WorldWideScience

Sample records for wavering afflicts aids

  1. State wavering afflicts AIDS prevention efforts / Ilko Stoilov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stoilov, Ilko

    2004-01-01

    Eksperdid Eesti aidsiennetuskeskusest leiavad, et valitsus keskendub liialt organisatsioonilistele küsimustele ning tegeleb liiga vähe aidsi ja narkomaania ennetustegevuse tõhustamisega. Kommentaarid aidsiennetuskeskuse endiselt juhatajalt Nelli Kalikovalt

  2. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smear to check for cancer of the anus Treatment HIV/AIDS is treated with medicines that stop the virus ... having a long-term illness. Outlook (Prognosis) With treatment, most people with HIV/AIDS can live a healthy and normal life. Current ...

  3. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  4. Environmental stressors afflicting tailwater stream reaches across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The tailwater is the reach of a stream immediately below an impoundment that is hydrologically, physicochemically and biologically altered by the presence and operation of a dam. The overall goal of this study was to gain a nationwide awareness of the issues afflicting tailwater reaches in the United States. Specific objectives included the following: (i) estimate the percentage of reservoirs that support tailwater reaches with environmental conditions suitable for fish assemblages throughout the year, (ii) identify and quantify major sources of environmental stress in those tailwaters that do support fish assemblages and (iii) identify environmental features of tailwater reaches that determine prevalence of key fish taxa. Data were collected through an online survey of fishery managers. Relative to objective 1, 42% of the 1306 reservoirs included in this study had tailwater reaches with sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. The surface area of the reservoir and catchment most strongly delineated reservoirs maintaining tailwater reaches with or without sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. Relative to objective 2, major sources of environmental stress generally reflected flow variables, followed by water quality variables. Relative to objective 3, zoogeography was the primary factor discriminating fish taxa in tailwaters, followed by a wide range of flow and water quality variables. Results for objectives 1–3 varied greatly among nine geographic regions distributed throughout the continental United States. Our results provide a large-scale view of the effects of reservoirs on tailwater reaches and may help guide research and management needs.

  5. Home gardens contribute significantly to dietary diversity in HIV/AIDS afflicted households in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Brouwer, I.D.; Price, L.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The study assessed the biodiversity in home gardens and evaluated its contribution to dietary diversity among HIV-positive and HIV-negative rural households in Eastern Region, Ghana. A cross-sectional survey of 32 HIV-positive and 48 HIV-negative households was conducted. Plant species cultivated in

  6. Audio textbook of Spanish for children afflicted with specific learning disability{--} with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    LACINOVÁ, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This work dedicates to education of foreign languages of children afflicted with specific learning disability, with dyslexia. Theoretic part is occupied by specific learning disability, above all by its reasons, tokens, diagnostic and reeducation. The second part can be used as a help in education of Spanish of children afflicted with specific learning disability, with dyslexia. It is audio textbook of Spanish which contains also CD that serves as a audio help for reading texts and for learni...

  7. Problematic internet use in childhood and youth: evolution of a 21st century affliction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Philip; Walter, Garry

    2013-12-01

    To describe the emergence of, and myriad issues pertaining to, problematic internet use in childhood and youth. In this overview and appraisal of a uniquely 21st century affliction, the focus is on youth and less on young adult perspectives. We employed relevant literature-search methodology though EMBASE, Psychinfo and Web of Science, utilising the key terms of PIU, internet addiction and youth mental health, and present a selection of the pioneering and important research developments both nationally and internationally. We focused on the literature from the past 10 years, but we also included relevant early developments in the field going back to the 1990s. We also made reference, where appropriate, to major considerations of relevance to the general public, where these were reported in reputable international news and media organisations. The authors utilised common internet search engines to access these news reports. It was found that the complex, novel and at times controversial concept of 'problematic internet use' (PIU)--often popularly dubbed 'internet addiction'--has attracted much public, media and research interest, particularly over the past decade. In common with many other afflictions that have a prominent 'pop-cultural' component, often the commentary and debate has been polarising, unclear and sensationalist. At times, more light than heat appears to be generated.

  8. The role of tyloses in crown hydraulic failure of mature walnut trees afflicted by apoplexy disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Grant, Joseph A; Kluepfel, Daniel A

    2010-06-01

    In the Central Valley of California, mature walnut trees afflicted with apoplexy disorder exhibit rapid and complete crown defoliation within a few weeks of symptom initiation. Symptoms are typically found throughout the entire crown and are initially expressed as wilting and chlorosis followed by scorching of leaves. Since the cause of apoplexy disorder is unknown, we set out to elucidate the water relations physiology underlying this condition. Stem water potential (Psi(s)) of healthy, asymptomatic trees remained high throughout the 2007 growing season, while that of apoplexy-afflicted trees decreased significantly with the onset of symptoms for both healthy-appearing and symptomatic portions of these trees. Psi(s)s were significantly reduced by at least 0.7 MPa in the lower, middle and upper portions of the symptomatic canopies compared with those from asymptomatic trees. Heat pulse velocities measured in the main trunk at three radial depths consistently decreased prior to the onset of symptoms and eventually reached zero with complete crown defoliation. Comparison of sap flow with predicted water use based on walnut evapotranspiration suggests that stomata of symptomatic trees were closing at higher evaporative demand prior to symptom formation. Specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of symptomatic stems was significantly lower than that of asymptomatic stems, and no detectable K(s) could be measured on several of the symptomatic stem samples. However, shallow root K(s) did not significantly differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, suggesting that hydraulic failure was isolated to the crown of these grafted trees. Light and scanning electron microscopy of stem and trunk sapwood revealed extensive tylose development in vessels throughout the crown of symptomatic trees. Analysis of the formation of tyloses on multiple dates revealed rapid development of these vessel occlusions in conjunction with visual symptom formation and dramatic decreases in sap

  9. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens Strains Isolated from Healthy and Necrotic Enteritis-Afflicted Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Charles; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Gadde, Ujvala Deepthi; Ritter, Don; Oh, SungTaek

    2017-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important enteric disease in poultry, and Clostridium perfringens (CP) type A strains are the primary etiology. NE is responsible for annual losses of US $6 billion to the poultry industry in the United States. An increase in the incidence of NE has been also associated with withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry feed. In this study, CP strains isolated from healthy and NE-afflicted birds were characterized microbiologically and molecularly, and their virulence was experimentally tested in chickens. All strains were hemolytic, lecithinase positive, and identified as CP by biochemical tests. Three distinct colony morphologies were seen in brain-heart infusion media with 0.3% agarose, FeSO 4 , and ZnCl 2 . The CP strains responded differently to iron chelation with 2,2'-bidypinol. PCR toxinotyping showed that all tested strains were alpha toxin-positive, seven (N11, N10, CP1, CP5, CP13, JGS, and Del1) were beta2-toxin-positive, and only one (Del1) was necrotic enteritis toxin B-like-positive. In vivo studies indicated that most isolates, including strain N11 isolated from the normal chicken gut, were sufficiently virulent to produce NE disease in the Eimeria/CP dual infection model. The Del1 and N11 strains merit further investigation to identify their virulence factors and immune-protective antigens.

  10. Characterization of the fungal microbiota (mycobiome in healthy and dandruff-afflicted human scalps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kuk Park

    Full Text Available The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp. was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp. was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff.

  11. A Propos de la comprehension de sujets atteints d'aphasie (On the Comprehension of Subjects Afflicted with Aphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godblum, Marie Claire; Kremin, Helgard

    1977-01-01

    A report on results of a study of a large number of subjects afflicted with different types of aphasia. Topics reported are: an experimental study of verbal comprehension and a qualitative study of errors in standard verbal tests. Statistical tables and a bibliography are attached. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  12. High and specialty-related musculoskeletal disorders afflict dental professionals even since early training years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianru YI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine how early musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs develop in dental professionals and to explore the potential differences among distinct dental specialties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 271 dental postgraduates majoring in five dental specialties were recruited, i.e., orthodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontics and alveolar surgery. 254 age-matched non-dental postgraduates served as the control. The standardized Nordic questionnaire on MSDs and a self-report questionnaire regarding correlative factors (only for dental postgraduates were answered through emails. Reliability of responses was assessed applying test-retest method. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient of participants' answers ranged from 0.89 to 0.96. Dental postgraduates had significantly higher prevalence of MSDs than the control group, especially at neck, upper back and lower back. In all dental specialties included, high prevalence of MSDs was reported at neck (47.5%-69.8%, shoulders (50.8%-65.1%, lower back (27.1%-51.2% and upper back (25.6%-46.5%, with lower prevalence at elbows (5.1%-18.6%, hips (3.4%-16.3% and ankles (5.1%-11.6%. Periodontics students reported the worst MSDs in most body regions except wrists and knees, which were more prevalent for prosthodontic and alveolar surgery students, respectively. Furthermore, year of clinical work, clinical hours per week and desk hours per week were found as risk factors for MSDs, whereas physical exercise and rest between patients as protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: High and specialty-related MSDs afflict dental professionals even since very early stage of careers. Prevention aimed at the specialty-related characteristics and the risk/protective factors revealed in this study should be introduced to dental personnel as early as possible.

  13. Evaluation of Interferon-gamma Application for Recognition of Patients Afflicted by Non-healing Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Moafi; Hossein Rezvan; Roya Sherkat; Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani; Roya Taleban; Ali Asilian; Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh; Fariba Jaffary; Marjan Mansourian; Fatemeh Sokhanvari; Nazli Ansari

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:Different studies undertaken in the animal modeling show that Interferon-gamma deficiency impairs healing process of Leishmania infection. It seems that the level of Interferon-gamma production could also affect the healing duration of Leishmania lesion in humans. The current study aims to investigate the possibility of Interferon-gamma application for recognition of cases afflicted by non-healing Leishmaniasis. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of...

  14. Evaluation of Interferon-gamma Application for Recognition of Patients Afflicted by Non-healing Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Different studies undertaken in the animal modeling show that Interferon-gamma deficiency impairs healing process of Leishmania infection. It seems that the level of Interferon-gamma production could also affect the healing duration of Leishmania lesion in humans. The current study aims to investigate the possibility of Interferon-gamma application for recognition of cases afflicted by non-healing Leishmaniasis. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 32 patients, who were afflicted by healing or non-healing Leishmaniasis, were isolated and the levels of interferon-gamma were determined, using ELISA method. Afterwards, the cut-off point of interferon-gamma to identify patients afflicted by non-healing Leishmaniasis was calculated through ROC-Curve analysis. Furthermore, Leishmanin Skin Test (LST was performed for every patient. Results: Levels of Interferon-gamma produced by PBMCs stimulated with Soluble Leishmania Antigen (SLA or Phytohemaglotinine were significantly higher in healing patients, compared with non-healing individuals (p

  15. AIDS and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Published statistics collected in Uganda regarding the HIV and AIDS epidemic often conflict. While 460,000 Ugandans have died of AIDS according to the STD/AIDS Control Programme, the program's estimated number of HIV-positive Ugandans (1.5 million) is less than that of others (2 million). Dr. Hatib Njie, the WHO representative to Uganda, believes the epidemic is in decline because of the decrease (27-12%) 3 years ago in seroprevalence in all patients treated at Ugandan clinics. Yet UK Medical Research Council studies indicate that life expectancy in some areas is decreasing rapidly; it dropped from age 58 to 43 within the last few years in a southwestern Ugandan community. Although Uganda's Rakai district is one of the most AIDS-afflicted areas in the world, figures published recently in "Nature Medicine" indicate that the population is growing, rather than undergoing predicted 'negative growth rates.' This may indicate that the AIDS epidemic will stabilize more quickly than anticipated. However, within Rakai, HIV prevalence rates vary from 1% to 40%, depending on the parish. In these parishes, mortality rates are high, the number of deaths among children is larger than expected, and 'negative population growth' is apparent.

  16. Image-Enhancement Aid For The Partially Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. A.; Gennery, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    Digital filtering enhances ability to read and to recognize objects. Possible to construct portable vision aid by combining miniature video equipment to observe scene and display images with very-large-scale integrated circuits to implement real-time digital image-data processing. Afflicted observer views scene through magnifier to shift spatial frequencies downward and thereby improves perceived image. However, less magnification needed, larger the scene observed. Thus, one measure of effectiveness of new system is amount of magnification required with and without it. In series of tests, found 27 to 70 percent more magnification needed for afflicted observers to recognize unfiltered words than to recognize filtered words.

  17. Halitosis: A silent affliction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod P Marawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans emanate a variety of volatile and non-volatile molecules that are influenced by genetics, diet, stress, and disease. Halitosis is widespread and is believed to affect one quarter of the population around the world. Literature depicts various classifications, causes, contributing factors, associated micro-organisms, and techniques for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment for halitosis. Studies have revealed that oral environment, including periodontal disease, contribute significantly in the production of oral malodor. Based on the current literature and research, this review presents a brief overview of the same; thereby helping the reader bridge information into clinical application by suggesting protocols developed to assist patients in overcoming halitosis.

  18. Obesity-related juvenile form of cartilage lesions: a new affliction in the knees of morbidly obese children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widhalm, Harald K.; Marlovits, Stefan; Vecsei, Vilmos [Medical University of Vienna, Center for Joints and Cartilage, Department of Traumatology, Vienna (Austria); Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Dirisamer, Albert [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Neuhold, Andreas [Private Hospital Rudolfinerhaus, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Griensven, Martijn van [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Vienna (Austria); Seemann, Rudolf [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, Kurt [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    Overweight and obesity are afflictions that lead to an increased risk of health problems including joint problems. The aim of the study was to assess the condition of articular cartilage in obese adolescent patients suffering from knee pain. MRI of 24 knees of 20 morbidly obese patients, mean age 14.2 years, was performed in an open 1.0 Tesla MR system, where the cartilage, the quality and structure of the menisci, and the presence or absence of surrounding changes was examined. In all patients a cartilage lesion in at least one region of the knee could be detected. Retropatellar cartilage lesions have been found in 19 knees. Ten cartilage lesions grade I, and four lesions grade II have been described in the lateral compartment of the knee, whereas the medial compartment showed in eight cases a grade I, in 13 cases a grade II and in two cases a grade III cartilage lesion. Meniscal changes were assessed in most patients. Morbidly obese children and adolescents show major abnormalities in the articular cartilage of the knee. Whether obesity alone is the causal factor for the development of the pattern of these changes, remains to be seen. (orig.)

  19. Association of Urinary Phthalates with Self-Reported Eye Affliction/Retinopathy in Individuals with Diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Mamtani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An epidemiological association between exposure to phthalates and type 2 diabetes (T2D is known. However, the potential role of environmental phthalates in the complications of T2D is unknown. Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2010, we studied the association of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites with self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in 1,004 participants with diabetes. Data from retinal imaging was used to validate this outcome. Independence of the phthalates→T2D association was studied by adjusting for age, sex, race, marital status, educational attainment, poverty income ratio, physical activity, glycated hemoglobin levels, total serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, blood pressure, duration of diabetes, total calorie intake, and obesity. Results. Self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy had 82% accuracy with Cohen’s kappa of 0.31 (p<0.001. Urinary mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP was independently associated with the likelihood of self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in subjects with T2D after accounting for all the confounders. This significance of this association was robust to the potential misclassification in cases and controls of retinopathy. Further, a significant dose-response relationship between MOP and self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy was demonstrable. Conclusions. We show a novel epidemiological link between the environment and diabetic complications in NHANES 2001–2010 participants.

  20. Analyse du langage spontane de sujets atteints d'aphasie sensorielle (An Analysis of Spontaneous Language in Subjects Afflicted with Aphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremin, Helgard

    1977-01-01

    A report on a study of a large number of subjects afflicted with sensory aphasia. Topics covered are: the distributional pattern of grammatical categories; paraphasia; a statistical analysis of associated syndromes; possible relationship to the location of the lesion. Some examples of spontaneous language are included. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  1. THE IMPACT OF STIGMA ON THE PREVENTION OF HIV/AIDS K ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    INTRODUCTION. HIV/AIDS had remained the topical disease condition that has afflicted man in recent times. The search for a definite cure still continues even as varying statistical data continue to expose the devastation caused by the disease worldwide. A significant proportion of the worlds' population is burdened by the ...

  2. [Changes in life styles of pregnant women and risks for having a pregnancy afflicted with spina bifida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Iwagaki, Shigeaki; Kihira, Masamichi; Nakanishi, Yoshito; Shimosuka, Yoichi; Okai, Ikuyo; Shinozaki, Keiko

    2013-07-01

    to 12 weeks after conception increased from 7.4% in 2003 to 69.6% in 2011. As a whole it could be stated that life styles of pregnant women have been shifting toward the direction the past 10 years where the risk for having a pregnancy afflicted with spina bifida is to be decreased. Medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dietitians and pharmacists are asked to repeatedly supply important information on folic acid and to advise taking folic acid supplements 400 microg a day to women planning to conceive or women in the reproductive age.

  3. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  4. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  5. It is not just a Minor Thing - A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Study of Patients' Experiences when afflicted by a Minor Heart Attack and Participating in Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D; Birkelund, Regner

    2017-06-01

    To improve cardiac care, especially cardiac rehabilitation, patients' perspectives should be better addressed. In Denmark, patients afflicted by a minor heart attack in terms of unstable angina pectoris or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction are treated in fast-track programmes with subacute treatment in hospital, early discharge and follow-up specialised outpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Knowledge of these patients' experiences of their life situation is essential to develop sufficient care protocols. To gain in-depth understanding of how patients afflicted by a minor heart attack experience their life situation when following cardiac rehabilitation. Focus group interviews and individual interviews were conducted with 11 patients enrolled in the cardiac rehabilitation programme. Data consisted of text in the form of transcribed interviews. A three-phased interpretation inspired by Paul Ricoeur's theory of interpretation was applied. As an overall concept, the patients experienced being forced into a demanding life shaking journey. Three themes emerged: Difficulty accepting the disease: facing the disease is a difficult challenge for the patients, leading to vulnerability and helplessness; Understanding that life has become frail: patients feel shaken as they realise that the disease is chronic and life-threatening; and An altered life: patients must adjust to new limitations in their everyday lives. Patients experience an overall demanding transition when they are afflicted by a minor heat attack, whereby their lives are sweepingly changed. Supporting patients' integrity, which becomes vulnerable during the various stages of transitions, is essential to ensure a healthy outcome. Being together with fellow patients during cardiac rehabilitation is a facilitating factor in the course of transition. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa a clinico-pathological study in an index case, highlighting its affliction in 11 of 27 member of the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nijhawan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa, a rare variant of dominant inheritance pattern, characterized by itchy, papules and/or nodules coalescing to form plaque(s, studded by blisters, is describe in a young man an index case. In all 12 afflicted individuals of the 27 family members was interesting, the diagnosis of which was made by its morphology and inflammatory changes in the epidermis, comprising hyperkeratosis, moderate acanthosis, presence of inflammatory cells, and above all inflammatory cell containing sub-epidermal cleavage or cleft.

  7. It is not just a Minor Thing - A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Study of Patients' Experiences when afflicted by a Minor Heart Attack and Participating in Cardiac Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2017-01-01

    -phased interpretation inspired by Paul Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation was applied. Findings: As an overall concept, the patients experienced being forced into a demanding life shaking journey. Three themes emerged: Difficulty accepting the disease: facing the disease is a difficult challenge for the patients...... demanding transition when they are afflicted by a minor heat attack, whereby their lives are sweepingly changed. Supporting patients’ integrity, which becomes vulnerable during the various stages of transitions, is essential to ensure a healthy outcome. Being together with fellow patients during cardiac...

  8. Chapter Thirteen. Promoting the Right to Education for AIDS Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC)

    OpenAIRE

    Yinghua, Ma; Suqin, Ding; Chao, Wang; Mengyao, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    According to the Protocol for the Identification of Discrimination against People Living with HIV (2000) by UNAIDS, “HIV/AIDS related discrimination” is defined as “[a]ny measure entailing an arbitrary distinction among persons depending on their confirmed or suspected HIV serostatus or state of health.” The study included three categories of AIDS-afflicted children: HIV-infected children, children orphaned by AIDS (refers to children under the age of eighteen who have lost one or both parent...

  9. Clinical practice guidelines of the French Association for Supportive Care in Cancer and the French Society for Psycho-oncology: refusal of treatment by adults afflicted with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, J C; Adam, V; Block, V; Metzger, M; Salleron, J; Dauchy, S

    2017-11-01

    The study's purpose was to develop practical guidelines for assessment and management of refusal of treatment by adults afflicted with cancer. The French Association for Supportive Care in Cancer and the French Society for Psycho-oncology gathered a task force that applied a consensus methodology to draft guidelines studied predisposing situations, the diagnosis, regulatory aspects, and the management of refusal of treatment by adults afflicted with cancer. We propose five guidelines: (1) be aware of the conditions/profiles of patients most often associated with refusal of treatment so as to adequately underpin the care and support measures; (2) understand the complexity of the process of refusal and knowing how to accurately identify the type and the modalities of the refused treatments; (3) apply a way to systematically analyze refusal, thereby promoting progression from a situation of disaccord toward a consensual decision; (4) devise procedures, according to the legal context, to address refusal of treatment that safeguards the stakeholders in situations of sustained disaccord; and (5) know the indications for ethical collective decision-making. The quality of the relationship between patients and health professionals, and the communication between them are essential components involved in reaching a point of consent or refusal of treatment. A process of systematic analysis of refusal is recommended as the only way to ensure that all of the physiological, psychological, and contextual elements that are potentially involved are taken into account.

  10. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  11. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life—A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte P. Simonÿ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR. CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients’ particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1 receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2 being supported to find new values in life, and (3 developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients’ total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting

  12. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life--A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients' particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1) receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2) being supported to find new values in life, and (3) developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients' total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting programmes and

  13. HIV / AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the United States and the international community. Globally, AIDS-related deaths have dropped by 45 percent ... Career Stage Postdocs' Guide to Gaining Independence Small Business Programs Compare NIAID’s Small Business Programs High-Priority ...

  14. AIDS and the marketing of condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, L E; Kurtz, D L

    1988-01-01

    The condom market has undergone unprecedented change in the 1980's and will continue to see its markets, advertising strategies, and sales grow and change in ways never before imagined. In the past, condoms were viewed as unmentionable products that were marketed only at men between 18 and 35 and sold only in gas station restrooms and bus stations. But today women account for and estimated 40-50% of condom sales and after a Supreme Court ruling in 1977, condoms are now sold in front of the counter, not behind it. Further, the AIDS epidemic which has afflicted 40,000 U.S. citizens between 19811 and 1988 has served as an impetus to growth and diversification of the condom market. The new legitimacy of the condom combined with new entries into the market by other manufacturers has resulted in growth and segmentation in the condom market.

  15. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... are some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed ...

  16. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  17. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  18. Patterns of circulating corticosterone in a population of rattlesnakes afflicted with snake fungal disease: Stress hormones as a potential mediator of seasonal cycles in disease severity and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M.; Moore, Ignacio T.; Akçay, Çağlar; Vernasco, Ben J.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Farrell, Terence M.

    2018-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging threat to snake populations in the United States. Fungal pathogens are often associated with a physiological stress response mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), and afflicted individuals may incur steep coping costs. The severity of SFD can vary seasonally; however, little is known regarding (1) how SFD infection relates to HPA activity and (2) how seasonal shifts in environment, life history, or HPA activity may interact to drive seasonal patterns of infection severity and outcomes. To test the hypothesis that SFD is associated with increased HPA activity and to identify potential environmental or physiological drivers of seasonal infection, we monitored baseline corticosterone, SFD infection severity, foraging success, body condition, and reproductive status in a field-active population of pigmy rattlesnakes. Both plasma corticosterone and the severity of clinical signs of SFD peaked in the winter. Corticosterone levels were also elevated in the fall before the seasonal rise in SFD severity. Severely symptomatic snakes were in low body condition and had elevated corticosterone levels compared to moderately infected and uninfected snakes. The monthly mean severity of SFD in the population was negatively related to population-wide estimates of body condition and temperature measured in the precedent month and positively correlated with corticosterone levels measured in the precedent month. Symptomatic females were less likely to enter reproductive bouts compared to asymptomatic females. We propose the hypothesis that the seasonal interplay among environment, host energetics, and HPA activity initiates trade-offs in the fall that drive the increase in SFD prevalence, symptom severity, and decline in condition observed in the population through winter.

  19. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences o...... after agreements have been signed. It argues that Botswana, Ethiopia and Rwanda have been more successful than the other five cases in levering negotiating capital from the economic, political, ideological and institutional conditions under which negotiations occur.......This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... of actors, the negotiating strategies they fashion, and the success of those strategies. This approach was employed to examine and compare the experiences of eight countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The article presents findings from these country studies...

  20. Comparison of Efficacy of Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Therapeutic Methods for Reducing Anxiety and Depression of Iranian Combatant Afflicted by Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, M.; Sadeghieh Ahari, S.; Rajabi, S.

    This research aims to determine efficacy of two therapeutic methods and compare them; Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for reduction of anxiety and depression of Iranian combatant afflicted with Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after imposed war. Statistical population of current study includes combatants afflicted with PTSD that were hospitalized in Isar Hospital of Ardabil province or were inhabited in Ardabil. These persons were selected through simple random sampling and were randomly located in three groups. The method was extended test method and study design was multi-group test-retest. Used tools include hospital anxiety and depression scale. This survey showed that exercise of EMDR and CBT has caused significant reduction of anxiety and depression.

  1. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  2. HIV/AIDS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv

  3. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  4. How do HIV and AIDS impact the use of natural resources by poor rural populations? The case of wild animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Shackleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of heightened financial and food insecurity, populations adversely affected by HIV and/or AIDS may be more likely to utilise wild natural resources to supplement their diet and livelihoods. Should this effect be pronounced, HIV and AIDS may pose a serious environmental threat. We explored the hypothesis that the presence of factors in the household, such as chronic illness in and recent mortality of individuals in a high HIV-risk age group, as well as the fostering of orphans, are associated with increased utilisation of wild animal products (WAPs at the household level. We randomly surveyed 519 households from four sites in rural South Africa, recording household socio-economic status, the utilisation of wild animal products and health and demographic factors attributed to HIV or AIDS. Binary logistic regressions were used to test if households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction were more likely to have a higher incidence and frequency of WAP utilisation relative to non-afflicted households, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic variables. We found that, although households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS were generally poorer and had higher dependency ratios, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that WAP harvesting was associated with either poverty, or markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction. Our findings suggest that generalisations about a possible interaction between HIV and/or AIDS and the environment may not uniformly apply to all categories of natural resources or to all user groups.

  5. Gastroenteritis: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...

  6. Home Health Aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for home health aides and personal care aides. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of home health aides ...

  7. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  8. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  9. Puncture Wounds: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I, et al., eds. Skin problems. In: American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random House; 2009. Jan. 12, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid- ...

  10. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Disease Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  11. Neurologic manifestations of AIDS: a comparative study of two populations from Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, J R; Garcìa-Ramos, G; Novak, I S; Rivera, V M; Huerta, E; Essex, M

    1995-01-01

    Neurologic complications associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection vary geographically. To understand the pattern of HIV-associated neurologic complications in Mexico, 120 AIDS patients from Mexico City, Mexico, and 500 AIDS patients from Houston, Texas, were studied cross-sectionally and retrospectively. Neurologic, laboratory, imaging, and pathologic examinations identified 40 Mexican patients and 130 U.S. patients with neurologic complications. Whereas AIDS dementia complex was the most common neurologic manifestation in both groups, intracranial tuberculoma was present only in the Mexican population (10%). Primary brain lymphoma was more prevalent in the U.S. population (8.4%). The different findings in the Mexican population likely reflect afflictions common to developing countries--a high prevalence of tuberculosis and a high mortality rate. These conditions preclude complications such as lymphoma, which develop later in the natural course of HIV infection.

  12. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction...

  13. The Master Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  14. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  15. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  16. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  17. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  18. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  19. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  20. A Retrospective Study of Erectile Function and Use of Erectile Aids in Prostate Cancer Patients After Radical Prostatectomy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Martha Kirstine; Azawi, Nessn H; Andersen, Line Grønbaek

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radical prostatectomy (RP) offers a good long-term cancer control for clinically localized prostate cancer. However, complications such as erectile dysfunction and substantial decreases quality of life of the afflicted men and their sexual partners. Identification of pre-, per.......3%) despite use of erectile aids. Of men with ED, 155 (22%) stated not being interested in penile rehabilitation, 26 (3.7%) stated not having resumed their sex life 12 months after RP, and 241 (34.2%) had ED and were unsatisfied with the condition. We found that 134 of 445 men (30.1%) who underwent non...

  1. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Croup is a ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  2. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  3. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Rashes can be ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  4. Stroke: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when blood flow to your ... cells start dying. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  5. Hearing-aid tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  6. Dislocation: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Dislocation: First aid Dislocation: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A dislocation is an injury in which the ends of your bones are forced from ... a collision during contact or high-speed sports. Dislocation usually involves the body's larger joints. In adults, ...

  7. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that

  8. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  9. Hearing Aid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  10. Women and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS from other websites National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day Blog topics HIV and AIDS Breaking Down ... t Miss a Beat National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms ...

