Sample records for wavelength dependence

  1. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results....... This complex photonic crystal structure is very sensitive against small fabrication variations from the expected topology optimised design. A wavelength dependent splitter is an important basic building block for high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, App. Phys. Lett. 84, 2022...

  2. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results....... This complex photonic crystal structure is very sensitive against small fabrication variations from the expected topology optimised design. A wavelength dependent splitter is an important basic building block for high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, App. Phys. Lett. 84, 2022...

  3. Semitransparent organic solar cells with organic wavelength dependent reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Debije, M.G.; Blom, P.W.M.


    Semitransparent organic solar cells employing solution-processable organic wavelength dependent reflectors of chiral nematic (cholesteric) liquid crystals are demonstrated. The cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) reflects only in a narrow band of the solar spectrum and remains transparent for the

  4. Semitransparent organic solar cells with organic wavelength dependent reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Debije, M.G.; Blom, P.W.M.


    Semitransparent organic solar cells employing solution-processable organic wavelength dependent reflectors of chiral nematic (cholesteric) liquid crystals are demonstrated. The cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) reflects only in a narrow band of the solar spectrum and remains transparent for the remai

  5. Semitransparent organic solar cells with organic wavelength dependent reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Debije, M.G.; Blom, P.W.M.


    Semitransparent organic solar cells employing solution-processable organic wavelength dependent reflectors of chiral nematic (cholesteric) liquid crystals are demonstrated. The cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) reflects only in a narrow band of the solar spectrum and remains transparent for the remai

  6. CO ice photodesorption: A wavelength-dependent study

    CERN Document Server

    Fayolle, Edith C; Romanzin, Claire; Michaut, Xavier; Oberg, Karin I; Linnartz, Harold; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; 10.1088/2041-8205/739/2/L36


    UV-induced photodesorption of ice is a non-thermal evaporation process that can explain the presence of cold molecular gas in a range of interstellar regions. Information on the average UV photodesorption yield of astrophysically important ices exists for broadband UV lamp experiments. UV fields around low-mass pre-main sequence stars, around shocks and in many other astrophysical environments are however often dominated by discrete atomic and molecular emission lines. It is therefore crucial to consider the wavelength dependence of photodesorption yields and mechanisms. In this work, for the first time, the wavelength-dependent photodesorption of pure CO ice is explored between 90 and 170 nm. The experiments are performed under ultra high vacuum conditions using tunable synchrotron radiation. Ice photodesorption is simultaneously probed by infrared absorption spectroscopy in reflection mode of the ice and by quadrupole mass spectrometry of the gas phase. The experimental results for CO reveal a strong wavele...

  7. Wavelength dependence of silicon avalanche photodiode fabricated by CMOS process (United States)

    Mohammed Napiah, Zul Atfyi Fauzan; Hishiki, Takuya; Iiyama, Koichi


    Avalanche photodiodes fabricated by CMOS process (CMOS-APDs) have features of high avalanche gain below 10 V, wide bandwidth over 5 GHz, and easy integration with electronic circuits. In CMOS-APDs, guard ring structure is introduced for high-speed operation by canceling photo-generated carriers in the substrate at the sacrifice of the responsivity. We describe here wavelength dependence of the responsivity and the bandwidth of the CMOS-APDs with shorted and opened guard ring structure.

  8. Excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence of graphene oxide controlled by strain. (United States)

    Cushing, Scott K; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Gang; Wang, Chao; Yang, Feng; Huang, Fuqiang; Wu, Nianqiang


    Unlike conventional fluorophores, the fluorescence emission of graphene oxide (GO) sheets can shift hundreds of nanometers as the excitation wavelength increases. The excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence is referred to as a giant red-edge effect and originates in a local reorganization potential slowing down the solvation dynamics of the excited state to the same time scale as the fluorescence lifetime. The present work has discovered that out-of-plane strain in the graphene oxide sheet leads to the intra-layer interaction necessary to slow down the solvation time scale. The oxygen percentage, dopant percentage, disorder, and strain are correlated with the presence and extent of the red-edge effect in oxygen, boron, nitrogen, and fluorine doped graphene oxide. Of these commonly cited possibilities, only out-of-plane strain is directly correlated to the red-edge effect. Furthermore, it is shown that the extent of the red-edge effect, or how far the emission wavelength can shift with increasing excitation wavelength, can be tuned by the electronegativity of the dopant. The present work interprets why the giant red-edge effect is present in some GO sheets but not in other GO sheets.

  9. Constraining the wavelength dependence of polarization for various asteroid taxonomies (United States)

    Maleszewski, Chester; Smith, Paul S.; McMillan, Robert S.


    The polarization of sunlight reflected from asteroids is known to be inversely proportional to geometric albedo (Umov 1905). However, that was mainly derived from observations in the V-filter. Preliminary observations of the wavelength dependence were conducted by Belskaya et al. (2009) in the major asteroid taxonomic classes. The limited UBVRI data revealed trends of spectral slope vs. phase angle. To study the wavelength dependence of asteroid polarization more robustly, we have used the SPOL spectropolarimeter at the 2.3-m Bok and 1.6-m Kuiper telescopes. The finer spectral resolution of spectropolarimetry is needed to confirm the linearity of the wavelength dependence of polarization.We present polarization spectra from four asteroid taxonomic groups: B-, C-, S-, and X-types. Across the observed wavelength range (0.45 to 0.7 microns), the linear trend described by Belskaya et al. is confirmed and we determined the best-fit linear slope of each spectrum. For the S-type asteroids, the slope of the polarization spectra becomes more negative as the phase angle increases. The rate at which the polarization slope changes increases at phase angles greater than the inversion angle. C-type asteroids behave differently from the S-types in two ways. First, the polarization spectra for the C-types are positively sloped as opposed to negative (also noted in Belskaya et al.). Also, as you observe the C-types closer to the inversion angle (~20 degrees phase angle), the polarization slopes tend to flatten as opposed to steepen. The polarization spectra of B-type asteroids are positively sloped, but the tendency to flatten near the inversion angle like the C-type spectra is not evident. Our observations of low albedo X-types exhibit positive polarization slopes, while the high albedo observations exhibit negative slopes. Differences in the wavelength dependencies of polarization between various asteroid types appear to be driven by differences in their geometric albedos. Better

  10. Wavelength dependence of soft tissue ablation by using pulsed lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzeng Zhang; Shusen Xie; Qing Ye; Zhenlin Zhan


    Pulsed laser ablation of soft biological tissue was studied at 10.6-, 2.94-, and 2.08-μm wavelengths. The ablation effects were assessed by means of optical microscope, the ablation crater depths were measured with reading microscope. It was shown that Er:YAG laser produced the highest quality ablation with clear,sharp cuts following closely the patial contour of the incident beam and the lowest fluence threshold. The pulsed CO2 laser presented the moderate quality ablation with the highest ablation efficiency. The craters drilled with Ho:YAG laser were generally larger than the incident laser beam spot, irregular in shape, and clearly dependent on the local morphology of biotissue. The blation characteristics, including fluence threshold and ablation efficiency, varied substantially with wavelength. It is not evident that water is the only dominant chromophore in tissue.

  11. Wavelength dependence of isotope fractionation in N2O photolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Crutzen


    Full Text Available In previous reports on isotopic fractionation in the ultraviolet photolysis of nitrous oxide (N2O only enrichments of heavy isotopes in the remaining N2O fraction have been found. However, most direct photolysis experiments have been performed at wavelengths far from the absorption maximum at 182 nm. Here we present high-precision measurements of the 15N and 18O fractionation constants (e in photolysis at 185 nm. Small, but statistically robust depletions of heavy isotopes for the terminal atoms in the linear N2O molecule are found. This means that the absorption cross sections s(15N14N16O and s(14N218O are larger than s(14N216O at this specific wavelength. In contrast, the central N atom becomes enriched in 15N. The corresponding fractionation constants (±1 standard deviation are 15e1 = s(15N14N16O/s(14N216O - 1 = (3.7 ± 0.2%o 18e = s(14N218O/s(14N216O - 1 = (4.5 ± 0.2%o  and   15e2 = s(chem{14N15N16O/s(14N216O - 1 = (-18.6 ± 0.5 %o To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of such a heavy isotope depletion in the photolysis of N2O which supports theoretical models and pioneering vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic measurements of 15N substituted N2O species that predict fluctuations of e around zero in this spectral region (Selwyn and Johnston, 1981. Such a variability in isotopic fractionation could have consequences for atmospheric models of N2O isotopes since actinic flux varies also strongly over narrow wavelength regions between 175 and 200 nm due to the Schumann-Runge bands of oxygen. However, the spacing between maxima and minima of the fractionation constants and of the actinic flux differ by two orders of magnitude in the wavelength  domain. The wavelength dependence of fractionation constants in N2O photolysis can thus be approximated by a linear fit with negligible consequences on the actual value of the spectrally averaged fractionation constant. In order to establish this linear fit, additional measurements at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa S. Patil


    Full Text Available In wavelength division multiplexed all optical networks; lightpath establishes a connection between sending and receiving nodes bypassing the electronic processing at intermediate nodes. One of the prime objectives of Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA problem is to maximize the number of connections efficiently by choosing the best routes. Although there are several algorithms available, improving the blocking performance in optical networks and finding optimal solutions for RWA problem has still remained a challenging issue. Wavelength conversion can be helpful in restricting the problem of wavelength continuity constraint but it increases complexity in the network. In this paper, we propose new weight dependent routing and wavelength assignment strategy for all optical networks without use of wavelength converters. Proposed weight function reduces blocking probability significantly, improving the network performance at various load conditions. Further, due to absence of wavelength converters, the cost and complexity of network reduces. Results show that the proposed strategy performs better than earlier reported methods.

  13. Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy for spatially, temperature, and wavelength dependent refractometry (United States)

    Kindt, Joel D.

    A microfluidic refractometer was designed based on previous optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) chips utilized to distinguish healthy and cancerous cells. The optofluidic cavity is realized by adding high reflectivity dielectric mirrors to the top and bottom of a microfluidic channel. This creates a plane-plane Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the resonant wavelengths are highly dependent on the optical path length inside the cavity. Refractometry is a useful method to determine the nature of fluids, including the concentration of a solute in a solvent as well as the temperature of the fluid. Advantages of microfluidic systems are the easy integration with lab-on-chip devices and the need for only small volumes of fluid. The unique abilities of the microfluidic refractometer in this thesis include its spatial, temperature, and wavelength dependence. Spatial dependence of the transmission spectrum is inherent through a spatial filtering process implemented with an optical fiber and microscope objective. A sequence of experimental observations guided the change from using the OFIS chip as a cell discrimination device to a complimentary refractometer. First, it was noted the electrode structure within the microfluidic channel, designed to trap and manipulate biological cells with dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces, caused the resonant wavelengths to blue-shift when the electrodes were energized. This phenomenon is consistent with the negative dn/dT property of water and water-based solutions. Next, it was necessary to develop a method to separate the optical path length into physical path length and refractive index. Air holes were placed near the microfluidic channel to exclusively measure the cavity length with the known refractive index of air. The cavity length was then interpolated across the microfluidic channel, allowing any mechanical changes to be taken into account. After the separation of physical path length and refractive index, it was of interest

  14. Time-dependent calculations in Potassium mid-infrared wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Maragakis, P; Lambropoulos, P


    We study the dynamics of the Potassium atom in the mid-infrared, high intensity, short laser pulse regime. We ascertain our numerical convergence by comparing the results of two different propagation methods of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We present ionization curves in the 12-, 13-, and 14-photon ionization range for Potassium. The ionization curve of a scaled system, namely Hydrogen starting from the 2s, is compared to the 12-photon results. In the 13-photon regime, a dynamic resonance is observed and analyzed in more detail. The results for all wavelengths and intensities, including the case of Hydrogen, display a clear plateau formation in the peak-heights of the low energy part of the Above Threshold Ionization (ATI) spectrum, which scales with the ponderomotive energy Up, and extends to (2.8 +- 0.5) Up.

  15. The wavelength dependence of Faraday rotation in magnetic fluids (United States)

    Yusuf, Nihad A.; Rousan, Akram A.; El-Ghanem, Hassan M.


    Measurements of Faraday rotation over the wavelength range 450-633 nm in a dilute Fe3O4 particle magnetic fluid are reported. The results, in agreement with the theory, show an enhancement of Faraday rotation near the wavelength λ≊500 nm.

  16. Wavelength dependent delay in the onset of FEL tissue ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribble, J.A.; Edwards, G.S. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Lamb, J.A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others


    We are investigating the wavelength dependence of the onset of laser tissue ablation in the IR Visible and UV ranges. Toward this end, we have made simultaneous measurements of the ejected material (using a HeNe probe beam tangential to the front surface) and the residual stress transient in the tissue (using traditional piezoelectric detection behind the thin samples). For the IR studies we have used the Vanderbilt FEL and for the UV and Vis range we have used a Q-switched ND:Yag with frequency doubling and quadrupling. To satisfy the conditions of the near field limit for the detection of the stress transient, the duration of the IR FEL macropulse must be as short as possible. We have obtained macropulses as short as 100 ns using Pockels Cell technology. The recording of the signals from both the photodiode monitoring the HeNe probe beam and the acoustic detector are synchronized with the arrival of the 100 ns macropulse. With subablative intensities, the resulting stress transient is bipolar with its positive peak separated from its negative peak by 100 ns in agreement with theory. Of particular interest is the comparison of ablative results using 3 {mu}m and 6.45 {mu}m pulses. Both the stress transient and the ejection of material suffer a greater delay (with respect to the arrival of the 100 ns pulse) when the FEL is tuned to 3 {mu}m as compared to 6.45 {mu}m. A comparison of IR Vis and UV data will be discussed in terms of microscopic mechanisms governing the laser ablation process.

  17. Wavelength dependence in photosynthesis of porous silicon dot (United States)

    Cheah, K. W.; Choy, C. H.


    Porous silicon dot was fabricated by laser induced etching of single crystal silicon wafer immersed in hydrofluoric solution. The result shows that there is strong photo-chemical reaction on the laser irradiated silicon surface. Various incident wavelengths have been used to fabricate the porous silicon dots. It is found that there is a significant shift in photoluminescence peak when using infra-red light as etching wavelength. We proposed that there are two possible mechanisms responsible for the shift; one is electronic and the other is photo-chemical.

  18. Wavelength-Dependence of Inter-Core Crosstalk in Homogeneous Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Takenaga, Katsuhiro;


    The wavelength dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers (MCFs) is investigated, and the corresponding analytical expressions are derived. The derived analytical expressions can be used to determine the crosstalk at any wavelength necessary for designing future MCF...... wavelengthdivision multiplexing (MCF-WDM) networks and transmission systems....

  19. Excitation wavelength dependent pump–probe signatures of molecular crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, C.; Lederer, F.J.; Schrader, T.E.; Herzog, T.T.; Cordes, T.; Gilch, P.; Braun, M.; Elsässer, T.


    The photodynamics of single crystals of 4-(diisopropylamino)benzonitrile (DIABN) have been studied by femtosecond UV/Vis and mid-IR absorption spectroscopy. The observed spectroscopic response, especially in the UV/Vis, strongly depends on the optical excitation conditions. For the excitation light

  20. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the wavelength dependence of galaxy structure versus redshift and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Rebecca; Baldry, Ivan; Holwerda, Boris Häußler Benne W; Hopkins, Andrew M; Kelvin, Lee S; Lange, Rebecca; Moffett, Amanda J; Popescu, Cristina C; Taylor, Edward N; Tuffs, Richard J; Vika, Marina; Vulcani, Benedetta


    We study how the sizes and radial profiles of galaxies vary with wavelength, by fitting S\\'ersic functions simultaneously to imaging in nine optical and near-infrared bands. To quantify the wavelength dependence of effective radius we use the ratio, $\\mathcal{R}$, of measurements in two restframe bands. The dependence of S\\'ersic index on wavelength, $\\mathcal{N}$, is computed correspondingly. Vulcani et al. (2014) have demonstrated that different galaxy populations present sharply contrasting behaviour in terms of $\\mathcal{R}$ and $\\mathcal{N}$. Here we study the luminosity dependence of this result. We find that at higher luminosities, early-type galaxies display a more substantial decrease in effective radius with wavelength, whereas late-types present a more pronounced increase in S\\'ersic index. The structural contrast between types thus increases with luminosity. By considering samples at different redshifts, we demonstrate that lower data quality reduces the apparent difference between the main galaxy...

  1. Determination of Doping Density in GaAs Semiconductor by Wavelength-Dependent Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jongtae; Choi, Oklim; Boo, Doo Wan; Choi, Joonggill [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The wavelength dependence of the photoacoustic signal for n-type GaAs semiconductors in the region of the band-gap energies was investigated. The significant changes in the phase and amplitude of the photoacoustic signal near the band-gap absorption wavelengths were observed to occur when the Si-doping densities in GaAs were varied. Particularly, the first derivatives of the photoacoustic phase vs. wavelength graphs were evaluated and fitted with single Gaussian functions. The peak centers and the widths of the Gaussian curves clearly showed linear relationships with the log values of the Si-doping densities in n-type GaAs semiconductors. It is proposed that the wavelength-dependent PA spectroscopy can be used as a simple and nondestructive method for measuring the doping densities in bulk semiconductors.

  2. Wavelength-dependent polarization absorber based on multi-cladding fiber with gold coating (United States)

    Weng, Sijun; Pei, Li; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianshuai; Li, Jing; Ning, Tigang


    The wavelength-dependent polarization absorber based on multi-cladding fiber (MCF) with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed and demonstrated. In order to obtain the SPR effect both in the x- and y- polarized direction, the MCF is polished in two sides. The numerical simulations show that the polarization absorber with the wavelengths of 980/1550 nm and 1310/1550 nm can be obtained by adjusting the parameters of dielectric layer. Each wavelength only transmits a single polarization in the wavelength-dependent polarization absorber, and the loss of unwanted polarized mode is more than 95 dB/cm. In addition, when the length of fiber is only 550 μm, the bandwidths of polarization absorber are 29 nm at 980 nm and 413 nm at 1550 nm, respectively; meanwhile, the bandwidth of 1310/1550 nm polarization absorber reaches 102 nm and 302 nm, respectively.

  3. Analysis of Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of Transition Wavelengths of Thioaldehydes and Thioketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiang; WANG Fan


    @@ Thioaldehydes and thioketones are candidates of new photoluminescence materials. The time-dependent density functional theory is applied to calculate the absorption and emission wavelengths of ten thiocarbonyl compounds using both B3LYP and PBE0 functionals. The theoretical results are in agreement with the measurable ones.Furthermore, it is found that the maximum absorption and emission wavelengths are linearly correlated to the C-S bond lengths.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; Puerari, Ivânio; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Luna, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); González-Lópezlira, Rosa A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacán, México, C.P. 58089 (Mexico); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura, E-mail: [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U. P. Adolfo López Mateos, Zacatenco, 07730 México, D.F. (Mexico)


    Based on integral field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey, we investigate the possible dependence of spiral arm pitch angle with optical wavelength. For three of the five studied objects, the pitch angle gradually increases at longer wavelengths. This is not the case for two objects where the pitch angle remains constant. This result is confirmed by the analysis of SDSS data. We discuss the possible physical mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, as well as the implications of the results.

  5. On the temperature dependence of the lower wavelength cutoff of a series of Schott glass filters


    Hickey, J. R.; BRETT, D.A.; Drummond, A J


    The authors have extended the work of Ångström & Drummond concerning the temperature dependence of the three meteorological standard filters (Schott OG 1, RG 2 and RG 8) and here give values of the temperature coefficient of the center of lower cutoff for seven other Schott sharp cutoff filters. The results demonstrate that there is a definite relationship between the normalized cutoff wavelength and this coefficient, the coefficient increasing semi-logarithmically with wavelength over th...

  6. The wavelength dependence of gold nanorod-mediated optical breakdown during infrared ultrashort pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davletshin, Yevgeniy R.; Kumaradas, J. Carl [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    This paper investigates the wavelength dependence of the threshold of gold nanorod-mediated optical breakdown during picosecond and femtosecond near infrared optical pulses. It was found that the wavelength dependence in the picosecond regime is governed solely by the changes of a nanorod's optical properties. On the other hand, the optical breakdown threshold during femtosecond pulse exposure falls within one of two regimes. When the ratio of the maximum electric field from the outside to the inside of the nanorod is less then 7 (the absorption regime) the seed electrons are initiated by photo-thermal emission, and the wavelength dependence in the threshold of optical breakdown is the result of optical properties of the nanoparticle. When the ratio is greater than 7 (the near-field regime) more seed electrons are initiated by multiphoton ionization, and the wavelength dependence of the threshold of optical breakdown results from a combination of nanorod's optical properties and transitions in the order of multiphoton ionization. The findings of this study can guide the design of nanoparticle based optical breakdown applications. This analysis also deepens the understanding of nanoparticle-mediated laser induced breakdown for picosecond and femtosecond pulses at near infrared wavelengths. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Scale-factor variations due to wavelength-dependent optical losses in fiber optic gyros (United States)

    Hammond, James A.


    Most sources of optical loss in a fiber optic gyro (FOG) depend on wavelength. Because of the broadband sources used in interferometric FOGs, these losses result in an effective shift of mean wavelength of the light producing the interference signal. For some signal processing methods, these wavelength variations produce proportional changes in the IFOG scale factor. Using well documented approximations, losses are calculated and plotted versus wavelength. A discussion of the qualitative effects on scale factor is presented and expected mean wavelength variations are computed using a representative approximation of the spectrum of a FOG source. The types of losses considered include: fiber-fiber or fiber-wave guide misalignments; microbend losses, bending losses and mode diameter mismatches. Preliminary results indicate that scale factor variations caused by such losses will contribute significantly to the total scale factor thermal sensitivity for some FOG designs. While closed loop operation results in a scale factor with fundamentally low sensitivity to variations in optical losses, most implementations are sensitive to changes in mean wavelength, thus the effects discussed here should be considered when designing high performance IFOGs and their electronics.

  8. Anisotropic dependence of tune-out wavelength near Dy 741-nm transition

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Wil; Burdick, Nathaniel Q; Lev, Benjamin L


    We report the first measurement of a tune-out wavelength for ground-state bosonic Dy and linearly polarized light. The tune-out wavelength measured is near the narrow-line 741-nm transition in $^{162}$Dy, and is the wavelength at which the total Stark shift of the ground state vanishes. We find that it strongly depends on the relative angle between the optical field and quantization axis due to Dy's large tensor polarizability. This anisotropy provides a wide, 22-GHz tunability of the tune-out frequency for linearly polarized light, in contrast to Rb and Cs whose near-infrared tune-out wavelengths do not exhibit large anisotropy. The measurements of the total light shift are performed by measuring the contrast of multipulse Kapitza-Dirac diffraction. The calculated wavelengths are within a few GHz of the measured values using known Dy electronic transition data. The lack of hyperfine structure in bosonic Dy implies that the tune-out wavelengths for the other bosonic Dy isotopes should be related to this $^{16...

  9. Quantitative diagnosis of small approximal caries lesions utilizing wavelength-dependent fiber-optic transillumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaarkamp, J; TenBosch, JJ; Verdonschot, EH; Tranaeus, S


    The instruments clinically available for the diagnosis of approximal caries lesions are inadequate to detect lesions early and quantitatively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wavelength-dependent light scattering and absorption of carious tissues may be utilized for the quantitative

  10. Quantitative diagnosis of small approximal caries lesions utilizing wavelength-dependent fiber-optic transillumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaarkamp, J; TenBosch, JJ; Verdonschot, EH; Tranaeus, S

    The instruments clinically available for the diagnosis of approximal caries lesions are inadequate to detect lesions early and quantitatively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wavelength-dependent light scattering and absorption of carious tissues may be utilized for the quantitative

  11. Wavelength-dependent xanthophyll cycle activity in marine microalgae exposed to natural ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, Anita G. J.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Van De Poll, Willem H.; Villafane, Virginia E.; Janknegt, Paul J.; Walter Helbling, E.


    The wavelength dependency of xanthophyll cycling in two marine microalgae (Thalassiosira weissflogii and Dunaliella tertiolecta) was studied by establishing biological weighting functions (BWFs) during exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation. High-(HL) and low-(LL) light-acclimated cultures of

  12. Control of the wavelength dependent thermo-optic coefficients in structured fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, J.; Lægsgaard, Jesper


    By controlling the fibre geometry, the fraction of optical field within the holes and the inserted material of a photonic crystal fibre, we demonstrate that it is possible to engineer any arbitrary wavelength-dependent thermo-optic coefficient. The possibility of making a fibre with a zero...... temperature dependent thermo-optic coefficient, ideal for packaging of structured fibre gratings, is proposed and explored....

  13. Sub-Half-Wavelength Atom Localization Based on Phase-Dependent Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG cheng; HU Xiang-Ming; PENG Yan-Dong


    We present a realistic and efficient scheme for sub-half-wavelength atom localization.This scheme is based on the phase-dependent elecaromagnetically induced transparency in a four-level system in the double-Λ configuration.We use a strong bichromatic field(one component of which is standing-wave field)as the driving components,and a weak bichromatic field as the probe components.By choosing the collective phase of the four applied components,the atom js localized in either of the two half-wavelength regions with 50% detecting probability when the absorption to the probe fields is detected.

  14. The temperature dependence of refractive index of hemoglobin at the wavelengths 930 and 1100 nm (United States)

    Lazareva, Ekaterina N.; Tuchin, Valery V.


    In this study, the refractive index of hemoglobin was measured at different temperatures within a physiological range and above that is characteristic to light-blood interaction at laser therapy. Measurements were carried out using the multi-wavelength Abbe refractometer (Atago, Japan). The refractive index was measured at two NIR wavelengths of 930 nm and 1100 nm. Samples of hemoglobin solutions with concentration of 80, 120 and 160 g/l were investigated. The temperature was varied between 25 and 55 °C. It was shown that the dependence of the refractive index of hemoglobin is nonlinear with temperature, which may be associated with changes in molecular structure of hemoglobin.

  15. Wavelength Dependence of Solar Flare Irradiation and its Influence on the Thermosphere (United States)

    Huang, Yanshi; Richmond, Arthur D.; Deng, Yue; Qian, L.; Solomon, S.; Chamberlin, P.


