontemplate search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Irene; Drago, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is just beginning, after the recent success of the four direct detections of binary black hole (BBH) mergers and the first observation from a binary neutron star inspiral, with the expectation of many more events to come. Given the possibility to detect waves from not exactly modeled astrophysical processes, it is fundamental to be ready to calculate the polarization waveforms in the case of searches using nontemplate algorithms. In such a case, the waveform polarizations are the only quantities that contain direct information about the generating process. We present the performance of a new valuable tool to estimate the inverse solution of gravitational wave transient signals, starting from the analysis of the signal properties of a nontemplate algorithm that is open to a wider class of gravitational signals not covered by template algorithms. We highlight the contributions to the wave polarization associated with the detector response, the sky localization, and the polarization angle of the source. In this paper we present the performances of such a method and its implications by using two main classes of transient signals, resembling the limiting case for most simple and complicated morphologies. The performances are encouraging for the tested waveforms: the correlation between the original and the reconstructed waveforms spans from better than 80% for simple morphologies to better than 50% for complicated ones. For a nontemplate search these results can be considered satisfactory to reconstruct the astrophysical progenitor.

  2. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characteristics near a large-scale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on

  3. Relationship between interplanetary parameters and the magnetopause reconnection rate quantified from observations of the expanding polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Gosling, J. S.; Hubert, B.

    2012-03-01

    Many studies have attempted to quantify the coupling of energy from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. In this paper we parameterize the dependence of the magnetopause reconnection rate on interplanetary parameters from the OMNI data set. The reconnection rate is measured as the rate of expansion of the polar cap during periods when the nightside reconnection rate is thought to be low, determined from observations by the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Far Ultraviolet (FUV) imager. Our fitting suggests that the reconnection rate is determined by the magnetic flux transport in the solar wind across a channel approximately 4 RE in width, with a small correction dependent on the solar wind speed, and a clock angle dependence. The reconnection rate is not found to be significantly dependent on the solar wind density. Comparison of the modeled reconnection rate with SuperDARN measurements of the cross-polar cap potential provides broad support for the magnitude of the predictions. In the course of the paper we discuss the relationship between the dayside reconnection rate and the cross-polar cap potential.

  4. Stimulated polarization wave process in spin 3/2 chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G. B.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulated wave of polarization, triggered by a flip of a single spin, presents a simple model of quantum amplification. Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in an idealized one-dimensional Ising spin 1/2 chain with nearest-neighbor interactions and realistic spin 1/2 chain including the natural dipole-dipole interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a single spin flip. Here we focuse on control of polarization wave in chain of spin 3/2, where the nuclear quadrupole interaction is dominant. Results of simulations for 1D spin chains and rings with up to five spins are presented.

  5. Probing the f(R) formalism through gravitational wave polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.E.S.; Miranda, O.D.; Araujo, J.C.N. de

    2009-01-01

    The direct observation of gravitational waves (GW) in the near future, and the corresponding determination of the number of independent polarizations, is a powerful tool to test general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. In the present work we use the Newman-Penrose formalism to characterize GWs in quadratic gravity and in a particular class of f(R) Lagrangians. We find that both quadratic gravity and the f(R) theory belong to the most general invariant class of GWs, i.e., they can present up to six independent polarizations of GWs. For a particular combination of the parameters, we find that quadratic gravity can present up to five polarizations states. On the other hand, if we use the Palatini approach for f(R) theories, GWs present only the usual two transverse-traceless polarizations such as in general relativity. Thus, we conclude that the observation of GWs can strongly constrain the suitable formalism for these theories.

  6. On determining the noon polar cap boundary from SuperDARN HF radar backscatter characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pinnock

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that ionospheric HF radar backscatter in the noon sector can be used to locate the footprint of the magnetospheric cusp particle precipitation. This has enabled the radar data to be used as a proxy for the location of the polar cap boundary, and hence measure the flow of plasma across it to derive the reconnection electric field in the ionosphere. This work used only single radar data sets with a field of view limited to ~2 h of local time. In this case study using four of the SuperDARN radars, we examine the boundary determined over 6 h of magnetic local time around the noon sector and its relationship to the convection pattern. The variation with longitude of the latitude of the radar scatter with cusp characteristics shows a bay-like feature. It is shown that this feature is shaped by the variation with longitude of the poleward flow component of the ionospheric plasma and may be understood in terms of cusp ion time-of-flight effects. Using this interpretation, we derive the time-of-flight of the cusp ions and find that it is consistent with approximately 1 keV ions injected from a subsolar reconnection site. A method for deriving a more accurate estimate of the location of the open-closed field line boundary from HF radar data is described.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere–magnetosphere interactions; plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers

  7. Polar cap absorption events of November 2001 at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Polar cap absorption (PCA events recorded during November 2001 are investigated by observations of ionospheric absorption of a 30MHz riometer installed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica, and of solar proton flux, monitored by the NOAA-GOES8 satellite in geo-synchronous orbit. During this period three solar proton events (SPE on 4, 19 and 23 November occurred. Two of these are among the dozen most intense events since 1954 and during the current solar cycle (23rd, the event of 4 November shows the greatest proton flux at energies >10MeV. Many factors contribute to the peak intensity of the two SPE biggest events, one is the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME speed, other factors are the ambient population of SPE and the shock front due to the CME. During these events absorption peaks of several dB (~20dB are observed at Terra Nova Bay, tens of minutes after the impact of fast halo CMEs on the geomagnetic field.

    Results of a cross-correlation analysis show that the first hour of absorption is mainly produced by 84–500MeV protons in the case of the 4 November event and by 15–44MeV protons for the event of 23 November, whereas in the entire event the contribution to the absorption is due chiefly to 4.2–82MeV (4 November and by 4.2–14.5MeV (23 November. Good agreement is generally obtained between observed and calculated absorption by the empirical flux-absorption relationship for threshold energy E0=10MeV. From the residuals one can argue that other factors (e.g. X-ray increases and geomagnetic disturbances can contribute to the ionospheric absorption.

    Key words. Ionosphere (Polar Ionosphere, Particle precipitation – Solar physics (Flares and mass ejections

  8. Internal waves and modern and ancient hiatuses in pelagic caps of Pacific guyots and seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Neil; Simmons, Harper; Lear, Carrie

    2013-04-01

    Locations of recent non-deposition and ancient hiatuses in the pelagic caps of guyots and seamounts are compared with paleotemperature and physiographic information to speculate on the character of internal tidal waves in the upper Pacific Ocean through the Cenozoic. Internal tidal waves are generated where the ocean barotropic tide passes over the Hawaiian and other major ridges in the Pacific basin. Drill core and geophysical evidence for sediment accumulation, non-deposition or erosion are used to classify broadly sites as either accumulating or eroding/non-depositing in the recent geological past. When these classified sites are compared against results of a numerical model of the internal tide field (Simmons, Ocean Mod. 2008), the sites accumulating particles over the past few million years are all found to lie away from beams of the modeled internal tide, while those that have not been accumulating are in areas of high internal wave energy. Given the correspondence to modern internal wave conditions, we examine whether internal tides can explain ancient hiatuses at the drill sites. For example, Late Cenozoic pelagic caps on guyots among the Marshall Islands contain two hiatuses of broadly similar age, but the dates of the first pelagic sediments deposited following each hiatus do not correlate between guyots, suggesting that they originate not from universal factors (e.g., water chemistry) but local, probably physical factors, such as internal tides. We investigate how changing boundary conditions such as ocean temperature and basin physiography may have affected the geometry and vigour of internal tides through the Cenozoic. Changes in the geometry of ridges underlying the Solomon, Bonin and Marianas Island chains caused by plate tectonics and subsidence may be responsible for sediment hiatuses at these far-field guyot sites.

  9. Generation of Elliptically Polarized Terahertz Waves from Antiferromagnetic Sandwiched Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Shu-Fang; Wang, Xuan-Zhang; Song, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xiang-Guang; Qu, Xiu-Rong

    2018-04-01

    The generation of elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave of an antiferromagnetic (AF)/dielectric sandwiched structure in the terahertz range is studied. The frequency and external magnetic field can change the AF optical response, resulting in the generation of elliptical polarization. An especially useful geometry with high levels of the generation of elliptical polarization is found in the case where an incident electromagnetic wave perpendicularly illuminates the sandwiched structure, the AF anisotropy axis is vertical to the wave-vector and the external magnetic field is pointed along the wave-vector. In numerical calculations, the AF layer is FeF2 and the dielectric layers are ZnF2. Although the effect originates from the AF layer, it can be also influenced by the sandwiched structure. We found that the ZnF2/FeF2/ZnF2 structure possesses optimal rotation of the principal axis and ellipticity, which can reach up to about thrice that of a single FeF2 layer.

  10. Wave-vector and polarization dependence of conical refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, A; Loiko, Yu V; Kalkandjiev, T K; Tomizawa, H; Mompart, J

    2013-02-25

    We experimentally address the wave-vector and polarization dependence of the internal conical refraction phenomenon by demonstrating that an input light beam of elliptical transverse profile refracts into two beams after passing along one of the optic axes of a biaxial crystal, i.e. it exhibits double refraction instead of refracting conically. Such double refraction is investigated by the independent rotation of a linear polarizer and a cylindrical lens. Expressions to describe the position and the intensity pattern of the refracted beams are presented and applied to predict the intensity pattern for an axicon beam propagating along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal.

  11. Variations in the polar cap area during intervals of substorm activity on 20-21 March 1990 deduced from AMIE convection patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviour of the northern polar cap area is studied employing Northern Hemisphere electric potential patterns derived by the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE procedure. The rate of change in area of the polar cap, which can be defined as the region of magnetospheric field lines open to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, has been calculated during two intervals when the IMF had an approximately constant southward component (1100–2200 UT, 20 March 1990 and 1300–2100 UT, 21 March 1990. The estimates of the polar cap area are based on the approximation of the polar cap boundary by the flow reversal boundary. The change in the polar cap area is then compared to the predicted expansion rate based on a simple application of Faraday\\'s Law. Furthermore, timings of magnetospheric substorms are also related to changes in the polar cap area. Once the convection electric field reconfigures following a southward turning of the IMF, the growth rate of the observed polar cap boundary is consistent with that predicted by Faraday\\'s Law. A delay of typically 20 min to 50 min is observed between a substorm expansion phase onset and a reduction in the polar cap area. Such a delay is consistent with a synthesis between the near Earth neutral line and current disruption models of magnetospheric substorms in which the dipolarisation in the magnetotail may act as a trigger for reconnection. These delays may represent a propagation time between near geosynchronous orbit dipolarisation and subsequent reconnection further down tail. We estimate, from these delays, that the neutral X line occurs between ~35RE and ~75RE downstream in the tail.

  12. Method to locate the polar cap boundary in the nightside ionosphere and application to a substorm event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new method to be used for the polar cap boundary (PCB determination in the nightside ionosphere by using the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR field-aligned measurements by the 42-m antenna and southward directed low-elevation measurements by the ESR 32 m antenna or northward directed low-elevation measurements by the EISCAT VHF radar at Tromsø. The method is based on increased electron temperature (Te caused by precipitating particles on closed field lines. Since the Svalbard field-aligned measurement provides the reference polar cap Te height profile, the method can be utilised only when the PCB is located between Svalbard and the mainland. Comparison with the Polar UVI images shows that the radar-based method is generally in agreement with the PAE (poleward auroral emission boundary from Polar UVI. The new technique to map the polar cap boundary was applied to a substorm event on 6 November 2002. Simultaneous measurements by the MIRACLE magnetometers enabled us to put the PCB location in the framework of ionospheric electrojets. During the substorm growth phase, the polar cap expands and the region of the westward electrojet shifts gradually more apart from the PCB. The substorm onset takes place deep within the region of closed magnetic field region, separated by about 6–7° in latitude from the PCB in the ionosphere. We interpret the observations in the framework of the near-Earth neutral line (NENL model of substorms. After the substorm onset, the reconnection at the NENL reaches within 3 min the open-closed field line boundary and then the PCB moves poleward together with the poleward boundary of the substorm current wedge. The poleward expansion occurs in the form of individual bursts, which are separated by 2–10 min, indicating that the reconnection in the magnetotail neutral line is impulsive. The poleward expansions of the PCB are followed by latitude dispersed intensifications in the westward electrojet

  13. Primordial gravitational waves measurements and anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yu Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the interstellar dust grains and the galactic cyclotron electrons. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recently released polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by considering the polarization rotation angle [α(nˆ] which can be separated into a background isotropic part [α¯] and a small anisotropic part [Δα(nˆ]. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the “self-calibration” method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including Δα(nˆ in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle could not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on r will be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial

  14. Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Yungui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.

  15. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging With Cascaded Dual-Polarity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Guo, Yuexin; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities. A new coding scheme and a corresponding linear decoding process were thereby designed to obtain the recovered signals with increased amplitude, thus increasing the SNR without sacrificing the frame rate. The newly designed CDW ultrafast ultrasound imaging technique achieved higher quality B-mode images than coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) and multiplane wave (MW) imaging in a calibration phantom, ex vivo pork belly, and in vivo human back muscle. CDW imaging shows a significant improvement in the SNR (10.71 dB versus CPWC and 7.62 dB versus MW), penetration depth (36.94% versus CPWC and 35.14% versus MW), and contrast ratio in deep regions (5.97 dB versus CPWC and 5.05 dB versus MW) without compromising other image quality metrics, such as spatial resolution and frame rate. The enhanced image qualities and ultrafast frame rates offered by CDW imaging beget great potential for various novel imaging applications.

  16. Excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized electromagnetic wave incident upon a boundary of a dense magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave

  17. CMB polarization systematics, cosmological birefringence, and the gravitational waves background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagano, Luca; Bernardis, Paolo de; Gubitosi, Giulia; Masi, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Piacentini, Francesco; De Troia, Grazia; Natoli, Paolo; Polenta, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background experiments must achieve very accurate calibration of their polarization reference frame to avoid biasing the cosmological parameters. In particular, a wrong or inaccurate calibration might mimic the presence of a gravitational wave background, or a signal from cosmological birefringence, a phenomenon characteristic of several nonstandard, symmetry breaking theories of electrodynamics that allow for in vacuo rotation of the polarization direction of the photon. Noteworthly, several authors have claimed that the BOOMERanG 2003 (B2K) published polarized power spectra of the cosmic microwave background may hint at cosmological birefringence. Such analyses, however, do not take into account the reported calibration uncertainties of the BOOMERanG focal plane. We develop a formalism to include this effect and apply it to the BOOMERanG dataset, finding a cosmological rotation angle α=-4.3 deg. ±4.1 deg. We also investigate the expected performances of future space borne experiment, finding that an overall miscalibration larger then 1 deg. for Planck and 0.2 deg. for the Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology, if not properly taken into account, will produce a bias on the constraints on the cosmological parameters and could misleadingly suggest the presence of a gravitational waves background.

  18. Polarization speed meter for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew R.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chen, Yanbei; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Chow, Jong H.; McClelland, David E.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a modified configuration of an advanced gravitational-wave detector that is a speed-meter-type interferometer with improved sensitivity with respect to quantum noise. With the addition of polarization-controlling components to the output of an arm cavity Michelson interferometer, an orthogonal polarization state of the interferometer can be used to store signal, returning it later with opposite phase to cancel position information below the storage bandwidth of the opposite mode. This modification provides an alternative to an external kilometer-scale Fabry-Pérot cavity, as presented in earlier work of Purdue and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 66, 122004 (2002)]. The new configuration requires significantly less physical infrastructure to achieve speed meter operation. The quantity of length and alignment degrees of freedom is also reduced. We present theoretical calculations to show that such a speed meter detector is capable of beating the strain sensitivity imposed by the standard quantum limit over a broad range of frequencies for Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory-like parameters. The benefits and possible difficulties of implementing such a scheme are outlined. We also present results for tuning of the speed meter by adjusting the degree of polarization coupling, a novel possibility that does not exist in previously proposed designs, showing that there is a smooth transition from speed meter operation to that of a signal-recycling Michelson behavior.

  19. Interannual and seasonal changes in the south seasonal polar cap of Mars: Observations from MY 28-31 using MARCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Cantor, B. A.; James, P. B.

    2017-08-01

    The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter provides daily synoptic coverage that allows monitoring of seasonal cap retreat and interannual changes that occur between Mars Years (MY) and over the southern summer. We present the first analysis of this data for the southern seasonal cap evolution observed in MY 28, 29, 30 and 31 (2/2007 to 07/2013). Observation over multiple Mars years allows us to compare changes between years as well as longer-term evolution of the high albedo deposits at the poles. Seasonal cap retreat is similar in all years and to retreats observed in other years by both optical and thermal instruments. The cryptic terrain has a fairly consistent boundary in each year, but numerous small-scale variations occur in each MY observed. Additionally, numerous small dark deposits are identified outside the classically identified cyptic region, including Inca City and other locations not previously noted. The large water ice outlier is observed to retain seasonal frost the longest (outside the polar dome) and is also highly variable in each MY. The development of the cryptic/anti-cryptic hemispheres is inferred to occur due to albedo variations that develop after dust venting starts and may be caused by recondensation of CO2 ice on the brightest and coldest regions controlled by topographic winds. Ground ice may play a role in which regions develop cryptic terrain, as there is no elevation control on either cryptic terrain or the late season brightest deposits.

  20. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap index procedure. Effects of solar wind sector structure and reverse polar convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauning, P.

    2015-01-01

    The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) has recently endorsed a new Polar Cap (PC) index version to supersede the previous seven different versions of the PCN (North) index and the five different PCS (South) index versions. However, the new PC index has some adverse features which should be known and taken into account by users of the index. It uses in its derivation procedure an ''effective'' quiet day level (QDC) composed of a ''basic'' QDC and an added solar wind sector term related to the azimuthal component (B y ) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The added IMF B y -related terms may introduce unjustified contributions to the PC index of more than 2 index units (mV m -1 ). Furthermore, cases of reverse convection during strong northward IMF B z (NBZ) conditions included in the database for calculation of index coefficients can cause unjustified index enhancements of 0.5-1 mV m -1 during calm conditions, reduction of index values by more than 20% during disturbed conditions, and inconsistencies between index coefficients and index values for the northern and southern polar caps. The aim here is to specify these adverse features and quantify their effects, and to suggest alternative steps for future modifications of the index procedure.

  1. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap index procedure. Effects of solar wind sector structure and reverse polar convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauning, P. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) has recently endorsed a new Polar Cap (PC) index version to supersede the previous seven different versions of the PCN (North) index and the five different PCS (South) index versions. However, the new PC index has some adverse features which should be known and taken into account by users of the index. It uses in its derivation procedure an ''effective'' quiet day level (QDC) composed of a ''basic'' QDC and an added solar wind sector term related to the azimuthal component (B{sub y}) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The added IMF B{sub y}-related terms may introduce unjustified contributions to the PC index of more than 2 index units (mV m{sup -1}). Furthermore, cases of reverse convection during strong northward IMF B{sub z} (NBZ) conditions included in the database for calculation of index coefficients can cause unjustified index enhancements of 0.5-1 mV m{sup -1} during calm conditions, reduction of index values by more than 20% during disturbed conditions, and inconsistencies between index coefficients and index values for the northern and southern polar caps. The aim here is to specify these adverse features and quantify their effects, and to suggest alternative steps for future modifications of the index procedure.

  2. Ion Outflow and Convection in the Polar Cap and Cleft as Measured by Tide, EFI, MFE and Timas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, H. A.; Craven, P. D.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.; Maynard, N. C.; Peterson, W. K.; Lennartsson, O. W.; Shelley, E. G.; Mozer, F. S.; Russell, C. T.

    1997-01-01

    This study examines high-latitude ion outflows and velocities perpendicular to the magnetic field derived from moments of ion distributions measured by the TIDE (Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment) instrument on the Polar satellite. Hydrogen and oxygen ions are shown to be E X B drifting in the polar cap and cleft regions with a speed of about 5-20 km/s at apogee (approximately 9 Re) and a speed of 1-2 km/s at perigee (approximately 1. 8 Re). E X B drifts are calculated from electric fields measured by EFI (Electric Field Instrument) and magnetic fields measured by MFE (Magnetic Field Experiment) both of which are also on Polar. How convection at Polar's perigee relates to potential patterns of the ionosphere will be discussed. In the cusp/cleft the distribution of hydrogen extends over a large enough range of energy to be measured by both TIDE and the Toroidal Imaging Mass-Angle Spectrograph (TIMAS). Such comparisons will be also be presented.

  3. Radar observations of density gradients, electric fields, and plasma irregularities near polar cap patches in the context of the gradient-drift instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie J.; Makarevich, Roman A.

    2017-03-01

    We present observations of plasma density gradients, electric fields, and small-scale plasma irregularities near a polar cap patch made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar at Rankin Inlet (RKN) and the northern face of Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N). RKN echo power and occurrence are analyzed in the context of gradient-drift instability (GDI) theory, with a particular focus on the previously uninvestigated 2-D dependencies on wave propagation, electric field, and gradient vectors, with the latter two quantities evaluated directly from RISR-N measurements. It is shown that higher gradient and electric field components along the wave vector generally lead to the higher observed echo occurrence, which is consistent with the expected higher GDI growth rate, but the relationship with echo power is far less straightforward. The RKN echo power increases monotonically as the predicted linear growth rate approaches zero from negative values but does not continue this trend into positive growth rate values, in contrast with GDI predictions. The observed greater consistency of echo occurrence with GDI predictions suggests that GDI operating in the linear regime can control basic plasma structuring, but measured echo strength may be affected by other processes and factors, such as multistep or nonlinear processes or a shear-driven instability.

  4. Instability of drift Alfven wave accompanying polar magnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yoshihiro

    1974-01-01

    As the micro plasma instability due to the plasma non-uniformity in magnetosphere, there is the instability of drift Alfven wave. With the data obtained with the network of multiple observation points for geomagnetism, attempt was made to prove the hypothesis that the instability of drift Alfven wave due to the electron temperature gradient at the inner boundary of plasma sheet may be one of the causes for the geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 1) accompanying polar magnetic storm. Up to date, final conclusion is yet impossible as to the problems in it due to the discussion based on the data from widely separated observation points. The installation of economically efficient multi-point observation network is necessary for the solution. (Mori, K.)

  5. Extended period of polar cap auroral display: auroral dynamics and relation to the IMF and the ionospheric convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Vorobjev

    Full Text Available An unusually extended period (5 h of polar cap auroral display on 3 August 1986 is examined. Auroras have been investigated using ground-based data as well as measurements from the IMP-8 spacecraft in interplanetary space and simultaneous observations from the polar-orbiting satellites Viking and DE-1 in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. It is found that visible Sun-aligned arcs are located inside the transpolar band of the θ-aurora observed from the satellite in ultraviolet wavelengths. The transpolar band can contain several Sun-aligned arcs that move inside the band toward the morning or evening side of the auroral oval independent of the direction of the band movement. Intensifications of polar cap auroras with durations of up to about 30 min are observed. No change has been found in either IMF parameters or substorm activity that can be related to these intensifications. The θ-aurora occurred during a 2-h period when the B z-component of the IMF was negative. A tendency is noted for dawnward (duskward displacement of the transpolar band when By>0 (By<0 in the southern hemisphere. Simultaneous observations of auroral ovals during interplanetary Bz<0, By<0 and Bx>0 in both hemispheres and convection patterns for Bz<0 and By<0 have been displayed using satellite and ground-based measurements. It was found that the transpolar band of the -aurora in the sunlit hemisphere was situated in the region of large-scale downward Birkeland currents.

  6. Extended period of polar cap auroral display: auroral dynamics and relation to the IMF and the ionospheric convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Vorobjev

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An unusually extended period (5 h of polar cap auroral display on 3 August 1986 is examined. Auroras have been investigated using ground-based data as well as measurements from the IMP-8 spacecraft in interplanetary space and simultaneous observations from the polar-orbiting satellites Viking and DE-1 in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. It is found that visible Sun-aligned arcs are located inside the transpolar band of the θ-aurora observed from the satellite in ultraviolet wavelengths. The transpolar band can contain several Sun-aligned arcs that move inside the band toward the morning or evening side of the auroral oval independent of the direction of the band movement. Intensifications of polar cap auroras with durations of up to about 30 min are observed. No change has been found in either IMF parameters or substorm activity that can be related to these intensifications. The θ-aurora occurred during a 2-h period when the B z-component of the IMF was negative. A tendency is noted for dawnward (duskward displacement of the transpolar band when By>0 (By<0 in the southern hemisphere. Simultaneous observations of auroral ovals during interplanetary Bz<0, By<0 and Bx>0 in both hemispheres and convection patterns for Bz<0 and By<0 have been displayed using satellite and ground-based measurements. It was found that the transpolar band of the -aurora in the sunlit hemisphere was situated in the region of large-scale downward Birkeland currents.

  7. On a distribution of electric fields caused by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field in the absence of longitudinal currents in the winter polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the distribution of electric fields, conditioned by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field Bsub(z), have been discussed. The problem of electric field excitation is reduced to the solution of equations of continuity for the current in three regions: northern and southern polar caps and region beyond the caps. At the values Bsub(z)>0 in the ranqe of latitudes phi >= 80 deg the localization of convection conversion effect is obtained in calculations for summer cap and it agrees with the data of direct measurements

  8. Polarization waves in dielectric films with spatial dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, Jean-Pierre; Moch, Philippe; Dvorak, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The polarization waves propagating in a slab-shaped or in a semi-infinite dielectric medium with spatial dispersion characterized by a volume free-energy density and by a boundary-surface energy density are studied, taking into account Maxwell's equations, in the framework of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism. It is shown that two independent extrapolation lengths providing for the required additional boundary conditions need to be specified at each surface limiting the medium. Complete calculations are performed in the electrostatic approximation: they provide evidence of the differences between the transverse in-plane polarized modes (s modes) and the sagittal plane polarized modes (p modes). True surface modes exist only in the case of negative extrapolation lengths. A detailed analysis of the symmetry properties of the surface and of the guided bulk modes in a slab is developed. Finally, our results are compared with those from previous models describing the boundary conditions in media where spatial dispersion is present. (author)

  9. Terahertz wave polarization beam splitter using a cascaded multimode interference structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiu-sheng; Liu, Han; Zhang, Le

    2014-08-01

    A terahertz wave polarization beam splitter, based on two cascaded multimode interference structures with different widths, is designed and numerically demonstrated. The numerical calculation results show that the designed polarization beam splitter can split transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarized terahertz waves into different propagation directions with high efficiency over a frequency range from 6.40 to 6.50 THz. This polarization beam splitter shows more than a 22.06 dB extinction ratio for TE-polarization and a 31.65 dB extinction ratio for TM-polarization. Using such a polarization beam splitter, the whole length of the polarization beam splitter is reduced to about 1/12 that of a conventional design. This enables the polarization beam splitter to be used in terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.

  10. Shear wave induced resonance elastography of spherical masses with polarized torsional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Trop, Isabelle; Cloutier, Guy

    2012-03-01

    Shear wave induced resonance (SWIR) is a technique for dynamic ultrasound elastography of confined mechanical inclusions. It was developed for breast tumor imaging and tissue characterization. This method relies on the polarization of torsional shear waves modeled with the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates. To validate modeling, an invitro set-up was used to measure and image the first three eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a soft sphere. A preliminary invivo SWIR measurement on a breast fibroadenoma is also reported. Results revealed the potential of SWIR elastography to detect and mechanically characterize breast lesions for early cancer detection.

  11. Field-aligned currents and convection patterns in the Southern Polar Cap during stable northward, southward, and azimuthal IMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papitashvili, V.O.; Belov, B.A.; Gromova, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    Equivalent ionospheric current patterns are derived from ground-based geomagnetic observations for events on 11-12 November 1979 (B/sub z/ >> 0), 24 November 1981 (B/sub z/ > 0) (B/sub y/ >> 0), and 25-26 November 1979 (B/sub y/ 0 . Due to stable external conditions, it is possible to calculate the field-aligned current (FAC) density within cells formed by two adjacent stations by taking into account the uniform conductivity of the summer polar ionosphere. These results completely correspond to regressional analysis of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) and ground-based geomagnetic data, and also to satellite observations of the NBZ current system. During stable southward IMF a new result was obtained, a reversal of antisunward convection flow is identified, and an NBZ-like FAC system is restored in the central part of the southern polar cap. The authors conclude that there may be an additional NBZ-like FAC system poleward of -85 0 , which is independent of the IMF and is generated by the quasi-viscous interaction between solar-wind plasma and high-latitude lobes of the magnetospheric tail

  12. Alfvénic waves in polar spicules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavabi, E.; Koutchmy, S.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.; Ahangarzadeh Maralani, A. R.; Zeighami, S.

    2015-01-01

    Context. For investigating spicules from the photosphere to coronal heights, the new Hinode/SOT long series of high-resolution observations from space taken in CaII H line emission offers an improved way to look at their remarkable dynamical behavior using images free of seeing effects. They should be put in the context of the huge amount of already accumulated material from ground-based instruments, including high- resolution spectra of off-limb spicules. Aims: Both the origin of the phenomenon and the significance of dynamical spicules for the heating above the top of the photosphere and the fuelling of the chromospheric and the transition region need more investigation, including of the possible role of the associated magnetic waves for the corona higher up. Methods: We analyze in great detail the proper transverse motions of mature and tall polar region spicules for different heights, assuming that there might be Helical-Kink waves or Alfvénic waves propagating inside their multicomponent substructure, by interpreting the quasi-coherent behavior of all visible components presumably confined by a surrounding magnetic envelop. We concentrate the analysis on the taller CaII spicules more relevant for coronal heights and easier to measure. Two-dimensional velocity maps of proper motion were computed for the first time using a correlation tracking technique based on FFTs and cross-correlation function with a 2nd-order-accuracy Taylor expansion. Highly processed images with the popular mad-max algorithm were first prepared to perform this analysis. The locations of the peak of the cross-correlation function were obtained with subpixel accuracy. Results: The surge-like behavior of solar polar region spicules supports the untwisting multicomponent interpretation of spicules exhibiting helical dynamics. Several tall spicules are found with (i) upward and downward flows that are similar at lower and middle levels, the rate of upward motion being slightly higher at high

  13. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.

  14. Nonlinear interaction of s-polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amein, W.H.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Nagy, O.Z.; Sayed, Y.A.

    1981-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of S-Polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma is investigated. The expressions of the amplitudes of the generated waves are found. It is shown that, the generated waves with combined frequencies are equally radiated from the transient layer into plasma and vacuum

  15. Experimental demonstration of 24-Gb/s CAP-64QAM radio-over-fiber system over 40-GHz mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Li, Fan; Li, Xinying

    2013-11-04

    We propose and demonstrate a novel CAP-ROF system based on multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) 64QAM with high spectrum efficiency for mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission. The performance of novel CAP modulation with high order QAM, for the first time, is investigated in the mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission system. One I/Q modulator is used for mm-wave generation and base-band signal modulation based on optical carrier suppression (OCS) and intensity modulation. Finally, we demonstrated a 24-Gb/s CAP-64QAM radio-over-fiber (ROF) system over 40-km stand single-mode-fiber (SMMF) and 1.5-m 38-GHz wireless transmission. The system operation factors are also experimentally investigated.