  11. Sociocultural and epidemiological aspects of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M; Burlison, Janeen; Moon, Troy D; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E; Vermund, Sten H

    2010-06-08

    A legacy of colonial rule coupled with a devastating 16-year civil war through 1992 left Mozambique economically impoverished just as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic swept over southern Africa in the late 1980s. The crumbling Mozambican health care system was wholly inadequate to support the need for new chronic disease services for people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To review the unique challenges faced by Mozambique as they have attempted to stem the HIV epidemic, we undertook a systematic literature review through multiple search engines (PubMed, Google Scholar, SSRN, AnthropologyPlus, AnthroSource) using Mozambique as a required keyword. We searched for any articles that included the required keyword as well as the terms 'HIV' and/or 'AIDS', 'prevalence', 'behaviors', 'knowledge', 'attitudes', 'perceptions', 'prevention', 'gender', drugs, alcohol, and/or 'health care infrastructure'. UNAIDS 2008 prevalence estimates ranked Mozambique as the 8th most HIV-afflicted nation globally. In 2007, measured HIV prevalence in 36 antenatal clinic sites ranged from 3% to 35%; the national estimate of was 16%. Evidence suggests that the Mozambican HIV epidemic is characterized by a preponderance of heterosexual infections, among the world's most severe health worker shortages, relatively poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the general population, and lagging access to HIV preventive and therapeutic services compared to counterpart nations in southern Africa. Poor education systems, high levels of poverty and gender inequality further exacerbate HIV incidence. Recommendations to reduce HIV incidence and AIDS mortality rates in Mozambique include: health system strengthening, rural outreach to increase testing and linkage to care, education about risk reduction and drug adherence, and partnerships with traditional healers and midwives to effect a lessening of stigma.

  12. Sociocultural and epidemiological aspects of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Troy D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A legacy of colonial rule coupled with a devastating 16-year civil war through 1992 left Mozambique economically impoverished just as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic swept over southern Africa in the late 1980s. The crumbling Mozambican health care system was wholly inadequate to support the need for new chronic disease services for people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Methods To review the unique challenges faced by Mozambique as they have attempted to stem the HIV epidemic, we undertook a systematic literature review through multiple search engines (PubMed, Google Scholar™, SSRN, AnthropologyPlus, AnthroSource using Mozambique as a required keyword. We searched for any articles that included the required keyword as well as the terms 'HIV' and/or 'AIDS', 'prevalence', 'behaviors', 'knowledge', 'attitudes', 'perceptions', 'prevention', 'gender', drugs, alcohol, and/or 'health care infrastructure'. Results UNAIDS 2008 prevalence estimates ranked Mozambique as the 8th most HIV-afflicted nation globally. In 2007, measured HIV prevalence in 36 antenatal clinic sites ranged from 3% to 35%; the national estimate of was 16%. Evidence suggests that the Mozambican HIV epidemic is characterized by a preponderance of heterosexual infections, among the world's most severe health worker shortages, relatively poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the general population, and lagging access to HIV preventive and therapeutic services compared to counterpart nations in southern Africa. Poor education systems, high levels of poverty and gender inequality further exacerbate HIV incidence. Conclusions Recommendations to reduce HIV incidence and AIDS mortality rates in Mozambique include: health system strengthening, rural outreach to increase testing and linkage to care, education about risk reduction and drug adherence, and partnerships with traditional healers and midwives to effect a lessening of stigma.

  13. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  14. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  15. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-06

    Related Deaths [Havana Radio Progreso Network, 24 May 91] ...... 21 HONDURAS Alarming Increase in AIDS [Tegucigalpa LA TRIBUNA, 15 Mar 91...Update of AIDS Cases, AIDS-Related Deaths bisexuals, 7 percent. In terms of death among all cases, FL2405194491 Havana Radio Progreso Network 29 percent...involving a controlled follow up. most affected are San Pedro Sula (79 percent increase), This program includes radio and television messages El Progreso (86

  16. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda...

  17. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  19. Music and Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  20. The Future Potential of Waver Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic; Jeff Epler; Maureen Hand; Donna Heimiller; Walter Short; Kelly Eurek

    2012-09-20

    The theoretical ocean wave energy resource potential exceeds 50% of the annual domestic energy demand of the United States, is located close to coastal population centers, and, although variable in nature, may be more consistent and predictable than some other renewable generation technologies. As a renewable electricity generation technology, ocean wave energy offers a low air pollutant option for diversifying the U.S. electricity generation portfolio. Furthermore, the output characteristics of these technologies may complement other renewable technologies. This study addresses the following: (1) The theoretical, technical and practical potential for electricity generation from wave energy (2) The present lifecycle cost profile (Capex, Opex, and Cost of Electricity) of wave energy conversion technology at a reference site in Northern California at different plant scales (3) Cost of electricity variations as a function of deployment site, considering technical, geo-spatial and and electric grid constraints (4) Technology cost reduction pathways (5) Cost reduction targets at which the technology will see significant deployment within US markets, explored through a series of deployment scenarios RE Vision Consulting, LLC (RE Vision), engaged in various analyses to establish current and future cost profiles for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies, quantified the theoretical, technical and practical resource potential, performed electricity market assessments and developed deployment scenarios. RE Vision was supported in this effort by NREL analysts, who compiled resource information, performed analysis using the ReEDSa model to develop deployment scenarios, and developed a simplified assessment of the Alaska and Hawaii electricity markets.

  1. Wavering Between Two Worlds: The Borderline Cutting Through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... l'interpretazione geopolitica del termine, come “zona di passaggio”, ed una sua interpretazione antropologica, in quanto “fase di passaggio”. Agli occhi della scrittrice Nelida Milani, qui la vita pare essere rimasta intrappolata all'interno di questa zona-fase di passaggio: non più parte del territorio italiano ormai da decenni, ...

  2. Waverly Plantation: Ethnoarchaeology of a Tenant Farming Community,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-16

    begin data collection and to complete the data presentation. But, except for maintaining feedback between its component approaches, ethnoarchaeology...suspended from an ornamental plaster medallion . . . There were gilt cornices, imported furniture, a floral wool carpet and large gilt mirrors, one...last few years of his life, rlptain Billy suffered from severe skin diseases which curtailed his activities. His nieces, Mrs. Emily Evans and Miss Lucy

  3. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  4. THE CLASSROOM AIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FITZPATRICK, MILDRED

    TO RELIEVE THE NON-INSTRUCTIONAL BURDEN UPON THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, THE QUEMADO PUBLIC SCHOOLS EXPERIMENTED WITH A TEACHER AIDE PROGRAM, UTILIZING A SINGLE TEACHER AIDE IN ELEMENTARY LANGUAGE ARTS AND HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMED MATHEMATICS THE FIRST YEAR OF THE PROJECT. AS A RESULT OF THE EXPERIMENT'S SUCCESS, THE FOLLOWING SCHOOL YEAR (1963-1964)…

  5. AIDS: Children Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  6. Marketing Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.

    1978-01-01

    Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)

  7. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  8. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  9. First Aid: Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Choking can be a life-threatening emergency. Your child might be choking if ...

  10. The Macroeconomics of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...

  11. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...

  12. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Living with HIV/AIDS × What research is being done? The National Institute of Neurological ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Living with HIV/AIDS See More About Research The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke ( ...

  13. [AIDS: the children also].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpatinde, F

    1987-10-28

    It is no longer possible for health officials or politicians in Africa to deny the existence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in their countries in the name of nationalism. Educational and research programs and appeals for international aid to fight the epidemic have become the rule. Almost all sub-Saharan African nations have sought World Health Organization (WHO) assistance for AIDS control. Children contracting the virus transplacentally before birth are among the population groups most affected by AIDS. Half of all AIDS cases in Africa are women, and their high fertility rates have led to a growing incidence of AIDS in children. Although reliable data are lacking, an estimated 6000 children and babies in Zambia are seropositive or ill, and in Rwanda 22% of AIDS victims are children. Some 10% of pregnant women in Zaire may carry the virus. Cases of AIDS in children also occur in Europe and the US, where it is estimated that 10,000-20,000 children under 13 will be AIDS carriers in 1991. Infants of infected mothers in France have a 50% chance of developing the virus, but in Africa the figure is lower. After birth, incubation of the virus is very rapid. The virus destroys not only T4 lymphocytes, but also the B lymphocytes which protect babies against bacteria. Symptoms appear in the first 6 months: cough, diarrhea, respiratory ailments, bacterial or fungal infections, and neurological problems if the virus attacks the brain. In Africa, use of contaminated needles for vaccinations and contaminated blood for transfusions have also been responsible for infecting some children with the AIDS virus. The possibility of infection through the mother's milk for breastfeeding babies has been raised; the evidence is inconclusive, but the WHO recommends pasteurization of human milk received by milk banks as a precaution. Prevention and the search for a cure are the most critical needs for AIDS control. Although moralizing should be avoided, it must be pointed out

  14. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  15. Unhealthy societies: the afflictions of inequality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkinson, Richard G

    1996-01-01

    "This book brings together a growing body of new evidence which shows that life expectancy in different countries is dramatically improved where income differences are smaller and societies are more socially cohesive...

  16. Unhealthy societies: the afflictions of inequality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkinson, Richard G

    1996-01-01

    ... of the corrosive effects of inequality. The public arena becomes a source of supportive social networks rather than of stress and potential conflict. As well as weakening the social fabric and damaging health, inequality increases crime rates and violence. Unhealthy Societies shows that social cohesion is crucial to the quality of life. Increase...

  17. Hormones for therapy of climacteric afflictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Western countries hormone replacement therapy (HT is widely used in the treatment of climacteric women who are affected with hot flashes and night sweats. Besides, long-term HT was frequently used to manage the higher risks for osteoporosis and heart attack in postmenopause. Estrogens alone or combined with progestin feature most frequently in HT. Objectives: This HTA report addresses the questions on medical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of HT as a treatment of hot flashes and night sweats as well as in the primary prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopause in general healthy women. Methods: The literature search for articles published after 1998 was conducted in March 2004 in standard medical and economic databases. The analysis included randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and economic evaluations considering relevant clinical endpoints in English or German language. The quality of the studies was assessed using checklists corresponding to the study type. Results: HT is highly effective in treating hot flashes in climacteric women. The question of economical efficiency cannot be answered due to the scarce database. As the positive effects (lower risk for fractures and endometrial cancer do not outweigh the negative effects (higher risk for breast cancer and general cardiovascular risk estrogen-progestin combination HT cannot be recommended for primary prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Discussion: The observation period of most of the studies regarding therapy of hot flashes and night sweats were too short to evaluate possible risks of long-term HT. The economic publications assessing HT for this indication varied vastly in terms of applied methods and were not carried out with respect to the German health care system. Conclusions: HT can be recommended in the short-term treatment of hot flashes and night sweats in climacteric women. To explore the economic effects of HT for this indication for Germany, studies constructed with respect to the German health care system are desirable.

  18. Healing thyself: a Korean shaman's afflictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, L

    1988-01-01

    Accounts of shamans' lives have typically emphasized the shaman's experience of a divine 'calling' and subsequent initiation as the key incidents around which other biographical, psychological, and cultural information may be organized and appreciated. Scholars have thus emphasized those aspects of the shaman's experience which set the shaman apart from other members of her or his society and at the same time, render the shaman comparable to other shamans in other places far removed in time and space. This paper takes a different approach, describing a series of ordinary misfortunes that befell a Korean mansin several years after her initiation, the interpretations she and her colleagues placed upon these events, the advice she received, and the healing strategies she subsequently followed. This discussion reveals those aspects of the shaman's experience that render her more, rather than less, like those she treats and suggests a process whereby the shared reality of shaman and client is realized in lived experiences, rituals, and conversations.

  19. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  20. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...

  1. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): First aid Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including heart attack or near ...

  2. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  3. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a microwave or conventional oven, or using a hair dryer on them. Clean hearing aids as instructed. Earwax and ear drainage can damage your aids. Avoid using hairspray and other hair care products while wearing your hearing aids. Turn ...

  4. Hearing Aid and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Fatahi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.

  5. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  6. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  7. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  8. Tuberculosis in AIDS Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lee, Christopher; Ithoi, Init; Yik, Fong Mun; Abdullah, Khairul Anuar

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the top agenda among opportunistic diseases and the most leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. A total of 406 AIDS patients were recruited in this retrospective and descriptive study. 123/406 (30.3%) were diagnosed as AIDS-related tuberculosis (TB). Their age range from 17 to 69 years with a mean (±SD) of 37.2 (±9.51. There were significant association between occupation, or mode of HIV transmission and tuberculosis infection (p< 0.05). Pulmonary tuberculosis 104/123 (8...

  9. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  10. Human Factors Job Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    The purpose of this Human Factors Job Aid is to serve as a desk reference for : human factors integration during system acquisition. The first chapter contains : an overview of the FAA human factors process in system acquisitions. The : remaining eig...

  11. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  12. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain Fatigue HIV/AIDS Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  13. Hearing Aid Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  14. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV is being spread by needles left in theater seats or vending machine coin returns. Reality: There ... cells (see fact sheet 124 ) could drop, a sign of immune damage. Myth: AIDS drugs are poison ...

  15. AidData

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  16. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...... sustained future growth, Mozambique will have to develop its capacity to maximise the benefits from its natural resources while ensuring at the same time the necessary framework is put in place to promote constructive integration in international markets...

  17. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  18. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    .... Jacques Pepin looks back to the early twentieth-century events in Africa that triggered the emergence of HIV/AIDS and the subsequent evolution and transmission of the disease before it was first...

  19. Tools to aid navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira, Cristòfol

    2001-01-01

    The problem of disorientation brought about by hypertext navigation can be solved by efficient tools to aid navigation such as summaries, indexes or navigation maps. In the article we analyse the main tools to aid navigation used in the Internet web, going futher into those which use knowledge representation to carry out their faction. We propose new ways of making navigation maps to favour access and understanding of information for hypertext environments in teaching-learning.

  20. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread.

  1. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  2. Helicopter visual aid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisley, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The helicopter visual aid system has been built and flight tested in situations representative of actual flight missions. The mechanisms discussed contributed greatly to the successful performance of the system throughout the 160 hours of flight testing. It has demonstrated that the visual aid concept can provide improved daytime visual capability, greatly improved nighttime capability, surveillance from greater distances and/or altitudes, covert operation at night through the use of the IR searchlight, and a photographic recording at the scene being viewed.

  3. Women and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edemikpong, N B

    1990-01-01

    While the origin of the AIDS virus remains controversial, it is indisputable that AIDS is spreading worldwide. By June 1987, the World Health Organization estimated that 50 million Africans were infected with HIV and that the disease was epidemic in many parts of the continent. However, African governments chose to deny the threat of the disease. The AIDS crisis has diverted resources from other vital areas of disease prevention, health promotion, and research. Whereas AIDS is spread in developed nations by sexual promiscuity, by drug addicts sharing unclean hypodermic needles, and by homosexual behavior, in Africa cultural factors contribute to the transmission of AIDS. Female genital mutilation leads to extensive laceration of the female genitals upon initiation of sexual intercourse and/or to substitution of anal sex during the weeks and months before vaginal penetration can be achieved. In addition, the reuse of the same knives during the mutilation can spread HIV infection. Other factors that contribute to the spread of HIV in Africa include the patriarchal practice of polygamy, the subordinate position of women that makes them unable to insist on protection during intercourse, and a failure to screen blood used in transfusions. With all of these risk factors at play, women at the grassroots level must be equipped with the health education that is the only available tool to fight AIDS. Women's organizations can provide information and education to people at risk of acquiring HIV, counsel infected persons, ensure the safety of the blood supply, and work to overcome harmful traditional practices.

  4. THE AIDS HANDBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  5. Aids : A Rampant Intruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS epidemic represents the most serious public health problem in India. There is no denial of the enormity of the problem. The prevalence of infection in all parts of the world highlights the spread from urban to rural areas and from high risk to general population. It is esti­mated that as on end of year 2004, 39.4 million people were infected with the virus. Migration of labour, low lit­eracy levels leading to low awareness, gender disparities, prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and reproduc­tive tract infections are some of the factors attributed to the spread of HIV/AIDS.4.9 million ( 4.3 million - 6.4 million people have aquired HIV infection only in one year of span - 2004. The global AIDS epidemic killed 3.1 million ( 2,8 million- 3.5 million people in the past year.

  6. Recapture training aid.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, James Edward

    2004-08-01

    The breacher's training aid described in this report was designed to simulate features of magazine and steel-plate doors. The training aid enables breachers to practice using their breaching tools on components that they may encounter when attempting to enter a facility. Two types of fixtures were designed and built: (1) a large fixture incorporates simulated hinges, hasps, lock shrouds, and pins, and (2) a small fixture simulates the cross section of magazine and steel-plate doors. The small fixture consists of steel plates on either side of a structural member, such as an I-beam. The report contains detailed descriptions and photographs of the training aids, assembly instructions, and drawings.

  7. Tuberculosis in AIDS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lee, Christopher; Ithoi, Init; Yik, Fong Mun; Abdullah, Khairul Anuar

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the top agenda among opportunistic diseases and the most leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. A total of 406 AIDS patients were recruited in this retrospective and descriptive study. 123/406 (30.3%) were diagnosed as AIDS-related tuberculosis (TB). Their age range from 17 to 69 years with a mean (±SD) of 37.2 (±9.51. There were significant association between occupation, or mode of HIV transmission and tuberculosis infection (p< 0.05). Pulmonary tuberculosis 104/123 (84.6%) was the most common disease location among TB patients. We found the significant association between the clinical presentations i.e. fever, cough, sputum or hemoptysis and TB patients (p<0.05), moreover, the level of CD4 cell count plays a significant role in association with the disease (p<0.05) in this study. PMID:23365502

  8. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  9. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage...... of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...

  10. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  11. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  12. Recent Insights into the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Becerra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Transmission of HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, occurs predominantly through bodily fluids. Factors that significantly alter the risk of HIV transmission include male circumcision, condom use, high viral load, and the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases. Pathology/Symptomatology: HIV infects preferentially CD4+ T lymphocytes, and Monocytes. Because of their central role in regulating the immune response, depletion of CD4+ T cells renders the infected individual incapable of adequately responding to microorganisms otherwise inconsequential. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: New HIV infections affect predominantly young heterosexual women and homosexual men. While the mortality rates of AIDS related causes have decreased globally in recent years due to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART treatment, a vaccine remains an elusive goal. Treatment and curability: For those afflicted HIV infection remains a serious illness. Nonetheless, the use of advanced therapeutics have transformed a dire scenario into a chronic condition with near average life spans. When to apply those remedies appears to be as important as the remedies themselves. The high rate of HIV replication and the ability to generate variants are central to the viral survival strategy and major barriers to be overcome. Molecular mechanisms of infection: In this review, we assemble new details on the molecular events from the attachment of the virus, to the assembly and release of the viral progeny. Yet, much remains to be learned as understanding of the molecular mechanisms used in viral replication and the measures engaged in the evasion of immune surveillance will be important to develop effective interventions to address the global HIV pandemic.

  13. AIDS: the frightening facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M

    1986-01-01

    Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has succeeded in creating an unprecedented wave of panic among the Western public and some sections of the medical profession. Research clearly shows that the AIDS virus is transmissible in a number of ways: from man to woman and vice versa during sexual intercourse, through semen and possibly vaginal fluids; from mothers to their children through breast milk; through exchange of saliva (but not through just a casual kiss); and through blood and blood products. Far from being exclusive to homosexuals, studies in Europe have shown that female virus carriers can transmit AIDS to healthy men through sexual intercourse--the predominant means by which transmission appears to occur in Central Africa. Although cases of AIDS began being diagnosed in a few Central African countries at the beginning of the 1980s, at the same time as they were first being observed in Europe and North America, many commentators assumed that the virus originated in Africa. Yet, it is safe to say that the nature of the virus, let alone its origins, remains controversial among scientists and virologists. 1 supporter of the theory that the AIDS virus has African origins is Robert Gall of the US National Institute of Health (NIH). He is one of the co-discoverers of the virus, which he named HTLV3 (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 3). The virus also was discovered at France's Pasteur Institute by Luc Montaigner, who called it LAV (Lymphadenpathy Associated Virus). Gallo named the virus as he did because he believes it to be related to a pair of other viruses, HTLV1 and HTLV2, which like the AIDS virus attack the body's immunity system. Unlike AIDS, these 2 viruses, do not destroy the T-cells but cause them to replicate into cancer tumors. In Gallo's view, HTLV1 has long been endemic to some parts of Africa, from where he believes it spread via the slave trade to other parts of the world. Montaigner does not agree. He denies that the AIDS virus is related to

  14. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  15. More than First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  16. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    ... urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/ AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned if we are to avoi...

  17. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing

  18. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one of the most serious, deadly diseases in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type of defense cell in the body called a CD4 helper lymphocyte (pronounced: LIM-foe- ...

  19. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a result of the aging process and/or noise exposure, but also may be secondary to head trauma, ... tested for word understanding in quiet and in noise, and for improvement in ... environments. Then eventually work up to wearing your hearing aids all waking ...

  20. Mycobacteria and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D K

    1992-03-01

    Mycobacteria are acid-fast, slow-growing microorganisms which have gained attention due to increasing prevalence in AIDS patients. Until the advent of AIDS, the only true pathogens of this group were Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae and the remaining mycobacteria were considered to be saprophytes or opportunistic pathogens. Infection with the MOTT (mycobacteria other than tuberculosis) bacilli was only seen in elderly or immunocompromised patients and was generally limited to caseating pulmonary granulomas, with rare extrapulmonary involvement. In AIDS patients, however, the incidence of mycobacterial infections ranges from 10 to 60% of HIV-positive persons, depending on location, method of identification, and patient population. Furthermore the pathogenesis of these mycobacterioses is distinct from that seen in non-AIDS patients because disseminated disease is the rule rather than the exception. Finally treatment of mycobacterial infections is increasingly difficult due to multiple drug resistances as well as the length of antimicrobial therapy required to cure the disease. Because of the prevalence and importance of these microorganisms, much research has been performed with the mycobacteria to develop new therapies and to understand their modes of pathogenesis.

  1. Agglomeration and aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA key issue in development economics is the explanation of core-periphery patterns around the world. Combining this issue with that of analyzing unilateral transfers (e.g. foreign aid) points in the direction of the use of New Economic Geography (NEG) models which, so far, has not been

  2. Machine Aids to Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  3. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  4. First Aid Instruction Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Mines (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the Department of the Interior, this teaching guide is for the instructors' use in teaching a first aid course. Six fundamental areas include: (1) Artificial Respiration, (2) Control of Bleeding, (3) Physical Shock, (4) Open Wounds, Closed Wounds, and Burns, (5) Fractures and Dislocations, and (6) Transportation. A complete…

  5. AIDS IN DENTISTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prompted the use of half body irradiation in epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. literature has scanty informotion on irradiation of ... J.A.M.A., 252: 934.935,1984. 3 .. 4. Harri" J.W., Reed, lA, Kapo,i', sarcoma in AIDS: ... There has been laxity in standards of infection control not only in dental clinics but in general health care system.

  6. Paediatric AIDS in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The World Health Organization EPIMODEL computer program has projected that in 1993, there will be 41,023 cumulative cases of AIDS and 642,897 cumulative HIV infections among Nigerian adults. 1.2% of pregnant Nigerian women are reported to be HIV seropositive, 20-30% of whom can be expected to transmit HIV to their offspring. There are therefore many cases of pediatric HIV infection and AIDS in Nigeria. Infants and children can also be infected with HIV through the receipt of HIV-contaminated blood or blood products during transfusion, the use of unsterilized syringes and needles, and the use of contaminated instruments by traditional healers for circumcision, scarification, and tattoos. Vertical transmission, however, is the mode through which pediatric AIDS is most commonly spread. Preventive measures should therefore be directed toward promoting HIV risk reduction behaviors. Diagnosing AIDS and securing the laboratory confirmation of HIV infection are problematic in poor tropical countries like Nigeria. HIV-infected infants of unimpaired immunological status should be immunized with measles, injectable diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis, and inactivated polio virus vaccines. However, measles vaccine must not be given to an already immunocompromised patient. Likewise, BCG vaccination and oral live poliovaccine should not be given to HIV-infected children.

  7. 1 HIV AND AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The spread of the infection and disease would have damaging consequences if not controlled. The country's ... Rapid spread of. HIV/AIDS would have damaging consequences for sectors such as education, social welfare, gender and children's affairs, transportation, social security, defence, agriculture, rural development ...

  8. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    not established that aid works. Using meta-regression analysis it is shown that about 20 factors influence the results. Much of the variation between studies is an artifact and can be attributed to publication outlet, institu¬tional affiliation, and specification differences. However, some of the difference...

  9. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    ... of tropical diseases interconnected to fuel the communication of HIV-1 in the 1960s, as the country struggled to adapt to its newfound independence. With a unique synthesis of historical, political and medical elements, this book adds a coherent and necessary historical perspective to recent molecular studies of the chronology of the HIV/AIDS pandemic"--Provided by publisher.

  10. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  11. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  12. Performative Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Olwig, Mette Fog

    -politicization of development aid and the function of celebrities in this dynamic, but that the staging of the events nevertheless is executed in line with local Danish cultural norms by being inclusive and folkelig (for and of the people), often through an ostensibly politically incorrect, unassuming and underplayed, irony...

  13. computer-aided root aided root aided root aided root-locus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    AIDED ROOT-LOCUS NUMERICAL TECHNIQUE. LOCUS NUMERICAL TECHNIQUE. A. R. Zubair1,* , A. ... -loci obtained with this technique are found to confor loci obtained with this technique are found to confor loci are .... approaches which use complex analytic or semi- analytic representation that involve the use of.

  14. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future.

  15. A AIDS de nossos dias: quem é o responsável? The AIDS of our days: who is responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Cardoso Regato

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Investiga-se a problemática da AIDS, com apoio na teoria das perspectivas divergentes (Jones & Nisbett, 1972 e na crença no mundo justo (Lerner, 1975. Pretende-se demonstrar que a interpretação desse evento vitimador pode variar ao se considerar a pessoa infectada (o ator, que adota causas externas ou o médico (o observador, que usa causas internas ao ator; que atores e observadores diferem quanto à crença no mundo justo; e que as respostas de combate à doença dependem da atribuição feita pelos pacientes. Participaram da pesquisa 191 portadores de HIV/AIDS e 200 médicos, que responderam ao questionário de atribuição de causalidade e à escala de crença no mundo justo. Os resultados evidenciaram diferenças nas atribuições de atores e observadores nas direções preconizadas e o importante papel mediador da atividade atributiva no enfrentamento do infortúnio. Discute-se a utilidade dos achados para a prática dos profissionais de saúde que lidam com os soropositivos.The problem of AIDS is investigated with the support on the theory of divergent perspectives (Jones & Nisbett, 1972 and the belief in a just world (Lerner, 1975. It is intended to demonstrate that the interpretation of this victimizing event may vary when considering the infected person (the actor, who adopts outside causes or the doctor (the observer, who uses internal causes to the actor; that actors and observers differ as to the belief in a just world; and that the coping responses to the disease depend on the attribution made by the patients. 191 HIV/AIDS patients and 200 doctors participated in the research, answering the questionnaire on causal attribution and the belief in a just world scale. The results put in evidence differences in the attribution of actors and observers in the expected directions and the important mediating role of the attributive activity in facing the affliction. The usefulness of these findings to a better understanding of the

  16. Homophobia and attitudes about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, A; Levy, J; Samson, J M; Tessier, D

    1989-02-01

    A random sample of 407 French Canadian adults responded to a questionnaire about perception of AIDS. Negative attitudes about AIDS are better predicted by homophobia than other measures as are attitudes about extramarital relations and attitudes abut adolescent heterosexuality.

  17. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  18. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  19. Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious. But thanks to better treatments, people with HIV/AIDS are now living longer, and have a better ... a health care provider has experience in treating HIV/AIDS If are on any medicines, make sure to ...

  20. An effective, low-cost approach to implementing HIV/AIDS education programs in low literacy populations: an example from rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preidis, Geoffrey A; Shapiro, Conor D; Pierre, Inobert; Dyer, Monica J; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Grimes, Richard M

    2010-05-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic disproportionately afflicts regions of the world that have minimal access to formal schooling and low literacy rates. Health educational interventions are difficult to evaluate efficiently in these settings because standard approaches such as written questionnaires cannot easily be employed. Here, we describe a novel method of rapidly assessing health interventions among large groups that does not require the ability to read or write. We tested this evaluation tool within the context of a community-based HIV/AIDS drama education program in a low-literate region of rural Haiti. The evaluation was simple, easy to use, and confirmed substantial improvements in knowledge after the intervention. The tool also provided information that helped alter the intervention to improve educational outcomes in subsequent productions of the drama. This evaluation method can be utilized for very little cost, and may be replicated in resource-poor, non-literate settings throughout the developing world.

  1. Aid and the environment: Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kateregga, Eseza

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to (i) establish the areas in which aid from the major donors is concentrated; (ii) examine how aid has been allocated to the environmental sectors, and (iii) review the factors behind the success of environmental projects. Using data from the Aiddata.org database, the distribution of environment-related aid, commitments and disbursements from the major donors over the period 2005 - 11 is examined. Recipients of aid and donors were interviewed to learn their perceptions on ai...