    The wavelength dependence of solar flare enhancement is one of the important factors determining how the Thermosphere-Ionosphere (T-I) system response to flares. To investigate the wavelength dependence of solar flare, the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) has been run for 34 X-class flares. The results show that the percentage increases of solar irradiance at flare peak comparing to pre-flare condition have a clear wavelength dependence. In the wavelength range between 0 - 195 nm, it can vary from 1% to 10000%. The solar irradiance enhancement is largest ( 1000%) in the XUV range (0 - 25 nm), and is about 100% in EUV range (25 - 120 nm). The influence of different wavebands on the T-I system during the October 28th, 2003 flare (X17.2-class) has also been examined using the latest version of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere- Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). While the globally integrated solar energy deposition is largest in the 0 - 14 nm waveband, the impact of solar irradiance enhancement on the thermosphere at 400 km is largest for 25 - 105 nm waveband. The effect of 122 - 195 nm is small in magnitude, but it decays slowly.

  16. Dependence of photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnS on excitation wavelength (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Nemoto, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Mizuo; Hara, Masahiko


    We have found that the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals placed on a thin film of insulator (GaAsOx/GaAs) depends on excitation wavelength through the interference effects of the excitation light. By employing the multi-reflection/interference calculation, the insulator thickness of the underlying non-uniform patterns can be evaluated by the simple observation of CdSe/ZnS PL with a couple of excitation wavelengths. Moreover, the differences observed for the temporal evolution of CdSe/ZnS PL (blue shifts and degradation) among the excitation wavelengths suggest that the photo-induced changes of chemical composition and surface ligands are responsible for blue shifts and degradation, respectively.

  17. Calibrating the measurement of wavelength-dependent second harmonic generation from biological tissues with a BaB₂O₄ crystal. (United States)

    Shen, Mengzhe; Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan; Tang, Shuo


    Although second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging has emerged as a powerful tool for imaging biological tissues with submicron resolution, the excitation wavelength dependence of SHG intensity in biological tissues is an optical property that is not fully understood so far. We first calibrate system factors which may potentially affect the accuracy of the wavelength-dependent SHG measurement. Then our calibration is validated by measuring the wavelength dependence of SHG signal from a BaB₂O₄ crystal under different focusing conditions and comparing with the theoretical calculations. The good agreement between the experimental results and theoretical calculations demonstrates that we have established a reliable method to validate wavelength-dependent SHG measurement over a broad wavelength range. We also investigate the wavelength dependence of a 10-μm thick mouse tendon tissue in both forward and backward directions. It is found that SHG of mouse tendon tissue decreases monotonically for excitation from 750 to 950 nm.

  18. Observation of wavelength-dependent Brewster angle shift in 3D photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server



    The interaction of polarized light with photonic crystals exhibit unique features due to its sub-wavelength nature on the surface and the periodic variation of refractive index in the depth of the crystals. Here, we present a detailed study of polarization anisotropy in light scattering associated with three-dimensional photonic crystals with face centered cubic symmetry over a broad wavelength and angular range. The polarization anisotropy leads to a shift in the conventional Brewster angle defined for a planar interface with certain refractive index. The observed shift in Brewster angle strongly depends on the index contrast and lattice constant. Polarization-dependent stop gap measurements are performed on photonic crystals with different index contrast and lattice constants. These measurements indicate unique stop gap branching at high-symmetry points in the Brillouin zone of the photonic crystals. The inherited stop gap branching is observed for TE polarization whereas that is suppressed for TM polarizat...

  19. High temperature and wavelength dependence of avalanche gain of AlAsSb avalanche photodiodes. (United States)

    Sandall, Ian C; Xie, Shiyu; Xie, Jingjing; Tan, Chee Hing


    The evolution of the dark currents and breakdown at elevated temperatures of up to 450  K are studied using thin AlAsSb avalanche regions. While the dark currents increase rapidly as the temperature is increased, the avalanche gain is shown to only have a weak temperature dependence. Temperature coefficients of breakdown voltage of 0.93 and 1.93  mV/K were obtained from the diodes of 80 and 230  nm avalanche regions (i-regions), respectively. These values are significantly lower than for other available avalanche materials at these temperatures. The wavelength dependence of multiplication characteristics of AlAsSb p-i-n diodes has also been investigated, and it was found that the ionization coefficients for electrons and holes are comparable within the electric field and wavelength ranges measured.

  20. Excitation-wavelength dependence of multiphoton excitation of fluorophores of human skin in vivo (United States)

    Breunig, Hans Georg; Studier, Hauke; König, Karsten


    We present in vivo measurements of the excitation-wavelength dependence of the autofluorescence of major endogenous fluorophores of human skin with a multiphoton tomograph. For the investigation high-resolution multiphoton images at different depths inside the skin were recorded and the main fluorophores identified. In particular, for the autofluorescence of the fluorophores keratin, NAD(P)H, elastin and for the second-harmonic-generation light induced by collagen fibers clear trends are shown.

  1. Wavelength dependent measurements of optical fiber transit time, material dispersion, and attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A new method for measuring the wavelength dependence of the transit time, material dispersion, and attenuation of an optical fiber is described. The authors inject light from a 4-ns risetime pulsed broad-band flashlamp into various length fibers and record the transmitted signals with a time-resolved spectrograph. Segments of data spanning an approximately 3,000 {angstrom} range are recorded from a single flashlamp pulse. Comparison of data acquired with short and long fibers enables the determination of the transit time and the material dispersion as functions of wavelength dependence for the entire recorded spectrum simultaneously. The wavelength dependent attenuation is also determined from the signal intensities. The method is demonstrated with experiments using a step index 200-{micro}m-diameter SiO{sub 2} fiber. The results agree with the transit time determined from the bulk glass refractive index to within {+-} 0.035% for the visible (4,000--7,200 {angstrom}) spectrum and 0.12% for the ultraviolet (2,650--4,000 {angstrom}) spectrum, and with the attenuation specified by the fiber manufacturer to within {+-} 10%.

  2. Measuring the wavelength-dependent divergence of transmission through sub-wavelength hole-arrays by spectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docter, M.W.; Young, I.T.; Piciu, O.M.; Bossche, A.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; Van den Berg, P.M.; Garini, Y.


    We present a study on the far-field patterns of light transmitted through sub-wavelength metallic hole-arrays. Spectral imaging measurements are used here on hole arrays for the first time. It provides both spatial and spectral information of the transmission in far-field. The visibility of the imag

  3. Wavelength dependence of focusing properties of two-dimensional photonic quasicrystal flat lens. (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Fan, Zhigang; Hu, Haili; Yang, Maohua; Guan, Chunying; Yuan, Libo; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Xiong


    We investigated the wavelength dependence of the focusing properties of a germanium-cylinder-based two-dimensional (2D) decagonal Penrose-type photonic quasicrystal (PQC) flat lens for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. We found that near the second bandgap and in the high-frequency side (between the bandgap boundary and the first light intensity peak) of the pass band, the flat lens can exhibit a focusing effect for a point light source and that the focusing wavelengths can directly be drawn from the photonic band structure. For all the focusing wavelengths, the summation of the object distance and the image distance is less than the thickness of the flat lens when the object distance is half the thickness of the flat lens. As the wavelength increases, the image distance, the image quality, and the effective refractive index of the flat lens increase, whereas the image power of the point light source decreases. The effective refractive index of the flat lens is less than -1.

  4. Light-emitting-diode induced retinal damage and its wavelength dependency in vivo. (United States)

    Shang, Yu-Man; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Sliney, David H; Yang, Chang-Hao; Lee, Li-Ling


    To examine light-emitting-diode (LED)-induced retinal neuronal cell damage and its wavelength-driven pathogenic mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to blue LEDs (460 nm), green LEDs (530 nm), and red LEDs (620 nm). Electroretinography (ERG), Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, Western blotting (WB) and the detection of superoxide anion (O2(-)·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total iron, and ferric (Fe(3+)) levels were applied. ERG results showed the blue LED group induced more functional damage than that of green or red LED groups. H&E staining, TUNEL, IHC, and TEM revealed apoptosis and necrosis of photoreceptors and RPE, which indicated blue LED also induced more photochemical injury. Free radical production and iron-related molecular marker expressions demonstrated that oxidative stress and iron-overload were associated with retinal injury. WB assays correspondingly showed that defense gene expression was up-regulated after the LED light exposure with a wavelength dependency. The study results indicate that LED blue-light exposure poses a great risk of retinal injury in awake, task-oriented rod-dominant animals. The wavelength-dependent effect should be considered carefully when switching to LED lighting applications.

  5. Wavelength Dependence of the Polarization Singularities in a Two-Mode Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. G. Krishna Inavalli


    Full Text Available We present here an experimental demonstration of the wavelength dependence of the polarization singularities due to linear combination of the vector modes excited directly in a two-mode optical fiber. The coherent superposition of the vector modes excited by linearly polarized Gaussian beam as offset skew rays propagated in a helical path inside the fiber results in the generation of phase singular beams with edge dislocation in the fiber output. The polarization character of these beams is found to change dramatically with wavelength—from left-handed elliptically polarized edge dislocation to right-handed elliptically polarized edge-dislocation through disclinations. The measured behaviour is understood as being due to intermodal dispersion of the polarization corrections to the propagating vector modes, as the wavelength of the input beam is scanned.

  6. Femtosecond pump-probe studies of actinic-wavelength dependence in aqueous chlorine dioxide photochemistry (United States)

    Bixby, Teresa J.; Bolinger, Joshua C.; Patterson, Joshua D.; Reid, Philip J.


    The actinic or photolysis-wavelength dependence of aqueous chlorine dioxide (OClO) photochemistry is investigated using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Following photoexcitation at 310, 335, and 410 nm the photoinduced evolution in optical density is measured from the UV to the near IR. Analysis of the optical-density evolution illustrates that the quantum yield for atomic chlorine production (ΦCl) increases with actinic energy, with ΦCl=0.16±0.02 for 410 nm excitation and increasing to 0.25±0.01 and 0.54±0.10 for 335 and 310 nm excitations, respectively. Consistent with previous studies, the production of Cl occurs through two channels, with one channel corresponding to prompt (<5 ps) Cl formation and the other corresponding to the thermal decomposition of ClOO formed by OClO photoisomerization. The partitioning between Cl production channels is dependent on actinic energy, with prompt Cl production enhanced with an increase in actinic energy. Limited evidence is found for enhanced ClO production with an increase in actinic energy. Stimulated emission and excited-state absorption features associated with OClO populating the optically prepared A22 surface decrease with an increase in actinic energy suggesting that the excited-state decay dynamics are also actinic energy dependent. The studies presented here provide detailed information on the actinic-wavelength dependence of OClO photochemistry in aqueous solution.

  7. Phase-dependent interference fringes in the wavelength scaling of harmonic efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Yavuz, I; Altun, Z; Topcu, T


    We describe phase-dependent wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic generation efficiency driven by ultra-short laser fields in the mid-infrared. We employ both numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation and the Strong Field Approximation to analyze the fine-scale oscillations in the harmonic yield in the context of channel-closing effects. We show, by varying the carrier-envelope phase, that the amplitude of these oscillations depend strongly on the rescattering electron trajectory counts. Furthermore, the peak positions of the oscillations vary significantly as a function of the carrier-envelope phase. Owing to its significant practical applications, we also investigate the wavelength dependence of harmonic yield in the single-cycle limit, finding that scaling near the cut-off region departs from the commonly observed ${{\\lambda}^{-x}}$ behavior. For a fixed spectral range, we identify a surprisingly smooth behavior of $x$ in ${{\\lambda}^{-x}}$ as a function of the ionization potent...

  8. Biochemical Detection and Identification False Alarm Rate Dependence on Wavelength Using Laser Induced Fluorescence (United States)

    Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. F.; Sala, E. C.; Sijapati, K.; Lane, A. L.; Reid, R. D.; Conrad, P. G.


    Most organic and many inorganic materials absorb strongly in specific wavelength ranges in the deep UV between about 220nm and 300nm. Excitation within these absorption bands results in native fluorescence emission. Each compound or composite material, such as a bacterial spore, has a unique excitation-emission fingerprint that can be used to provide information about the material. The sensitivity and specificity with which these materials can be detected and identified depends on the excitation wavelength and the number and location of observation wavelengths.We will present data on our deep ultraviolet Targeted Ultraviolet Chemical Sensors that demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the sensors. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability to quantitatively differentiate a wide range of biochemical agent targets against a wide range of background materials. We will describe the relationship between spectral resolution and specificity in target identification, as well as simple, fast, algorithms to identify materials.Hand-held, battery operated instruments using a deep UV laser and multi-band detection have been developed and deployed on missions to the Antarctic, the Arctic, and the deep ocean with the capability of detecting a single bacterial spore and to differentiate a wide range of organic and biological compounds.

  9. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas. (United States)

    Crank, M; Harilal, S S; Hassan, S M; Hassanein, A


    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-α and He-α are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-α to He-α emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  10. Wavelength-Dependent Transient Characteristics Caused by Gain Saturation in Highly Nonlinear Fiber-Based Raman Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinobu; Tamaoki; Tetsufumi; Tsuzaki; Motoki; Kakui; Masayuki; Shigematsu


    We have investigated the transient characteristics of discrete Raman Amplifiers and found that the response time caused by gain saturation is dependent upon the wavelength, which corresponds to the effective length of the pump light.

  11. Wavelength dependence of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on questioned document investigation. (United States)

    Elsherbiny, Nany; Aied Nassef, O


    The fast and nearly non-destructive criteria of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been exploited for forensic purposes, specifically, document investigation. The dependence of the optical emission spectra of different black gel ink samples on the excitation laser wavelength, namely the visible wavelength at λ=532 nm and the IR wavelength at λ=1064 nm, was studied. The inks of thirty black gel-ink pens comprising ten brands were analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of ink and to discriminate among them with minimum mass removal and minimum damage to the document's paper. Under the adopted experimental conditions, the ability of the visible LIBS to differentiate among the different ink samples was successful compared to IR LIBS at the same laser pulse energy (~25 mJ/pulse, laser fluence is ~1400J·cm(-2) for visible laser and ~1100J·cm(-2) for IR laser) which could be attributed to the IR absorption effects by the black ink. However, the visible LIBS produces deeper crater with respect to that produced by IR LIBS. Applying IR LIBS with higher pulse energy of ~87mJ (laser fluence is ~4100J·cm(-2)), identification and differentiation of the adopted samples was performed with producing a larger-diameter but superficial crater. The plasma parameters are discussed at the adopted experimental conditions. The results support the potential of LIBS technique using both the visible and IR lasers to be commercially developed for forensic document examination. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Davis, Ryan; Ahmed, Musahid; Jackson, Teresa L.; Thiemens, Mark H.


    Several absorption bands exist in the VUV region of Carbon monoxide (CO). Emission spectra indicate that these bands are all predissociative. An experimental investigation of CO photodissociation by vacuum ultraviolet photons (90 to 108 nm; ~13 to 11 eV) from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron and direct measurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition of the products are presented here. A wavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in the photodissociation product was observed. Slope values (δ'{sup 18}O/ δ'{sup 17}O) ranging from 0.76 to 1.32 were observed in oxygen three-isotope space (δ'{sup 18}O vs. δ'{sup 17}O) which correlated with increasing synchrotron photon energy, and indicate a dependency of the upper electronic state specific dissociation dynamics (e.g., perturbation and coupling associated with a particular state). An unprecedented magnitude in isotope separation was observed for photodissociation at the 105 and 107 nm synchrotron bands and are found to be associated with accidental predissociation of the vibrational states ({nu} = 0 and 1) of the upper electronic state E{sup 1}Π. For each synchrotron band, a large (few hundred per mil) extent of isotopic fractionation was observed and the range of fractionation is a combination of column density and exposure time. A significant temperature dependency in oxygen isotopic fractionation was observed, indicating a rotational level dependency in the predissociation process.

  13. Impact of surface-polish on the angular and wavelength dependence of fiber focal ratio degradation

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenbrot, Arthur D; Wood, Corey M


    We present measurements of how multimode fiber focal-ratio degradation (FRD) and throughput vary with levels of fiber surface polish from 60 to 0.5 micron grit. Measurements used full-beam and laser injection methods at wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.8 microns on 17 meter lengths of Polymicro FBP 300 and 400 micron core fiber. Full-beam injection probed input focal-ratios between f/3 and f/13.5, while laser injection allowed us to isolate FRD at discrete injection angles up to 17 degrees (f/1.6 marginal ray). We find (1) FRD effects decrease as grit size decreases, with the largest gains in beam quality occurring at grit sizes above 5 microns; (2) total throughput increases as grit size decreases, reaching 90% at 790 nm with the finest polishing levels; (3) total throughput is higher at redder wavelengths for coarser polishing grit, indicating surface-scattering as the primary source of loss. We also quantify the angular dependence of FRD as a function of polishing level. Our results indicate that a commonly a...

  14. From density to interface fluctuations: the origin of wavelength dependence in surface tension. (United States)

    Hiester, Thorsten


    The height-height correlation function for a fluctuating interface between two coexisting bulk phases is derived by means of general equilibrium properties of the corresponding density-density correlation function. A wavelength-dependent surface tension gamma(q) can be defined and expressed in terms of the direct correlation function c(r,r;{'}) , the equilibrium density profile rho_{0}(r) , and an operator which relates density to surface configurations. Neither the concept of an effective interface Hamiltonian nor the difference in pressure is needed to determine the general structure of the height-height correlations or gamma(q) , respectively. This result generalizes the Mecke-Dietrich surface tension gamma_{MD}(q) [Phys. Rev. E 59, 6766 (1999)] and modifies recently published criticism concerning gamma_{MD}(q) [Tarazona, Checa, and Chacón, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 196101 (2007)].

  15. Wavelength-dependent femtosecond pulse amplification in wideband tapered-waveguide quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers. (United States)

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H


    In this paper, we study the wavelength-dependent amplification in three different wideband quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers (QWAs) having conventional, exponentially tapered, and linearly tapered active region waveguide structures. A new theoretical model for tapered-waveguide QWAs considering the effect of lateral carrier density distribution and the strain effect in the quantum well is established based on a quantum well transmission line modeling method. The temporal and spectral characteristics of amplified femtosecond pulse are analyzed for each structure. It was found that, for the amplification of a single femtosecond pulse, the tapered-waveguide QWA provides higher saturation gain, and the output spectra of the amplified pulse in all three structures exhibit an apparent redshift and bandwidth narrowing due to the reduction of carrier density; however, the output spectrum in the tapered-waveguide amplifier is less distorted and exhibits smaller bandwidth narrowing. For the simultaneous amplification of two femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies, in all the three structures, two peaks appear in the output spectra while the peak at the frequency closer to the peak frequency of the QWA gain spectrum receives higher amplification due to the frequency (wavelength) dependence of the QWA gain. At a low peak power level of the input pulse, the bandwidth of each window in the tapered structure is larger than that of the conventional waveguide structure, which aggravates the spectrum alias in the amplification of femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies. As the peak powers of the two pulses increase, the spectrum alias in the conventional waveguide becomes more serious while there are small changes in the tapered structures. Also, we have found that in the amplification of a femtosecond pulse train, the linear-tapered QWAs exhibit the fastest gain recovery as compared with the conventional and exponentially tapered QWAs.

  16. Wavelength Dependence of the Opposition Effect for Asteroids Steins and Lutetia: Analysis of the Rosetta OSIRIS Data (United States)

    Kolokolova, Ludmilla; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Magrin, Sara


    Rosetta OSIRIS optical system is equipped with a total of 25 medium and narrow-band filters which allow studying spectral dependence of photometric data obtained by this instrument. In this study we analyze the OSIRIS data for asteroids Steins and Lutetia at small phase angles to see how characteristics of their opposition effect depend on the wavelength and what mechanism can explain this dependence. For asteroid Steins, the data are available for the phase angles ranging from 0.36° up to 136° acquired with 9 filters that cover the wavelength range 295.9 - 631.6 nanometers; the images of asteroid Lutetia cover phase angles from 0.15° up to 156° in 16 filters in the range of wavelengths 269.3 - 989.3 nanometers. The data for Lutetia have a good coverage for phase angels smaller than 5° for three filters, whereas in the case of Steins only for the WAC filter 631.6 nm the angles smaller than 5° are covered. For other filters, a special interpolation procedure was performed; it is described in detail in La Forgia et al. (Mem. S.A.It. Suppl. Vol. 20, 15, 2012).Both asteroids demonstrate significant brightness surge at small phase angles, however, its dependence on the wavelength is opposite: the sharpness of the surge increases with wavelength for asteroid Steins and decreases for asteroid Lutetia. The wavelength behavior of Steins’ opposition effect is consistent with the coherent backscattering as the main mechanism that produces the opposition surge. However, the wavelength behavior of Lutetia’s opposition surge cannot be explained either by coherent backscattering or by shadow hiding. We explore other opportunities to explain the specifics of the opposition effect for asteroid Lutetia. Particularly, we consider if the properties of individual particles can be responsible for the wavelength dependence of Lutetia’s opposition effect.

  17. Measurements of wavelength-dependent double photoelectron emission from single photons in VUV-sensitive photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Faham, C H; Currie, A; Dobi, A; Sorensen, P; Gaitskell, R J


    Measurements of double photoelectron emission (DPE) probabilities as a function of wavelength are reported for Hamamatsu R8778, R8520, and R11410 VUV-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In DPE, a single photon strikes the PMT photocathode and produces two photoelectrons instead of a single one. It was found that the fraction of detected photons that result in DPE emission is a function of the incident photon wavelength, and manifests itself below $\\sim$250 nm. For the xenon scintillation wavelength of 175 nm, a DPE probability of 18--24\\% was measured depending on the tube and measurement method. This wavelength-dependent single photon response has implications for the energy calibration and photon counting of current and future liquid xenon detectors such as LUX, LZ, XENON100/1T, Panda-X and XMASS.

  18. Thermoluminescence dependence on the wavelength of monochromatic UV-radiation in Cu-doped KCl and KBr at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez R, A.; Piters, T.; Aceves, R.; Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R., E-mail: [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigaciones en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    Thermoluminescence (Tl) dependence on the UV irradiation wavelengths from 200 to 500 nm in Cu-doped KCl and KBr crystals with different thermal treatment has been analyzed. Spectrum of the Tl intensity of each material show lower intensity at wavelengths longer than 420 nm. The Tl intensity depends on the irradiation wavelength. Structure of the Tl intensity spectrum of each sample is very similar to the structure of its optical absorption spectrum, indicating that at each wavelength, monochromatic radiation is absorbed to produce electronic transitions and electron hole pairs. Thermoluminescence of materials with thermal treatment at high temperature shows electron-hole trapping with less efficiency. The results show that Cu-doped alkali-halide materials are good detectors of a wide range of UV monochromatic radiations and could be used to measure UV radiation doses. (Author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Matthew W.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cahoy, Kerri [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Cambridge, MA (United States); Marley, Mark [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Morley, Caroline; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We use a planetary albedo model to investigate variations in visible wavelength phase curves of exoplanets. Thermal and cloud properties for these exoplanets are derived using one-dimensional radiative-convective and cloud simulations. The presence of clouds on these exoplanets significantly alters their planetary albedo spectra. We confirm that non-uniform cloud coverage on the dayside of tidally locked exoplanets will manifest as changes to the magnitude and shift of the phase curve. In this work, we first investigate a test case of our model using a Jupiter-like planet, at temperatures consistent to 2.0 AU insolation from a solar type star, to consider the effect of H{sub 2}O clouds. We then extend our application of the model to the exoplanet Kepler-7b and consider the effect of varying cloud species, sedimentation efficiency, particle size, and cloud altitude. We show that, depending on the observational filter, the largest possible shift of the phase curve maximum will be ∼2°–10° for a Jupiter-like planet, and up to ∼30° (∼0.08 in fractional orbital phase) for hot-Jupiter exoplanets at visible wavelengths as a function of dayside cloud distribution with a uniformly averaged thermal profile. The models presented in this work can be adapted for a variety of planetary cases at visible wavelengths to include variations in planet–star separation, gravity, metallicity, and source-observer geometry. Finally, we tailor our model for comparison with, and confirmation of, the recent optical phase-curve observations of Kepler-7b with the Kepler space telescope. The average planetary albedo can vary between 0.1 and 0.6 for the 1300 cloud scenarios that were compared to the observations. Many of these cases cannot produce a high enough albedo to match the observations. We observe that smaller particle size and increasing cloud altitude have a strong effect on increasing albedo. In particular, we show that a set of models where Kepler-7b has roughly half of

  20. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence. (United States)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A; Meusinger, Carl; Erbland, Joseph; Jost, Rémy; Bhattacharya, S K; Johnson, Matthew S; Savarino, Joël


    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. ["Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry," J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ((15)N, (17)O, and (18)O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ(15)N, δ(18)O, and Δ(17)O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of (15)ɛ = (-15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of (15)ɛ = (-47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from -40 to -74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of (14)NO3 (-) and (15)NO3 (-) in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying this model under the experimental temperature as well as considering the

  1. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence (United States)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Meusinger, Carl; Erbland, Joseph; Jost, Rémy; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Savarino, Joël


    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. ["Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry," J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate (15N, 17O, and 18O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of 15ɛ = (-15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of 15ɛ = (-47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from -40 to -74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of 14NO3- and 15NO3- in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying this model under the experimental temperature as well as considering the shift in width and center well

  2. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joël [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research (CCAR), Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jost, Rémy [Laboratoire de Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPHY) Univ. de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Bhattacharya, S. K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)


    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [“Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from −40 to −74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying

  3. Evaluation of wavelength-dependent hair growth effects on low-level laser therapy: an experimental animal study. (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Nam-Jeong; Youn, Jong-In


    In this study, we aimed to investigate the wavelength-dependent effects of hair growth on the shaven backs of Sprague-Dawley rats using laser diodes with wavelengths of 632, 670, 785, and 830 nm. Each wavelength was selected by choosing four peak wavelengths from an action spectrum in the range 580 to 860 nm. The laser treatment was performed on alternating days over a 2-week period. The energy density was set to 1.27 J/cm(2) for the first four treatments and 1.91 J/cm(2) for the last four treatments. At the end of the experiment, both photographic and histological examinations were performed to evaluate the effect of laser wavelength on hair growth. Overall, the results indicated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a 830-nm wavelength resulted in greater stimulation of hair growth than the other wavelengths examined and 785 nm also showed a significant effect on hair growth.

  4. Wavelength-dependent UV photodesorption of pure N2 and O2 ices

    CERN Document Server

    Fayolle, Edith C; Romanzin, Claire; Poderoso, Hugo A M; Philippe, Laurent; Michaut, Xavier; Jeseck, Pascal; Linnartz, Harold; Öberg, Karin I; Fillion, Jean-Hugues


    Ultraviolet photodesorption of molecules from icy interstellar grains can explain observations of cold gas in regions where thermal desorption is negligible. This non-thermal desorption mechanism should be especially important where UV fluxes are high. N2 and O2 are expected to play key roles in astrochemical reaction networks, both in the solid state and in the gas phase. Measurements of the wavelength-dependent photodesorption rates of these two infrared-inactive molecules provide astronomical and physical-chemical insights into the conditions required for their photodesorption. Tunable radiation from the DESIRS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron in the astrophysically relevant 7 to 13.6 eV range is used to irradiate pure N2 and O2 thin ice films. Photodesorption of molecules is monitored through quadrupole mass spectrometry. Absolute rates are calculated by using the well-calibrated CO photodesorption rates. Strategic N2 and O2 isotopolog mixtures are used to investigate the importance of dissociation upon...