  16. Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Afrough, M; Agarwal, B; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Amato, A; Ananyeva, A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Angelova, S V; Antier, S; Appert, S; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atallah, D V; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; AultONeal, K; Austin, C; Avila-Alvarez, A; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Bae, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Banagiri, S; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barkett, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bawaj, M; Bayley, J C; Bazzan, M; Bécsy, B; Beer, C; Bejger, M; Belahcene, I; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Bero, J J; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Billman, C R; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Biscoveanu, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackman, J; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bode, N; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bohe, A; Bondu, F; Bonilla, E; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bossie, K; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T A; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Canepa, M; Canizares, P; Cannon, K C; Cao, H; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Carney, M F; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerdá-Durán, P; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chase, E; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterjee, D; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H-P; Chia, H; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Chmiel, T; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, A J K; Chua, S; Chung, A K W; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Ciolfi, R; Cirelli, C E; Cirone, A; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Clearwater, P; Cleva, F; Cocchieri, C; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Cohen, D; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L R; Constancio, M; Conti, L; Cooper, S J; Corban, P; Corbitt, T R; Cordero-Carrión, I; Corley, K R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, E; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Covas, P B; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cullen, T J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Dálya, G; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davis, D; Daw, E J; Day, B; De, S; DeBra, D; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Demos, N; Denker, T; Dent, T; De Pietri, R; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; De Rossi, C; DeSalvo, R; de Varona, O; Devenson, J; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Renzo, F; Doctor, Z; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorrington, I; Douglas, R; Dovale Álvarez, M; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Dreissigacker, C; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dupej, P; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Eisenstein, R A; Essick, R C; Estevez, D; Etienne, Z B; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Fauchon-Jones, E J; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fee, C; Fehrmann, H; Feicht, J; Fejer, M M; Fernandez-Galiana, A; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finstad, D; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fishbach, M; Fisher, R P; Fitz-Axen, M; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Font, J A; Forsyth, P W F; Forsyth, S S; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fries, E M; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H; Gadre, B U; Gaebel, S M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Ganija, M R; Gaonkar, S G; Garcia-Quiros, C; Garufi, F; Gateley, B; Gaudio, S; Gaur, G; Gayathri, V; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, D; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghonge, S; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glover, L; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gomes, S; Goncharov, B; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Gretarsson, E M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Gruning, P; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Halim, O; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hamilton, E Z; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hannuksela, O A; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hinderer, T; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Horst, C; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hreibi, A; Hu, Y M; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Inta, R; Intini, G; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Junker, J; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kamai, B; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katolik, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Keitel, D; Kemball, A J; Kennedy, R; Kent, C; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J C; Kim, K; Kim, W; Kim, W S; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kinley-Hanlon, M; Kirchhoff, R; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Knowles, T D; Koch, P; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Krämer, C; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwang, S; Lackey, B D; Lai, K H; Landry, M; Lang, R N; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lanza, R K; Lartaux-Vollard, A; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, H W; Lee, K; Lehmann, J; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Li, T G F; Linker, S D; Littenberg, T B; Liu, J; Lo, R K L; Lockerbie, N A; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lumaca, D; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macas, R; Macfoy, S; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña Hernandez, I; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magaña Zertuche, L; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markakis, C; Markosyan, A S; Markowitz, A; Maros, E; Marquina, A; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Mason, K; Massera, E; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matas, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McCuller, L; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McNeill, L; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Mejuto-Villa, E; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Milovich-Goff, M C; Minazzoli, O; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moffa, D; Moggi, A; Mogushi, K; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Muñiz, E A; Muratore, M; Murray, P G; Napier, K; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Neilson, J; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Nery, M; Neunzert, A; Nevin, L; Newport, J M; Newton, G; Ng, K K Y; Nguyen, T T; Nichols, D; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Noack, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; North, C; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; O'Dea, G D; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Okada, M A; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; Ormiston, R; Ortega, L F; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ossokine, S; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pace, A E; Page, J; Page, M A; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B; Pang, P T H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Parida, A; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patil, M; Patricelli, B; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perez, C J; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pirello, M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Porter, E K; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J W W; Pratten, G; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rajbhandari, B; Rakhmanov, M; Ramirez, K E; Ramos-Buades, A; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ren, W; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Ricker, P M; Rieger, S; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romel, C L; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Ross, M P; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Rutins, G; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L M; Sanchez, E J; Sanchez, L E; Sanchis-Gual, N; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Scheel, M; Scheuer, J; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schulte, B W; Schutz, B F; Schwalbe, S G; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seidel, E; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T J; Shah, A A; Shahriar, M S; Shaner, M B; Shao, L; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, B; Smith, J R; Smith, R J E; Somala, S; Son, E J; Sonnenberg, J A; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Spencer, A P; Srivastava, A K; Staats, K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Stops, D J; Strain, K A; Stratta, G; Strigin, S E; Strunk, A; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Suresh, J; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Tait, S C; Talbot, C; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tao, D; Tápai, M; Taracchini, A; Tasson, J D; Taylor, J A; Taylor, R; Tewari, S V; Theeg, T; Thies, F; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres-Forné, A; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trinastic, J; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tsang, K W; Tse, M; Tso, R; Tsukada, L; Tsuna, D; Tuyenbayev, D; Ueno, K; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Varma, V; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Venugopalan, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Viets, A D; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walet, R; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J Z; Wang, W H; Wang, Y F; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Watchi, J; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessel, E K; Weßels, P; Westerweck, J; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Whittle, C; Wilken, D; Williams, D; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Wofford, J; Wong, K W K; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wysocki, D M; Xiao, S; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, L; Yap, M J; Yazback, M; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zelenova, T; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, Y-H; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, S J; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2018-05-18

    The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to Ω_{0}^{T}<5.58×10^{-8}, Ω_{0}^{V}<6.35×10^{-8}, and Ω_{0}^{S}<1.08×10^{-7} at a reference frequency f_{0}=25  Hz.

  17. Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, E.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tao, D.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to Ω0T<5.58 ×10-8 , Ω0V<6.35 ×10-8 , and Ω0S<1.08 ×10-7 at a reference frequency f0=25 Hz .

  18. Dispersion of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in magnetized quantum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Kumar, Punit

    2015-01-01

    The generation of harmonic radiation is significant in terms of laser-plasma interaction and has brought interesting notice due to the diversity of its applications. The odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated in the majority of laser interactions with homogenous plasma. It has been remarked that second harmonic generation takes place in the presence of density gradient which gives rise to perturbation in the electron density at the laser frequency. The density perturbation coupled with the quiver motion of the electrons produces a source current at the second harmonic frequency. Second harmonic generation has also been related with filamentation. In the present paper, a study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first. (author)

  19. Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Teun-Teun; Oh, Sang Soon; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Park, Hyun Sung; Hess, Ortwin; Min, Bumki; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    Active control of polarization states of electromagnetic waves is highly desirable because of its diverse applications in information processing, telecommunications, and spectroscopy. However, despite the recent advances using artificial materials, most active polarization control schemes require optical stimuli necessitating complex optical setups. We experimentally demonstrate an alternative-direct electrical tuning of the polarization state of terahertz waves. Combining a chiral metamaterial with a gated single-layer sheet of graphene, we show that transmission of a terahertz wave with one circular polarization can be electrically controlled without affecting that of the other circular polarization, leading to large-intensity modulation depths (>99%) with a low gate voltage. This effective control of polarization is made possible by the full accessibility of three coupling regimes, that is, underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped regimes by electrical control of the graphene properties.

  20. Polarization reversal of electron cyclotron wave due to radial boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Kaneko, T.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2004-01-01

    The electron cyclotron wave is an important plasma wave in the fields of basic plasma physics and nuclear fusion. Propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) frequency are experimentally and theoretically investigated for the case of inhomogeneously magnetized plasma column with peripheral vacuum layer, when a left-hand polarized wave (LHPW) is selectively launched. The polarization reversal from the LHPW to the right-hand polarized wave is found to occur near the ECR point. As a result, it is clarified that the LHPW, which has been considered not to be absorbed at the ECR point, is absorbed near the ECR point. The phenomena can be explained by taking into account the effects of the radial boundary conditions. In addition, it is found that the polarization reversal point can be adjusted by the external parameters, for example, plasma radius. (authors)

  1. Identifications of the polar cap boundary and the auroral belt in the high-altitude magnetosphere: a model for field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1975-01-01

    By means of the Ogo 5 Goddard Space Flight Center fluxgate magnetometer data the polar cap boundary is identified in the high-altitude magnetosphere by a sudden transition from a dipolar field to a more taillike configuration. It is inferred that there exists a field-aligned-current layer at the polar cap boundary. In the night side magnetosphere the polar cap boundary is identified as the high-latitude boundary of the plasma sheet. The field-aligned current flows downward to the ionosphere on the morning side of the magnetosphere and upward from the ionosphere on the afternoon side. The basic pattern of the magnetic field variations observed during the satellite's traversal of the auroral belt is presented. Currents flow in opposite directions in the two field-aligned-current layers. The current directions in these layers as observed by Ogo 5 in the high-altitude magnetosphere are the same as those observed at low altitudes by the polar-orbiting Triad satellite (Armstrong and Zmuda, 1973). The magnetic field in the region where the lower-latitude field-aligned-current layer is situated is essentially meridional. A model is presented in which two field-aligned-current systems, one at the polar cap boundary and the other on the low-latitude part of the auroral belt, are main []y connected by ionospheric currents flowing across the auroral belt. The existence of field-aligned currents deduced from the Ogo 5 observations is a permanent feature of the magnetosphere. Intensifications of the field-aligned currents and occurrences of multiple pairs of field-aligned-current layers characterize the disturbed conditions of these regions

  2. Additions and corrections to the absorption coefficients of CO2 ice: Applications to the Martian south polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvin, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of carbon dioxide frosts were calculated using the optical constants provided by Warren (1986) for the wavelength region 2-6 μm. In comparing these calculated spectra to spectra of frosts observed in the laboratory and on the surface of Mars, problems in the optical constants presented by Warren (1986) became apparent. Absorption coefficients for CO 2 ice have been derived using laboratory reflectance measurements and the Hapke (1981) model for calculating diffuse reflectance. This provides approximate values in regions where no data were previously available and indicates where corrections to the compilation by Warren (1986) are required. Using these coefficients to calculate the reflectance of CO 2 ice at varying grain sizes indicates that a typical Mariner polar cap spectrum is dominated by absorptions due to CO 2 frost or ice at grain sizes that are quite large, probably of the order of millimeters to centimeters. There are indications of contamination of water frost or dust, but confirmation will require more precise absorption coefficients for solid CO 2 than can be obtained from the method used here

  3. Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2013-01-01

    Radiation from magnetized plasmas is in general elliptically polarized. In order to convert the elliptical polarization to linear polarization, mirrors with grooved surfaces are currently employed in our collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade. If these mirrors can be substituted...

  4. The nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity wave packets: dispersion and polarization relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Zhang

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  5. Conversion of optical wave polarizations in 1D finite anisotropic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchani, N.; Nougaoui, N.; Daoudi, A.; Bria, D.

    2006-07-01

    We show that by using one dimensional anisotropic photonic structures, it is possible to realize optical wave polarization conversion by transmission or by reflection. Thus a single incident S(P) polarized plane wave can produce a single reflected P(S) polarized wave and a single transmitted P(S) polarized wave. This polarization conversion property can be fulfilled with a simple finite superlattice constituted by anisotropic dielectric materials. We discuss the appropriate choices of the material and geometrical properties to realize such structures. The transmission and reflection coefficients are discussed in relation with the dispersion curves of the finite structure embedded between two isotropic substrates. Both transmission and reflection coefficients are calculated in the framework of Green's function method. The amplitude and the polarization characteristics of reflected and transmitted waves are determined as function of frequency ω , and wave vector k parallel ( parallel to the interface) and the orientations of the principal axes of the layers constituting the SL. Moreover, this structure exhibits a coupling between S and P waves that does not exist in SL composed only of isotropic materials. Specific applications of these results are given for a superlattice consisting of alternating biaxial anisotropic layers NaNO 2 /SbSi sandwiched between two identical semi-infinite isotropic media. (author)

  6. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow band waves at frequencies approximately 0.2 to 3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency, and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both lefthanded and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  7. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High-Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow-band waves at frequencies approx. 0.2-3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle, and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  8. ST5 Observations of the Imbalance of Region 1 and 2 Field-Aligned Currents and Its Implication to the Cross-Polar Cap Pedersen Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use the in-situ magnetic field observations from Space Technology 5 mission to quantify the imbalance of Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) currents. During the three-month duration of the ST5 mission, geomagnetic conditions range from quiet to moderately active. We find that the R1 current intensity is consistently stronger than the R2 current intensity both for the dawnside and the duskside large-scale field-aligned current system. The net currents flowing into (out of) the ionosphere in the dawnside (duskside) are in the order of 5% of the total R1 currents. We also find that the net currents flowing into or out of the ionosphere are controlled by the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in the same way as the field-aligned currents themselves are. Since the net currents due to the imbalance of the R1 and R2 currents require that their closure currents flow across the polar cap from dawn to dusk as Pedersen currents, our results indicate that the total amount of the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents is in the order of 0.1 MA. This study, although with a very limited dataset, is one of the first attempts to quantify the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents. Given the importance of the Joule heating due to Pedersen currents to the high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, quantifying the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents and associated Joule heating is needed for developing models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  9. Polarization Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  10. Spin-wave propagation and spin-polarized electron transport in single-crystal iron films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladii, O.; Halley, D.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M.

    2017-11-01

    The techniques of propagating spin-wave spectroscopy and current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift are applied to a 20-nm-thick Fe/MgO(001) film. The magnetic parameters extracted from the position of the spin-wave resonance peaks are very close to those tabulated for bulk iron. From the zero-current propagating wave forms, a group velocity of 4 km/s and an attenuation length of about 6 μ m are extracted for 1.6-μ m -wavelength spin wave at 18 GHz. From the measured current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, we extract a surprisingly high degree of spin polarization of the current of 83 % , which constitutes the main finding of this work. This set of results makes single-crystalline iron a promising candidate for building devices utilizing high-frequency spin waves and spin-polarized currents.

  11. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  12. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  13. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This calls for a systematic study of diffraction properties of different apertures using polarization-sensitive devices. In the present paper, we have studied the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of slits masked by different kinds of polarizing devices which introduce a phase difference between the two orthogonal components of the ...

  14. Bistable polarization switching in a continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Afzal, R. Sohrab

    1988-01-01

    Bistability in the output power, polarization state, and mode volume of an argon-ion laser pumped single mode ruby laser at 6943 A has been observed. The laser operates in a radially confined mode which exhibits hysteresis and bistability only when the pump polarization is parallel to the c-axis.

  15. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-08-01

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.

  16. Modifications of Surface Wave Discrimination Filter Based on the Polarization Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlu, Y. A.; Sayil, N.

    2007-01-01

    The polarization properties of Love and Rayleigh waves are utilized to design Surface Wave Discrimination Filter. Filtering process for a selected window length and moving interval is that the amplitudes at each frequency on vertical, radial and transverse components are weighted according to how closely the theoretical three-dimensional particle motion pattern. In this study, weighted functions have been modified for epicenteral distances smaller than about 2200 km to corresponding with angular distribution of polarization parameters obtained from computed synthetic seismograms. Modified Surface Wave Discrimination Filter has been tested on synthetic seismograms and digital three-components broadband records at Trabzon earthquake station

  17. /sup 15/N(p,. cap alpha. )/sup 12/C reaction with polarized protons from 0. 34 to 1. 21 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, G H; Brown, L [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1976-03-29

    A polarized beam was used to measure angular distributions of the analyzing power of the /sup 15/N(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 12/C reaction at 0.34 MeV and at five energies from 0.92 to 1.21 MeV. The analyzing power can be fitted with associated Legendre polynomials, P/sub 1//sup 1/ and P/sub 2//sup 1/ sufficing to describe the results except near 1.2 MeV where P/sub 3//sup 1/ is also required. Polarization excitation functions were measured throughout the entire energy range at angles where the polynomials P/sub 2//sup 1/ and P/sub 3//sup 1/ are zero. A polarization contour map is given.

  18. Rac1 regulates neuronal polarization through the WAVE complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahirovic, Sabina; Hellal, Farida; Neukirchen, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    the physiological function of Rac1 in neuronal development, we have generated a conditional knock-out mouse, in which Rac1 is ablated in the whole brain. Rac1-deficient cerebellar granule neurons, which do not express other Rac isoforms, showed impaired neuronal migration and axon formation both in vivo...... and in vitro. In addition, Rac1 ablation disrupts lamellipodia formation in growth cones. The analysis of Rac1 effectors revealed the absence of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) complex from the plasma membrane of knock-out growth cones. Loss of WAVE...... function inhibited axon growth, whereas overexpression of a membrane-tethered WAVE mutant partially rescued axon growth in Rac1-knock-out neurons. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of the WAVE complex effector Arp2/3 also reduced axon growth. We propose that Rac1 recruits the WAVE complex...

  19. Response of the polar cap boundary and the current system to changes in IMF observed from the MAGSAT satellite in the southern hemisphere during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, V.P.; Burrows, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field vector residuals observed from the Magsat satellite have been used to obtain the dependence of the polar cap boundary and the current system on IMF for quiet and mildly disturbed conditions. The study has been carried out for the summer months in the Southern Hemisphere. ''Shear reversals'' (SRs) in vector residuals indicative of the infinite current sheet approximation of the field-aligned currents (FACs) indicate roughly the polar cap boundary or the poleward boundary of the plasma sheet. This is also the poleward edge of the region 1 FACs. The SR is defined to occur at the latitude where the vector goes to minimum and changes direction by approximately 180 0 . It is found that SRs mainly occur when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a southward-directed Bsub(z) component and in the latitude range of about 70 0 -80 0 . SRs in the dusk sector occur predominantly when the azimuthal component Bsub(y) is positive and in the dawn sector when Bsub(y) is negative, irrespective of the sign of Bsub(z). These results agree with the known merging process of IMF with magnetopause field lines. When SRs occur on both dawn and dusk sectors, the residuals over the entire polar cap are nearly uniform in direction and magnitude, indicating negligible polar currents. Similar behaviour is observed during highly disturbed conditions usually associated with large negative values of Bsub(z). Forty-one Magsat orbits with such SRs are quantitatively modelled for preliminary case studies of the resulting current distribution. It is found that SRs, in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, for the current vectors and the magnetic vector residuals (perturbations relative to the unperturbed field) occur at almost the same latitudes. The electrojet intensities range from 1.2 x 10 4 to 6.5 x 10 5 A (amperes). A preliminary classification of polar cap boundary crossings characterized by vector rotations rather than SRs also shows that they tend to

  20. Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, An

    1997-01-01

    The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes

  1. Polarization-resolved characterization of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samusev, Anton; Mukhin, Ivan; Malureanu, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Optical metasurfaces have great potential to form a platform for manipulation of surface waves. A plethora of advanced surface-wave phenomena such as negative refraction, self-collimation and channeling of 2D waves can be realized through on-demand engineering of dispersion properties of a periodic...... metasurface. In this letter, we report on polarization-resolved measurement of dispersion of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface. We demonstrate that a subdiffractive array of strongly coupled resonant plasmonic nanoparticles supports both TE and TM plasmon modes at optical frequencies...... polarization degree of freedom for surface waves, our results open new routes for designing planar on-chip devices for surface photonics....

  2. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Kyle S.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2015-10-01

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.

  3. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Kyle S., E-mail: sprattkyle@gmail.com; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F. [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P. O. Box 8029, Austin, Texas 78713–8029, US (United States)

    2015-10-28

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.

  4. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spratt, Kyle S.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic

  5. NONLINEAR REFLECTION PROCESS OF LINEARLY POLARIZED, BROADBAND ALFVÉN WAVES IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoda, M.; Yokoyama, T., E-mail: shoda@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Using one-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the elementary process of Alfvén wave reflection in a uniform medium, including nonlinear effects. In the linear regime, Alfvén wave reflection is triggered only by the inhomogeneity of the medium, whereas in the nonlinear regime, it can occur via nonlinear wave–wave interactions. Such nonlinear reflection (backscattering) is typified by decay instability. In most studies of decay instabilities, the initial condition has been a circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In this study we consider a linearly polarized Alfvén wave, which drives density fluctuations by its magnetic pressure force. For generality, we also assume a broadband wave with a red-noise spectrum. In the data analysis, we decompose the fluctuations into characteristic variables using local eigenvectors, thus revealing the behaviors of the individual modes. Different from the circular-polarization case, we find that the wave steepening produces a new energy channel from the parent Alfvén wave to the backscattered one. Such nonlinear reflection explains the observed increasing energy ratio of the sunward to the anti-sunward Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind with distance against the dynamical alignment effect.

  6. Decay of correlations between cross-polarized electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichev, E E

    2018-04-01

    The problem of multiple scattering of polarized light in a two-dimensional medium composed of fiberlike inhomogeneities is studied. The attenuation lengths for the density matrix elements are calculated. For a highly absorbing medium it is found that, as the sample thickness increases, the intensity of waves polarized along the fibers decays faster than the other density matrix elements. With further increase in the sample thickness, the off-diagonal elements which are responsible for correlations between the cross-polarized waves disappear. In the asymptotic limit of very thick samples the scattered light proves to be polarized perpendicular to the fibers. The difference in the attenuation lengths between the density matrix elements results in a nonmonotonic depth dependence of the degree of polarization. In the opposite case of a weakly absorbing medium, the off-diagonal element of the density matrix and, correspondingly, the correlations between the cross-polarized fields are shown to decay faster than the intensity of waves polarized along and perpendicular to the fibers.

  7. Recording polarization gratings with a standing spiral wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Jonathan P.; Serak, Svetlana V.; Hakobyan, Rafik S.; Aleksanyan, Artur K.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J.; Tabiryan, Nelson V.

    2013-11-01

    A scalable and robust methodology for writing cycloidal modulation patterns of optical axis orientation in photosensitive surface alignment layers is demonstrated. Counterpropagating circularly polarized beams, generated by reflection of the input beam from a cholesteric liquid crystal, direct local surface orientation in a photosensitive surface. Purposely introducing a slight angle between the input beam and the photosensitive surface normal introduces a grating period/orientation that is readily controlled and templated. The resulting cycloidal diffractive waveplates offer utility in technologies requiring diffraction over a broad range of angles/wavelengths. This simple methodology of forming polarization gratings offers advantages over conventional fabrication techniques.

  8. Recording polarization gratings with a standing spiral wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Jonathan P.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Suite 1, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Serak, Svetlana V.; Hakobyan, Rafik S.; Aleksanyan, Artur K.; Tabiryan, Nelson V., E-mail: nelson@beamco.com [BEAM Engineering for Advanced Measurements Company, 809 South Orlando Avenue, Suite I, Winter Park, Florida 32789 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    A scalable and robust methodology for writing cycloidal modulation patterns of optical axis orientation in photosensitive surface alignment layers is demonstrated. Counterpropagating circularly polarized beams, generated by reflection of the input beam from a cholesteric liquid crystal, direct local surface orientation in a photosensitive surface. Purposely introducing a slight angle between the input beam and the photosensitive surface normal introduces a grating period/orientation that is readily controlled and templated. The resulting cycloidal diffractive waveplates offer utility in technologies requiring diffraction over a broad range of angles/wavelengths. This simple methodology of forming polarization gratings offers advantages over conventional fabrication techniques.

  9. Recording polarization gratings with a standing spiral wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, Jonathan P.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J.; Serak, Svetlana V.; Hakobyan, Rafik S.; Aleksanyan, Artur K.; Tabiryan, Nelson V.

    2013-01-01

    A scalable and robust methodology for writing cycloidal modulation patterns of optical axis orientation in photosensitive surface alignment layers is demonstrated. Counterpropagating circularly polarized beams, generated by reflection of the input beam from a cholesteric liquid crystal, direct local surface orientation in a photosensitive surface. Purposely introducing a slight angle between the input beam and the photosensitive surface normal introduces a grating period/orientation that is readily controlled and templated. The resulting cycloidal diffractive waveplates offer utility in technologies requiring diffraction over a broad range of angles/wavelengths. This simple methodology of forming polarization gratings offers advantages over conventional fabrication techniques

  10. Polarized Microwave Background Technologies for Inflationary Gravitational Wave Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) from the epoch of inflation is one of the next majors goals in cosmology. These PGWs leave a signature on the...

  11. Observations of polar patches generated by solar wind Alfvén wave coupling to the dayside magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A long series of polar patches was observed by ionosondes and an all-sky imager during a disturbed period (Kp = 7- and IMF Bz < 0. The ionosondes measured electron densities of up to 9 × 1011 m-3 in the patch center, an increase above the density minimum between patches by a factor of \\sim4.5. Bands of F-region irregularities generated at the equatorward edge of the patches were tracked by HF radars. The backscatter bands were swept northward and eastward across the polar cap in a fan-like formation as the afternoon convection cell expanded due to the IMF By > 0. Near the north magnetic pole, an all-sky imager observed the 630-nm emission patches of a distinctly band-like shape drifting northeastward to eastward. The 630-nm emission patches were associated with the density patches and backscatter bands. The patches originated in, or near, the cusp footprint where they were formed by convection bursts (flow channel events, FCEs structuring the solar EUV-produced photoionization and the particle-produced auroral/cusp ionization by segmenting it into elongated patches. Just equatorward of the cusp footprint Pc5 field line resonances (FLRs were observed by magnetometers, riometers and VHF/HF radars. The AC electric field associated with the FLRs resulted in a poleward-progressing zonal flow pattern and backscatter bands. The VHF radar Doppler spectra indicated the presence of steep electron density gradients which, through the gradient drift instability, can lead to the generation of the ionospheric irregularities found in patches. The FLRs and FCEs were associated with poleward-progressing DPY currents (Hall currents modulated by the IMF By and riometer absorption enhancements. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the VHF backscatter and associated riometer absorptions closely resembled those of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs. In the solar wind, IMP 8 observed large amplitude Alfvén waves that were correlated with Pc5 pulsations

  12. Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragawa, Naoki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atushi

    1996-11-01

    Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves due to magnetic fluctuations is presented. One-dimensional coupled wave equations for the ordinary and extraordinary modes are solved for incident unipolar sub-cycle pulses in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. It is shown that the peak frequencies in the frequency-spectral signals of the mode-converted reflected waves are determined from the Bragg resonance condition in the wave numbers of the ordinary mode, the extraordinary mode and the magnetic fluctuations for relatively short-wavelength localized magnetic fluctuations. (author)

  13. Raman backscattering of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves propagating along a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.

    1979-01-01

    The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)

  14. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-04-15

    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  15. Quantum oscillation amplification of the ultrasound polarization parameters in tungsten during coupling with the spiral wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, V.V.; Zhevstovskikh, I.V.; Zimbovskaya, N.A.; Okulov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    The quantum oscillations are studied of ellipcity, the rotation angle of the ultrasound polarization plane, the velocity and absorption of waves polarized circularly at the 196 MHz frequency in a tungsten single crystal in magnetic field of 30-80 kOe at temperature 1,8 K. The oscillation amplitudes of ellipticity and rotation angle of the ultrasound polarization plane beyond the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance are found to vary nonmonotonously with field and to be large enough, so that they are not described by the simple expressions for high fields. The explanation for the oscillation amplification of the polarization parameters is given within the theory involving the ultrasound-spiral wave coupling predicted by Kaner and Skobov. The quantitative comparison in details demonstrates a good agreement in the theory and experimental data and allows to find the numerical values of new parameters characterizing the Fermi surface, electron relaxation frequency, and deformation potential

  16. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1997-01-01

    We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.

  17. Polarization of concave domains by traveling wave pinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Bialecki

    Full Text Available Pattern formation is one of the most fundamental yet puzzling phenomena in physics and biology. We propose that traveling front pinning into concave portions of the boundary of 3-dimensional domains can serve as a generic gradient-maintaining mechanism. Such a mechanism of domain polarization arises even for scalar bistable reaction-diffusion equations, and, depending on geometry, a number of stationary fronts may be formed leading to complex spatial patterns. The main advantage of the pinning mechanism, with respect to the Turing bifurcation, is that it allows for maintaining gradients in the specific regions of the domain. By linking the instant domain shape with the spatial pattern, the mechanism can be responsible for cellular polarization and differentiation.

  18. Flexible manipulation of terahertz wave reflection using polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu-Sheng, Li; Ze-Jiang, Zhao; Jian-Quan, Yao

    2017-11-27

    In order to extend to 3-bit encoding, we propose notched-wheel structures as polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces to control terahertz wave reflection and suppress backward scattering. By using a coding sequence of "00110011…" along x-axis direction and 16 × 16 random coding sequence, we investigate the polarization insensitive properties of the coding metasurfaces. By designing the coding sequences of the basic coding elements, the terahertz wave reflection can be flexibly manipulated. Additionally, radar cross section (RCS) reduction in the backward direction is less than -10dB in a wide band. The present approach can offer application for novel terahertz manipulation devices.

  19. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español The Cervical Cap KidsHealth / For Teens / The Cervical Cap What's in ... Call the Doctor? Print What Is a Cervical Cap? A cervical cap is a small cup made ...

  20. Polarization-dependent ponderomotive gradient force in a standing wave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, P.W.; Kanters, J.H.M.; Lassise, A.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Luiten, O.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ponderomotive force is derived for a relativistic charged particle entering an electromagnetic standing wave with a general three-dimensional field distribution and a nonrelativistic intensity, using a perturbation expansion method. It is shown that the well-known ponderomotive gradient force

  1. Polarization characterization of PZT disks and of embedded PZT plates by thermal wave methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eydam, Agnes; Suchaneck, Gunnar; Gerlach, Gerald; Esslinger, Sophia; Schönecker, Andreas; Neumeister, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the thermal wave method was applied to characterize PZT disks and embedded PZT plates with regard to the polarization magnitude and spatial homogeneity. The samples were exposed to periodic heating by means of a laser beam and the pyroelectric response was determined. Thermal relaxation times (single time constants or distributions of time constants) describe the heat losses of the PZT samples to the environment. The resulting pyroelectric current spectrum was fitted to the superposition of thermal relaxation processes. The pyroelectric coefficient gives insight in the polarization distribution. For PZT disks, the polarization distribution in the surface region showed a characteristic decrease towards the electrodes

  2. Polarization-dependent thin-film wire-grid reflectarray for terahertz waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Tiaoming [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); School of Information Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Upadhyay, Aditi; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath [Functional Materials and Microsystems Research Group, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Withayachumnankul, Withawat [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S9-3, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Headland, Daniel; Abbott, Derek; Fumeaux, Christophe, E-mail: cfumeaux@eleceng.adelaide.edu.au [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2015-07-20

    A thin-film polarization-dependent reflectarray based on patterned metallic wire grids is realized at 1 THz. Unlike conventional reflectarrays with resonant elements and a solid metal ground, parallel narrow metal strips with uniform spacing are employed in this design to construct both the radiation elements and the ground plane. For each radiation element, a certain number of thin strips with an identical length are grouped to effectively form a patch resonator with equivalent performance. The ground plane is made of continuous metallic strips, similar to conventional wire-grid polarizers. The structure can deflect incident waves with the polarization parallel to the strips into a designed direction and transmit the orthogonal polarization component. Measured radiation patterns show reasonable deflection efficiency and high polarization discrimination. Utilizing this flexible device approach, similar reflectarray designs can be realized for conformal mounting onto surfaces of cylindrical or spherical devices for terahertz imaging and communications.

  3. Polarization of the interference field during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakhov, M. G.; Buyanov, Yu. I.; Yakubov, V. P.

    1996-10-01

    It has been shown that a full vector measurement of the total field allows one to uniquely distinguish the incident and reflected waves at each observation point without the use of a spatial difference based on an analysis of the polarization structure of the interference pattern which arises during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary. We have investigated the stability of these procedures with respect to measurement noise by means of numerical modeling.