  2. Caribbean AIDS explosion examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-13

    Homophobia, sex tourism, infidelity, and poverty are major factors causing a rapid explosion of AIDS and increasingly infecting women in the Caribbean. The region has the second largest incidence of AIDS in the world after Africa. The number of people with the HIV virus is likely greater than 500,000 and could be as high as 700,000, about twice the previously reported figures. Societal norms encourage homosexuals to have heterosexual relationships, and married men to have extramarital affairs, while poverty forces men and women to prostitution, often with tourists. In addition, a survey of 8100 school children in 4 English-speaking Caribbean islands revealed that 42% of the children had experienced sex before the age of 10 years; 62% had experienced it by age 12. This finding may reflect a high rate of child molestation in the region.

  3. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  4. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur.

  5. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  6. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People with HIV/AIDS are ... such as the flu. You can help prevent infections by taking your HIV/AIDS medicines. Other things that can help include ...

  7. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul

    1996-01-01

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  8. Computer aided manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  9. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  10. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries.

  11. Has aid for AIDS raised all health funding boats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Berlan, David; Hafner, Tamara

    2009-11-01

    Global health analysts have debated whether donor prioritization of HIV/AIDS control has lifted all boats, raising attention and funding levels for health issues aside from HIV/AIDS. We investigate this question, considering donor funding for 4 historically prominent health agendas-HIV/AIDS, health systems strengthening, population and reproductive health, and infectious disease control-over the decade 1998-2007. We employ funding data from the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which tracks donor aid. The data indicate that HIV/AIDS may have helped to increase funding for the control of other infectious diseases; however, there is no firm evidence that other health issues beyond the control of infectious diseases have benefited. Between 1998 and 2007, funding for HIV/AIDS control rose from just 5.5% to nearly half of all aid for health. Over the same period, funding for health systems strengthening declined from 62.3% to 23.9% of total health aid and that for population and reproductive health declined from 26.4% to 12.3%. Also, even as total aid for health tripled during this decade, aid for health systems strengthening largely stagnated. Overall, the data indicate little support for the contention that donor funding for HIV/AIDS has lifted all boats.

  12. AIDS and journalism. AIDS is a development issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavriew, L

    1994-12-01

    More than 80% of all cases of HIV are in the developing world. AIDS in global terms is very much a development issue, a symptom and increasingly a cause of under-development. Even if a cure is eventually found, it will take a while to reach those who need it the most, if it ever does. This position is the heart of the author's comments on three other presentations about the relationship between AIDS and journalism. She edits WorldAIDS, a magazine on AIDS distributed free in developing countries. While there is a plethora of information on AIDS for researchers and doctors in the Western world, WorldAIDS is the main and often only source of AIDS information for many of its readers. The author reminds the reader that there is definitely no information overload in the developing world. Journalists in developing countries seeking information and knowledge on HIV/AIDS do not enjoy the Western journalist luxury of securing specialist assistance to help them understand AIDS. Few media organizations in the developing world can afford to train specialist reporters and access to information resources is much more limited than in the more developed countries. The Internet, however, may revolutionize access to information in the next few years in the developing world. It is already changing the life of working journalists in many places. Reporting science accurately and following new developments is only part of the journalist's job when reporting AIDS issues. The press also has a major role in monitoring the flow and use of funds allocated for AIDS. It is noted that the press is both an ally and an enemy of the AIDS activist. While mass media can disseminate information on a broad scale, it also runs scare stories counterproductive to HIV prevention and control and the eradication of social ignorance and prejudice against people with HIV and AIDS.

  13. AIDS and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, D; Mann, J

    1995-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a health problem that is inseparable from individual and collective behavior and social forces, particularly linked with societal respect for human rights and dignity. In its second decade, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to thrive. Where organized communities have access to adequate information, education, and services, the incidence of infection has begun to decline. Elsewhere, HIV continues to reach new populations and new geographic areas. Lessons learned in more than a decade of prevention work point to new directions for expanding national responses, at a time when the UNAIDS program, to be launched in January 1996, offers opportunities for innovative, broad-based, coordinated, and expanded global action. Prevention activities have shown that the spread of HIV can be effectively reduced. Public health interventions, including providing information and applying prevention methods, reduce the probability of infection, the risk of transmission, and the chances of not accessing appropriate care or support once infection has set in. These are proximal interventions that yield the short-term benefits of the decline of incidence and improved quality and duration of life for those infected. Societal vulnerability translates today into the focus the pandemic has on individuals, communities, and nations that are disadvantaged, marginalized, or discriminated against for reasons of gender, age, race, sexual orientation, economic status, or cultural, religious, or political affiliation. A fully expanded response to HIV/AIDS requires a combination of risk-reduction (proximal) and contextual interventions--those directed at reducing vulnerability through social change to enable people to exert control over their own health. Contextual actions can be implemented in the short term (changing laws, policies, practices that discriminate, promoting human rights, developing the most vulnerable communities) and in the long term (cultural changes, gender equality in

  14. [No remedy for AIDS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, M M

    1993-01-01

    Vila Mimosa, a site of street prostitution in Rio de Janeiro since the 1930s, is the place of work for over 2000 prostitution who charge an average of $3-4 per client. Several years ago the Association of Prostitutes of Rio de Janeiro (APRJ) was founded by Eunice Coelho Reis. APRJ membership has increased steadily and its list of accomplishments is impressive. A state hospital performs free medical examinations of APRJ members, and the Brazilian family planning association BEMFAM provides 180,000 condoms each month. AIDS control projects have also been successful, and no APRJ members have contracted HIV infection. In the country with the 4th highest rate of infection, the rigid norm of condom use adopted by the prostitutes of Vila Mimosa has led to effective prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The prostitutes report however that a large proportion of their clients resist condom use, sometimes violently. The proportion of seropositive individuals who are women has been rising steadily. Family Health International estimates that the proportion of new cases among women has risen from 25% in 1990 to 40% at present. AIDS prevention campaigns are attempting to persuade women to "negotiate" condom use during sex. But power relations between the sexes place women at a disadvantage. Men often make the sexual decisions. Socialization patterns of females in Latin America are oriented to maternity. Passive sexual behavior has become a primary obstacle to adoption of safer sex practices. The World Health Organization estimates that currently 9-11 million persons are latent carriers of the HIV virus. Prostitution originating in poverty and unemployment, the vulnerability of adolescents who begin their sexual lives with little knowledge of contraception or sexually transmitted diseases, and the lack of sex education that transcends the biological to consider interpersonal relations are all factors that hinder AIDS prevention.

  15. Computer aided drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.

    2017-08-01

    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  16. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  17. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  18. AIDS in the workplace: implementing an AIDS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, M J

    1994-12-01

    Much needless anxiety and misinformation about AIDS exists today. Many people are concerned that they can "catch" AIDS in the workplace through casual contact with co-workers. AIDS is hard to get. It is not spread by nonsexual, person-to-person contact among workers, clients, and consumers in offices, schools, factories, or other workplaces. Managers of corporations should institute AIDS policies, addressing discrimination, confidentiality, infection control, and education, before the first cases of the disease emerge in the organization. It is predicted that about 90 percent of HIV-positive individuals are presently in the labor force; every American employer will have to come in contact with HIV/AIDS-infected employees in the near future. Any attempt to communicate positive messages--and reduce fear and confusion--leads to a more productive work environment, less discrimination, and more sensitivity regarding AIDS issues.

  19. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...

  20. Migration and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.

  1. Traditional lesion detection aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Talking about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the significance of social relationships to two important stages in the process of sexual behavioral change in response to increased HIV/AIDS risk in rural Africa: the perceived risk of becoming HIV-infected through unprotected sexual intercourse and the preferred methods of protection either through sexual fidelity, or through condom use. The empirical analyses are based on cross-sectional data from the 'Kenyan Diffusion and Ideational Change Project' (KDICP which provides information about AIDS-related, ego-centered communication networks of Kenyan men and women. The results show that perceived risks, as well as preferred methods of protection against HIV-infection, depend in general on the prevailing perceptions and favored protective methods within personal communication networks. However, different influential network properties can be found. The risk-perceptions of women are shaped by strong relationships and cohesive network structures. Male's risk perception depends more on the number of risk-perceivers in their communication networks. Heterogeneous relationships of various kinds are influential on women's and men's probability of favoring sexual faithfulness as a method of protection against HIV-infection.

  3. East Africa: AIDS orphans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutayuga, J B

    1995-01-01

    The number of orphans in East Africa is growing rapidly due to the combined effects of the atrocities in Rwanda and Burundi and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. To meet their needs, Ukimwi Orphans Assistance (UOA), a nonprofit nongovernmental organization (NGO), was founded by East Africans in 1990; it has built "secondary family structures" of NGOs in Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. Needs assessment studies showed that food producing and income generating projects had highest priority, but communities have made strides in housing, education, and health. Communal food plots, repair and building of shelters, using traditional crafts to earn money for school fees, developing remedial schools, and organizing traditional medical practitioners into clinics have all been undertaken in the effort to stop disease, restore normal living, and forestall socioeconomic collapse. UOA has found that culture-based programs succeed because they offer guarantees of sustainability and cost effectiveness. African principles of kinship and extended family are used to develop resources for providing minimum assistance and to rebuild caring and supporting communities for the children. Determined community efforts should be an incentive for increased external aid.

  4. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  5. Do Visual Aids Really Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kristine Fish; Jungwon Mun; RoseAnn A’Jontue

    2016-01-01

    Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This study compared student evaluations before and after embedding additional visual aids throughout video lectures in an online course. Slide transition...

  6. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  7. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akramov, Kamiljon T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...

  8. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-08

    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  9. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  11. Aid and good governance: Examining aggregate unintended effects of aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Geske

    2017-09-18

    Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. AIDS and non AIDS-related malignant lymphoma in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS and non AIDS-related malignant lymphoma in Tanzania. ... Method: Cancer registry data was reviewed for retrospective cases. Both retrospective and prospective lymphoma cases were classified ... Ten (40%) high grade ML and three Hodgkin's lymphoma from HIV patients had HHV-8 DNA. These findings were not ...

  13. AIDS and Homophobia: A Perspective for AIDS Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Beverly; Yates, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that effective Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education cannot be separated from homophobia, and offers guidelines for dealing with homophobia in the classroom. Points out that AIDS misinformation often results from homophobic attitudes. Provides questions that educators can ask themselves to challenge their own attitudes,…

  14. Thailand: AIDS crisis looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D G

    1990-03-31

    Although Thailand's Ministry of Public Health has recorded slightly under 15,000 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to date, an independent team of health and medical experts has estimated that 200,000-300,000 Thais are infected. Moreover, the team has predicted that 1.6 million people--2.5% of the population--will be infected by 1995 in the absence of an aggressive, immediate prevention campaign. When AIDS 1st emerged in Thailand in the mid-1980s, it was largely restricted to homosexual prostitutes who came into contact with foreign men in gay bars. Soon, however, HIV infections was spreading rapidly among intravenous drug abusers and the infection rate among this group is currently estimated to be 45%. Another heavily affected group has been poorly paid prostitutes who work in Thailand's brothels; rates of 44-70% infectivity have been recorded among these women. Most recently, HIV infection has shown signs of entering the general population. Of the recorded cases of HIV infection in Chiang Mai, 59% involve prostitutes, 17% are workers, 6% are civil servants, 7% are students, and 2% are housewives. The sex ratio of HIV-infected persons has changed from 17 males per 1 female in 1986 to 5 males for every 1 female in 1989. Since the change in government in 1988, Thailand has stepped up AIDS education and information dissemination activities and condom use has increased by as much as 70%. Given the gravity of the situation, however, assistance from the World Bank and United Nations agencies in addition to the World Health Organization are needed.

  15. [AIDS information in Zimbabwe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L

    1993-11-20

    The difficulties of health education concerning AIDs prevention in Zimbabwe include communicating simple information about complicated processes, resistance to the information because of status or tradition, and lack of experience with translating material that was produced in the West. The beliefs in ghosts and witch doctors are still part of the tradition in Zimbabwe, providing cultural diversity and a sense of identification. Traditional medicine is characterized by Westerners as often irrational behavior that is deleterious to one's health. However, even in the allegedly educated part of the world compliance is often lacking and alternative treatment forms are actively pursued in tandem with formal medicine. When there is a short time period between harmful behavior and infection, most people realize that there is a causative connection. On the other hand, it is a more complicated mental exercise to fathom that intercourse can result in HIV infection that 5 years later may lead to death from tuberculosis. No other disease is known by these people that has a corresponding delay from the time of infection to disease or death. It is also confusing that a sexually transmitted disease does not produce symptoms such as discharge or genital sores. It is difficult to comprehend that a sole causative agent, HIV, can lead to so many different diseases and symptoms. When a young man died after having been hospitalized with protracted cough and TB as a result of HIV infection that he had contracted from a girlfriend, the father told the folks at home that his son had died of TB. These conflicting pieces of information make AIDS prevention education wrought with difficulties, which adds to the rapid spread of the disease, although the authorities and international organizations have responded with strategies, informational materials, and educational courses.

  16. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also address...

  17. [Implantable middle ear hearing aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    à Wengen, D F

    2004-01-01

    Conventional acoustic hearing aids are limited in their performance. Due to physical laws their amplification of sound is limited to within 5 kHz. However, the frequencies between 5 and 10 kHz are essential for understanding consonants. Words can only be understood correctly if their consonants can be understood. Furthermore noise amplification remains a problem with hearing aids. Other problems consist of recurrent infections of the external auditory canal, intolerance for occlusion of the ear canal, feedback noise, and resonances in speech or singing. Implantable middle ear hearing aids like the Soundbridge of Symphonix-Siemens and the MET of Otologics offer improved amplification and a more natural sound. Since the first implantation of a Soundbridge in Switzerland in 1996 almost one thousand patients have been implanted worldwide. The currents systems are semi-implantable. The external audio processor containing the microphone, computer chip, battery and radio system is worn in the hair bearing area behind the ear. Implantation is only considered after unsuccessful fitting of conventional hearing aids. In Switzerland the cost for these implantable hearing aids is covered by social insurances. Initially the cost for an implant is higher than for hearing aids. However, hearing aids need replacement every 5 or 6 years whereas implants will last 20 to 30 years. Due to the superior sound quality and the improved understanding of speech in noise, the number of patients with implantable hearing aids will certainly increase in the next years. Other middle ear implants are in clinical testing.

  18. Aid and Sectoral Labour Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows...

  19. African Journal of AIDS Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of AIDS Research (AJAR) is a peer-reviewed research journal publishing papers that make an original contribution to the understanding of social dimensions of HIV/AIDS in African contexts. AJAR includes articles from, amongst others, the disciplines of sociology, demography, epidemiology, social ...

  20. Assessing trustworthiness of personal aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Denise Clark; Cho, Won Jee

    2011-10-01

    Smaller family size has increased the need for assistance from personal aides. Respite care provided by personal aides reduces depressive symptoms and improves intergenerational relations and overall well-being of family members and patients. Yet, little is known about how family members evaluate personal aides prior to and during the employment period. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted face-to-face with 10 families providing home-based care. Family members' ages ranged from 43 to 70 years. Patients' ages ranged from 67 to 86 years. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and themes were identified. Family members emphasized the importance of personal aides. Other concerns included protection of their loved ones against risks from dishonest, unethical, or incompetent personal aides and unsafe, uncomfortable caregiving contexts. After family members hired a personal aide they presumed to be trustworthy, monitoring was a nearly endless task in seeking assurance that their initial assessment was accurate. Appropriate care, according to family members, went far beyond actions required to competently administer medicines, assist with activities of daily living, or maintain a watchful presence in the home. While positive experiences with personal aides added to the quality of life for both family members and patients when trustworthiness was established, quite the opposite was found when trust was violated. Personal relations, interpersonal communication skills, and affection between the aide and the patient were found to be much more important in determining trustworthiness than were standard caregiving skills.

  1. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  2. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Center . Expand All Collapse All How many new HIV infections are there each year in the United ...

  3. Aid, Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Aid and aid institutions constitute an important element of the global response to interlinked global developmental and environmental challenges. As such, these institutions are now being drawn into new arenas beyond the traditional focus on improving the livelihoods of poor people in low-income ...

  4. Urban Terrain Analysis Training Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Continue on reverse aide If necessary and iden t i f y by b lock number) MOBA a Combat-In-Cities Training Aids for Urban Combat Urban Terrain ZQ...Urban Areas Working Group of the Military Operations Research Society; the joint DARCOM-TRADOC (U.S. Army) MOUT conferences; and a special MOBA

  5. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  6. An introduction to hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrlund, Ole

    2003-04-01

    This presentation reviews hearing-aid development from analog to advanced digital technology. A basic hearing aid consists of a microphone, an amplification circuit that provides a gain that varies with frequency to accommodate variations in hearing loss with frequency, and a small earphone. In recent years, hearing aid technology has developed rapidly. Digital hearing aids have become commonplace and their share of the marketplace is increasing rapidly. Therefore, the main focus of this talk is signal-processing schemes in advanced digital hearing aids, including microphones with digitally controlled directional characteristics, wide-dynamic-range compression in multiple channels that allow the compression characteristics to vary with frequency, noise reduction, and feedback cancellation. Each of these signal-processing functions help address the needs of individuals with hearing losses.

  7. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In 2013 almost half of Africa’s top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID , DFID , the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid...... policies become ever more entangled with the survival of their authoritarian protégés. Local citizens thus find themselves at the receiving end of a compromise between aid agencies and government elites, in which development policies are shaped in the interests of maintaining the status quo. Aid...... and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique...

  8. Aid Relations and Aid Legitimacy: Mutual Imaging of Aid Workers and Recipients in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, D.; Weijers, L.; Wessel, van M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers mutual imaging of aid workers and Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Based on a theoretical perspective of aid as a socially negotiated arena, the contextual and interactionist concept of imaging is used, rather than labelling (which is done to people), or perceptions (located in one

  9. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  10. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  11. Fighting AIDS the Cuban way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, N S

    1995-01-01

    Cuba is using elements of classical public health practice in its national AIDS control program. Its AIDS policy appears to be successful. Cuba has 927 HIV-positive cases and 187 AIDS cases (111 deaths) in a population of more than 10 million. Its neighbors have cumulative AIDS prevalence rates at least on par with those of the US. Puerto Rico (around 3 million population) has more than 8000 AIDS cases. Cuba's health system provides for a family physician for every 12 apartment blocks. This physician lives in the community and makes home visits. Medical testing and screenings, including HIV screening, are routine in Cuba. Cuba has the most comprehensive HIV testing program in the world. This program detects fewer than 125 new HIV-positive cases annually. Cuba's successful health system existed before the advent of AIDS. More than 60% of HIV-positive persons are heterosexuals. Many were infected while serving abroad (internationalists) or as sexual partners of internationalists. Cuba considered AIDS as just another health threat and handled it accordingly. It did not worry about offending high risk populations. HIV-infected persons living in the HIV/AIDS sanatoria receive full salaries regardless of their work status and are expected to follow rules that serve to benefit themselves as well as Cuban society. They must accept the three safe sex commandments of the sanatoria before being allowed to leave after completion of a 6-month probationary period. Some patients are allowed to return home after the probationary period. Residents who practice unsafe sex lose their right to leave unchaperoned. All residents receive an individually tailored regimen, which regimen includes exercise, interferon or AZT, and a high calorie and protein diet (5000 kc/day). The Cuban AIDS program focuses on protecting gays, women, and children.

  12. Communicating with Adolescents about AIDS: Experience from ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIDS prevention programs among youth. Communicating with Adolescents about AIDS is a story of innovation, creativity, determination, and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, and aid agencies and NGOs.

  13. AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers from the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) work to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS-related tumors,...

  14. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  15. A Cheaper Alternative to Hearing Aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167033.html A Cheaper Alternative to Hearing Aids? Devices performed almost as well and are much ... that almost 30 million people could benefit from hearing aids. But hearing aids can cost thousands of dollars, ...

  16. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  17. Efektivita projektu Hrou proti AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    ŠÍMOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Effectivenes of the Playing Against AIDS project The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the effectiveness of the "Playing Against AIDS" project. HIV/AIDS is one of the most serious diseases of today, and evokes feelings of fear among people. It is important to prevent the spreading of this disease through responsible behaviour, especially but not only in terms of sexual life. This is why I chose a topic concerning the prevention of this issue. The goal of my thesis was to summarise basic inform...

  18. The Return to Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the average rate of return on investments financed by aid and by domestic resource mobilisation, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a correlated random coefficients model to estimate the average returns. Across...... different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...

  19. TEACHING AIDS – CONTINUITY, INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABRUDAN Ovidiu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For the authors of this paper, the teaching aids were and will always be a priority in their teaching activity. The contents of this paper is the result of a long strained period of efforts made to improve the teaching process, a period in which the teaching aids were permanently improved – as a result of attentively monitoring the students’ results. We can say that motivated students, who wanted to become mechanical engineers, used these teaching aids successfully in their learning activity.

  20. Understanding Graphic and Visual AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nuran, Ade Aini

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to understand how to read a graph and other visual aids. After learning about graph and the visual aids, the students are expected to be able to read a graph in a text and other visual aids. Further, they can make their own graph in telling something. The writer has two fold goals in creating graphics: 1. to make the data stand out on the page and 2. To make the data support the main purpose of the document as clearly and strongly as possible. Many technical pieces of writ...

  1. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals (MDGs) and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda.......This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium...

  2. The Return to Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the average rate of return on investments financed by aid and by domestic resource mobilisation, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a correlated random coefficients model to estimate the average returns. Across...... different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...... of return on public capital....

  3. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...... cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return....

  4. Ergogenic aids in sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesteban Moriones, Virginia; Ibáñez Santos, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Introduction: Very few nutritional supplements have scientifically demonstrated their effectiveness as an ergogenic aid. This review will examine creatine monohydrate (MC), the β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), sodium bicarbonate (BS), the β-alanine and caffeine. Objectives: To analyze the effi cacy, mechanisms of action, dose, side effects and some sports that can benefit from their consumption. Methods: Searching in PubMed bibliographic database reviews from the last 15 years and original articles from the last 5 years of the studied substances. Results: Doses of 20 mg/day for 4-7 days are effective in improving strength and muscular power and performance in short and repeated sprints. HMB at doses of 3 g/day for at least 2 weeks contributes to increased lean mass and fat-free mass. The intake of 0.3 g/kg of BS improves performance on tests of 400-1,500 meters in athletics and intermittent sprints. Meanwhile, doses of 80 mg/kg/day of β-alanine for 4-10 weeks may improve performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise. Finally, caffeine at doses of 2 mg/kg improves responsiveness and 3-6 mg/kg improves performance in endurance tests. Conclusions: The revised supplements have shown their efficacy in physical performance, but it is needed to keep in mind that most studies have been conducted with recreational-level athletes. Generally, the better the individual´s fitness level is the less improvement in physical performance the supplement shows. However, an increase of only 1% may sometimes allow the athlete to advance several positions in a final. Finally, we should draw attention to the importance of optimizing nutrition before considering the introduction of sports supplements, especially in children and youth. All analyzed substances have scientific basis supporting its ergogenic effect. All of them can be found in the market with Certificate of Quality and Purit

  5. The Sobering Geography of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palca, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The rate at which the epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is spreading in North America, Asia, Latin America, and Africa is discussed. The number of people infected globally and in low-risk urban populations is presented. (KR)

  6. Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory serves to support fleet VLA systems by maintaining the latest service change configuration of currently deployed VLA...

  7. VT Federal Aid Urban Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Federal Aid Urban boundaries are defined based on US Census data. The roadways within these boundaries have urban classifications. These FAU boundaries were updated...

  8. Do Visual Aids Really Matter?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fish, Kristine; Mun, Jungwon; A'Jontue, RoseAnn

    2016-01-01

    Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials...

  9. Occupational Therapist Assistants and Aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study and include instruction in subjects such as psychology, biology, and pediatric health. In addition to taking ... Handbook , Occupational Therapy Assistants and Aides, on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/occupational- ...

  10. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV often ...

  11. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Substance ... or alcohol are more likely to have unsafe sex that might expose them to HIV and other ...

  12. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  13. Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-20

    The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the

  14. Can You Give First Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Frances M.

    This pamphlet is a guide for first aid. Areas discussed are: (1) the first-aid box; (2) how to call a doctor; (3) what to do before the doctor comes; (4) how to stop bleeding; (5) what to do for shock; (6) when breathing stops; (7) how to treat an unconscious person; (8) what to do for broken bones; (9) what to do for burns; (10) minor wounds and…

  15. "Because I was in pain, I just wanted to be treated": competing therapeutic goals in the performance of healing HIV/AIDS in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwe is experiencing one of the most severe AIDS epidemics in the world, with an estimated one out of seven people infected with HIV. For both palliative care and pragmatic treatment of HIV-related opportunistic infections, people turn to Un'anga (the traditional system of health and healing), not as a substitute for Western therapeutics but as an alternative explanatory model for the diagnosis and management of illness. Through the use of highly charged symbols and ritualized communication, n'angas (traditional healers) seek to transform patients' understandings and experiences of HIV-related illness. Using performance theory and discourse analysis, this article seeks to expand our understanding of how competing therapeutic goals in the performance of healing affect the structure and content of performance, its subsequent meaning, and the therapeutic effect on those afflicted with HIV.

  16. Do Visual Aids Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Fish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This study compared student evaluations before and after embedding additional visual aids throughout video lectures in an online course. Slide transitions occurred on average every 40 seconds for the pre-treatment group with approximately 600 visuals total, compared to slide transitions every 10 seconds for the post-treatment group with approximately 2,000 visuals total. All students received the same audio recordings. Research questions addressed are: (1 Are student perceptions of the effectiveness of examples used to illustrate concepts affected by number of visual aids? (2 Is the extent to which students feel engaged during the lectures affected by number of visual aids? (3 Are students’ perceived overall learning experiences affected by number of visual aids? Surprisingly, results indicate that for questions #1 and #3, student ratings of those who viewed videos with fewer visuals rated their experiences higher than students who viewed more visuals. There was no significant difference found for question #2. Conclusion: Although some visuals have been shown to enhance learning, too many visuals may be a deterrent to learning.

  17. DINAMIKA DEPRESI PADA PENDERITA AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imadduddin Parhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem today. This is very important because people with depression productivity will decrease and this is very bad for a society and a country that is building. There are at least four chronic diseases that allow the depression sufferer, one of which is HIV and AIDS. Given the uncertainty over the fate of people living with HIV and AIDS had the potential to give rise to feelings of anxiety and depression. Someone who is infected with HIV and AIDS will be overcome by a feeling of dying, guilt about the behavior that makes infection, and taste sequestered by others.The cause of depression in people with HIV and AIDS by cognitive approach that is the mindset of people who deviate from the pattern of the logical interpretation or misinterprets an event or events, focusing on the negative situations that happened to him, and hope that pessimistic and negative about the future. Symptoms are raised is their depressed mood, decreased interest or pleasure in absolute terms, average of worthlessness or excessive guilt, thoughts of death. Response or reaction that occurs is refused, angry, and depressed when he learned he was infected with HIV and AIDS, and eventually be able to accept his situation. Efforts are being made to reduce depression are manifold. One is through social support to colleagues who also have HIV and AIDS.

  18. The history of AIDS exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Julia H

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain.

  19. Aid Loss Probability System for Enlisted (AID-E). Volume 1. Executive Summary,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-15

    Planner/User LIST OF FIGURES Page FIGURE 1: AN OVERVIEW OF THE AID-E ........ 5-6 FIGURE 2: RELATION BETWEEN SAMPLE SIZE AND ITS STANDARD ERROR, AND CPU...Transaction: 9 Gain */Loss Extract Educ. Educ. Period: FY70 Level= Level=5,6,7,8 Sample Size: 20% 0 BSS/TSS: .047 N=25688 N= 12830 L=917 L12 P=.0357P=13

  20. Modeling HIV/AIDS drug price determinants in Brazil: is generic competition a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Constance; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Hasenclever, Lia; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of international legislation and trade agreements on intellectual property rights may reduce availability of generic drugs for HIV care. Our analyses are based on effective prices paid for ARV procurement in Brazil between 1996 and 2009. Data panel structure was exploited to gather ex-ante and ex-post information and address various sources of statistical bias. In-difference estimation offered in-depth information on ARV market characteristics which significantly influence prices. Although overall ARV prices follow a declining trend, changing characteristics in the generic segment help explain recent increase in generic ARV prices. Our results show that generic suppliers are more likely to respond to factors influencing demand size and market competition, while originator suppliers tend to set prices strategically to offset compulsory licensing threats and generic competition. In order to guarantee the long term sustainability of access to antiretroviral treatment, our findings highlight the importance of preserving and stimulating generic market dynamics to sustain developing countries' bargaining power in price negotiations undertaken with originator companies.

  1. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.98 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 1915.98 Section 1915.98 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.98 First aid...) Unless a first aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared to render first aid to...