  5. Wavelength dependence of reversible photodegradation of disperse orange 11 dye-doped PMMA thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Kuzyk, Mark G


    Using transmittance imaging microscopy we measure the wavelength dependence of reversible photodegradation in disperse orange 11 (DO11) dye-doped (poly)methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). The reversible and irreversible inverse quantum efficiencies (IQEs) are found to be constant over the spectral region investigated, with the average reversible IQE being $\\overline{B}_\\alpha= 8.70 (\\pm 0.38)\\times 10^5$ and the average irreversible IQE being $\\overline{B}_\\epsilon= 1.396 (\\pm 0.031)\\times 10^8$. The large difference between the IQEs is hypothesized to be due to the reversible decay channel being a direct decay mechanism of the dye, while the irreversible decay channel is an indirect mechanism, with the dye first absorbing light, then heating the surrounding environment causing polymer chain scission and cross linking. Additionally, the DO11/PMMA's irreversible IQE is found to be among the largest of those reported for organic dyes, implying that the system is highly photostable. We also find that the recovery rate i...

  6. Temperature and detection-wavelength dependence of the electron transfer rates in initial stages of photosynthesis. (United States)

    Kurzynski, Michal; Chelminiak, Przemyslaw


    Unusual temperature behavior, observed in the initial electron transfer stages in the photosynthetic reaction centers of the purple bacteria, and a strong probing pulse wavelength dependence of transfer rates, determined in transient absorption spectroscopy, can easily be explained on assuming that the transfer takes place from dynamically unrelaxed states of protein environment. The transitions from the primary special pair (P) to a single bacteriochlorophyll (B) and next to a bacteriopheophytin (H) are controlled by diffusion down the energy value of underdamped vibrational modes of frequency 200 K, probably determining distances between the succeeding cofactors. The subsequent transition to the quinone A (Q) is controlled by diffusion in the position value of an overdamped conformational mode, probably corresponding to the local polarization. From the fit of available experimental data to simple theoretical formulas, the important physical conclusion arises that the very electronic transitions are fast as compared to the relaxation processes and, in the first approximation, only the latter contribute to the overall times of the initial electron transfer stages in photosynthesis.

  7. Red Light-Dose or Wavelength-Dependent Photoresponse of Antioxidants in Herb Microgreens (United States)

    Samuolienė, Giedė; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Viršilė, Akvilė; Jankauskienė, Julė; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Duchovskis, Pavelas


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of 638-nm and 665-nm LEDs on changes of antioxidants of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and parsley (Petroselinum crispum), and to assess the effect of light quality on antioxidative status. Plants were grown in peat substrate for 19 days (21/17 ±2°C, 16 h). Experiments were performed in (I) a controlled-environment: B455,R638,R665,FR731(control); B455,R*638,R665,FR731; B455,R638,R*665,FR731; R638; R665 (B–blue, R- red, FR–far-red light). PPFD was set from 231 during growth, upto 300 μmol m-2 s-1 during 3-day treatment changing R638 or R665 PPFD level; in (II) greenhouse (November): high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) (control—300 μmol m−2s−1); and HPS + 638 (HPS generated 90 and red LEDs—210 μmol m−2s−1). In general, under supplemental or increased red 638 nm light, amounts of tested antioxidants were greater in basil, whereas sole 665 nm or sole 638 nm is more favourable for parsley. Increased or supplemental red light significantly increased contents of phenolics, α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and DPPH• but suppressed accumulation of lutein and β-carotene in basil, whereas an increase of β-carotene and DPPH• was observed in parsley. Hereby, the photoresponse of antioxidant compounds suggests that photoprotective mechanism is stimulated by both light-dose-dependent and wavelength-dependent reactions. PMID:27677090

  8. Effective nonlinear refractive index of nano-porous silicon and its dependence on porosity and light wavelength (United States)

    Bazaru, Tatiana; Vlad, Valentin I.; Petris, Adrian; Miu, Mihaela


    In this paper, we study the dependence of effective optical linear and nonlinear refractive indices of nano-porous silicon layers on crystalline silicon substrates on fill fraction, at different light wavelengths in visible and near-infrared. Simple approximative formulae, in the frame of Bruggeman's formalism, that describe the dependences of effective optical linear and nonlinear refractive indices of nano-porous silicon on fill fractions and on wavelength, in the range of 620 - 1000 nm, are derived. Experimental results with reflection intensity scan show a good agreement with the data provided by our formulae and the exact results of Boyd-Bruggeman's formalism for the third order nonlinearity, in the case nanoporous silicon with different porosity and at light wavelengths in the mentioned spectral range.

  9. Measurements of wavelength dependent scattering and backscattering coefficients by low-coherence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Faber, Dirk J.; Leeuwen, van Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C.G.


    Quantitative measurements of scattering properties are invaluable for optical techniques in medicine. However, noninvasive, quantitative measurements of scattering properties over a large wavelength range remain challenging. We introduce low-coherence spectroscopy as a noninvasive method to locally

  10. Ultrafast fluorescence resonance energy transfer in a bile salt aggregate: Excitation wavelength dependence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ujjwal Mandal; Subhadip Ghosh; Dibyendu Kumar Das; Aniruddha Adhikari; Shantanu Dey; Kankan Bhattacharyya


    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Coumarin 153 (C153) to Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in a secondary aggregate of a bile salt (sodium deoxycholate, NaDC) is studied by femtosecond up-conversion. The emission spectrum of C153 in NaDC is analysed in terms of two spectra-one with emission maximum at 480 nm which corresponds to a non-polar and hydrophobic site and another with maximum at ∼ 530 nm which arises from a polar hydrophilic site. The time constants of FRET were obtained from the rise time of the emission of the acceptor (R6G). In the NaDC aggregate, FRET occurs in multiple time scales -4 ps and 3700 ps. The 4 ps component is assigned to FRET from a donor (D) to an acceptor (A) held at a close distance (DA ∼ 17 Å) inside the bile salt aggregate. The 3700 ps component corresponds to a donor-acceptor distance ∼ 48 Å. The long (3700 ps) component may involve diffusion of the donor. With increase in the excitation wavelength (ex) from 375 to 435 nm, the relative contribution of the ultrafast component of FRET (∼ 4 ps) increases from 3 to 40% with a concomitant decrease in the contribution of the ultraslow component (∼3700 ps) from 97 to 60%. The ex dependence is attributed to the presence of donors at different locations. At a long ex (435 nm) donors in the highly polar peripheral region are excited. A short ex (375 nm) `selects’ donor at a hydrophobic location.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海; 蔡武德; 许北雪; 吴锦雷


    The dependence of long wavelength photoemission upon the size of Ag nanoparticles embedded in a BaO semicon- ductor is predicted and discussed theoretically. The calculated results show that the increase in the diameter of the Ag nanoparticle, in the range from 1.5 to 37.0nm, leads to the emergence of a roughly Gaussian form of the photoemission spectra and the peaks become markedly narrower. The results also show that the increase in the diameter of the Agnanoparticle leads to the decrease of the long wavelength threshold. The incident light wavelength corresponding to the peak value of the photoemission gets bigger with the increase of the size of Ag nanoparticles, thus showing a redshift.

  12. A power and wavelength detuning-dependent hysteresis loop in a single mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jian-Wei; Bikash Nakarmi


    In this paper,we observe experimentally the optical bistability induced by the side-mode injection power and wavelength detuning in a single mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode (SMFP-LD).Results show that the bistability characteristics of the dominant and injected modes are strongly dependent on the injected input optical power and wavelength detuning in an SMFP-LD.We observe three types of hysteresis loops:counterclockwise,clockwise,and butterfly hysteresis with various loop widths.In the case of a bistability loop caused by injection power,the transition from counterclockwise to clockwise in the hysteresis direction with the wavelength detuning from 0.028 nm to 0.112 nm is observed in a way of butterfly hysteresis for the dominant mode by increasing the wavelength detuning.The width of hysteresis loop,induced by wavelength detuning is also changed while the injection power is enhanced from-7 dBm to-5 dBm.

  13. Asymmetrically filled slits in a metal film that split a light beam into two depending on its wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Danhong


    By applying a scattering-wave theory, the electromagnetic response of an arbitrary array of multiple slits perforated on a metallic film and filled with different slit dielectric materials can be studied in an analytical way. Here, the wavelength-dependent splitting of a light beam into two by asymmetrically filled slits in a metal film using intra- and inter-slit dual-wave interferences is fully explored. We consider a triple-slit structure perforated on a gold film, where the middle slit is used for the surface-plasmon excitation by a narrow Gaussian beam while the two side slits are used for the detection of a transmitted surface-plasmon wave propagated from the middle opaque slit either at a particular wavelength or at double that wavelength, respectively. For this proposed simple structure, we show that only one of the two side observation slits can be in a passing state for a particular wavelength, but the other blocked slit will change to a passing state at double that wavelength with a specific design...

  14. Attacking a practical quantum-key-distribution system with wavelength-dependent beam-splitter and multiwavelength sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Wei [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information,University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450004 (China); Wang, Shuang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Fang-Yi; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information,University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450004 (China)


    It is well known that the unconditional security of quantum-key distribution (QKD) can be guaranteed by quantum mechanics. However, practical QKD systems have some imperfections, which can be controlled by the eavesdropper to attack the secret key. With current experimental technology, a realistic beam splitter, made by fused biconical technology, has a wavelength-dependent property. Based on this fatal security loophole, we propose a wavelength-dependent attacking protocol, which can be applied to all practical QKD systems with passive state modulation. Moreover, we experimentally attack a practical polarization encoding QKD system to obtain all the secret key information at the cost of only increasing the quantum bit error rate from 1.3 to 1.4%.

  15. Testing the Wavelength Dependence of Cosmological Redshift Down to Δz ˜ 10-6 (United States)

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Trujillo, Ignacio


    At the core of the standard cosmological model lies the assumption that the redshift of distant galaxies is independent of photon wavelength. This invariance of cosmological redshift with wavelength is routinely found in all galaxy spectra with a precision of Δz ˜ 10-4. The combined use of approximately half a million high-quality galaxy spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) allows us to explore this invariance down to a nominal precision in redshift of 10-6 (statistical). Our analysis is performed over the redshift interval 0.02 stretching of the lines, prevent our methodology from achieving a precision higher than 10-5, at z > 0.1. Future attempts to constrain this law will require high quality galaxy spectra at higher resolution (R ≳ 10,000).

  16. Testing the wavelength dependence of cosmological redshift down to $\\Delta z \\sim 10^{-6}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreras, I


    At the core of the standard cosmological model lies the assumption that the redshift of distant galaxies is independent of photon wavelength. This invariance of cosmological redshift with wavelength is routinely found in all galaxy spectra with a precision of $\\Delta$z~10$^{-4}$. The combined use of approximately half a million high-quality galaxy spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) allows us to explore this invariance down to a nominal precision in redshift of one part per million (statistical). Our analysis is performed over the redshift interval 0.020.1. Future attempts to constrain this law will require high quality galaxy spectra at higher resolution (R>10,000).

  17. On the wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser interactions inside band gap solids (United States)

    Leyder, S.; Grojo, D.; Delaporte, Ph.; Lebugle, M.; Marine, W.; Sanner, N.; Sentis, M.; Utéza, O.


    3D laser microfabrication inside narrow band gap solids like semiconductors will require the use of long wavelength intense pulses. We perform an experimental study of the multiphoton-avalanche absorption yields and thresholds with tightly focused femtosecond laser beams at wavelengths: 1.3μm and 2.2μm. For comparisons, we perform the experiments in two very different materials: silicon (semiconductor, ˜1.1 eV indirect bandgap) and fused silica (dielectric, ˜9 eV direct bandgap). For both materials, we find only moderate differences while the number of photons required to cross the band gap changes from 2 to 3 in silicon and from 10 to 16 in fused silica.

  18. Wavelength Dependence of Picosecond Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures on Copper


    Maragkaki, Stella; Derrien, Thibault J. -Y.; Levy, Yoann; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Ostendorf, Andreas; Gurevich, Evgeny L.


    The physical mechanisms of the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formation are studied in this paper for single-pulse irradiation regimes. The change in the LIPSS period with wavelength of incident laser radiation is investigated experimentally, using a picosecond laser system, which provides 7-ps pulses in near-IR, visible, and UV spectral ranges. The experimental results are compared with predictions made under the assumption that the surface-scattered waves are involved in ...

  19. Wavelength Dependence of Photoinduced Microcantilever Bending in the UV-VIS Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Helm


    Full Text Available Micromechanical devices such as microcantilevers (MC respond to irradiationwith light by at least two different, photon-mediated processes, which induce MC bendingas a consequence of differential surface stress. The first and slow bending is due to theabsorption of photons, whose energy is transformed into heat and causes bending ofbimetallic microcantilevers due to thermal expansion. The second type of deflection is fastand caused by photons of sufficient energy to promote electrons across the Schottky barrierand thus create charge carriers, resulting in photoinduced stress that causes MC bending. Inthis study, the MC bending response to irradiation with light of wavelengths ranging from250 to 700 nm was investigated. Measurements of the immediate mechanical response tophotoinduced stress as a function of the wavelength of incident light provide an avenue tothe determination of the cut-off wavelength/energy of the Schottky barrier in the MCdevices under investigation. For a gold coated Si3Ni4 microcantilever we measured a cutoffwavelength of 1206 nm, which lies in the range of the literature value of 1100 nm.

  20. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the wavelength-dependent sizes and profiles of galaxies revealed by MegaMorph

    CERN Document Server

    Vulcani, Benedetta; ler, Boris Häuß; Vika, Marina; Rojas, Alex; Agius, Nicola K; Baldry, Ivan; Bauer, Amanda E; Brown, Michael J I; Driver, Simon; Graham, Alister; Kelvin, Lee S; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; Popescu, Cristina C; Robotham, Aaron S G; Tuffs, Richard J


    We investigate the relationship between colour and structure within galaxies using a large, volume-limited sample of bright, low-redshift galaxies with optical to near-infrared imaging from the GAMA survey. We fit single-component, wavelength-dependent, elliptical S\\'ersic models to all passbands simultaneously, using software developed by the MegaMorph project. Dividing our sample by S\\'ersic index and colour, the recovered wavelength variations in effective radius (R_e) and S\\'ersic index (n) reveal the internal structure, and hence formation history, of different types of galaxies. All these trends depend on n; some have an additional dependence on galaxy colour. Late-type galaxies (n_r 2.5), even though they maintain constant n with wavelength, revealing that ellipticals are a superimposition of different stellar populations associated with multiple collapse and merging events. Processes leading to structures with larger R_e must be associated with lower metallicity or younger stellar populations. This a...

  1. Wavelength dependent SHG imaging and scattering probes of extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Tilbury, Karissa B.; Campbell, Kirby R.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Patankar, Manish


    Ovarian cancer remains the most deadly gynecological cancer with a poor aggregate survival rate. To improve upon this situation, we utilized collagen-specific Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging microscopy and optical scattering measurements to probe structural differences in the extracellular matrix of normal stroma, benign tumors, endometrioid tumors, and low and high-grade serous (LGS and HGS) tumors. The SHG signatures of the emission directionality and conversion efficiency as well as the optical scattering are related to the organization of collagen on the sub-micron size. The wavelength dependence of these readouts adds additional characterization of the size and distribution of collagen fibrils/fibers relative to the interrogating wavelengths. We found strong wavelength dependent dependencies of these metrics that were different between the different tumors that are related to respective structural attributes in the collagen organization. These sub-resolution determinations are consistent with the dualistic classification of type I and II serous tumors. However, type I endometrioid tumors have strongly differing ECM architecture than the serous malignancies. Moreover, our analyses are further consistent with LGS and benign tumors having similar etiology. We identified optimal wavelengths for the SHG metrics as well as optical scattering measurements. The SHG metrics and optical scattering measurements were then used to form a linear discriminant model to classify the tissues, and we obtained high accuracy ( 90%) between the tissue types. This delineation is superior to current clinical performance and has potential applicability in supplementing histological analysis, understanding the etiology, as well as development of an in vivo screening tool.

  2. Wavelength and NOx dependent complex refractive index of SOAs generated from the photooxidation of toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yamazaki


    Full Text Available Recently, secondary organic aerosols (SOAs generated from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds have been proposed as a possible source of lightabsorbing organic compounds "brown carbon" in the urban atmosphere. However, the atmospheric importance of these SOAs remains unclear due to limited information about their optical properties. In this study, the complex refractive index (RI, m=n − ki values at 405, 532, and 781 nm of the SOAs generated during the photooxidation of toluene (toluene-SOAs under a variety of initial nitrogen oxide (NOx= NO + NO2 conditions were examined by photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS. The complex RI values obtained in the present study and reported in the literature indicate that the k value, which represents the light absorption of the toluene-SOAs steeply increased to shorter wavelengths at n value gradually increased to shorter wavelengths from 781 to 355 nm. The k values at 405 nm were found to increase from 1.8 × 10−3 to 7.2 × 10−3 with increasing initial NOx concentration from 109 to 571 ppbv. The nitrate to organics ratio of the SOAs determined using a highresolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (H-ToF-AMS also increased with increasing initial NOx concentration. The RI values of the SOAs generated during the photooxidation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in the presence of NOx (1,3,5-TMB-SOAs were also determined to investigate the influence of the chemical structure of the precursor on the optical properties of the SOAs, and it was found that the light absorption of the 1,3,5-TMB-SOAs is negligible at all of the wavelengths investigated (405, 532, and 781 nm. These results can be reasonably explained by the hypothesis that nitro-aromatic compounds such as nitro-cresols are the major contributors to the light absorption of the toluene-SOAs. Using the obtained RI values, mass absorption cross sections of the toluene-SOAs at 405 and 532 nm were estimated to

  3. Measurements of the wavelength dependence and other properties of stellar scintillation at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. (United States)

    Dainty, J C; Levine, B M; Brames, B J; O'Donnell, K A


    The variance of intensity of stellar scintillation has been measured as a function of wavelength using photon counting and on-line digital analysis techniques. The experimental data are consistent with that predicted by the theory of Tatarski. Measurements of the temporal correlation function of intensity and the higher moments of the probability density function of scintillation are also described. Time scales in the 1.7-10-msec range were observed, and the observed higher moments were consistently lower than those predicted by a log normal distribution. All the measurements were made at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii.

  4. Wavelength dependence of repetitive-pulse laser-induced damage threshold in beta-BaB2O4. (United States)

    Kouta, H


    The dependence on wavelength of repetitive-pulse (10 Hz, 8-10 ns) laser-induced damage on beta barium metaborate (BBO) has been investigated. The thresholds of dielectric breakdown in bulk crystal have been found to be 0.3 GW/cm(2) at 266 nm, 0.9 GW/cm(2) at 355 nm, 2.3 GW/cm(2) at 532 nm, and 4.5 GW/cm(2) at 1064 nm. Results indicate two-photon absorption at 266 and 355 nm, which helps to produce an avalanche effect that causes breakdown at each of the four wavelengths tested. Neither the BBO refractive indices nor the absorption spectrum change until breakdown occurs.

  5. Glass composition and excitation wavelength dependence of the luminescence of Eu3+ doped lead borate glass (United States)

    Wen, Hongli; Duan, Chang-Kui; Jia, Guohua; Tanner, Peter A.; Brik, Mikhail G.


    This work explores the relationship between the bandwidth of luminescence spectral features and their relative intensities, using glasses doped with europium, Eu3+, over a wide composition range. Glasses of composition (B2O3)70(PbO)29(0.5Eu2O3)1 and (B2O3)z(PbO)99.6-z(0.5Eu2O3)0.4, (z = 20, 30, 40, 60, 70), were prepared by the melting-quenching technique. Variable-wavelength measurements by the prism-coupling method enabled interpolation of refractive index at selected wavelengths. Diffuse reflectance spectra confirmed the incorporation of Eu3+ into the glass, and scanning electron microscopy displayed that this was in a homogeneous manner. Vibrational spectra showed a change in boron coordination from BO3 to BO4 units with increase of PbO content in the glass. Multi-wavelength excited luminescence spectra were recorded for the glasses at temperatures down to 10 K and qualitative interpretations of spectral differences with change of B2O3 content are given. The quantitative analysis of 5D0 luminescence intensity-bandwidth relations showed that although samples with higher boron content closely exhibit a simple proportional relationship with band intensity ratios, as expected from theory, the expression needs to be slightly modified for those with low boron content. The Judd-Ofelt intensity analysis of the 5D0 emission spectra under laser excitations at low temperature gives Ω2 values within the range from (3.9-6.5) × 10-20 cm2, and Ω4 in the range from (4.1-7.0) × 10-20 cm2, for different values of z. However, no clear monotonic relation was found between the parameter values and composition. The Judd-Ofelt parameters are compared with those from other systems doped with Eu3+ and are found to lie in the normal ranges for Eu3+-doped glasses. The comparison of parameter values derived from the 10 K spectra with those from room temperature spectra for our glasses, which are fairly constant for different compositions, shows that site selection occurs at low

  6. Study of the Dependence of Photoenhanced Nonlinear Acoustic Surface Wave Interactions on the Wavelength of Light. (United States)


    CenterRockwell International SC5027.4FR 5.0 APPEND IX a) Participating Sci enti fic Personnel: Dr. Edgar A. Kraut Dr. T. C. Lim Mr. Fran k J. Morin Mr. John...Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 JUN 23 19fl _ / L~. Co-Inve stigators F— 0 . Edgar A. Kraut Dr. Te g C. Lim ___________ 4nr...INTERACTIONS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ON THE WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT~ I sc~o~i.~ p. /7 QR(a,) ~~~~~O~~TRA~~’T O R GRA NT NUMBER(S) Dr. Edgar A

  7. Kinetic energy dependence of carrier diffusion in a GaAs epilayer studied by wavelength selective PL imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Su, L. Q.; Kon, J.; Gfroerer, T.; Wanlass, M. W.; Zhang, Y.


    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging has been shown to be an efficient technique for investigating carrier diffusion in semiconductors. In the past, the measurement was typically carried out by measuring at one wavelength (e.g., at the band gap) or simply the whole emission band. At room temperature in a semiconductor like GaAs, the band-to-band PL emission may occur in a spectral range over 200 meV, vastly exceeding the average thermal energy of about 26 meV. To investigate the potential dependence of the carrier diffusion on the carrier kinetic energy, we performed wavelength selective PL imaging on a GaAs double hetero-structure in a spectral range from about 70 meV above to 50 meV below the bandgap, extracting the carrier diffusion lengths at different PL wavelengths by fitting the imaging data to a theoretical model. The results clearly show that the locally generated carriers of different kinetic energies mostly diffuse together, maintaining the same thermal distribution throughout the diffusion process. Potential effects related to carrier density, self-absorption, lateral wave-guiding, and local heating are also discussed.

  8. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Understanding the wavelength dependence of galaxy structure with bulge-disc decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Rebecca; Häußler, Boris; Baldry, Ivan; Bremer, Malcolm; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J I; Driver, Simon; Duncan, Kenneth; Graham, Alister W; Holwerda, Benne W; Hopkins, Andrew M; Kelvin, Lee S; Lange, Rebecca; Phillipps, Steven; Vika, Marina; Vulcani, Benedetta


    With a large sample of bright, low-redshift galaxies with optical$-$near-IR imaging from the GAMA survey we use bulge-disc decompositions to understand the wavelength-dependent behavior of single-S\\'ersic structural measurements. We denote the variation in single-S\\'ersic index with wavelength as $\\mathcal{N}$, likewise for effective radius we use $\\mathcal{R}$. We find that most galaxies with a substantial disc, even those with no discernable bulge, display a high value of $\\mathcal{N}$. The increase in S\\'ersic index to longer wavelengths is therefore intrinsic to discs, apparently resulting from radial variations in stellar population and/or dust reddening. Similarly, low values of $\\mathcal{R}$ ($<$ 1) are found to be ubiquitous, implying an element of universality in galaxy colour gradients. We also study how bulge and disc colour distributions vary with galaxy type. We find that, rather than all bulges being red and all discs being blue in absolute terms, both components become redder for galaxies wi...

  9. Influence of the Wavelength Dependence of Birefringence in the Generation of Supercontinuum and Dispersive Wave in Fiber Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Acuna Herrera


    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform numerical analysis about the influence of the wavelength dependence of birefringence (WDB in the Supercontinuum (SC and dispersive wave (DW generation. We study different birefringence profiles such as constant, linear, and parabolic. We see that, for a linear and parabolic profile, the generation of SC practically does not change, while this does so when the constant value of the birefringence varies. Similar situation happens with the generation of dispersive waves. In addition, we observe that the broadband of the SC increases when the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS is neglected for all WDB profiles.

  10. Two-color two-photon excited fluorescence of indole: Determination of wavelength-dependent molecular parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrich, Sebastian; Al-Hadhuri, Tawfik; Gericke, Karl-Heinz, E-mail: [Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Straße 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Shternin, Peter S., E-mail:; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S., E-mail: [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Politekhnicheskaya 29, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Smolin, Andrey G. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    We present a detailed study of two-color two-photon excited fluorescence in indole dissolved in propylene glycol. Femtosecond excitation pulses at effective wavelengths from 268 to 293.33 nm were used to populate the two lowest indole excited states {sup 1}L{sub a} and {sup 1}L{sub b} and polarized fluorescence was then detected. All seven molecular parameters and the two-photon polarization ratio Ω containing information on two-photon absorption dynamics, molecular lifetime τ{sub f}, and rotation correlation time τ{sub rot} have been determined from experiment and analyzed as a function of the excitation wavelength. The analysis of the experimental data has shown that {sup 1}L{sub b}–{sup 1}L{sub a} inversion occurred under the conditions of our experiment. The two-photon absorption predominantly populated the {sup 1}L{sub a} state at all excitation wavelengths but in the 287–289 nm area which contained an absorption hump of the {sup 1}L{sub b} state 0-0 origin. The components of the two-photon excitation tensor S were analyzed giving important information on the principal tensor axes and absorption symmetry. The results obtained are in a good agreement with the results reported by other groups. The lifetime τ{sub f} and the rotation correlation time τ{sub rot} showed no explicit dependence on the effective excitation wavelength. Their calculated weighted average values were found to be τ{sub f} = 3.83 ± 0.14 ns and τ{sub rot} = 0.74 ± 0.06 ns.