  4. An Empirical Algorithm for Wave Retrieval from Co-Polarization X-Band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizeng Shao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed an empirical algorithm for significant wave height (SWH retrieval from TerraSAR-X/TanDEM (TS-X/TD-X X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR co-polarization (vertical-vertical (VV and horizontal-horizontal (HH images. As the existing empirical algorithm at X-band, i.e., XWAVE, is applied for wave retrieval from HH-polarization TS-X/TD-X image, polarization ratio (PR has to be used for inverting wind speed, which is treated as an input in XWAVE. Wind speed encounters saturation in tropical cyclone. In our work, wind speed is replaced by normalized radar cross section (NRCS to avoiding using SAR-derived wind speed, which does not work in high winds, and the empirical algorithm can be conveniently implemented without converting NRCS in HH-polarization to NRCS in VV-polarization by using X-band PR. A total of 120 TS-X/TD-X images, 60 in VV-polarization and 60 in HH-polarization, with homogenous wave patterns, and the coincide significant wave height data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis field at a 0.125° grid were collected as a dataset for tuning the algorithm. The range of SWH is from 0 to 7 m. We then applied the algorithm to 24 VV and 21 HH additional SAR images to extract SWH at locations of 30 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA National Data Buoy Center (NDBC buoys. It is found that the algorithm performs well with a SWH stander deviation (STD of about 0.5 m for both VV and HH polarization TS-X/TD-X images. For large wave validation (SWH 6–7 m, we applied the empirical algorithm to a tropical cyclone Sandy TD-X image acquired in 2012, and obtained good result with a SWH STD of 0.3 m. We concluded that the proposed empirical algorithm works for wave retrieval from TS-X/TD-X image in co-polarization without external sea surface wind information.

  5. Extremely intense ELF magnetosonic waves: A survey of polar observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Santolík, Ondřej; Lakhina, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2014), s. 964-977 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Magneotosonic waves * plasmaspheric hiss * plasmasphere * substorm protons * mode conversion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013JA019284/abstract

  6. VISIONS: Remote Observations of a Spatially-Structured Filamentary Source of Energetic Neutral Atoms near the Polar Cap Boundary During an Auroral Substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, D.; Clemmons, J.; Keller, J. W.; Klenzing, J.; Kujawski, J.; McLain, J.; Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Zettergren, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report initial results from the VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm (VISIONS) rocket that flew through and near several regions of enhanced auroral activity and also sensed regions of ion outflow both remotely and directly. The observed neutral atom fluxes were largest at the lower energies and generally higher in the auroral zone than in the polar cap. In this paper, we focus on data from the latter half of the VISIONS trajectory when the rocket traversed the polar cap region. During this period, many of the energetic neutral atom spectra show a peak at 100 electronvolts. Spectra with peaks around 100 electronvolts are also observed in the Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) data consistent with these ions comprising the source population for the energetic neutral atoms. The EIA observations of this low energy population extend only over a few tens of kilometers. Furthermore, the directionality of the arriving energetic neutral atoms is consistent with either this spatially localized source of energetic ions extending from as low as about 300 kilometers up to above 600 kilometers or a larger source of energetic ions to the southwest.

  7. Chronological changes in the eighth cranial nerve compound action potential (CAP) in experimental endolymphatic hydrops: the effects of altering the polarity of click sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizono, Tetsuo; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Takafumi; Miyagi, Morimichi; Shiraishi, Kimio

    2009-02-01

    Using a guinea pig model of experimental endolymphatic hydrops, click sounds of altered polarity showed different latencies and amplitudes in hydropic compared with normal cochleae. Latency changes appeared as early as 1 week after endolymphatic obstruction. This method can help diagnose endolymphatic hydrops. The goal of the study was to develop an objective electrophysiological diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops. Endolymphatic hydrops were created surgically in guinea pigs. The latency and the amplitude of the eighth cranial nerve compound action potential (CAP) for click sounds of altered polarity were measured up to 8 weeks after the surgery. At early stages after surgery, the latency for condensation clicks became longer, and at later stages the latencies for both condensation and rarefaction became longer. The discrepancy in the latencies for rarefaction and condensation click sounds (rarefaction minus condensation) became larger by the first week after surgery, but no further discrepancy occurred thereafter. Compared with latency changes, amplitude changes in the CAP were rapid and progressive following surgery, suggesting ongoing damage to hair cells.

  8. Investigation on Surface Polarization of Al2O3-capped GaN/AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure by Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Tian Li; Pan, Ji Sheng; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Kai; Yu, Hong Yu

    2017-08-17

    The surface polarization of Ga-face gallium nitride (GaN) (2 nm)/AlGaN (22 nm)/GaN channel (150 nm)/buffer/Si with Al 2 O 3 capping layer is investigated by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). It is found that the energy band varies from upward bending to downward bending in the interface region, which is believed to be corresponding to the polarization variation. An interfacial layer is formed between top GaN and Al 2 O 3 due to the occurrence of Ga-N bond break and Ga-O bond forming during Al 2 O 3 deposition via the atomic layer deposition (ALD). This interfacial layer is believed to eliminate the GaN polarization, thus reducing the polarization-induced negative charges. Furthermore, this interfacial layer plays a key role for the introduction of the positive charges which lead the energy band downward. Finally, a N 2 annealing at 400 °C is observed to enhance the interfacial layer growth thus increasing the density of positive charges.

  9. Polarization properties of Gendrin mode waves observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: observations and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to demonstrate that Gendrin mode waves are right-hand circularly polarized, in excellent agreement with the observations.

  10. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Origins of the Polar Kerr Effect in a Chiral p-WAVE Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryo, Jun

    Recently, the measurement of the polar Kerr effect (PKE) in the quasi two-dimensional superconductor Sr2RuO4, which is motivated to observe the chirality of px + ipy-wave pairing, has been reported. We clarify that the PKE has intrinsic and extrinsic (disorder-induced) origins. The extrinsic contribution would be dominant in the PKE experiment.

  11. On the stability of a finite amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Lundberg, J.

    1990-01-01

    To study the stability of a finite amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in a plasma with pressure anisotropy we make use of a generalized version of the Chew-Goldberger-Low equations. The dispersion relation is derived. Special attention is focused on the MHD-limit. (orig.)

  12. Manipulation of the polarization of intense laser beams via optical wave mixing in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Pierre; Divol, Laurent; Turnbull, David; Moody, John

    2014-10-01

    When intense laser beams overlap in plasmas, the refractive index modulation created by the beat wave via the ponderomotive force can lead to optical wave mixing phenomena reminiscent of those used in crystals and photorefractive materials. Using a vector analysis, we present a full analytical description of the modification of the polarization state of laser beams crossing at arbitrary angles in a plasma. We show that plasmas can be used to provide full control of the polarization state of a laser beam, and give simple analytical estimates and practical considerations for the design of novel photonics devices such as plasma polarizers and plasma waveplates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Pingping; Yue, Jia; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.; Randall, Cora E.

    2018-01-01

    We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ˜ 20-60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave) power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = -3.2) and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of -2.9 and -2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.

  14. Influence of vertically and obliquely propagating gravity waves on the polar summer mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurairajah, B.; Siskind, D. E.; Bailey, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) are sensitive to changes in temperature of the cold polar summer mesosphere, which in turn are modulated by gravity waves (GWs). In this study we investigate the link between PMCs and GWs that propagate both vertically (i.e. wave propagation is directly above the source region) and obliquely (lateral or non-vertical propagation upward but away from the source region). Several observational studies have analyzed the link between PMCs and vertically propagating GWs and have reported both positive and negative correlations. Moreover, while modelling studies have noted the possibility of oblique propagation of GWs from the low-latitude stratosphere to the high-latitude mesosphere, observational studies of the influence of these waves on the polar summer mesosphere are sparse. We present a comprehensive analysis of the influence of vertically and obliquely propagating GWs on the northern hemisphere (NH) polar summer mesosphere using data from 8 PMC seasons. Temperature data from the SOFIE experiment on the AIM satellite and SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite are used to derive GW parameters. SOFIE PMC data in terms of Ice Water Content (IWC) are used to quantify the changes in the polar summer mesosphere. At high latitudes, preliminary analysis of vertically propagating waves indicate a weak but positive correlation between GWs at 50 km and GWs at the PMC altitude of 84 km. Overall there is a negative correlation between GWs at 50 km and IWC and a positive correlation between GWs at 84 km and IWC. These results and the presence of a slanted structure (slanted from the low-latitude stratosphere to the high-latitude mesosphere) in GW momentum flux suggest the possibility of a significant influence of obliquely propagating GWs on the polar summer mesosphere

  15. Pitch angle scattering of an energetic magnetized particle by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a circularly polarized wave and an energetic gyrating particle is described using a relativistic pseudo-potential that is a function of the frequency mismatch. Analysis of the pseudo-potential provides a means for interpreting numerical results. The pseudo-potential profile depends on the initial mismatch, the normalized wave amplitude, and the initial angle between the wave magnetic field and the particle perpendicular velocity. For zero initial mismatch, the pseudo-potential consists of only one valley, but for finite mismatch, there can be two valleys separated by a hill. A large pitch angle scattering of the energetic electron can occur in the two-valley situation but fast scattering can also occur in a single valley. Examples relevant to magnetospheric whistler waves show that the energetic electron pitch angle can be deflected 5°towards the loss cone when transiting a 10 ms long coherent wave packet having realistic parameters.

  16. Effects of Medium Characteristics on Laser RCS of Airplane with E-Wave Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam El-Ocla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plane wave incidence should be postulated to have an authentic target detection. Practically, the plane wave is incapable usually of keeping its power in the far field especially when propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. Consequently, we assume an incident beam wave with a finite width around the target. In this work, we calculate numerically a laser radar cross section (LRCS of conducting targets having smooth cross sections with inflection points such as airplane in random media. Effects of fluctuations intensity of random media on the LRCS performance are studied in this paper. E-wave polarization (E-wave incidence is considered while the mean target size is approximately twice the wavelength.

  17. Experimental dependence of ECR plasma breakdown on wave polarization in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Tabares, F.; Fernandez, A.; Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Estrada, T.; Nagasaki, K.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, second harmonic ECRH plasma breakdown and its dependence on the initial conditions such as neutral gas pressure, injected power or beam polarization has been the subject of theoretical as well as experimental work. Although those studies have been carried out in the context of stellarators, they are particularly relevant in the case of large tokamaks, such as ITER, where conventional inductive breakdown is expected to be strongly improved if ECRH is used. A matter of interest is the dependence of breakdown time on wave polarization. In the existing theoretical models, wave polarization is not taken into account because it is assumed that the injected ECRH power is initially scrambled by the vessel walls and that the energy source for breakdown is only due to the non-linear wave-particle interaction between deeply trapped electrons and the averaged electric field. However, while this seems reasonable for the very beginning of the discharge, it may not be so as we progress towards breakdown. Actually, as experiments in Heliotron J have demonstrated, wave polarization must be taken into account in the description of the energy source. Breakdown experiments in TJ-II were performed in order to get a deep insight into this matter and part of the results of breakdown dependence on wave polarization were already discussed. In particular, it was demonstrated that the hypothesis about the energy source used in the models is failing long before full ionization is completed. But more information in relation with our understanding of the second harmonic ECRH breakdown, such as the toroidal and radial breakdown propagation, which is seen to be non-diffusive, can be extracted. Thus, the experiment results provide valuable data that can be used not only to improve the energy source but also to include spatial dimensions in the breakdown models. (author)

  18. The influence of polarization on millimeter wave propagation through rain. Ph.D Thesis. Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Bostian, C. W.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of polarization on millimeter wave propagation is investigated from both an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. First, previous theoretical and experimental work relating to the attenuation and depolarization of millimeter waves by rainfall is discussed. Considerable detail is included in the literature review. Next, a theoretical model is developed to predict the cross polarization level during rainfall from the path average rain rate and the scattered field from a single raindrop. Finally, data from the VPI and SU depolarization experiment are presented as verification of the new model, and a comparison is made with other theories and experiments. Aspects of the new model are: (1) spherical rather than plane waves are assumed, (2) the average drop diameter is used rather than a drop size distribution, and (3) it is simple enough so that the effect which changing one or more parameters has on the crosspolarization level is easily seen.

  19. Visualizing the phenomena of wave interference, phase-shifting and polarization by interactive computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Dirckx, Joris

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript a computer based simulation is proposed for teaching concepts of interference of light (under the scheme of a Michelson interferometer), phase-shifting and polarization states. The user can change some parameters of the interfering waves, such as their amplitude and phase difference in order to graphically represent the polarization state of a simulated travelling wave. Regarding to the interference simulation, the user is able to change the wavelength and type of the interfering waves by selecting combinations between planar and Gaussian profiles, as well as the optical path difference by translating or tilting one of the two mirrors in the interferometer setup, all of this via a graphical user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB. A theoretical introduction and simulation results for each phenomenon will be shown. Due to the simulation characteristics, this GUI can be a very good non-formal learning resource.

  20. Spin waves in full-polarized state of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets: Small-angle neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. V.; Sukhanov, A. S.; Altynbaev, E. V.; Siegfried, S.-A.; Heinemann, A.; Kizhe, P.; Maleyev, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    We develop the technique to study the spin-wave dynamics of the full-polarized state of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets by polarized small-angle neutron scattering. We have experimentally proven that the spin-waves dispersion in this state has the anisotropic form. We show that the neutron scattering image displays a circle with a certain radius which is centered at the momentum transfer corresponding to the helix wave vector in helimagnetic phase ks, which is oriented along the applied magnetic field H . The radius of this circle is directly related to the spin-wave stiffness of this system. This scattering depends on the neutron polarization showing the one-handed nature of the spin waves in Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets in the full-polarized phase. We show that the spin-wave stiffness A for MnSi helimagnet decreased twice as the temperature increases from zero to the critical temperature Tc.

  1. Plasmonic Dimer Metamaterials and Metasurfaces for Polarization Control of Terahertz and Optical Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu

    2013-01-01

    We explore the capabilities of planar metamaterials and metasurfaces to control and transform the polarization of electromagnetic radiation, and present a detailed covariant multipole theory of dimer-based metamaterials. We show that various optical properties, such as optical activity, elliptical...... dichroism or polarization conversion can be achieved in metamaterials made of simple shapes, such as nanorods, just by varying their geometrical arrangement. By virtue of the Babinet principle, the proposed theory is extended to inverted structures (membranes) where rods are replaced by slots. Such free......-standing “metasurface membranes” can act as thin-film spectrally sensitive polarization shapers for THz radiation. Proof-of-principle devices (a linear polarizer and a structure with giant optical activity) are fabricated and characterized. Experimental results coincide with those of full-wave numerical simulations...

  2. Regimes of wave type patterning driven by refractory actin feedback: transition from static polarization to dynamic wave behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W R; Edelstein-Keshet, L; Carlsson, A E

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of waves, patches, and peaks of actin are observed experimentally in many living cells. Models of this phenomenon have been based on the interplay between filamentous actin (F-actin) and its nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) that activate the Arp2/3 complex. Here we present an alternative biologically-motivated model for F-actin-NPF interaction based on properties of GTPases acting as NPFs. GTPases (such as Cdc42, Rac) are known to promote actin nucleation, and to have active membrane-bound and inactive cytosolic forms. The model is a natural extension of a previous mathematical mini-model of small GTPases that generates static cell polarization. Like other modellers, we assume that F-actin negative feedback shapes the observed patterns by suppressing the trailing edge of NPF-generated wave-fronts, hence localizing the activity spatially. We find that our NPF-actin model generates a rich set of behaviours, spanning a transition from static polarization to single pulses, reflecting waves, wave trains, and oscillations localized at the cell edge. The model is developed with simplicity in mind to investigate the interaction between nucleation promoting factor kinetics and negative feedback. It explains distinct types of pattern initiation mechanisms, and identifies parameter regimes corresponding to distinct behaviours. We show that weak actin feedback yields static patterning, moderate feedback yields dynamical behaviour such as travelling waves, and strong feedback can lead to wave trains or total suppression of patterning. We use a recently introduced nonlinear bifurcation analysis to explore the parameter space of this model and predict its behaviour with simulations validating those results. (paper)

  3. Robust sky light polarization detection with an S-wave plate in a light field camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Cao, Yu; Liu, Haibo; Liu, Zejin

    2016-05-01

    The sky light polarization navigator has many advantages, such as low cost, no decrease in accuracy with continuous operation, etc. However, current celestial polarization measurement methods often suffer from low performance when the sky is covered by clouds, which reduce the accuracy of navigation. In this paper we introduce a new method and structure based on a handheld light field camera and a radial polarizer, composed of an S-wave plate and a linear polarizer, to detect the sky light polarization pattern across a wide field of view in a single snapshot. Each micro-subimage has a special intensity distribution. After extracting the texture feature of these subimages, stable distribution information of the angle of polarization under a cloudy sky can be obtained. Our experimental results match well with the predicted properties of the theory. Because the polarization pattern is obtained through image processing, rather than traditional methods based on mathematical computation, this method is less sensitive to errors of pixel gray value and thus has better anti-interference performance.

  4. High resolution spectroscopy of the Martian atmosphere - Study of seasonal variations of CO, O3, H2O, and T on the north polar cap and a search for SO2, H2O2, and H2CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Chakrabarti, S.; Larson, H.; Sandel, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of an observational campaign which will measure (1) the seasonal variations of the CO mixing ratio on the Martian polar cap due to accumulation and depletion of CO during the condensation and evaporation of CO2, as well as (2) the early spring ozone and water vapor of the Martian north polar cap, and (3) the presence of H2CO, H2O2, and SO2. The lines of these compounds will be measured by a combined 4-m telescope and Fourier-transform spectrometer 27097.

  5. Investigating dust trapping in transition disks with millimeter-wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, A.; Kataoka, A.; Pinilla, P.; Dullemond, C. P.; Henning, Th.; Birnstiel, T.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Spatially resolved polarized (sub-)mm emission has been observed for example in the protoplanetary disk around HL Tau. Magnetically aligned grains are commonly interpreted as the source of polarization. However, self-scattering by large dust grains with a high enough albedo is another polarization mechanism, which is becoming a compelling method independent of the spectral index to constrain the dust grain size in protoplanetary disks. Aims: We study the dust polarization at mm wavelengths in the dust trapping scenario proposed for transition disks, when a giant planet opens a gap in the disk. We investigate the characteristic polarization patterns and their dependence on disk inclination, dust size evolution, planet position, and observing wavelength. Methods: We combine two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of planet-disk interactions with self-consistent dust growth models. These size-dependent dust density distributions are used for follow-up three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations to predict the polarization degree at ALMA bands due to scattered thermal emission. Results: Dust self-scattering has been proven to be a viable mechanism for producing polarized mm-wave radiation. We find that the polarization pattern of a disk with a planetary gap after 1 Myr of dust evolution shows a distinctive three-ring structure. Two narrow inner rings are located at the planet gap edges. A third wider ring of polarization is situated in the outer disk beyond 100 au. For increasing observing wavelengths, all three rings change their position slightly, where the innermost and outermost rings move inward. This distance is detectable when comparing the results at ALMA bands 3, 6, and 7. Within the highest polarized intensity regions the polarization vectors are oriented in the azimuthal direction. For an inclined disk there is an interplay between polarization originating from a flux gradient and inclination-induced quadrupole polarization. For

  6. Broadband asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves based on chiral metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Lincy; Yogesh, N.; Subramanian, V.

    2018-01-01

    The giant optical activity of chiral metamaterials (CMMs) holds great potential for tailoring the polarization state of an electromagnetic (EM) wave. In controlling the polarization state, the aspect of asymmetric transmission (AT), where a medium allows the EM radiation to pass through in one direction while restricting it in the opposite direction, adds additional degrees of freedom such as one-way channelling functionality. In this work, a CMM formed by a pair of mutually twisted slanted complementary metal strips is realized for broadband AT accompanied with cross-polarization (CP) conversion for linearly polarized EM waves. Numerically, the proposed ultra-thin (˜λ/42) CMM shows broadband AT from 8.58 GHz to 9.73 GHz (bandwidth of 1.15 GHz) accompanied with CP transmission magnitude greater than 0.9. The transmission and reflection spectra reveal the origin of the asymmetric transmission as the direction sensitive cross polarization conversion and anisotropic electric coupling occurring in the structure which is then elaborated with the surface current analysis and electric field distribution within the structure. An experiment is carried out to verify the broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM at microwave frequencies, and a reliable agreement between numerical and experimental results is obtained. Being ultra-thin, the reported broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM is useful for controlling radiation patterns in non-reciprocal EM devices and communication networks.

  7. Estimation of in-situ stresses in concrete members using polarized ultrasonic shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Schumacher, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic testing is commonly used to detect flaws, estimate geometries, and characterize properties of materials and structures. Acoustoelasticity refers to the dependency of stress wave velocity with applied stresses and is a phenomenon that has been known by geophysicists since the 1960s. A way to capitalize on this effect for concrete applications is by using ultrasonic shear waves which are particularly sensitive to applied stresses when polarized in the direction of the applied stress. The authors conducted an experiment on a 150 mm (6 in.) diameter concrete cylinder specimen with a length of 305 mm (12 in.) that was loaded in discrete load steps to failure. At each load step two ultrasonic shear waves were transmitted through the specimen, one with the polarization perpendicular and the other transverse to the applied stress. The velocity difference between the two sets of polarized shear waves was found to correlate with the applied stress in the specimen. Two potential applications for this methodology include estimation of stresses in pre-stressed concrete bridge girders and investigation of load redistribution in structural support elements after extreme events. This paper introduces the background of the methodology, presents an analysis of the collected data, and discusses the relationship between the recorded signals and the applied stress.

  8. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving birth vaginally, which means the cervical cap may not fit as well. Inconsistent or incorrect use of the cervical cap increases your risk of pregnancy. For example, you may get pregnant when using the cervical cap if: ...

  9. Investigating Gravity Waves in Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Tomographic Reconstructions of AIM Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, V. P.; Taylor, M. J.; Doyle, T. E.; Zhao, Y.; Pautet, P.-D.; Carruth, B. L.; Rusch, D. W.; Russell, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research presents the first application of tomographic techniques for investigating gravity wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) imaged by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the NASA AIM satellite. Albedo data comprising consecutive PMC scenes were used to tomographically reconstruct a 3-D layer using the Partially Constrained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique algorithm and a previously developed "fanning" technique. For this pilot study, a large region (760 × 148 km) of the PMC layer (altitude 83 km) was sampled with a 2 km horizontal resolution, and an intensity weighted centroid technique was developed to create novel 2-D surface maps, characterizing the individual gravity waves as well as their altitude variability. Spectral analysis of seven selected wave events observed during the Northern Hemisphere 2007 PMC season exhibited dominant horizontal wavelengths of 60-90 km, consistent with previous studies. These tomographic analyses have enabled a broad range of new investigations. For example, a clear spatial anticorrelation was observed between the PMC albedo and wave-induced altitude changes, with higher-albedo structures aligning well with wave troughs, while low-intensity regions aligned with wave crests. This result appears to be consistent with current theories of PMC development in the mesopause region. This new tomographic imaging technique also provides valuable wave amplitude information enabling further mesospheric gravity wave investigations, including quantitative analysis of their hemispheric and interannual characteristics and variations.

  10. Wigner functions for nonparaxial, arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic wave fields in free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Miguel A

    2004-11-01

    New representations are defined for describing electromagnetic wave fields in free space exactly in terms of rays for any wavelength, level of coherence or polarization, and numerical aperture, as long as there are no evanescent components. These representations correspond to tensors assigned to each ray such that the electric and magnetic energy densities, the Poynting vector, and the polarization properties of the field correspond to simple integrals involving these tensors for the rays that go through the specified point. For partially coherent fields, the ray-based approach provided by the new representations can reduce dramatically the computation times for the physical properties mentioned earlier.

  11. Separation of gravitational-wave and cosmic-shear contributions to cosmic microwave background polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesden, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Inflationary gravitational waves (GW) contribute to the curl component in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Cosmic shear--gravitational lensing of the CMB--converts a fraction of the dominant gradient polarization to the curl component. Higher-order correlations can be used to map the cosmic shear and subtract this contribution to the curl. Arcminute resolution will be required to pursue GW amplitudes smaller than those accessible by the Planck surveyor mission. The blurring by lensing of small-scale CMB power leads with this reconstruction technique to a minimum detectable GW amplitude corresponding to an inflation energy near 10(15) GeV.

  12. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap (PC) indices: excessive excursions in the real-time index values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices were approved by the International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) in 2013 and made available at the web portal http://pcindex.org" target="_blank">http://pcindex.org holding prompt (real-time) as well as archival index values. The present note provides the first reported examination of the validity of the IAGA-endorsed method to generate real-time PC index values. It is demonstrated that features of the derivation procedure defined by Janzhura and Troshichev (2011) may cause considerable excursions in the real-time PC index values compared to the final index values. In examples based on occasional downloads of index values, the differences between real-time and final values of PC indices were found to exceed 3 mV m-1, which is a magnitude level that may indicate (or hide) strong magnetic storm activity.

  13. Polarization-sensitive electro-optic detection of terahertz wave using three different types of crystal symmetry: Toward broadband polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Hotsumi; Okano, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated polarization-sensitive electro-optic (EO) detection of terahertz (THz) waves by using two uniaxial crystals: a c-cut gallium selenide and a c-cut lithium niobate crystals. We formulated a general frequency-domain description of EO detection by in-plane isotropic EO crystals, which holds regardless of the frequency. Based on this description, the polarization of THz waves can be derived by analyzing EO sampling signals measured with two orthogonal configurations of the in-plane isotropic EO crystals as well as typical (111) zinc-blende EO crystals. In addition, we experimentally demonstrated that the frequency-dependent polarization of THz waves can be reproducibly retrieved using three EO crystals with different crystal symmetries and with different phase matching conditions. Our description provides essential information for practical polarization sensing in the THz frequency range as well as in the mid-infrared range

  14. Transient reflection and transmission of E polarized electromagnetic waves at boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yukimasa

    1977-01-01

    The transient reflection and transmission waves of E polarized electromagnetic waves coming into the boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma were theoretically investigated. By using the Laplace transformation in the moving system, the formulae of Lorentz and inverse Lorentz transformations concerning electromagnetic field were transformed, thus the transient reflection and transmission waves were obtained. These waves were normalized with the angular frequency of the incident waves, and the variation of the wave form was obtained. Examples of the numerical calculation of reflected waves are shown for the plasma moving in parallel to the boundary surface. (Kato, T.)

  15. Planck intermediate results: XLIV. Structure of the Galactic magnetic field from dust polarization maps of the southern Galactic cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I R; Arzoumanian, D.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the Planck satellite, we study the statistical properties of interstellar dust polarization at high Galactic latitudes around the south pole (b < −60°). Our aim is to advance the understanding of the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM), and to provide a modelling framework of the...

  16. Brewster angle for an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a moving dielectric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Brewster-angle phenomena of total transmission has been investigated with reference to an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a dielectric half-space moving along the interface. Analytic conditions are derived for the existence of Brewster angles. We also discuss how the Brewster angles are modified by replacing the incident region (in which the incident electromagnetic wave is propagated) with an isotropic or a uniaxially anisotropic plasma. The Brewster angles are found to behave in a remarkably different fashion under various conditions. Numerical results for the Brewster angles, showing their dependence on the nondimensional velocity of the medium β, are presented for several values of the physical parameters

  17. Generation of neutron standing waves at total reflection of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.; Kozhevnikov, S.V.; Radu, F.; Kruijs, R.; Rekveldt, M.Th.

    1999-01-01

    The regime of neutron standing waves at reflection of polarized thermal neutrons from the structure glass/Cu (1000 A Angstrom)/Ti (2000 A Angstrom)/Co (60 A Angstrom)/Ti (300 A Angstrom) in a magnetic field directed at an angle to the sample plane is realized. The intensity of neutrons with a particular spin projection on the external magnetic field direction appears to be a periodic function of the neutron wavelength and the glancing angle of the reflected beam. It is shown that the neutron standing wave regime can be a very sensitive method for the determination of changes in the spatial position of magnetic noncollinear layers. (author)

  18. Separation of variables for the nonlinear wave equation in polar coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shermenev, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Some classical types of nonlinear wave motion in polar coordinates are studied within quadratic approximation. When the nonlinear quadratic terms in the wave equation are arbitrary, the usual perturbation techniques used in polar coordinates leads to overdetermined systems of linear algebraic equations for the unknown coefficients. However, we show that these overdetermined systems are compatible with the special case of the nonlinear shallow water equation and express explicitly the coefficients of the first two harmonics as polynomials of the Bessel functions of radius and of the trigonometric functions of angle. It gives a series of solutions to the nonlinear shallow water equation that are periodic in time and found with the same accuracy as the equation is derived

  19. Method for measuring retardation of infrared wave-plate by modulated-polarized visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Song, Feijun

    2012-11-01

    A new method for precisely measuring the optical phase retardation of wave-plates in the infrared spectral region is presented by using modulated-polarized visible light. An electro-optic modulator is used to accurately determine the zero point by the frequency-doubled signal of the Modulated-polarized light. A Babinet-Soleil compensator is employed to make the phase delay compensation. Based on this method, an instrument is set up to measure the retardations of the infrared wave-plates with visible region laser. Measurement results with high accuracy and sound repetition are obtained by simple calculation. Its measurement precision is less than and repetitive precision is within 0.3%.

  20. Ultra-High-Speed Travelling Wave Protection of Transmission Line Using Polarity Comparison Principle Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional polarity comparison based travelling wave protection, using the initial wave information, is affected by initial fault angle, bus structure, and external fault. And the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave is ignored. Because of the protection tripping and malfunction, the further application of this protection principle is affected. Therefore, this paper presents an ultra-high-speed travelling wave protection using integral based polarity comparison principle. After empirical mode decomposition of the original travelling wave, the first-order intrinsic mode function is used as protection object. Based on the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of using travelling wave magnitude which contains polar information as direction criterion. And the paper integrates the direction criterion in a period after fault to avoid wave head detection failure. Through PSCAD simulation with the typical 500 kV transmission system, the reliability and sensitivity of travelling wave protection were verified under different factors’ affection.

  1. Development of Extended Ray-tracing method including diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Kota; Kubo, Shin; Dodin, Ilya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tsujimura, Toru

    2017-10-01

    Geometrical Optics Ray-tracing is a reasonable numerical analytic approach for describing the Electron Cyclotron resonance Wave (ECW) in slowly varying spatially inhomogeneous plasma. It is well known that the result with this conventional method is adequate in most cases. However, in the case of Helical fusion plasma which has complicated magnetic structure, strong magnetic shear with a large scale length of density can cause a mode coupling of waves outside the last closed flux surface, and complicated absorption structure requires a strong focused wave for ECH. Since conventional Ray Equations to describe ECW do not have any terms to describe the diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects, we can not describe accurately a mode coupling of waves, strong focus waves, behavior of waves in inhomogeneous absorption region and so on. For fundamental solution of these problems, we consider the extension of the Ray-tracing method. Specific process is planned as follows. First, calculate the reference ray by conventional method, and define the local ray-base coordinate system along the reference ray. Then, calculate the evolution of the distributions of amplitude and phase on ray-base coordinate step by step. The progress of our extended method will be presented.

  2. Polarization dependence of the spin-density-wave excitations in single-domain chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Sternlieb, B.J. [Brookhaven (United States); Lorenzo, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France); Werner, S.A. [Missouri (United States)

    1997-09-01

    A polarized neutron scattering experiment has been performed with a single-Q, single domain sample of chromium in a magnetic field of 4 T. It is confirmed that the longitudinal fluctuations are enhanced for small energy transfers and that the spin wave modes with {delta}S parallel to Q and {delta}S perpendicular to Q are similar. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  3. Anomalous high-frequency wave activity flux preceding anomalous changes in the Northern polar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mototaka; Kadota, Minoru; Yamane, Shozo

    2010-05-01

    show anomalous acceleration or deceleration of U in the polar region, accompanied by anomalies of the opposite sign in the subtropics throughout the troposphere and stratosphere. The anomalies are conspicuously large in the polar stratosphere. The composited anomalous Z and U in the preceding and following months indicate that these large anomalies in dZ and dU occur when the polar troposphere and stratosphere are relaxing back toward the climatology from strongly anomalous states that closely resemble the positive and negative phases of the NAM. In this process of relaxation, the atmosphere actually overshoots the climatology and develops anomalies of the sign opposite to those existed initially. The anomalous wave activity flux exhibit strong signals of anomalous upward (downward) propagation of high-frequency waves in the North Atlantic storm track from the bottom of the atmosphere, penetrating up to the stratosphere, when the polar jet is anomalously strong (weak) in the preceding month. The anomalous horizontal wave activity flux shows anomalous eastward (westward) flux emanating from the North Atlantic storm track when the polar jet is anomalously strong (weak) in the preceding month. These patterns suggest that anomalous high-frequency waves originating from the North Atlantic storm track in the lower troposphere contribute to the destruction of both phases of the NAM. However, the anomalous flux divergence is very noisy everywhere due to the noisiness of the advective horizontal flux, making it difficult to ascertain the role of the high-frequency transients in the destruction of the NAM.