  3. Trends in Student Aid: 1980 to 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincy, Lynn

    Student financial aid trends for 1980 to 1984 are described in a narrative summary and statistical tables and graphs. Information is provided on 1984-1985 estimated student aid by source (institutional aid, state grants, veterans benefits, Pell grants, federal campus-based aid, Guaranteed Student Loans, and other federal programs. Data are also…

  4. Trends in Student Aid: 1980 to 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchantin, Meg; And Others

    Student financial aid trends from 1980 to 1986 are described in a narrative summary accompanied by statistical tables and graphs. Information is provided on 1985-1986 estimated student aid by source (institutional aid, state grants, veterans benefits, Pell Grants, federal campus-based aid, Guaranteed Student Loans and Parent Loans for…

  5. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    investments), but aid may crowd out private investments when it comes in the shape of pure physical capital transfers. Empirically, we find that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in FDI, while aid invested in physical capital crowds it out. The paper shows that the composition of aid matters for its...... overall level of efficiency....

  6. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  7. AIDS, gays, and state coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Richard D

    1987-01-01

    Mohr argues that coercive government policies in response to the AIDS crisis are unjustified and pose a serious threat to the rights of homosexuals. AIDS presently can be transmitted only to those whose actions place them at risk. Paternalistic state coercion is warranted only when a person has diminished capacity or when necessary to prevent someone from ceasing to be an independent agent. Furthermore, an individual may regard sex as a central value. Finally, using public health as a rationale for closing bathhouses or otherwise regulating sexual behavior is a step toward totalitarianism, because coercion is unwarranted when protection from a disease can be achieved by individual action and because the public good served by reducing the size of the pool of AIDS-exposed people is outweighed by the unjust discrimination involved in using coercive measures that affect only certain individuals.

  8. MANIFESTATION OF AIDS WITH DIARRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Zainuddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases HIV/AIDS is a global health problem. According to WHO (2000 reported that 58 million people in the world are infected with HIV, within the 22 million people died from AIDS or 7000 people die every day. HIV Infection caused decrease and disorder of humoral and cellular immunity. Intestinal mucosal normally shows a physiologic inflamation that account for intestinal mucosal integrity. Diarhhea in HIV infection due to immune deficiency can caused by pathogen and non pathogen. Acute and chronic diarrhea usually found in HIV infection patient, the latter is more frequent. HIV enteropathy cause chronic diarrhea without pathogen infection because intestinal mucous damage by HIV direct infection. Treatment is characterized as causative supportive and symptomatic treatment causal, supportive and Symptomatic. Immunonutrient is very important within management patient HIV/AIDS.

  9. HIV/AIDS behind bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D S

    1998-04-01

    The diagnosis, management, and prevention of HIV infection in incarcerated populations were among the topics examined at the 21st National Conference on Correctional Health Care, held in San Antonio in November. The presence of HIV/AIDS in the prison system is examined in terms of barriers to prevention strategies, uses of compassionate release programs for terminally ill prisoners, and the accessibility and cost of treatment regimens for prisoners. Findings from two studies, one Canadian and the other from the Ninth National Survey of HIV/AIDS, STDs, and TB in Correctional Facilities, are presented. The Canadian study reveals that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS within the Canadian prison population was 2 percent in the general inmate population, 9 percent among inmates who were injection drug users (IDUs), and 14 percent among IDUs that shared needles. The American study shows an HIV-seropositivity rate in prisons four times greater than in the U.S. population, and the number of inmates living with AIDS is six times that in the total U.S. population. The current prevalence of HIV/AIDS among United States and Federal prison inmates is summarized in a table. Housing and segregation policies regarding HIV/AIDS inmates in U.S. prisons have decreased, although most correctional systems offer some discharge planning services. As of 1996, nearly all prison systems had policies that provide for HIV therapies; however, only 80 percent allow for viral load monitoring. The inmate population and the public at large are best served by a system in which the coordinated efforts of public health and correctional systems develop policies and programs to prevent HIV from spreading and help those who are infected.

  10. Democracy Aid and Electoral Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Tobias; Loftis, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    cannot tell us how well democracy aid supports the central promise of democracy: accountable government. Since institutions can be subverted in various ways that undermine accountability, it is vital to know whether democracy aid supports accountability to assess its overall success. We provide evidence...... for this by analyzing incumbent turnover in elections following poor economic performance – the economic vote – as a measure of voting to achieve performance accountability. In our analysis of over 1,100 elections in 114 developing countries between 1975 and 2010, we find distinct evidence that increasing receipt...

  11. Changing the Course of AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2010-01-01

    of social change in southern Africa. This sociological study of HIV/AIDS peer education in diverse South African businesses tries to understand "the web of social relationships that influence behavior" (5), particularly with reference to Erving Goffman's classic framing of social space as "front stage......" and "back stage" and Victor Turner's notion of "liminality." So-called front-stage behavior includes that of workplace peer educators who give training sessions to coworkers within vertically structured communication programs run by HIV/AIDS managers; back-stage interventions include educators...

  12. Student Aid Research. A Manual for Financial Aid Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jerry Sheehan, Ed.

    This manual contains nine articles intended to assist student financial aid professionals in conducting research. Initial chapters provide basic information for those starting to do such research while later chapters deal with more complex issues. Some chapters include appendices that provide examples of the techniques under consideration. from…

  13. Governing AIDS through aid to civil society: Global solutions meet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  14. Hearing Aid with Visual Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention comprises a hearing aid, which has a casing containing a signal receiving part for receiving an audio signal, an audio transducer for providing an audio signal to the user, a signal transmission path between the signal receiving part and the audio transducer, whereby a battery is pr...

  15. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of ...

  16. Dietetic Aide. [Teacher's Copy]. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The curriculum guide, one of a series prepared to assist teacher-coordinators in promoting and teaching home economics cooperative education programs, provides a course of study for the dietetic aide occupation. In addition to a brief overview, job description, and job analysis of the occupation, the guide's four main sections are: instructional…

  17. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  18. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...

  19. ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC AND LEARNING AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPROSS, PATRICIA M.

    THIS MANUAL WAS DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS TO ACQUIRE THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS NECESSARY FOR THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. THE SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF THIS MANUAL IS TO IDENTIFY SOME OF THE CONTENT WHICH IS FUNDAMENTAL TO THE USE OF LEARNING AIDS AND TO SUGGEST SPECIFIC EXAMPLES FOR THE USE OF VISUAL AND MANIPULATIVE DEVICES IN…

  20. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a Cure for AIDS amfAR Institute for HIV Cure Research amfAR Research Consortium on HIV Eradication: (ARCHE) Publications ... day community update on the latest developments in HIV cure research. More New amfAR Awards Latest round of Mathilde ...

  1. First Aid in Emergency Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Guy S.

    This book is written for advanced courses in first aid. The content of the book is the combined work of contributing authors including health educators, an emergency medical technician, nurses, physicians, a lawyer, a community organizer, a social worker, and a sociologist. There are five major sections: (1) parameters for administering first aid…

  2. AIDS Elementary/Intermediate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Nancy Rader

    This Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Curriculum was developed for intermediate elementary (5th, 6th, and 7th grade) students. It is an integrated unit that encompasses health, science, social studies, math, and language arts. The curriculum is comprised of nine class activities designed to meet the following objectives: (1) to determine…

  3. Acquired I mmunedeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T-lymphotropic virus, type III (HTLV -III), a retrovirus believed to be the causative agent. The virus is also ... In the great debate, excitement and fear which surrounds the origins, mode of transmis- sion and prognosis of AIDS ... hepatitis B virus infections, alcoho- lism and road traffic accidents, none of which have received any.

  4. First aid in the air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, E; Pearn, J

    1996-07-01

    First aid is commonly required during commercial aircraft flights, especially during international flights. An intimidating and sometimes threatening array of in-flight medical emergencies challenge the doctor, flight attendants and other passengers in such medical emergencies. Cramped conditions, difficulties of access to the victim, lack of privacy, cultural and language differences and noise and vibration all compound to increase the difficulties of the normal first aid drills which are required in the management of in-cabin emergencies. Doctors who fly as passengers are liable to be called upon to render first aid in the air. We provide an analysis of the types of medical emergencies encountered during commercial air travel. We have reviewed all consecutive in-flight medical incident reports for QANTAS international flights for 1993. All incidents requiring the attention of a doctor were included. A total of 454 significant medical incidents occurred. These included, in rank order, syncope (35%), angina and cardiac emergencies (23%), gastrointestinal conditions (13%), respiratory tract infections and asthma (9%) and anxiety and panic reactions warranting medical intervention (5%). Syncope, the management of gastrointestinal symptoms and problems of angina comprise over half (58%) of the presenting symptoms which confront a fellow traveller who may coincidentally be a medical practitioner. Problems of anxiety, sleeplessness, airport bustle, immobility, barotrauma, alcohol abuse and mild hypoxia are discussed in the context of precipitating factors which may trigger an in-flight emergency. Psychological problems are very common and challenge the first aider, whether or not he or she is medically trained. We emphasize the necessity for doctors and nurses to be trained in first aid, as a distinct profession in its own right and a series of drills and skills which are distinctive from those of surgery-based health care. The 5% annual increase in air

  5. Treatment Option Overview (AIDS Related-Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spreading to the central nervous system (CNS). For treatment, AIDS-related lymphomas are grouped based on where they ... only to patients who have not started treatment. Treatment of AIDS-related lymphoma combines treatment of the lymphoma with ...

  6. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spreading to the central nervous system (CNS). For treatment, AIDS-related lymphomas are grouped based on where they ... only to patients who have not started treatment. Treatment of AIDS-related lymphoma combines treatment of the lymphoma with ...

  7. Low Vision Aids and Low Vision Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low Vision Aids Low Vision Resources Low Vision Rehabilitation and Low Vision Aids Leer en Español: La ... that same viewing direction for other objects. Vision rehabilitation: using the vision you have Vision rehabilitation is ...

  8. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susan Dynarski; Judith Scott-Clayton

    2013-01-01

    .... As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and students who never graduated from high school...

  9. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood NHL Treatment Research AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  10. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  11. Break the silence: Let's talk about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-11

    The organizers of the Confederation of East and Central Africa Football Associations¿ (CECAFA) Youth Tournament in Kenya will organize a campaign on AIDS prevention. ¿Break the Silence: Let¿s Talk About AIDS¿ is the campaign slogan, which will be used before, during, and after the 2-week football tournament. The campaign will involve an estimated 300 players and coaches and millions of fans who will attend, watch television, or listen to radios. AIDS prevention efforts linked to the tournament include: radio and television AIDS prevention spots featuring famous football players; campaign orientation and training in AIDS outreach and education for coaches and team managers; telephone hotlines for HIV/AIDS counseling through public phone booths and health information booths; AIDS information caravans to support community awareness rallies about AIDS prevention; and a minute of silence at the beginning of all matches to commemorate soccer heroes and other loved ones who have died of AIDS.

  12. AIDS Prevention Programs and Sexual Behaviour Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS Prevention Programs and Sexual Behaviour Among Secondary School Adolescents in Delta State, Nigeria. ... AIDS prevention programs should place greater emphasis on encouraging abstinence, fidelity, reducing the number of sexual partners, the use of condoms, and economic empowerment of adolescents.

  13. CDC WONDER: AIDS Public Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The AIDS Public Information Data Set (APIDS) for years 1981-2002 on CDC WONDER online database contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases...

  14. UTILIZATION OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Triticum vulgare (BANDVET® AFTER SUPERFICIAL KERATECTOMY IN DOMESTIC CATS AFFLICTED WITH CORNEAL SEQUESTRUM. UTILIZAÇÃO DO EXTRATO AQUOSO DE Triticum vulgare (BANDVET® APÓS CERATECTOMIA SUPERFICIAL EM SEQÜESTRO CORNEAL FELINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Laus

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Corneal sequestrum is an affliction of cats, which is not well defined. The lesion is characterized by degeneration of collagen, followed by accumulation in the cornea of a darkened pigment of variable intensity. Various treatments are adopted taking into account the depth and stage of the lesion, where lamellar keratectomy is the option most often taken. In the present work, four cases are described of Persian breed cats afflicted with corneal sequestrum, that were submitted to lamellar keratectomy followed by third eyelid flap or conjunctival pedicle flap, and afterward treated topically with the aqueous extract of Triticum vulgare (Bandvet®, without adverse effects. The results obtained showed that Bandvet®, despite that it is a pharmaceutical not for ophthalmic use, can be employed in cats after superficial keratectomy.

    KEY WORDS: Corneal sequestrum, feline, keratectomy, Triticum vulgare

    De causa não bem definida, o seqüestro de córnea é uma afecção que incide sobre os felinos. A lesão caracteriza-se pela degeneração do colágeno, seguida de acúmulo de pigmento enegrecido, de intensidade variável, na córnea. As alternativas terapêuticas são adotadas levando-se em conta a profundidade e o estágio da lesão, sendo a ceratectomia lamelar a opção mais utilizada. No presente trabalho, descrevem-se quatro casos de felinos da raça Persa acometidos por seqüestro de córnea, que foram submetidos à ceratectomia lamelar seguida de flap de terceira pálpebra ou de enxerto pediculado de conjuntiva e, posteriormente, tratados com extrato aquoso de Triticum vulgare (Bandvet®, topicamente, sem resultados adversos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o Bandvet®, a despeito de não se tratar de fármaco para uso oftálmico, pode ser empregado em felinos ap

  15. Kebijakan Pengendalian HIV/AIDS di Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Rini Puji Lestari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Secara nasional, Indonesia telah mengantisipasi epidemi HIV/AIDS, tetapi jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Provinsi Bali dari tahun ke tahun memperlihatkan peningkatan yang semakin mengkhawatirkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan jumlah kasus dan kebijakan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS di Denpasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif yang dilakukan di Denpasar pada tanggal 11-17 September 2011. Sampel penelitian ini menggunakan informan terpilih yaitu kepala bappeda, pejabat Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Denpasar, direktur rumah sakit, puskesmas, ketua komisi penanggulangan AIDS di kabupaten/kota dan pemerhati HIV/AIDS termasuk ODHA. Penelitian menemukan jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Kota Denpasar yang tertinggi dan penularan terbesarnya melalui hubungan seks. Namun, dukungan pemerintah daerah dalam upaya pencegahan dan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS terlihat belum maksimal. Padahal kebijakan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS sangat ditentukan oleh cara pandang pemerintah terhadap penyakit HIV/AIDS. Untuk itu, perlu peningkatan pemahaman tentang HIV/AIDS serta pencegahan dan penanganan semua pihak terkait sehingga penanggulangan HIV/AIDS dapat lebih efektif, efisien, dan tepat sasaran. Nationally, Indonesia anticipated HIV/AIDS epidemic, but the number of cases of HIV/AIDS in Bali province from year to year showed an increase in the increasingly alarming. This study aimed to determine the number of cases and the development of policies on HIV / AIDS in Denpasar. This research was conducted using qualitative methods in Denpasar on 11-17 September 2011. The study sample was selected using the informant is head of planning, Denpasar District health officers, the director of the hospital, health center, chairman of the commission on AIDS in the district/city and observer of HIV / AIDS, including people living with HIV. The study found the number of cases of HIV / AIDS in the city of Denpasar is the highest and greatest transmission through sexual intercourse

  16. Research Issues on Educational Aid Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Masafumi

    1999-01-01

    This paper represents an attempt to elaborate research issues on aid evaluation in the field of education. It does so on the basis of a review of existing research, coupled with the consideration of practical issues involved in the administration of aid evaluation by the government aid agencies in Japan. Evaluation of educational aid is made difficult owing to particular characteristics of educational programs and projects, such as long lead time needed for educational investments and inc...

  17. AIDS legislation--turning up the heat?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, M D

    1986-01-01

    This paper is not about the medical condition of AIDS. Nor is it about the history of the condition since it was first reported in Atlanta, Georgia in 1981. It looks rather, at the catalogue of legislative and other legal responses to the spread of AIDS. The paper analyses the AIDS condition in its historical context. The hysteria accompanying the outbreak of AIDS is contrasted with the similar hysteria associated with other previous epidemics experienced in Australia over the past two centur...

  18. Security measures for AIDS and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C G; Turner, M E; Harkess, J R; Istre, G R

    1991-02-01

    This study describes the measures being taken by AIDS surveillance offices across the country to ensure the security of information regarding patients with AIDS and HIV infection. Security measures were evaluated according to the cumulative number of AIDS cases reported, whether partner notification services were provided, and whether HIV seropositive reporting by name was also required. This study showed that public health departments have taken extra steps to ensure the security of AIDS and HIV data.

  19. Computer-Aided Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    Models are playing important roles in design and analysis of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Computer-aided methods and tools have the potential to reduce the number of experiments, which can be expensive and time consuming, and there is a benefit of working...... development and application. The proposed work is a part of the project for development of methods and tools that will allow systematic generation, analysis and solution of models for various objectives. It will use the computer-aided modeling framework that is based on a modeling methodology, which combines...... as the user can then generate many problem-specific models for different applications. The templates are part of the model generation feature of the framework. Also, the model development and use for a product performance evaluation has been developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted...

  20. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  1. [AIDS prevention in European prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, G; Harding, T W

    1995-01-01

    Informations on HIV/AIDS in prisons which include 32 prison-systems in 17 European countries have been collected. The principle of equivalence of preventive measures and health care between prisons and the outside community, prison authorities should strive to prevent HIV transmission in prisons. There have been major developments in effective prevention programmes in the community, there has been less progress within the prison-systems. Information on AIDS is provided to prisoners in almost all prison-systems. While condom distribution is practiced in a growing number of systems, no prison systems have adopted syringes/needle distribution or exchange during incarceration. A few system have accepted distribution of a disinfectant (diluted bleach) with instruction on cleaning injection materials. Despite clear recommendations made by international bodies in 1987/88, it must be concluded that discrimination and segregation (restriction from access to workshops, specially work in kitchens) remain widespread in 1992.

  2. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary to...

  3. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243...

  4. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries. First...

  5. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual shall...

  6. Does Food Aid Really Discourage Food Production?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Sandeep; Barrett, Christopher B.; Snyder, Donald L.; Biswas, Basudeb

    1996-01-01

    We examine whether food aid acts as a disincentive to agricultural production in recipient economies. Since structural deficiencies of markets are a central reason why low-income agrarian economies receive food aid, we adopt a modeling framework that accommodates market imperfections. Our nonseparable representative household model highlights the factor market effects of food aid overlooked in conventional, Schultzian analyses.

  7. Foreign aid, economic globalization, and pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, S.; Menaldo, V.; Prakash, A.

    This paper explores how trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) condition the effect of foreign aid on environmental protection in aid-recipient countries. We suggest that (1) environmental protection should be viewed as a public good and (2) all else equal, resource flows from abroad (via aid,

  8. Bacterial pneumonia in the AIDS patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Objective: To determine the incidence, microbiological pattern and prognostic factor of bacterial pneumonia in. AIDS patients. Study design: Prospective study of AIDS patients from. July 2001 to Dec 2002. Methodology: Adults AIDS patients on HAAR'I' drugs that develop acute fever, cough with bronchial ...

  9. The water footprint of food aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Nicole; Konar, Megan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find

  10. Advocacy for People with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebuhar, John

    In this paper, the author, who identifies himself as HIV positive, discusses his work as a counselor and advocate for people with AIDS. Background information on AIDS, from the first reported case in 1981 to current treatments, is provided. The use of revitalization counseling with AIDS patients, that is counseling that brings new life to an…

  11. Are there negative returns to aid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; White, Howard

    1999-01-01

    The World Bank report Assessing Aid assumes that aid is more effective when it is given to countries where polices are sound. Moreover, it assumes that an inflow of aid, above a certain level, starts to have negative effects. In this paper we empirically test both assumptions. We do not find

  12. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ethiopia is amongst the African countries that have received significant food aid. Nonetheless, the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries are not well documented. Objective: To find out the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries in the country based on ...

  13. AIDS and Education--Why? Why Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Janet Galbreath

    Every child who enters the doors of the nation's school system deserves an education, including children with AIDS. Parents of AIDS-free children fear that the AIDS-infected child in the classroom threatens the health and safety of the general school community. But according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, casual contact with…

  14. Women and AIDS: sociopolitical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, S C

    1992-01-01

    HIV infection and AIDS in women will continue without adequate diagnosis and treatment as long as women are not treated as full partners in society. Until issues related to women and their place in society are considered within the sociopolitical context, women who are at risk for HIV infection, those infected with the HIV virus, and those with AIDS will continue to receive inadequate attention. The National Center for Nursing's National Action Agenda, Nursing and the HIV Epidemic, provides some direction for addressing these issues and those that relate to practice, education, research, and health policy. It is incumbent on nurse researchers to conduct research related to the critical issues associated with HIV infection and AIDS in women, disseminate the findings of that research, and use those findings to inform and move health policy in this area forward. It is equally important to understand the issues that affect women--ethnic considerations, sexual practices, IV drug use--within the context or present political climate of our society. That climate allowed an NIH study that could identify risky sexual behaviors of adolescent and adult subjects who consent to participate in such a study to be called to a halt--not because of concerns about the study design or the scientific rigor of the study, but because of an elected official's fear that asking such questions will encourage these behaviors and his personal belief that such issues should not be discussed in polite society. These issues must be brought forward, acknowledged, and discussed if they are to be dealt with effectively. Otherwise, the relentless course of AIDS will continue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Computer-aided melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaum, Marek

    2002-10-01

    This article presents a snapshot of fast-moving research into the application of digital imaging technology to in vivo computer-aided diagnosis of early melanoma. It is written from the perspective of a researcher with a keen interest in bringing this technology to physicians' offices. The primary emphasis is on reviewing the existing literature, supplemented by unpublished material relating to a particular system and as yet unpublished research studies.

  16. Papal policy, poverty, and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, D

    1990-06-30

    Papal "pronouncements" have been a major cause of the Philippines' increasing poverty, and of its failure to promote the only method proved to limit the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Kenya has a growth rate of 3-4% and will double its population in 17 years. The UK has an average family size of 1.8 children. This is due to contraceptive usage. The poor lack knowledge and funds to ignore the rulings of the Catholic Church. Families will have 7 or more children without access to modern contraceptives. The Philippine elite are 90% Catholic, and disregard church policy and use contraceptives. Therefore, they have small families. Abortion is widely used in Latin America. It is the leading cause of death of women aged 15-39. The Philippines is industrializing rapidly; businessmen, however, do not see a future in producing condoms here. Widespread availability of condoms would limit the spread of AIDS. Mainly surveys show that in 1989 only 5 to 10/1000 prostitutes were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Other Asian countries have shown large increases in HIV infection occurrence in 2-3 years. Pope John Paul has been telling young people in Burkina Faso that they "must face the plagues of modern times." He did not identify these plaques. However, Monsignore Carlo Cafara, dean of John Paul II's Institute for Marriage and Family Studies at the Vatican, told a recent conference that when 1 partner of a married couple is positive for AIDS, it is preferable to risk catching the AIDS virus than to use condoms. St. Paul would have approved the use of modern contraceptive methods.

  17. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...... networks, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and cognitive radio. Location based approaches are found to allevi- ate significant signaling overhead in various forms of modern communication paradigms that are very information hungry in terms of channel state information at the transmitter...

  18. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    accumulation and utilization of additional labor, and that total factor productivity increases are negligible if not zero (Forstner et al 2001, Krugman ...Forstner et al 2001, Krugman 1994, Young 1995, Collins and Bosworth 1997). Thus, aid to economic infrastructure might impact the economic growth through...Causal Connection?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2003, pp. 119-144. 54. Krugman , Paul “The Myth of Asia’s Miracle”, Foreign

  19. First aid for jellyfish envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J W; Rubinstein, H; Calton, G J

    1983-07-01

    To determine a reliable first aid topical remedy for jellyfish stings, we investigated several commonly available preparations to determine their ability to prevent nematocyst rupture from sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) and Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) tentacles. The application of a baking soda slurry was a good inhibitor of nematocyst discharge for the nettle and vinegar was a good inhibitor for the man-of-war.

  20. NeuroAIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T Dianne; Weyessa, Tufa Gemechu; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2010-05-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting "NeuroAIDS in Africa." This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region.

  1. State aid in banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mikušová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has hit Europe with a truly unprecedented power, which has in early 2008 expected only a very small circle of pessimists. After the first cracks began to appear on the mortgage market in the U.S., however, started an avalanche that rolls until today. In today’s globalized world, it would be very naive to believe that this would not have an impact on the European Union internal market.With the crisis in the banking sector, the Member States of the European Union fought against the crisis in various ways. Allocation of the state aid in the first months of the crisis took place within the existing rules, yet it was necessary to enclose these huge expenditures by rules and regulations issued by the European Commission.This article discusses the types of state aid, which were used at the time from the first wave of state aid granted by Member States from 2008 to 2010 and also assess the current situation together with the evaluation of the approach of the European Commission.

  2. [Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoye, I

    1990-10-01

    There are 23 types of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). In Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) AIDS is considered to be a type of STD because an estimated 80% of its transmission is heterosexual. The epidemiology of STDs are due to several factors: 1) the age of young people with STD has now decreased to 16-24 as compared to the 1960's when it was 20-30; 2) sexual liberation; 3) multiple sex partners; 4) clandestine prostitution; 5) ignorance regarding the effects of STDs 6) self treatment; and 7) the number of asymptomatic STDs such as chlamydia trachomatis. Complications from STDs are increasing such as infertility, extra-uterine pregnancies and cervical cancer. The prevalence of AIDS is also increasing, pressuring society as it relates to hospitalizations and the cost of caring for these patients. The prevention of STDs requires training physicians, biologists, paramedical personnel, pharmacists and commercial workers. The public should be sensitized to the morbidity and mortality indicators of STDs. Senegal, as other African countries, has instituted a national committee for AIDS and STDs and has regional committees responsible for coordinating and disseminating its goals nationally and regionally. These committees should play key roles in IEC to inform the public about the socio- cultural, traditional and political implications of such disease. To avoid any misunderstandings, the information can be given as results from surveys with recommendations that include abstinence, loyalty among couples and the use of condoms for extra marital affairs.

  3. Exploring Hearing Aid Problems: Perspectives of Hearing Aid Owners and Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca J; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Meyer, Carly J; Eikelboom, Robert H

    To gather perspectives of hearing aid owners and hearing healthcare clinicians with regard to problems that arise after hearing aid fitting and use these perspectives to generate a conceptual framework to gain a better understanding of these problems. Participants included a group of 17 hearing aid owners and a group of 21 hearing healthcare clinicians; data collection occurred separately for each group. Participants each attended two group sessions in Perth, Western Australia, wherein they: (1) generated statements describing the problems associated with hearing aids and (2) grouped and rated the statements to identify key themes. Concept mapping was used to generate a conceptual framework. Participants identified four concepts regarding hearing aid problems as follows: (1) hearing aid management; (2) hearing aid sound quality and performance; (3) feelings, thoughts, and behaviors; and (4) information and training. While hearing aid owners and clinicians generated similar results regarding the concepts derived, the clinicians reported that the problems identified had a greater negative impact on hearing aid success than did hearing aid owners. The magnitude and diversity of hearing aid problems identified in this study highlight the ongoing challenges that hearing aid owners face and suggest that current processes for hearing aid fitting can be improved. Problems relating to hearing aid management were most often deemed to have the greatest impact on hearing aid success and be the most preventable/solvable, and thus are a good starting point when addressing hearing aid-related problems.

  4. Aid as Obstacle: Twenty Questions about Our Foreign Aid and the Hungry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Frances Moore; And Others

    Reasons why U.S. foreign aid fails to alleviate hunger and poverty are discussed and a solution to the problem is presented. The United States now channels more foreign aid than ever to the world's poor and hungry through the Agency for International Development, food aid programs, the World Bank, and other multilateral aid agencies, which report…

  5. Aid instability as a measure of uncertainty and the positive impact of aid on growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Morrissey, O

    This article contributes to the literature on aid and economic growth. We posit that uncertainty, measured as the instability of aid receipts, will influence the relationship between aid and investment, how recipient governments respond to aid, and will capture the fact that some countries are

  6. Bilderdijk’s Head. Metamedical Reflections of an Afflicted Poet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van J.

    2005-01-01

    The controversial Dutch poet and thinker, Willem Bilderdijk (1756–1831), filled his letters with observations on his own health and well-being. These frequent appraisals of his physical and mental condition served as ‘meta-medical’ reflections by which he enhanced his self-understanding and

  7. Cytogenetic studies in peripheral blood of bovines afflicted by papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Campos, S R C; Ferraz, O P; Lindsey, C J; Rieger, T T; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2011-12-01

    Ten types of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) have been described and there are reports of viral transmission via blood. The presence of viral DNA in lymphocytes was described to be associated with chromosome instability in these cells. This study presents an evaluation of chromosome instability in short-term peripheral lymphocyte cultures from cows presenting skin papillomatosis, compared with asymptomatic infected animals and non-infected healthy bovines. In a total of 2203 cells, 918 (42%) showed at least one chromosome aberration: 42.7 (± 7.8) in animals with papillomatosis (BPV + W), 40.2 (± 11) in asymptomatic animals (BPV-W) and 4 (± 2) in control animals. Significant differences were found between the infected group (with or without symptoms) and the control group (P < 0.0001). The increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations suggest an interaction between the virus and host cell chromatin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Does Foreign Aid Harm Political Institutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2016-01-01

    The notion that foreign aid harms the institutions of recipient governments remains prevalent. We combine new disaggregated aid data and various metrics of political institutions to re-examine this relationship. Long run cross-section and alternative dynamic panel estimators show a small positive...... net effect of total aid on political institutions. Distinguishing between types of aid according to their frequency domain and stated objectives, we find that this aggregate net effect is driven primarily by the positive contribution of more stable inflows of ‘governance aid’. We conclude...... that the data do not support the view that aid has had a systematic negative effect on political institutions....