  11. Wavelength-dependent ultraviolet induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the human cornea. (United States)

    Mallet, Justin D; Rochette, Patrick J


    Exposition to ultraviolet (UV) light is involved in the initiation and the progression of skin cancer. The genotoxicity of UV light is mainly attributed to the induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), the most abundant DNA damage generated by all UV types (UVA, B and C). The human cornea is also exposed to the harmful UV radiations, but no UV-related neoplasm has been reported in this ocular structure. The probability that a specific DNA damage leads to a mutation and eventually to cellular transformation is influenced by its formation frequency. To shed light on the genotoxic effect of sunlight in the human eye, we have analyzed CPD induction in the cornea and the iris following irradiation of ex vivo human eyes with UVA, B or C. The extent of CPD induction was used to establish the penetrance of the different UV types in the human cornea. We show that UVB- and UVC-induced CPDs are concentrated in the corneal epithelium and do not penetrate deeply beyond this corneal layer. On the other hand, UVA wavelengths penetrate deeper and induce CPDs in the entire cornea and in the first layers of the iris. Taken together, our results are undoubtedly an important step towards better understanding the consequences of UV exposure to the human eye.

  12. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in living cells (United States)

    Mulvey, Christine S.; Sherwood, Carly A.; Bigio, Irving J.


    Apoptosis-programmed cell death-is a cellular process exhibiting distinct biochemical and morphological changes. An understanding of the early morphological changes that a cell undergoes during apoptosis can provide the opportunity to monitor apoptosis in tissue, yielding diagnostic and prognostic information. There is avid interest regarding the involvement of apoptosis in cancer. The initial response of a tumor to successful cancer treatment is often massive apoptosis. Current apoptosis detection methods require cell culture disruption. Our aim is to develop a nondisruptive optical method to monitor apoptosis in living cells and tissues. This would allow for real-time evaluation of apoptotic progression of the same cell culture over time without alteration. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is used to monitor changes in light-scattering properties of cells in vitro due to apoptotic morphology changes. We develop a simple instrument capable of wavelength-resolved ESS measurements from cell cultures in the backward direction. Using Mie theory, we also develop an algorithm that extracts the size distribution of scatterers in the sample. The instrument and algorithm are validated with microsphere suspensions. For cell studies, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are cultured to confluence on plates and are rendered apoptotic with staurosporine. Backscattering measurements are performed on pairs of treated and control samples at a sequence of times up to 6-h post-treatment. Initial results indicate that ESS is capable of discriminating between treated and control samples as early as 10- to 15-min post-treatment, much earlier than is sensed by standard assays for apoptosis. Extracted size distributions from treated and control samples show a decrease in Rayleigh and 150-nm scatterers, relative to control samples, with a corresponding increase in 200-nm particles. Work continues to correlate these size distributions with underlying morphology. To our knowledge, this

  13. Wavelength and composition dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient for InGaAsP-based integrated waveguides (United States)

    Melati, Daniele; Waqas, Abi; Alippi, Andrea; Melloni, Andrea


    A method to take into account the wavelength, composition, and temperature dependencies in the calculation of the refractive index and linear thermo-optic coefficient of In1 -x GaxAsy P1 -y alloys is presented. The method, based on the modified single oscillator model, shows a good agreement with experimental data for InP reported in literature at different wavelength and temperature ranges. Further, we exploit this approach with a Film-Mode Matching solver to calculate the linear thermo-optic coefficients of both phase and group effective indices of an InGaAsP-based waveguide. The same waveguide structure is also experimentally investigated through a reflectometric technique and results are found to be in accordance with the simulations performed exploiting the proposed method. In both cases, a dependence of the group index on temperature, almost twice that of the phase index, is observed. These results provide a deeper understanding on the influence of the temperature on the behaviour of optical waveguides and devices, making possible an accurate and realistic modelling of integrated circuits.

  14. Study of the Wavelength Dependence in Laser Ablation of Advanced Ceramics and Glass-Ceramic Materials in the Nanosecond Range. (United States)

    Sola, Daniel; Peña, Jose I


    In this work, geometrical dimensions and ablation yields as a function of the machining method and reference position were studied when advanced ceramics and glass-ceramic materials were machined with pulsed lasers in the nanosecond range. Two laser systems, emitting at 1064 and 532 nm, were used. It was shown that the features obtained depend on whether the substrate is processed by means of pulse bursts or by grooves. In particular, when the samples were processed by grooves, machined depth, removed volume and ablation yields reached their maximum, placing the sample out of focus. It was shown that these characteristics do not depend on the processing conditions, the wavelength or the optical configuration, and that this is intrinsic behavior of the processing method. Furthermore, the existence of a close relation between material hardness and ablation yields was demonstrated.

  15. Optical pump wavelength dependence in visible-pump visible-probe spectroscopy of noble metals (United States)

    Sahota, Derek G.; Lobo, Calvin; Duch, Konrad; Dodge, J. Steven


    We have developed a femtosecond visible-pump visible-probe reflectometer with individually tunable pump and probe photon energies. The spectrometer has been used to study optically thick films of the noble metals Au and Cu over a wide variety of pump fluences and photon energies. Through comparison between experimental measurements and two-temperature model (TTM) simulations, we estimate an electron-phonon coupling constant, g, of 2.37 ±0.11 x10^16 Wm-3K-1 for Au and 1.19 ±0.13 x10^17 Wm-3K-1 for Cu, consistent with previous studies. The variation of the optical pump parameters allows a more accurate determination of the electron-phonon coupling constant. The relaxation rate, τ, of the thermally excited electrons is shown to be strongly dependent on the peak electron temperature of the excited sample, and only weakly dependent on the pump photon energy. The static dielectric constant is found to significantly underestimate the dependence of the differential reflectivity on the pump photon energy.

  16. Analysis of the unusual wavelength dependence of the first hyperpolarizability of porphyrin derivatives (United States)

    De Mey, K.; Clays, K.; Therien, Michael J.; Beratan, David N.; Asselberghs, Inge


    Successfully predicting the frequency dispersion of electronic hyperpolarizabilities is an unresolved challenge in materials science and electronic structure theory. It has been shown1 that the generalized Thomas-Kuhn sum rules combined with linear absorption data and measured hyperpolarizabilities at one or two frequencies, may be used to predict the entire frequency-dependent electronic hyperpolarizability spectrum. This treatment includes two- and threelevel contributions that arise from the lowest two or three excited state manifolds, enabling us to describe the unusual observed frequency dispersion of the dynamic hyperpolarizability in high oscillator strength M-PZn chromophores, where (porphinato)zinc(II) (PZn) and metal(II)polypyridyl (M) units are connected via an ethyne unit that aligns the high oscillator strength transition dipoles of these components in a head-to-tail arrangement. Importantly, this approach provides a quantitative scheme to use linear optical absorption spectra and very few individual hyperpolarizability values to predict the entire frequency-dependent nonlinear optical response. In addition we provide here experimental dynamic hyperpolarizability values determined by hyper-Rayleigh scattering that underscore the validity of our approach.

  17. Concentration and size dependence of peak wavelength shift on quantum dots in colloidal suspension (United States)

    Rinehart, Benjamin S.; Cao, Caroline G. L.


    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that have significant advantages over organic fluorophores, including their extremely narrow Gaussian emission bands and broad absorption bands. Thus, QDs have a wide range of potential applications, such as in quantum computing, photovoltaic cells, biological sensing, and electronics. For these applications, aliasing provides a detrimental effect on signal identification efficiency. This can be avoided through characterization of the QD fluorescence signals. Characterization of the emissivity of CdTe QDs as a function of concentration (1 to 10 mg/ml aqueous) was conducted on 12 commercially available CdTe QDs (emission peaks 550 to 730 nm). The samples were excited by a 50-mW 405-nm laser with emission collected via a free-space CCD spectrometer. All QDs showed a redshift effect as concentration increased. On average, the CdTe QDs exhibited a maximum shift of +35.6 nm at 10 mg/ml and a minimum shift of +27.24 nm at 1 mg/ml, indicating a concentration dependence for shift magnitude. The concentration-dependent redshift function can be used to predict emission response as QD concentration is changed in a complex system.

  18. Wavelength Dependence of Solar Irradiance Enhancement During X-Class Flares and Its Influence on the Upper Atmosphere (United States)

    Huang, Yanshi; Richmond, Arthur D.; Deng, Yue; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Qian, Liying; Solomon, Stanley C.; Roble, Raymond G.; Xiao, Zuo


    The wavelength dependence of solar irradiance enhancement during flare events is one of the important factors in determining how the Thermosphere-Ionosphere (T-I) system responds to flares. To investigate the wavelength dependence of flare enhancement, the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) was run for 61 X-class flares. The absolute and the percentage increases of solar irradiance at flare peaks, compared to pre-flare conditions, have clear wavelength dependences. The 0-14 nm irradiance increases much more (approx. 680% on average) than that in the 14-25 nm waveband (approx. 65% on average), except at 24 nm (approx. 220%). The average percentage increases for the 25-105 nm and 122-190 nm wavebands are approx. 120% and approx. 35%, respectively. The influence of 6 different wavebands (0-14 nm, 14-25 nm, 25-105 nm, 105- 120 nm, 121.56 nm, and 122-175 nm) on the thermosphere was examined for the October 28th, 2003 flare (X17-class) event by coupling FISM with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) under geomagnetically quiet conditions (Kp=1). While the enhancement in the 0-14 nm waveband caused the largest enhancement of the globally integrated solar heating, the impact of solar irradiance enhancement on the thermosphere at 400 km is largest for the 25-105 nm waveband (EUV), which accounts for about 33 K of the total 45 K temperature enhancement, and approx. 7.4% of the total approx. 11.5% neutral density enhancement. The effect of 122-175 nm flare radiation on the thermosphere is rather small. The study also illustrates that the high-altitude thermospheric response to the flare radiation at 0-175 nm is almost a linear combination of the responses to the individual wavebands. The upper thermospheric temperature and density enhancements peaked 3-5 h after the maximum flare radiation.

  19. Excitation-wavelength-dependent small polaron trapping of photoexcited carriers in α-Fe2O3 (United States)

    Carneiro, Lucas M.; Cushing, Scott K.; Liu, Chong; Su, Yude; Yang, Peidong; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Leone, Stephen R.


    Small polaron formation is known to limit ground-state mobilities in metal oxide photocatalysts. However, the role of small polaron formation in the photoexcited state and how this affects the photoconversion efficiency has yet to be determined. Here, transient femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet measurements suggest that small polaron localization is responsible for the ultrafast trapping of photoexcited carriers in haematite (α-Fe2O3). Small polaron formation is evidenced by a sub-100 fs splitting of the Fe 3p core orbitals in the Fe M2,3 edge. The small polaron formation kinetics reproduces the triple-exponential relaxation frequently attributed to trap states. However, the measured spectral signature resembles only the spectral predictions of a small polaron and not the pre-edge features expected for mid-gap trap states. The small polaron formation probability, hopping radius and lifetime varies with excitation wavelength, decreasing with increasing energy in the t2g conduction band. The excitation-wavelength-dependent localization of carriers by small polaron formation is potentially a limiting factor in haematite's photoconversion efficiency.

  20. Demonstrating the angular, wavelength and polarization dependence of surface plasmon resonance on thin gold films—An undergraduate experiment (United States)

    Connolly, Peter W. R.; Kaplan, Andrey


    This paper describes the design of a simple and compact optical system capable of examining fundamental properties of light coupling to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on a thin gold film. The setup, involving a rotatable Attenuated Total Reflection device, from which the reflected light is focused by means of a parabolic mirror, allows for the investigation of the dependence of the reflected intensity on the angle of incidence without moving the detector. It additionally makes provision for a convenient exchange of light sources or the possibility to incorporate a broadband source suitable to investigate SPR at different wavelengths. Theoretical simulation of the experimental data is provided, as well as straightforward calculations for exploring the physics of light excited waves propagating on a surface.

  1. Initial investigation of the wavelength dependence of optical properties measured with a new multi-pass aerosol extinction differential optical absorption spectrometer (AE-DOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Chartier


    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols directly affect climate by scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of the impact is dependent upon the wavelength of light, but is often estimated near 550 nm. When light scattering and absorption by aerosols is approximated, the wavelength dependence of the refractive index for specific components is lost. As a result, climate models would have inherent uncertainties for aerosol contributions to radiative forcing when considering the entire solar spectrum. An aerosol extinction differential optical absorption spectrometer has been developed to directly measure aerosol extinction at mid-ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths. The instrument consists of a spectrometer coupled to a closed White-type multi-pass gas cell with an adjustable path length of up to approximately 20 m. Laboratory measurements of various gases are compared with known absorption cross sections. Additionally, the extinction of monodisperse samples of polystyrene latex spheres are measured and compared to Mie theory generated with refractive index values from the literature to validate the new instrument. The polystyrene experiments also emphasize the ability of the new instrument to retrieve the wavelength dependent refractive index, especially in the ultraviolet wavelength regions where variability is expected. The spectrometer will be a significant advancement for determining wavelength dependent complex refractive indices in future laboratory studies as well as provide the ability to monitor ambient aerosol light extinction.

  2. Initial investigation of the wavelength dependence of optical properties measured with a new multi-pass Aerosol Extinction Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (AE-DOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Chartier


    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols directly affect climate by scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of the impact is dependent upon the wavelength of light, but is often estimated near 550 nm. When light scattering and absorption by aerosols is approximated, the wavelength dependence of the refractive index for specific components is lost. As a result, climate models would have inherent uncertainties for aerosol contributions to radiative forcing when considering the entire solar spectrum. An aerosol extinction differential optical absorption spectrometer has been developed to directly measure aerosol extinction at mid-ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths. The instrument consists of a spectrometer coupled to a closed White-type multi-pass gas cell with an adjustable path length of up to approximately 20 m. Laboratory measurements of various gases are compared with known absorption cross sections. Additionally, the extinction of monodisperse samples of polystyrene latex spheres are measured and compared to Mie theory generated with refractive index values from the literature to validate the new instrument. The polystyrene experiments also emphasize the ability of the new instrument to retrieve the wavelength dependent refractive index, especially in the ultraviolet wavelength regions where variability is expected. The spectrometer will be a significant advancement for determining wavelength dependent complex refractive indices in future laboratory studies as well as provide the ability to monitor ambient aerosol light extinction.

  3. Excitation wavelength and intensity dependence of photo-spectral blue shift in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingbo, E-mail:; Zheng, Shu; Gao, Wenli; Wei, Wei; Chen, Meiling; Deng, Fangming; Liu, Xia; Xiao, Qian [Hunan Agricultural University, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Food Science and Technology (China)


    The influence of excitation wavelength and intensity on core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) photo-spectral blue shift was investigated by spectral imaging. Analysis of the evolution of the distance between the zeroth-order spot and the first-order spectral streak, we found that the extent of blue shift strongly depends on the excitation wavelength and QDs sizes, but not on the excitation intensity. Converted the extent of blue shift into the decreased QDs volume at a series of time, the core oxidation kinetics of CdSe/ZnS QDs was uncovered that provided a quantitative comparison method for study the excitation wavelength and intensity dependence of single QDs blue shift. The core oxidation rate is almost proportional to the excitation intensity. These results are explained by a fact that higher energy excitation wavelength can accelerate individual exciton formation and higher excitation intensity can induce more amount of exciton formation per a unit time.

  4. Black carbon and wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in the North China Plain based on two-year aethalometer measurements (United States)

    Ran, L.; Deng, Z. Z.; Wang, P. C.; Xia, X. A.


    Light-absorbing components of atmospheric aerosols have gained particular attention in recent years due to their climatic and environmental effects. Based on two-year measurements of aerosol absorption at seven wavelengths, aerosol absorption properties and black carbon (BC) were investigated in the North China Plain (NCP), one of the most densely populated and polluted regions in the world. Aerosol absorption was stronger in fall and the heating season (from November to March) than in spring and summer at all seven wavelengths. Similar spectral dependence of aerosol absorption was observed in non-heating seasons despite substantially strong absorption in fall. With an average absorption Angström exponent (α) of 1.36 in non-heating seasons, freshly emitted BC from local fossil fuel burning was thought to be the major component of light-absorbing aerosols. In the heating season, strong ultraviolet absorption led to an average α of 1.81, clearly indicating the importance of non-BC light-absorbing components, which were possibly from coal burning for domestic heating and aging processes on a regional scale. Diurnally, the variation of BC mass concentrations experienced a double-peak pattern with a higher level at night throughout the year. However, the diurnal cycle of α in the heating season was distinctly different from that in non-heating seasons. α peaked in the late afternoon in non-heating seasons with concomitantly observed low valley in BC mass concentrations. In contrast, α peaked around the midnight in the heating season and lowered down during the daytime. The relationship of aerosol absorption and winds in non-heating seasons also differed from that in the heating season. BC mass concentrations declined while α increased with increasing wind speed in non-heating seasons, which suggested elevated non-BC light absorbers in transported aged aerosols. No apparent dependence of α on wind speed was found in the heating season, probably due to well mixed

  5. Temperature-dependent spontaneous emission of PbS quantum dots inside photonic nanostructures at telecommunication wavelength (United States)

    Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang; Takiguchi, Masato; Olivier, Aurelien; Tobing, Landobasa Y.; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Yokoo, Atsushi; Hong, Wang; Notomi, Masaya


    Spontaneous emission of PbS quantum dots (QDs) in different photonic nanostructures has been studied. We use the temperature-dependent exciton photoluminescence and the classic dipole near interface models to understand the spontaneous emission control at various temperatures. Then, we demonstrate that the enhancement and the inhibition of PbS QDs due to the local density of states (LDOS) inside nanostructures are more efficient at temperature as low as 77 K than the inhibition at 300 K. Largest emission rate enhancement at 77 K of 1.67 ± 0.10 and inhibition factors at 100 K of 2.27 ± 0.15 are reported for the gold (Au) planar mirror and silicon (Si) two-dimensional photonic crystal bandgap, respectively. We attribute those enhancement and inhibition to the large quantum yields Qe at low temperatures, which is much larger than that at 300 K. These results are relevant for application and optimization of PbS QDs in nanophotonics at telecommunication wavelength.

  6. Excitation Wavelength Dependent O2 Release from Copper(II)-Superoxide Compounds: Laser Flash-Photolysis Experiments and Theoretical Studies (United States)

    Saracini, Claudio; Liakos, Dimitrios G.; Zapata Rivera, Jhon E.; Neese, Frank; Meyer, Gerald J.; Karlin, Kenneth D.


    Irradiation of the copper(II)-superoxide synthetic complexes [(TMG3tren)CuII(O2)]+ (1) and [(PV-TMPA)CuII(O2)]+ (2) with visible light resulted in direct photo-generation of O2 gas at low temperature (from −40 °C to −70°C for 1 and from −125 °C to −135 °C for 2) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) solvent. The yield of O2 release was wavelength dependent: λexc = 436 nm, ϕ = 0.29 (for 1), ϕ = 0.11 (for 2), and λexc = 683 nm, ϕ = 0.035 (for 1), ϕ = 0.078 (for 2), which was followed by fast O2-recombination with [(TMG3tren)CuI]+ (3) and [(PV-TMPA)CuI]+ (4). Enthalpic barriers for O2 re-binding to the copper(I) center (~ 10 kJ mol−1) and for O2 dissociation from the superoxide compound 1 (45 kJ mol−1) were determined. TD-DFT studies, carried out for 1, support the experimental results confirming the dissociative character of the excited states formed upon blue or red light laser excitation. PMID:24428309

  7. Atom interferometer gyroscope with spin-dependent phase shifts induced by light near a tune-out wavelength. (United States)

    Trubko, Raisa; Greenberg, James; Germaine, Michael T St; Gregoire, Maxwell D; Holmgren, William F; Hromada, Ivan; Cronin, Alexander D


    Tune-out wavelengths measured with an atom interferometer are sensitive to laboratory rotation rates because of the Sagnac effect, vector polarizability, and dispersion compensation. We observed shifts in measured tune-out wavelengths as large as 213 pm with a potassium atom beam interferometer, and we explore how these shifts can be used for an atom interferometer gyroscope.

  8. Atom Interferometer Gyroscope with Spin-Dependent Phase Shifts Induced by Light near a Tune-Out Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Trubko, Raisa; Germaine, Michael T St; Gregoire, Maxwell D; Holmgren, William F; Hromada, Ivan; Cronin, Alexander D


    Tune-out wavelengths measured with an atom interferometer are sensitive to laboratory rotation rates because of the Sagnac effect, vector polarizability, and dispersion compensation. We observed shifts in measured tune-out wavelengths as large as 213 pm with a potassium atom beam interferometer, and we explore how these shifts can be used for an atom interferometer gyroscope.

  9. Wavelength-dependent fibre-optic transillumination of small approximal caries lesions : The use of a dye, and a comparison to bitewing radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaarkamp, J; tenBosch, JJ; Verdonschot, EH; Huysmans, MCDNJM


    The mere detection of caries lesions is insufficient for optimal treatment decision-making. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative information about approximal lesion depth can be obtained from a technique based on the wavelength dependency of light propagation and addi

  10. A compact dual-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser with adjustable power-ratio between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines by controlling polarization dependent loss (United States)

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Ling; He, Chaojian; Lin, Xuechun


    We demonstrate a compact dual-wavelength operation of Nd:LuVO4 laser with a power-ratio adjustable between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines in a compound cavity configuration. The output power at two wavelengths of the laser indicates that it depends not only on pumping-power and but also on the controllable polarization loss in the cavity. Also, the power-ratio, defined as ratio between the output power at 1064 nm and that at 1342 nm, can be adjusted from 0 to 8 or higher accurately by rotating a quarter-wave plate (QWP) in the cavity.

  11. Wavelength-Dependent Second Harmonic Generation Circular Dichroism for Differentiation of Col I and Col III Isoforms in Stromal Models of Ovarian Cancer Based on Intrinsic Chirality Differences. (United States)

    Campbell, Kirby R; Campagnola, Paul J


    Extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs in many epithelial cancers. For example, in ovarian cancer, upregulation of collagen isoform type III has been linked to invasive forms of the disease, and this change may be a potential biomarker. To examine this possibility, we implemented wavelength-dependent second harmonic generation circular dichroism (SHG-CD) imaging microscopy to quantitatively determine changes in chirality in ECM models comprised of different Col I/Col III composition. In these models, Col III was varied between 0 and 40%, and we found increasing Col III results in reduced net chirality, consistent with structural biology studies of Col I and III in tissues where the isoforms comingle in the same fibrils. We further examined the wavelength dependence of the SHG-CD to both optimize the response and gain insight into the underlying mechanism. We found using shorter SHG excitation wavelengths resulted in increased SHG-CD sensitivity, where this is consistent with the electric-dipole-coupled oscillator model suggested previously for the nonlinear chirality response from thin films. Moreover, the sensitivity is further consistent with the wavelength dependency of SHG intensity fit to a two-state model of the two-photon absorption in collagen. We also provide experimental calibration protocols to implement the SHG-CD modality on a laser scanning microscope. We last suggest that the technique has broad applicability in probing a wide range of diseased states with changes in collagen molecular structure.

  12. Investigation of pump-wavelength dependence of terahertz-wave parametric oscillator based on LiNbO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Bo; Liu Jin-Song; Li En-Bang; Yao Jian-Quan


    This paper investigates the performances of terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) based on the LiNbO3 crystal at different pump wavelengths. The calculated results show that TPO characteristics, including the frequency tuning range, the THz-wave gain and the stability of THz-wave output direction based on the Si-prism coupler, can be significantly improved by using a short-wavelength pump. It also demonstrates that a long-wavelength-pump allows the employment of a short TPO cavity due to an enlarged phase-matching angle, that is, an increased angular separation between the pump and oscillated Stokes beams under the THz-wave generation at a specific frequency. The study provides an useful guide and a theoretical basis for the further improvement of TPO systems.

  13. Sterilization effect of UV light on Bacillus spores using TiO2 films depends on wavelength


    Nhung, Le Thi Tuyet; Nagata, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Akira; Aihara, Mutsumi; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Shimohata, Takaaki; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Haraguchi, Masanobu


    UV light and photocatalysts such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) are useful for disinfection of water and surfaces. However, the effect of UV wavelength on photocatalytic disinfection of spores is not well understood. Inactivation of Bacillus spores has been examined using different UV wavelengths and TiO2 or TiO2/Ag composite materials. The level of UVA disinfection of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus brevis vegetative cells increased with the presence of the TiO2 and Ag photocatal...

  14. Dependence of Purcell effect on fluorescence wavelength in dye molecules on metal-dielectric multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials (United States)

    Tsurumachi, Noriaki; Izawa, Hayato; Tomioka, Ryo; Sakata, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shimokawa, Fusao; Nakanishi, Shunsuke


    Recently, the enhancement of spontaneous emission, i.e., broadband Purcell effect, has been achieved using hyperbolic metamaterials. Hyperbolic metamaterials, which can be realized using a metal-dielectric multilayer structure, have an extremely large optical anisotropy of permittivity in both the parallel and perpendicular directions to the propagation of light, especially when the signs of permittivities in both directions differ. In this study, we investigated the conditions for realizing the broadband Purcell effect using dye molecules with different fluorescence wavelengths. Our fabricated metal-dielectric multilayer structure exhibited hyperbolic dispersion at wavelengths beyond 500 nm. In the case of coumarin 500 whose fluorescence peak is located at 500 nm, no broadband Purcell effect was observed. However, in the case of pyridine 1 whose fluorescence peak is located at 650 nm, we observed the successfull fluorescence lifetime shortening, i.e., the broadband Purcell effect.

  15. Simultaneous seeing measurement through the Subaru Telescope in the visible and near-infrared bands for the wavelength dependence evaluation (United States)

    Oya, Shin; Terada, Hiroshi; Hayano, Yutaka; Watanabe, Makoto; Hattori, Masayuki; Minowa, Yosuke


    Stellar images have been obtained under natural seeing at visible and near-infrared wavelengths simultaneously through the Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea. The image quality is evaluated by the full-width at the half-maximum (FWHM) of the stellar images. The observed ratio of FWHM in the V-band to the K-band is 1.54 ± 0.17 on average. The ratio shows tendency to decrease toward bad seeing as expected from the outer scale influence, though the number of the samples is still limited. The ratio is important for simulations to evaluate the performance of a ground-layer adaptive optics system at near-infrared wavelengths based on optical seeing statistics. The observed optical seeing is also compared with outside seeing to estimate the dome seeing of the Subaru Telescope.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, William J.; Calvin, Melvin; Buchardt, Ole.