  4. Restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and subwavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawhary, Omar; Schilder, Nick J; Costa Assafrao, Alberto da; Pereira, Silvania F; Paul Urbach, H

    2012-01-01

    It was predicted a few years ago that a medium with negative index of refraction would allow for perfect imaging. Although no material has been found so far that behaves as a perfect lens, some experiments confirmed the theoretical predictions in the near-field, or quasi-static, regime where the behaviour of a negative index medium can be mimicked by a thin layer of noble metal, such as silver. These results are normally attributed to the excitation of surface plasmons in the metal, which only leads to the restoration of p-polarized evanescent waves. In this work, we show that the restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and, correspondingly, sub-wavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab are possible. Specifically, we show that at λ = 632 nm a thin layer of GaAs behaves as a superlens for s-polarized waves. Replacing the single-metal slab by a dielectric is not only convenient from a technical point of view, it being much easier to deposit and control the thickness and flatness of dielectric films than metal ones, but also invites us to re-think the connection between surface plasmon excitation and the theory of negative refraction. (paper)

  5. Observations of polar patches generated by solar wind Alfvén wave coupling to the dayside magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    Full Text Available A long series of polar patches was observed by ionosondes and an all-sky imager during a disturbed period (Kp = 7- and IMF Bz < 0. The ionosondes measured electron densities of up to 9 × 1011 m-3 in the patch center, an increase above the density minimum between patches by a factor of sim4.5. Bands of F-region irregularities generated at the equatorward edge of the patches were tracked by HF radars. The backscatter bands were swept northward and eastward across the polar cap in a fan-like formation as the afternoon convection cell expanded due to the IMF By > 0. Near the north magnetic pole, an all-sky imager observed the 630-nm emission patches of a distinctly band-like shape drifting northeastward to eastward. The 630-nm emission patches were associated with the density patches and backscatter bands. The patches originated in, or near, the cusp footprint where they were formed by convection bursts (flow channel events, FCEs structuring the solar EUV-produced photoionization and the particle-produced auroral/cusp ionization by segmenting it into elongated patches. Just equatorward of the cusp footprint Pc5 field line resonances (FLRs were observed by magnetometers, riometers and VHF/HF radars. The AC electric field associated with the FLRs resulted in a poleward-progressing zonal flow pattern and backscatter bands. The VHF radar Doppler spectra indicated the presence of steep electron density gradients which, through the gradient drift instability, can lead to the generation of the ionospheric irregularities found in patches. The FLRs and FCEs were associated with poleward-progressing DPY currents (Hall currents modulated by the IMF By and riometer absorption enhancements. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the VHF backscatter and associated riometer absorptions closely resembled those of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs. In the solar

  6. Deciphering inflation with gravitational waves: Cosmic microwave background polarization vs direct detection with laser interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tristan L.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Cooray, Asantha

    2006-01-01

    A detection of the primordial gravitational wave background is considered to be the 'smoking-gun' evidence for inflation. While superhorizon waves are probed with cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, the relic background will be studied with laser interferometers. The long lever arm spanned by the two techniques improves constraints on the inflationary potential and validation of consistency relations expected under inflation. If gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar amplitude ratio greater than 0.01 are detected by the CMB, then a direct-detection experiment with a sensitivity consistent with current concept studies should be pursued vigorously. If no primordial tensors are detected by the CMB, a direct-detection experiment to understand the simplest form of inflation must have a sensitivity improved by two to 3 orders of magnitude over current plans

  7. THz-waves channeling in a monolithic saddle-coil for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macor, A.; de Rijk, E.; Annino, G.; Alberti, S.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    2011-10-01

    A saddle coil manufactured by electric discharge machining (EDM) from a solid piece of copper has recently been realized at EPFL for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments (DNP-NMR) at 9.4 T. The corresponding electromagnetic behavior of radio-frequency (400 MHz) and THz (263 GHz) waves were studied by numerical simulation in various measurement configurations. Moreover, we present an experimental method by which the results of the THz-wave numerical modeling are validated. On the basis of the good agreement between numerical and experimental results, we conducted by numerical simulation a systematic analysis on the influence of the coil geometry and of the sample properties on the THz-wave field, which is crucial in view of the optimization of DNP-NMR in solids.

  8. Broadband Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Non-Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate broadband polarization-insensitive one-to-two wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate broadband polarization-insensitive one-to-two wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  9. Evaluation of mode purity of ordinary and extraordinary modes by fixed elliptically polarized wave for ECH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Mikio

    1991-08-01

    Mode separation ratio from an arbitrary elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave to an ordinary and an extraordinary modes on a plasma surface for oblique launch is evaluated quantitatively for designing an electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) antenna. An optimized elliptical polarization for the wide range of injection angles and magnetic fields is firstly investigated for ECCD and ECH experiments. (author)

  10. Arbitrary beam control using passive lossless metasurfaces enabled by orthogonally polarized custom surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2018-01-01

    For passive, lossless impenetrable metasurfaces, a design technique for arbitrary beam control of receiving, guiding, and launching is presented. Arbitrary control is enabled by a custom surface wave in an orthogonal polarization such that its addition to the incident (input) and the desired scattered (output) fields is supported by a reactive surface impedance everywhere on the reflecting surface. Such a custom surface wave (SW) takes the form of an evanescent wave propagating along the surface with a spatially varying envelope. A growing SW appears when an illuminating beam is received. The SW amplitude stays constant when power is guided along the surface. The amplitude diminishes as a propagating wave (PW) is launched from the surface as a leaky wave. The resulting reactive tensor impedance profile may be realized as an array of anisotropic metallic resonators printed on a grounded dielectric substrate. Illustrative design examples of a Gaussian beam translator-reflector, a probe-fed beam launcher, and a near-field focusing lens are provided.

  11. Nonlinear Right-Hand Polarized Wave in Plasma in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear right-hand polarized wave along an external magnetic field in subcritical plasma in the electron cyclotron resonance region is studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that a small-amplitude plasma wave excited in low-density plasma is unstable against modulation instability with a modulation period equal to the wavelength of the excited wave. The modulation amplitude in this case increases with decreasing detuning from the resonance frequency. The simulations have shown that, for large-amplitude waves of the laser frequency range propagating in plasma in a superstrong magnetic field, the maximum amplitude of the excited longitudinal electric field increases with the increasing external magnetic field and can reach 30% of the initial amplitude of the electric field in the laser wave. In this case, the energy of plasma electrons begins to substantially increase already at magnetic fields significantly lower than the resonance value. The laser energy transferred to plasma electrons in a strong external magnetic field is found to increase severalfold compared to that in isotropic plasma. It is shown that this mechanism of laser radiation absorption depends only slightly on the electron temperature.

  12. The relationship between auroral hiss at high altitudes over the polar caps and the substorm dynamics of aurora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Titova, E. E.; Yahnin, A. G.; Santolík, Ondřej; Gurnett, D. A.; Jiříček, František; Rauch, J. L.; Lefeuvre, F.; Frank, L. A.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Mogilevsky, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2005), s. 2117-2128 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042201; GA ČR GA205/03/0953; GA MŠk ME 650; GA ČR GA202/03/0832; GA MŠk 1P05ME811 Grant - others:ESA PECS(XE) 98025; INTAS(RU) 03-51-4132; NATO(XE) PST.GLG980041; NASA (US) NAG5-7943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena, Plasma waves and instabilities, Storms and substorms) Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.450, year: 2005

  13. The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Goldberg

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically was a highly coordinated rocket, ground-based, and satellite program designed to address gravity wave forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT. The MaCWAVE program was conducted at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR, 69.3° N in July 2002, and continued at the Swedish Rocket Range (Esrange, 67.9° N during January 2003. Correlative instrumentation included the ALOMAR MF and MST radars and RMR and Na lidars, Esrange MST and meteor radars and RMR lidar, radiosondes, and TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite measurements of thermal structures. The data have been used to define both the mean fields and the wave field structures and turbulence generation leading to forcing of the large-scale flow. In summer, launch sequences coupled with ground-based measurements at ARR addressed the forcing of the summer mesopause environment by anticipated convective and shear generated gravity waves. These motions were measured with two 12-h rocket sequences, each involving one Terrier-Orion payload accompanied by a mix of MET rockets, all at ARR in Norway. The MET rockets were used to define the temperature and wind structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Terrier-Orions were designed to measure small-scale plasma fluctuations and turbulence that might be induced by wave breaking in the mesosphere. For the summer series, three European MIDAS (Middle Atmosphere Dynamics and Structure rockets were also launched from ARR in coordination with the MaCWAVE payloads. These were designed to measure plasma and neutral turbulence within the MLT. The summer program exhibited a number of indications of significant departures of the mean wind and temperature structures from ``normal" polar summer conditions, including an unusually warm mesopause and a slowing of the formation of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE and noctilucent clouds (NLC. This

  14. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  15. Scalable Background-Limited Polarization-Sensitive Detectors for mm-wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Marriage, Tobias A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on the status and development of polarization-sensitive detectors for millimeter-wave applications. The detectors are fabricated on single-crystal silicon, which functions as a low-loss dielectric substrate for the microwave circuitry as well as the supporting membrane for the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The orthomode transducer (OMT) is realized as a symmetric structure and on-chip filters are employed to define the detection bandwidth. A hybridized integrated enclosure reduces the high-frequency THz mode set that can couple to the TES bolometers. An implementation of the detector architecture at Q-band achieves 90% efficiency in each polarization. The design is scalable in both frequency coverage, 30-300 GHz, and in number of detectors with uniform characteristics. Hence, the detectors are desirable for ground-based or space-borne instruments that require large arrays of efficient background-limited cryogenic detectors.

  16. Polarized Kink Waves in Magnetic Elements: Evidence for Chromospheric Helical Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangalini, M.; Giannattasio, F. [INAF-OAR National Institute for Astrophysics, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone (RM) (Italy); Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Consolini, G.; Ermolli, I. [INAF-IAPS National Institute for Astrophysics, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Criscuoli, S. [NSO, National Solar Observatory, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F., E-mail: marco.stangalini@inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, new high spatial resolution observations of the Sun's atmosphere have revealed the presence of a plethora of small-scale magnetic elements down to the resolution limit of the current cohort of solar telescopes (∼100–120 km on the solar photosphere). These small magnetic field concentrations, due to the granular buffeting, can support and guide several magnetohydrodynamic wave modes that would eventually contribute to the energy budget of the upper layers of the atmosphere. In this work, exploiting the high spatial and temporal resolution chromospheric data acquired with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope, and applying the empirical mode decomposition technique to the tracking of the solar magnetic features, we analyze the perturbations of the horizontal velocity vector of a set of chromospheric magnetic elements. We find observational evidence that suggests a phase relation between the two components of the velocity vector itself, resulting in its helical motion.

  17. Phase dispersion of Raman and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixings in femtosecond polarization beats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhao; Zhi-Qiang, Nie; Chang-Biao, Li; Yan-Peng, Zhang; Chen-Li, Gan; Huai-Bin, Zheng; Yuan-Yuan, Li; Ke-Qing, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Based on color-locking noisy field correlation in three Markovian stochastic models, phase dispersions of the Raman- and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixing (FWM) have been investigated. The phase dispersions are modified by both linewidth and time delay for negative time delay, but only by linewidth for positive time delay. Moreover, the results under narrowband condition are close to the nonmodified nonlinear dispersion and absorption of the material. Homodyne and heterodyne detections of the Raman, the Rayleigh and the mixing femtosecond difference-frequency polarization beats have also been investigated, separately

  18. Enhanced polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation from thermal gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2006-12-22

    If inflation was preceded by a radiation era, then at the time of inflation there will exist a decoupled thermal distribution of gravitons. Gravitational waves generated during inflation will be amplified by the process of stimulated emission into the existing thermal distribution of gravitons. Consequently, the usual zero temperature scale invariant tensor spectrum is modified by a temperature dependent factor. This thermal correction factor amplifies the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation by an order of magnitude at large angles, which may now be in the range of observability of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe.

  19. Bistable states of TM polarized non-linear waves guided by symmetric layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, D.

    1985-04-01

    Dispersion relations for TM polarized non-linear waves propagating in a symmetric single film optical waveguide are derived. The system consists of a layer of thickness d with dielectric constant epsilon 1 bounded at two sides by a non-linear medium characterized by the diagonal dielectric tensor epsilon 11 =epsilon 22 =epsilon 0 , epsilon 33 =epsilon 0 +α|E 3 | 2 , where E 3 is the normal electric field component. For sufficiently large d/lambda (lambda is the wavelength) we predict bistable states of both symmetric and antisymmetric modes provided that the power flow is the control parameter. (author)

  20. Thin-film VO2 submillimeter-wave modulators and polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.C.C.; Fetterman, H.R.; Bachner, F.J.; Zavracky, P.M.; Parker, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave modulators and switchable polarizers have been fabricated from VO 2 thin films deposited on sapphire substrates. By passing electric current pulses through elements made from these films, the films can be thermally cycled through the insulator-to-metal transition that occurs in VO 2 at about 65 degreeC. In the insulating state, the films are found to have negligible effect on the transmission at submillimeter wavelengths, while above the phase transition the transmission is strongly reduced by the free-electron effects characteristic of a metal. Other possible applications of such switchable VO 2 elements include variable bandpass filters and diffraction grating beam-steering devices

  1. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km.

    The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.

  2. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km. The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.

  3. Gravitational waves from nonlinear couplings of radial and polar nonradial modes in relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Nagar, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    The postbounce oscillations of newly-born relativistic stars are expected to lead to gravitational-wave emission through the excitation of nonradial oscillation modes. At the same time, the star is oscillating in its radial modes, with a central density variation that can reach several percent. Nonlinear couplings between radial oscillations and polar nonradial modes lead to the appearance of combination frequencies (sums and differences of the linear mode frequencies). We study such combination frequencies using a gauge-invariant perturbative formalism, which includes bilinear coupling terms between different oscillation modes. For typical values of the energy stored in each mode we find that gravitational waves emitted at combination frequencies could become detectable in galactic core-collapse supernovae with advanced interferometric or wideband resonant detectors

  4. Lower Hybrid Frequency Range Waves Generated by Ion Polarization Drift Due to Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Analysis of an Event Observed by the Van Allen Probe B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of approximately 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD)parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic eld to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.

  5. Fermi wave vector for the partially spin-polarized composite-fermion Fermi sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The fully spin-polarized composite-fermion (CF) Fermi sea at the half-filled lowest Landau level has a Fermi wave vector kF*=√{4 π ρe } , where ρe is the density of electrons or composite fermions, supporting the notion that the interaction between composite fermions can be treated perturbatively. Away from ν =1 /2 , the area is seen to be consistent with kF*=√{4 π ρe } for ν 1 /2 , where ρh is the density of holes in the lowest Landau level. This result is consistent with particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level. We investigate in this article the Fermi wave vector of the spin-singlet CF Fermi sea (CFFS) at ν =1 /2 , for which particle-hole symmetry is not a consideration. Using the microscopic CF theory, we find that for the spin-singlet CFFS the Fermi wave vectors for up- and down-spin CFFSs at ν =1 /2 are consistent with kF*↑,↓=√{4 π ρe↑,↓ } , where ρe↑=ρe↓=ρe/2 , which implies that the residual interactions between composite fermions do not cause a nonperturbative correction for spin-singlet CFFS either. Our results suggest the natural conjecture that for arbitrary spin polarization the CF Fermi wave vectors are given by kF*↑=√{4 π ρe↑ } and kF*↓=√{4 π ρe↓ } .

  6. ACCELERATING WAVES IN POLAR CORONAL HOLES AS SEEN BY EIS AND SUMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G. R.; Banerjee, D.; Teriaca, L.; Solanki, S.; Imada, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present EIS/Hinode and SUMER/SOHO observations of propagating disturbances detected in coronal lines in inter-plume and plume regions of a polar coronal hole. The observation was carried out on 2007 November 13 as part of the JOP196/HOP045 program. The SUMER spectroscopic observation gives information about fluctuations in radiance and on both resolved (Doppler shift) and unresolved (Doppler width) line-of-sight velocities, whereas EIS 40'' wide slot images detect fluctuations only in radiance but maximize the probability of overlapping field of view between the two instruments. From distance-time radiance maps, we detect the presence of propagating waves in a polar inter-plume region with a period of 15-20 minutes and a propagation speed increasing from 130 ± 14 km s -1 just above the limb to 330 ± 140 km s -1 around 160'' above the limb. These waves can be traced to originate from a bright region of the on-disk part of the coronal hole where the propagation speed is in the range of 25 ± 1.3 to 38 ± 4.5 km s -1 , with the same periodicity. These on-disk bright regions can be visualized as the base of the coronal funnels. The adjacent plume region also shows the presence of propagating disturbances with the same range of periodicity but with propagation speeds in the range of 135 ± 18 to 165 ± 43 km s -1 only. A comparison between the distance-time radiance map of the two regions indicates that the waves within the plumes are not observable (may be getting dissipated) far off-limb, whereas this is not the case in the inter-plume region. A correlation analysis was also performed to find out the time delay between the oscillations at several heights in the off-limb region, finding results consistent with those from the analysis of the distance-time maps. To our knowledge, this result provides first spectroscopic evidence of the acceleration of propagating disturbances in the polar region close to the Sun (within 1.2 R/R sun ), which provides clues to the

  7. Determining Ocean-Bottom Seismometer Orientations from the RHUM-RUM experiment from P-wave and Rayleigh wave polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, John-Robert; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Sigloch, Karin

    2016-04-01

    sensor orientations. In this study, we analyzed particle motions of P-waves (P-pol) and of Rayleigh waves (R-pol) to quantify the orientation of each of the 57 OBS. We performed 213 polarization measurements based on 35 earthquakes for P-pol, and 381 polarization measurements based on 48 earthquakes for R-pol. This allowed us to successfully determine the North/South orientations for 40 out of 57 OBS: 13 stations were devoid of usable data and 4 stations were too noisy. From twice the standard deviation (95% confidence interval), we estimate the errors between 1° and 20°.

  8. Quantum mechanical systems interacting with different polarizations of gravitational waves in noncommutative phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anirban; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Swarup

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the extreme smallness of any noncommutative scale that may exist in nature, both in the spatial and momentum sector of the quantum phase space, a credible possibility of their detection lies in the gravitational wave (GW) detection scenario, where one effectively probes the relative length-scale variations ˜O [10-20-10-23] . With this motivation, we have theoretically constructed how a free particle and a harmonic oscillator will respond to linearly and circularly polarized gravitational waves if their quantum mechanical phase space has a noncommutative structure. We critically analyze the formal solutions which show resonance behavior in the responses of both free particle and HO systems to GW with both kind of polarizations. We discuss the possible implications of these solutions in detecting noncommutativity in a GW detection experiment. We use the currently available upper-bound estimates on various noncommutative parameters to anticipate the relative importance of various terms in the solutions. We also argue how the quantum harmonic oscillator system we considered here can be very relevant in the context of the resonant bar detectors of GW which are already operational.

  9. Control phase shift of spin-wave by spin-polarized current and its application in logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangxu; Wang, Qi; Liao, Yulong; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a new ways to control the phase shift of propagating spin waves by applying a local spin-polarized current on ferromagnetic stripe. Micromagnetic simulation showed that a phase shift of about π can be obtained by designing appropriate width and number of pinned magnetic layers. The ways can be adopted in a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer structure to fulfill logic NOT gates based on spin waves. - Highlights: • Spin-wave phase shift can be controlled by a local spin-polarized current. • Spin-wave phase shift increased with the increasing of current density. • Spin-wave phase shift can reach about 0.3π at a particular current density. • The ways can be used in a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer to fulfill logic gates

  10. Precise real-time polarization measurement of terahertz electromagnetic waves by a spinning electro-optic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Naoya; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    We propose and develop a method to quickly and precisely determine the polarization direction of coherent terahertz electromagnetic waves generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The measurement system consists of a conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system with the electro-optic (EO) sampling method, but we add a new functionality in the EO crystal which is continuously rotating with the angular frequency ω. We find a simple yet useful formulation of the EO signal as a function of the crystal orientation, which enables a lock-in-like detection of both the electric-field amplitude and the absolute polarization direction of the terahertz waves with respect to the probe laser pulse polarization direction at the same time. The single measurement finishes around two periods of the crystal rotations (∼21 ms), and we experimentally prove that the accuracy of the polarization measurement does not suffer from the long-term amplitude fluctuation of the terahertz pulses. Distribution of the measured polarization directions by repeating the measurements is excellently fitted by a gaussian distribution function with a standard deviation of σ = 0.56°. The developed technique is useful for the fast direct determination of the polarization state of the terahertz electromagnetic waves for polarization imaging applications as well as the precise terahertz Faraday or Kerr rotation spectroscopy.

  11. Nonlinear waves in viscoelastic magnetized complex astroplasmas with polarized dust-charge variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papari Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonextensive nonthermal magnetized viscoelastic astrofluid, compositionally containing nonthermal electrons and ions together with massive polarized dust micro-spherical grains of variable electric charge, is allowed to endure weakly nonlinear perturbation around its equilibrium. The nonextensivity originating from the large-scale non-local effects is included via the Tsallis thermo-statistical distribution laws describing the lighter species. Assuming the equilibrium as a homogeneous hydrostatic one, the dust polarization effects are incorporated via the conventional homogeneous polarization force law. The perturbed fluid model evolves as a unique conjugate pair of coupled extended Korteweg-de Vries (e-KdV equations. A constructed numerical tapestry shows the collective excitations of a new pair of distinct classes of nonlinear mode structures in new parametric space. The first family indicates periodic electrostatic compressive eigenmodes in the form of soliton-chains. Likewise, the second one reveals gravitational rarefactive solitary patterns. Their microphysical multi-parametric dependencies of the eigen-patterns are illustratively analyzed and bolstered. The paper ends up with some promising implications and applications in the astro-cosmo-plasmic context of wave-induced accretive triggering processes responsible for gravitationally bounded (gravito-condensed astro-structure formation, such as stellesimals, planetsimals, etc.

  12. Nonlinear waves in viscoelastic magnetized complex astroplasmas with polarized dust-charge variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Papari; Karmakar, Pralay Kumar

    2018-01-01

    A nonextensive nonthermal magnetized viscoelastic astrofluid, compositionally containing nonthermal electrons and ions together with massive polarized dust micro-spherical grains of variable electric charge, is allowed to endure weakly nonlinear perturbation around its equilibrium. The nonextensivity originating from the large-scale non-local effects is included via the Tsallis thermo-statistical distribution laws describing the lighter species. Assuming the equilibrium as a homogeneous hydrostatic one, the dust polarization effects are incorporated via the conventional homogeneous polarization force law. The perturbed fluid model evolves as a unique conjugate pair of coupled extended Korteweg-de Vries (e-KdV) equations. A constructed numerical tapestry shows the collective excitations of a new pair of distinct classes of nonlinear mode structures in new parametric space. The first family indicates periodic electrostatic compressive eigenmodes in the form of soliton-chains. Likewise, the second one reveals gravitational rarefactive solitary patterns. Their microphysical multi-parametric dependencies of the eigen-patterns are illustratively analyzed and bolstered. The paper ends up with some promising implications and applications in the astro-cosmo-plasmic context of wave-induced accretive triggering processes responsible for gravitationally bounded (gravito-condensed) astro-structure formation, such as stellesimals, planetsimals, etc.

  13. Detecting primordial gravitational waves with circular polarization of the redshifted 21 cm line. II. Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhilash; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-05-01

    In the first paper of this series, we showed that the CMB quadrupole at high redshifts results in a small circular polarization of the emitted 21 cm radiation. In this paper we forecast the sensitivity of future radio experiments to measure the CMB quadrupole during the era of first cosmic light (z ˜20 ). The tomographic measurement of 21 cm circular polarization allows us to construct a 3D remote quadrupole field. Measuring the B -mode component of this remote quadrupole field can be used to put bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . We make Fisher forecasts for a future Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT), consisting of an array of dipole antennas in a compact grid configuration, as a function of array size and observation time. We find that a FFTT with a side length of 100 km can achieve σ (r )˜4 ×10-3 after ten years of observation and with a sky coverage fsky˜0.7 . The forecasts are dependent on the evolution of the Lyman-α flux in the pre-reionization era, that remains observationally unconstrained. Finally, we calculate the typical order of magnitudes for circular polarization foregrounds and comment on their mitigation strategies. We conclude that detection of primordial gravitational waves with 21 cm observations is in principle possible, so long as the primordial magnetic field amplitude is small, but would require a very futuristic experiment with corresponding advances in calibration and foreground suppression techniques.

  14. On the spatial relationship between auroral emissions and magnetic signatures of plasma convection in the midday polar cusp and cap ionospheres during negative and positive IMF Bsub(z)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.; Lybekk, B.

    1986-03-01

    The dynamics of midday auroras, including polar cusp and cap emissions, and their relation to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have been investigated with optical ground-based observations from Svalbard, Norway and IMF data from spacecraft ISEE-2. One case is presented showing the spatial relationship, along the magnetic meridian in the midday sector, between the cusp aurora and IMF Bγ-related convection currets (the DPY signature) for negative and positive values of IMF Bsub(z)

  15. A Study of the use of a Crystal as a `Quarter-Wave Plate' to Produce High Energy Circularly Polarized Photons

    CERN Multimedia

    Kononets, I

    2002-01-01

    %NA59 %title\\\\ \\\\We present a proposal to study the use of a crystal as a `quarter-wave plate' to produce high energy circularly polarized photons, starting from unpolarized electrons. The intention is to generate linearly polarized photons by letting electrons pass a crystalline target, where they interact coherently with the lattice nuclei. The photon polarization is subsequently turned into circular polarization after passing another crystal, which acts as a `quarter-wave plate'.

  16. Following the south polar cap recession as viewed by OMEGA/MEX using automatic detection of H2O and CO2 ices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Doute, S.; Schmitt, B.

    In order to understand Mars' current climate it is necessary to detect, characterize and monitor CO2 and H2O at the surface (permanent and seasonal icy deposits) and in the atmosphere (vapor and clouds). Here we will focus on the South Seasonal Polar Cap (SSPC) whose recession was previously observed with different techniques : from earth in the visible range with HST [James 1996], or from MGS spacecraft with MOC images [Benson 2005], in the thermal IR range by the TES [Kieffer 2000], in the near infrared by OMEGA/MEX [Langevin submitted]. The time and space evolutions of the SSPC is a major annual climatic signal both at the global and the regional scales. In particular the measurement of the temporal and spatial distributions of CO2 constrains exchange processes between both surface and atmosphere. This exchange may involve preponderant species : H2O, CO2 and dust. In this work we will apply a new detection technique : "wavanglet" in order to follow the recession of the SSPC thanks to OMEGA/MEX observations. This method was especially developed in the goal to classify a huge dataset, such OMEGA ones. We propose to use "wavanglet" as a supervised automatic classification method that identifies spectral features and classifies the image in spectrally homogeneous units. Additionally we will evaluate quantitative detection limits of "wavanglet" based on synthetic dataset simulating OMEGA spectra in typical situation of the SSPC. This detection limit will be discussed in terms of abundance for H2O and CO2 ices in order to improve the interpretation of the classification. Finally we will present the recession of the SSPC using "wavanglet" and we will compare the results with those of earlier investigation. An interpretation of the similarities and disagreements between those maps will be done.

  17. The Effect of an Offset Polar Cap Dipolar Magnetic Field on the Modeling of the Vela Pulsar's Gamma-Ray Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, M.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We performed geometric pulsar light curve modeling using static, retarded vacuum, and offset polar cap (PC) dipole B-fields (the latter is characterized by a parameter epsilon), in conjunction with standard two-pole caustic (TPC) and outer gap (OG) emission geometries. The offset-PC dipole B-field mimics deviations from the static dipole (which corresponds to epsilon equals 0). In addition to constant-emissivity geometric models, we also considered a slot gap (SG) E-field associated with the offset-PC dipole B-field and found that its inclusion leads to qualitatively different light curves. Solving the particle transport equation shows that the particle energy only becomes large enough to yield significant curvature radiation at large altitudes above the stellar surface, given this relatively low E-field. Therefore, particles do not always attain the radiation-reaction limit. Our overall optimal light curve fit is for the retarded vacuum dipole field and OG model, at an inclination angle alpha equals 78 plus or minus 1 degree and observer angle zeta equals 69 plus 2 degrees or minus 1 degree. For this B-field, the TPC model is statistically disfavored compared to the OG model. For the static dipole field, neither model is significantly preferred. We found that smaller values of epsilon are favored for the offset-PC dipole field when assuming constant emissivity, and larger epsilon values favored for variable emissivity, but not significantly so. When multiplying the SG E-field by a factor of 100, we found improved light curve fits, with alpha and zeta being closer to best fits from independent studies, as well as curvature radiation reaction at lower altitudes.

  18. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  19. Polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering from spin-density-wave modulation in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal

  20. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  1. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C. [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jiang, J. A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  2. Solitary Waves in Space Dusty Plasma with Dust of Opposite Polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic solitary waves (DAWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated. The fluid model is a generalize to the model of Mamun and Shukla to a more realistic space dusty plasma in different regions of space viz.., cometary tails, mesosphere, Jupiter s magnetosphere, etc., by considering a four component dusty plasma consists of charged dusty plasma of opposite polarity, isothermal electrons and vortex like ion distributions in the ambient plasma. A reductive perturbation method were employed to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation for the first-order potential and a stationary solution is obtained. The effect of the presence of positively charged dust fluid, the specific charge ratioμ, temperature of the positively charged dust fluid, the ratio of constant temperature of free hot ions and the constant temperature of trapped ions and ion temperature are also discussed.

  3. Longitudinal elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in off-diagonal magnetoelectric split-ring composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, S T; Wang, Weihua; Zhou, L; Lin, Z F

    2009-07-22

    We study the propagation of plane electromagnetic waves through different systems consisting of arrays of split rings of different orientations. Many extraordinary EM phenomena were discovered in such systems, contributed by the off-diagonal magnetoelectric susceptibilities. We find a mode such that the electric field becomes elliptically polarized with a component in the longitudinal direction (i.e. parallel to the wavevector). Even though the group velocity [Formula: see text] and the wavevector k are parallel, in the presence of damping, the Poynting vector does not just get 'broadened', but can possess a component perpendicular to the wavevector. The speed of light can be real even when the product ϵμ is negative. Other novel properties are explored.