  9. Does foreign aid harm political institutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The notion that foreign aid harms the institutions of recipient governments remains prevalent. We combine new disaggregated aid data and various metrics of political institutions to re-examine this relationship. Long-run cross-section and alternative dynamic panel estimators show a small positive...... net effect of total aid on political institutions. Distinguishing between types of aid according to their frequency domain and stated objectives, we find this aggregate net effect is driven primarily by the positive contribution of more stable inflows of ‘governance aid’. We conclude the data do...... not support the view that aid has had a systematic negative effect on political institutions....

  10. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology....... The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...... to produce a competitive advantage. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry, a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids and an introduction to how a modern hearing is constructed showing the amplifier as the key component in the modern hearing aid...

  11. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA) is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model. PMID:27072929

  12. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Keidser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  13. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    OpenAIRE

    Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities.Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative tha...

  14. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: Understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullilove Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking – essentially an institutional collective consciousness – while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience – dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

  15. 'Getting used to' hearing aids from the perspective of adult hearing-aid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Maslin, Michael; Munro, Kevin J

    2014-12-01

    To describe getting used to hearing aids from the perspective of adult hearing-aid users. Three focus group discussions were carried out. A topic guide and discussion exercises were used to elicit views on getting used to hearing aids. Discussion was audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Adult hearing aid users (n = 16). Participants described getting used to hearing aids as a multi-factorial process which included adjusting to altered sensory input, practical matters such as cleaning and maintenance, and managing the psychosocial impact of hearing-aid use, such as on self-image. Users reported a process of discovering benefits and limitations of hearing aids leading to individual patterns of use that was relatively independent of input from audiologists. Getting used to hearing aids is a challenging multi-factorial process with both psychosocial and practical difficulties besides demands of adjusting to hearing-aid input.

  16. Clinical reasons for returning hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ju Young; Oh, In-Hwan; Jung, Tae Suk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Ho Min; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-04-01

    Increases in older aged populations and exposure to complicated noise environments have increased the number of hearing-impaired patients, creating greater demands for hearing aids. We have assessed the reasons that individuals rejected wearing and returned properly prescribed hearing aids, as well as differences in individual factors between younger and elderly adults. Of 1138 patients for whom hearing aids were prescribed at Kyung Hee University Medical Center Hearing Aid Clinic, 81 (6.14%) returned their hearing aids, including 36 patients aged hearing-related, and hearing aid-related factors were assessed by retrospective chart analysis and phone survey and compared in the two groups. The primary symptoms reported by the 81 patients who returned their hearing aids were hearing disturbance, ringing, and fullness in the ear, in that order and in both groups. The rate of hearing aid return was similar in elderly females and males (p=0.288). The spondee recognition threshold was significantly higher in younger than in elderly adults (63.3±14.0 dB vs. 55.6±14.74 dB, p=0.019), but the hearing aid return rate was highest in patients with moderate hearing loss in both groups. In evaluating the reasons for return of hearing aids, we found that ineffectiveness of the device was the most frequent reason, accounting for 32.0% of returns, the highest percentage in both groups, with the most frequent patient problem caused by management difficulty in elderly and financial difficulty in younger adults. The reasons for hearing aid return were different in two groups. Financial considerations were cited more by younger adults, while difficulties in managing hearing aids were cited more frequently by elderly adults. Patients in both groups, however, reported that the most frequent reasons for return were inadequate hearing improvement and inconvenience wearing the hearing aid due to noise amplification.

  17. A comparison between the effect of training performed by teachers and by health staff on the knowledge of high school students about AIDS in Bushehr/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A.I.D.S as a worldwide crisis continues to spread in Iran too. The number of afflicted patients has reached 5780 subjects most of them are between 20 to 40 years of age. Prevention is one of the most effective methods to combat this human hazard. Promotion of general knowledge is thought to be the preliminary measure in this regard. Although, schools have turned to be the most favorable environment for health education, the issue of the group to afford training has remained controversial in our country yet. The aim of this research is a comparison between the effect of training performed by teachers or health staff on the knowledge of students of the first high school grade in Bushehr/ Iran. A total of 684 male and female students of the first high school grade were selected according to cluster random sampling. The selected students were divided into two groups and training for A.I.D.S using the same contents was done by their teachers and health staff separately. Before intervention, the mean knowledge scores of female & male students about A.I.D.S were 16.68 and 15.52, respectively. There was no significant difference in female students in two groups but teacher trained male students showed an increment score of 4.17 while in health staff ones, the score increment was 2.22 (P<0.01. In conclusion, the level of knowledge about A.I.D.S was not satisfactory in the high school students in Bushehr and for education in this group their sex in conjunction to different training methods should be considered.

  18. [Psychopathologic pictures in HIV infection: AIDS lethargy and AIDS dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, N; Karenberg, A; Peters, U H

    1988-06-01

    The paper describes the psychiatric status on the basis of 76 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. There is considerable difference between the different stages of the disease. The disorders are divided into groups following the German and French psychopathological tradition, where the incidence is dependent on the underlying complaint. 50% of the patients suffered from chronic psychoorganic disorders (34% organic personality disorders, 16% dementia). 9% suffered from an acute psychosis caused by complications and founded on substantial physical illness. 3 patients showed symptoms of a (under given circumstances) hitherto unknown endoform psychosis. In 9% of the patients, psychoreactive disturbances (anxiety and reactive depression) were observed. Two infants had congenital development deficiencies. 25% of the patients were without any psychopathology. Patients showing organic personality disorders mostly resemble each other to such a degree as to form a separate group. We suggest to name this group according to the most prominent psychopathology as "AIDS-lethargy". This status is characterised by a specific apathy, tiredness and indolence of the patients combined with the lack of emotional participation related to their own destiny. AIDS-lethargy is the first manifestation in appearance of the HIV infection of the brain itself. Another sequel of the brain infection is AIDS dementia which can be classified as "subcortical dementia" and differs from the more current forms of dementia clinically. Affected are mainly neuropsychologic functions like arousal, attention, mood and motivation, whereas the hallmarks of cortical involvement-aphasia, agnosia and apraxia-are not present. Supplementary findings (EEG, CCT, CSF): The group of patients with chronic psychoorganic disorders differs significantly from the group with psychoreactive disorders and normals. Pathological EEG and CCT are more frequent in psychoorganic disorders. CSF-test-including the

  19. AIDS and Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, Ivan Dieb; Araujo Filho, Bernardo Cunha; Weber, Raimar

    2005-01-01

    The immunodeficiency state in HIV infected patients has been the cause of severe episodes of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS). Our study aims to establish correlation between the manifestations of RAS and the immunosuppression state caused by HIV infection, through counting of CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells, CD4+:CD8+ cells ratio and viral load. Series study. Ninety-four HIV infected patients (25 women and 69 men) with RAS were evaluated in the ENT Department of the University of Sao Paulo-Medical School from January 1998 to December 2003. The age ranged between 19 and 63 years (mean = 35.3 years). The patients were divided in two groups: AIDS group and HIV infected group. The patients with AIDS and HIV infection presented, respectively, eight ulcers and two ulcers by outbreaks. Similarly, patients with major RAS presented smaller counting of cells CD8+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ cells, and higher mean value of viral load than the patients with herpetiform and minor RAS. Between patients with minor and herpetiform RAS there were no statistical differences. The emergence of the lesions, mainly in major RAS, is directly related to the immunological state of the HIV infected patient. These patients frequently present nutritional deficits and worsening in life style. Thus, diagnosis and treatment of RAS is a challenge that should not be neglected.

  20. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  1. Southern African AIDS Training Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafoe, G H

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), in a little over 2 years, have established a Southern African AIDS Training Programme (SAT) that is effective in developing community-based responses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Based in Harare, Zimbabwe, the program provides financial assistance, training, monitoring, and advice and information to 120 project partners. The average grant size is $40,000. In a second phase of the project, SAT will attempt to meet the requests of its partners for more services. Currently, to meet needs for rapid, responsive training, and novel approaches to skill building, SAT has developed a collaborative nongovernmental organization (NGO) initiative, "The School Without Walls". This program identifies and amplifies what has worked effectively for organizations and programs. Other similar organizations and programs learn from these experiences. Site visits, apprenticeships, mentor organizations, and skills-building based on shared problem-diagnosis and resolution are some of the techniques employed. A draft report of the CIDA midterm external evaluation of SAT recommends renewal of the program, resourcing of the program to meet its regional responsibilities, and adoption of "The School Without Walls" as a central strategy for southern Africa.

  2. AIDS and Islam in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalib, Kareem; Peralta, Ligia

    2002-04-01

    Islam is the fastest growing religion in the United States. African Americans make up the largest part of the Muslim community in America, and they are also the individuals at greatest risk for contracting HIV. With the objective of understanding the impact of religious and cultural beliefs on HIV risk behaviors, this article reviews the literature on HIV and AIDS in Muslim communities in America. While no specific data exists regarding HIV seroprevalence or the risk factors for transmission of HIV in specifically American Muslim communities, the available information is presented describing American Muslims' attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV. Furthermore, in order to help clinicians improve the delivery of HIV preventive services to members of these communities, Islamic doctrine is described in relation to the three main risk factors for acquiring HIV: sexual activity, drug use and perinatal transmission. American Muslims make up a diverse population which have unique needs regarding prevention of HIV and AIDS. These needs must be more fully investigated and understood in order to minimize rates of HIV transmission in these rapidly growing communities.

  3. Modeling and predicting hearing aid outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Following a brief tutorial on the application of factor analysis to hearing aid outcome measures, three studies of hearing aid outcome measures in elderly adults are presented and analyzed. Two of the studies were completed at Indiana University (IU-1 and IU-2), and one was a collaborative multisite study by the Veterans Administration and the National Institute of Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD/VA). IU-1 measured hearing aid outcome in 173 elderly wearers of single-channel, linear, in-the-ear hearing aids with output-limiting compression, whereas IU-2 obtained the same extensive set of outcome measures from 53 elderly wearers of two-channel, wide-dynamic-range compression, in-the-canal hearing aids. In the NIDCD/VA study, 333 to 338 participants wore three single-channel circuits in succession, with each circuit housed within an in-the-ear shell. The three circuits included in that study and in this analysis were: (1) linear with peak clipping, (2) linear with output-limiting compression, and (3) single-channel, wide-dynamic-range compression. Evaluation of the many outcome measures completed in each study using principal components factor analysis revealed that from three (both IU studies) to five (NIDCD/VA study) principal components captured the individual differences in hearing aid outcome. This was independent of hearing aid type (in-the-ear or in-the-canal) and circuitry. Subsequent multiple regression analyses of individual differences in performance along each dimension of hearing aid outcome revealed that these individual differences could be accounted for reasonably well by various prefit variables for some dimensions of outcome, but not others. In general, measures of speech recognition performance were well accounted for by prefit measures, with the best predictors being hearing loss, cognitive performance, and age. Measures of hearing aid usage were less well accounted for by prefit measures, with the most accurate predictor of

  4. Evidence on Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The research on self-fitting hearing aids is reviewed using evidence-based principles. The evaluation begins with a definition of the research questions followed by a detailed search of the literature and then a review of the relevant studies. Four features of self-fitting hearing aids are reviewed: in-situ threshold measurement, whether an initial fitting prescribed using standard prescription formulae will approximate user preferences, outcomes with training of hearing aids for preferred responses, and assembly and use of the aids. There is at least good quality evidence suggesting that in-situ thresholds can be reliably obtained, that prescribed initial fittings approximate preferred responses, and that users are able to train the hearing aids and would prefer the trained responses. However, evidence on other outcomes and the ability of users to assemble and use such instruments is limited. Gaps in research with self-fitting hearing aids are identified. PMID:22528820

  5. Waverly Homes, Inc. (lot 13) single family residence, Westminster, Colorado. Solar project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    The use of solar energy for space heating a single family home and preheating incoming city water is discussed. The system has an array of flat plate collectors with a gross area of 351 square feet. Air is used to deliver solar energy from the collector array to storage and to the space heating and hot water loads. Solar energy is stored in the basement in a 175 cubic foot concrete tin containing 17,500 pounds of rock. Solar energy preheated city water is stored in an 80 gallon preheat storage tank and supplied, to a conventional 40 gallon domestic hot water (DHW) tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, a gas furnace provides auxiliary energy for space heating. Similarly, a gas heater in the DHW tank provides auxiliary energy for water heating.

  6. Wandering Minds and Wavering Rhythms: Linking Mind Wandering and Behavioral Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Cheyne, James Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mind wandering is a pervasive feature of human cognition often associated with the withdrawal of task-related executive control processes. Here, we explore the possibility that, in tasks requiring executive control to sustain consistent responding, moments of mind wandering could be associated with moments of increased behavioral variability. To…

  7. Foreign aid's impact on public spending

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzioglu, Tarhan; Swaroop, Vinaya; Min Zhu

    1996-01-01

    Using a model of aid fungibility, the authors examine the relationship between foreign aid and public spending. Based on a panel of cross-country and time-series data, their results show that roughly 75 cents of every dollar given in net development assistance goes to current spending and 25 cents to capital spending in the recipient countries. But concessionary loans - a component of development assistance - stimulate far more government spending. Their results also show that aid increases b...

  8. Do Hearing Aids Improve Affect Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Juliane; Herzog, Diana; Scharenborg, Odette; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Normal-hearing listeners use acoustic cues in speech to interpret a speaker's emotional state. This study investigates the effect of hearing aids on the perception of the emotion dimensions arousal (aroused/calm) and valence (positive/negative attitude) in older adults with hearing loss. More specifically, we investigate whether wearing a hearing aid improves the correlation between affect ratings and affect-related acoustic parameters. To that end, affect ratings by 23 hearing-aid users were compared for aided and unaided listening. Moreover, these ratings were compared to the ratings by an age-matched group of 22 participants with age-normal hearing.For arousal, hearing-aid users rated utterances as generally more aroused in the aided than in the unaided condition. Intensity differences were the strongest indictor of degree of arousal. Among the hearing-aid users, those with poorer hearing used additional prosodic cues (i.e., tempo and pitch) for their arousal ratings, compared to those with relatively good hearing. For valence, pitch was the only acoustic cue that was associated with valence. Neither listening condition nor hearing loss severity (differences among the hearing-aid users) influenced affect ratings or the use of affect-related acoustic parameters. Compared to the normal-hearing reference group, ratings of hearing-aid users in the aided condition did not generally differ in both emotion dimensions. However, hearing-aid users were more sensitive to intensity differences in their arousal ratings than the normal-hearing participants.We conclude that the use of hearing aids is important for the rehabilitation of affect perception and particularly influences the interpretation of arousal.

  9. BAHA: Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Hagr, Abdulrahman

    2007-01-01

    Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) has proven performance and advantages for patients with aural atresia or chronic ear drainage who cannot wear air-conduction hearing aids. The BAHA has both cosmetic and acoustic advantages over most conventional hearing aids and hence is becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, BAHA improves the quality of life and has also significantly reduces ear discharge. This extensive review of the literature pertaining to BAHA discus the history, the indications, the ...

  10. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravn, P; Lundgren, J D; Kjaeldgaard, P; Holten-Anderson, W; Højlyng, N; Nielsen, J O; Gaub, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with AIDS related complex), developed cryptosporidiosis. Two further HIV negative s...

  11. Agriculture, Trees and HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    For a long time, HIV/AIDS was viewed as purely a health issue. Yet HIV/AIDS has implications that reach far beyond health - including great impact on agricultural and food production systems. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), most infected people live in rural areas and HIV/AIDS has become mostly a rural problem. In largely rural-based economies, it is unlikely that the epidemic can be controll...

  12. 30 Years of HIV/AIDS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-02

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses the 30 year anniversary of the first reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Dr. Fenton also reflects on the HIV/AIDS epidemic – past, present, and future.  Created: 6/2/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/2/2011.

  13. National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    In observance of National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the HIV/AIDS among African Americans and what steps can be taken on the national, state, local, and individual levels to address this epidemic.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  14. Airports and Navigation Aids Database System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Airport and Navigation Aids Database System is the repository of aeronautical data related to airports, runways, lighting, NAVAID and their components, obstacles, no...

  15. Policy and HIV / AIDS prevention: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, B

    1994-08-01

    The Brazilian government, per pre-AIDS epidemic era economic policy, maintained until recently a 15% import tax on condoms. This policy made condoms too expensive for most people who needed them. In response, AIDS prevention activists in 1993 and 1994 launched an intensive information and advocacy campaign to convince policy makers that a supply of affordable condoms was crucial to slow the spread of HIV in Brazil; the tax was withdrawn in April 1994. This experience of AIDS in Brazil highlights the important role of policies in HIV/AIDS prevention and the influence advocates have over them. The responses of governments, business, and religious and nongovernmental organizations to the HIV/AIDS epidemic over the past decade have yielded important lessons about the creation of effective prevention policies. For example, it has been learned that policy often lags behind the HIV/AIDS epidemic, knowledge about HIV and AIDS among policy makers is often limited and inaccurate, women face the greatest impact from AIDS, HIV/AIDS prevention efforts must compete with other priorities for limited resources, comparative examples can influence and guide policy formulation, local prevention efforts too rarely inform the policy process, and prevention in the workplace is often neglected.

  16. Predictors of Hearing-Aid Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Peter T.; Pérez-González, Patricia; Blanco, José L.; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Over 360 million people worldwide suffer from disabling hearing loss. Most of them can be treated with hearing aids. Unfortunately, performance with hearing aids and the benefit obtained from using them vary widely across users. Here, we investigate the reasons for such variability. Sixty-eight hearing-aid users or candidates were fitted bilaterally with nonlinear hearing aids using standard procedures. Treatment outcome was assessed by measuring aided speech intelligibility in a time-reversed two-talker background and self-reported improvement in hearing ability. Statistical predictive models of these outcomes were obtained using linear combinations of 19 predictors, including demographic and audiological data, indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction and auditory temporal processing skills, hearing-aid settings, working memory capacity, and pretreatment self-perceived hearing ability. Aided intelligibility tended to be better for younger hearing-aid users with good unaided intelligibility in quiet and with good temporal processing abilities. Intelligibility tended to improve by increasing amplification for low-intensity sounds and by using more linear amplification for high-intensity sounds. Self-reported improvement in hearing ability was hard to predict but tended to be smaller for users with better working memory capacity. Indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, alone or in combination with hearing settings, did not affect outcome predictions. The results may be useful for improving hearing aids and setting patients’ expectations. PMID:28929903

  17. BAHA: Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagr, Abdulrahman

    2007-07-01

    Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) has proven performance and advantages for patients with aural atresia or chronic ear drainage who cannot wear air-conduction hearing aids. The BAHA has both cosmetic and acoustic advantages over most conventional hearing aids and hence is becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, BAHA improves the quality of life and has also significantly reduces ear discharge. This extensive review of the literature pertaining to BAHA discus the history, the indications, the advantages, the prediction of the outcome and the complications of this device as well as comparing it to the conventional hearing aids.

  18. Hearing Aids: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine) Article: Hearing Loss in Adults. Article: Bilateral versus unilateral hearing aids for bilateral hearing impairment in... Article: Preliminary audiologic and peri-operative outcomes ...

  19. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients......The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...

  20. PUBLIC FINANCIAL AIDS - STATE FINANCIAL SUPPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available State aid represents selective measures of public financial support granted for activities or areas to achieve general objectives, such as environmental protection, development of SMEs, development of disadvantaged areas, rescue and restructuring strategic businesses, etc. But, even if the public authorities support economic development, the state aids can distort normal competitive environment. It is therefore necessary to develop and implement precisely rules on how the public authorities can intervene on market by providing state aids. State aid may be compatible if it pursues clearly defined objectives of common interest with the general beneficial effects on economic development, and does not affect the trade between European Union Member States.

  1. [Pediatric aids, 30 years later].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, S; Dollfus, C; Faye, A; Rouzioux, C; Mandelbrot, L; Tubiana, R; Warszawski, J

    2013-08-01

    Thirty years after the first descriptions of AIDS in children in May 1983, the risk of viral transmission from mother to child has been reduced to almost zero and the disease in infected children has become an asymptomatic condition, stable in the long-term, thanks to antiretroviral drugs. Unbelievable though it may have seemed until the mid-1990s, children infected during the perinatal period are now growing up to be adults in a chronic, stable, asymptomatic medical condition with often satisfactory personal, family, and social lives. The French perinatal epidemiological cohort, which was set up in 1984 and has included more than 18,000 mother-child pairs to date, traces the steps in this extraordinary revolution in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection in children. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Psychosocial ethical aspects of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W

    1989-01-01

    The psychosocial morbidity associated with HIV infection and responses to such infection may exceed morbidity associated with medical sequelae of such infection. This paper argues that negative judgements on those with HIV infection or in groups associated with such infection will cause avoidable psychological and social distress. Moral judgements made regarding HIV infection may also harm the common good by promoting conditions which may increase the spread of HIV infection. This paper examines these two lines of argument with regard to the ethical aspects of psychological bases of health care, clinical contact, public perceptions of AIDS and the comparative perspective. It is concluded that the psychosocial aspects of HIV infection impose ethical psychological, as well as medical, obligations to reduce harm and prevent the spread of infection. PMID:2746607

  3. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...... when Danish is one of the languages, though some also express willingness to consider using MT (more) when output quality improves. Most respondents report that CAT has changed the translation industry, mentioning that the technology facilitates improved productivity and consistency, but also...

  4. Hearing aids with no batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I wish to offer a characterization of 'skilled practitioners' from an Ethnomethodological perspective. The skilled practitioner in question is a generic 'hard of hearing' person. The ambition is that such a characterization, both in its making and its final state, may be an intrinsic...... part of design practices concerning the development of hearing aids. Within design studies, the idea of a skilled practitioner has a host of brothers and sisters all prefaced with the family name 'skilled'- skilled users, skilled workers, skilled employees - but the basic idea is the same for all...... might be realized through the introspective and observational study of the 'natural' techniques the hard of hearing employ in everyday life....

  5. Gender inequality, female leadership, and aid allocation: A panel analysis of aid for education

    OpenAIRE

    Kleemann, Linda; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Thiele, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The aid allocation literature has neglected gender-specific needs for aid. We assess the hypothesis that gender inequality in education is more likely to affect the aid allocation of donor countries with female leadership in the relevant ministry. We find no evidence for a needs-based allocation of aid for education. Female as well as male leaders appear to have rewarded countries with more years of schooling of all children, or specifically of girls. Our estimates indicate just minor gender ...

  6. Clampdown on AIDS information in E. Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, B

    1986-01-01

    What is most alarming about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in East Africa is that it is taboo. The reason for the clamping down on publicity in Kenya is that the government sees AIDS as a killer of tourism, the country's 2nd largest revenue earner. The government of Kenya, like several other African governments, is reacting to the widespread belief in the West that AIDS originated in Africa and that it is rampant in Central and East Africa. These "facts" have yet to be proven conclusively by medical evidence. It is certain that a large percentage of the population of these regions have antibodies to the virus HTLV-III, which causes AIDS. From this, virologists deduce that the people concerned must have been exposed to the AIDS virus. The Western media has exaggerated the African AIDS connection and given the impression that African countries are gripped in raging AIDS epidemics. In response to the alarmist publicity, some African countries have clamped down in information about the disease. The result is that the Western press feels confirmed in its fears and the local population, depending on rumor and heresay, have been living in a state of absolute panic. Instead of allaying fears, the clampdown on news has fueled dangerous rumors at home and frightened away tourists. Whatever may be causing the disease and wherever it may have come from, there is no question at all that there are now confirmed cases of AIDS in East and Central Africa. Thus far, the number of confirmed cases if relatively small, but if governments continue to try and hide the facts from the public, there is a real danger of an epidemic developing. A ministerial statement admits to 7 confirmed AIDS cases in Kenya. There are discrepancies in the reports, however. Doctors interviewed by "New African" in Nairobi recently believe the situation is far more serious than the government admits. Doctors in Kenya make the point that the country is highly vulnerable to the spread of AIDS

  7. The Long-Run Macroeconomic Effects of Aid and Disaggregated Aid in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the long-run macroeconomic effects of aid and disaggregated aid flows in Ethiopia, currently the world's largest recipient of official development assistance, for the period 1960-2009. The results show that aid affects gross domestic product (GDP), investment and imports...

  8. AIDS Fears and Homophobia among Volunteers in an AIDS Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullard, Jonathan D.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    1989-01-01

    Finds that, among 43 community volunteers attending AIDS training in rural central Pennsylvania, about 25% had irrational fears about getting AIDS, and most held mixed or negative attitudes toward homosexuals. Contains 12 references, part of the AIDS Phobia Scale, and the complete Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale. (SV)

  9. Increased non-AIDS mortality among persons with AIDS-defining events after antiretroviral therapy initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettit, April C; Giganti, Mark J; Ingle, Suzanne M

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) in...

  10. Nitric oxide synthase expression and apoptotic cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, V. A.; de Groot, C. J.; Lucassen, P. J.; Portegies, P.; Troost, D.; Tilders, F. J.; van Dam, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the occurrence and cellular localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NOS activity and its association with cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) patients. Post-mortem cerebral cortex tissue of eight AIDS patients, eight ADC patients and eight

  11. Effects of Planned HIV/AIDS Education on Attitudes towards AIDS in Beginning Level Nursing Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neriman Akansel; Nursel Aydin; Aysel Özdemir; Okan Töre

    2012-01-01

    ...) was used to determine attitudes of students towards AIDS. Close to half of the students believed that taking care of AIDS patients makes their job high risk occupation and they also feel angry to homosexuals because they increase the risk of AIDS...

  12. Aid Distribution and Cooperation in Unequal Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exelle, D' B.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally study aid distribution and cooperation in a field lab in rural Nicaragua. In the first stage of the experimental game, participants contribute to a collective effort that determines the amount of aid given to the group, which is distributed among the players in a second stage. We

  13. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  14. Toward Integrity in Financial Aid Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Paul G.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses ethical problems associated with financial aid counseling including: disseminating financial aid information, advising on independent status, judging students true needs, communicating between high school and college, helping parents and students understand programs, drop in enrollment of lower income students, public/private college…

  15. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jackson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals. The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  16. Machine-Aided Indexing of Technical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    To index at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's indexing has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided indexing system is described that indexes one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)

  17. Evidence on changes in aid allocation criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Cassimon, D.; Van Campenhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Have donors changed their aid-allocation criteria over the past three decades toward greater selectivity, a frequently stated goal of the international development community? Using data on how 22 donors allocated their bilateral aid among 147 countries over 1970-2004, the article finds that after

  18. Your Most Essential Audiovisual Aid--Yourself!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp-Lyons, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Acknowledging that an interested and enthusiastic teacher can create excitement for students and promote learning, the author discusses how teachers can improve their appearance, and, consequently, how their students perceive them. She offers concrete suggestions on how a teacher can be both a "visual aid" and an "audio aid" in the classroom.…

  19. 46 CFR 108.241 - Visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual aids. 108.241 Section 108.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Helicopter Facilities § 108.241 Visual aids. (a) Each helicopter deck must— (1...

  20. Systems for Providing Aids for Disabled People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The report summarizes a meeting of the World Health Organization's Working Group on Systems for Provision of Aids for Disabled Persons. The meeting was convened to discuss technical aids and ergonomic measures to bring greater independence to disabled people and the need to systematize services for the disabled in their own environments. Following…

  1. Unconditional aid and accountability: reassessing chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The very nature of aid which is a one way flow of information is unaccountable. Despite conditions not having been met in the past, Western aid to Africa had been kept running, which renders conditionality ineffective. Only a flow of tangible goods in the opposite direction (e.g. commodities) as promoted in the Chinese ...

  2. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  3. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  4. Institutional strengthening in Egyptian development aid projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walbeek, M.M.; Vlotman, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years Dutch aid projects have focused more on institutional strengthening. The overall impact of this type of aid has been limited. This paper explores possible reasons for this. In Egypt, it appeared to be difficult to make significant changes in the institutional setting. Main

  5. 3. Appropriate HIV and AIDS Interventionsdrawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Baseline Knowledge Attitude and Behaviour Surveys of University Students. 109 ... effect on knowledge, but may not necessarily change attitudes and practice of risky behaviour. More work is therefore needed in this area. An HIV and AIDS programme with strategies that ..... AIDS messages? Innovative and creative ways of.

  6. ferences on HIV/AIDS in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches, new activities and new outcomes in international con- ferences on HIV/AIDS in Africa – Report of the 3rd African Conference on the Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, Dakar, 10 - 14 October 2005. INTRODUCTION. Africa south of the Sahara accounts for more than three-quarters of people living with HIV ...