    The synthesis of nonracemic yields of hexa-, hepta-, octa-, and nonhelicene with circular light was observed, and the structural and wavelength dependence of the induced optical yields was examined. The results obtained, together with a detailed consideration of the mechanism of helicene synthesis from the parent diarylolefins, indicate that the induced optical activity is due to selective reaction of enantiomeric conformations of the parent cis diarylolefins by circular light.

  17. Study of photoemission and work function of large surface areas, phase 3, phase 4. [wavelength dependences of photoelectric space probe materials (United States)


    The photoemission of materials which might be used in probe measurements of the exo-atmospheric electric field is considered by evaluating the wavelength dependence of their photoelectric yield for eleven elements over the range 800 to 3200 A. Yield data for zinc, copper beryllium, platinum, cadmium, graphite, carbon, gold, silver, tantalum, and tungsten show that copper-beryllium is a preferred material. Silver has one of the highest photoemissions when exposed to solar radiation.

  18. Investigation of wavelength-dependent tissue ablation: visible (λ=532 nm) vs IR (λ=2.01 μm) (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Peng, Yihlih Steven


    Laser prostatectomy with various lasers has been shown to be effective in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. However, the impact of laser parameters on tissue ablation is still in question. The aim of this study is to experimentally characterize laser-tissue interactions in terms of wavelength by comparing visible (λ= 532 nm) and infrared (λ= 2.01 μm) spectra. Porcine kidney tissue was used as it has thermal properties and glandular structure similar to human prostatic tissue. Q-switched 532 nm (GreenLightTM HPS) and continuous-wave (CW) 2.01 μm (custom-made Tm:YAG) lasers were employed to remove soft tissue under various settings (power, working distance, and treatment speed). For both laser systems, ablation rate increased with power and was maximized at 4 mm/s. The 532 nm laser generated approximately 30% (pHistology also confirmed coagulation depth in response to each wavelength. Due to light absorption in aqueous environment, the IR laser exhibited a dramatic decrease in power transmission and ablation volume with increasing working distance whereas the 532 nm laser maintained relatively constant features. In conclusion, the characteristics of tissue ablation were contingent upon the applied wavelengths due to optical properties and laser parameters.

  19. Wavelength and average power density dependency of the recrystallization of tooth dentin using a MIR-FEL (United States)

    Heya, Manabu; Awazu, Kunio


    Recrystallization of tooth dentin by the application of mid- infrared (MIR) pulsed-laser irradiation is one candidate for a novel, non-invasive treatment for the prevention of tooth decay. Recrystallized dentin functions in a similar way to dental enamel. To recrystallize the dentin effectively and non-invasively it is essential to estimate quantitatively and qualitatively the laser parameters, such as the wavelength and the average power density, required for recrystallization. The laser-tissue interaction is initiated effectively by selective excitation of phosphate acid ions (PO4) in the dentin. Using a tunable, MIR Free Electron Laser (FEL) in the wavelength region of 8.8- 10.6micrometers , corresponding to intense absorption bands due to PO4 vibration modes, we have investigated macroscopically extent of surface modification of dentin, and we have obtained experimental results related to the ablation depth, the MIR absorption spectrum, and the elemental chemical composition. From these results, it was found that (1) the laser parameters at which efficient surface modification, without enhanced ablation effects, occurred were estimated to be approximately in the wavelength and average power density regions of ~9.4- 10.3micrometers and ~10-20 W/cm2, and that (2) in this region PO4 vibration modes with lower binding energy were preferentially excluded from the dentin.

  20. Miniature Fourier transform spectrometer based on wavelength dependence of half-wave voltage of a LiNbO₃ waveguide interferometer. (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei


    A simple and reliable spectrum-retrieval method was proposed for the development of miniature stationary Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers based on a LiNbO₃ (LN) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator. The method takes into account the wavelength dependence of the optical pathlength difference (OPD) and allows us to use a nonlinear voltage ramp to modulate the OPD. The method is based on the dispersion of the half-wave voltage, which was measured to be a monotonous polynomial function of the wavelength for the LN waveguide MZI used. With the measured dispersion of the half-wave voltage, the OPD, as a linear function of the modulating voltage, can be accurately determined at each wavelength in the near-infrared region in which the MZI used is a single-mode device. A prototype FT spectrometer was prepared using a LN waveguide MZI modulator based on the above method. The experimental results demonstrated that the spectrometer can be used for accurate determination of the laser wavelength and for liquid absorptiometry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegood, M.S.; Baba, J.S.


    Light interaction with biological tissue can be described using three parameters: the scattering and absorption coeffi cients (μs and μa), as well as the anisotropy (g) which describes the directional dependence of the scattered photons. Accurately determining these optical properties for different tissue types at specifi c wavelengths simultaneously would be benefi cial for a variety of different biomedical applications. The goal of this project was to take a user defi ned g-value and determine the remaining two parameters for a specifi ed wavelength range. A fully automated computer program and process was developed to collect data for all wavelengths in a timely and accurate manner. LabVIEW® was used to write programs to automate raw intensity data collection from a spectrometer equipped integrating sphere, conversion of the data into a format for analysis via Scott Prahl’s Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) C code execution, and fi nally computation of the optical properties based on the output from the IAD code. To allow data to be passed effi ciently between LabVIEW® and C code program modules, the two were combined into a single program (OPT 3.1). OPT 3.1 was tested using tissue mimicking phantoms. Determination of the absorption and scattering coeffi cients showed excellent agreement with theory for wavelengths where the user inputted single g-value was suffi ciently precise. Future improvements entail providing for multi-wavelength g-value entry to extend the accuracy of results to encompass the complete multispectral range. Ultimately, the data collection process and algorithms developed through this effort will be used to examine actual biological tissues for the purpose of building and refi ning models for light-tissue interactions.

  2. Wavelength dependent photoelectron circular dichroism of limonene studied by femtosecond multiphoton laser ionization and electron-ion coincidence imaging (United States)

    Rafiee Fanood, Mohammad M.; Janssen, Maurice H. M.; Powis, Ivan


    Enantiomers of the monoterpene limonene have been investigated by (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization and photoelectron circular dichroism employing tuneable, circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses. Electron imaging detection provides 3D momentum measurement while electron-ion coincidence detection can be used to mass-tag individual electrons. Additional filtering, by accepting only parent ion tagged electrons, can be then used to provide discrimination against higher energy dissociative ionization mechanisms where more than three photons are absorbed to better delineate the two photon resonant, one photon ionization pathway. The promotion of different vibrational levels and, tentatively, different electronic ion core configurations in the intermediate Rydberg states can be achieved with different laser excitation wavelengths (420 nm, 412 nm, and 392 nm), in turn producing different state distributions in the resulting cations. Strong chiral asymmetries in the lab frame photoelectron angular distributions are quantified, and a comparison made with a single photon (synchrotron radiation) measurement at an equivalent photon energy.

  3. Diode laser detection of greenhouse gases in the near-infrared region by wavelength modulation spectroscopy: pressure dependence of the detection sensitivity. (United States)

    Asakawa, Takashi; Kanno, Nozomu; Tonokura, Kenichi


    We have investigated the pressure dependence of the detection sensitivity of CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4) using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with distributed feed-back diode lasers in the near infrared region. The spectral line shapes and the background noise of the second harmonics (2f) detection of the WMS were analyzed theoretically. We determined the optimum pressure conditions in the detection of CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4), by taking into consideration the background noise in the WMS. At the optimum total pressure for the detection of CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4), the limits of detection in the present system were determined.

  4. Mueller matrix analysis for all optical fiber co-existence of birefringence-polarization dependent gain-mode coupling at a single wavelength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Chio; Wu Chong-Qing; Li Zheng-Yong; Yang Shuang-Shou; Gao Kai-Qiang; Yu Kuang-Lu; Feng Zhen


    Birefringence (polarization-related phase-shift),polarization dependent gain (PDG) and mode coupling are three factors that may synchronously influence the transmission of single-wavelength polarized light in optical fibers.This paper obtains a new Mueller matrix analysis,which can be used under conditions that all these three factors are existing and changing.According to our transmission model,the state of polarization (SOP) changes along an optical microstructure fiber with co-existence of birefringence-PDG-mode coupling were simulated. The simulated results,which show the phenomena of SOP constringency,are in good agreement with previous theoretical analyses.

  5. Recovery of ordered periodic orbits with increasing wavelength for sound propagation in a range-dependent waveguide. (United States)

    Kon'kov, L E; Makarov, D V; Sosedko, E V; Uleysky, M Yu


    We consider sound wave propagation in a range-periodic acoustic waveguide in the deep ocean. It is demonstrated that vertical oscillations of a sound-speed perturbation, induced by ocean internal waves, influence near-axial rays in a resonant way, producing ray chaos and forming a wide chaotic sea in the underlying phase space. We study interplay between chaotic ray dynamics and wave motion with signal frequencies of 50-100 Hz. The Floquet modes of the waveguide are calculated and visualized by means of the Husimi plots. Despite of irregular phase space distribution of periodic orbits, the Husimi plots display the presence of ordered peaks within the chaotic sea. These peaks, not being supported by certain periodic orbits, draw the specific "chainlike" pattern, reminiscent of KAM resonance. The link between the peaks and KAM resonance is confirmed by ray calculations with lower amplitude of the sound-speed perturbation, when the periodic orbits are well-ordered. We associate occurrence of the peaks with the recovery of ordered periodic orbits, corresponding to KAM resonance, due to suppressing of wave-field sensitivity to small-scale features of the sound-speed profile that take place with increasing wavelength.

  6. Wavelength-dependent degradation of ochratoxin and citrinin by light in vitro and in vivo and its implications on Penicillium. (United States)

    Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Cramer, Benedikt; Graf, Irina; Lerch, Sandra; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Geisen, Rolf


    It has previously been shown that the biosynthesis of the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and B and of citrinin by Penicillium is regulated by light. However, not only the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins, but also the molecules themselves are strongly affected by light of certain wavelengths. The white light and blue light of 470 and 455 nm are especially able to degrade ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B and citrinin after exposure for a certain time. After the same treatment of the secondary metabolites with red (627 nm), yellow (590 nm) or green (530 nm) light or in the dark, almost no degradation occurred during that time indicating the blue light as the responsible part of the spectrum. The two derivatives of ochratoxin (A and B) are degraded to certain definitive degradation products which were characterized by HPLC-FLD-FTMS. The degradation products of ochratoxin A and B did no longer contain phenylalanine however were still chlorinated in the case of ochratoxin A. Citrinin is completely degraded by blue light. A fluorescent band was no longer visible after detection by TLC suggesting a higher sensitivity and apparently greater absorbance of energy by citrinin. The fact that especially blue light degrades the three secondary metabolites is apparently attributed to the absorption spectra of the metabolites which all have an optimum in the short wave length range. The absorption range of citrinin is, in particular, broader and includes the wave length of blue light. In wheat, which was contaminated with an ochratoxin A producing culture of Penicillium verrucosum and treated with blue light after a pre-incubation by the fungus, the concentration of the preformed ochratoxin A reduced by roughly 50% compared to the control and differed by > 90% compared to the sample incubated further in the dark. This indicates that the light degrading effect is also exerted in vivo, e.g., on food surfaces. The biological consequences of the light instability of the toxins are discussed.

  7. Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J J; Bruere, J R; Bolourchi, M; Carr, C W; Feit, M D; Hackel, R P; Hahn, D E; Jarboe, J A; Lane, L A; Luthi, R L; McElroy, J N; Rubenchik, A M; Stanley, J R; Sell, W D; Vickers, J L; Weiland, T L; Willard, D A


    An experimental technique has been utilized to measure the variation of bulk damage scatter with damaging fluence in plates of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) crystals. Bulk damage in unconditioned and laser-conditioned doubler-cut KDP crystals has been studied using 527 nm (2{omega}) light at pulselengths of 0.3-10 ns. It is found that there is less scatter due to damage at fixed fluence for longer pulselengths. In particular, there is {approx}4X increase in fluence for equivalent scatter for damage at 2{omega}, 10 ns as compared to 0.30 ns in unconditioned KDP. The results for the unconditioned and conditioned KDP show that for all the pulselengths the scatter due to the bulk damage is a strong function of the damaging fluence ({phi}{sup -5}). It is determined that the 2{omega} fluence pulselength-scaling for equivalent bulk damage scatter in unconditioned KDP varies as {tau}{sup 0.30{+-}0.11} and in 3{omega}, 3ns ramp-conditioned KDP varies as {tau}{sup 0.27{+-}0.14}. The effectiveness of 2{omega} and 3{omega} laser conditioning at pulselengths in the range of 0.30-23 ns for damage induced 2{omega}, 3 ns is analyzed in terms of scatter. For the protocols tested (i.e. peak conditioning irradiance, etc.), the 3{omega}, 300 ps conditioning to a peak fluence of 3 J/cm{sup 2} had the best performance under 2{omega}, 3 ns testing. The general trend in the performance of the conditioning protocols was shorter wavelength and shorter pulselength appear to produce better conditioning for testing at 2{omega}, 3 ns.

  8. Add-Drop Filter Based on Wavelength-Dependent Light Interlink between Lithium-Niobate Microwaveguide Chip and Microfiber Knot Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxu Zhou


    Full Text Available In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an add-drop filter based on wavelength-dependent light coupling between a lithium-niobate (LN microwaveguide chip and a microfiber knot ring (MKR. The MKR was fabricated from a standard single-mode fiber, and the LN microwaveguide chip works as a robust substrate to support the MKR. The guided light can be transmitted through add and drop functionality and the behaviors of the add-drop filter can be clearly observed. Furthermore, its performance dependence on the MKR diameter is also studied experimentally. The approach, using a LN microwaveguide chip as a platform to couple and integrate the MKR, may enable us to realize an optical interlink between the microstructured chip and the micro/nano fiber-optic device.

  9. Wavelength Dependence of Nanosecond IR Laser-Induced Breakdown in Water: Evidence for Multiphoton Initiation via an Intermediate State (United States)


    breakdown threshold in water for nanosecond (ns) IR laser pulses . Avalanche ionization (AI) is the most powerful mechanism driving IR ns laser-induced...acknowledged that femtosecond (fs) and picosecond (ps) IR breakdown is initiated by photoionization because ultrashort pulses are sufficiently...formation depends critically on the density of pre-existing traps, χtrap. An estimate of χtrap can be obtained by relating the initial quantum efficiency

  10. Temperature-dependent properties of single long-wavelength InGaAs quantum dots embedded in a strain reducing layer (United States)

    Olbrich, Fabian; Kettler, Jan; Bayerbach, Matthias; Paul, Matthias; Höschele, Jonatan; Portalupi, Simone Luca; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter


    We report on temperature-dependent investigations of single metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy-grown In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots at wavelengths above 1 μm. Here, two types of samples are compared, whereas the quantum dots differ in the material composition and are embedded in a strain reducing layer to achieve an emission redshift. The analysis is performed by standard micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, time-correlated photon counting, and intensity second-order autocorrelation measurements. It is found that the long-wavelength quantum dots experience a high charge carrier confinement (˜200 meV), but the thermal emission of carriers into the barrier or the wetting layer is mainly dominated by the shell spacing of individual dots. Additionally, we demonstrate that the single-dot carrier dynamics is reservoir-dominated. The influence of the strain reducing layers seems to cause this effect, leading to changes in the effective dot filling rate and charge configuration. Single-photon emission is preserved up to 77 K for a sample spectrally reaching the telecom O-band and then allowing for quantum dot single-photon operation at liquid nitrogen temperatures.

  11. Temperature dependence of alpha-induced scintillation in the 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene wavelength shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Veloce, L M; Di Stefano, P C F; Noble, A J; Boulay, M G; Nadeau, P; Pollmann, T; Clark, M; Piquemal, M; Schreiner, K


    Liquid noble gas based particle detectors often use the organic wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) which shifts UV scintillation light to the visible regime, facilitating its detection, but which also can scintillate on its own. Dark matter searches based on this type of detector commonly rely on pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) for background mitigation. Alpha-induced scintillation therefore represents a possible background source in dark matter searches. The timing characteristics of this scintillation determine whether this background can be mitigated through PSD. We have therefore characterized the pulse shape and light yield of alpha induced TPB scintillation at temperatures ranging from 300 K down to 4 K, with special attention given to liquid noble temperatures. We find that the pulse shapes and light yield depend strongly on temperature. In addition, the significant contribution of long time constants above ~50 K provides an avenue for discrimination between alpha decay events ...

  12. Diode Laser Detection of Greenhouse Gases in the Near-Infrared Region by Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy: Pressure Dependence of the Detection Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Asakawa


    Full Text Available We have investigated the pressure dependence of the detection sensitivity of CO2, N2O and CH4 using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS with distributed feed-back diode lasers in the near infrared region. The spectral line shapes and the background noise of the second harmonics (2f detection of the WMS were analyzed theoretically. We determined the optimum pressure conditions in the detection of CO2, N2O and CH4, by taking into consideration the background noise in the WMS. At the optimum total pressure for the detection of CO2, N2O and CH4, the limits of detection in the present system were determined.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chomiuk, Laura; Sanders, Nathan E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pignata, Giuliano; Bufano, Filomena [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Lab, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Parker, Stuart [Parkdale Observatory, 225 Warren Road, RDl Oxford, Canterbury 7495 (New Zealand); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pian, Elena [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Pickering, Timothy; Buckley, David A. H.; Crawford, Steven M.; Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Hettlage, Christian [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Hooper, Eric; Nordsieck, Kenneth H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); O' Donoghue, Darragh, E-mail: [Southern African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); and others


    We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within {approx}1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity ({approx}> 12, 000 km s{sup -1}) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v Almost-Equal-To 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of M-dot {approx}1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (assuming wind velocity v{sub w} = 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M{sub Sun }), compact (R{sub *} {approx}< 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.

  14. Wavelength dependent neutron transmission and radiography investigations of the high temperature behaviour of materials applied in nuclear fuel and control rod claddings (United States)

    Grosse, M.; Steinbrueck, M.; Kaestner, A.


    Neutron radiography was used for the investigation of the nuclear fuel and control rod cladding behaviour during steam oxidation under severe nuclear accident conditions. In order to verify the hypothesis that the unexpectedly high neutron cross-section found after oxidation of Zircaloy-4 in wet air containing 10% steam is caused by a strong hydrogen uptake, the wavelength dependence of the total macroscopic neutron cross-section of the specimens was measured. The characteristic dependence for hydrogen was not found, which is a proof that hydrogen is not absorbed significantly. The data agree mostly with the behaviour expected for β-Zr. Examinations of control rod simulators annealed until the failure in single-rod tests were performed. In order to separate the effect of the neutron absorber and control rod structure materials, radiographs taken with different neutron spectra were combined. This procedure clearly showed that the local melting resulting from the eutectic reaction between the stainless steel control rod cladding and the Zircaloy-4 guide tube is the reason for the failure.

  15. Wavelength dependent neutron transmission and radiography investigations of the high temperature behaviour of materials applied in nuclear fuel and control rod claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, M., E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Steinbrueck, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kaestner, A. [Department of Spallation Source, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)


    Neutron radiography was used for the investigation of the nuclear fuel and control rod cladding behaviour during steam oxidation under severe nuclear accident conditions. In order to verify the hypothesis that the unexpectedly high neutron cross-section found after oxidation of Zircaloy-4 in wet air containing 10% steam is caused by a strong hydrogen uptake, the wavelength dependence of the total macroscopic neutron cross-section of the specimens was measured. The characteristic dependence for hydrogen was not found, which is a proof that hydrogen is not absorbed significantly. The data agree mostly with the behaviour expected for {beta}-Zr. Examinations of control rod simulators annealed until the failure in single-rod tests were performed. In order to separate the effect of the neutron absorber and control rod structure materials, radiographs taken with different neutron spectra were combined. This procedure clearly showed that the local melting resulting from the eutectic reaction between the stainless steel control rod cladding and the Zircaloy-4 guide tube is the reason for the failure.

  16. Porous silicon-VO{sub 2} based hybrids as possible optical temperature sensor: Wavelength-dependent optical switching from visible to near-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunez, E. E.; Salazar-Kuri, U.; Estevez, J. O.; Basurto, M. A.; Agarwal, V., E-mail: [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62209 (Mexico); Campos, J. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Jiménez Sandoval, S. [Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales, Centro de Investigación y estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)


    Morphological properties of thermochromic VO{sub 2}—porous silicon based hybrids reveal the growth of well-crystalized nanometer-scale features of VO{sub 2} as compared with typical submicron granular structure obtained in thin films deposited on flat substrates. Structural characterization performed as a function of temperature via grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman demonstrate reversible semiconductor-metal transition of the hybrid, changing from a low-temperature monoclinic VO{sub 2}(M) to a high-temperature tetragonal rutile VO{sub 2}(R) crystalline structure, coupled with a decrease in phase transition temperature. Effective optical response studied in terms of red/blue shift of the reflectance spectra results in a wavelength-dependent optical switching with temperature. As compared to VO{sub 2} film over crystalline silicon substrate, the hybrid structure is found to demonstrate up to 3-fold increase in the change of reflectivity with temperature, an enlarged hysteresis loop and a wider operational window for its potential application as an optical temperature sensor. Such silicon based hybrids represent an exciting class of functional materials to display thermally triggered optical switching culminated by the characteristics of each of the constituent blocks as well as device compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology.

  17. Longest-Wavelength Electronic Excitations of Linear Cyanines: The Role of Electron Delocalization and of Approximations in Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory. (United States)

    Ii, Barry Moore; Autschbach, Jochen


    The lowest-energy/longest-wavelength electronic singlet excitation energies of linear cyanine dyes are examined, using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and selected wave function methods in comparison with literature data. Variations of the bond-length alternation obtained with different optimized structures produce small differences of the excitation energy in the limit of an infinite chain. Hybrid functionals with range-separated exchange are optimally 'tuned', which is shown to minimize the delocalization error (DE) in the cyanine π systems. Much unlike the case of charge-transfer excitations, small DEs are not strongly correlated with better performance. A representative cyanine is analyzed in detail. Compared with accurate benchmark data, TDDFT with 'pure' local functionals gives too high singlet excitation energies for all systems, but DFT-based ΔSCF calculations with a local functional severely underestimates the energies. TDDFT strongly overestimates the difference between singlet and triplet excitation energies. An analysis points to systematically much too small magnitudes of integrals from the DFT components of the exchange-correlation response kernel as the likely culprit. The findings support previous suggestions that the differential correlation energy between the ground and excited state is not correctly produced by TDDFT with most functionals.

  18. The GALEX Time Domain Survey. II. Wavelength-Dependent Variability of Active Galactic Nuclei in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hung, T; Jones, D O; Kirshner, R P; Chornock, R; Berger, E; Rest, A; Huber, M; Narayan, G; Scolnic, D; Waters, C; Wainscoat, R; Martin, D C; Forster, K; Neill, J D


    We analyze the wavelength-dependent variability of a sample of spectroscopically confirmed active galactic nuclei (AGN) selected from near-UV ($NUV$) variable sources in the GALEX Time Domain Survey that have a large amplitude of optical variability (difference-flux S/N $>$ 3) in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS). By matching GALEX and PS1 epochs in 5 bands ($NUV$, $g_{P1}$, $r_{P1}$, $i_{P1}$, $z_{P1}$) in time, and taking their flux difference, we create co-temporal difference-flux spectral energy distributions ($\\Delta f$SEDs) using two chosen epochs for each of the 23 objects in our sample on timescales of about a year. We confirm the "bluer-when-brighter" trend reported in previous studies, and measure a median spectral index of the $\\Delta f$SEDs of $\\alpha_{\\lambda}$ = 2.1 that is consistent with an accretion disk spectrum. We further fit the $\\Delta f$SEDs of each source with a standard accretion disk model in which the accretion rate changes from one epoch to the other. In our sample, 17 o...

  19. UVIS G280 Wavelength Calibration (United States)

    Bushouse, Howard


    Wavelength calibration of the UVIS G280 grism will be established using observations of the Wolf Rayet star WR14. Accompanying direct exposures will provide wavelength zeropoints for dispersed exposures. The calibrations will be obtained at the central position of each CCD chip and at the center of the UVIS field. No additional field-dependent variations will be obtained.

  20. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov;


    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  1. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov;


    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on air-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  2. Neutron Scattering Investigation of the Temperature Dependence of Long-Wavelength Spin Waves in Ferromagnetic Rb2CrCI4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Lindgård, Per-Anker;


    The long-wavelength spin waves in Rb2CrCl4, a nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet, have been investigated at several temperatures below Tc=52.4K using neutron inelastic scattering techniques. The data have been analysed in terms of a Hartree-Fock theory using matching-matrix elements to give...... correctly the effects of anisotropy. Values for the parameters in the spin Hamiltonian have been found, and the theory accounts well for the energy renormalisation of the spin waves and for the transition temperature and variation of magnetic moment with temperature. Due to weak uniaxial anisotropy terms...

  3. Assessment of wavelength-dependent parameters of photosynthetic electron transport with a new type of multi-color PAM chlorophyll fluorometer


    Schreiber, Ulrich; Klughammer, Christof; Kolbowski, Jörg


    Technical features of a novel multi-color pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorometer as well as the applied methodology and some typical examples of its practical application with suspensions of Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis PCC 6803 are presented. The multi-color PAM provides six colors of pulse-modulated measuring light (peak-wavelengths at 400, 440, 480, 540, 590, and 625 nm) and six colors of actinic light (AL), peaking at 440, 480, 540, 590, 625 and 420–640 nm (white...

  4. Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Philippe F., E-mail: [LumiLab, Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB-Photonics), Ghent University (Belgium); Van den Eeckhout, Koen [LumiLab, Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB-Photonics), Ghent University (Belgium); Bos, Adrie J.J.; Kolk, Erik van der; Dorenbos, Pieter [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)


    The evaluation of persistent phosphors is often focused on the processes right after the excitation, namely on the shape of the afterglow decay curve and the duration of the afterglow, in combination with thermoluminescence glow curve analysis. In this paper we study in detail the trap filling process in europium-doped alkaline earth silicon nitrides (Ca{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu, Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu and Ba{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu), i.e., how the persistent luminescence can be induced. Both the temperature at which the phosphors are excited and the spectral distribution of the excitation light on the ability to store energy in the phosphors' lattices are investigated. We show that for these phosphors this storage process is thermally activated upon excitation in the lower 5d excited states of Eu{sup 2+}, with the lowest thermal barrier for europium doped Ca{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}. Also, the influence of co-doping with thulium on the trap filling and afterglow behavior is studied. Finally there exists a clear relation between the luminescence quenching temperature and the trap filling efficiency. The latter relation can be utilized to select new efficient 5d-4f based afterglow phosphors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Orange afterglow in M{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu(Tm) studied with thermoluminescence spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong influences of excitation wavelength and temperature on trap filling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy level scheme is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relation between trap filling with visible light and thermal quenching behavior.