  4. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W Y; Wu, M H; Wu, K L; Lin, M H; Teng, H H; Tsai, Y F; Ko, C C; Yang, E C; Jiang, J A; Barnett, L R; Chu, K R

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  5. Large amplitude solitary waves in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere, magnetopause and bow shock: Polar and Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cattell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary waves with large electric fields (up to 100's of mV/m have been observed throughout the magnetosphere and in the bow shock. We discuss observations by Polar at high altitudes ( ~ 4-8 RE , during crossings of the plasma sheet boundary and cusp, and new measurements by Polar at the equatorial magnetopause and by Cluster near the bow shock, in the cusp and at the plasma sheet boundary. We describe the results of a statistical study of electron solitary waves observed by Polar at high altitudes. The mean solitary wave duration was ~ 2 ms. The waves have velocities from ~ 1000 km/s to  > 2500 km/s. Observed scale sizes (parallel to the magnetic field are on the order of 1-10lD, with eF/kTe from ~ 0.01 to O(1. The average speed of solitary waves at the plasma sheet boundary is faster than the average speed observed in the cusp and at cusp injections. The amplitude increases with both velocity and scale size. These observations are all consistent with the identification of the solitary waves as electron hole modes. We also report the discovery of solitary waves at the magnetopause, observed in Polar data obtained at the subsolar equatorial magnetopause. Both positive and negative potential structures have been observed with amplitudes up to ~ 25 mV/m. The velocities range from 150 km/s to >2500 km/s, with scale sizes the order of a kilometer (comparable to the Debye length. Initial observations of solitary waves by the four Cluster satellites are utilized to discuss the scale sizes and time variability of the regions where the solitary waves occur. Preliminary results from the four Cluster satellites have given a glimpse of the spatial and temporal variability of the occurrence of solitary waves and their association with other wave modes. In all the events studied, significant differences were observed in the waveforms observed simultaneously at the four locations separated by ~ 1000 km. When solitary waves were seen at one satellite, they

  6. Electromagnetic frozen waves with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato-Zanarella, Mateus; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2016-11-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are a class of diffraction- and attenuation-resistant beams whose intensity pattern along the direction of propagation can be chosen arbitrarily, thus making them relevant for engineering the spatial configuration of optical fields. To date, analyses of such beams have been done essentially for the scalar case, with the vectorial nature of the electromagnetic fields often neglected. Although it is expected that the field components keep the fundamental properties of the scalar FWs, a deeper understanding of their electromagnetic counterparts is mandatory in order to exploit their different possible polarization states. The purpose of this paper is to study the properties of electromagnetic FWs with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations under paraxial and nonparaxial regimes in nonabsorbing media. An intensity pattern is chosen for a scalar FW, and the vectorial solutions are built after it via the use of Maxwell's equations. The results show that the field components and the longitudinal component of the time-averaged Poynting vector closely follow the pattern chosen even under highly nonparaxial conditions, showing the robustness of the FW structure to parameters variations.

  7. Novel porous fiber based on dual-asymmetry for low-loss polarization maintaining THz wave guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we suggest a novel kind of porous-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) (to the best of our knowledge) for efficient transportation of polarization maintaining (PM) terahertz (THz) waves. We introduce an asymmetry in both the porous-core and the porous-cladding of the structure to ach...

  8. Spin-wave dynamics in Invar Fe65Ni35 studied by small-angle polarized neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, E.H.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Deriglazov, V.V.; Okorokov, A.I.; Dijk van, N.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. Spin dynamics in Fe65Ni35 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below TC=485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping & were obtained by

  9. The incorporation of fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times and arrival polarizations into seismic tomography: Application to the Parkfield, California area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a 3D P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P-wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHW), plus new data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSA). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global and local minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of DWSA results in as much as a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to Thurber et al. (2006). Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We expand on this work by modifying our seismic tomography algorithm to incorporate arrival polarizations (azimuths). Synthetic tests will be presented to demonstrate the improvements in velocity structure when arrival polarizations are incorporated. These tests will compare the synthetic model recovered when FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data are inverted to that recovered with the same dataset with the inclusion of arrival polarizations. We plan to extend this work to carry out a full scale seismic tomography/relocation inversion at Parkfield, CA utilizing arrival polarizations from all first-P arrivals, and FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. This effort requires the determination of polarization data for all P-waves and FZHW's at Parkfield. To this end, we use changes in the arrival azimuth from fault normal to source-receiver direction to identify FZHW and

  10. The selection of ultrasonic transducers for inspection of pipeline girth welds. Vol. 2. Evaluation of a unique creeping wave probe for examination of the cap region in pipeline girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerhut, M P; Glover, A G; Dorling, D V

    1988-10-01

    This work is part of a program aimed at developing an ultrasonic inspection design for the nondestructive evaluation of pipeline girth welds made by the mechanized gas metal arc (GMA) welding process for onshore and offshore pipeline construction. The feasibility of using creeping waves for examination of the cap region was investigated and, as a result, a specification for an experimental creeping wave transducer developed and a probe was designed to provide a beam oriented nearly perpendicular to expected defects in the cap region of the weld. The performance of this experimental creeping wave transducer was evaluated with respect to its ability to detect simulated and real weld defects in the cap region of mechanized GMA welds in 9.5 mm material. The probe was successful in detecting planar lack of sidewall fusion welding defects with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 12 dB, at depths of up to 4.2 mm from the plate surface. This indicates maximum pipe wall thicknesses of 10.9 mm may be satisfactorily examined before additional probes are required, assuming complete coverage in the root region is provided by other probes. The creeping wave probe not only performed well in the detection of real weld defects in the cap region for which it was intended, but also showed potential for detecting and discriminating some planar defects in the root region. 9 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Effect of H-wave polarization on laser radar detection of partially convex targets in random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ocla, Hosam

    2010-07-01

    A study on the performance of laser radar cross section (LRCS) of conducting targets with large sizes is investigated numerically in free space and random media. The LRCS is calculated using a boundary value method with beam wave incidence and H-wave polarization. Considered are those elements that contribute to the LRCS problem including random medium strength, target configuration, and beam width. The effect of the creeping waves, stimulated by H-polarization, on the LRCS behavior is manifested. Targets taking large sizes of up to five wavelengths are sufficiently larger than the beam width and are sufficient for considering fairly complex targets. Scatterers are assumed to have analytical partially convex contours with inflection points.

  12. Dynamics of a charged particle in a circularly polarized travelling electromagnetic wave. Self-consistent model for the wave-particle dynamical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work concerns mainly the dynamics of a charged particle in an electromagnetic wave. It is a first step in elaborating a more general model permitting to predict the wave-particle interaction. We show how deriving a first integral gives an idea on how to create an electron current in a cold electron plasma. We present results which can be used to test the 2D and 3D Vlasov-Maxwell codes being built up in CEA-DAM. These codes will allow the calcination of the magnetic field created by an electromagnetic wave like the one due to the inverse Faraday effect when a circularly polarized wave drives the electrons of a plasma into circular orbits. (author)

  13. Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensors: Does polarization play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Susana; Diaz-Santana, Luis; Llorente, Lourdes; Dainty, Chris

    2002-06-01

    Ocular aberrations were measured in 71 eyes by using two reflectometric aberrometers, employing laser ray tracing (LRT) (60 eyes) and a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (S-H) (11 eyes). In both techniques a point source is imaged on the retina (through different pupil positions in the LRT or a single position in the S-H). The aberrations are estimated by measuring the deviations of the retinal spot from the reference as the pupil is sampled (in LRT) or the deviations of a wave front as it emerges from the eye by means of a lenslet array (in the S-H). In this paper we studied the effect of different polarization configurations in the aberration measurements, including linearly polarized light and circularly polarized light in the illuminating channel and sampling light in the crossed or parallel orientations. In addition, completely depolarized light in the imaging channel was obtained from retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence. The intensity distribution of the retinal spots as a function of entry (for LRT) or exit pupil (for S-H) depends on the polarization configuration. These intensity patterns show bright corners and a dark area at the pupil center for crossed polarization, an approximately Gaussian distribution for parallel polarization and a homogeneous distribution for the autofluorescence case. However, the measured aberrations are independent of the polarization states. These results indicate that the differences in retardation across the pupil imposed by corneal birefringence do not produce significant phase delays compared with those produced by aberrations, at least within the accuracy of these techniques. In addition, differences in the recorded aerial images due to changes in polarization do not affect the aberration measurements in these reflectometric aberrometers.

  14. Circular polarization of gravitational waves from non-rotating supernova cores: a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2018-06-01

    We present an analysis of the circular polarization of gravitational waves (GWs) using results from three-dimensional (3D), general relativistic (GR) core-collapse simulations of a non-rotating 15 M⊙ star. For the signal detection, we perform a coherent network analysis taking into account the four interferometers of LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, VIRGO, and KAGRA. We focus on the Stokes V parameter, which directly characterizes the asymmetry of the GW circular polarization. We find that the amplitude of the GW polarization becomes bigger for our 3D-GR model that exhibits strong activity of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Our results suggest that the SASI-induced accretion flows to the proto-neutron star (PNS) lead to a characteristic, low-frequency modulation (100-200 Hz) in both the waveform and the GW circular polarization. By estimating the signal-to-noise ratio of the GW polarization, we demonstrate that the detection horizon of the circular polarization extends by more than a factor of several times farther comparing to that of the GW amplitude. Our results suggest that the GW circular polarization, if detected, could provide a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics such as the SASI activity and the g-mode oscillation of the PNS.

  15. Circular polarization of gravitational waves from non-rotating supernova cores: a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of the circular polarization of gravitational-waves (GWs) using results from three-dimensional (3D), general relativistic (GR) core-collapse simulations of a non-rotating 15M⊙ star. For the signal detection, we perform a coherent network analysis taking into account the four interferometers of LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, VIRGO, and KAGRA. We focus on the Stokes V parameter, which directly characterizes the asymmetry of the GW circular polarization. We find that the amplitude of the GW polarization becomes bigger for our 3D-GR model that exhibits strong activity of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Our results suggest that the SASI-induced accretion flows to the proto-neutron star (PNS) lead to a characteristic, low-frequency modulation (100 ˜ 200 Hz) in both the waveform and the GW circular polarization. By estimating the signal-to-noise ratio of the GW polarization, we demonstrate that the detection horizon of the circular polarization extends by more than a factor of several times farther comparing to that of the GW amplitude. Our results suggest that the GW circular polarization, if detected, could provide a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics such as the SASI activity and the g-mode oscillation of the PNS.

  16. P-polarized surface waves in a slab waveguide with left-handed material for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, Sofyan A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, surface waves excited at the interface between left-handed and right-handed materials are employed for sensing applications. The propagation of p-polarized (TM) surface waves in a three-layer slab waveguide structure with air core layer as an analyte and anisotropic left-handed materials as claddings is investigated for detection of any changes in the refractive index of the analyte. The dispersion equations and the sensitivity of the effective refractive index to any change in the air layer index are derived, plotted, and discussed in details. The field profile is also explored. It is found that the sensitivity of the proposed surface wave sensor is almost independent of the wavelength of the propagating wave. A considerable sensitivity improvement can be obtained with the increase of transverse components of the left-handed material permittivity. - Highlights: • P-polarized surface waves in a three-layer slab waveguide are employed for sensing applications. • The structure contains air core layer as an analyte and anisotropic left-handed material in the claddings. • The sensitivity is found to be almost independent of the wavelength of the propagating wave. • Unusual sensitivity enhancement is observed as the transverse components of the LHM permittivity increase. • The asymmetric waveguide structure exhibits much higher sensitivity compared to the symmetric one

  17. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  18. Effect of multi-ions on electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves with a hot plasma around the polar cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Soniya; Varma, P; Tiwari, M S

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instabilities with an isotropic ion beam and general loss-cone distribution of hot core plasmas are discussed. The growth rate of the wave, perpendicular heating of ions, parallel resonant energy and marginal instability of the EMIC waves in homogeneous plasmas are obtained using the dispersion relation for hot plasmas consisting of H + , He + ,O + ions and electrons. The wave is assumed to propagate parallel to the static magnetic field. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles permeated by the isotropic ion beam. It is assumed that the resonant particles and the ion beam participate in energy exchange with the wave, whereas the non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. We determined the variation in energies and growth rate in hot plasmas by the energy conservation method with a general loss-cone distribution function. We also discuss the effect of positive and negative ion beam velocity on the growth rate of the wave. The thermal anisotropy of the ions of the core plasma acts as a source of free energy for EMIC waves and enhances the growth rate. Heating of ions perpendicular to the magnetic field is discussed along with EMIC wave emission in the polar cusp region.

  19. Polarized-neutron-scattering study of the spin-wave excitations in the 3-k ordered phase of uranium antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Lander, G H; Hiess, A; Regnault, L-P

    2010-03-24

    The anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations propagating along the [1 1 0] direction in the ordered phase of uranium antimonide has been studied using polarized inelastic neutron scattering. The observed polarization behavior of the spin waves is a natural consequence of the longitudinal 3-k magnetic structure; together with recent results on the 3-k-transverse uranium dioxide, these findings establish this technique as an important tool to study complex magnetic arrangements. Selected details of the magnon excitation spectra of USb have also been reinvestigated, indicating the need to revise the currently accepted theoretical picture for this material.

  20. Observation of reflected waves on the SABRE positive polarity inductive adder MITL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Poukey, J.W.; Mendel, C.W.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Hanson, D.L.; Smith, J.R.; Maenchen, J.E.; Wenger, D.F.; Bernard, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    We are studying the coupling of extraction applied-B ion diodes to Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITLs) on the SABRE (Sandia Accelerator and Beam Research Experiment, 6 MV, 300 kA) positive polarity inductive voltage adder. Our goal is to determine conditions under which efficient coupling occurs. The best total power efficiency for an ideal ion diode load (i.e., without parasitic losses) is obtained by maximizing the product of cathode current and gap voltage. MITLs require that the load impedance be undermatched to the self-limited line operating impedance for efficient transfer of power to ion diodes, independent of transit time isolation, and even in the case of multiple cathode system with significant vacuum electron flow. We observe that this undermatched condition results in a reflected wave which decreases the line voltage and gap electron sheath current, and increases the anode and cathode current in a time-dependent way. The MITL diode coupling is determined by the flow impedance at the adder exit. We also show that the flow impedance increases along the extension MITL on SABRE. Experimental measurements of current and peak voltage are compared to analytical models and TWOQUICK 2.5-D PIC code simulations

  1. Robust Likelihoods for Inflationary Gravitational Waves from Maps of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Eric Ryan; Watts, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background provides a unique window into tensor perturbations from inflationary gravitational waves. Survey effects complicate the estimation and description of the power spectrum on the largest angular scales. The pixel-space likelihood yields parameter distributions without the power spectrum as an intermediate step, but it does not have the large suite of tests available to power spectral methods. Searches for primordial B-modes must rigorously reject and rule out contamination. Many forms of contamination vary or are uncorrelated across epochs, frequencies, surveys, or other data treatment subsets. The cross power and the power spectrum of the difference of subset maps provide approaches to reject and isolate excess variance. We develop an analogous joint pixel-space likelihood. Contamination not modeled in the likelihood produces parameter-dependent bias and complicates the interpretation of the difference map. We describe a null test that consistently weights the difference map. Excess variance should either be explicitly modeled in the covariance or be removed through reprocessing the data.

  2. Elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized quantum electron-positron plasma with effects of exchange-correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmansouri, M., E-mail: mshmansouri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156-8 8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-15

    The dispersion properties of elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized electron-positron-pair (EP-pair) plasma are studied with the effects of particle dispersion associated with the Bohm potential, the Fermi degenerate pressure, and the exchange-correlation force. Two possible modes of the extraordinary or X wave, modified by these quantum effects, are identified and their propagation characteristics are investigated numerically. It is shown that the upper-hybrid frequency and the cutoff and resonance frequencies are no longer constants but are dispersive due to these quantum effects. It is found that the particle dispersion and the exchange-correlation force can have different dominating roles on each other depending on whether the X waves are of short or long wavelengths (in comparison with the Fermi Debye length). The present investigation should be useful for understanding the collective behaviors of EP plasma oscillations and the propagation of extraordinary waves in magnetized dense EP-pair plasmas.

  3. Dirac electron in a chiral space-time crystal created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzdov, G. N.

    2017-10-01

    The family of solutions to the Dirac equation for an electron moving in an electromagnetic lattice with the chiral structure created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves is obtained. At any nonzero quasimomentum, the dispersion equation has two solutions which specify bispinor wave functions describing electron states with different energies and mean values of momentum and spin operators. The inversion of the quasimomentum results in two other linearly independent solutions. These four basic wave functions are uniquely defined by eight complex scalar functions (structural functions), which serve as convenient building blocks of the relations describing the electron properties. These properties are illustrated in graphical form over a wide range of quasimomenta. The superpositions of two basic wave functions describing different spin states and corresponding to (i) the same quasimomentum (unidirectional electron states with the spin precession) and (ii) the two equal-in-magnitude but oppositely directed quasimomenta (bidirectional electron states) are also treated.

  4. The evolution of the englacial temperature distribution in the superimposed ice zone of a polar ice cap during a summer season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuell, W.; Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to provide more insight into the processes affecting the evolution of the englacial temperature distribution at a non-temperate location on a glacier. Measurements were made in the top 10 m of the ice at the summit of Laika Ice Cap (Canadian Arctic)

  5. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2014-08-06

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  6. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun; Gan, Liyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  7. Death cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille Bouteloup; Bove, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused...

  8. Shear-wave polarization analysis of the seismic swarm following the July 9th 1998 Faial (Azores) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, N. A.; Matias, L.; Tellez, J.; Senos, L.; Gaspar, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    The Azores Islands, located at a tectonic triple Junction, geodynamically are a highly active place. The seismicity in this region occurs mainly in the form of two types of seismic swarms with tectonic and/or volcanic origins, lasting from hours to years. In some cases the swarm follows a main stronger shock, while in others the more energetic event occurs sometime after the beginning of the swarm. In order to understand the complex phenomena of this region, a multidisciplinary approach is needed, involving geophysical, geological and geochemical studies such as the one being carried under the MASHA project (POCTI/CTA/39158/2001), On July 9th 1998 an Mw=6.2 earthquake stroked the island of Faial, in the central group of the Azores archipelago, followed by a seismic swarm still active today. We will present some preliminary results of the shear-wave polarization analysis of a selected dataset of events of this swarm. These correspond to the 112 best- constrained events, record during the first 2 weeks by the seismic network deployed on the 3 islands surrounding the area of the main shock. The objective was to analyse the behaviour of the S wave polarization and the eventual relationship with the presence of seismic anisotropy under the seismic stations, and to correlate this with the regional structure and origin of the Azores plateau. Two main tectonic features are observable on the islands, one primarily orientated SE-NW and the other crossing it roughly with the WNW-ESE direction. The polarization direction observed in the majority of the seismic stations is not stable, varying from SE-NW to WSW-ENE, and showing also the presence in same cases of shear-wave splitting, indicating the presence of anisotropy. Part of the polarization seems to be coherent with the direction of the local tectonic features, but its instability suggest a more complex seismic anisotropy than that proposed by the model EDA of Crampin. Furthermore, the dataset revealed some limitations to

  9. Mechanically Reconfigurable Single-Arm Spiral Antenna Array for Generation of Broadband Circularly Polarized Orbital Angular Momentum Vortex Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhou, Xiaoxiao

    2018-03-23

    In this paper, a mechanically reconfigurable circular array with single-arm spiral antennas (SASAs) is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate broadband circularly polarized orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves in radio frequency domain. With the symmetrical and broadband properties of single-arm spiral antennas, the vortex waves with different OAM modes can be mechanically reconfigurable generated in a wide band from 3.4 GHz to 4.7 GHz. The prototype of the circular array is proposed, conducted, and fabricated to validate the theoretical analysis. The simulated and experimental results verify that different OAM modes can be effectively generated by rotating the spiral arms of single-arm spiral antennas with corresponding degrees, which greatly simplify the feeding network. The proposed method paves a reconfigurable way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves with spin angular momentum (SAM) in radio and microwave satellite communication applications.

  10. Reconfigurable micromachined antenna with polarization diversity for mm-wave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai O.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a novel MEMS antenna with reconfigurable polarization operating at 60 GHz is presented. This antenna can provide vertical linear polarization, horizontal linear polarization, left hand circular polarization (LHCP), or right hand circular polarization (RHCP) based on the states of the switches present in the feeding network. The proposed antenna is characterized by having its radiating elements isolated from the feeding circuitry via a ground plane without the need for wafer bonding or hybrid integration. Such advantage results in good electric performance while maintains low fabrication cost. The antenna parameters are optimized using HFSS and the results are cross-validated using CST. The good agreement between the two simulators, confirms that the proposed antenna enjoys attractive radiation characteristics for all polarization senses. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Reconfigurable micromachined antenna with polarization diversity for mm-wave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai O.; Soliman, Ezzeldin A.; Sedky, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel MEMS antenna with reconfigurable polarization operating at 60 GHz is presented. This antenna can provide vertical linear polarization, horizontal linear polarization, left hand circular polarization (LHCP), or right hand circular polarization (RHCP) based on the states of the switches present in the feeding network. The proposed antenna is characterized by having its radiating elements isolated from the feeding circuitry via a ground plane without the need for wafer bonding or hybrid integration. Such advantage results in good electric performance while maintains low fabrication cost. The antenna parameters are optimized using HFSS and the results are cross-validated using CST. The good agreement between the two simulators, confirms that the proposed antenna enjoys attractive radiation characteristics for all polarization senses. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. The energy and temporal characteristics of orthogonal polarized waves generated by a transversely-excited pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertel, I.M.; Churakov, V.V.; Petukhov, V.O.; Prokopov, A.P.; Trushin, S.A.; Voitovich, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    The competition of orthogonally-polarized waves with various differences in the wave Q-factors and active medium pressures is studied. The possibility of controlling the parameters of a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser by changing the value of the amplitude anisotropy of the cavity is demonstrated. The duration of the emission pulse for one of two orthogonal polarizations was reduced by virtually 50%.

  13. Apical cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-01-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices

  14. Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grison

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.

  15. Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grison

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.

  16. Electromagnetic Components of Auroral Hiss and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Polar Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H. K.

    1995-01-01

    DE-1 has frequently observed waves in the whistler and lower hybrid frequencies range. Besides the electrostatic components, these waves also exhibit electromagnetic components. It is generally believed that these waves are excited by the electron acoustic instability and the electron-beam-driven lower hybrid instability. Because the electron acoustic and the lower hybrid waves are predominately electrostatic waves, they cannot account for the observed electromagnetic components. In this work, it is suggested that these electromagnetic components can be explained by waves that are generated near the resonance cone and that propagate away from the source. The role that these electromagnetic waves can play in particle acceleration processes at low altitude is discussed.

  17. Determining the dominant partial wave contributions from angular distributions of single- and double-polarization observables in pseudoscalar meson photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Y.; Afzal, F.; Thiel, A.; Beck, R. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    This work presents a simple method to determine the significant partial wave contributions to experimentally determined observables in pseudoscalar meson photoproduction. First, fits to angular distributions are presented and the maximum orbital angular momentum L{sub max} needed to achieve a good fit is determined. Then, recent polarization measurements for γp → π{sup 0}p from ELSA, GRAAL, JLab and MAMI are investigated according to the proposed method. This method allows us to project high-spin partial wave contributions to any observable as long as the measurement has the necessary statistical accuracy. We show, that high precision and large angular coverage in the polarization data are needed in order to be sensitive to high-spin resonance states and thereby also for the finding of small resonance contributions. This task can be achieved via interference of these resonances with the well-known states. For the channel γp → π{sup 0}p, those are the N(1680)(5)/(2){sup +} and Δ(1950)(7)/(2){sup +}, contributing to the F-waves. (orig.)

  18. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of randomly distributed discrete scatterers and polarized backscattering ratio law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.

  19. Polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing of CdS nanocrystals in a nonresonant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, S.M.; Seo, J.T.; Yang, Q.; Creemore, L.; Battle, R.; Tabibi, B.; Yu, W.

    2006-01-01

    The third-order susceptibilities of various concentrations of TOPO-passivated CdS nanocrystals (NCs) with the size near the Bohr radius were investigated using polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in a nonresonant excitation region with 532 nm wavelength and 8 ns pulse width. The second hyperpolarizabilities left angle γ h xxxx right angle and left angle γ h xyyx right angle of the CdS NCs were ∝1.25 x 10 -42 m 5 /V 2 and ∝3.66 x 10 -43 m 5 /V 2 , respectively. The ratio (left angle γ h xyyx right angle / left angle γ h xxxx right angle) of the hyperpolarizabilities was ∝0.29 that indicated a large contribution of electronic polarization process to the third-order nonlinearity of CdS NCs. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E. [Departamento de Comunicaciones-iTEAM, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gimeno, B. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universitat de València c/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Edificio de Desarrollo Empresarial 9B, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE{sub 11} circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored.

  1. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E.; Gimeno, B.; Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.

    2014-01-01

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE 11 circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored

  2. Scattering of a cross-polarized linear wave by a soliton at an optical event horizon in a birefringent nanophotonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciret, Charles; Gorza, Simon-Pierre

    2016-06-15

    The scattering of a linear wave on an optical event horizon, induced by a cross-polarized soliton, is experimentally and numerically investigated in integrated structures. The experiments are performed in a dispersion-engineered birefringent silicon nanophotonic waveguide. In stark contrast with copolarized waves, the large difference between the group velocity of the two cross-polarized waves enables a frequency conversion almost independent of the soliton wavelength. It is shown that the generated idler is only shifted by 10 nm around 1550 nm over a pump tuning range of 350 nm. Simulations using two coupled full vectorial nonlinear Schrödinger equations fully support the experimental results.

  3. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  4. Separation of S-wave pseudoscalar and pseudovector amplitudes in π-p→π+π-n reaction on polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, R.; Lesniak, L.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-06-01

    A new analysis of S-wave production amplitudes for the reaction π - p→π + π - n on a transversely polarized target is performed. It is based on the results obtained by CERN-Cracow-Munich collaboration in the ππ energy range from 600 MeV to 1600 MeV at 17.2 GeV/c π - momentum. Energy-independent separation of the S-wave pseudoscalar amplitude (π exchange) from the pseudovector amplitude (a 1 exchange) is carried out using assumptions much weaker than those in all previous analyses. We show that, especially around 1000 MeV and around 1500 MeV, the a 1 exchange amplitude cannot be neglected. The scalar-isoscalar ππ phase shift are calculated using fairly weak assumptions. Our results are consistent both with the so called ''up'' and the well-known ''down'' solution, provided we choose those in which the S-wave phases increase slower with the effective ππ mass than the P-wave phases. Above 1420 MeV both sets of phase shifts increase with energy faster than in the experiment on an unpolarized target. This fact can be related to the presence of scalar resonance f o (1500). (author). 41 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  5. Probing the ionization wave packet and recollision dynamics with an elliptically polarized strong laser field in the nondipole regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J.; Willenberg, B.; Daněk, J.; Mayer, B. W.; Phillips, C. R.; Gallmann, L.; Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.; Keller, U.

    2018-01-01

    We explore ionization and rescattering in strong mid-infrared laser fields in the nondipole regime over the full range of polarization ellipticity. In three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions (3D PMDs) measured with velocity map imaging spectroscopy, we observe the appearance of a sharp ridge structure along the major polarization axis. Within a certain range of ellipticity, the electrons in this ridge are clearly separated from the two lobes that commonly appear in the PMD with elliptically polarized laser fields. In contrast to the well-known lobes of direct electrons, the sharp ridge is created by Coulomb focusing of the softly recolliding electrons. These ridge electrons are directly related to a counterintuitive shift of the PMD peak opposite to the laser beam propagation direction when the dipole approximation breaks down. The ellipticity-dependent 3D PMDs give access to different ionization and recollision dynamics with appropriate filters in the momentum space. For example, we can extract information about the spread of the initial wave packet and the Coulomb momentum transfer of the rescattering electrons.

  6. Dissection of Rovibronic Structure by Polarization-Resolved Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Daniel; Burns, Lori A.; Vaccaro, Patrick H.

    2009-08-01

    A synergistic theoretical and experimental investigation of stimulated emission pumping (SEP) as implemented in the coherent framework of two-color resonant four-wave mixing (TC-RFWM) spectroscopy is presented, with special emphasis directed toward the identification of polarization geometries that can distinguish spectral features according to their attendant changes in rotational quantum numbers. A vector-recoupling formalism built upon a perturbative treatment of matter-field interactions and a state-multipole expansion of the density operator allowed the weak-field signal intensity to be cast in terms of a TC-RFWM response tensor, RQ(K)(ɛ4*ɛ3ɛ2*ɛ1;Jg,Je,Jh,Jf), which separates the transverse characteristics of the incident and generated electromagnetic waves (ɛ4*ɛ3ɛ2*ɛ1) from the angular momentum properties of the PUMP and DUMP resonances (Jg,Je,Jh,Jf). For an isolated SEP process induced in an isotropic medium, the criteria needed to discriminate against subsets of rovibronic structure were encoded in the roots of a single tensor element, R0(0)(ɛ4*ɛ3ɛ2*ɛ1;Jg,Je,Jh,Je). By assuming all optical fields to be polarized linearly and invoking the limit of high quantum numbers, specific angles of polarization for the detected signal field were found to suppress DUMP resonances selectively according to the nature of their rotational branch and the rotational branch of the meshing PUMP line. These predictions were corroborated by performing SEP measurements on the ground electronic potential energy surface of tropolone in two distinct regimes of vibrational excitation, with the near-ultraviolet Ã1B2-X˜1A1 (π* ← π) absorption system affording the requisite PUMP and DUMP transitions.

  7. MECHANISMS OF PRIMARY RECEPTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF OPTICAL RANGE AS A BIOPHYSICAL BASIS OF POLARIZED LIGHT THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Hulyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An existence of separate functional system of electromagnetic balance regulation has been substantiated and a working conception of light puncture has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy ofthe polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation, foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows attaining a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about development of physiological responses (analgesia, bronchospasm control, immune stimulation and inhibition of peroxide oxidation of lipids to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic waves of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems, as well as via the acupuncture points. This confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy consists in combined (local and system exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.

  8. Approximate likelihood approaches for detecting the influence of primordial gravitational waves in cosmic microwave background polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen; Anderes, Ethan; Knox, Lloyd

    2018-05-01

    One of the major targets for next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments is the detection of the primordial B-mode signal. Planning is under way for Stage-IV experiments that are projected to have instrumental noise small enough to make lensing and foregrounds the dominant source of uncertainty for estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio r from polarization maps. This makes delensing a crucial part of future CMB polarization science. In this paper we present a likelihood method for estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio r from CMB polarization observations, which combines the benefits of a full-scale likelihood approach with the tractability of the quadratic delensing technique. This method is a pixel space, all order likelihood analysis of the quadratic delensed B modes, and it essentially builds upon the quadratic delenser by taking into account all order lensing and pixel space anomalies. Its tractability relies on a crucial factorization of the pixel space covariance matrix of the polarization observations which allows one to compute the full Gaussian approximate likelihood profile, as a function of r , at the same computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation.

  9. Polarization ratio property and material classification method in passive millimeter wave polarimetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yayun; Qi, Bo; Liu, Siyuan; Hu, Fei; Gui, Liangqi; Peng, Xiaohui

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetric measurements can provide additional information as compared to unpolarized ones. In this paper, linear polarization ratio (LPR) is created to be a feature discriminator. The LPR properties of several materials are investigated using Fresnel theory. The theoretical results show that LPR is sensitive to the material type (metal or dielectric). Then a linear polarization ratio-based (LPR-based) method is presented to distinguish between metal and dielectric materials. In order to apply this method to practical applications, the optimal range of incident angle have been discussed. The typical outdoor experiments including various objects such as aluminum plate, grass, concrete, soil and wood, have been conducted to validate the presented classification method.

  10. Electrically switchable photonic liquid crystal devices for routing of a polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushnova, Irina I.; Melnikova, Elena A.; Tolstik, Alexei L.; Muravsky, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    The new mode of LC alignment based on photoalignment AtA-2 azo dye where the refractive interface between orthogonal orientations of the LC director exists without voltage and disappeared or changed with critical voltage has been proposed. The technology to fabricate electrically controlled liquid crystal elements for spatial separation and switching of linearly polarized light beams on the basis of the total internal reflection effect has been significantly improved. Its distinctive feature is the application of a composite alignment material comprising two sublayers of Nylon-6 and AtA-2 photoalignment azo dye offering patterned liquid crystal director orientation with high alignment quality value q = 0 . 998. The fabricated electrically controlled spatially structured liquid crystal devices enable implementation of propagation directions separation for orthogonally polarized light beams and their switching with minimal crosstalk.