  7. HIV/AIDS: The Case of Initiation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Defi- ciency Syndrome (AIDS) have become a major health problem in Zam- bia. Because of the threat HIV/AIDS poses to the nation, the government of Zambia embarked on a public health campaign aimed at combating the scourge. However, so ...

  8. How you get HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    How you get HIV/AIDS Which body fluids contain HIV? HIV is a virus that lives in blood and other fluids in the body. ... get answers to any questions you have about HIV/AIDS. Your public health department and health care provider ...

  9. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studied....... Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.......6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p...

  10. Dermatology and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward.

  11. Tuberculosis, AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in a large city

    OpenAIRE

    Nanci Michele Saita; Helenice Bosco de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the incidence of tuberculosis (TB), AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in the municipality of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 2001 - 2009. A historical trend study, it uses secondary data from the Tuberculosis Surveillance Database of the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and the São Paulo State STD-AIDS Center of Excellence and Training. It included new cases of TB, AIDS, and of tuberculosis-AIDS reported in the municipality of Campi...

  12. PENGETAHUAN IBU TENTANG AIDS, SDKI 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Indonesia Demographic Health Survey 1994 ever married women age 15-49 years were asked whether they have ever heard of AIDS and if so their sources of information concerning prevention and treatment of the disease, and their personal perception about the risk of getting the disease. Half of the women age 20-34 years have ever heard about AIDS and among the older women less than half of them have ever heard about it. This analysis describes information about the relationship between knowledge of ever married women 15-49 years about AIDS with various background characteristics - age, education, occupation, exposure to mass media, area, and regions. This information is required to improve the existing health education campaign about AIDS.   The results indicate that women with less than secondary education or married to husband with less than secondary education or women who do not work or working as farmers are less likely to have ever heard about AIDS. Women who are not exposed to any type of mass media or exposed to only one media are less likely to have ever heard about AIDS than those who are exposed to two or more media. The proportion of women who have ever heard about AIDS in outer Java Bali region is lower than in Java Bali region, likewise in the rural areas it is lower than in urban areas. There are significant associations between area, region, women' education, husbands' education, occupation, exposure to mass media and having ever heart about AIDS. The major source of information about AIDS are from TV and second are newspapers and radio. To control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS the role of mass media is very important and therefore it is necessary to improve the coverage and acceptability of the information considering mothers' education, region/area, and occupation. The information material should be simple and easily understood by the various social levels of community.

  13. National Institutes of Health, Office of AIDS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS research in the world. Read More NIH HIV/AIDS Research Priorities NIH HIV/AIDS Research Priorities The NIH ... life. Read More List of NIH NIH Overarching HIV/AIDS Research Priorities NIH Overarching HIV/AIDS Research Priorities NIH ...

  14. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or ...

  15. [Acute psychiatric pathology disclosing subcortical lesion in neuro-AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, A; Harlé, J R; Cherif, A A; Gastaut, J A; Weiller, P J

    1991-01-01

    Maccario et al. described, in 1987, the case of an HIV-positive patient whose psychotic symptomatology was the expression of right centrum semi-ovale lesion. We report the case of a patient who suffered a sudden delirium, expression of a probable right lenticular cerebral toxoplasmosis. This 35-year-old male homosexual, who had no psychiatric history, suddenly developed in November 1988 the following psychiatric signs: he started to walk back and forth incessantly, he had the impression that he was the subject of the conversations of the passers-by, that all the posters and notices refer to him, and that he was God. He was admitted in a psychiatric department where the symptoms were progressively curbed by neuroleptics (cyamemazine 75 mg, and haloperidol 15 mg). The episode was not questioned by the patient, but attributed to bad eating habits. HIV-positivity had been discovered a year later (during systematic screening). A computerized tomographic (CT) scan performed subsequently to this delirium was interpreted as normal. Four weeks later the patient was referred to us. The psychiatric condition was stabilized in spite of a certain aggressiveness and the probable persistence of an underlying delirium state. Laboratory examinations showed the following: blood count revealed leukopenia (2.2 G/l) and thrombocytopenia (135 G/l; OKT4/OKT8 ratio was 0.08; CSF: normal; sputum culture evidenced the presence of pneumocystis carinii; EEG were normal. Neuropsychological symptoms concerned in particular a lack of concentration during the different tests with a definitive wavering of attention. Lexical retrieval was poor whatever the topic proposed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Compression Amplification in Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, L M

    1994-11-01

    In this tutorial, the characteristics of compression amplification in analog hearing aids and the experimental results obtained with single- and multichannel compression amplification systems are reviewed. Single-channel compression systems are classified into four broad groups on the basis of their static and dynamic characteristics: compression limiters, syllabic compressors, automatic volume control (AVC) systems, and "others," those with adaptive recovery time (aRT) and dual frontend automatic gain control (AGC) (Moore, 1990; Moore & Glasberg, 1988). Multichannel compression devices have, to date, used a variety of different types of compression, with syllabic compression in each frequency channel being the most popular. Experimental evidence suggests that compression limiting is generally superior to peak clipping as a means of controlling output, except for some individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. There is some evidence that syllabic compression and AVC systems enhance speech perception in quiet compared to conventional linear amplification; however, this improvement is not consistently maintained in the presence of background noise. The majority of recent research has focused on multichannel compression, and favorable results have been obtained with some systems. Research findings about the efficacy of using compression amplification for people with hearing loss have been extremely variable, and possible reasons for this are discussed.

  17. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  18. Is HIV-2- induced AIDS different from HIV-1-associated AIDS? Data from a West African clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Steele, Euridice; Awasana, Akum Aveika; Corrah, Tumani; Sabally, Saihou; van der Sande, Marianne; Jaye, Assan; Togun, Toyin; Sarge-Njie, Ramu; McConkey, Samuel J.; Whittle, Hilton; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2007-01-01

    Although AIDS is less frequent following HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection, it is unclear whether the clinical picture and clinical course of AIDS are similar in the two infections. To compare the pattern of AIDS-defining events, CD4 cell count at the time of AIDS diagnosis, survival from time of AIDS, and

  19. Auditory Distraction and Acclimatization to Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Munro, Kevin J

    It is widely recognized by hearing aid users and audiologists that a period of auditory acclimatization and adjustment is needed for new users to become accustomed to their devices. The aim of the present study was to test the idea that auditory acclimatization and adjustment to hearing aids involves a process of learning to "tune out" newly audible but undesirable sounds, which are described by new hearing aid users as annoying and distracting. It was hypothesized that (1) speech recognition thresholds in noise would improve over time for new hearing aid users, (2) distractibility to noise would reduce over time for new hearing aid users, (3) there would be a correlation between improved speech recognition in noise and reduced distractibility to background sounds, (4) improvements in speech recognition and distraction would be accompanied by self-report of reduced annoyance, and (5) improvements in speech recognition and distraction would be associated with higher general cognitive ability and more hearing aid use. New adult hearing aid users (n = 35) completed a test of aided speech recognition in noise (SIN) and a test of auditory distraction by background sound amplified by hearing aids on the day of fitting and 1, 7, 14, and 30 days post fitting. At day 30, participants completed self-ratings of the annoyance of amplified sounds. Daily hearing aid use was measured via hearing aid data logging, and cognitive ability was measured with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence block design test. A control group of experienced hearing aid users (n = 20) completed the tests over a similar time frame. At day 30, there was no statistically significant improvement in SIN among new users versus experienced users. However, levels of hearing loss and hearing aid use varied widely among new users. A subset of new users with moderate hearing loss who wore their hearing aids at least 6 hr/day (n = 10) had significantly improved SIN (by ~3-dB signal to noise ratio

  20. Social Context and Hearing Aid Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurjit; Launer, Stefan

    2016-10-12

    Hearing rehabilitation tends to focus on the influence of intraindividual factors and concepts such as readiness for change and health beliefs. In contrast, less is known about the role of social context and the potential role of significant others on hearing aid adoption. This explorative retrospective study investigated whether hearing aid adoption is associated with significant other attendance at audiology appointments. The study sample consisted of 33,933 and 27,031 individuals who attended appointments either alone or with a significant other, respectively (n = 60,964). It was found that hearing aid adoption was significantly greater when patients attended audiology appointments with a significant other (63.8%) than when attending appointments alone (50.6%). The association between hearing aid adoption and attendance by a significant other was hearing dependent, with 96% higher hearing aid adoption for patients with mild hearing losses when patients attended appointments with a significant other than when attending appointments alone. Hearing aid return rates were comparable when patients attended appointments alone (27%) or with a significant other (24%). Several potential explanations for the observed association are discussed. The pattern of results is consistent with the view that greater adherence is observed when audiologic care is provided from a patient-centered care perspective. Future research should establish whether there is a causal relationship between attendance at appointments by significant others and hearing aid adoption and should attempt to better understand the mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these variables. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund ('AIDS Levy') as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a 'homegrown' solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow.

  2. Poverty, drug abuse fuel Caribbean AIDS outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleski, S F

    1998-01-01

    Hatred and fear of homosexuals, together with a fear of losing tourism revenue, drove many high-level policymakers in the Caribbean to ignore the HIV/AIDS in its infancy. With an annual incidence rate of at least 146.6 people per 100,000, the Bahamas now has one of the highest AIDS rates in the world and the highest such rate in the English-speaking Caribbean. AIDS has become the major cause of death for men and women aged 20-44 in the Bahamas. Indeed, throughout the Caribbean, countries like the Bahamas must now cope with a growing AIDS epidemic. UN AIDS Program figures indicate that at least 310,000 people in the Caribbean have either HIV infection or AIDS, and that the prevalence rate among adults is almost 2%. This compares with an estimated 7.4% of the adult population of sub-Saharan Africa which is infected and 0.6% of adults in North America. 65% of reported AIDS cases in the region result from heterosexual intercourse. While the annual number of AIDS cases has been falling in North America over the last several years and rates in Latin America have leveled off, rates in the Caribbean are increasing sharply. Poverty, the population's lack of awareness, low levels of education, internal and international migration, crack cocaine use, promiscuity, high levels of STDs, prostitution, and tourism are also facilitating the spread of HIV in the Caribbean. Social conservatism, mainly in the English-Caribbean, about discussing sex impedes the implementation and success of HIV/AIDS prevention interventions.

  3. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of AIDS-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S; Jacobsen, P

    1986-02-01

    Psychiatric symptoms among patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be functional reactions to contracting a fatal and stigmatizing disease or may be secondary to malignancies and opportunistic infections in the central nervous system (CNS). More recent evidence indicates that HTLV-III, the virus that causes AIDS, directly infects the CNS and may cause psychiatric symptoms before signs of immunodeficiency, cognitive impairment, or neurological abnormalities emerge. AIDS-related organic mental syndromes may mimic functional disorders such as chronic mild depression and acute psychosis. Both of these common presentations are illustrated with detailed case reports, and diagnostic and management guidelines are provided.

  4. The Society and the Hearing Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Danesh

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Many people around the world are in need for using hearing aid, a prothesis which is prescribed for compensating the hearing loss in hard of hearing patients.Although Hearing aid has crucial role in improving hearing skills in such patients, it has many psychological effects and Social premonitions for the users.we will discuss some of these distresses and the common approaches for resolving economical, cosmetic and the emotional and social problems relted to hearing aid will be discussed.

  5. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural...... interested in evaluating the impact of foreign aid define criteria for success that can be measured preferably in numbers just as the investment in foreign aid is measured in amounts of money. This essay is about how a number of different stakeholders negotiate narratives of successful impact of private...

  6. Operations research in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2013-01-01

    Operations research is mainly applied to decision making in industries and corporations using quantitative methods to optimize production. The applications of operations research in social sciences research or health research in HIV, service delivery, and program performance improvement are minimal. Considering the complexity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is imperative to learn from operations research in scaling up HIV treatment, prevention, and intervention in resource-poor settings. In this article the author discusses the methodological issues in operations research within the context of HIV/AIDS research. The author also suggests a framework for using operations research in the field of HIV/AIDS research and program intervention.

  7. Do Modern Hearing Aids Meet ANSI Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Jourdan T; Picou, Erin M; Gruenwald, Jill M; Ricketts, Todd A

    2016-09-01

    The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) provides standards used to govern standardization of all hearing aids. If hearing aids do not meet specifications, there are potential negative implications for hearing aid users, professionals, and the industry. Recent literature has not investigated the proportion of new hearing aids in compliance with the ANSI specifications for quality control standards when they arrive in the clinic before dispensing. The aims of this study were to determine the percentage of new hearing aids compliant with the relevant ANSI standard and to report trends in electroacoustic analysis data. New hearing aids were evaluated for quality control via the ANSI S3.22-2009 standard. In addition, quality control of directional processing was also assessed. Seventy-three behind-the-ear hearing aids from four major manufacturers, that were purchased for clinical patients were evaluated before dispensing. Audioscan Verifit (version 3.1) hearing instrument fitting system was used to complete electroacoustic analysis and directional processing evaluation of the hearing aids. Frye's Fonix 8000 test box system (Fonix 8000) was also used to cross-check equivalent input noise (EIN) measurements. These measurements were then analyzed for trends across brands and specifications. All of the hearing aids evaluated were found to be out of specification for at least one measure. EIN and attack and release times were the measures most frequently out of specification. EIN was found to be affected by test box isolation for two of the four brands tested. Systematic discrepancies accounted for ∼93% of the noncompliance issues, while unsystematic quality control issues accounted for the remaining 7%. The high number of systematic discrepancies between the data collected and the specifications published by the manufacturers suggests there are clear issues related to the specific protocols used for quality control testing. These issues present a significant

  8. HEARING AID. MEASUREMENT OF ELECTROACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Pérez-Ruiz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show the results obtained from several measurements, on hearing aid (HA prototype carried out atthe Acoustic Laboratory of the Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico (CCADET at the UniversidadNacional Autónoma de México (UNAM. The hearing aid has been developed at the Electronics Laboratory of thesame Center. All the electroacoustic measurements have been made according to the recommendationsestablished in the ANSI and IEC Standards for hearing aids.

  9. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  10. Human retroviruses and AIDS 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, B.; Foley, B.; Leitner, T. [eds.] [and others

    1997-12-01

    This compendium is the result of an effort to compile, organize, and rapidly publish as much relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses as possible. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the four parts that it comprises: (1) Nucleic Acid Alignments, (2) Amino Acid Alignments, (3) Reviews and Analyses, and (4) Related Sequences. Information within all the parts is updated throughout the year on the Web site, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov. This year we are not including floppy diskettes as the entire compendium is available both at our Web site and at our ftp site. If you need floppy diskettes please contact either Bette Korber (btk@t10.lanl.gov) or Kersti Rock (karm@t10.lanl.gov) by email or fax ((505) 665-4453). While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. The exception to this are reviews submitted by experts in areas deemed of particular and basic importance to research involving AIDS viral sequence information. These are included in Part III, and are contributed by scientists with particular expertise in the area of interest. In addition to the general descriptions below of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

  11. AIDS: what should nurses know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, T

    1996-09-01

    There are three aspects of caring for HIV-infected persons that nurses should consider. The first involves knowledge of the principal routes of transmission of the virus and the possible risk factors to nurses. Among the principal routes of transmission, nurses are most susceptible to exposure to blood or other body fluids carrying HIV. Such exposure may occur during patient care through accidental inoculation (e.g. needlestick injury), through contact with broken skin, or through splashing into the conjunctiva or mucous membranes. These potential risks can be reduced by adhering to simple precautions and by using the Universal Precautions for all communicable diseases; these include practicing good basic hygiene (especially handwashing); covering cuts and abrasions with an impermeable dressing; practicing care in handling sharp objects; and disposing safely of clinical and other contaminated waste. The second area of concern is the provision of emotional care to HIV-diagnosed patients. Compassion and empathy are essential in the daily nursing care of a person with HIV/AIDS. Thus, nurses must take time to talk to their patients and their families about how they are coping with the disease, as this may help the patients identify specific problems and allow them to externalize them. Finally, an integral part of the nurse's role is providing education and information to patients, to their families, and to the community as a whole. This part can be served either informally through answering questions and displaying posters and leaflets around the hospital or through more formal programs held in the hospital or community.

  12. To reiterate the concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jie HE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Explore new concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded based on the emergency timeliness and the challenges we are going to face in the future combats, the importance of self-aid, buddy-aid and rescue are discussed. The concept and characteristics of self-aid and buddy-aid in our army are reviewed, and the care of the wounded in foreign armies were reviewed. Based on the experiences gained from previous combats, and the results of "Medical Service Mission-2014 Drill", it was believed that the emergency rescue of battle wounded should follow the timeliness rule and the principle of self-aid and buddy-aid technology. It might be beneficial to use cell protective agent, urgent relief of life-threatening conditions such as profuse bleeding from extremities, suffocation, pneumothorax, and traumatic shock etc., in order to stabilize the general condition of the wounded, according to the regime of "Platinum 10 minutes" and "golden 1 hour", self-aid and buddy-aid might play an important role in preventing early death and late morbidity of the wounded, thus helps reduce the mortality rate or the victims of combat wounds. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.01

  13. Can foreign aid donors credibly threaten to suspend aid? Evidence from a cross-national survey of donor officials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swedlund, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Under what conditions are foreign aid donors willing to suspend foreign aid to punish political transgressions, such as election fraud, corruption scandals or political repression? Prior scholarship has emphasized that political sanctions, including foreign aid suspensions, are constrained by the

  14. HIV/AIDS, Globalizacao e Seguranca Ontológica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    HIV/AIDS, Entertainment-Education, Communication for Development, Migration, Ontological Security......HIV/AIDS, Entertainment-Education, Communication for Development, Migration, Ontological Security...

  15. 77 FR 72195 - World AIDS Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... AIDS Day, in memory of those no longer with us and in solidarity with all who carry on the fight, let... States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution ] and the laws of the...

  16. Information and Networks Working Paper: Aiding surveillance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... Information technology transfer is increasingly a key component of development and humanitarian aid initiatives. With social protection programs now incorporating digitized management information systems and electronic transfers, registration and electoral systems deploying biometric technologies, and ...

  17. Use of ergogenic aids by athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, M D

    2001-01-01

    "Ergogenic aid" is defined as any means of enhancing energy utilization, including energy production, control, and efficiency. Athletes frequently use ergogenic aids to improve their performance and increase their chances of winning in competition. It is estimated that between 1 and 3 million male and female athletes in the United States alone have used anabolic steroids. In response to the problem of drug use, many athletic organizations have established policies prohibiting the use of certain pharmacologic, physiologic, and nutritional aids by athletes and have implemented drug testing programs to monitor compliance. Therefore, it is important for physicians to be knowledgeable about the available ergogenic aids so they can appropriately treat and counsel the athletic patient.

  18. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  19. HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe June 2015 Print this issue HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts Treatments Work, but ... Biological Blueprints Wise Choices Should You Get an HIV Test? HIV tests involve a simple cheek swab, ...

  20. Efficient individualization of hearing aid processed sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Due to the large amount of options offered by the vast number of adjustable parameters in modern digital hearing aids, it is becoming increasingly daunting—even for a fine-tuning professional—to perform parameter fine tuning to satisfactorily meet the preference of the hearing aid user. In addition......, the communication between the fine-tuning professional and the hearing aid user might muddle the task. In the present paper, an interactive system is proposed to ease and speed up fine tuning of hearing aids to suit the preference of the individual user. The system simultaneously makes the user conscious of his own...... preferences while the system itself learns the user’s preference. Since the learning is based on probabilistic modeling concepts, the system handles inconsistent user feedback efficiently. Experiments with hearing impaired subjects show that the system quickly discovers individual preferred hearing...

  1. [Leprosy and immune reconstitution syndrome in AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Bobin, P

    2008-02-01

    The immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) has been typical of changes in the clinical presentations of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients since the introduction of HAART. Leprosy has joined the growing list of opportunistic infections associated with IRS.

  2. Hearing Aid Buying Guide: Sound Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pitches. A proper fit can also reduce feedback. Digital Noise Reduction (DNR) Improves listener comfort and communication ... t think you’ll use it, skip it. Economy hearing aids may provide the advantages you need ...

  3. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  4. The hearing aid effect in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauterkus, Erik P; Palmer, Catherine V

    2014-10-01

    The hearing aid effect is the term used to describe the assignment of negative attributes to individuals using hearing aids. The effect was first empirically identified in 1977 when it was reported that adults rating young children with and without hearing aids assigned negative attributes to the children depicted with hearing aids. Investigations in the 1980s and 1990s reported mixed results related to the extent of the hearing aid effect but continued to identify, on average, some negative attributes assigned to individuals wearing hearing aids. The specific aim of this research was to investigate whether the hearing aid effect has diminished in the past several decades by replicating the methods of previous studies for testing the hearing aid effect while using updated devices. Five device configurations were rated across eight attributes. RESULTS for each attribute were considered separately. A total of 24 adults judged pictures of young men wearing various ear level technologies across 8 attributes on a 7-point Likert scale. Five young men between ages 15 and 17 yr were photographed wearing each of five device configurations including (1) a standard-sized behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid coupled to an earmold with #13 tubing, (2) a mini-BTE hearing aid with a slim tube open-fit configuration, (3) a completely-in-the-canal hearing aid that could not be seen because of its location in the ear canal, (4) an earbud, and (5) a Bluetooth receiver. The 24 raters saw pictures of each of the 5 young men with each wearing one of the 5 devices so that devices and young men were never judged twice by the same observer. All judgments of each device, regardless of the young man modeling the device, were combined in the data analysis. The effect of device types on judgments was tested using a one-way between-participant analysis of variance. There was a significant difference on the judgment of age and trustworthiness level among the five devices. However, our post hoc

  5. AIDS in Africa: misinformation and disinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konotey-Ahulu, F I

    1987-07-25

    Relying on his tour of 16 sub-Saharan countries, the author judges the extent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Africa on a scale from grade I (not much of a problem) to grade V (a catastrophe). In his assessment, AIDS is a problem (grade II) in only 5, possibly 6, countries where it has occurred. In no country is the AIDS problem consistently grade III (a great problem), nor ever grade IV (an extremely great problem), and in none can it be called a catastrophe (grade V). In Kenya, for instance, contrary to widespread rumors, the author rates AIDS in 1987 as grade I. Journalistic hyperbole has proved very expensive in that Africans overseas have experienced racial abuse and tourism has unjustly suffered. Tension seems to have developed between white doctors working in Africa, with externally funded research in danger of being halted in several countries.

  6. Financial aid policy: lessons from research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and students who never graduated from high school. Today aid is available not only to low-income students but also to middle- and even high-income families, in the form of grants, subsidized loans, and tax credits. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about effectiveness, heightened confusion among students and parents, and raised concerns about how program rules may interact. In this article, Susan Dynarski and Judith Scott-Clayton review what is known, and just as important, what is not known, about how well various student aid programs work. The evidence, the authors write, clearly shows that lowering costs can improve college access and completion. But this general rule is not without exception. First, they note, the complexity of program eligibility and delivery appears to moderate the impact of aid on college enrollment and persistence after enrollment. Second, for students who have already decided to enroll, grants that tie financial aid to academic achievement appear to boost college outcomes such as persistence more than do grants with no strings attached. Third, compared with grant aid, relatively little rigorous research has been conducted on the effectiveness of student loans. The paucity of evidence on student loans is particularly problematic both because they represent a large share of student aid overall and because their low cost (relative to grant aid) makes them an attractive option for policy makers. Future research is likely to focus on several issues: the importance of program design and delivery, whether there are unanticipated interactions between

  7. Aided loudness growth and satisfaction with everyday loudness perception in compression hearing aid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Doherty, Karen A; Zwislockit, Jozef J

    2007-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between listeners' loudness growth and their satisfaction with loudness when wearing wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) hearing aids. An absolute-magnitude-estimate procedure was used to obtain listeners' unaided and aided loudness growth functions in response to a 500 and 2000 Hz warble tone. In general, listeners' unaided loudness growth functions were steeper than the average normal-hearing listeners' functions for both frequencies, and their aided loudness growth functions were shallower than their unaided functions. Loudness growth functions tended to be undercompressed for 500 Hz but overcompressed for 2000 Hz. The Profile of Aided Loudness (PAL) questionnaire was administered to determine listeners' loudness satisfaction in everyday listening situations. Most listeners were satisfied with their perception of soft, average, and loud environmental sounds, regardless of how well or not well their WDRC aids normalized their aided loudness growth.

  8. Why is There No AIDS Vaccine?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rey Biel

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an economic explanation for the non-existence of a vaccine against AIDS. It comments on previously claimed economic reasons why private laboratories do not have incentives to invest in an AIDS vaccine and provides a new one: private companies already operate in the market for treatment of already infected patients, which market is threatened by the eventual emergence of a vaccine that cuts the cycle of infection. Finally, the paper discusses some mechanisms to provide ince...

  9. Aiding the operator during novel fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, W. C.; Hammer, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An aid is proposed for the operator who must deal with a novel failure. A novel failure is one that is not covered by the operator's training or procedures or by an expert system (if present). The aid contains a disaggregated model of the system for reasoning causally about the system. It is to work in parallel with the human and interact at various levels of control. It is designed specifically to mitigate some human suboptimalities and biases during decision making.

  10. Bone anchored hearing aids "BAHAs" in children

    OpenAIRE

    Priwin, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The technique for applying bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) by the use of osseointegration is today widely established for both adults and children. The BAHA concept is suitable for patients with recurrent ear infections or car malformations who cannot use conventional hearing aids, which are placed altogether or partially in the ear canal. Long-term results are well documented in adults but are lacking in children. Most patients are fitted with unilateral BAHA...

  11. Teaching communication aid use in everyday conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This Conversation Analysis study investigated how a speech and language therapist (SLT) created opportunities for communication aid use in multiparty conversation. An SLT interacted with a child with multiple disabilities and her grandparents in a home setting, using a bliss board. The analyses......’s moves using board indications, vocalisations, gaze, head movements, and smiles. The analysed practice creates opportunities for teaching and possibly also for learning how to use a communication aid....

  12. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Kjaeldgaard, P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects.......05). CONCLUSIONS--The clinical and epidemiological findings indicate that infection was the consequence of very small inocula. Increased sensitivity to cryptosporidiosis may be an unrecognised side effect of oral sulphonamide treatment in patients with AIDS....

  13. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  14. HIV/AIDS reference questions in an AIDS service organization special library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevey, Sharon; Behring, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Librarians in many venues may anticipate a wide range of reference questions related to HIV and AIDS. Information on HIV/ AIDS is now available in medical, academic, and public libraries and on the Internet, and ranges from the most complex science to the most private disclosures about personal behavior. In this article, the 913 reference questions asked between May 2002 and August 2004 in a special library in a mid-western community-based AIDS service organization are described and analyzed.

  15. HIV and AIDS in Irish Theatre: Queer Masculinities, Punishment, and 'Post-AIDS' Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Cormac

    2017-02-27

    This essay provides a critical survey of key Irish theatre productions that present queer men with HIV or AIDS as a central theme while also seeking to situate several of these productions within the controversial discourse of 'post-AIDS' as it plays out in Irish cultural and social discourses. Through this survey, this essay finds and critically elaborates how a discourse of AIDS as punishment is a common denominator in all of these plays; whether that be as a central metaphor in the drama or conversely as a trope that theatre makers seek to disrupt. Throughout, this essay simultaneously attends to the ways in which non-realist, non-linear dramatic structures (as opposed to social realist narratives) have proved to be better positioned to present the realities of living with HIV or dying with AIDS in Ireland since the emergence of the first Irish AIDS epidemic in 1982. By approaching 'post-AIDS' discourses through the lens of HIV and AIDS in Irish theatre, this essay critically analyses the insidious ways in which 'post-AIDS' Irish culture is bound up with neoliberal discourses of homonormative assimilation and cultural respectability, especially the figuring of HIV/AIDS as punishment for non-assimilation.

  16. Cell Cycle Regulates Nuclear Stability of AID and Determines the Cellular Response to AID.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Le

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AID (Activation Induced Deaminase deaminates cytosines in DNA to initiate immunoglobulin gene diversification and to reprogram CpG methylation in early development. AID is potentially highly mutagenic, and it causes genomic instability evident as translocations in B cell malignancies. Here we show that AID is cell cycle regulated. By high content screening microscopy, we demonstrate that AID undergoes nuclear degradation more slowly in G1 phase than in S or G2-M phase, and that mutations that affect regulatory phosphorylation or catalytic activity can alter AID stability and abundance. We directly test the role of cell cycle regulation by fusing AID to tags that destabilize nuclear protein outside of G1 or S-G2/M phases. We show that enforced nuclear localization of AID in G1 phase accelerates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, and is well-tolerated; while nuclear AID compromises viability in S-G2/M phase cells. We identify AID derivatives that accelerate somatic hypermutation with minimal impact on viability, which will be useful tools for engineering genes and proteins by iterative mutagenesis and selection. Our results further suggest that use of cell cycle tags to regulate nuclear stability may be generally applicable to studying DNA repair and to engineering the genome.