  5. A Tabulation and Critical Analysis of the Wavelength-Dependent Dielectric Image Coefficient for the Interaction Exerted by a Surface onto a Neighbouring Excited Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Saltiel, S; Ducloy, M; Bloch, Daniel; Ducloy, Martial; Saltiel, Solomon


    The near-field interaction of an atom with a dielectric surface is inversely proportional to the cube to the distance to the surface, and its coupling strength depends on a dielectric image coefficient. This coefficient, simply given in a pure electrostatic approach by (eps-1) / (eps+1) with eps the permittivity, is specific to the frequency of each of the various relevant atomic transition : it depends in a complex manner from the bulk material properties, and can exhibit resonances connected to the surface polariton modes. We list here the surface resonances for about a hundred of optical windows whose bulk properties are currently tabulated. The study concentrates on the infrared domain because it is the most relevant for atom-surface interaction. Aside from this tabulation, we discuss simple hints to estimate the position of surface resonances, and how uncertainties in the bulk data for the material dramatically affect the predictions for the image coefficient. We also evaluate the contribution of UV reso...

  6. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten


    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  7. 氮掺杂石墨烯量子点的激发波长依赖性发光研究%Origin of excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀秀; 房晓敏; 王梦薇; 于锦华; 刘磊; 卢纵; 王云晶; 展艳珊; 刘迎秋; 张文凯


    The excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence is a common phenomenon observed in the carbon‐based fluorescent materials .It can afford multi‐PL colors under the dif‐ferent excitation wavelengths ,that is important for certain practical applications .In this work , a few layer graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a size of 3 -5 nm were prepared via acidic oxidation of graphene oxide ,and then were treated with ethylenediamine (EDA) under 160 ℃hydrothermal to obtain the nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots (N‐GQDs) .Fourier trans‐form infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR) demonstrated that the C -N bonds of amide and amine were formed .The PL excitation peaks of 265 nm and 340 nm can be attributed to the C=C re‐lated π‐π* transitions and C -O related n‐π* transitions ,respectively .New energy levels was observed at 386 nm due to C(= O)NHR related local molecular structure .The slope of the change in the peak emission wavelength for a given change in excitation wavelength ,Δλem/Δλex creating a linear slope ~ 0 .43 ,but the Δλem/Δλex shows two linear range ,creating a larger slope ~0 7.8 whenλex >420 nm .So the C(=O)NHR related fluorescence dipole induces stron‐ger excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence .%激发波长依赖发光是碳基荧光材料中有趣的光学性质之一,其在不同激发波长下呈现的多彩发光对某些实际应用很重要.本文以氧化石墨烯为碳源,采用酸氧化法制备了尺寸约为3~5 nm的少层石墨烯量子点(GQDs),然后将其与乙二胺(EDA )在160℃下进行水热反应,得到了石墨烯边缘氮掺杂的石墨烯量子点(N‐GQDs).采用傅立叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)证实了N‐GQDs中酰胺键和胺C-N键的形成.GQDs的吸收主要来自C=C的π‐π*跃迁(265 nm)和C-O相关的n‐π*跃迁(340 nm),而N‐GQDs中出现了C(=O)NHR相关的新能级(386 nm).GQDs荧光峰随着激发光波长的移动

  8. A tunable wavelength-conversion laser (United States)

    Kondo, Kentaro; Kuno, Masaaki; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Wakao, Kiyohide


    A novel wavelength-conversion laser was fabricated using monolithic integration of a bistable laser diode and a wavelength-tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser. This device converts an input light signal with a certain wavelength to output light with a tunable wavelength over 3.5 nm. Input power required for switching is investigated, and its resonant dependence on input wavelength is revealed. Input polarization is also discussed, and suppression of crosstalk is demonstrated. This device's turn-off switching response is greatly influenced by the light power of the input signal as well as bias current, and the first 1 Gb/s operation is achieved in optimum conditions for fast turn-off and stable turn-on.

  9. CMOS-compatible spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-μm silicon waveguide coupling with low-loss low-wavelength dependence and high tolerance to misalignment (United States)

    Picard, Marie-Josée.; Latrasse, Christine; Larouche, Carl; Painchaud, Yves; Poulin, Michel; Pelletier, François; Guy, Martin


    One of the biggest challenges of silicon photonics is the efficient coupling of light between the sub-micron SiP waveguides and a standard optical fiber (SMF-28). We recently proposed a novel approach based on a spot-size converter (SSC) that fulfills this need. The SSC integrates a tapered silicon waveguide and a superimposed structure made of a plurality of rods of high index material, disposed in an array-like configuration and embedded in a cladding of lower index material. This superimposed structure defines a waveguide designed to provide an efficient adiabatic transfer, through evanescent coupling, to a 220 nm thick Si waveguide tapered down to a narrow tip on one side, while providing a large mode overlap to the optical fiber on the other side. An initial demonstration was made using a SSC fabricated with post-processing steps. Great coupling to a SMF-28 fiber with a loss of 0.6 dB was obtained for TEpolarized light at 1550 nm with minimum wavelength dependence. In this paper, SSCs designed for operation at 1310 and 1550 nm for TE/TM polarizations and entirely fabricated in a CMOS fab are presented.

  10. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian


    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  11. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  12. Strictly Transparent Wavelength Conversion Using Multi-Wavelength Signal Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiichi; Yamada; Hiroaki; Sanjoh; Yuzo; Yoshikuni


    We succeeded in strictly transparent wavelength conversion by means of channel selection from multi-wavelength signals generated by sinusoidal modulation of input signal. Modulation-format-independent and bit-rate-independent wavelength conversion is achieved with small power penalty.

  13. Analysis of the response dependence of Ebt3 radiochromic film with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scanning mode and humidity; Analisis de la dependencia de la respuesta de la pelicula radiocromica EBT3 con la energia, tasa de dosis, longitud de onda, modo de escaneo y con la humedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon M, E. Y.; Camacho L, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Laboratorio de Fotomedicina, Biofotonica y Espectroscopia Laser de Pulsos Ultracortos, Jesus Carranza y Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Herrera G, J. A.; Garcia G, O. A. [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Laboratorio de Fisica Medica y Unidad de Radiocirugia, 14269 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Villarreal B, J. E., E-mail: [University of Calgary, Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331 29th street NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)


    With the development of new modalities in radiotherapy treatments, the use of radiochromic films has increased considerably. Because the characteristics that presented, they are suitable for quality control and dose measurement. In this work and analysis of the dependence of the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scan mode and humidity, for a dose range of 0-70 Gy is presented. According to the results, the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films has low dependence on energy, dose rate, scan mode and humidity. However, the sensitivity of the response Ebt3 radiochromic films has a high dependence on the wavelength of the optical system used for reading. (Author)

  14. Multi-wavelength Laser Photoacoustics (United States)


    Multi-wavelength Laser Photoacoustics by Kristan P. Gurton, Melvin Felton, and Richard Tober ARL-TR-6147 September 2012...2012 Multi-wavelength Laser Photoacoustics Kristan P. Gurton and Melvin Felton Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 1, 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi-wavelength Laser Photoacoustics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  15. Suggested isosbestic wavelength calibration in clinical analyses. (United States)

    Hoxter, G


    I recommend the use of isosbestic points for conveniently checking the wavelength scale of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet and visible regions. Colorimetric pH indicators, hemoglobin derivatives, and other radiation-absorbing substances that are convertible into stable isomers of different absorption spectra provide a means for calibrating many different wavelengths by comparing the absorptivities of these isomers in equimolar solutions. The method requires no special precautions and results are independent of substance concentration and temperature between 4 and 45 degrees C. Isosbestic calibration may be important for (e.g.) coenzyme-dependent dehydrogenase activity determinations and in quality assurance programs.

  16. Comets at radio wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Crovisier, Jacques; Colom, Pierre; Biver, Nicolas


    Comets are considered as the most primitive objects in the Solar System. Their composition provides information on the composition of the primitive solar nebula, 4.6 Gyr ago. The radio domain is a privileged tool to study the composition of cometary ices. Observations of the OH radical at 18 cm wavelength allow us to measure the water production rate. A wealth of molecules (and some of their isotopologues) coming from the sublimation of ices in the nucleus have been identified by observations in the millimetre and submillimetre domains. We present an historical review on radio observations of comets, focusing on the results from our group, and including recent observations with the Nan\\c{c}ay radio telescope, the IRAM antennas, the Odin satellite, the Herschel space observatory, ALMA, and the MIRO instrument aboard the Rosetta space probe.

  17. Wavelength-conserving grating router for intermediate wavelength density (United States)

    Deri, Robert J.; Patel, Rajesh R.; Bond, Steven W.; Bennett, Cory V.


    A wavelength router to be used for fiber optical networking router is based on a diffraction grating which utilizes only N wavelengths to interconnect N inputs to N outputs. The basic approach is to augment the grating with additional couplers or wavelength selective elements so than N-1 of the 2N-1 outputs are combined with other N outputs (leaving only N outputs). One embodiment uses directional couplers as combiners. Another embodiment uses wavelength-selective couplers. Another embodiment uses a pair of diffraction gratings to maintain parallel propagation of all optical beams. Also, beam combining can be implemented either by using retroflection back through the grating pair or by using couplers.

  18. Laser system with wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an apparatus comprising a diode laser (10) providing radiation in a first wavelength interval, a radiation conversion unit (12) having an input and an output, the radiation converter configured to receive the radiation in the first wavelength interval from the diode...... laser at the input, the radiation conversion unit configured to convert the radiation in the first wavelength interval to radiation in a second wavelength interval and the output configured to output the converted radiation, the second wavelength interval having one end point outside the first...... wavelength interval. Further, the invention relates to a method of optically pumping a target laser (14) in a laser system, the laser system comprising a laser source providing radiation at a first frequency, the laser source being optically connected to an input of a frequency converter, the frequency...

  19. Wavelength conversion devices and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian; Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke;


    Wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks are currently subject to an immense interest because of the extra capacity and flexibility they provide together with the possibilities for graceful system upgrades. For full network flexibility it is very attractive to be able to translate the chann...... wavelengths in an easy way and preferably without opto-electronic conversion. Here, we will first briefly look at advantages of employing optical wavelength converters in WDM networks and next review the optical wavelength conversion devices with emphasis on recent developments....

  20. Performance Evaluation of Wavelength Routed Optical Network with Wavelength Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Gond, Vitthal J


    The rapid development of telecommunication networks is driven by user demands for new applications and advances in technologies. The explosive growth of the internet traffic is due to its use for collecting the information, communication, multimedia application, entertainment, etc. These applications are imposing a tremendous demand for bandwidth capacity on telecommunication network. The introduction of fiber optics had proved to meet the huge demand of bandwidth. These requirement can be meet by all optical network which is capable of transmitting enormous data at very high speed, around 50 Tera bits per seconds (Tbps) A wavelength conversion technique is addressed in this paper to reduced the blocking probability in wavelength routed networks. It is seen that the blocking probability of traffic requests decreases as the wavelength conversion factor increases. We explode the possibility for network with different size with variation in wavelength per link. In this work the evaluation of wavelength routed op...

  1. Human wavelength discrimination of monochromatic light explained by optimal wavelength decoding of light of unknown intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhaoping

    Full Text Available We show that human ability to discriminate the wavelength of monochromatic light can be understood as maximum likelihood decoding of the cone absorptions, with a signal processing efficiency that is independent of the wavelength. This work is built on the framework of ideal observer analysis of visual discrimination used in many previous works. A distinctive aspect of our work is that we highlight a perceptual confound that observers should confuse a change in input light wavelength with a change in input intensity. Hence a simple ideal observer model which assumes that an observer has a full knowledge of input intensity should over-estimate human ability in discriminating wavelengths of two inputs of unequal intensity. This confound also makes it difficult to consistently measure human ability in wavelength discrimination by asking observers to distinguish two input colors while matching their brightness. We argue that the best experimental method for reliable measurement of discrimination thresholds is the one of Pokorny and Smith, in which observers only need to distinguish two inputs, regardless of whether they differ in hue or brightness. We mathematically formulate wavelength discrimination under this wavelength-intensity confound and show a good agreement between our theoretical prediction and the behavioral data. Our analysis explains why the discrimination threshold varies with the input wavelength, and shows how sensitively the threshold depends on the relative densities of the three types of cones in the retina (and in particular predict discriminations in dichromats. Our mathematical formulation and solution can be applied to general problems of sensory discrimination when there is a perceptual confound from other sensory feature dimensions.

  2. The Long Wavelength Array (United States)

    Taylor, G. B.


    The Long Wavelength Array (LWA) will be a new, open, user-oriented astronomical instrument operating in the poorly explored window from 20-80 MHz at arcsecond level resolution and mJy level sensitivity. Key science drivers include (1) acceleration, propagation, and turbulence in the ISM, including the space-distribution and spectrum of Galactic cosmic rays, supernova remnants, and pulsars; (2) the high redshift universe, including the most distant radio galaxies and clusters - tools for understanding the earliest black holes and the cosmological evolution of Dark Matter and Dark Energy; (3) planetary, solar, and space science, including space weather prediction and extra-solar planet searches; and (4) the radio transient universe: including the known (e.g., SNe, GRBs) and the unknown. Because the LWA will explore one of the last and least investigated regions of the spectrum, the potential for new discoveries, including new classes of physical phenomena, is high, and there is a strong synergy with exciting new X-ray and Gamma-ray measurements, e.g. for cosmic ray acceleration, transients, and galaxy clusters. Operated by the University of New Mexico on behalf of the South West Consortium (SWC) the LWA will also provide a unique training ground for the next generation of radio astronomers. Students may also put skills learned on the LWA to work in computer science, electrical engineering, and the communications industry, among others. The development of the LWA will follow a phased build, which benefits from lessons learned at each phase. Four university-based Scientific Testing and Evaluation (ST&E) teams with different areas of concentration (1. High resolution imaging and particle acceleration; 2. Wide field imaging and large scale structures; 3. Ionosphere, and 4. RFI suppression and transient detection) will provide the feedback needed to assure that science objectives are met as the build develops. Currently in its first year of construction funding, the LWA

  3. Interference comparator for laser diode wavelength and wavelength instability measurement (United States)

    Dobosz, Marek; KoŻuchowski, Mariusz


    Method and construction of a setup, which allows measuring the wavelength and wavelength instability of the light emitted by a laser diode (or a laser light source with a limited time coherence in general), is presented. The system is based on Twyman-Green interferometer configuration. Proportions of phases of the tested and reference laser's interference fringe obtained for a set optical path difference are a measure of the unknown wavelength. Optical path difference in interferometer is stabilized. The interferometric comparison is performed in vacuum chamber. The techniques of accurate fringe phase measurements are proposed. The obtained relative standard uncertainty of wavelength evaluation in the tested setup is about 2.5 ṡ 10-8. Uncertainty of wavelength instability measurement is an order of magnitude better. Measurement range of the current setup is from 500 nm to 650 nm. The proposed technique allows high accuracy wavelength measurement of middle or low coherence sources of light. In case of the enlarged and complex frequency distribution of the laser, the evaluated wavelength can act as the length master in interferometer for displacement measurement.

  4. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator (United States)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)


    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  5. Wavelength dimensioning for wavelength-routed WDM satellite network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhe; Guo Wei; Deng Changlin; Hu Weisheng


    Internet and broadband applications driven by data traffic demand have become key dri-vers for satellite constellations. The key technology to satisfy the high capacity requirements between satellites is optical satellite networks by means of wavelength division multiplexing inter-satellite links (ISLs) with wavelength routing (WDM-OSN). Due to the limited optical amplifier bandwidth onboard the satellite, it is important to minimize the wavelength requirements to provi-sion requests. However, ISLs should be dynamically established and deleted for each satellite according to its visible satellites. Furthermore, different link assignments will result in different topologies, hence yielding different routings and wavelength assignments. Thus, a perfect match model-based link assignment scheme (LAS-PMM) is proposed to design an appropriate topology such that shorter path could be routed and less wavelengths could be assigned for each ISL along the path. Finally, simulation results show that in comparison to the regular Manhattan street net-work (MSN) topology, wavelength requirements and average end-to-end delay based on the topol-ogy generated by LAS-PMM could be reduced by 24.8%and 12.4%, respectively.

  6. Detection Wavelength of Strained Inx Ga1-x As/GaAs Very-Long-Wavelength Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Da-Yuan; LI Ning; LI Zhi-Feng; ZHEN Hong-Lou; LU Wei


    Detection wavelength is one of the key performance indices of infrared photodetectors. We study the character of detection wavelength of the strained InxGa1-xAs/GaAs very-long-wavelength (>12μm) quantum well infrared photodetectors (VLW-QWIPs) characterized by the photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent (PC) measurements. Based on the theoretical calculation and experimental data, we have built a practical model for the InxGa1-xAs/GaAs strained VLW-QWIPs, from which the interband transitions, intersubband transition and peak detection wavelength can be determined. Afterwards, the dependences of detection wavelength and device operation mode on the In mole fraction and InxGa1-xAs well width are presented, which will be helpful for device design and optimization.

  7. Coupled metal gap waveguides as plasmonic wavelength sorters. (United States)

    Kang, Zhiwen; Wang, Guo Ping


    We propose a coupled metal gap waveguide structure for realizing plasmonic wavelength sorters. Theoretical analysis from the coupled-wave theory reveals that wavelength dependent coupling length of guided surface plasmon polaritons contributes to the routing of different wavelengths to different output ports with reasonable high extinction ratio. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations. Our result may provide an alternative way to construct nanoscale frequency multiplexers, routers, and sorters for nanophotonic integration and optical communication.

  8. Planar Lenses at Visible Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Devlin, Robert C; Oh, Jaewon; Zhu, Alexander Y; Capasso, Federico


    Sub-wavelength resolution imaging requires high numerical aperture (NA) lenses, which are bulky and expensive. Metasurfaces allow the miniaturization of conventional refractive optics into planar structures. We show that high-aspect-ratio titanium dioxide metasurfaces can be fabricated and designed as meta-lenses with NA = 0.8. Diffraction-limited focusing is demonstrated at wavelengths of 405 nm, 532 nm, and 660 nm with corresponding efficiencies of 86%, 73%, and 66%. The meta-lenses can resolve nanoscale features separated by sub-wavelength distances and provide magnification as high as 170x with image qualities comparable to a state-of-the-art commercial objective. Our results firmly establish that meta-lenses can have widespread applications in laser-based microscopy, imaging, and spectroscopy.

  9. Wavelength Filters in Fibre Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Venghaus, Herbert


    Wavelength filters constitute an essential element of fibre-optic networks. This book gives a comprehensive account of the principles and applications of such filters, including their technological realisation. After an introductory chapter on wavelength division multiplexing in current and future fibre optic networks follows a detailed treatment of the phase characteristics of wavelength filters, a factor frequently neglected but of significant importance at high bit rates. Subsequent chapters cover three-dimensional reflection of gratings, arrayed waveguide gratings, fibre Bragg gratings, Fabry-Perot filters, dielectric multilayer filters, ring filters, and interleavers. The book explains the relevant performance parameters, the particular advantages and shortcomings of the various concepts and components, and the preferred applications. It also includes in-depth information on the characteristics of both commercially available devices and those still at the R&D stage. All chapters are authored by inter...

  10. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN


    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  11. 气相中乙酸乙酯光解的光子效率:波长和催化剂的影响%Photonic Efficiency of Ethyl Acetate Photolysis in Gas Phase:Dependence on Wavelength and Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方雪慧; 赵洁; 舒莉; 高永; 叶招莲


    采用4种不同波长的准分子光源(XeCl*、 KrCl*、 XeBr*和 KrBr*)降解气相的乙酸乙酯.对比了外加3种负载型光催化剂(有机膜负载 TiO2、有机膜负载石墨烯和纱网负载 TiO2)条件下乙酸乙酯的去除率,考察了光源类型、辐射功率和气体初始浓度对去除率的影响.同时,测定了不同光源的辐射光谱和辐射功率,计算了不同反应条件下的光子效率.结果表明,乙酸乙酯去除率按 KrBr*﹥ KrCl*﹥ XeCl*﹥ XeBr*依次降低,而 XeCl*和 KrBr*光源降解乙酸乙酯气体可以得到较高的光子效率;有机膜负载 TiO2比不加催化剂时乙酸乙酯去除率和光子效率都有所提高,但提高幅度不大.气体流速和乙酸乙酯初始浓度升高,光子效率升高.采用 KrBr*准分子灯直接光解乙酸乙酯,实验条件为:辐射功率0.76 W,乙酸乙酯初始浓度946 mg•m -3,气体流速600 mL•min -1,光子效率为5.63%.%Four kinds of excilamps with different wavelengths ( XeCl*, KrCl*, XeBr* and KrBr* ) were used for removing ethyl acetate in gas phase. The removal efficiencies of ethyl acetate by three loaded catalysts (TiO2 loaded on organic film, graphene loaded on organic film, and TiO2 loaded on mesh) were compared, and the effects of lamp sources, irradiation power and initial concentration on the removal efficiency were also investigated. Moreover, irradiation spectra and power of light sources were determined, and photonic efficiencies under different reaction conditions were calculated. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of ethyl acetate decreased in the order of KrBr* ﹥ KrCl* ﹥ XeCl* ﹥ XeBr*, while the photonic efficiency seemed to be relatively high with both XeCl* and KrBr* excilamps. In the presence of the catalyst of TiO2 loaded on organic film, both the removal efficiency and the photonic efficiency were higher than those without catalyst, but the increment was not significant. The photonic efficiency

  12. Wavelength-shifted Cherenkov radiators (United States)

    Krider, E. P.; Jacobson, V. L.; Pifer, A. E.; Polakos, P. A.; Kurz, R. J.


    The scintillation and Cherenkov responses of plastic Cherenkov radiators containing different wavelength-shifting fluors in varying concentrations have been studied in beams of low energy protons and pions. For cosmic ray applications, where large Cherenkov to scintillation ratios are desired, the optimum fluor concentrations are 0.000025 by weight or less.

  13. A wavelength selective bidirectional isolator for access optical networks (United States)

    Hu, Xi-kui; Huang, Zhang-di; Li, Su-shan; Xu, Fei; Chen, Beckham; Lu, Yan-qing


    A wavelength selective bidirectional optical isolator is proposed. Being different from conventional isolators, a well-designed wave plate is employed and works together with the Faraday rotator. Different wavelengths thus experience different phase retardation so that wavelength-dependent polarization states are obtained for bidirectional beams. As an example, a (1.49 μm, 1.31 μm) wavelength selective isolator is proposed, which means only 1.49 μm light can propagate along one-direction while the opposite wave is just for 1.31 μm light. Over 60 dB optical isolation is obtained by selecting suitable wave plate thickness and orientation. This interesting isolator may have promising applications in access optical networks.

  14. Characterization of Wavelength Tunable Lasers for Future Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince M. Anandarajah


    Full Text Available The use of tunable lasers (TL in dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM networks for optical switching, routing and networking has gained a lot of interest in recent years. Employment of such TLs as tunable transmitters in wavelength packet switched (WPS networks is one of the possible applications of these devices. In such systems, the information to be transmitted could be encoded onto a destination dependent wavelength and the routing of traffic could be performed on a packet-by-packet basis. The authors investigate the possibility of using TLs in DWDM WPS networks by focusing on the characterisation of the instantaneous frequency drift of a TL due to wavelength tuning and direct modulation. Characterization of the linewidth of the TLs is also presented to verify the feasibility of using TLs in systems employing advanced modulation formats.

  15. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.


    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  16. Wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution (United States)

    Lim, Han Chuen; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Kazuro


    The realization of an entanglement distribution optical fiber network connecting multiple parties would permit implementation of many information security applications such as entanglement-based quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing. However, due to material absorption and scattering in optical fiber, photons that are the carriers of quantum entanglement experience loss during propagation and the overall photon arrival rate can be very low in such a network. One way to increase photon arrival rate is to make full use of the available transmission bandwidth of optical fiber and this is achievable via wavelength-multiplexing. We review our recent work on wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution and discuss system design considerations from a telecommunication engineering perspective.

  17. A New Wavelength Selective Photoreceiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kai; HUANG Yongqing; REN Xiaomin; LI Jianxin; GUO Wei


    A new kind of wavelength selective photoreceiver is proposed. It was constructed by a Fabry-Perot (F-P) etalon filter and a resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) photodetector. The photoreceiver′s spectral response is determined by the F-P etalon filter with a FWHM of less than 4 nm. Moreover, with such a photoreceiver, the transmission loss of the F-P etalon filter can be compensated to some extent. And this will benefit its applications.

  18. Towards the Long Wavelength Array (United States)

    Kassim, N. E.; Erickson, W. C.


    Nearly three decades ago, the Very Large Array (VLA) opened the cm-wavelength radio sky to high-dynamic range imaging. By developing and exploiting new techniques to mitigate ionospheric phase fluctuations, the VLA 74 MHz system is providing the first sub-arcminute resolution view of the meter-wavelength radio universe. This technical innovation has inspired an emerging suite of much more powerful low-frequency instruments, including the Long Wavelength Array (LWA). The LWA, with its great collecting area (approaching one square kilometer at 20 MHz) and long baselines (up to 400 km), will surpass, by up to 2--3 orders of magnitude, the imaging power of any previous low-frequency interferometer. LWA science goals include Cosmic Evolution, the Acceleration of Relativistic Particles, Plasma Astrophysics, and Ionospheric & Space Weather Science. Because it will explore one of the last and most poorly investigated regions of the spectrum, the potential for unexpected new discoveries is high. For more on the LWA, see The LWA project is led by the University of New Mexico, and includes the Naval Research Laboratory, Applied Research Laboratories of U. Texas, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Virginia Tech, and U. Iowa, with cooperation from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  19. Inferring wavelength dependence of AOD and Ångström exponent over a sub-tropical station in South Africa using AERONET data: Influence of meteorology, long-range transport and curvature effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Raghavendra, E-mail: [Discipline of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Sivakumar, V. [Discipline of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Reddy, R.R.; Gopal, K. Rama [Department of Physics, Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Adesina, A. Joseph [Discipline of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)


    Aerosol optical properties over a southern sub-tropical site Skukuza, South Africa were studied to determine the variability of the aerosol characteristics using CIMEL Sunphotometer data as part of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from December 2005 to November 2006. Aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), and columnar water vapor (CWV) data were collected, analyzed, and compiled. Participating in this network provided a unique opportunity for understanding the sources of aerosols affecting the atmosphere of South Africa (SA) and the regional radiation budget. The meteorological patterns significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the amount and size distribution of the aerosols. Results showed that seasonal variation of AOD at 500 nm (AOD{sub 500}) over the observation site were characterized by low values (0.10–0.13) in autumn, moderate values (0.14–0.16) in summer and winter seasons, and high to very high values (0.18–0.40) during the spring, with an overall mean value of 0.18 ± 0.12. Ångström exponent α{sub 440–870}, varied from 0.5 to 2.89, with significant (p < 0.0001) seasonal variability. CWV showed a strong annual cycle with maximum values in the summer and autumn seasons. The relationship between AOD, Ångström exponent (α), and CWV showed a strong dependence (p < 0.0001) of α on AOD and CWV, while there was no significant correlation between AOD and CWV. Investigation of the adequacy of the simple use of the spectral AOD and Ångström exponent data was used in deriving the curvature (a{sub 2}) showed to obtain information for determining the aerosol-particle size. The negative a{sub 2} values are characterized by aerosol-size dominated by fine-mode (0.1–1 μm), while the positive curvatures indicate abundance of coarse particles (> 1 μm). Trajectory cluster analyses revealed that the air masses during the autumn and winter seasons have longer advection pathways, passing over the ocean and continent. This is reflected in the

  20. Interferometric Sensor of Wavelength Detuning Using a Liquid Crystalline Polymer Waveplate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wierzba


    Full Text Available Operation of a polarization interferometer for measurement of the wavelength changes of a tunable semiconductor laser was investigated. A λ/8 waveplate made from liquid crystalline polymer is placed in one of interferometers’ arms in order to generate two output signals in quadrature. Wavelength was measured with resolution of 2 pm in the wavelength range 628–635 nm. Drift of the interferometer, measured in the period of 500 s, was 8 nm, which corresponded to the change in the wavelength of 1.3 pm. If needed, wavelength-dependent Heydemann correction can be used to expand the range of operation of such interferometer.