  11. Illuminating "spin-polarized" Bloch wave-function projection from degenerate bands in decomposable centrosymmetric lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The combination of space inversion and time-reversal symmetries results in doubly degenerate Bloch states with opposite spin. Many lattices with these symmetries can be constructed by combining a noncentrosymmetric potential (lacking this degeneracy) with its inverted copy. Using simple models, we unravel the evolution of local spin splitting during this process of inversion symmetry restoration, in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and sublattice coupling. Importantly, through an analysis of quantum mechanical commutativity, we examine the difficulty of identifying states that are simultaneously spatially segregated and spin polarized. We also explain how surface-sensitive experimental probes (such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, or ARPES) of "hidden spin polarization" in layered materials are susceptible to unrelated spin splitting intrinsically induced by broken inversion symmetry at the surface.

  12. Detecting primordial gravitational waves with circular polarization of the redshifted 21 cm line. I. Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Christopher M.; Mishra, Abhilash; Venumadhav, Tejaswi

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new method to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio r using the circular polarization of the 21 cm radiation from the pre-reionization epoch. Our method relies on the splitting of the F =1 hyperfine level of neutral hydrogen due to the quadrupole moment of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that unlike the Zeeman effect, where MF=±1 have opposite energy shifts, the CMB quadrupole shifts MF=±1 together relative to MF=0 . This splitting leads to a small circular polarization of the emitted 21 cm radiation. In this paper (Paper I in a series on this effect), we present calculations on the microphysics behind this effect, accounting for all processes that affect the hyperfine transition. We conclude with an analytic formula for the circular polarization from the Dark Ages as a function of pre-reionization parameters and the value of the remote quadrupole of the CMB. We also calculate the splitting of the F =1 hyperfine level due to other anisotropic radiation sources and show that they are not dominant. In a companion paper (Paper II) we make forecasts for measuring the tensor-to-scalar ratio r using future radio arrays.

  13. Scattering of E Polarized Plane Wave by Rectangular Cavity With Finite Flanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Elena D.

    2017-11-01

    The rigorous Method of Regularization is implemented for accurate analysis of wave scattering by rectangular cavity with finite flanges. The solution is free from limitations on problem parameters. The calculation of the induced surface current, bistatic radar cross section (RCS) and frequency dependence of monostatic RCS are performed with controlled accuracy in a wide frequency band.

  14. Stimulated wave of polarization in a one-dimensional Ising chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Khitrin, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated that in a one-dimensional Ising chain with nearest-neighbor interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a stimulated wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a flip of a single spin. This analytically solvable model illustrates mechanisms of quantum amplification and quantum measurement

  15. Integrated Sources of Polarization Entangled Photon Pair States via Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing in AlGaAs Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultavewuti, Pisek

    Polarization-entangled photon pair states (PESs) are indispensable in several quantum protocols that should be implemented in an integrated photonic circuit for realizing a practical quantum technology. Preparing such states in integrated waveguides is in fact a challenge due to polarization mode dispersion. Unlike other conventional ways that are plagued with complications in fabrication or in state generation, in this thesis, the scheme based on parallel spontaneous four-wave mixing processes of two polarization waveguide modes is thoroughly studied in theory and experimentation for the polarization entanglement generation. The scheme in fact needs the modal dispersion, contradictory to the general perception, as revealed by a full quantum mechanical framework. The proper modal dispersion balances the effects of temporal walk-off and state factorizability. The study also shows that the popular standard platform such as a silicon-on-insulator wafer is far from suitable to implement the proposed simple generation technique. Proven by the quantum state tomography, the technique produces a highly-entangled state with a maximum concurrence of 0.97 +/- 0:01 from AlGaAs waveguides. In addition, the devices directly generated Bell states with an observed fidelity of 0.92 +/- 0:01 without any post-generation compensating steps. Novel suspended device structures, including their components, are then investigated numerically and experimentally characterized in pursuit of finding the geometry with the optimal dispersion property. The 700 nm x 1100 nm suspended rectangular waveguide is identified as the best geometry with a predicted maximum concurrence of 0.976 and a generation bandwidth of 3.3 THz. The suspended waveguide fabrication procedure adds about 15 dB/cm and 10 dB/cm of propagation loss to the TE and TM mode respectively, on top of the loss in corresponding full-cladding waveguides. Bridges, which structurally support the suspended waveguides, are optimized using

  16. The EUMETSAT Polar System - Second Generation (EPS-SG) micro-wave imaging (MWI) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkov, B. R.; Accadia, C.; Klaes, D.; Canestri, A.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) will be followed by a second generation system called EPS-SG. This new family of missions will contribute to the Joint Polar System being jointly set up with NOAA in the timeframe 2020-2040. These satellites will fly, like Metop (EPS), in a sun synchronous, low earth orbit at 830 km altitude and 09:30 local time descending node, providing observations over the full globe with revisit times of 12 hours. EPS-SG consists of two different satellites configurations, the EPS-SGa series dedicated to IR and MW sounding, and the EPS-SGb series dedicated to microwave imaging and scatterometry. The EPS-SG family will consist of three successive launches of each satellite-type. The Microwave Imager (MWI) will be hosted on Metop-SGb series of satellites, with the primary objective of supporting Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at regional and global scales. Other applications will be observation of surface parameters such as sea ice concentration and hydrology applications. The 18 MWI instrument frequencies range from 18.7 GHz to 183 GHz. All MWI channels up to 89 GHz will measure V- and H polarizations. The MWI was also designed to provide continuity of measurements for select heritage microwave imager channels (e.g. SSM/I, AMSR-E). The additional sounding channels such as the 50-55 and 118 GHz bands will provide additional cloud and precipitation information over sea and land. This combination of channels was successfully tested on the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed - Microwave Sounder (NAST-M) airborne radiometer, and it is the first time that will be implemented in a conical scanning configuration in a single instrument. An overview of the EPS-SG programme and the MWI instrument will be presented.

  17. Discrete ordinate solution of the radiative transfer equation in the 'polarization normal wave representation'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.

    1991-01-01

    The transfer equations for normal waves in finite, inhomogeneous and plane-parallel magnetoactive media are solved using the discrete ordinate method. The physical process of absorption, emission, and multiple scattering are accounted for, and the medium may be forced both at the top and bottom boundary by anisotropic radiation as well as by internal anisotropic sources. The computational procedure is numerically stable for arbitrarily large optical depths, and the computer time is independent of optical thickness.

  18. Large-amplitude, circularly polarized, compressive, obliquely propagating electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves throughout the Earth's magnetosheath: low plasma β conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Kalamboli Highway, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Echer, E. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Avenida Astronautas, 1758, P.O. Box 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Glassmeier, K.-H., E-mail: remyaphysics@gmail.com [Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics (IGEP), Mendelssohnstr.3, D-38106, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-09-20

    During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ∼14 nT (peak to peak) in a ∼55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (∼55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (θ{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ∘}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma β (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-β plasma.

  19. Relativistic shocks in electron-positron plasmas, and polar cap accretion onto neutron stars: Two non-linear problems in astrophysical plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arons, J.

    1988-08-15

    I outline particle simulations and theory of relativistic shock waves in an e/sup +-/ plasma. Magnetic reflection of particles is an essential role in the shock structure. Instability of the reflected particles in the shock front produces intense extraordinary mode radiation. Such shocks are candidates for the particle accelerator in plerions and in extragalactic jets only if the upstream Poynting flux composes no more than 10% of the total. I summarize analytical and numerical studies of radiation dominated accretion onto the magnetic poles of neutron stars. The upper limit to the photon luminosity depends upon magnetic confinement, not upon the dragging of photons into the star. Numerical solutions show the plasma forms large scale ''photon bubbles.'' I suggest the percolative loss of radiation controls the pressure and therefore the limits of magnetic confinement. Loss of magnetic confinement through resistive interchange instability is suggested as a means of generating TeV to PeV voltage drops along the magnetic field. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Relativistic shocks in electron-positron plasmas, and polar cap accretion onto neutron stars: Two non-linear problems in astrophysical plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, J.

    1988-01-01

    I outline particle simulations and theory of relativistic shock waves in an e/sup +-/ plasma. Magnetic reflection of particles is an essential role in the shock structure. Instability of the reflected particles in the shock front produces intense extraordinary mode radiation. Such shocks are candidates for the particle accelerator in plerions and in extragalactic jets only if the upstream Poynting flux composes no more than 10% of the total. I summarize analytical and numerical studies of radiation dominated accretion onto the magnetic poles of neutron stars. The upper limit to the photon luminosity depends upon magnetic confinement, not upon the dragging of photons into the star. Numerical solutions show the plasma forms large scale ''photon bubbles.'' I suggest the percolative loss of radiation controls the pressure and therefore the limits of magnetic confinement. Loss of magnetic confinement through resistive interchange instability is suggested as a means of generating TeV to PeV voltage drops along the magnetic field. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. On the Partial-Wave Analysis of Mesonic Resonances Decaying to Multiparticle Final States Produced by Polarized Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Carlos W. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weygand, Dennis P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  2. Stochastic Modeling and Generation of Partially Polarized or Partially Coherent Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brynmor; Kim, Edward; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many new Earth remote-sensing instruments are embracing both the advantages and added complexity that result from interferometric or fully polarimetric operation. To increase instrument understanding and functionality a model of the signals these instruments measure is presented. A stochastic model is used as it recognizes the non-deterministic nature of any real-world measurements while also providing a tractable mathematical framework. A stationary, Gaussian-distributed model structure is proposed. Temporal and spectral correlation measures provide a statistical description of the physical properties of coherence and polarization-state. From this relationship the model is mathematically defined. The model is shown to be unique for any set of physical parameters. A method of realizing the model (necessary for applications such as synthetic calibration-signal generation) is given and computer simulation results are presented. The signals are constructed using the output of a multi-input multi-output linear filter system, driven with white noise.

  3. Monitoring the distributed impact wave on a concrete slab due to the traffic based on polarization dependence on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Xiaoyi; Zhang Chunshu; Li Wenhai; Eisa, M; El-Gamal, S; Benmokrane, B

    2008-01-01

    For the first time to our knowledge, distributed impact waves due to the highway traffic on concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars are monitored in real time using stimulated Brillouin scattering. The impact wave is caused by the traffic passing on the highway pavement at high speed (>100 km h −1 ), which induced pressure on the concrete slabs, and in turn created a local birefringence change, leading to variation of the local state of polarization change (SOP). The pump and probe waves of the stimulated Brillouin scattering 'see' the SOP change and react with a decrease of the Brillouin gain or loss signal, when the pump and probe waves have the same input polarization state. The frequency difference between the pump and probe waves are locked at the static-strain-related Brillouin frequency. Optical fiber was embedded throughout the concrete pavement continuously reinforced with FRP bars in Highway 40 East, Montréal, Quebec to detect impact waves caused by cars and trucks passing on these pavements at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. A spatial resolution of 2 m was used over a sensing length of 300 m

  4. Modelling of a plasma column sustained by a travelling circularly polarized electromagnetic wave (m=1 mode) in the presence of a constant axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Staikov, P.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    A set of equations modelling a low-pressure plasma column sustained by a travelling electromagnetic wave in the dipolar mode in the presence of a constant external magnetic field is presented. It is shown that, from a practical point of view, only the m = 1 mode (the right-hand-polarized wave) can sustain plasma columns in a wide region of gas-discharge conditions: plasma radius R, wave frequency ω, magnetic field B 0 and low pressures, irrespective of the nature of the gas. The main result of this study is that the magnetic field makes it possible to sustain a plasma column for values of σ smaller than σ cr = 0.3726, below which, in the absence of a magnetic field, the dipolar wave cannot produce a plasma. Moreover, at a fixed wave power, the magnetic field - in contrast with the case of plasma columns sustained by azimuthally symmetric waves - increases the plasma density and its axial gradient. The limit of an infinite external magnetic field (Ω → ∞) is also considered. A three-dimensional wave structure is obtained, and it indicates that the wave can be a generalized surface mode, a pure surface or a pseudosurface one. (author)

  5. The cervical cap (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

  6. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  7. Dynamics of a charged particle in a linearly polarized traveling wave. Hamiltonian approach to laser-matter interaction at very high intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.; Patin, D.

    2005-01-01

    The basic physical processes in laser-matter interaction, up to 10 17 W/cm 2 (for a neodymium laser) are now well understood, on the other hand, new phenomena evidenced in particle-in-cell code simulations have to be investigated above 10 18 W/cm 2 . Thus, the relativistic motion of a charged particle in a linearly polarized homogeneous electromagnetic wave is studied, here, using the Hamiltonian formalism. First, the motion of a single particle in a linearly polarized traveling wave propagating in a non-magnetized space is explored. The problem is shown to be integrable. The results obtained are compared to those derived considering a cold electron plasma model. When the phase velocity is close to c, it is shown that the two approaches are in good agreement during a finite time. After this short time, when the plasma response is taken into account no chaos take place at least when considering low densities and/or high wave intensities. The case of a charged particle in a traveling wave propagating along a constant homogeneous magnetic field is then considered. The problem is shown to be integrable when the wave propagates in vacuum. The existence of a synchronous solution is shown very simply. In the case when the wave propagates in a low density plasma, using a simplifying Lorentz transformation, it is shown that the system can be reduced to a time-dependent system with two degrees of freedom. The system is shown to be non-integrable, chaos appears when a secondary resonance and a primary resonance overlap. Finally, stochastic instabilities are studied by considering the motion of one particle in a very high intensity wave perturbed by one or two low intensity traveling waves. Resonances are identified and conditions for resonance overlap are studied. (authors)

  8. Modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization with a warm rapidly rotating half-wave plate on the Atacama B-Mode Search instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, A; Essinger-Hileman, T; Appel, J W; Gallardo, P; Irwin, K D; Jarosik, N; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Sievers, J L; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2014-02-01

    We evaluate the modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization using a rapidly rotating, half-wave plate (HWP) on the Atacama B-Mode Search. After demodulating the time-ordered-data (TOD), we find a significant reduction of atmospheric fluctuations. The demodulated TOD is stable on time scales of 500-1000 s, corresponding to frequencies of 1-2 mHz. This facilitates recovery of cosmological information at large angular scales, which are typically available only from balloon-borne or satellite experiments. This technique also achieves a sensitive measurement of celestial polarization without differencing the TOD of paired detectors sensitive to two orthogonal linear polarizations. This is the first demonstration of the ability to remove atmospheric contamination at these levels from a ground-based platform using a rapidly rotating HWP.

  9. Calibrated Mid-wave Infrared (IR) (MidIR) and Long-wave IR (LWIR) Stokes and Degree-of-Liner Polarization (DOLP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    radiance from natural surfaces, was recorded continuously using an Eppley long-wave pyranometer . The long-wave pyranometer is designed to measure radiance...meteorological parameters as well as the ambient radiant loading experienced during the test recorded by the Eppley long-wave pyranometer . Tables 1

  10. The right circular polarized waves in the three-dimensional anisotropic dispersive photonic crystals consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material as the Faraday effects considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Tang, Yi-Jun; Zhen, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the properties of the right circular polarized (RCP) waves in the three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, which the homogeneous anisotropic dielectric spheres (the uniaxial material) immersed in the magnetized plasma background, as the Faraday effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field at any time). The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the RCP waves in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, anisotropic dielectric filling factor, plasma frequency, and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the properties of first two anisotropic PBGs for the RCP waves are investigated in detail, respectively. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in fcc lattices at U and W points, and the complete PBGs for the RCP waves can be achieved compared to the conventional 3D dispersive PCs composed of the magnetized plasma and isotropic material. It is also shown that the first two anisotropic PBGs can be tuned by those parameters as mentioned above. Those PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the uniaxial material into such 3D PCs as the Faraday effects are considered

  11. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all...

  12. Determination of Focal Mechanisms of Non-Volcanic Tremors Based on S-Wave Polarization Data Corrected for the Effects of Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, K.; Uchide, T.; Takeda, N.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a method to determine focal mechanisms of non-volcanic tremors (NVTs) based on S-wave polarization angles. The successful retrieval of polarization angles in low S/N tremor signals owes much to the observation that NVTs propagate slowly and therefore they do not change their location immediately. This feature of NVTs enables us to use a longer window to compute a polarization angle (e.g., one minute or longer), resulting in a stack of particle motions. Following Zhang and Schwartz (1994), we first correct for the splitting effect to recover the source polarization angle (anisotropy-corrected angle). This is a key step, because shear-wave splitting distorts the particle motion excited by a seismic source. We then determine the best double-couple solution using anisotropy-corrected angles of multiple stations. The present method was applied to a tremor sequence at Kii Peninsula, southwest Japan, which occurred at the beginning of April 2013. A standard splitting and polarization analysis were subject to a one-minute-long moving window to determine the splitting parameters as well as anisotropy-corrected angles. A grid search approach was performed at each hour to determine the best double-couple solution satisfying one-hour average polarization angles. Most solutions show NW-dipping low-angle planes consistent with the plate boundary or SE-dipping high-angle planes. Because of 180 degrees ambiguity in polarization angles, the present method alone cannot distinguish compressional quadrant from dilatational one. Together with the observation of very low-frequency earthquakes near the present study area (Ito et al., 2007), it is reasonable to consider that they represent shear slip on low-angle thrust faults. It is also noted that some of solutions contain strike-slip component. Acknowledgements: Seismograph stations used in this study include permanent stations operated by NIED (Hi-net), JMA, Earthquake Research Institute, together with Geological Survey of

  13. Microtubule's conformational cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.

    1999-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow elongation of the unstable microtubule lattice remain unclear. It is usually thought that the GDP-liganded tubulin lattice is capped by a small layer of GTP- or GDP-P(i)-liganded molecules, the so called "GTP-cap". Here, we point-out that the elastic properties...

  14. Ferroelectric capped magnetization in multiferroic PZT/LSMO tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org; Shukla, A. K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Barrionuevo, D.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, Ram S. [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3343 (United States); Shannigrahi, Santiranjan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering - IMRE, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Scott, J. F. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 ST (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-30

    Self-poled ultra-thin ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) (5 and 7 nm) films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) (30 nm) to check the effect of polar capping on magnetization for ferroelectric tunnel junction devices. PZT/LSMO heterostructures with thick polar PZT (7 nm) capping show nearly 100% enhancement in magnetization compared with thin polar PZT (5 nm) films, probably due to excess hole transfer from the ferroelectric to the ferromagnetic layers. Core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of larger Mn 3s exchange splitting and higher Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio in the LSMO with 7 nm polar capping.

  15. A new high accuracy non-polynomial tension spline method for the solution of one dimensional wave equation in polar co-ordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Gopal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new three-level implicit nine point compact finite difference formulation of O(k2 + h4 based on non-polynomial tension spline approximation in r-direction and finite difference approximation in t-direction for the numerical solution of one dimensional wave equation in polar co-ordinates. We describe the mathematical formulation procedure in details and also discuss the stability of the method. Numerical results are provided to justify the usefulness of the proposed method.

  16. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  17. Separation of S-wave pseudoscalar and pseudovector amplitudes in {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}n reaction on polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, R.; Lesniak, L.; Rybicki, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-06-01

    A new analysis of S-wave production amplitudes for the reaction {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}n on a transversely polarized target is performed. It is based on the results obtained by CERN-Cracow-Munich collaboration in the {pi}{pi} energy range from 600 MeV to 1600 MeV at 17.2 GeV/c {pi}{sup -} momentum. Energy-independent separation of the S-wave pseudoscalar amplitude ({pi} exchange) from the pseudovector amplitude (a{sub 1} exchange) is carried out using assumptions much weaker than those in all previous analyses. We show that, especially around 1000 MeV and around 1500 MeV, the a{sub 1} exchange amplitude cannot be neglected. The scalar-isoscalar {pi}{pi} phase shift are calculated using fairly weak assumptions. Our results are consistent both with the so called ``up`` and the well-known ``down`` solution, provided we choose those in which the S-wave phases increase slower with the effective {pi}{pi} mass than the P-wave phases. Above 1420 MeV both sets of phase shifts increase with energy faster than in the experiment on an unpolarized target. This fact can be related to the presence of scalar resonance f{sub o}(1500). (author). 41 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  18. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  19. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidler, Rolf, E-mail: rsidler@gmail.com [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Carcione, José M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste (Italy); Holliger, Klaus [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  20. Cluster observations of band-limited Pc 1 waves associated with streaming H+ and O+ ions in the high-altitude plasma mantle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engebretson, M. J.; Kahlstorf, C. R.G.; Murr, D. L.; Posch, J. L.; Keiling, A.; Lavraud, B.; Reme, H.; Lessard, M. R.; Kim, E. -H.; Johnson, J. R.; Dombeck, J.; Grison, Benjamin; Robert, P.; Glassmeier, K.; H.; Decreau, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 117, A10 (2012), A10219/1-A10219/27 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/11/P848 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Magnetotail boundary layers * MHD waves and instabilities * Plasma waves and instabilities * Polar cap phenomena Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.174, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2012JA017982/abstract

  1. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  2. CAPS Simulation Environment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Douglas G.; Hoffman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The final design for an effective Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) will likely come after a number of competing designs have been simulated and evaluated. Because of the large number of design parameters involved in a system capable of detecting an object, accurately determining its orbit, and diverting the impact threat, a comprehensive simulation environment will be an extremely valuable tool for the CAPS designers. A successful simulation/design tool will aid the user in identifying the critical parameters in the system and eventually allow for automatic optimization of the design once the relationships of the key parameters are understood. A CAPS configuration will consist of space-based detectors whose purpose is to scan the celestial sphere in search of objects likely to make a close approach to Earth and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the orbits of those objects. Other components of a CAPS configuration may include systems for modifying the orbits of approaching objects, either for the purpose of preventing a collision or for positioning the object into an orbit where it can be studied or used as a mineral resource. The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a space-systems design, evaluation, and visualization software tool being leveraged to simulate these aspects of the CAPS study. The long-term goal of the SEE is to provide capabilities to allow the user to build and compare various CAPS designs by running end-to-end simulations that encompass the scanning phase, the orbit determination phase, and the orbit modification phase of a given scenario. Herein, a brief description of the expected simulation phases is provided, the current status and available features of the SEE software system is reported, and examples are shown of how the system is used to build and evaluate a CAPS detection design. Conclusions and the roadmap for future development of the SEE are also presented.

  3. Formation of the reflected and refracted s-polarized electromagnetic waves in the Fresnel problem for the boundary vacuum-metamaterial from the viewpoint of molecular optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.

    2016-11-01

    The refraction of a plane s-polarized electromagnetic wave on the vacuum-metamaterial interface is considered. Point particles with electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities are scattering elements of a medium. The medium consists of plane-parallel monolayers of electric or magnetic dipoles or Huygens elements influencing one another. Dipole fields are completely taken into account. The fields inside the medium and the reflected fields are calculated. The extinction theorem is analyzed in detail. The mechanism of rotation of the magnetic field vector during refraction is elucidated. A reason for the absence of the fourth wave propagating from the medium toward the boundary in the conventionally employed boundary conditions is elucidated. It is shown that, under certain conditions, this medium can behave as possessing a unity refractive index or zero refractive index at a preset frequency. In the case of a metamaterial layer of finite thickness shows the output region of the existence of backward waves outside metamaterial layer. It is shown that the refraction of the field in a homogeneous medium after the dielectric corresponds to Fermat's principle, and the interference nature of Fermat's principle is justified.

  4. LOSA-M3: multi-wave polarization scanning lidar for research of the troposphere and cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanenko, G. P.; Balin, Yu. S.; Klemasheva, M. G.; Penner, I. E.; Nasonov, S. V.; Samoilova, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Lidar is designed to study the aerosol fields of the troposphere and the polarization characteristics of crystal clouds. Two laser wavelengths are used - 1064 and 532 nm, elastic scattering signals and spontaneous Raman scattering of nitrogen (607 nm) are recorded. Lidar is made in a mobile version, allowing its transportation by road and working under expeditionary conditions. The lidar transceiver is placed on a scanning column, which allows to change the direction of sounding within the upper hemisphere at a speed of 1 degree per second. The polarization characteristics of the transmitter and receiver can be changed by rotating the phase plates synchronously with the the laser pulses. In combination with conical scanning of the lidar, this makes it possible to detect the anisotropy of scattering and the possible azimuthal orientation of the crystal particles.

  5. On second order effects in a galvanic cell : Part I. Polarization by a sine wave modulated high frequency current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, F. van der; Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented concerning the application of a high-frequency alternating current, amplitude modulated by a low-frequency sine wave, to a galvanic cell. Based on the correlation with the faradaic rectification technique, expressions are given for the low-frequency demodulation

  6. Polarization characteristics of standing wave electromagnetic fields at the ionospheric Alfvén resonator lower harmonics: altitude profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prikner, Karel; Feygin, F. Z.; Raita, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 338-341 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : ionospheric Alfvén resonator * EMIC waves * EISCAT measurements Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  7. Effect of a radial space-charge field on the movement of particles in a magneto-static field and under the influence of a circularly polarized wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, A.

    1967-06-01

    The effect of a circularly polarized wave on a cylindrical plasma in a axial magnetostatic field and a radial space-charge field proportional to r is studied. Single particle motion is considered. The electrostatic field produces a shift in the cyclotron resonance frequency and,in case of high charge density, a radial movement of the off-resonance particles. In these conditions a radio-frequency-particle resonance is also possible called 'drift-resonance'. The drift resonance can be produced, with whistler mode, and may be employed in ion acceleration. Afterwards parametrical resonances produced by space-charge field oscillations and collisional limits of theory are studied. Cases in which ion acceleration is possible are considered on the basis of a quantitative analysis of results. (author) [fr

  8. MCSCF wave functions for excited states of polar molecules - Application to BeO. [Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Yarkony, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A previously reported multi-configuration self-consistent field (MCSCF) algorithm based on the generalized Brillouin theorem is extended in order to treat the excited states of polar molecules. In particular, the algorithm takes into account the proper treatment of nonorthogonality in the space of single excitations and invokes, when necessary, a constrained optimization procedure to prevent the variational collapse of excited states. In addition, a configuration selection scheme (suitable for use in conjunction with extended configuration interaction methods) is proposed for the MCSCF procedure. The algorithm is used to study the low-lying singlet states of BeO, a system which has not previously been studied using an MCSCF procedure. MCSCF wave functions are obtained for three 1 Sigma + and two 1 Pi states. The 1 Sigma + results are juxtaposed with comparable results for MgO in order to assess the generality of the description presented here.

  9. Stochastic growth of localized plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2001-01-01

    Localized bursty plasma waves are detected by spacecraft in many space plasmas. The large spatiotemporal scales involved imply that beam and other instabilities relax to marginal stability and that mean wave energies are low. Stochastic wave growth occurs when ambient fluctuations perturb the system, causing fluctuations about marginal stability. This yields regions where growth is enhanced and others where damping is increased; bursts are associated with enhanced growth and can occur even when the mean growth rate is negative. In stochastic growth, energy loss from the source is suppressed relative to secular growth, preserving it far longer than otherwise possible. Linear stochastic growth can operate at wave levels below thresholds of nonlinear wave-clumping mechanisms such as strong-turbulence modulational instability and is not subject to their coherence and wavelength limits. These mechanisms can be distinguished by statistics of the fields, whose strengths are lognormally distributed if stochastically growing and power-law distributed in strong turbulence. Recent applications of stochastic growth theory (SGT) are described, involving bursty plasma waves and unstable particle distributions in type III solar radio sources, the Earth's foreshock, magnetosheath, and polar cap regions. It is shown that when combined with wave-wave processes, SGT also accounts for associated radio emissions

  10. Next generation sub-millimeter wave focal plane array coupling concepts: an ESA TRP project to develop multichroic focal plane pixels for future CMB polarization experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, N.; Bucher, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Deo, P.; DePetris, M.; Doherty, S.; Ghribi, A.; Gradziel, M.; Kuzmin, L.; Maffei, B.; Mahashabde, S.; Masi, S.; Murphy, J. A.; Noviello, F.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pagano, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Robinson, M.; Stompor, R.; Tartari, A.; van der Vorst, M.; Verhoeve, P.

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this activity is to develop new focal plane coupling array concepts and technologies that optimise the coupling from reflector optics to the large number of detectors for next generation sub millimetre wave telescopes particularly targeting measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this 18 month TRP programme the consortium are tasked with developing, manufacturing and experimentally verifying a prototype multichroic pixel which would be suitable for the large focal plane arrays which will be demanded to reach the required sensitivity of future CMB polarization missions. One major development was to have multichroic operation to potentially reduce the required focal plane size of a CMB mission. After research in the optimum telescope design and definition of requirements based on a stringent science case review, a number of compact focal plane architecture concepts were investigated before a pixel demonstrator consisting of a planar mesh lens feeding a backend Resonant Cold Electron Bolometer RCEB for filtering and detection of the dual frequency signal was planned for manufacture and test. In this demonstrator the frequencies of the channels was chosen to be 75 and 105 GHz in the w band close to the peak CMB signal. In the next year the prototype breadboards will be developed to test the beams produced by the manufactured flat lenses fed by a variety of antenna configurations and the spectral response of the RCEBs will also be verified.

  11. Instability of electromagnetic waves in a self-gravitating rotating magnetized dusty plasma with opposite polarity grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    By using the two fluid and Maxwell equations, the properties of electromagnetic waves in a rotating positive-negative dusty magnetoplasmas are investigated. It is found that the cross-coupling between the equilibrium dust flows and the perturbed magnetic field produces a Lorentz force that separates positive and negative dust grains. A new dispersion relation is derived and analyzed numerically. The effects of the dust grain radius, the equilibrium streaming speed, Jeans frequency, and the rotational frequency on the behavior of the real and imaginary parts of the wave frequency are examined. It is found that for small dust grain radius, the growth rate (the real frequency) increases (decreases) with the increase of the streaming dust speed and Jeans frequency. However, the dust rotational frequency does not have an important role in this case. For large dust grain radius, only the imaginary part of the wave frequency is presented. It is found that the rotational frequency (Jeans frequency and dust streaming speed) decreases (increase) the growth rate

  12. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, R D; Xicotencatl, M A; Granados, V D

    2004-01-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse

  13. Jordan Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, R. D.; Xicoténcatl, M. A.; Granados, V. D.

    2004-02-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  14. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-02-20

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  15. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves through polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification enabling transmission over 4000-km dispersion-managed TWRS fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the first Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin waves, consisting of eight 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier, enabling more than doubled reach in dispersion-managed transmission. © ...

  16. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  17. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherford, Brandon R.; Barnat, E. V.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3 × 10 9  cm s −1 , depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  18. South Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    4 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polgyon-cracked surface, into which deep, somewhat kidney-bean-shaped pits have formed. These are landscapes of the martian south polar residual cap. This view was captured during May 2005. Location near: 86.9oS, 5.1oW Image width: 1.5 km (0.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  19. Meteor radar observations of vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves near the southern polar mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I.-S.; Lee, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Jee, G.; Kim, Y.-H.; Choi, H.-J.; Chun, H.-Y.; Kim, Y. H.