  17. Factors Influencing Help Seeking, Hearing Aid Uptake, Hearing Aid Use and Satisfaction With Hearing Aids: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Line Vestergaard; Öberg, Marie; Nielsen, Claus; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This descriptive summary of the literature provides an overview of the available studies (published between January 1980 and January 2009) on correlates of help-seeking behavior for hearing loss, hearing-aid uptake, hearing-aid use, and satisfaction with the device. Methods: Publications were identified by structured searches in Pubmed and Cinahl and by inspecting the reference lists of relevant articles. The articles covered different stages that a person with hearing impairment may go through: prior to hearing aid fitting, the period covering the fitting and the period post hearing aid fitting. Inclusion of articles occurred according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. Thirty-nine papers were included that identified 31 factors examined in relation to the four outcome measures. These covered personal factors (e.g., source of motivation, expectation, attitude), demographic factors (e.g., age, gender) and external factors (e.g., cost, counseling). Only two studies covered the actual fitting process. There was only one factor positively affecting all four outcome variables. This was self-reported hearing disability. The vast majority of studies showed no relationship of age and gender with any of the outcome domains. Discussion and conclusion: Whereas research of the last 28 years yielded valuable information regarding relevant and irrelevant factors in hearing aid health care, there are still many relevant issues that have never been investigated in controlled studies. These are discussed. PMID:21109549

  18. FAMILIES' RESPONSE TO AIDS: NEW INSIGHTS INTO PARENTAL ROLES IN FOSTERING HIV/AIDS KNOWLEDGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide, there is a consensus that parents must be involved in children's HIV/AIDS education. However, there is little evidence that speaks to this advocacy for improving adolescent health. This study developed and tested four hypotheses about (i) the relationship between parents' and adolescents' knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission routes and prevention strategies conditional upon (ii) parents' gender, (iii) communication about sexuality, and (iv) the parent-adolescent education gap. The sample consisted of 306 parent-adolescent dyads from the 2002 Cameroon Family and Health Survey. Adolescents were aged 12-19 years. Overall, fifteen items about HIV/AIDS transmission routes and prevention strategies were analysed. Descriptive results showed that parents fared better than adolescents regardless of the AIDS fact considered. An exception was the correct use of condoms (parents 57% vs adolescents 61%). The generation gap probably explains this result: parents are more conservative, reluctant and distant from condoms compared with adolescents, who are more receptive and open to discussing sex with peers. Multivariate ordered logistic regressions showed a significant positive effect of parents' HIV/AIDS knowledge on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, thus supporting the main hypothesis of direct parental influences. Parent-adolescent communication about sexuality showed positive and significant effects on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, suggesting an 'enhancing effect' when combined with the effect of parents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. Against the background that parents in sub-Saharan Africa do not teach their children about sexuality, the study demonstrated that families can play an important role in HIV/AIDS education. These findings have major implications for HIV/AIDS interventions involving adolescents, parents or both, in fostering accurate HIV/AIDS knowledge among adolescents, which could lead to protective sexual behaviours.

  19. What we buy with foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, C T

    1995-02-03

    Some in the US view foreign assistance as some type of wasteful international welfare program. To the contrary, US foreign aid is invaluable investment in both the country's future and that of the world. 43 of the top 50 customers of American agricultural products were, for example, once foreign aid recipients. South Korea imports three times as much in US goods each year as it received in aid during the entire 1960s. Furthermore, President Bill Clinton's recent bypass of Congress to bail Mexico from its economic morass serves both US and Mexican interests. Helping to help the economy of Mexico afloat protected 750,000 US jobs which come from trade with Mexico as well as billions of dollars of investments by middle-class Americans in Mexico and Latin America. It is unfortunate that the Republican-controlled Congress fails to understand that the continuation of US foreign aid serves US interests while at the same time helping other less fortunate populations. It is clear that US aid over the decades has made an enormous positive impact upon the health and welfare of populations in developing countries worldwide, especially in the area of population assistance. Congressional leaders are considering cutting US foreign aid to developing countries by 10-20%, but that won't save much money. The US in 1994 spent $12.3 billion on foreign assistance, less than 1% of the federal budget and the lowest amount in the history of the aid program. About half of that was in military assistance, which would not be cut.

  20. HIV/AIDS and human rights revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, S; Tarantola, D

    2001-01-01

    In their article, Sofia Gruskin and Daniel Tarantola demonstrate how, as the number of people living with HIV and with AIDS continues to grow in nations with different economies, social structures, and legal systems, HIV/AIDS-related human rights issues are not only becoming more apparent, but also increasingly diverse. In the 1980s, the relationship of HIV/AIDS to human rights was only understood as it involved people with HIV or AIDS and the discrimination to which they were subjected. The concerns included mandatory HIV testing; restrictions on international travel; barriers to employment and housing, access to education, medical care, or health insurance; and the many issues raised by named reporting, partner notification, and confidentiality. Almost 20 years into the epidemic, these issues remain serious and most often have not been resolved. In the 1990s, however, there was increased understanding of the importance of human rights as a factor in determining people's vulnerability to HIV infection and their consequent risk of acquiring HIV infection and their chances of accessing appropriate care and support. And most recently, human rights have also come to be understood to be directly relevant to every element of the risk/vulnerability paradigm. Gruskin and Tarantola identify three situations and three levels of governmental obligations that should be considered when identifying the specific needs and related rights of individuals in the context of HIV/AIDS. They conclude that policymakers, program managers, and service providers must become more comfortable using human rights norms and standards to guide and limit government action in all matters affecting the response to HIV/AIDS; and that those involved in HIV/AIDS advocacy must become more familiar with the practicalities of using international human rights law when they strive to hold governments accountable.

  1. Helping street kids cope with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, M

    1993-05-01

    In Brazil, more than 35,000 people have been diagnosed as having AIDS and 425,000 of the country's 150 million population are HIV seropositive. HIV infections continue to take place through infections in the blood supply and ongoing risky behavior associated with sexual relations and IV drug use. A marked lack of knowledge, prejudices and public myths persist about AIDS and despite the continued tide of HIV infection, Brazilians have been reluctant to shed the notion that AIDS is the problem of only discrete risk groups such as homosexuals and drug addicts. Few have changed their sexual behavior or use condoms regularly. Heterosexuals, however, especially women, are the fastest growing group of people with AIDS; 1 of every 6 Brazilians infected with HIV are women. In response, the health ministry has mounted an aggressive STD program which operates regionally in almost all 27 Brazilian states. Many nonprofit organizations have also risen to the challenge of AIDS and HIV infection, and reach out to various target audiences. BEMFAM, for example the major nonprofit family planning agency in Brazil, has become a leader in AIDS prevention. For the first time since its creation in 1965, the group distributed more condoms than oral contraceptive packages in 1992; 15.6 million and 2.9 million, respectively. SOS Crianca is another organization fighting against HIV and AIDS in Brazil. It has sent psychologists and social workers to plazas, alleys, and subway stations where street youths congregate to distribute condoms, counsel male and female prostitutes, educate them about their rights as minors, provide educational games to increase consciousness about health, and work to improve self-esteem.

  2. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... medical treatment. (c) VA will furnish needed hearing aids to those veterans who have service-connected... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  3. 46 CFR 28.210 - First aid equipment and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid equipment and training. 28.210 Section 28.210....210 First aid equipment and training. (a) Each vessel must have on board a complete first aid manual... location. (b) First aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) course certification. Certification in...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.23 - First aid and medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and medical attention. 1926.23 Section 1926.23... Provisions § 1926.23 First aid and medical attention. First aid services and provisions for medical care... prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained in...

  5. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid measures...

  6. Suggested Curriculum for Distance Vision Training with Optical Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William; Vopata, Alvin

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a sequential training curriculum in the use of telescopic visual aids. The curriculum covers 29 topics, including aid maintenance, holding aid properly, focusing, scanning, target location, tracking, aid use for city bus travel, in a shopping center, and in a fast food type restaurant. (Author/SBH)

  7. Journalists\\' Knowledge of AIDS and Attitude to Persons Living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study surveyed 254 journalists from the seven media organisations in Ibadan, Nigeria, to assess their knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), attitude to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) and reports of AIDS-related issues. The journalists\\' overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 10.6 out of 14 ...

  8. The Disposition of AIDS Imagery in "New York Times" Obituaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, A. Odasuo

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 100 AIDS death obituaries indicates imageries reflect much about American society, such as attitudes toward homosexuality, attitudes toward AIDS, and understanding of linkages between sexual practices and AIDS. Analysis suggests construction of AIDS obituaries may be manifestations of sociopolitical structure and a consequence of bias…

  9. Using a Shape Model in the Design of Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Nielsen, Claus; Laugesen, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Today the design of custom completely-in-the-canal hearing aids is a manual process and therefore there is a variation in the quality of the finished hearing aids. Especially the placement of the so-called faceplate on the hearing aid strongly influences the size and shape of the hearing aid. Since...

  10. Apples to Apples: A Financial Aid Reporting Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Ronald Gage; Hermsen, Al

    2002-01-01

    Asserting that confusion about the treatment of merit-based or categorically-based aid has revealed the need for a generalized financial aid reporting methodology, suggests a procedure for financial aid reporting that recognizes differing treatment of need-based aid before and after awarding. Offers general information about the theoretical…

  11. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS... Private aids to navigation. See § 67.15-10(b) for review of applications respecting private aids to...

  12. Evolution of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwers, L.; Pruyt, E.; Hens, L.; Brans, J.p.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics model to study the spread of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. The HIV/AIDS model includes important feedback mechanisms of the spread of HIV/AIDS, and partly explains the dynamics of the epidemic in a representative Southern African country. The HIV/AIDS model

  13. Trajectories of Japanese and South Korean Environmental Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Müller, Anders Riel

    2014-01-01

    Environmental aid has become a major component of development aid. We analyzed the contingent characters of environmental aid of Japan and South Korea using the definition of Williams, which regards aid policy as donor driven and autobiographical of the donor agencies and societies from which the...

  14. 38 CFR 17.194 - Aid for domiciliary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aid for domiciliary care... Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.194 Aid for domiciliary care. Aid may be paid to the designated State official for domiciliary care furnished in a recognized State home for any...

  15. Paradoxes and Prospects: Moving beyond the Study of Foreign Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Steve Klees tells two stories about foreign aid. The first is that foreign aid does not "work" to alleviate world poverty, no matter whether one takes a neo-Marxist or liberal approach to understanding it. Aid is more about self-interest and geopolitics than anything else--at best it is a form of…

  16. Lesotho's footballers join the fight against AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under Lesotho's traditional HIV/AIDS program, church organizations did outreach work with high risk groups and medical personnel were trained in the care of AIDS patients. Then in 1994 an innovative strategy was introduced: the Footballers Against AIDS campaign. CARE Lesotho enlisted footballers to speak to youth, fans, and the general community about AIDS. An educational football theme comic has also been developed. League matches are designated as HIV/AIDS awareness matches and the players use the opportunity to reach a large audience with information, education, and communication materials. The players have significantly changed their sexual behavior as a result of participating in the program. The first reported case of AIDS in Lesotho occurred in 1986. In June 1993 there were 294 reported cases and by May 1995 there were 580 reported cases. Recent HIV sentinel surveys show that teenage pregnancy is increasing at dramatic rates from 6.9% of antenatal clinic attenders in 1992 to 20.1% in 1993 and that many of the young girls have HIV. Among clinic patients under 24 years of age who were part of the survey, 12% were HIV positive. This age group constituted 58.2% of all HIV-positive people reported in the survey. Because of Lesotho's proximity to South Africa's gold, diamond, and coal mines, Lesotho's work force is very mobile. Between 60% and 70% of men work in the mines most of the year, which is another factor that facilitates the spread of HIV. The National AIDS Prevention and Control Program has recently initiated a peer education program working with secondary school youth for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS. CARE will soon begin expanding its sports program. Athletes from many other sports will work with secondary school youth. In addition, educational videos will be produced in the local language. Football-health camps and interschool sporting competitions for secondary school youth will be organized by HIV/AIDS

  17. AIDS Knowledge and HIV Stigma among Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to assess the level of AIDS knowledge and its relationship with personal stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among children living in communities of high HIV prevalence in rural China. The data were collected in 2009 from 118 orphanage orphans (children who had lost both of their parents to HIV and…

  18. Language Planning and Development Aid: The (In)Visibility of Language in Development Aid Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Benson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Despite the essential role of local, regional, national and international languages in human development, there is little reference to language planning in development aid discourse. Beginning with definitions of development aid and language planning, the paper examines how the two were linked in pre- and post-colonial times, showing how language…

  19. Who Benefits from Student Aid? The Economic Incidence of Tax-Based Federal Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Federal benefit programs, including federal student aid, are designed to aid targeted populations. Behavioral responses to these programs may alter the incidence of their benefits, a possibility that receives less attention in the literature compared to tax incidence. I demonstrate the importance of benefit incidence analysis by showing that the…

  20. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Abrams, Donald; Pradier, Christian; Weber, Rainer; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Kirk, Ole; Law, Matthew; de Wit, Stephane; Friis-Møller, Nina; Phillips, Andrew N.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Lundgren, Jens D.; Collins, S.; Loeliger, E.; Tressler, R.; Weller, I.; Friis-Møller, N.; Worm, S. W.; Sabin, C. A.; Sjøl, A.; Lundgren, J. D.; Sawitz, A.; Rickenbach, M.; Pezzotti, P.; Krum, E.; Gras, L.; Balestre, E.; Sundström, A.; Poll, B.; Fontas, E.; Torres, F.; Petoumenos, K.; Kjaer, J.; de Wolf, F.; Zaheri, S.; Bronsveld, W.; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M. E.; Prins, J. M.; Bos, J. C.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; van Leth, F. C.; Lowe, S. H.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Pogány, K.; van der Poll, T.; Ruys, T. A.; Sankatsing, Steingrover R.; van Twillert, G.; van der Valk, M.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; van Eeden, A.; ten Veen, J. H.; van Dam, P. S.; Roos, J. C.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Weigel, H. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Veenstra, J.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Perenboom, R. M.; Rijkeboer, A.; van Vonderen, M.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J.; van Leusen, R.; Vriesendorp, R.; Jeurissen, F. J. F.; Kauffmann, R. H.; Koger, E. L. W.; Bravenboer, B.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Sprenger, H. G.; Miesen, W. M. A. J.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; ten Kate, R. W.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Polee, M.; Kroon, F. P.; van den Broek, A. N.; van Dissel, J. T.; Schippers, E. F.; Schreij, G.; van de Geest, S.; Verbon, A.; Koopmans, P. P.; Keuter, M.; Post, F.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; van der Ende, M. E.; Gyssens, I. C.; van der Feltz, M.; den Hollander, J. G.; de Marie, S.; Nouwen, J. L.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; de Vries, T. E. M. S.; Juttmann, J. R.; van de Heul, C.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; St Elisabeth, Schneider M. M. E.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Borleffs, J. C. C.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Schouten, I.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Blok, W. L.; Tanis, A. A.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Salamon, R.; Beylot, J.; Dupon, M.; Le Bras, M.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Dabis, F.; Chêne, G.; Jacqmin-Gadda, H.; Thiébaut, R.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Lavignolle, V.; Blaizeau, M. J.; Decoin, M.; Formaggio, A. M.; Delveaux, S.; Labarerre, S.; Uwamaliya, B.; Vimard, E.; Merchadou, L.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Dutoit, D.; Pereira, F.; Boulant, B.; Morlat, P.; Bernard, N.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Coadou, B.; Gelie, P.; Jaubert, D.; Nouts, C.; Lacoste, D.; Dutronc, H.; Cipriano, G.; Lafarie, S.; Chossat, I.; Lacut, J. Y.; Leng, B.; Mercié, P.; Viallard, J. F.; Faure, I.; Rispal, P.; Cipriano, C.; Tchamgoué, S.; Djossou, F.; Malvy, D.; Pivetaud, J. P.; Chambon, D.; de La Taille, C.; Galperine, T.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Beylot, C.; Doutre, M. S.; Bezian, J. H.; Moreau, J. F.; Taupin, J. L.; Conri, C.; Constans, J.; Couzigou, P.; Castera, L.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M. E.; Masquelier, B.; Pellegrin, I.; Trimoulet, P.; Moreau, F.; Mestre, C.; Series, C.; Taytard, A.; Law, M.; Glenday, K.; Anderson, J.; Cortissos, P.; Mijch, A.; Watson, K.; Roth, N.; Nicolson, J.; Bloch, M.; Agrawal, S.; Franic, T.; Baker, D.; Vale, R.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Lacey, M.; Hesse, K.; Chuah, J.; Lester, D.; Fankhauser, W.; Mallal, S.; Forsdyke, C.; Bulgannawar, S.; Calvo, G.; Mateu, S.; Domingo, P.; Sambeat, M. A.; Gatell, J.; del Cacho, E.; Cadafalch, J.; Fuster, M.; Codina, C.; Sirera, G.; Vaqué, A.; Clumeck, N.; de Wit, S.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Payen, M. C.; van Laethem, Y.; Neaton, J.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W. M.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; Abrams, D. I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, R. L.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Kirk, O.; Olsen, C. H.; Mocroft, A.; Phillips, A. N.; Vetter, N.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Colebunders, R.; Machala, L.; Rozsypal, H.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Benfield, T.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A. B. E.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Zilmer, K.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J. P.; Girard, P.-M.; Saint-Marc, T.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dietrich, M.; Manegold, C.; van Lunzen, J.; Stellbrink, H.-J.; Staszewski, S.; Bieckel, M.; Goebel, F. D.; Fätkenheuer, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R. E.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Sambatakou, H.; Perdios, J.; Panos, G.; Filandras, A.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Burke, M.; Turner, D.; Pollack, S.; Hassoun, J.; Sthoeger, Z.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Chiesi, A.; Arici, C.; Pristerá, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Esposito, R.; Bedini, A.; Chirianni, A.; Montesarchio, E.; Vullo, V.; Santopadre, P.; Narciso, P.; Antinori, A.; Franci, P.; Zaccarelli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Castagna, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Viksna, L.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Bruun, J.; Maeland, A.; Ormaasen, V.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Horban, A.; Prokopowicz, D.; Wiercinska-Drapalo, A.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Pynka, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Antunes, F.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Duiculescu, D.; Babes, V.; Streinu-Cercel, A.; Vinogradova, E.; Rakhmanova, A.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokrás, M.; Staneková, D.; González-Lahoz, J.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; García-Benayas, T.; Martin-Carbonero, L.; Soriano, V.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Conejero, J.; Ruiz, L.; Tural, C.; Gatell, J. M.; Miró, J. M.; Zamora, L.; Blaxhult, A.; Karlsson, A.; Pehrson, P.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Francioli, P.; Telenti, A.; Hirschel, B.; Soravia-Dunand, V.; Furrer, H.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Fisher, M.; Brettle, R.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A. M.; Mercey, D.; Murphy, M.; Johnson, M. A.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Morfeldt, L.; Thulin, G.; Akerlund, B.; Koppel, K.; Flamholc, L.; Håkangård, C.; Ammassari, A.; Maggiolo, F.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Capobianchi, M.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; de Luca, A.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; Moroni, M.; Carosi, G.; Cauda, R.; Chiodo, F.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Panebianco, R.; Pastore, G.; Perno, C. F.; Montroni, M.; Scalise, G.; Costantini, A.; Riva, A.; Tirelli, U.; Martellotta, F.; Ladisa, N.; Suter, F.; Colangeli, V.; Fiorini, C.; Cristini, G.; Minardi, C.; Bertelli, D.; Quirino, T.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Pizzigallo, E.; D'Alessandro, M.; Carnevale, G.; Zoncada, A.; Ghinelli, F.; Sighinolfi, L.; Leoncini, F.; Pozzi, M.; Grisorio, B.; Ferrara, S.; Pagano, G.; Cassola, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Soscia, F.; Tacconi, L.; Orani, A.; Perini, P.; Tommasi, D.; Congedo, P.; Chiodera, F.; Castelli, P.; Rizzardini, G.; Caggese, L.; Galli, A.; Merli, S.; Pastecchia, C.; Moioli, M. C.; Gori, A.; Cagni, S.; Abrescia, N.; Izzo, C. M.; de Marco, M.; Viglietti, R.; Manzillo, E.; Ferrari, C.; Pizzaferri, P.; Filice, G.; Bruno, R.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Arlotti, M.; Ortolani, P.; Andreoni, M.; Antonucci, G.; Tozzi, V.; Acinapura, R.; de Longis, P.; Trotta, M. P.; Lichtner, M.; Carletti, F.; Mura, M. C.; Mannazzu, M.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Raise, E.; Ebo, F.; Pellizzer, G.; Buonfrate, D.; Caissotti, C.; Dellamonica, P.; Bentz, L.; Bernard, E.; de Salvador-Guillouet, F.; Durant, J.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Perbost, I.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P. M.; Vandenbos, F.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.; Bürgisser, Ph; Cattacin, S.; Cavassini, M.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Erb, P.; Fischer, M.; Flepp, M.; Fontana, A.; Furrer, H. J.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Kaiser, L.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, Th; Lauper, U.; Opravil, M.; Paccaud, F.; Pantaleo, G.; Perrin, L.; Piffaretti, J.-C.; Schmid, C. Rudin P.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Yerly, S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate deaths from AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) in the D:A:D Study and to investigate the relationship between these deaths and immunodeficiency. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients (23 437) were followed prospectively

  1. Financial Aid Tipping Points: An Analysis of Aid and Academic Achievement at a California Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…

  2. Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase Financial Aid Renewal and Sophomore Year Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2013-01-01

    While considerable effort has been invested to increase FAFSA completion among high school seniors, there has been much less investment to ensure that college freshmen re-apply for financial aid. Text messaging is a promising approach to inform students of important stages in the financial aid re-application process and to connect them to…

  3. Aligning Aid with Enrollment: Interim Findings on Aid Like a Paycheck. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Evan; Cerna, Oscar; Cullinan, Dan; Baldiga, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Evidence shows that financial aid increases college enrollment. For many students at low-cost community colleges, this aid is intended to cover more than tuition and fees; after those are paid, the remainder is paid out, or "refunded," to students to help with their living expenses while they are enrolled in school. Often, however, the…

  4. AIDS: A theological and pastoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Miller

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated A.I.D.S. crisis in Southern Africa presents an opportunity for the Christian church to respond positively rather than merely to react negatively. This requires both a theological understanding and a pastoral response. Theologically, A.I.D.S. may be seen as an object lesson in the interrelation of natural, personal and historical evil. Although both the Old Testament and the New Testament warn against a simplistic doctrine of individual retribution, there are also several different ways in which the A.I.D.S. crisis may indeed in some particular cases be seen as a judgement of God while in other cases it is rather a horrifying event. Other relevant issues include matters relating to justification and sanctification and the wider ethical issues of discrimination and human rights, of "public" and "private" morality. The Church's pastoral response should include both "corrective" education to remove irrational and fearful ignorance and also "preventative" education to encourage a monogamous lifestyle. Pastoral ministry must be "redemptive", appropriate to the varying needs of persons with A.I.D.S., of their families and friends and of professional care-providers. The Church cannot ignore the A.I.D.S. crisis, but must respond to it both Biblically and pastorally.

  5. Sounding the alarm. AIDS update no. 403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-17

    When the first international AIDS conference in Asia opened in Yokohama last week, the world's experts had bleak news. They said 10 million Asians could be carrying the AIDS virus by the end of the century--25%-30% of the global total. Some 250,000 people in the region are suffering from full-blown AIDS, with another 2 million infected by the virus. In Thailand, the sex industry is a key factor, said Prayura Kunasol, an official of the country's Ministry of Public Health. Three-quarters of all Thai cases--8580 AIDS victims and 600,000 infected patients--are linked to sexual activity. Widespread ignorance also fuels the epidemic, especially in China and India, according to participants in a Manila meeting organized by the Asian Development Bank in early August. Though 91% of city folks in China had heard of AIDS, only about a quarter could tell correctly how it was transmitted and a mere 5% knew the symptoms. In India, eight out of ten men say they're aware of the disease. But six of ten housewives had never heard of it. While heterosexual sex is the leading means of transmission, intravenous drug use, transfusions of tainted blood and unsterilized medical equipment also pose problems. In Yokohama, Japanese Prime Minister Murayama Tomiichi told some 11,000 delegates and observers from 120 countries that Tokyo was ready to step up efforts to combat "a global problem confronting all humanity." full text

  6. Intelligent hearing aids: the next revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.

  7. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, P; Lundgren, J D; Kjaeldgaard, P; Holten-Anderson, W; Højlyng, N; Nielsen, J O; Gaub, J

    1991-02-02

    To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. 73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with AIDS related complex), developed cryptosporidiosis. Two further HIV negative subjects (one departmental secretary, one visiting relative) developed cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidia in stool samples, clinical symptoms, CD4 cell count, HIV antigen concentration, chemotherapeutic treatment. The source of the outbreak was identified as ice from an ice machine in the ward, contaminated by an incontinent, psychotic patient with cryptosporidiosis picking out ice for cold drinks. The mean incubation time was at least 13 days-that is, twice that in HIV-negative patients. Of the 18 patients with AIDS who developed cryptosporidiosis, five recovered, two were symptomless carriers, three died of unrelated causes, and eight died after prolonged diarrhoea. Among the 57 exposed HIV antibody positive inpatients (excluding two patients and the index case with cryptosporidiosis diagnosed elsewhere), significantly more of those who developed symptomatic cryptosporidiosis received oral sulphonamides than those who did not (91%, 10/11 v 48%, 21/44, p less than 0.05). The clinical and epidemiological findings indicate that infection was the consequence of very small inocula. Increased sensitivity to cryptosporidiosis may be an unrecognised side effect of oral sulphonamide treatment in patients with AIDS.

  8. AIDS in India: lessons for Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, A

    1996-01-01

    While no national serosurveillance data are available on India, 2,872,527 blood samples have been screened for various reasons. 45,866 of these samples tested positive for infection with HIV. In 38.3% of cases, HIV infection is thought to have occurred through heterosexual intercourse, 9.9% from receipt of infected blood products, 4.9% through IV drug use, and only 0.4% through homosexual relations. 17.3% are suspected cases and 28.3% fall into the "others" category. The author codirected a workshop on the socioeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS in India with the goal of sensitizing the corporate sector to the seriousness and magnitude of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the need for urgent action in India. 71% of workshop participants felt that AIDS would be a problem in the next 5 years for their company or organization. A surprising number of companies in India have dread disease insurance policies with usually generous benefits. However, as Indian corporations adopt a more profit-oriented approach and downsize, HIV/AIDS costs will increasingly be shifted to the state. Lessons learned from India's experience may help South Africa manage its HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  9. Satisfaction of Elderly Hearing Aid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Ribas, Angela; Almeida, Gleide; Luz, Idalina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The impact of auditory sensory deprivation in the life of an individual is enormous because it not only affects one's ability to properly understand auditory information, but also the way people relate to their environment and their culture. The monitoring of adult and elderly subjects with hearing loss is intended to minimize the difficulties and handicaps that occur as a consequence of this pathology. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods A clinical and experimental study involving 91 elderly hearing aid users. We used the questionnaire Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life to determine the degree of the satisfaction provided by hearing aids. We evaluated mean global score, subscales, as well as the variables time to use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Results Mean global score was 4.73, the score for Positive Effects 5.45, Negative Factors 3.2, demonstrating that they were satisfied; Services and Costs 5.98: very satisfied ; 3.65 Personal Image: dissatisfied. We observed statistically significant difference for the time of hearing aid use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Conclusion The SADL is a tool, simple and easy to apply and in this study we can demonstrate the high degree of satisfaction with the hearing aids by the majority of the sample collected, increasing with time of use and a greater degree of hearing loss.

  10. Cognitive hearing aids? Insights and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions and should consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established the relationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorable conditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of the working memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualization of hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aids is based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids.

  11. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-07

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. full text

  12. 78 FR 63990 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan White Program or RWHAP), requires that... evidence must include all of the following: a. HIV/AIDS care and treatment services inventories, including... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program...

  13. Investigating the Knowledge, Skills, and Tasks Required for Hearing Aid Management: Perspectives of Clinicians and Hearing Aid Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca J; Meyer, Carly J; Eikelboom, Robert H; Atlas, Marcus D

    2018-01-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify hearing aid owners' and clinicians' opinions of the knowledge, skills, and tasks required for hearing aid management and the importance of each of these to overall success with hearing aids. Concept mapping techniques were used to identify key themes, wherein participants generated, sorted, and rated the importance of statements in response to the question "What must hearing aid owners do in order to use, handle, manage, maintain, and care for their hearing aids?" Twenty-four hearing aid owners (56 to 91 years of age; 54.2% men, 45.8% women) and 22 clinicians (32 to 69 years of age; 9.1% men, 90.9% women) participated. Participants identified 111 unique items describing hearing aid management within 6 concepts: (a) "Daily Hearing Aid Use," (b) "Hearing Aid Maintenance and Repairs," (c) "Learning to Come to Terms with Hearing Aids," (d) "Communication Strategies," (e) "Working With Your Clinician," and (f) "Advanced Hearing Aid Knowledge." Clinicians' opinions of the importance of each statement varied only slightly from the opinions of the hearing aid owner group. Hearing aid owners indicated that all 6 concepts were of similar importance, whereas clinicians indicated that the concept "Advanced Hearing Aid Knowledge" was significantly less important than the other 5 concepts. The results highlight the magnitude of information and skill required to optimally manage hearing aids. Clinical recommendations are made to improve hearing aid handling education and skill acquisition.