  1. Development of semiconductor lasers with postgrowth adjustment of wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Kellermann, P O


    emission wavelength is not at the gain maximum of the active region, but at the resonance between laser and surface mode. The sidemode suppression ratio (up to 29 dB) and the wavelength stability are increased essentially as compared to Fabry-Perot lasers. The wavelength was decreased by small steps of 0.2 nm in the range from 679.4 to 678.2 nm adjusted by the current thickness of the surface waveguide (reduction of the thickness 2 nm per etch step). The thermal red shift is only 0.028+/-0.002 nm/K. This dependence is small: the wavelength is stabilized by the surface mode coupling and the practically temperature independent refractive index of the surface waveguide. Additionally to the edge emission the lasers show surface emission with a beam divergence of 0.12 sup o x10 sup o. Its intensity emitted per solid angle is five times larger than at the edges. The angle of emission at the wavelength of 683.7 nm is +-47.5. It is shifted by 0.35 sup o /nm with the wavelength. The experimental results are in good ag...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Briese


    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning (ALS is a widely used technique for the sampling of the earth's surface. Nowadays a wide range of ALS sensor systems with different technical specifications can be found. One parameter is the laser wavelength which leads to a sensitivity for the wavelength dependent backscatter characteristic of sensed surfaces. Current ALS sensors usually record next to the geometric information additional information on the recorded signal strength of each echo. In order to utilize this information for the study of the backscatter characteristic of the sensed surface, radiometric calibration is essential. This paper focuses on the radiometric calibration of multi-wavelength ALS data and is based on previous work on the topic of radiometric calibration of monochromatic (single-wavelength ALS data. After a short introduction the theory and whole workflow for calibrating ALS data radiometrically based on in-situ reference surfaces is presented. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that this approach for the monochromatic calibration can be used for each channel of multi-wavelength ALS data. The resulting active multi-channel radiometric image does not have any shadows and from a geometric viewpoint the position of the objects on top of the terrain surface is not altered (the result is a multi-channel true orthophoto. Within this paper the approach is demonstrated by three different single-wavelength ALS data acquisition campaigns (532nm, 1064nm and 1550nm covering the area of the city Horn (Austria. The results and practical issues are discussed.

  3. Wavelength conversion based spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    There has been a strong, application driven development of Si-based cameras and spectrometers for imaging and spectral analysis of light in the visible and near infrared spectral range. This has resulted in very efficient devices, with high quantum efficiency, good signal to noise ratio and high...... resolution for this spectral region. Today, an increasing number of applications exists outside the spectral region covered by Si-based devices, e.g. within cleantech, medical or food imaging. We present a technology based on wavelength conversion which will extend the spectral coverage of state of the art...... visible or near infrared cameras and spectrometers to include other spectral regions of interest....

  4. Wavelength scaling of silicon laser ablation in picosecond regime (United States)

    Sikora, A.; Grojo, D.; Sentis, M.


    Single pulse laser ablation of silicon has been investigated at 343, 515, and 1030 nm using a laser pulse duration of 50 ps. In this large spectral range, ablation thresholds of silicon vary from 0.01 to 0.83 J/cm2, confirming a strong dependence on the wavelength. By solving the free-carrier density rate equation at threshold conditions, we show that band-to-band linear absorption dominates energy deposition at 343 and 515 nm, whereas at 1030 nm, the energy leading to ablation is primarily absorbed by the generated free-carriers. This allows us to determine the relevant criteria to derive a simple model predicting the wavelength dependence of the ablation threshold in this regime. We obtain an excellent agreement between experimental measurements and calculations by simply considering an averaged energy density required in the absorption depth for surface ablation and accounting for the laser-induced variations of the important thermophysical parameters. On the basis of this analysis, we discuss the optimal wavelength and fluence conditions for maximum removal rate, ablation efficiency, and accuracy. Despite the difference in mechanisms at the different wavelengths, we find that the maximal efficiency remains at around 7 times the ablation threshold fluence for all investigated wavelengths. This work provides guidelines for high-quality and efficient micromachining of silicon in the scarcely explored picosecond regime, while new picosecond sources offer numerous advantages for real throughput industrial applications.

  5. Sub-wavelength diffractive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.E.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.


    This report represents the completion of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate sub-wavelength surface relief structures fabricated by direct-write e-beam technology as unique and very high-efficiency optical elements. A semiconductor layer with sub-wavelength sized etched openings or features can be considered as a layer with an effective index of refraction determined by the fraction of the surface filled with semiconductor relative to the fraction filled with air or other material. Such as a layer can be used to implement planar gradient-index lenses on a surface. Additionally, the nanometer-scale surface structures have diffractive properties that allow the direct manipulation of polarization and altering of the reflective properties of surfaces. With this technology a single direct-write mask and etch can be used to integrate a wide variety of optical functions into a device surface with high efficiencies; allowing for example, direct integration of polarizing optics into the surface with high efficiencies; allowing for example, direct integration of polarizing optics into the surfaces of devices, forming anti-reflection surfaces or fabricating high-efficiency, high-numerical aperture lenses, including integration inside vertical semiconductor laser cavities.

  6. Astronomical Studies at Infrared Wavelengths (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.


    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, Herschel, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths - a powerful tool for scientific discovery. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future balloon programs, paving the way for interferometric observations of exoplanets.

  7. Long-wavelength silicon photonic integrated circuits



    In this paper we elaborate on our development of silicon photonic integrated circuits operating at wavelengths beyond the telecommunication wavelength window. Silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits up to 3.8 mu m wavelength are demonstrated as well as germanium-on-silicon waveguide circuits operating in the 5-5 mu m wavelength range. The heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors and IV-VI semiconductors on this platform is described for the integration of lasers and photodetectors op...

  8. Tunable Optical Tweezers for Wavelength-dependent Measurements (United States)


    nanoshells in addition to polystyrene and silica microspheres. A gold nanoshell is a small silica sphere coated with a thin, uni- form layer of gold.22 Based...on the overall size and the gold thickness, the nanoshell extinction resonance can be tuned from the visible to the infrared. We have trapped a range...Experimental extinction spectra of gold nanoshells in bulk (black dotted line) and polystyrene spheres in bulk (grey solid line) used in this study. The

  9. Optical fiber temperature sensor based on wavelength-dependent detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Li(李志刚); Zhenhui Du(杜振辉); Baoguang Wang(王宝光); Chengzhi Jiang(蒋诚志)


    Semiconductor fiber temperature sensors have been used widely in many fields, but most of them pick up temperature by measuring the optical intensity of certain fixed narrow-band in absorption spectrum.Furthermore, they are sensitive to the loss of optical intensity and the fluctuation of light source power.The novel temperature measurement system proposed in this paper is based on the semiconductor absorption theory and the spectral analysis of method. To measure temperature, the sensor model detects not the certain narrow-band spectrum but the most spectra of the optical absorption edge. Therefore the measurement accuracy and the stability can be improved greatly. Experimental results are in agreement with theoretical analysis results perfectly.

  10. All-optical wavelength-shifting technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Mikkelsen, Benny; Danielsen, Søren Lykke


    State-of-the-art results for interferometric wavelength converters for WDM fiber networks have been presented. The interferometric converters are capable of high speed (10 Gbit/s), polarisation and wavelength independent (within 30 nn) wavelength conversion. In addition they offer unique features...

  11. Sub-microsecond wavelength stabilization of tunable lasers with the internal wavelength locker (United States)

    Kimura, Ryoga; Tatsumoto, Yudai; Sakuma, Kazuki; Onji, Hirokazu; Shimokozono, Makoto; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazutoshi


    We proposed a method of accelerating the wavelength stabilization after wavelength switching of the tunable distributed amplification-distributed feedback (TDA-DFB) laser using the internal wavelength locker to reduce the size and the cost of the wavelength control system. The configuration of the wavelength stabilization system based on this locker was as follows. At the wavelength locker, the light intensity after an optical filter is detected as a current by the photodiodes (PDs). Then, for estimating the wavelength, the current is processed by the current/voltage-converting circuit (IVC), logarithm amplifier (Log Amp) and field programmable gate array (FPGA). Finally, the laser current is tuned to the desired wavelength with reference to the estimated wavelength. With this control system the wavelength is stabilized within 800 ns after wavelength switching, which is even faster than that with the conventional control system.

  12. Bolometric Arrays for Millimeter Wavelengths (United States)

    Castillo, E.; Serrano, A.; Torres-Jácome, A.


    During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin films have been developed at INAOE, specifically boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible configurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit specifically designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.

  13. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.E.


    The use of modulation spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of solids has been very productive. The construction of a wide range Wavelength Modulation Spectrometer to study the optical properties of solids is described in detail. Extensions of the working range of the spectrometer into the vacuum ultraviolet are discussed. Measurements of the reflectivity and derivative reflectivity spectra of the lead chalcogenides, the chalcopyrite ZnGeP/sub 2/, the layer compounds GaSe and GaS and their alloys, the ferroelectric SbSI, layer compounds SnS/sub 2/ and SnSe/sub 2/, and HfS/sub 2/ were made. The results of these measurements are presented along with their interpretation in terms of band structure calculations.

  14. Effect of graphene on plasmonic metasurfaces at infrared wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Shinpei, E-mail:; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Ueno, Masashi [Advanced Technology R and D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-Honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan)


    Significant enhancement of infrared transmittance by the presence of a graphene layer on a plasmonic metasurface (PLM) has been demonstrated. PLMs with different configurations were fabricated, and their transmittance with and without graphene was compared. Selective enhancement by graphene occurred at the plasmon resonance wavelength. The degree of enhancement was found to depend on the width of the gap between the periodic metal regions in the PLM. A maximum enhancement of ∼210% was achieved at a wavelength of 10 μm. The ability to achieve such a drastic increase in transmittance at the plasmon resonant wavelength is expected to lead to improvements in the performance of energy collecting devices and optical sensors.

  15. Effect of graphene on plasmonic metasurfaces at infrared wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinpei Ogawa


    Full Text Available Significant enhancement of infrared transmittance by the presence of a graphene layer on a plasmonic metasurface (PLM has been demonstrated. PLMs with different configurations were fabricated, and their transmittance with and without graphene was compared. Selective enhancement by graphene occurred at the plasmon resonance wavelength. The degree of enhancement was found to depend on the width of the gap between the periodic metal regions in the PLM. A maximum enhancement of ∼210% was achieved at a wavelength of 10 μm. The ability to achieve such a drastic increase in transmittance at the plasmon resonant wavelength is expected to lead to improvements in the performance of energy collecting devices and optical sensors.

  16. Measurement of thin films using very long acoustic wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Clement, G T; Adachi, H; Kamakura, T


    A procedure for measuring material thickness by means of necessarily-long acoustic wavelengths is examined. The approach utilizes a temporal phase lag caused by the impulse time of wave momentum transferred through a thin layer that is much denser than its surrounding medium. In air, it is predicted that solid or liquid layers below approximately 1/2000 of the acoustic wavelength will exhibit a phase shift with an arctangent functional dependence on thickness and layer density. The effect is verified for thin films on the scale of 10 microns using audible frequency sound (7 kHz). Soap films as thin as 100 nm are then measured using 40 kHz air ultrasound. The method's potential for imaging applications is demonstrated by combining the approach with near-field holography, resulting in reconstructions with sub-wavelength resolution in both the depth and lateral directions. Potential implications at very high and very low acoustic frequencies are discussed.

  17. Magic wavelengths for optical cooling and trapping of lithium

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S; Clark, Charles W


    Using first-principles calculations, we identify magic wavelengths for the 2s-2p and 2s-3p transitions in lithium. The ns and np atomic levels have the same ac Stark shifts at the corresponding magic wavelength, which facilitates state-insensitive optical cooling and trapping. Tune-out wavelengths for which the ground-state frequency-dependent polarizability vanishes are also calculated. Differences of these wavelengths between 6Li and 7Li are reported. Our approach uses high-precision, relativistic all-order methods in which all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Recommended values are provided for a large number of Li electric-dipole matrix elements. Static polarizabilities for the 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, and 3d levels are compared with other theory and experiment where available. Uncertainties of all recommended values are estimated. The magic wavelengths for the uv 2s-3p transition are of particular interest for the pr...

  18. Selection of Quantum Dot Wavelengths for Biomedical Assays and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Taik Lim


    Full Text Available Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs] are hypothesized to be excellent contrast agents for biomedical assays and imaging. A unique property of QDs is that their absorbance increases with increasing separation between excitation and emission wavelengths. Much of the enthusiasm for using QDs in vivo stems from this property, since photon yield should be proportional to the integral of the broadband absorption. In this study, we demonstrate that tissue scatter and absorbance can sometimes offset increasing QD absorption at bluer wavelengths, and counteract this potential advantage. By using a previously validated mathematical model, we explored the effects of tissue absorbance, tissue scatter, wavelength dependence of the scatter, water-to- hemoglobin ratio, and tissue thickness on QD performance. We conclude that when embedded in biological fluids and tissues, QD excitation wavelengths will often be quite constrained, and that excitation and emission wavelengths should be selected carefully based on the particular application. Based on our results, we produced near-infrared QDs optimized for imaging surface vasculature with white light excitation and a silicon CCD camera, and used them to image the coronary vasculature in vivo. Taken together, our data should prove useful in designing fluorescent QD contrast agents optimized for specific biomedical applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castillo


    Full Text Available During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin lms have been developed at INAOE, speci cally boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon lms. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible con gurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit speci cally designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xiaogang; Liu Lifang; Lin Sanyang


    In this paper, a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) network model based on the equivalent networks is described, and wavelength-dependent equivalent arc, equivalent networks, equivalent multicast tree and some other terms are presented. Based on this model and relevant Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) strategy, a unicast RWA algorithm and a multicast RWA algorithm are presented. The wavelength-dependent equivalent arc expresses the schedule of local RWA and the equivalent network expresses the whole topology of WDM optical networks, so the two algorithms are of the flexibility in RWA and the optimization of the whole problem. The theoretic analysis and simulation results show the two algorithms are of the stronger capability and the lower complexity than the other existing algorithms for RWA problem, and the complexity of the two algorithms are only related to the scale of the equivalent networks. Finally, we prove the two algorithms' feasibility and the one-by-one corresponding relation between the equivalent multicast tree and original multicast tree, and point out the superiorities and drawbacks of the two algorithms respectively.

  1. Implications of a zero-nonlinearity wavelength in optical fibers doped with silver nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, S; Chattopadhyay, R; Bhadra, S K; Agrawal, G P


    Photonic crystal fibers doped with silver nanoparticles exhibit the Kerr nonlinearity that can be positive or negative depending on wavelength and vanishes at a specific wavelength. We study numerically how the simultaneous presence of a zero-nonlinearity wavelength (ZNW) and a zero-dispersion wavelength affects evolution of soliton and supercontinuum generation inside such fibers and find a number of unique features. The existence of negative nonlinearity allows soliton formation even in the normaldispersion region of the fiber, and the ZNW acts as a barrier for the Raman-induced red shift of solitons.

  2. Magic Wavelengths for Terahertz Clock Transitions


    Zhou, Xiaoji; Xu, Xia; Chen, Xuzong; Chen, Jingbiao


    Magic wavelengths for laser trapping of boson isotopes of alkaline-earth Sr, Ca and Mg atoms are investigated while considering terahertz clock transitions between the $^{3}P_{0}, ^{3}P_{1}, ^{3}P_{2}$ metastable triplet states. Our calculation shows that magic wavelengths of trapping laser do exist. This result is important because those metastable states have already been used to realize accurate clocks in the terahertz frequency domain. Detailed discussions for magic wavelength for teraher...

  3. Optimizing constant wavelength neutron powder diffractometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cussen, Leo D., E-mail:


    This article describes an analytic method to optimize constant wavelength neutron powder diffractometers. It recasts the accepted mathematical description of resolution and intensity in terms of new variables and includes terms for vertical divergence, wavelength and some sample scattering effects. An undetermined multiplier method is applied to the revised equations to minimize the RMS value of resolution width at constant intensity and fixed wavelength. A new understanding of primary spectrometer transmission (presented elsewhere) can then be applied to choose beam elements to deliver an optimum instrument. Numerical methods can then be applied to choose the best wavelength.

  4. Co:MgF2 laser ablation of tissue: effect of wavelength on ablation threshold and thermal damage. (United States)

    Schomacker, K T; Domankevitz, Y; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F


    The wavelength dependence of the ablation threshold of a variety of tissues has been studied by using a tunable pulsed Co:MgF2 laser to determine how closely it tracks the optical absorption length of water. The Co:MgF2 laser was tuned between 1.81 and 2.14 microns, a wavelength region in which the absorption length varies by a decade. For soft tissues the ablation threshold tracks the optical absorption length; for bone there is little wavelength dependence, consistent with the low water content of bone. Thermal damage vs. wavelength was also studied for cornea and bone. Thermal damage to cornea has a weak wavelength dependence, while that to bone shows little wavelength dependence. Framing-camera pictures of the ablation of both cornea and liver show explosive removal of material, but differ as to the nature of the explosion.

  5. Wavelength-domain RF photonic signal processing (United States)

    Gao, Lu

    This thesis presents a novel approach to RF-photonic signal processing applications based on wavelength-domain optical signal processing techniques using broadband light sources as the information carriers, such as femtosecond lasers and white light sources. The wavelength dimension of the broadband light sources adds an additional degree of freedom to conventional optical signal processing systems. Two novel wavelength-domain optical signal processing systems are presented and demonstrated in this thesis. The first wavelength-domain RF photonic signal processing system is a wavelength-compensated squint-free photonic multiple beam-forming system for wideband RF phased-array antennas. Such a photonic beam-forming system employs a new modulation scheme developed in this thesis, which uses traveling-wave tunable filters to modulate wideband RF signals onto broadband optical light sources in a frequency-mapped manner. The wavelength dimension of the broadband light sources provides an additional dimension in the wavelength-compensated Fourier beam-forming system for mapping the received RF frequencies to the linearly proportional optical frequencies, enabling true-time-delay beam forming, as well as other novel RF-photonic signal processing functions such as tunable filtering and frequency down conversion. A new slow-light mechanism, the SLUGGISH light, has also been discovered with an effective slow-light velocity of 86 m/s and a record time-bandwidth product of 20. Experimental demonstration of true-time-delay beam forming based on the SLUGGISH light effect has also been presented in this thesis. In the second wavelength-domain RF photonic signal processing system, the wavelength dimension increases the information carrying capacity by spectrally multiplexing multiple wavelength channels in a wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber-optic communication system. A novel ultrafast all-optical 3R (Re-amplification, Retiming, Re-shaping) wavelength converter based on

  6. Orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength Yb:KGW laser induced by thermal lensing (United States)

    Zhao, Haitao; Major, Arkady


    Simultaneous dual-wavelength laser oscillation with orthogonal polarizations has been observed and analyzed in a continuous wave N g-cut Yb:KGW oscillator. Without inserting any optical elements for polarization control, the N m- and N p-polarized modes, each of which possessed a distinct wavelength, coexisted and switched twice in two power regimes as the pump power was varied. The two wavelengths and their separation slightly depended on output coupling level. The wavelength switching and coexistence was studied and explained by considering the thermal and spectral anisotropy of the Yb:KGW crystals, which led to polarization-dependent reabsorption loss in the unpumped regions of the crystal. The maximum average output power obtained in the dual-wavelength regime was 4.6 W.

  7. Convolution kernels for multi-wavelength imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Boucaud, Alexandre; Abergel, Alain; Orieux, François; Dole, Hervé; Hadj-Youcef, Mohamed Amine


    Astrophysical images issued from different instruments and/or spectral bands often require to be processed together, either for fitting or comparison purposes. However each image is affected by an instrumental response, also known as PSF, that depends on the characteristics of the instrument as well as the wavelength and the observing strategy. Given the knowledge of the PSF in each band, a straightforward way of processing images is to homogenise them all to a target PSF using convolution kernels, so that they appear as if they had been acquired by the same instrument. We propose an algorithm that generates such PSF-matching kernels, based on Wiener filtering with a tunable regularisation parameter. This method ensures all anisotropic features in the PSFs to be taken into account. We compare our method to existing procedures using measured Herschel/PACS and SPIRE PSFs and simulated JWST/MIRI PSFs. Significant gains up to two orders of magnitude are obtained with respect to the use of kernels computed assumin...

  8. Random-phase metasurfaces at optical wavelengths (United States)

    Pors, Anders; Ding, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Radko, Ilya P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    Random-phase metasurfaces, in which the constituents scatter light with random phases, have the property that an incident plane wave will diffusely scatter, hereby leading to a complex far-field response that is most suitably described by statistical means. In this work, we present and exemplify the statistical description of the far-field response, particularly highlighting how the response for polarised and unpolarised light might be alike or different depending on the correlation of scattering phases for two orthogonal polarisations. By utilizing gap plasmon-based metasurfaces, consisting of an optically thick gold film overlaid by a subwavelength thin glass spacer and an array of gold nanobricks, we design and realize random-phase metasurfaces at a wavelength of 800 nm. Optical characterisation of the fabricated samples convincingly demonstrates the diffuse scattering of reflected light, with statistics obeying the theoretical predictions. We foresee the use of random-phase metasurfaces for camouflage applications and as high-quality reference structures in dark-field microscopy, while the control of the statistics for polarised and unpolarised light might find usage in security applications. Finally, by incorporating a certain correlation between scattering by neighbouring metasurface constituents new types of functionalities can be realised, such as a Lambertian reflector.

  9. Convolution kernels for multi-wavelength imaging (United States)

    Boucaud, A.; Bocchio, M.; Abergel, A.; Orieux, F.; Dole, H.; Hadj-Youcef, M. A.


    Astrophysical images issued from different instruments and/or spectral bands often require to be processed together, either for fitting or comparison purposes. However each image is affected by an instrumental response, also known as point-spread function (PSF), that depends on the characteristics of the instrument as well as the wavelength and the observing strategy. Given the knowledge of the PSF in each band, a straightforward way of processing images is to homogenise them all to a target PSF using convolution kernels, so that they appear as if they had been acquired by the same instrument. We propose an algorithm that generates such PSF-matching kernels, based on Wiener filtering with a tunable regularisation parameter. This method ensures all anisotropic features in the PSFs to be taken into account. We compare our method to existing procedures using measured Herschel/PACS and SPIRE PSFs and simulated JWST/MIRI PSFs. Significant gains up to two orders of magnitude are obtained with respect to the use of kernels computed assuming Gaussian or circularised PSFs. A software to compute these kernels is available at

  10. Two-wavelength lidar inversion algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.


    Potter [Appl. Opt. 26, 1250 (1987)] has presented a method to determine profiles of the atmospheric aerosol extinction coefficients by use of a two-wavelength lidar with the assumptions of a constant value for the extinction-to-backscatter ratio for each wavelength and a constant value for the ratio

  11. Wavelength calibration for OSIRIS/GTC* tunable filters

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Munoz-Tunon, C; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J M; Aguerri, J A L; Gonzalez, D Rosa; Mayya, Y D; Vega, O; Terlevich, R; Terlevich, E; Bertone, E; Rodriguez-Merino, L H


    OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) is the first light instrument of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). It provides a flexible and competitive tunable filter (TF). Since it is based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer working in collimated beam, the TF transmission wavelength depends on the position of the target with respect to the optical axis. This effect is non-negligible and must be accounted for in the data reduction. Our paper establishes a wavelength calibration for OSIRIS TF with the accuracy required for spectrophotometric measurements using the full field of view (FOV) of the instrument. The variation of the transmission wavelength $\\lambda(R)$ across the FOV is well described by $\\lambda(R)=\\lambda(0)/\\sqrt{1+(R/f_2)^2}$, where $\\lambda(0)$ is the central wavelength, $R$ represents the physical distance from the optical axis, and $f_2=185.70\\pm0.17\\,$mm is the effective focal length of the camera lens. This new empirical calibration yields an accuracy better...

  12. Magic and tune-out wavelengths for atomic francium

    CERN Document Server

    Dammalapati, U; Sakemi, Y


    The frequency dependent polarizabilities of the francium atom are calculated from the available data of energy levels and transition rates. Magic wavelengths for the state insensitive optical dipole trapping are identified from the calculated light shifts of the $7s~^2S_{1/2}$, $7p~^2P_{1/2, 3/2}$ and $8s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ levels of the $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}-7p~^{2}P_{1/2,3/2}$ and $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}-8s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ transitions, respectively. Wavelengths in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared region is identified that are suitable for cooling and trapping. Magic wavelengths between 600-700~nm and 700-1000~nm region, which are blue and red detuned with the $7s-7p$ and $7s-8s$ transitions are feasible to implement as lasers with sufficient power are available. In addition, we calculated the tune-out wavelengths where the ac polarizability of the ground $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ state in francium is zero. These results are beneficial as laser cooled and trapped francium has been in use for fundamental symmetry investigations li...