    2017-04-01

    Vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) are retrieved from meteor radar winds observed at King Sejong Station (KSS: 62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica. IGW horizontal winds extracted from temporal band-pass filtering in regular time-height bins show the frequent occurrence of IGWs with the downward phase progression and the counterclockwise rotation of their horizontal wind vectors with time (i.e., upward energy propagation) near the mesopause region throughout the whole year of 2014. The vertical wavelengths of the observed IGWs roughly range from 14 km to more than 20 km, which is consistent with previous observational studies on the mesospheric IGWs over Antarctica. Stokes parameters and rotary spectra computed from the hodographs of the IGW horizontal wind components reveal that the intrinsic frequencies of the upward propagating IGWs are |f|-3|f| with seasonal variations of the relative predominance between |f|-2|f| and 2|f|-3|f|, where f is the Coriolis parameter at KSS. The hodograph analysis also indicates that the N-S propagation is dominant in austral summer, while the NE-SW propagation is pronounced in austral winter. The propagation direction is discussed in relation to the generation of IGWs due to dynamical imbalances occurring in the tropospheric and stratospheric jet flow systems. Ray tracing results indicate that the N-S propagation in summer may be due to the jet flow systems roughly north of KSS and the NE-SW propagation in winter may be either the SW propagation from the jet flow systems northeast of KSS or the NE propagation (around the South Pole) from the south of Australia and Southern Indian and Pacific Oceans.

  20. Low-Cost and High-Gain SIW Circularly Polarized Circular-Horn-Loaded Antenna for Broadband Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A wideband, low-cost and high-gain circularly polarized (CP circular-horn-loaded antenna based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technology operating at Ka band is presented. The proposed antenna, which is built on a single-layer substrate, consists of five parts: a short-ended SIW, a centro-symmetric wide slot, an L-shaped probe, a circular horn and a transition from SIW to air-filled rectangular waveguide for measurement. The slot is etched on the upper ground of the SIW, while the L-shaped probe for generating CP wave is printed inside the slot and connected to the SIW. A circular horn is also loaded on the surface of the SIW slot for high gain. Then, the proposed antenna with a dimension of 45×45×24.16 mm3 was fabricated and measured. The measured results show that the antenna has a wide impedance matching bandwidth of 28.6% from 30 to 40 GHz for |S11| ≤10 dB and a wide axial ratio (AR bandwidth of 22.8% from 31.5 to 39.6 GHz for AR ≤ 3 dB. The measured maximum gain is 15.6 dBi at 36 GHz with slight fluctuations over the 30–40-GHz frequency range. This kind of antenna merits low cost and easy integration with common differential circuits at the same time.

  1. Mode and polarization state selected guided wave spectroscopy of orientational anisotrophy in model membrane cellulosic polymer films: relevance to lab-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mark P.; Kanigan, Tanya

    2007-06-01

    Orientation anisotropies in structural properties relevant to the use of cellulosic polymers as membranes for lab-on-chips were investigated for cellulose acetate (CA) and regenerated cellulose (RC) films deposited as slab waveguides. Anisotropy was probed with mode and polarization state selected guided wave Raman spectroscopy. CA exhibits partial chain orientation in the plane of the film, and this orientation is independent of sample substrate and film preparation conditions. RC films also show in-plane anisotropy, where the hexose sugar rings lie roughly in the plane of the film. Explanations are given of the role of artifacts in interpreting waveguide Raman spectra, including anomalous contributions to Raman spectra that arise from deviations from right angle scattering geometry, mode-dependent contributions to longitudinal electric field components and TETM mode conversion. We explore diffusion profiles of small molecules in cellulosic films by adaptations of an inverse-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (iWKB) recursive, noninteger virtual mode index algorithm. Perturbations in the refractive index distribution, n(z), are recovered from the measured relative propagation constants, neffective,m, of the planar waveguide. The refractive index distribution then yields the diffusion profile.

  2. The third post-Newtonian gravitational wave polarizations and associated spherical harmonic modes for inspiralling compact binaries in quasi-circular orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Faye, Guillaume; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2008-01-01

    The gravitational waveform (GWF) generated by inspiralling compact binaries moving in quasi-circular orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation to general relativity. Our motivation is two-fold: (i) to provide accurate templates for the data analysis of gravitational wave inspiral signals in laser interferometric detectors; (ii) to provide the associated spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition to facilitate comparison and match of the high post-Newtonian prediction for the inspiral waveform to the numerically-generated waveforms for the merger and ringdown. This extension of the GWF by half a PN order (with respect to previous work at 2.5PN order) is based on the algorithm of the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, and mandates the computation of the relations between the radiative, canonical and source multipole moments for general sources at 3PN order. We also obtain the 3PN extension of the source multipole moments in the case of compact binaries, and compute the contributions of hereditary terms (tails, tails-of-tails and memory integrals) up to 3PN order. The end results are given for both the complete plus and cross polarizations and the separate spin-weighted spherical harmonic modes

  3. Lattice dynamics approach to determine the dependence of the time-of-flight of transversal polarized acoustic waves on external stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarar, K. S.; Pluta, M.; Amjad, U.; Grill, W.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the lattice dynamics approach the dependence of the time-of-flight (TOF) on stress has been modeled for transversal polarized acoustic waves. The relevant dispersion relation is derived from the appropriate mass-spring model together with the dependencies on the restoring forces including the effect of externally applied stress. The lattice dynamics approach can also be interpreted as a discrete and strictly periodic lumped circuit. In that case the modeling represents a finite element approach. In both cases the properties relevant for wavelengths large with respect to the periodic structure can be derived from the respective limit relating also to low frequencies. The model representing a linear chain with stiffness to shear and additional stiffness introduced by extensional stress is presented and compared to existing models, which so far represent each only one of the effects treated here in combination. For a string this effect is well known from musical instruments. The counteracting effects are discussed and compared to experimental results.

  4. Polarization splitter and polarization rotator designs based on transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H

    2008-11-10

    The transformation optics technique is employed in this paper to design two optical devices - a two-dimensional polarization splitter and a three-dimensional polarization rotator for propagating beams. The polarization splitter translates the TM- and the TE-polarized components of an incident beam in opposite directions (i.e., shifted up or shifted down). The polarization rotator rotates the polarization state of an incoming beam by an arbitrary angle. Both optical devices are reflectionless at the entry and exit interfaces. Design details and full-wave simulation results are provided.

  5. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  6. Brewster-angle 50%-50% beam splitter for p-polarized infrared light using a high-index quarter-wave layer deposited on a low-index prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2017-08-10

    A quarter-wave layer (QWL) of high refractive index, which is deposited on a transparent prism of low refractive index, can be designed to split an incident p-polarized light beam at the Brewster angle (BA) of the air-substrate interface into p-polarized reflected and transmitted beams of equal intensity (50% each) that travel in orthogonal directions. For reflection of p-polarized light at the BA, the supported QWL functions as a free-standing (unsupported) pellicle. An exemplary design is presented that uses Si x Ge 1-x QWL deposited on an IRTRAN1 prism for applications (such as Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometry) with a variable compositional fraction x in the 2-6 μm mid-IR spectral range.

  7. ATLAS end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Three scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Phyiscs at Novossibirsk with one of the end-caps of the ATLAS detector. The end-caps will be used to detect particles produced in the proton-proton collisions at the heart of the ATLAS experiment that are travelling close to the axis of the two beams.

  8. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    with CAP. We started with 34 audit variables. Through repeated cycles of testing, feedback and discussions, we reduced the number of indicators to 22 and time per audit from 20 to 10 minutes. Strategy for change To link the monitoring system with our patient pathway for CAP we established an improvement...... Designing a database Designing and testing a dashboard to present indicators in a balanced way Messages for others Auditing patients with a common disease as CAP is useful to identify areas for improvement for a large group of patients. The baseline audit can serve as a basis for a monitoring system......Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...

  9. Stochastic growth of localized plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Localized bursty plasma waves occur in many natural systems, where they are detected by spacecraft. The large spatiotemporal scales involved imply that beam and other instabilities relax to marginal stability and that mean wave energies are low. Stochastic wave growth occurs when ambient fluctuations perturb the wave-driver interaction, causing fluctuations about marginal stability. This yields regions where growth is enhanced and others where damping is increased; observed bursts are associated with enhanced growth and can occur even when the mean growth rate is negative. In stochastic growth, energy loss from the source is suppressed relative to secular growth, preserving it for much longer times and distances than otherwise possible. Linear stochastic growth can operate at wave levels below thresholds of nonlinear wave-clumping mechanisms such as strong-turbulence modulational instability and is not subject to their coherence and wavelength limits. Growth mechanisms can be distinguished by statistics of the fields, whose strengths are lognormally distributed if stochastically growing, power-law distributed in strong turbulence, and uniformly distributed in log under secular growth. After delineating stochastic growth and strong-turbulence regimes, recent applications of stochastic growth theory (SGT) are described, involving bursty plasma waves and unstable particle distributions in type II and III solar radio sources, foreshock regions upstream of the bow shocks of Earth and planets, and Earth's magnetosheath, auroras, and polar-caps. It is shown that when combined with wave-wave processes, SGT accounts for type II and III solar radio emissions. SGT thus removes longstanding problems in understanding persistent unstable distributions, bursty fields, and radio emissions observed in space

  10. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all ethnic groups can be affected. What are CAPS? Cryopyrin-associated autoinflammatory syndromes (CAPS) consist of three ... ears by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). How is CAPS treated? Medications that target interleukin-1 are very ...

  11. Coherence for vectorial waves and majorization

    OpenAIRE

    Luis, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We show that majorization provides a powerful approach to the coherence conveyed by partially polarized transversal electromagnetic waves. Here we present the formalism, provide some examples and compare with standard measures of polarization and coherence of vectorial waves.

  12. Millimeter-wave receiver design for plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Hansen, S. K.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2016-01-01

    Scattered millimeter waves entering from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are generally elliptically polarized. In order to convert the millimeter waves to linearly polarized waves (required for the detector), birefringent window assemblies (sapphire) ha...

  13. The First Ionization Potential Effect from the Ponderomotive Force: On the Polarization and Coronal Origin of Alfvén Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laming, J. Martin, E-mail: laming@nrl.navy.mil [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7684, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We investigate in more detail the origin of chromospheric Alfvén waves that give rise to the separation of ions and neutrals—the first ionization potential (FIP) effect—through the action of the ponderomotive force. In open field regions, we model the dependence of fractionation on the plasma upflow velocity through the chromosphere for both shear (or planar) and torsional Alfvén waves of photospheric origin. These differ mainly in their parametric coupling to slow mode waves. Shear Alfvén waves appear to reproduce observed fractionations for a wider range of model parameters and present less of a “fine-tuning” problem than do torsional waves. In closed field regions, we study the fractionations produced by Alfvén waves with photospheric and coronal origins. Waves with a coronal origin, at or close to resonance with the coronal loop, offer a significantly better match to observed abundances than do photospheric waves, with shear and torsional waves in such a case giving essentially indistinguishable fractionations. Such coronal waves are likely the result of a nanoflare coronal heating mechanism that, as well as heating coronal plasmas, releases Alfvén waves that can travel down to loop footpoints and cause FIP fractionation through the ponderomotive force as they reflect from the chromosphere back into the corona.

  14. The First Ionization Potential Effect from the Ponderomotive Force: On the Polarization and Coronal Origin of Alfvén Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laming, J. Martin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate in more detail the origin of chromospheric Alfvén waves that give rise to the separation of ions and neutrals—the first ionization potential (FIP) effect—through the action of the ponderomotive force. In open field regions, we model the dependence of fractionation on the plasma upflow velocity through the chromosphere for both shear (or planar) and torsional Alfvén waves of photospheric origin. These differ mainly in their parametric coupling to slow mode waves. Shear Alfvén waves appear to reproduce observed fractionations for a wider range of model parameters and present less of a “fine-tuning” problem than do torsional waves. In closed field regions, we study the fractionations produced by Alfvén waves with photospheric and coronal origins. Waves with a coronal origin, at or close to resonance with the coronal loop, offer a significantly better match to observed abundances than do photospheric waves, with shear and torsional waves in such a case giving essentially indistinguishable fractionations. Such coronal waves are likely the result of a nanoflare coronal heating mechanism that, as well as heating coronal plasmas, releases Alfvén waves that can travel down to loop footpoints and cause FIP fractionation through the ponderomotive force as they reflect from the chromosphere back into the corona.

  15. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  16. NATURE MANAGEMENT, LANDSCAPE AND THE CAP

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Floor M.; Godeschalk, Frans E.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of nature management, landscape and environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has gained momentum with the CAP reforms adopted in June 2003. The report explores instruments and approaches that contribute to the inte-gration of nature conservation and landscape concerns into the CAP. A broader use of the CAP instruments might help to achieve nature types in the Netherlands.

  17. 47 CFR 54.623 - Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cap. 54.623 Section 54.623 Telecommunication... Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.623 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual cap on federal universal service support for health care providers shall be $400 million per funding...

  18. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cap. 54.507 Section 54.507 Telecommunication... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual funding cap on federal universal service support for schools and libraries shall be $2.25 billion per...

  19. Neutron transition multipole moment for /sup 88/Sr(. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. ')/sup 88/Sr (2/sup +/, 1. 84 MeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.K.; Ray, S.; Majumdar, H.; Ghosh, S.K.; Samanta, C.; Dasgupta, P.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Banerjee, S.R.

    1989-04-01

    The neutron transition multipole moment, M/sub n/, for (0/sup +/..-->..2/sup +/, 1.84 MeV) transition is inferred by measuring the (..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..') angular distribution at E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 50 MeV and comparing it with a microscopic distorted-wave Born approximation calculation. Proton transition densities are taken from electron scattering data. M/sub n//M/sub p/ is found to be substantially less than N/Z in agreement with the (p,p') result.

  20. On an effect of interplanetary magnetic field on a distribution electric fields in the polar ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.M.; Barashkov, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    The problem on the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the distribution of electric fields in polar ionosphere is discussed. The problem on excitation of electric fields is reduced to the solution of the system of continuity equations for the current in three regions-northern polar cap, southern cap and the region outside the caps. It is shown that one succeeds in reproducing the observed types of distributions of electric fields

  1. Interferometric polarization control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Novak, Giles

    2006-01-01

    We develop the Jones and Mueller matrices for structures that allow control of the path length difference between two linear orthogonal polarizations and consider the effect of placing multiple devices in series. Specifically, we find that full polarization modulation (measurement of Stokes Q, U, and V) can be achieved by placing two such modulators in series if the relative angles of the beam-splitting grids with respect to the analyzer orientation are appropriately chosen. Such a device has several potential advantages over a spinning wave plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far infrared through millimeter: (i) The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings; (ii) the phase flexibility allows measurement of circular as well as linear polarization; and (iii) this architecture allows for both multiwavelength and broadband modulation. We also present initial laboratory results

  2. Polarized spectra calculation and continuous wave laser operation of Yb-doped disordered Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeqing; Chen, Aixi; You, Zhenyu; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-12-01

    A notable disorder crystal Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal with Yb3+ ion doping concentration of 10 at.% was grown by the Czochralski method. The polarized absorption, polarized emission, and polarized gain cross sections were systematically calculated. The laser operations were investigated with Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystals cut along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes. The highest output power of 3.88 W was obtained by using the b-cut Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal, with a slope efficiency of 62%. Additionally, it was confirmed that the output laser spectra were largely dependent on the output coupler.

  3. Polarized spectra calculation and continuous wave laser operation of Yb-doped disordered Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeqing; Chen, Aixi; You, Zhenyu; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    A notable disorder crystal Yb:Ca 3 La 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal with Yb 3+ ion doping concentration of 10 at.% was grown by the Czochralski method. The polarized absorption, polarized emission, and polarized gain cross sections were systematically calculated. The laser operations were investigated with Yb:Ca 3 La 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystals cut along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes. The highest output power of 3.88 W was obtained by using the b-cut Yb:Ca 3 La 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal, with a slope efficiency of 62%. Additionally, it was confirmed that the output laser spectra were largely dependent on the output coupler. (paper)

  4. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  5. On the polarization of Herbig Ae/Be star radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, N I; Shevchenko, V S

    1987-08-01

    Results of multicolor UBVRI polarimetry of 14 Herbig Ae/Be stars including 7 stars for which observations of polarization have been made for the first time are presented. 6 bright Herbig Ae/Be stars (As 441, AS 442, LK H..cap alpha..134, LK H..cap alpha..135, Lk H..cap alpha..169 and V517 Cyg) which belong to star formation region connected with IC 5070 show the polarization from 1 to 4.5. per cent with similar theta (approx. 180 deg) (basically of interstellar nature). The polarimetrical variability of BD+46 deg 3471, BD+65 deg 1637, HD 200775 and Lk H..cap alpha..234 is confirmed. Mechanismes of polarization in Herbig Ae/Be stars in circumstellar formations are discussed.

  6. Research on generating various polarization-modes in polarized illumination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinping; Lin, Wumei; Fan, Zhenjie

    2013-08-01

    With the increase of the numerical aperture (NA), the polarization of light affects the imaging quality of projection lens more significantly. On the contrary, according to the mask pattern, the resolution of projection lens can be improved by using the polarized illumination. That is to say, using the corresponding polarized beam (or polarization-mode) along with the off-axis illumination will improve the resolution and the imaging quality of the of projection lens. Therefore, the research on the generation of various polarization modes and its conversion methods become more and more important. In order to realize various polarization modes in polarized illumination system, after read a lot of references, we provide a way that fitting for the illumination system with the wavelength of 193nm.Six polarization-modes and a depolarized mode are probably considered. Wave-plate stack is used to generate linearly polarization-mode, which have a higher degree polarization. In order to generate X-Y and Y-X polarization mode, the equipment consisting of four sectors of λ/2 wave plate was used. We combined 16 sectors of λ/2 wave plate which have different orientations of the "slow" axis to generate radial and azimuthal polarization. Finally, a multi-polarization control device was designed. Using the kind of multi-polarization control device which applying this method could help to choose the polarization modes conveniently and flexibility for the illumination system.

  7. Diurnal and seasonal occurrence of polar patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the diurnal and seasonal variation of polar patches, as identified in two years of HF-radar data from Halley, Antarctica during a period near sunspot maximum, shows that there is a broad maximum in occurrence centred about magnetic noon, not local noon. There are minima in occurrence near midsummer and midwinter, with maxima in occurrence between equinox and winter. There are no significant correlations between the occurrence of polar patches and the corresponding hourly averages of the solar wind and IMF parameters, except that patches usually occur when the interplanetary magnetic field has a southward component. The results can be understood in terms of UT and seasonal differences in the plasma concentration being convected from the dayside ionosphere into the polar cap. In summer and winter the electron concentrations in the polar cap are high and low, respectively, but relatively unstructured. About equinox, a tongue of enhanced ionisation is convected into the polar cap; this tongue is then structured by the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field, but these Halley data cannot be used to separate the various competing mechanisms for patch formation. The observed diurnal and seasonal variation in the occurrence of polar patches are largely consistent with predictions of Sojka et al. (1994 when their results are translated into the southern hemisphere. However, the ionospheric effects of flux transfer events are still considered essential in their formation, a feature not yet included in the Sojka et al. model.

  8. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom...

  11. Kinetic Framework for the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Polar Wind System: Modeling Ion Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, R. W.; Barakat, A. R.; Eccles, V.; Karimabadi, H.; Omelchenko, Y.; Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Kistler, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    A Kinetic Framework for the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Polar Wind System is being developed in order to provide a rigorous approach to modeling the interaction of hot and cold particle interactions. The framework will include ion and electron kinetic species in the ionosphere, plasmasphere and polar wind, and kinetic ion, super-thermal electron and fluid electron species in the magnetosphere. The framework is ideally suited to modeling ion outflow from the ionosphere and plasmasphere, where a wide range for fluid and kinetic processes are important. These include escaping ion interactions with (1) photoelectrons, (2) cusp/auroral waves, double layers, and field-aligned currents, (3) double layers in the polar cap due to the interaction of cold ionospheric and hot magnetospheric electrons, (4) counter-streaming ions, and (5) electromagnetic wave turbulence. The kinetic ion interactions are particularly strong during geomagnetic storms and substorms. The presentation will provide a brief description of the models involved and discuss the effect that kinetic processes have on the ion outflow.

  12. First Experimental Demonstration of Coherent CAP for 300-Gb/s Metropolitan Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zibar, Darko

    2014-01-01

    We report on high - capacity coherent links employing dual polarization 2D - CAP modulation, allowing for signal design in 8 - dimensional space. Successful demodulation of 221 Gb/s (7.5 b/s/Hz) and 336 Gb/s (7.8 b/s/Hz) after 225 km and 451 km of standard single - mode fiber (SSMF) is achieved....

  13. Comparison of Mars Northern Cap Edge Advance and Recession Rates over the Last 6 Mars Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, T. N.; Cushing, G. E.; Langevin, Y.; Brown, A. J.; Themis Science Team; CRISM Science Team

    2011-12-01

    The most observable parameter that describes the Mars polar seasonal caps is their size, which has been measured since the days of Herschel. The advance and retreat of the polar cap from year to year may exhibit many clues to help elucidate little understood physical processes. For example, summertime heat storage in the regolith could delay the onset of seasonal CO2 cap formation. The evolution of the seasonal cap could also be directly affected by the thermal inertia of the near-surface regolith and place constraints on the depth of the ice table. Parameterizations of the seasonal cap edges provide useful constraints on atmospheric GCMs and mesoscale models. Longitudinally resolving the cap edges as they advance and retreat constrains the times when zonal means are appropriate and when longitudinal asymmetries make zonal means invalid. These same kinds of parameterizations can also be used when modeling other data that have low spatial resolutions, such as Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS )and Neutron Spectrometer (NS) data. By knowing where the cap edge should be, coarse spatial data can correct for subpixel mixing caused by large point-spread functions including both frosted and frost-free areas. The northern cap exhibits a near symmetric retreat, which has been well characterized at visible wavelengths by both telescopic and spacecraft observations. However, the advance of the cap has not been well characterized until the 21st century. Kieffer and Titus (2001) have used zonal means to observe surface temperature and visible bolometric albedo variations with season using MGS/TES. The TES thermal observations show an almost perfectly symmetrical advance; i.e., condensation at consistent latitude across all longitudes, with the most northern edge of the seasonal cap occurring between longitudes 245°E to 265°E and the most southern edge of the seasonal cap occurring between 280°E and 30°E. The advance of the northern cap typically leads the advance of the edge of

  14. Some polarization features of solar microwave bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uralov, A M; Nefed' ev, V P [AN SSSR, Irkutsk. Sibirskij Inst. Zemnogo Magnetizma Ionosfery i Rasprostraneniya Radiovoln

    1977-01-01

    Consequences of the thermal microwave burst model proposed earlier have been considered. According to the model the centimeter burst is generated at the heat propagation to the upper atmosphere. The polarization features of the burst are explained: a change of the polarization sign in a frequency range, a rapid change of the polarization sign in the development of a burst at a fixed frequency, a lack of time coincidence of the moments of the burst maximum of the polarization and of the total flux. From the model the consequences are obtained, which are still not confirmed by experiment. An ordinary-type wave prevails in the burst radiation, in the course of which the polarization degree falls on the ascending branch of bursts development. At the change of the polarization sign at the fixed frequency prior to the sign change an ordinary-type wave should be present in excess and later an extreordinary type wave.

  15. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  16. Singular behavior of the Laplace operator in polar spherical coordinates and some of its consequences for the radial wave function at the origin of coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelashvili, A.A.; Nadareishvili, T.P.

    2015-01-01

    Singular behavior of the Laplace operator in spherical coordinates is investigated. It is shown that in course of transition to the reduced radial wave function in the Schreodinger equation there appears additional term including the Dirac delta function, which was unnoted during the full history of physics and mathematics. The possibility of avoiding this contribution from the reduced radial equation is discussed. It is demonstrated that for this aim the necessary and sufficient condition is the requirement of the fast enough falling of the wave function at the origin. The result does not depend on character of potential - whether it is regular or singular. The various manifestations and consequences of this observation are considered as well. The cornerstone in our approach is the natural requirement that the solution of the radial equation at the same time must obey the full equation. [ru

  17. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Ying, Guan; Jin-Hui, Shi; Li-Boo, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and a non-polarizing beam splitter (NPBS) based on a photonic crystal (PC) directional coupler are demonstrated. The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap. The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method

  18. The Effects of High Frequency ULF Wave Activity on the Spectral Characteristics of Coherent HF Radar Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. M.; Yeoman, T. K.; Woodfield, E. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is now a common practice to employ ground-based radars in order to distinguish between those regions of the Earth's upper atmosphere which are magnetically conjugate to open and closed field lines. Radar returns from ionospheric irregularities inside the polar cap and cusp regions generally exhibit large spectral widths in contrast to those which exist on closed field lines at lower latitudes. It has been suggested that the so-called Spectral Width Boundary (SWB) might act as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary (OCFLB), which would then be an invaluable tool for investigating reconnection rates in the magnetosphere. The exact cause of the increased spectral widths observed at very high latitudes is still subject to considerable debate. Several mechanisms have been proposed. This paper compares a dusk-sector interval of coherent HF radar data with measurements made by an induction coil magnetometer located at Tromso, Norway (66° N geomagnetic). On this occasion, a series of transient regions of radar backscatter exhibiting large spectral widths are accompanied by increases in spectral power of ULF waves in the Pc1-2 frequency band. These observations would then, seem to support the possibility that high frequency magnetospheric wave activity at least contribute to the observed spectral characteristics and that such wave activity might play a significant role in the cusp and polar cap ionospheres.

  19. In-situ electron and ion measurements and observed gravity wave effects in the polar mesosphere during the MaCWAVE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Croskey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Langmuir probe electron and ion measurements from four instrumented rockets flown during the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically program are reported. Two of the rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in the summer of 2002. Electron scavenging by ice particulates produced reductions of the electron density in both sharp narrow (≈1–2 km layers and as a broad (≈13 km depletion. Small-scale irregularities were observed in the altitude regions of both types of electron depletion. The scale of the irregularities extended to wavelengths comparable to those used by ground-based radars in observing PMSE. In regions where ice particles were not present, analysis of the spectral signatures provided reasonable estimates of the energy deposition from breaking gravity waves. Two more instrumented rockets were flown from Esrange, Sweden, in January 2003. Little turbulence or energy deposition was observed during one flight, but relatively large values were observed during the other flight. The altitude distribution of the observed turbulence was consistent with observations of a semidiurnal tide and gravity wave instability effects as determined by ground-based lidar and radar measurements and by falling sphere measurements of the winds and temperatures (Goldberg et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006.

  20. Dual-polarized feed antenna apparatus and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarehraz, Mohammed (Inventor); Buckle, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Stefanakos, Elias (Inventor); Weller, Thomas (Inventor); Goswami, D. Yogi (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An antenna apparatus and method for the interception of randomly polarized electromagnetic waves utilizing a dual polarized antenna which is excited through a cross-slot aperture using two well-isolated orthogonal feeds.

  1. Coherent scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a polarized particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agre, M.Ya.; Rapoport, L.P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of the theory of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves by a polarized atom or molecular system. Peculiarities of the angular distribution and polarization peculiarities of scattered radiation are discussed

  2. Terahertz broadband polarization converter based on metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Zhao, Guozhong

    2018-01-01

    Based on the metamaterial composed of symmetrical split resonant ring, a broadband reflective terahertz polarization converter is proposed. The numerical simulation shows that it can rotate the polarization direction of linear polarized wave 90° in the range of 0.7-1.8THz and the polarization conversion ratio is over 90%. The reflection coefficient of the two electric field components in the diagonal direction is the same and the phase difference is 180° ,which leads to the cross-polarization rotation.In order to further study the physical mechanism of high polarization conversion, we analyze the surface current distribution of the resonant ring. The polarization converter has potential applications in terahertz wave plate and metamaterial antenna design.

  3. Partial-wave analysis of K/sup +/p elastic scattering. [Cross sections, polarization, dispersion relations, analytic smoothing threshold structure, 0. 78 to 2. 53 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutkosky, R E; Hicks, H R; Sandusky, J; Shih, C C [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Kelly, R L [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.; Miller, R C; Yokosawa, A [Argonne National Lab., Ill. (USA)

    1976-01-05

    K/sup +/p cross-section and polarization data have been analyzed in the momentum range 0.78-2.53 GeV/c. Single energy fits were made using an ACE parametrization which had no cutoff in J, was analytic and has Regge-asymptotic behaviour in the cut cos theta plane, and contained explicit contributions from P, rho, A2, ..lambda.., ..sigma.., and low-mass di-pion exchange. Direct channel analyticity constraints were imposed by a partial wave dispersion relation interpolation procedure, fitting expansions in regulated-norm optimal bases to each partial wave which entered as a search parameter in the single energy fits. Output from these two programs was then used for a simultaneous fit by a linearized least squares program which provided input for another iterative fitting cycle. No strong evidence for the existence of exotic resonances was found. The method of analytic smoothing, in comparison with 'shortest path' methods, is found to allow more significant threshold structure to appear in the amplitudes.

  4. High Frequency Backscatter from the Polar and Auroral E-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.

    The Earth's ionosphere contains collisional and partially-ionized plasma. The electric field, produced by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, drives the plasma bulk motion, also known as convection, in the F-region of the ionosphere. It can also destabilize the plasma in the E-region, producing irregularities or waves. Intermediate-scale waves with wavelengths of hundreds of meters can cause scintillation and fading of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, whereas the small-scale waves (lambda Network (SuperDARN). The theoretical part of this work focuses on symmetry properties of the general dispersion relation that describes wave propagation in the collisional plasma in the two-stream and gradient-drift instability regimes. The instability growth rate and phase velocity are examined under the presence of a background parallel electric field, whose influence is demonstrated to break the spatial symmetry of the wave propagation patterns. In the observational part of this thesis, a novel dual radar setup is used to examine E-region irregularities in the magnetic polar cap by probing the E-region along the same line from opposite directions. The phase velocity analysis together with raytracing simulations demonstrated that, in the polar cap, the radar backscatter is primarily controlled by the plasma density conditions. In particular, when the E-region layer is strong and stratified, the radar backscatter properties are controlled by the convection velocity, whereas for a tilted E-layer, the height and aspect angle conditions are more important. Finally, the fundamental dependence of the E-region irregularity phase velocity on the component of the plasma convection is investigated using two new SuperDARN radars at high southern latitudes where plasma convection estimates are accurately deduced from all SuperDARN radars in the southern hemisphere. Statistical analysis is presented showing that the predominance of the

  5. Stationary Planetary Waves in the Mars Winter Atmosphere as seen by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, Silvia; Pätzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Tyler, Leonard G.; Hinson, David P.

    2015-11-01

    Stationary (Rossby) Waves are excited by the interaction of the zonally varying topography with the strong eastward winter jets. They lead to distinctive longitudinal temperature variations which contribute significantly to the asymmetry of the seasonal polar CO2 ice caps and are also important for the dust redistribution in the planetary atmosphere.Radio Science profiles from the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment MaRS at northern and southern high latitudes are used to gain insight into winter stationary wave structures on both hemispheres.Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation measurements from the same season and year with their exceptionally good longitudinal and temporal coverage can be used to estimate the influence of transient eddies. Transient waves are especially important in the northern winter hemisphere.Wave number 2 stationary waves, driven by topography, are dominant in the northern winter latitudes while the wave number 1 wave is the most significant wave number during southern winter. The wave amplitudes peak around winter solstice on both hemispheres.Radio occultation measurements provide the unique opportunity to determine simultaneous measurements of temperature and geopotential height structures. Assuming geostrophic balance, these measurements can be used to determine meridional winds and eddy heat fluxes which provide further insight into the contribution of stationary waves to the heat exchange between the poles and the lower latitudes.