  14. Estimating Effective Subsidy Rates of Student Aid Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey H. CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Every year millions of high school students and their parents in the US are asked to fill out complicated financial aid application forms. However, few studies have estimated the responsiveness of government financial aid schemes to changes in financial needs of the students. This paper identifies the effective subsidy rate (ESR) of student aid, as defined by the coefficient of financial needs in the regression of financial aid. The ESR measures the proportion of subsidy of student aid under ...

  15. Has aid made the Government of Indonesia lazy?

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Sugema; Anis Chowdhury

    2007-01-01

    This paper is aimed at assessing the effects of aid on fiscal behaviour in Indonesia. There are four main findings. First, the inflow of aid is driven primarily by the need to fill the fiscal gap; that is, aid is demand driven. Second, although project aid is by definition intended for development expenditures, it results in an increase in routine expenditure as well. This suggests that project aid is fungible: it creates extra resources available to increase non-discretionary spending. Third...

  16. The continued ageing of people with AIDS in Italy: recent trend from the national AIDS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camoni, Laura; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Boros, Stefano; Suligoi, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In industrialized countries, the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) caused a slow but substantial ageing of the AIDS epidemic mainly due to the longer survival of persons with HIV/AIDS which has turned HIV into a manageable, chronic disease. The number of older people with AIDS is growing in many European countries. We described the impact of AIDS among persons aged 50 years or more in Italy and compared the characteristics of these cases with those of persons diagnosed with AIDS at an age younger than 50. Methods. The source of data was the Italian AIDS Registry, from 1982 to 2011. We defined "older" persons those aged 50 years or more, and younger individuals those aged less than 50 years. We built two multivariate logistic regression models: the first one to identify factors associated with being older, and the second one to identify AIDS-defining diseases correlated with being older. Variables with a P value of AIDS cases, 10.5% were among persons older than 49 years. This proportion progressively increased from 0.0% in 1983 to 26.4% in 2011. Among older cases, the incidence of AIDS was 2.0 per 100 000 residents in 1996, then decreased to 1.4 per 100 000 in 2000 and levelled off around 1 per 100 000 residents until 2011. Compared to younger cases, older cases were more frequently males, Italians, diagnosed with AIDS in recent years, residing in Northern or Central Italy, non-injecting drug users, and late testers. Discussion. These findings stress the need for physicians to consider carefully the possibility of HIV infection among older individuals not to miss the opportunity to deliver prevention messages, offer HIV testing, and make an early diagnosis.

  17. The continued ageing of people with AIDS in Italy: recent trend from the national AIDS Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Camoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In industrialized countries, the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART caused a slow but substantial ageing of the AIDS epidemic mainly due to the longer survival of persons with HIV/AIDS which has turned HIV into a manageable, chronic disease. The number of older people with AIDS is growing in many European countries. We described the impact of AIDS among persons aged 50 years or more in Italy and compared the characteristics of these cases with those of persons diagnosed with AIDS at an age younger than 50. Methods. The source of data was the Italian AIDS Registry, from 1982 to 2011. We defined "older" persons those aged 50 years or more, and younger individuals those aged less than 50 years. We built two multivariate logistic regression models: the first one to identify factors associated with being older, and the second one to identify AIDS-defining diseases correlated with being older. Variables with a P value of < 0.05 were entered in the model. Results. Of the total AIDS cases, 10.5% were among persons older than 49 years. This proportion progressively increased from 0.0% in 1983 to 26.4% in 2011. Among older cases, the incidence of AIDS was 2.0 per 100 000 residents in 1996, then decreased to 1.4 per 100 000 in 2000 and levelled off around 1 per 100 000 residents until 2011. Compared to younger cases, older cases were more frequently males, Italians, diagnosed with AIDS in recent years, residing in Northern or Central Italy, non-injecting drug users, and late testers. Discussion. These findings stress the need for physicians to consider carefully the possibility of HIV infection among older individuals not to miss the opportunity to deliver prevention messages, offer HIV testing, and make an early diagnosis.

  18. Guidelines for Bystander First Aid 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jen Heng

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac life support is a form of first aid for cardiac emergencies. However, research and evidence in this field is lacking compared with other forms of first aid. Having identified the common emergencies that are encountered in the hospital, based on the available evidence, we have put together what could be an evidence-based approach to the first aid management of some of these common emergencies, viz. breathlessness, chest pain, allergies, stroke, heat injury, poisoning, unconsciousness, seizures, and trauma situations such as bleeding, wounds, contusions, head injury, burns and fractures. Educating the public is the key to developing a first responder bystander. These guidelines could become the basis for training of the public. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  19. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Pers, C; Aschow, C

    1991-01-01

    We estimate the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis in Danish AIDS patients and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy using the following criteria for acceptance of the diagnosis: either (1) the demonstration of Toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue or (2) one or more hypodense or ring......-enhancing lesions on computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan and a neurologic and CAT scan improvement in response to 2 weeks of treatment. From 1981 until July 1990 266 patients were diagnosed with AIDS at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen and 29 (11%) were treated, suspected for CNS toxoplasmosis. 17 patients had...... was 83% (10/12 patients) while among patients diagnosed in 1987 or earlier the accuracy was 41% (7/17 patients). Four patients were diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prior to the diagnosis of CNS toxoplasmosis, while among patients with toxoplasmosis as the AIDS-defining diagnosis, 3...

  20. Arms Trafficking: Aiding and Abetting Core Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zgaga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The provision of arms for the commission of crimes is one of the typical forms of aiding and abetting. This article discusses arms trafficking as a form of aiding and abetting the commission of core crimes. It opens with a discussion of aiding and abetting as a form of complicity in the Rome Statute and the case law of the International Criminal Court. Furthermore, the article also analyses the regulation of legal arms trafficking in international and European law. Accordingly, the international criminal law further regulates illegal arms trafficking as an international crime and as complicity to core crimes. Therefore, the article first presents arms trafficking as an international crime and subsequently discusses arms trafficking as complicity in core crimes. The article concludes with a discussion on the regulation of arms trafficking in Slovene law, beginning with legal arms trafficking according to the Firearms Act-1 and ending with illegal arms trafficking as a crime.

  1. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A

    1996-01-01

    .6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p...... for intravenous drug users than for homosexual men (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence limits 0.22-0.54) and for women compared with men (RR 0.43 (0.21-0.87)). The risk was higher in North Europe than in South and Central Europe. In a multivariate analysis only transmission category remained a significant...... predictor for the development of cryptosporidiosis. CONCLUSION: The development of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients may be associated with sexual risk behaviour....

  2. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Kjaeldgaard, P

    1991-01-01

    MEASURES--Cryptosporidia in stool samples, clinical symptoms, CD4 cell count, HIV antigen concentration, chemotherapeutic treatment. RESULTS--The source of the outbreak was identified as ice from an ice machine in the ward, contaminated by an incontinent, psychotic patient with cryptosporidiosis picking......OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects...... admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with AIDS related complex), developed cryptosporidiosis. Two further HIV negative subjects (one departmental secretary, one visiting relative) developed cryptosporidiosis. MAIN OUTCOME...

  3. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Pers, C; Aschow, C

    1991-01-01

    We estimate the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis in Danish AIDS patients and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy using the following criteria for acceptance of the diagnosis: either (1) the demonstration of Toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue or (2) one or more hypodense or ring......-enhancing lesions on computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan and a neurologic and CAT scan improvement in response to 2 weeks of treatment. From 1981 until July 1990 266 patients were diagnosed with AIDS at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen and 29 (11%) were treated, suspected for CNS toxoplasmosis. 17 patients had...... the diagnosis confirmed but since 5 patients, who were never treated, were diagnosed at autopsy, the overall cumulated incidence was 8% (22/266 patients). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 59% (17/29 patients) showing some changes over time. Among patients diagnosed with AIDS in 1988 or later, the accuracy...

  4. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  5. Humanized mice for HIV and AIDS research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor Garcia, J

    2016-08-01

    HIV has a very limited species tropism that prevents the use of most conventional small animal models for AIDS research. The in vivo analysis of HIV/AIDS has benefited extensively from novel chimeric animal models that accurately recapitulate key aspects of the human condition. Specifically, immunodeficient mice that are systemically repopulated with human hematolymphoid cells offer a viable alternative for the study of a multitude of highly relevant aspects of HIV replication, pathogenesis, therapy, transmission, prevention, and eradication. This article summarizes some of the multiple contributions that humanized mouse models of HIV infection have made to the field of AIDS research. These models have proven to be highly informative and hold great potential for accelerating multiple aspects of HIV research in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Elections to the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Every two years, according to Article 6 of the Regulations of the Mutual Aid Fund, the Committee of the Mutual Aid Fund must renew one third of its membership. This year three members are outgoing. Of these three, two will stand again and one will not.   Candidates should be ready to give approximately two hours a month during working time to the Fund whose aim is to assist colleagues in financial difficulties. We invite applications from CERN Staff who wish to stand for election as a member of the CERN Mutual Aid Fund to send in their application before 17 June 2016, by email to the Fund’s President, Connie Potter (connie.potter@cern.ch).

  7. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Christopher J

    2011-08-26

    HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity.

  8. HIV/AIDS in prisons: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    In a report released on 20 November 2002, entitled Action on HIV/AIDS in Prisons: Too Little, Too Late--A Report Card, the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network concluded that despite repeated studies and nearly ten years of recommendations for urgent and pragmatic action, the response of Canadian governments to HIV/AIDS, HCV, and injection drug use in prisons remains inadequate. Only a few weeks later, the House of Commons Special Committee on Non-Medical Use of Drugs released its report, which contained a number of recommendations to the Correctional Service of Canada. Although the Committee avoided talking about needle exchange programs in prisons, it did recommend them! Meanwhile, in Ireland, not even condoms or bleach are provided.

  9. Consultation on AIDS and the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The 1988 Consultation on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Workplace, organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), addressed 3 issues: 1) risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the workplace, 2) the response of businesses and workers to the AIDS epidemic, and 3) use of the workplace for AIDS education. There is no evidence to suggest that HIV can be transmitted by casual, person-to-person contact in the workplace. The central policy issue for businesses concerns protection of the human rights of workers with HIV infection. Most workers with HIV/AIDS want to continue working as long as they are able to, and they should be enabled to contribute their creativity and productivity in a supportive occupational setting. Consistent policies and procedures should be developed at national and enterprise levels before HIV-related questions arise in the workplace. Such policies should be communicated to all concerned, continually reviewed in the light of scientific and epidemiologic evidence, monitored for their successful implementation, and evaluated for their effectiveness. Pre-employment HIV/AIDS screening, whether for assessment of fitness to work or for insurance purposes, should not be required and raises serious concerns about discrimination. Moreover, there should be no obligation on the worker's part to inform his or her employer if HIV infection develops. Information and educational activities at the workplace are essential to create the climate of collective responsibility and mutual understanding required to protect individuals with HIV or AIDS from stigmatization and discrimination by co-workers, employers or clients, and unions.

  10. AIDS and the cycle of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evian, C

    1993-01-01

    The comments presented are a summary from a presentation on poverty and AIDS made at the CHASA conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. AIDS is a complex and malignant disease in epidemic proportions; poverty and AIDS are linked with biological features such as a long, silent, latent period as HIV infection, the paralysis of the bodies immune system. The prevention of natural or herd immunity, the vertical perinatal transmission, and the links with sexually transmitted diseases. South Africa has been one of the last to be affected by AIDS/HIV. The impact is expected to be devastating because of the history of apartheid and its destructive impact on people and traditions of family life, and the contribution to poverty. The industrial base promotes migration, mobility, and exploitation. Leaving home breaks down the communities of departure and places the migrant in a vulnerable position as a nobody. The consequence of this status is multipartner sexual practices and prostitution as a means of economic support. Gender inequalities are further exacerbated by family disruption and instability. Women become less able to take control over their own sexual lives. The elite control scarce resources and wealth and have ample opportunity to exploit the poor. The poor also have less access to health care and condoms, and thus treatment of sexually transmitted diseases or prevention of HIV infections. Poor educational experiences can prevent their understanding of the issues, if they reach a health clinic. The silent nature of AIDS transmission is a difficult concept to grasp. Leisure and entertainment opportunities are limited, which leaves alcohol and sex as the preferred means of attaining pleasure, comfort, and intimacy. Urban violence and crime breed fatalism and despondency, which hurts prevention effort. AIDS also increases poverty through job loss, rejection, and discrimination.

  11. [Hearing aids rehabilitation: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Nunes, Rui; Migueis, António Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional characteristic of heari ng as a neurosensory loss can be associated with distortions in the axes of intensity, frequency and also temporal. This type of distortions can be isolated or combined, with many functional characteristics which complicate the fixing of the hearing aid and makes its result extremely variable. The ENT specialist in charge of the prescription of the hearing aid must know the various types of available devices, its indications and limitations. The different current hearing aids by acoustic stimulation are described, behind the ear, intra-auricular, intra-canal, micro-behind the ear with receiver in the canal (RIC). Some clinical and audiometric elements make it possible to envisage the difficulty of such equipment as the air bone gap, the dynamic, the frequential shift, the hearing discrimination. Concerning the hearing aid itself, the amplifier represents the fundamental part allowing the compensation of the quatitative loss; it presents however many possibilities of adaptation (multifrequential compression, the adaptive directionnality coming from the directional microphones, the suppression of the acoustic feedback, the increase of the bandwidth and software of statistical analysis of environmental acoustics as well as procedures of decision). Finally software of treatment of the signal like the software of suppression of acoustic feedback, identification of the speech and noise, of adaptive directionality, of measurement of the hearing thresholds (which is possible on certain prosthesis for each channel) refine the adjustment of the hearing aid. The knowledge of these technological possibilities currently available, like their indications and limitations, allows the ENT specialist to get an active role in the process of acceptation of the hearing aid.

  12. HIV / AIDS, STDs and the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, H

    1995-01-01

    Even though the workplace is ideal for promoting HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) prevention to benefit workers and employers, many workplaces are not convinced that they should be involved in HIV/AIDS and STD education, prevention, and support. They do not realize that time and money spent on health programs save them money. Perhaps they do not feel obligated to protect the health of their employees. The AIDS epidemic adversely affects society and the economy at both the macro and micro level. AIDS tends to strike the productive age group, thereby seriously affecting the workplace. In many Sub-Saharan African countries, at least 20% of the urban workforce may be infected with HIV. Persons living with HIV include top management, skilled professionals, general hands, and farm laborers. HIV/AIDS costs for formal employment are assumed through reduced productivity; increased costs of occupational benefits and social security measures; loss of skilled labor, professionals, and managerial expertise as well as the experience among workers; increased costs of training and recruitment; and low morale from stigmatization, discrimination, and subsequent industrial relation problems. Needed are comprehensive HIV/AIDS and STD workplace programs that ensure the rights of persons with HIV and compassionate treatment of these persons. Trade union or other labor representatives, management, and appropriate government departments should work together and build on existing health legislation and policy to bring about effective negotiation and policy development concerning AIDS and employment. Training of peer educators, support services (counseling, STD referral and/or treatment), community action, management commitment, monitoring and evaluation, and supportive workplace conditions make for effective comprehensive workplace programs. Successful programs operate in fishing villages in Tanzania, tea plantations in India, the University of Papua New Guinea, and Ugandan army

  13. Sida, souffrance et relation d'aide...

    OpenAIRE

    Fellay, Virginie; Schoepf, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Cette étude s’inscrit dans le cadre de l’obtention de mon diplôme d’infirmière. Il s’agit d’une recherche initiale de type exploratoire pour comprendre comment le soignant accompagne le séropositif en souffrance tout en gérant la relation d’aide pour lui apporter un soutien efficace. Ce mémoire identifie les moyens de gestion de la relation d’aide des infirmiers face aux séropositifs en souffrance dans un contexte de soins chroniques. L’étude comprend cinq professionnels qui exercent dans un ...

  14. Wonderwomen and superman take on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Superbarrio is the name given to the folk hero and spokesperson of the Asamblea de Barrios--a democratic assembly of Mexico City's poorer neighborhoods. Dressed like Batman, he is often the central figure in mass demonstrations for better living conditions. Now he is appearing with Superwoman in the Assembly's campaign against AIDS. In February 1990, Superbarrio spoke at the opening of a community AIDS information center, set up and run by women members of the Assembly. A brigade of volunteer educators handed out leaflets and condoms in the surrounding streets and underground stations. full text

  15. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters.".  Created: 12/30/2010 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/13/2011.

  16. The criminal legal aid in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Changhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.965The subject of the article is the criminal legal aid in China.The main goal of this work is to introduce the current state of legal aid in criminal cases in China to Russian scholars and legal professionals.Results. Criminal Legal Aid in China appeared relatively recently, and in the last years of its operation was marked by a number of achievements and some problems. Legal assistance in criminal cases is an integral part of the institute of legal aid in China and plays an invalu-able role in ensuring due process, maintaining the balance between prosecution and de-fense, as well as in guaranteeing human rights. This study contains a general description of the current state of criminal legal aid in China, highlights inherent problems of this institu-tion and describes prospects of its development. This work is based on the Criminal Proce-dure Code of the PRC in version of 2013 year, and provides analysis of the Russian and Chi-nese special literature, Chinese law and practice, as well as the official Chinese statistics. The scope of legal assistance in criminal cases is extremely narrow, the funding is not enough, and the quality leaves much to be desired. These and other shortcomings already have become obstacles to the development of the Chinese criminal procedure law. Despite of a number of changes to the legal regulation of the institute in the 2013 edition of the PRC Criminal Procedure Code, a number of issues remained unresolved.Conclusions. The existing difficulties can be overcame by expanding the scope of legal aid, increase in funding and introduction of public defenders. To increase funding in the budgets proposed to establish minimum public funding of legal aid, to attract non-governmental and international funding, to strengthen control and to ensure openness and transparency of spending. To improve the quality of legal aid PRC government should rise up compensations for lawyers, introduce the institution of public

  17. Machine Learning for Computer-aided Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Hanaoka, Shohei; Miki, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Ootomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms are to analyze any dataset to extract data-driven model, prediction rule, or decision rule from the dataset. Various machine learning algorithms are now used to develop high-performance medical image processing systems such as computer-aided detection (CADe) system which detects clinically significant objects from medical images and computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system which quantifies malignancy of manually or automatically detected clinical objects. In this paper, we introduce some applications of machine learning algorithms to the development of medical image processing system.

  18. Mathematical and statistical approaches to AIDS epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The 18 research articles of this volume discuss the major themes that have emerged from mathematical and statistical research in the epidemiology of HIV. The opening paper reviews important recent contributions. Five sections follow: Statistical Methodology and Forecasting, Infectivity and the HIV, Heterogeneity and HIV Transmission Dynamics, Social Dynamics and AIDS, and The Immune System and The HIV. In each, leading experts in AIDS epidemiology present the recent results. Some address the role of variable infectivity, heterogeneous mixing, and long periods of infectiousness in the dynamics of HIV; others concentrate on parameter estimation and short-term forecasting. The last section looks at the interaction between the HIV and the immune system.

  19. College students' attitudes and knowledge of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, T

    1993-10-01

    To determine attitudes and knowledge of AIDS, a survey was conducted among students at the Gondar College of Medical Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia. One hundred sixty four new incoming students (115 males, 49 females) in all departments in 1990-91 academic year provided information. The results reveal that 40% of the students have experienced sexual intercourse. Their knowledge of AIDS was adequate and comparable with other college and high school students, but the majority of those who practice sex do not use condoms and a fifth have had a sexual contact with a high risk individual.

  20. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show that the th......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...

  1. Cerebral atrophy in AIDS: a stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oster, S; Christoffersen, P; Gundersen, H J

    1993-01-01

    Stereological estimates of mean volumes, surface areas, and cortical thicknesses were obtained on formalin-fixed brains from 19 men with AIDS and 19 controls. Volumes of neocortex, white matter, central brain nuclei, ventricles and archicortex were estimated using point counting and Cavalieri......'s unbiased principle for volume estimation. In AIDS, the mean volume of neocortex was reduced by 11%, and that of the central brain nuclei by 18%. Mean ventricular volume was increased by 55%. Mean neocortical thickness was reduced by 12%. The mean volume of white matter was reduced by 13%. The findings in 6...

  2. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2012-05-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementing HIV/AIDS education: impact of teachers' training on HIV/AIDS education in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Oliveras, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS education is a common and well-proven intervention strategy for providing information on HIV/AIDS to young people. However, lack of skills among teachers for imparting sensitive information to students can lead to programme failure in terms of achieving goals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers to identify the factors that support or hinder their role in HIV/AIDS education. A self-administered questionnaire was used for interviewing teachers from randomly-selected schools in two adjacent districts in Bangladesh. Based on exposure to teachers' training, the districts were divided into control and intervention areas and the teachers' ability, skill, and their participation in HIV/AIDS education were compared between the districts. Trained teachers in the intervention schools were more likely to participate, less likely to face difficulties, and more likely to use interactive teaching methods in HIV/ AIDS classes compared to the controls who did not receive any training. Inadequate allocation of time for conducting the HIV/AIDS class was found to be barriers to HIV/AIDS education that suggest the need to provide teachers with more support in terms of training and logistics.

  4. Africa's children and AIDS -- a continent in crisis. The devastation of the HIV / AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is having a major impact upon child health. By mid-1996, UNAIDS estimated that worldwide there were 3 million HIV infections in children. Accordingly, infant mortality rates (IMRs) have increased due to AIDS, reversing declines which had been occurring in many countries over the last few decades. The IMR in 1996 would have been 51.7 per 1000 without AIDS; it is instead 72.8 with AIDS, 40% higher than expected. IMR is 30% higher than expected in Zambia and almost 20% higher in Kenya and Uganda. IMRs should grow considerably during the next decade as the epidemic spreads. Two-thirds of AIDS deaths among children occur among those aged 1-4 years, with countries in southern Africa being the most affected. With regard to life expectancy, many years of life will be lost due to the AIDS epidemic. AIDS has already led to widespread and marked reductions in life expectancy, with life expectancy for females being lower than that for males because women are infected with HIV and die at younger ages than men. Lower life expectancy will lead to an increase in the proportion of orphaned children. It is likely that at least 30 million children are living with HIV-positive parents, at risk of being orphaned in the next few years. The implications of the growing proportions of orphans and challenges in child health are considered.

  5. Trends in AIDS incidence and AIDS-related mortality in British Columbia between 1981 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Viviane D.; Lourenço, Lillian; Yip, Benita; Hogg, Robert S.; Phillips, Peter; Montaner, Julio S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can markedly decrease the risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and of premature mortality. We aimed to characterize the trends between 1981 and 2013 in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and in the number AIDS-related deaths in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods We included data of 3550 HIV-positive individuals, aged 19 years or older, from different administrative databases in BC. We estimated the relative risk of developing an ADI over time using a Negative Binomial model, and we investigated trends in the percentage of all deaths associated with AIDS using generalized additive models. Findings The number of ADIs has decreased dramatically to its lowest level in 2013. The peak of the AIDS epidemic in BC happened in 1994 with 696 ADIs being reported (rate 42 ADIs per 100 person-years). Since 1997, the number of ADIs decreased from 253 (rate 7 per 100 person-years) to 84 cases in 2013 (rate 1 per 100 person-years) (p-value equals to zero for the trend in the number of ADIs). We have also shown that out of 22 ADIs considered, only PCP maintained its prominent ranking (albeit with much reduced overall prevalence). Finally, we observed that over time very few deaths were related to AIDS-related causes, especially in the most recent years. Interpretation We showed that the number of new ADIs and AIDS-related mortality have been decreasing rapidly over time in BC. These results provide further evidence that integrated comprehensive free programs that facilitate testing, and deliver treatment and care to this population can be effective in markedly decreasing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, thus suggesting that controlling and eventually ending AIDS is possible. Funding The British Columbia Ministry of Health, the US National Institutes of Health, the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Michael Institute for

  6. HIV/AIDS through the lens of Christianity: Perspectives from a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first viewpoint perceives HIV infection as an affliction by Satan; the second viewpoint sees it as originating from God; while the last viewpoint interprets HIV infection as a negotiated settlement between God and Satan.The paper is intended to trigger debate, and hopefully also to seek and provide answers from various ...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... required; (2) Used in the presence of open flames or burning flame safety lamps, or when welding or cutting...

  8. Simple visual aids make health risks clear

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío García-Retamero; Dafina Petrova

    2017-01-01

    Transparent risk communication is an essential component of informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand risks because they lack practical mathematical and risk literacy skills. Our research shows that well-designed visual aids improve risk understanding by encouraging more thorough deliberation and reducing biased risk representations.

  9. Simple visual aids make health risks clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García-Retamero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent risk communication is an essential component of informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand risks because they lack practical mathematical and risk literacy skills. Our research shows that well-designed visual aids improve risk understanding by encouraging more thorough deliberation and reducing biased risk representations.

  10. First-Aid Algorithms in Dental Avulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginska, Joanna; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Almost one fourth of traumatic dental injuries occur at schools or in their surroundings. Prevalence of tooth avulsion varies from 0.5% to 16% of all cases of dental trauma. Children with dental avulsion may seek help from school nurses so they should be able to provide first-aid treatment. However, many studies showed that the general level of…

  11. Gastrointestinal diseases in HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical perspective. In the late 1970s ... These are common problems in HIV patients. A variety of pathogens .... being prominent features. Management is difficult because cholangiopathy is often associated with AIDS. Essential treatment entails antiretroviral therapy, medically targeted therapy and endoscopic retrograde.

  12. NIGERIA AFRICAN WITH HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult intussusception is a rare condition that is seen once in a while in surgical practice, 1 . In this report we the case of a thirty-five ... complete blood count, fasting / two hour post prandial blood glucose levels, plain chest and ... The AIDS related neoplasm of primary importance is Kaposi sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin's ...

  13. Computer-Aided Medical Diagnosis. Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-15

    respiratory system 2 IX Diseases of the digestive system 12 X Diseases of the genitourinary system 2 XI Pregnancy , childbirth and the puerperium 1 XII...REFERENCES ALPEROVITCH, A. and FRAGU, P., A suggestion for an effective use of a computer-aided diagnosis system in screening for hyperthyroidism , Method

  14. Caring and government's HIV / AIDS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R

    1997-01-01

    As the HIV/AIDS epidemic spreads throughout South Africa, we need to re-evaluate the traditional focus upon HIV prevention and consider a new direction which recognizes and responds to the impending needs of the infected and affected. All sectors involved in HIV/AIDS demand such a reorientation. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been described as a series of interlinked epidemics, the silent, invisible one which is followed by the epidemic of persons who are sick and in need of care. Subsequently, the epidemic of dependency and those orphaned and the twin epidemics of tuberculosis and poverty emerge. The causes and consequences of HIV/AIDS must be understood in order to develop and implement appropriate and effective responses. The causes include poverty, low levels of literacy, underdevelopment, high levels of sexually transmitted diseases, social dislocation, mobility, and migrancy. The consequences occur at the individual, family, community, and societal levels and include poorer nutrition, the intensification of poverty, increased dependency, loss of income, labor directed to care for the sick, reserves spent upon health care and funeral costs, reduced levels of education as children are withdrawn from school, the reduced ability to pay for services, increased numbers of women entering prostitution, and an increased demand for welfare grants and services. An estimated 90,000 will become sick in 1997 and require care. The already overburdened health system cannot be allowed to be paralyzed by the impending flood of morbidity. The care and support strategy is discussed.

  15. Portable Tactile Aids for Speech Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Experiments using portable tactile aids in speech perception are reviewed, focusing on training studies, additive benefit studies, and device comparison studies (including the "Tactaid II,""Tactaid V,""Tacticon 1600," and "Tickle Talker"). The potential of tactual information in perception of the overall…

  16. Electronic Travel Aids for Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Everett W.; Bradfield, Anna L.

    1984-01-01

    The article describes application for visually impaired persons of widely used Electronic Travel Aids--the Lindsay Russell Pathsounder, the Mowat Sensor, the Sonicguide, and the C-5 Laser Cane. In addition, a research review provides insight into the issues affecting future use of the devices. (Author/CL)

  17. Foreign aid, democratization and autocratic survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.; Faust, J.

    2014-01-01

    Does foreign aid prop up authoritarian regimes or is it conducive to democratic reforms? We use a two-level perspective that takes the domestic incentives of both the recipient and the donor into account to review the existent literature respecting this question. By bringing together research on

  18. Computer-Aided Design for Electron Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lencová, Bohumila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2004), s. 51-53 ISSN 1439-4243 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : magnetic electron lenses * accuracy of computation * computer-aided design Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  19. HIV necessary though not sufficient for AIDS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Commentary: HIV necessary though not sufficient for AIDS. Harry W Haverkos. Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 365-366. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/028/04/0365-0366. Author Affiliations.

  20. AWARENESS OF HIV / AIDS AMONG HOSPITAL WORKERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universal Precautions Guidelines issued by the Centers for. Disease Control (C DC) regarding the handling of blood, body. fluids and contaminated instruments, .... unorthodox medical practitioners and spiritualists could cure. AIDS. A third misconception was the view that a hospital worker cannot get infected with the HIV ...