  6. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  7. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  8. The rebirth of the cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, J D; Grainger-Harrison, M

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to dispel myths surrounding the cervical cap, the historical and political factors affecting the cap's use in the U.S. are described. Clinical aspects of cap fitting are also included. The cervical cap has found only limited acceptance in the U.S. Skepticisms on the part of physicians may be the result of 2 factors: confusion of the cervical cap with intracervical devices used for artificial insemination and confusion with stem pessaries; and the lack of clinical research and statistical evaluation of efficacy rates. The latter factor prompted Tietze et al. to conduct the only U.S. statistical study of the cap in 1953. Of the 143 women studied, the pregnancy rate was 7.6/100 years of use. Of the 28 unplanned pregnancies, 6 were related to faulty technique or omission of a spermicide and 10 were instances of admittedly irregular use. When these failures are omitted, the theoretical effectiveness rate is about 98%. Some practitioners are concerned about an increased incidence of cervical erosion with cap use. Possibly currently conducted studies will show that cap and spermicide users have a lower incidence of cervical erosion than women using no contraceptive method. Study findings suggest that the cervical cap may afford protection without any spermicidal supplement, but the use of spermicides continues to be recommended to clients. Advantages of the cervical cap include the following: it can be left in place longer than a diaphragm without additional applications of spermicide in the vagina; and the insertion of the cap is unrelated to the time of intercourse. Despite research on toleration of the cap for 3 weeks at a time, it is recommended that the cap be worn for only a few days at a time. At this time there are no manufacturers of cervical caps for contraceptive use in the U.S. The cap is now being imported from England and it costs $6.00. A factor that has made the cap unpopular with many physicians is the lengthy time required for fitting. An

  9. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  10. Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, Elmer; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal component for S waves. More importantly, Earth's rotation leads to a slow rotation of the transverse polarization of S waves; during the propagation of S waves the particle motion behaves just like a Foucault pendulum. The polarization plane of shear waves counteracts Earth's rotation and rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The rotation rate is independent of the wave frequency and is purely geometric, like the Berry phase. Using the polarization of ScS and ScS2 waves, we show that the Foucault-like rotation of the S wave polarization can be observed. This can affect the determination of source mechanisms and the interpretation of observed SKS splitting.

  11. On radio frequency wave induced radial transport and wave helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1992-09-01

    Expressions for wave induced radial transport are derived allowing simple estimates. The transport is enhanced due to the presence of poloidal magnetostatic field and in the vicinity of the ion cyclotron resonance. The direction of the wave induced transport depends also on the wave polarization. (author) 19 refs

  12. Mono-energetic ion beam acceleration in solitary waves during relativistic transparency using high-contrast circularly polarized short-pulse laser and nanoscale targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Shah, R. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Fernandez, J. C.; Jung, D.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent experiments at the Trident laser facility, quasi-monoenergetic ion beams have been obtained from the interaction of an ultraintense, circularly polarized laser with a diamond-like carbon target of nm-scale thickness under conditions of ultrahigh laser pulse contrast. Kinetic simulations of this experiment under realistic laser and plasma conditions show that relativistic transparency occurs before significant radiation pressure acceleration and that the main ion acceleration occurs after the onset of relativistic transparency. Associated with this transition are a period of intense ion acceleration and the generation of a new class of ion solitons that naturally give rise to quasi-monoenergetic ion beams. An analytic theory has been derived for the properties of these solitons that reproduces the behavior observed in kinetic simulations and the experiments.

  13. Scattering of polarized electrons from polarized targets: Coincidence reactions and prescriptions for polarized half-off-shell single-nucleon cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J.A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Donnelly, T.W.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Poulis, G.I.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1993-01-01

    Coincidence reactions of the type vector A( vector e, e'N)B involving the scattering of polarized electrons from polarized targets are discussed within the context of the plane-wave impulse approximation. Prescriptions are developed for polarized half-off single-nucleon cross sections; the different prescriptions are compared for typical quasi-free kinematics. Illustrative results are presented for coincidence polarized electron scattering from typical polarized nuclei. (orig.)

  14. Waves in Strong Centrifugal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    Dynamics of waves generated by scopes in gas centrifuges (GC) for isotope separation is considered. The centrifugal acceleration in the GC reaches values of the order of 106g. The centrifugal and Coriolis forces modify essentially the conventional sound waves. Three families of the waves with different polarization and dispersion exist in these conditions. Dynamics of the flow in the model GC Iguasu is investigated numerically. Comparison of the results of the numerical modeling of the wave dynamics with the analytical predictions is performed. New phenomena of the resonances in the GC is found. The resonances occur for the waves polarized along the rotational axis having the smallest dumping due to the viscosity.

  15. Analysis of RNA binding by the dengue virus NS5 RNA capping enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney R Henderson

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses are small, capped positive sense RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Dengue virus and other related flaviviruses have evolved RNA capping enzymes to form the viral RNA cap structure that protects the viral genome and directs efficient viral polyprotein translation. The N-terminal domain of NS5 possesses the methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase activities necessary for forming mature RNA cap structures. The mechanism for flavivirus guanylyltransferase activity is currently unknown, and how the capping enzyme binds its diphosphorylated RNA substrate is important for deciphering how the flavivirus guanylyltransferase functions. In this report we examine how flavivirus NS5 N-terminal capping enzymes bind to the 5' end of the viral RNA using a fluorescence polarization-based RNA binding assay. We observed that the K(D for RNA binding is approximately 200 nM Dengue, Yellow Fever, and West Nile virus capping enzymes. Removal of one or both of the 5' phosphates reduces binding affinity, indicating that the terminal phosphates contribute significantly to binding. RNA binding affinity is negatively affected by the presence of GTP or ATP and positively affected by S-adensyl methoninine (SAM. Structural superpositioning of the dengue virus capping enzyme with the Vaccinia virus VP39 protein bound to RNA suggests how the flavivirus capping enzyme may bind RNA, and mutagenesis analysis of residues in the putative RNA binding site demonstrate that several basic residues are critical for RNA binding. Several mutants show differential binding to 5' di-, mono-, and un-phosphorylated RNAs. The mode of RNA binding appears similar to that found with other methyltransferase enzymes, and a discussion of diphosphorylated RNA binding is presented.

  16. In-situ electron and ion measurements and observed gravity wave effects in the polar mesosphere during the MaCWAVE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Croskey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Langmuir probe electron and ion measurements from four instrumented rockets flown during the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically program are reported. Two of the rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in the summer of 2002. Electron scavenging by ice particulates produced reductions of the electron density in both sharp narrow (≈1–2 km layers and as a broad (≈13 km depletion. Small-scale irregularities were observed in the altitude regions of both types of electron depletion. The scale of the irregularities extended to wavelengths comparable to those used by ground-based radars in observing PMSE. In regions where ice particles were not present, analysis of the spectral signatures provided reasonable estimates of the energy deposition from breaking gravity waves.

    Two more instrumented rockets were flown from Esrange, Sweden, in January 2003. Little turbulence or energy deposition was observed during one flight, but relatively large values were observed during the other flight. The altitude distribution of the observed turbulence was consistent with observations of a semidiurnal tide and gravity wave instability effects as determined by ground-based lidar and radar measurements and by falling sphere measurements of the winds and temperatures (Goldberg et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006.

  17. Architectures and assessment of next-generation CMB polarization instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cosmological inflation predicts a background of gravitational waves that imprint a characteristic polarized pattern on the CMB. This signal is degraded by...

  18. ATLAS electromagnetic end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    After the insertion of the first end-cap into this cryostat, the team proceed to the wiring operations. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap, whch must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. The energy of photons, electrons and positrons will be measured as they pass through the end-cap having been created along the line of the beams in the proton-proton collisions.

  19. Baryon spectroscopy with polarization observables from CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Steffen [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The spectrum of nucleon excitations is dominated by broad and overlapping resonances. Polarization observables in photoproduction reactions are key in the study of these excitations. They give indispensable constraints to partial-wave analyses and help clarify the spectrum. A series of polarized photoproduction experiments have been performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). These measurements include data with linearly and circularly polarized tagged-photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized proton and deuterium targets, and recoil polarizations through the observation of the weak decay of hyperons. An overview of these studies and recent results will be given.

  20. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  1. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  2. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  3. Long-period polar rain variations, solar wind and hemispherically symmetric polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, K.; Meng, C.

    1987-01-01

    On the basic of electron data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F2 satellite the long-period variations of the polar rain flux are examined for four consecutive solar rotations. It is clearly demonstrated that the asymmetric enhancement of the polar rain flux is strongly controlled by the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). However, the orbit-to-orbit and day-to-day variations of the polar rain flux are detected even during a very stable sector period, and the polar rain flux does not have any clear relationship to the magnitude of the IMF B/sub x/ or B/sub y/. Thus the polarity of B/sub x/ controls only the accessibility of a polar region. It is also noticed that the intensity of polar rain fluxes does not show any relationship to the density of the solar wind, suggesting that the origin of the polar rain electrons is different from the commonly observed part of the solar wind electron distribution function. In addition to the asymmetric polar rain distribution, increasing polar rain fluxes of similar high intensity are sometimes detected over both polar caps. An examination of more than 1 year's data from the DMSP F2 and F4 satellites shows that simultaneous intense uniform precipitations (>10 7 electrons/cm 2 s sr) over both polar caps are not coincidental; it also shows that the spectra are similar. The occurrence of hemispherically symmetric events is not common. They generally are observed after an IMF sector transition period, during unstable periods in the sector structure, and while the solar wind density is high. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  4. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  5. Study of small partial-wave contributions in the neighbourhood of dominating resonance states of the proton by linearly polarized photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, D.

    2007-04-01

    The reaction p(e, e'p)π 0 has been studied at Q 2 =0.2 (GeV/c) 2 in the region of W=1232 MeV. From measurements left and right of vector q cross section asymmetries ρ LT have been obtained in forward ρ LT (θ π 0 cm =20 )=(-11.68±2.36 stat ±2.36 sys ) and backward ρ LT (θ π 0 cm =160 )=(12.18±0.27 stat ±0.82 sys ) π 0 kinematics, from which R{S 1+ * M 1+ }/ vertical stroke M 1+ vertical stroke 2 and R{S 0+ * M 1+ }/ vertical stroke M 1+ vertical stroke 2 could be determined. Using linear polarised tagged photon beams of energy up to E γ ≅1.5 GeV the photon beam asymmetry Σ has been measured in the reaction p(vector γ, η)p. Based on coherent bremsstrahlung off a diamond crystal a maximum polarisation of P γ =49% has been achieved at E γ =1305 MeV. The beam asymmetry has been extracted from the azimuthal modulation of the cross section using both decay modes of the η into two photons and 3π 0 . Large asymmetries up to 80% are observed, in agreement with previous measurements where already available. There is also agreement with standard model calculations. However, the required partial waves to describe the measurements differ significantly. (orig.)

  6. Optical neutron polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A neutron wave will be refracted by an appropriately varying potential. Optical neutron polarizers use spatially varying, spin- dependent potentials to refract neutrons of opposite spin states into different directions, so that an unpolarized beam will be split into two beams of complementary polarization by such a device. This paper will concentrate on two methods of producing spin-dependent potentials which are particularly well-suited to polarizing cold neutron beams, namely thin-film structures and field-gradient techniques. Thin-film optical devices, such as supermirror multilayer structures, are usually designed to deviate only one spin-state, so that they offer the possibility of making insertion (transmission) polarizers. Very good supermirrors may now be designed and fabricated, but it is not always straightforward to design mirror-based devices which are useful in real (divergent beam) applications, and some practical configurations will be discussed. Field-gradient devices, which are usually based on multipolar magnets, have tended to be too expensive for general use, but this may change with new developments in superconductivity. Dipolar and hexapolar configurations will be considered, with emphasis on the focusing characteristics of the latter. 21 refs., 7 figs

  7. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer: Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to detect the characteristic signature of gravity waves created during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. PIPER combines cold /I.G K\\ optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. I will discuss the current status and plans for the PIPER instrument.

  8. Does uncertainty justify intensity emission caps?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies often set 'relative' or 'intensity' emission caps, i.e. emission limits proportional to the polluting firm's output. One of the arguments put forth in favour of relative caps is based on the uncertainty on business-as-usual output: if the firm's production level is higher than expected, so will be business-as-usual emissions, hence reaching a given level of emissions will be more costly than expected. As a consequence, it is argued, a higher emission level should be allowed if the production level is more important than expected. We assess this argument with a stochastic analytical model featuring two random variables: the business-as-usual emission level, proportional to output, and the slope of the marginal abatement cost curve. We compare the relative cap to an absolute cap and to a price instrument, in terms of welfare impact. It turns out that in most plausible cases, either a price instrument or an absolute cap yields a higher expected welfare than a relative cap. Quantitatively, the difference in expected welfare is typically very small between the absolute and the relative cap but may be significant between the relative cap and the price instrument. (author)

  9. Microtubule dynamics: Caps, catastrophes, and coupled hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Holy, T.E.; Leibler, S.

    1996-01-01

    An effective theory is formulated for the dynamics of the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cap believed to stabilize growing microtubules. The theory provides a ''coarse-grained'' description of the cap's dynamics. ''Microscopic'' details, such as the microtubule lattice structure and the fate of its...

  10. Durability of Capped Wood Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Mark J. Manning; Damien P. Slowik

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers of wood plastic composites (WPCs) have recently introduced capped decking to their product lines. These new materials have begun to take market share from the previous generation of uncapped products that possessed a homogenous composition throughout the thickness of their cross-section. These capped offerings have been introduced with claims that the...

  11. Polarization states encoded by phase modulation for high bit rate quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaobao; Tang Zhilie; Liao Changjun; Lu Yiqun; Zhao Feng; Liu Songhao

    2006-01-01

    We present implementation of quantum cryptography with polarization code by wave-guide type phase modulator. At four different low input voltages of the phase modulator, coder encodes pulses into four different polarization states, 45 o , 135 o linearly polarized or right, left circle polarized, while the decoder serves as the complementary polarizers

  12. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  13. Reflection and trapping of Alfvén waves in the open field lines of a neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Mofiz, U A

    2002-01-01

    We have studied Alfvén wave propagation in the polar cap region of a neutron star at isothermal atmosphere using linear MHD equations. The study demonstrates reflection and trapping of the wave from the steep gradient region of Alfvén speed. The trapping efficiency depends sensitively on a dimensionless parameter $\\beta_{g}$ which is proportional to the mass and inversely proportional to thetemperature of the plasma. A scaling of radius, Schwarzchild radius and acceleration due to gravity of neutron stars of different masses are performed. The effective temperature of hydrostatic equilibrium is also scaled. For a neutron star with mass 1.4 solar mass and radius 10 km the temperature is to be of $10^8$ degree K. The Alfvén wave propagation near the event horizon is investigated. It is found that the wave length of Alfvén wave is shorter near the horizon while it becomes longer away from it. Pulsar wind acceleration by Alfvén wave is also examined. It is found that wave pressure force is predominant for lo...

  14. Variations of the electron concentration in the polar ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasovitin, Yu.K.; Shushkova, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of constructing an empirical model of electron concentration in the polar ionosphere is considered. The results of rocket measurements carried out at Fort Churchill and on the Hays island at 70-210 km heights are used to analyse the distribution of electron concentration in the non-illuminated sector of the auroral oval, in the subauroral ionosphere and in the polar cap. Taking account of magnetospheric-ionospheric relationships and the geomagnetic environment, certain regularities in the distribution of electron concentration in the polar field, which may serve as a basis for constructing an empirical model of the polar ionosphere have been identified

  15. Electromagnetic waves in gravitational wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, M.; Bini, D.; Ortolan, A.; Fortini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have considered the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a space-time representing an exact gravitational plane wave and calculated the induced changes on the four-potential field Aμ of a plane electromagnetic wave. By choosing a suitable photon round-trip in a Michelson interferometer, we have been able to identify the physical effects of the exact gravitational wave on the electromagnetic field, i.e. phase shift, change of the polarization vector, angular deflection and delay. These results have been exploited to study the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector beyond the linear approximation of the general theory of relativity. A much more detailed examination of this problem can be found in our paper recently published in Classical and Quantum Gravity (28 (2011) 235007).

  16. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugeki, Ryuji; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of...

  18. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  19. Cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J. (Inventor); Kory, Carol (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT for simultaneously communicating left and right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves is adjustable to obtain efficient propagation and reception of electromagnetic waves. The antenna includes a circular waveguide having an orthomode transducer utilizing first and second pins longitudinally spaced apart and oriented orthogonally with respect to each other. Six radially-oriented adjustable polarizer screws extend from the exterior to the interior of the waveguide. A septum intermediate the first and second pins is aligned with the first pin. Adjustment of the polarizer screws enables maximized propagation of and/or response to left hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the first pin while simultaneously enabling maximized propagation of and/or response to right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the second pin.

  20. Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine...... residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant...

  1. CAP FUTURE: WHAT DO STAKEHOLDERS WANT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr BLIZKOVSKY

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP is at the crossroads of several policy interests. It is scrutinised by farming and environmental communities as well as by the food industry, regional authorities, research and public sector. The paper analyses the recent consultation process undertaken by the European Commission. The paper concludes that among the key reform issues are: the level of the financial support to the CAP; the continued environmental and other public goods orientation of the CAP and generational renewal. In addition, the focus on result orientation and reduction of the administrative burden can be expected. The relevant European Commission proposals are foreseen around summer 2018.

  2. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice−Albedo Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Brian E. J. [Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany (State University of New York), 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Cronin, Timothy W. [Program in Atmospheres, Oceans, and Climate, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bitz, Cecilia M., E-mail: brose@albany.edu [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, MS 351640, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1640 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice−albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  4. Multi-Wave Mixing Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yanpeng

    2009-01-01

    "Multi-Wave Mixing Processes - From Ultrafast Polarization Beats to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency" discusses the interactions of efficient multi-wave mixing (MWM) processes enhanced by atomic coherence in multilevel atomic systems. It covers topics in five major areas: attosecond and femtosecond polarization beats of four-wave mixing (FWM) processes; heterodyne detection of FWM, six-wave mixing (SWM) and eight-wave mixing (EWM) processes; Raman and Rayleigh enhanced polarization beats; coexistence and interactions of MWM processes via electromagnetically induced transparency(EIT); multi-dressing MWM processes. The book is intended for researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Nonlinear Optics. Dr. Yanpeng Zhang is a professor at the Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University. Dr. Min Xiao is a professor of Physics at University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, U.S.A.

  5. Towards 400GBASE 4-lane Solution Using Direct Detection of MultiCAP Signal in 14 GHz Bandwidth per Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Tianjian, Zuo; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of 102 Gbit/s transmission over a 15km single wavelength and polarization fiber link with 14GHz 3dB bandwidth. Novel multiband CAP signaling allows for a 4-lane 400GBASE long reach solution....

  6. Nonlinear radiation of waves at combination frequencies due to radiation-surface wave interaction in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.

    1992-09-01

    Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs

  7. C-CAP Niihau 2005 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 1...

  8. C-CAP Land Cover, Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  9. Recessed floating pier caps for highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Presented are alternate designs for two existing bridges in Virginia - one with steel beams and the other with prestressed concrete beams - whereby the pier caps are recessed within the depth of the longitudinal beams. The purpose of this recession i...

  10. C-CAP Land Cover, Niihau, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  11. Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Aircraft Requirement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercher, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force Audit Agency (AFAA) concluded in its Report of Audit EB0980013 (13 May 98), Air Force Oversight of CY 1996 Civil Air Patrol Corporation Activities, CAP-USAF, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6323...

  12. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  13. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  14. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) contains over 100 data sets pertaining to permafrost and frozen ground topics. It also contains detailed...

  15. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  16. Corrective action program (CAP) in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    The Corrective Action Process (CAP) is one of the most important key issues on the Nuclear Reactor Safety. The experiences on the nuclear power plant operations, including safety culture, maintenance, and so on, should be continuously evaluated and influenced to the KAIZEN (improvement) of the NPP operations. The review of the CAP system in US will be useful for the NPP safety in Japan. (author)

  17. Multi-band circular polarizer based on a twisted triple split-ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Song; Huang Xiao-Jun; Yang He-Lin; Xiao Bo-Xun; Jin Yan

    2014-01-01

    A multi-band circular polarizer using a twisted triple split-ring resonator (TSRR) is presented and studied numerically and experimentally. At four distinct resonant frequencies, the incident linearly polarized wave can be transformed into left/right-handed circularly polarized waves. Numerical simulation results show that a y-polarized wave can be converted into a right-handed circularly polarized wave at 5.738 GHz and 9.218 GHz, while a left-handed circularly polarized wave is produced at 7.292 GHz and 10.118 GHz. The experimental results are in agreement with the numerical results. The surface current distributions are investigated to illustrate the polarization transformation mechanism. Furthermore, the influences of the structure parameters of the circular polarizer on transmission spectra are discussed as well. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. A nucleation theory of cell surface capping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Wester, M.J.; Perelson, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new theory of cell surface capping based on the principles of nucleation. When antibody interacts with cell surface molecules, the molecules initially form small aggregates called patches that later coalesce into a large aggregate called a cap. While a cap can form by patches being pulled together by action of the cell''s cytoskeleton, in the case of some molecules, disruption of the cytoskeleton does not prevent cap formation. Diffusion of large aggregates on a cell surface is slow, and thus we propose that a cap can form solely through the diffusion of small aggregates containing just one or a few cell surface molecules. Here we consider the extreme case in which single molecules are mobile, but aggregates of all larger sizes are immobile. We show that a set of patches in equilibrium with a open-quotes seaclose quotes of free cell surface molecules can undergo a nucleation-type phase transition in which the largest patch will bind free cell surface molecules, deplete the concentration of such molecules in the open-quotes seaclose quotes and thus cause the other patches to shrink in size. We therefore show that a cap can form without patches having to move, collide with each other, and aggregate

  19. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  20. /sup 58,60,62/Ni (. cap alpha. ,p) three--nucleon transfer reactions and. cap alpha. optical potential ambiguities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanda, Wang; Xiuming, Bao; Zhiqiang, Mao; Rongfang, Yuan; Keling, Wen; Binyin, Huang; Zhifu, Wang; Shuming, Li; Jianan, Wang; Zuxun, Sun; others, and

    1985-11-01

    The differential cross sections are measured using 26.0 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) /sup 58,62/Ni and /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha..,p) /sup 61,65/Cu reactions as well as 25.4 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..)/sup 69/Ni and /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., p)/sup 63/Cu reactions. Consistent calculations with optical model and ZR DWBA are made for (..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) and (..cap alpha.., p) reactions by using of single, two, three and four nucleon optical potential parameters. For elastic scattering due to the ..cap alpha.. optical potential ambiguities, all the above optical potential can reproduce the experimental angular distributions. However, the single, two and three nucleon potential, including the Baird's mass systematics and the Chang's energy systematics of ..cap alpha.. potentials, obviously can not provide a reasonable fitting with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. Only the results from the four nucleon potential is in good agreement with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. This reveals that in the ..cap alpha..-particle induced transfer reactions, the real depth of the ..cap alpha..-nucleus optical potential should be rather deep.

  1. Efficient composite broadband polarization retarders and polarization filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, E.; Ivanov, S. S.; Popkirov, G.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    A new type of broadband polarization half-wave retarder and narrowband polarization filters are described and experimentally tested. Both, the retarders and the filters are designed as composite stacks of standard optical half-wave plates, each of them twisted at specific angles. The theoretical background of the proposed optical devices was obtained by analogy with the method of composite pulses, known from the nuclear and quantum physics. We show that combining two composite filters built from different numbers and types of waveplates, the transmission spectrum is reduced from about 700 nm to about 10 nm width.We experimentally demonstrate that this method can be applied to different types of waveplates (broadband, zero-order, multiple order, etc.).

  2. Optimal reflection-free complex absorbing potentials for quantum propagation of wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemer, Oded; Brisker, Daria; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2005-01-01

    The conditions for optimal reflection-free complex-absorbing potentials (CAPs) are discussed. It is shown that the CAPs as derived from the smooth-exterior-scaling transformation of the Hamiltonian [J. Phys. B 31, 1431 (1998)] serve as optimal reflection-free CAPs (RF CAPs) in wave-packet propagation calculations of open systems. The initial wave packet, Φ(t=0), can be located in the interaction region (as in half collision experiments) where the CAPs have vanished or in the asymptote where V CAP ≠0. As we show, the optimal CAPs can be introduced also in the region where the physical potential has not vanished. The unavoided reflections due to the use of a finite number of grid points (or basis functions) are discussed. A simple way to reduce the 'edge-grid' reflection effect is described

  3. 49 CFR 230.41 - Flexible staybolts with caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flexible staybolts with caps. 230.41 Section 230... Appurtenances Staybolts § 230.41 Flexible staybolts with caps. (a) General. Flexible staybolts with caps shall have their caps removed during every 5th annual inspection for the purpose of inspecting the bolts for...

  4. Anti-pp,. cap alpha cap alpha. and p. cap alpha. elastic scattering at high energies and Chou-Yang conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rifique, M.

    1987-03-01

    The recent experimental measurements for anti-pp and ..cap alpha cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies have shown that the Chou-Yang conjecture regarding the relationship between the electromagnetic and the hadronic form factor of a particle is only an approximation. A new ansatz has been proposed to obtain hadronic form factors of proton and the ..cap alpha..-particle. These form factors have been used to explain the various characteristics of anti-pp, ..cap alpha cap alpha.. and p..cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies.

  5. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  6. Metasurfaces for Terahertz Waves Polarization Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    Metamaterials as the design concept and umbrella name have demonstrated a broad range of useful properties in different ranges of frequencies. The main advantage of the metamaterial-based devices is the possibility to broaden both passive and active photonic component functionalities. While...

  7. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  8. 75 FR 49527 - Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,195] Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC Chicago, IL; Amended... of Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot Group, formerly known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

  9. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Longhua; Papoian, Garegin A

    2011-01-01

    Actin-based cell motility is essential to many biological processes. We built a simplified, three-dimensional computational model and subsequently performed stochastic simulations to study the growth dynamics of lamellipodia-like branched networks. In this work, we shed light on the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins in regulating actin dynamics in the filamentous network. We discuss detailed mechanisms by which capping and anti-capping proteins affect the protrusion speed of the actin network and the rate of nucleation of filaments. We computed a phase diagram showing the regimes of motility enhancement and inhibition by these proteins. Our work shows that the effects of capping and anti-capping proteins are mainly transmitted by modulation of the filamentous network density and local availability of monomeric actin. We discovered that the combination of the capping/anti-capping regulatory network with nucleation-promoting proteins introduces robustness and redundancy in cell motility machinery, allowing the cell to easily achieve maximal protrusion speeds under a broader set of conditions. Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network.

  10. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules generated by linearly polarized intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations for polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned N 2 , CO 2 , and O 2 molecules generated by linearly polarized lasers. Within the rescattering model, the two polarization amplitudes of the harmonics are determined by the photo-recombination amplitudes for photons emitted with polarization parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the same returning electron wave packet. Our results show clear species-dependent polarization states, in excellent agreement with experiments. We further note that the measured polarization ellipse of the harmonic furnishes the needed parameters for a 'complete' experiment in molecules.

  12. Spatio-temporal dynamics of an active, polar, viscoelastic ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Constitutive equations for a one-dimensional, active, polar, viscoelastic liquid are derived by treating the strain field as a slow hydrodynamic variable. Taking into account the couplings between strain and polarity allowed by symmetry, the hydrodynamics of an active, polar, viscoelastic body include an evolution equation for the polarity field that generalizes the damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. Beyond thresholds of the active coupling coefficients between the polarity and the stress or the strain rate, bifurcations of the homogeneous state lead first to stationary waves, then to propagating waves of the strain, stress and polarity fields. I argue that these results are relevant to living matter, and may explain rotating actomyosin rings in cells and mechanical waves in epithelial cell monolayers.

  13. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): Descriptive analysis of 500 patients from the International CAPS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Moitinho, Marta; Santacreu, Irene; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Erkan, Doruk; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of patients with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) from the "CAPS Registry". The demographic, clinical and serological features of 500 patients included in the website-based "CAPS Registry" were analyzed. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were used to describe the cohort. Comparison between groups regarding qualitative variables was undertaken by chi-square or Fisher exact test while T-test for independent variables was used to compare groups regarding continuous variables. 500 patients (female: 343 [69%]; mean age 38±17) accounting for 522 episodes of CAPS were included in the analysis. Forty percent of patients had an associated autoimmune disease, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (75%). The majority of CAPS episodes were triggered by a precipitating factor (65%), mostly infections (49%). Clinically, CAPS was characterized by several organ involvement affecting kidneys (73%), lungs (60%), brain (56%), heart (50%), and skin (47%). Lupus anticoagulant, IgG anticardiolipin and IgG anti-β2-glycprotein antibodies were the most often implicated antiphospholipid antibodies (83%, 81% and 78% respectively). Mortality accounted for 37% of episodes of CAPS. Several clinical differences could be observed based on the age of presentation and its association to SLE. Those cases triggered by a malignancy tended to occur in older patients, while CAPS episodes in young patients were associated with an infectious trigger and peripheral vessels involvement. Additionally, CAPS associated with SLE were more likely to have severe cardiac and brain involvement leading to a higher mortality (48%). Although the presentation of CAPS is characterized by multiorgan thrombosis and failure, clinical differences among patients exist based on age and underlying chronic diseases, e.g. malignancy and SLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Broadband reflective multi-polarization converter based on single-layer double-L-shaped metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chenyang; Yang, Yang; He, Xiaoxiang; Zheng, Jingming; Zhou, Chun

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a broadband reflective multi-polarization converter based on single-layer double-L-shaped metasurface is proposed. The proposed metasurface can effectively convert linear-polarized (TE/TM) incident wave into the reflected wave with three different polarizations within the frequency bands of 5.5-22.75 GHz. Based on the electric and magnetic resonant features of the double-L-shaped structure, the proposed metasurface can convert linearly polarized waves into cross-polarized waves at three resonant frequency bands. Furthermore, the incident linearly polarized waves can be effectively converted into left/right handed circular-polarized (LHCP and RHCP) waves at other four non-resonance frequency bands. Thus, the proposed metasurface can be regarded as a seven-band multi-polarization converter. The prototype of the proposed polarization converter is analyzed and measured. Both simulated and measured results show the 3-dB axis ratio bandwidth of circular polarization bands and the high polarization conversion efficiency of cross-polarization bands when the incident wave changes from 0° to 30° at both TE and TM modes.

  15. Beta-decay asymmetries in polarized /sup 12/B and /sup 12/N and the G-parity non-conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, K [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1976-07-01

    The decay asymmetries (A) in polarized /sup 12/B and /sup 12/N have been measured as a function of ..beta..-ray energies (E). The coefficients ..cap alpha..sub(-+) in A = -+ P(p/E) (1 + ..cap alpha..sub(-+)E)) have been determined to be ..cap alpha..sub(-) (/sup 12/B) = +(0.31+-0.06)%/MeV and ..cap alpha..sub(+) (/sup 12/N) = -(0.21+-0.07)%/MeV. The experimental value, ..cap alpha..sub(-) - ..cap alpha..sub (+) = (0.52+-0.09)%/MeV, is larger than the prediction according to conservation of vector current which includes no second-class current, (..cap alpha..sub(-) - ..cap alpha..sub(+) CVC approximately equal to 0.27%/MeV, and indicates the existence of the second-class induced-tensor current.

  16. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  17. Polar crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makosinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    In many applications polar cranes have to be repeatedly positioned with high accuracy. A guidance system is disclosed which has two pairs of guides. Each guide consists of two rollers carried by a sheave rotatable mounted on the crane bridge, the rollers being locatable one on each side of a guideway, e.g. the circular track on which the bridge runs. The pairs of guides are interconnected by respective rope loops which pass around and are locked to the respective pairs of sheaves in such a manner that movement of one guide results in equal movement of the other guide in a sense to maintain the repeatability of positioning of the centre of the bridge. A hydraulically-linked guide system is also described. (author)

  18. Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish

    The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

  19. FDTD simulation of trapping nanowires with linearly polarized and radially polarized optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaoping

    2011-10-10

    In this paper a model of the trapping force on nanowires is built by three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and Maxwell stress tensor methods, and the tightly focused laser beam is expressed by spherical vector wave functions (VSWFs). The trapping capacities on nanoscale-diameter nanowires are discussed in terms of a strongly focused linearly polarized beam and radially polarized beam. Simulation results demonstrate that the radially polarized beam has higher trapping efficiency on nanowires with higher refractive indices than linearly polarized beam.

  20. Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.