  13. Wavelength initialization employing wavelength recognition scheme in WDM-PON based on tunable lasers (United States)

    Mun, Sil-Gu; Lee, Eun-Gu; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Jyung Chan


    We proposed a simple method to initialize the wavelength of tunable lasers in WDM-PON employing wavelength recognition scheme with an optical filter as a function of wavelength and accomplished plug and play operation. We also implemented a transceiver based on our proposed wavelength initialization scheme and then experimentally demonstrated the feasibility in WDM-PON configuration guaranteeing 16 channels with 100 GHz channel spacing. Our proposal is a cost-effective and easy-to-install method to realize the wavelength initialization of ONU. In addition, this method will support compatibility with all kind of tunable laser regardless of their structures and operating principles.

  14. High Power Short Wavelength Laser Development (United States)


    Unlimited güä^äsjäsiiiüüü X NRTC-77-43R P I High Power Short Wavelength Laser Development November 1977 D. B. Cohn and W. B. Lacina...NO NRTC-77-43R, «. TITLE fana »uetjjitj BEFORE COMPLETING FORM CIPIENT’S CATALOO NUMBER KIGH.POWER SHORT WAVELENGTH LASER DEVELOPMENT , 7...fWhtn Data Enterte NRTC-77-43R HIGH POWER SHORT WAVELENGTH LASER DEVELOPMENT ARPA Order Number: Program Code Number: Contract Number: Principal

  15. Wavelength selective uncooled infrared sensor by plasmonics (United States)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Okada, Kazuya; Fukushima, Naoki; Kimata, Masafumi


    A wavelength selective uncooled infrared (IR) sensor using two-dimensional plasmonic crystals (2D PLCs) has been developed. The numerical investigation of 2D PLCs demonstrates that the wavelength of absorption can be mainly controlled by the period of the surface structure. A microelectromechanical systems-based uncooled IR sensor with 2D PLCs as the IR absorber was fabricated through a complementary metal oxide semiconductor and a micromachining technique. The selective enhancement of responsivity was observed at the wavelength that coincided with the period of the 2D-PLC absorber.

  16. Aerosol absorption retrieval at ultraviolet wavelengths in a complex environment (United States)

    Kazadzis, Stelios; Raptis, Panagiotis; Kouremeti, Natalia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Arola, Antti; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Schuster, Gregory L.


    We have used total and diffuse UV irradiance measurements from a multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UVMFR) in order to investigate aerosol absorption in the UV range for a 5-year period in Athens, Greece. This dataset was used as input to a radiative transfer model and the single scattering albedo (SSA) at 368 and 332 nm was calculated. Retrievals from a collocated CIMEL sun photometer were used to evaluate the products and study the absorption spectral behavior of retrieved SSA values. The UVMFR SSA, together with synchronous, CIMEL-derived retrievals of SSA at 440 nm, had a mean of 0.90, 0.87 and 0.83, with lowest values (higher absorption) encountered at the shorter wavelengths. In addition, noticeable diurnal variation of the SSA in all wavelengths is shown, with amplitudes up to 0.05. Strong SSA wavelength dependence is revealed for cases of low Ångström exponents, accompanied by a SSA decrease with decreasing extinction optical depth, suggesting varying influence under different aerosol composition. However, part of this dependence for low aerosol optical depths is masked by the enhanced SSA retrieval uncertainty. Dust and brown carbon UV absorbing properties were also investigated to explain seasonal patterns.

  17. Aerosol Absorption Retrieval at Ultraviolet Wavelengths in a Complex Environment (United States)

    Kazadzis, Stelios; Raptis, Panagiotis; Kouremeti, Natalia; Amirdis, Vassilis; Arola, Antti; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Schuster, Gregory L.


    We have used total and diffuse UV irradiance measurements from a multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UVMFR) in order to investigate aerosol absorption in the UV range for a 5-year period in Athens, Greece. This dataset was used as input to a radiative transfer model and the single scattering albedo (SSA) at 368 and 332 nm was calculated. Retrievals from a collocated CIMEL sun photometer were used to evaluate the products and study the absorption spectral behavior of retrieved SSA values. The UVMFR SSA, together with synchronous, CIMEL-derived retrievals of SSA at 440 nm, had a mean of 0.90, 0.87 and 0.83, with lowest values (higher absorption) encountered at the shorter wavelengths. In addition, noticeable diurnal variation of the SSA in all wavelengths is shown, with amplitudes up to 0.05. Strong SSA wavelength dependence is revealed for cases of low Angstrom exponents, accompanied by a SSA decrease with decreasing extinction optical depth, suggesting varying influence under different aerosol composition. However, part of this dependence for low aerosol optical depths is masked by the enhanced SSA retrieval uncertainty. Dust and brown carbon UV absorbing properties were also investigated to explain seasonal patterns.

  18. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption (United States)

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant


    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch-near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  19. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Bharti, Vineet; Natarajan, Vasant


    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch---near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  20. High efficiency dielectric metasurfaces at visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Robert C; Chen, Wei-Ting; Oh, Jaewon; Capasso, Federico


    Metasurfaces are planar optical elements that hold promise for overcoming the limitations of refractive and conventional diffractive optics1-3. Dielectric metasurfaces demonstrated thus far4-10 are limited to transparency windows at infrared wavelengths because of significant optical absorption and loss at visible wavelengths. It is critical that new materials and fabrication techniques be developed for dielectric metasurfaces at visible wavelengths to enable applications such as three-dimensional displays, wearable optics and planar optical systems11. Here, we demonstrate high performance titanium dioxide dielectric metasurfaces in the form of holograms for red, green and blue wavelengths with record absolute efficiency (>78%). We use atomic layer deposition of amorphous titanium dioxide that exhibits low surface roughness of 0.738 nm and ideal optical properties. To fabricate the metasurfaces we use a lift-off-like process that allows us to produce highly anisotropic nanofins with shape birefringence. This ...

  1. Multiple-Wavelength Pyrometry Independent Of Emissivity (United States)

    Ng, Daniel


    Multiple-wavelength pyrometric method provides for determination of two sequential temperatures of same surface or temperatures of two surfaces made of same material. Temperatures measured, without knowing emissivity, by uncalibrated spectral radiometer.

  2. Principle analysis of IP wavelength router

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 殷洪玺; 徐安士; 吴德明


    Combining IP with WDM is an attractive direction for research. WDM will play an important role in IP network in future. Now, an urgent problem is how to introduce wavelength routing in an IP network. We solve this problem by designing IP wavelength router, implementing DPDP (default path and dedicated path) method. We prove the reasonableness and feasibility of this design by a principle experiment. A lot of problems related to this design are also discussed.

  3. Short wavelength regenerative amplifier free electron lasers


    Dunning, D J; McNeil, B. W. J.; Thompson, N. R.


    In this paper we discuss extending the operating wavelength range of tunable Regenerative Amplifier FELs to shorter wavelengths than current design proposals, notably into the XUV regions of the spectrum and beyond where the reflectivity of broadband optics is very low. Simulation studies are presented which demonstrate the development of good temporal coherence in generic systems with a broadband radiation feedback of less than one part in ten thousand.

  4. Wavelength-tunable duplex integrated light source (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yasaka, Hiroshi; Oe, Kunishige


    A monolithically integrated opto-electronic device is proposed as a fast wavelength-switching light source. This tunable duplex integrated light source comprises two wavelength-tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser diodes (LDs), two MQW-electro-absorption optical switches, a Y-shaped waveguide coupler, a MQW-electro-absorption modulator, and two thermal drift compensators (TDCs). The wavelength-switching time of the optical switches was estimated to be 60 ps including a 50-ps rise time for the electrical-pulse generator. The wavelength of a 10-Gbit/s NRZ-modulated optical signal can be switched without bit loss. The function of the TDCs is to keep the device-chip temperature constant. Thermal-transient- induced wavelength drift with a millisecond-order time constant, which has been reported for DBR-LDs, and thermal crosstalk between the tuning regions of the integrated LDs, which causes wavelength fluctuation, are effectively suppressed by thermal-drift-compensation operation using the TDCs.

  5. Mechanism of wavelength conversion in polystyrene doped with benzoxanthene: emergence of a complex (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Shinji, Osamu; Saito, Katashi; Takahashi, Sentaro


    Fluorescent guest molecules doped in polymers have been used to convert ultraviolet light into visible light for applications ranging from optical fibres to filters for the cultivation of plants. The wavelength conversion process involves the absorption of light at short wavelengths followed by fluorescence emission at a longer wavelength. However, a precise understanding of the light conversion remains unclear. Here we show light responses for a purified polystyrene base substrates doped with fluorescent benzoxanthene in concentrations varied over four orders of magnitude. The shape of the excitation spectrum for fluorescence emission changes significantly with the concentration of the benzoxanthene, indicating formation of a base substrate/fluorescent molecule complex. Furthermore, the wavelength conversion light yield increases in three stages depending on the nature of the complex. These findings identify a mechanism that will have many applications in wavelength conversion materials. PMID:23974205

  6. Enhanced UV light detection using wavelength-shifting properties of Silicon nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, S; Fizari, M; Malloy, J; Maximenko, Y; Xie, J; Yu, H


    Detection of UV photons is becoming increasingly necessary with the use of noble gases and liquids in elementary particle experiments. Cerenkov light in crystals and glasses, scintillation light in neutrino, dark matter, and rare decay experiments all require sensitivity to UV photons. New sensor materials are needed that can directly detect UV photons and/or absorb UV photons and re-emit light in the visible range measurable by existing photosensors. It has been shown that silicon nanoparticles are sensitive to UV light in a wavelength range around ~200 nm. UV light is absorbed and re-emitted at wavelengths in the visible range depending on the size of the nanoparticles. Initial tests of the wavelength-shifting properties of silicon nanoparticles are presented here that indicate by placing a film of nanoparticles in front of a standard visible-wavelength detecting photosensor, the response of the sensor is significantly enhanced at wavelengths < 320 nm.

  7. Multi-wavelength holography with a single spatial light modulator for ultracold atom experiments. (United States)

    Bowman, David; Ireland, Philip; Bruce, Graham D; Cassettari, Donatella


    We demonstrate a method to independently and arbitrarily tailor the spatial profile of light of multiple wavelengths and we show possible applications to ultracold atoms experiments. A single spatial light modulator is programmed to create a pattern containing multiple spatially separated structures in the Fourier plane when illuminated with a single wavelength. When the modulator is illuminated with overlapped laser beams of different wavelengths, the position of the structures is wavelength-dependent. Hence, by designing their separations appropriately, a desired overlap of different structures at different wavelengths is obtained. We employ regional phase calculation algorithms and demonstrate several possible experimental scenarios by generating light patterns with 670 nm, 780 nm and 1064 nm laser light which are accurate to the level of a few percent. This technique is easily integrated into cold atom experiments, requiring little optical access.

  8. Numerical analysis of four-wave-mixing based multichannel wavelength conversion techniques in fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liang; Zhang Fan; Li Ming; Liu Yuliang; Chen Zhangyuan


    We numerically investigate four-wave-mixing (FWM) based multichannel wavelength conversion for amplitude-modulated signals, phase-modulated signals, together with mixed amplitude and phase modulated signals. This paper also discusses the influence of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects on high-efficiency FWM-based wavelength conversion applications. Our simulation results show that DPSK signals are more suitable for FWM-based multichannel wavelength conversion because the OOK signals will suffer from the inevitable datapattern-dependent pump depletion. In future applications, when the modulation format is partially upgraded from OOK to DPSK, the influence of OOK signals on the updated DPSK signals must be considered when using multichannel wavelength conversion. This influence becomes severe with the increase of OOK channel number. It can be concluded that DPSK signals are more appropriate for both transmission and multichannel wavelength conversion,especially in long haul and high bit-rate system.

  9. Stable and wavelength-tunable silicon-micro-ring-resonator based erbium-doped fiber laser. (United States)

    Yang, L G; Yeh, C H; Wong, C Y; Chow, C W; Tseng, F G; Tsang, H K


    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a stable and wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser. Here, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based silicon-micro-ring-resonator (SMRR) is used as the wavelength selective element inside the fiber ring cavity. A uniform period grating coupler (GC) is used to couple between the SMRR and single mode fiber (SMF) and serves also as a polarization dependent element in the cavity. The output lasing wavelength of the proposed fiber laser can be tuned at a tuning step of 2 nm (defined by the free spectral range (FSR) of the SMRR) in a bandwidth of 35.2 nm (1532.00 to 1567.20 nm), which is defined by the gain of the EDF. The optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) of each lasing wavelength is larger than 42.0 dB. In addition, the output stabilities of power and wavelength are also discussed.

  10. A 12 GHz wavelength spacing multi-wavelength laser source for wireless communication systems (United States)

    Peng, P. C.; Shiu, R. K.; Bitew, M. A.; Chang, T. L.; Lai, C. H.; Junior, J. I.


    This paper presents a multi-wavelength laser source with 12 GHz wavelength spacing based on a single distributed feedback laser. A light wave generated from the distributed feedback laser is fed into a frequency shifter loop consisting of 50:50 coupler, dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, optical amplifier, optical filter, and polarization controller. The frequency of the input wavelength is shifted and then re-injected into the frequency shifter loop. By re-injecting the shifted wavelengths multiple times, we have generated 84 optical carriers with 12 GHz wavelength spacing and stable output power. For each channel, two wavelengths are modulated by a wireless data using the phase modulator and transmitted through a 25 km single mode fiber. In contrast to previously developed schemes, the proposed laser source does not incur DC bias drift problem. Moreover, it is a good candidate for radio-over-fiber systems to support multiple users using a single distributed feedback laser.

  11. Optical lithography at a 126-nm wavelength (United States)

    Kang, Hoyoung; Bourov, Anatoly; Smith, Bruce W.


    There is a window of opportunity for optical lithography between wavelengths of 100 nm and 157 nm that warrants exploration as a next generation technology. We will present activities underway to explore the feasibility of VUV optical lithography in this region with respect to source, optical design, materials, processes, masks, resolution enhancement, and compatibility with existing technologies. We have constructed a small field prototype lithography system using the second continuum 126nm emission wavelength of the Argon excimer. This has been accomplished using a small dielectric barrier discharge lamp with output on the order of 10mW/cm2 and small field catoptric imaging systems based on a modified Cassegrain system. Capacitance focus gauge and piezo electric stage has been installed for fine focusing. In order to achieve sub-half wavelength resolution that would be required to compete with 157nm lithography and others, we have started exploring the feasibility of using liquefied noble gas immersion fluids to increase effective value of lens numerical aperture by factors approaching 1.4x. Conventional silylation process works well with 126nm with high sensitivity. Chemically amplified DUV negative resist looks very good material for 126 nm. Initial contact printing image shows good selectivity and process control. An effort is also underway to explore the use of inorganic resist materials, as silver halide material for instance, to replace the conventional polymeric imaging systems that are currently employed at longer wavelengths, but may be problematic at these VUV wavelengths. Early accomplishments are encouraging. Prototype optical research tools can be used to reveal issues involved with 126nm lithography and solve initial problems. Though many challenges do exist at this short wavelength, it is quite feasible that lithography at this wavelength could meet the part of the needs of future device generations.

  12. Quantum dot/plasmonic nanoparticle metachromophores with quantum yields that vary with excitation wavelength. (United States)

    Munechika, Keiko; Chen, Yeechi; Tillack, Andreas F; Kulkarni, Abhishek P; Jen-La Plante, Ilan; Munro, Andrea M; Ginger, David S


    Coupled plasmonic/chromophore systems are of interest in applications ranging from fluorescent biosensors to solar photovoltaics and photoelectrochemical cells because near-field coupling to metal nanostructures can dramatically alter the optical performance of nearby materials. We show that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) near single silver nanoprisms can exhibit photoluminescence lifetimes and quantum yields that depend on the excitation wavelength, in apparent violation of the Kasha-Vavilov rule. We attribute the variation in QD lifetime with excitation wavelength to the wavelength-dependent coupling of higher-order plasmon modes to different spatial subpopulations of nearby QDs. At the QD emission wavelength, these subpopulations are coupled to far-field radiation with varying efficiency by the nanoprism dipolar resonance. These results offer an easily accessible new route to design metachromophores with tailored optical properties.

  13. Design of a wavelength-tunable optical tweezer using a graded-index multimode optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Mobini, Esmaeil


    A wavelength-tunable Optical Fiber Tweezer (OFT) based on a Graded Index Multimode Fiber (GIMF) with a flat endface is proposed. It is shown that the design can support a trapping position which is far from the tip of the GIMF compared with other common optical tweezing methods, hence reducing the possibility of a contact between the trapped particle and the fiber tip. Moreover, because of the wavelength dependence of the GIMF design parameters such the Numerical Aperture (NA), the trapping position can become wavelength-dependent. Therefore, the trapping position can be tuned over a long range using a common wave-length tunable laser. The proposed OFT differs from previous fiber-based demonstrations by using a flat-endface fiber making the fabrication and experiment quite easier than previously proposed tapered-endface OFTs.

  14. Revised Wavelength and Spectral Response Calibrations for AKARI Near-Infrared Grism Spectroscopy: Cryogenic Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, S; Shirahata, M; Isobe, N; Usui, F; Ohyama, Y; Onaka, T; Yano, K; Kochi, C


    We perform revised spectral calibrations for the AKARI near-infrared grism to quantitatively correct for the effect of the wavelength-dependent refractive index. The near-infrared grism covering the wavelength range of 2.5--5.0 micron with a spectral resolving power of 120 at 3.6 micron, is found to be contaminated by second-order light at wavelengths longer than 4.9 micron which is especially serious for red objects. First, we present the wavelength calibration considering the refractive index of the grism as a function of the wavelength for the first time. We find that the previous solution is positively shifted by up to 0.01 micron compared with the revised wavelengths at 2.5--5.0 micron. In addition, we demonstrate that second-order contamination occurs even with a perfect order-sorting filter owing to the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. Second, the spectral responses of the system from the first- and second-order light are simultaneously obtained from two types of standard objects with dif...

  15. Simulation experiments to generate broadband chaos using dual-wavelength optically injected Fabry-Perot laser (United States)

    Obaid, Hafiz Muhammad; Khawar Islam, Muhammad; Obaid Ullah, Muhammad


    Broadband chaos can be generated by beating two wavelengths in a hybrid arrangement of Fabry-Perot (FP) Laser and Fiber ring cavity by injecting dual wavelengths. The bandwidth of generated chaos can be controlled by detuning different modes of FP Laser for beating. The bandwidth of generated chaos increased to many folds depending upon the injected strength and wavelength spacing matched to FP laser modes. The bandwidth enhancement in different simulation experiments conducted is optimized by varying different parameters of FP laser and cavity. The waveforms are analyzed and Lyapunov exponents are calculated in order to validate the existence of high bandwidth non-pulsating chaos.

  16. Bragg-Scattering conversion at telecom wavelengths towards the photon counting regime

    CERN Document Server

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Kozlov, Victor V; Couderc, Vincent; Di Bin, Philippe; Wabnitz, Stefan; Barthélémy, Alain; Labonté, Laurent; Tanzilli, Sébastien


    We experimentally study Bragg-scattering four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber at telecom wavelengths using photon counters. We explore the polarization dependence of this process with a continuous wave signal in the macroscopic and attenuated regime, with a wavelength shift of 23 nm. Our measurements of mean photon numbers per second under various pump polarization configurations agree well with the theoretical and numerical predictions based on classical models. We discuss the impact of noise under these different polarization configurations.

  17. Wavelength selection for multilayer coatings for the lithography generation beyond EUVL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makhotkin, Igor Alexandrovich; Zoethout, E.; Zoethout, E.; Louis, Eric; Yakunin, S.N.; Muellender, S.; Bijkerk, Frederik; Naulleau, P.P.; Wood, O.R.


    The spectral properties of LaN/B and LaN/B4C multilayer mirrors have been investigated in the 6.5-6.9 nm wavelength range, based on measured B and B4C optical constants. We show that the wavelength of optimal single mirror reflectance for boron based optics is between 6.63 and 6.65 nm, depending on

  18. Radio Recombination Lines at Decametre Wavelengths: Prospects for the Future

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, W M; Clarke, T E; Erickson, W C; Kassim, N E


    This paper considers the suitability of a number of emerging and future instruments for the study of radio recombination lines (RRLs) at frequencies below 200 MHz. These lines arise only in low-density regions of the ionized interstellar medium, and they may represent a frequency-dependent foreground for next-generation experiments trying to detect H I signals from the Epoch of Reionization and Dark Ages ("21-cm cosmology"). We summarize existing decametre-wavelength observations of RRLs, which have detected only carbon RRLs. We then show that, for an interferometric array, the primary instrumental factor limiting detection and study of the RRLs is the areal filling factor of the array. We consider the Long Wavelength Array (LWA-1), the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA-lo), and a future Lunar Radio Array (LRA), all of which will operate at decametre wavelengths. These arrays offer digital signal processing, which should produce more stable and better ...

  19. Remote-sensing vibrometry at 1550 nm wavelength (United States)

    Dräbenstedt, A.; Sauer, J.; Rembe, C.


    Laser-Doppler vibrometry (LDV) is a proven technique for vibration analysis of mechanical structures. A wavelength of 633 nm is usually employed because of the availability of the relatively inexpensive Helium-Neon laser source which has a good coherence behavior. However, coherence break-down through the beat of multiple longitudinal modes and the limited detector carrier-to-noise-ratio (CNR) at a measurement laser power of 1 mW have prevented a wide use of LDV in remote sensing applications. Such applications in civil engineering are bridges, towers or wind turbines. The lower photon energy of IR light at 1550 nm wavelength increases the CNR by a factor 2.4. This helps especially in the condition where the carrier power decreases below the FM threshold. We have designed a heterodyne interferometer which allows the shot noise limited detection at 1550 nm wavelength close to the theoretical possible CNR. We present calculations of the fundamental noise contributions in interferometric light detection for a comparison of the achievable CNR between common HeNe vibrometers and IR vibrometers. The calculations are backed by measurements that show the devices working close to the theoretical limits. The achievable noise level of the demodulated velocity signal is shown in dependence from the standoff distance. Our novel heterodyne interferometer has been transferred to the Polytec product RSV-150. An application example of this new sensor will be demonstrated.

  20. Two-wavelength pump-probe technique using single distributed feedback laser array to probe gain recovery of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (United States)

    Kuroda, Keiji; Yoshikuni, Yuzo


    We propose a two-wavelength pump-probe technique to probe the gain recovery characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The two-wavelength pulse pairs are generated through the direct modulation of a single distributed feedback laser array. The proposed technique allows us to measure the wavelength dependence of the recovery time after gain saturation is induced by a signal of the same wavelength.

  1. A programmable optical few wavelength source for flexgrid optical networks (United States)

    Imran, M.; Fresi, F.; Meloni, G.; Bhowmik, B. B.; Sambo, N.; Potì, L.


    Multi-wavelength (MW) sources will probably replace discrete lasers or laser arrays in next generation multi-carrier transponders (e.g., 1 Tb/s), currently called multi-flow transponders or sliceable bandwidth variable transponders (SBVTs). We present design and experimental demonstration of a few wavelength (FW) source suitable for SBVTs in a flexgrid scenario. We refer to FW instead of MW since for an SBVT just few subcarriers are required (e.g., eight). The proposed FW source does not require optical filtering for subcarrier modulation. The design exploits frequency shifting in IQ modulators by using single side band suppressed carrier modulation. A reasonable number of lines can be provided depending on the chosen architecture, tunable in the whole C-band. The scheme is also capable of providing symmetric (equally spaced) and asymmetric subcarrier spacing arbitrarily tunable from 6.25 GHz to 37.5 GHz. The control on the number of subcarriers (increase/decrease depending on line rate) provides flexibility to the SBVT, being the spacing dependent on transmission parameters such as line rate or modulation format. Transmission performance has been tested and compared with an array of standard lasers considering a 480 Gb/s transmission for different carrier spacing. Additionally, an integrable solution based on complementary frequency shifter is also presented to improve scalability and costs. The impact on transceiver techno-economics and network performance is also discussed.

  2. Device for wavelength-selective imaging (United States)

    Frangioni, John V.


    An imaging device captures both a visible light image and a diagnostic image, the diagnostic image corresponding to emissions from an imaging medium within the object. The visible light image (which may be color or grayscale) and the diagnostic image may be superimposed to display regions of diagnostic significance within a visible light image. A number of imaging media may be used according to an intended application for the imaging device, and an imaging medium may have wavelengths above, below, or within the visible light spectrum. The devices described herein may be advantageously packaged within a single integrated device or other solid state device, and/or employed in an integrated, single-camera medical imaging system, as well as many non-medical imaging systems that would benefit from simultaneous capture of visible-light wavelength images along with images at other wavelengths.

  3. Imaging of sub-wavelength structures radiating coherently near microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, Alexey V., E-mail: [University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Astratov, Vasily N., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States)


    Using a two-dimensional model, we show that the optical images of a sub-wavelength object depend strongly on the excitation of its electromagnetic modes. There exist modes that enable the resolution of the object features smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in particular, due to the destructive interference. We propose to use such modes for super-resolution of resonant structures such as coupled cavities, metal dimers, or bowties. A dielectric microsphere in contact with the object forms its magnified image in a wide range of the virtual image plane positions. It is also suggested that the resonances may significantly affect the resolution quantification in recent experimental studies.

  4. Optimal Placement of Wavelength Converting Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belotti, Pietro; Stidsen, Thomas K.


    The all optical network using WDM and optical nodes (OXC's) seems to be a possibility in a near future. The consensus to day seems to be that optical wavelength conversions is un-realistic for several decades, hence wavelength blocking will happen in the all optical networks. A possible solution ...... to this problem could be to include digital nodes (DXC's) in the network at the right places. In this article we present a linear programming model which optimizes the placement of these more expensive DXC's in the network....

  5. Wavelength division multiplexing a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Grobe, Klaus


    In this book, Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is approached from a strictly practical and application-oriented point of view. Based on the characteristics and constraints of modern fiber-optic components, transport systems and fibers, the text provides relevant rules of thumb and practical hints for technology selection, WDM system and link dimensioning, and also for network-related aspects such as wavelength assignment and resilience mechanisms. Actual 10/40 Gb/s WDM systems are considered, and a preview of the upcoming 100 Gb/s systems and technologies for even higher bit rate

  6. An economic Fabry-Perot wavelength reference (United States)

    Fżrész, Gábor; Glenday, Alex; Latham, Christian


    Precision radial velocity (PRV) measurements are key in studying exoplanets, and so are wavelength calibrators in PRV instruments. ThAr lamps offer an affordable but somewhat limited solution for the visible passband. Laser frequency combs are ideal calibrators, except the (still) narrow wavelength coverage and large price tag. White light Fabry-Perot (FP) calibrators offer frequency-comb like properties in a more affordable and less complicated package1. Using a commercial solid FP etalon and off-the shelf components we have constructed an economic FP calibrator suitable for observatories on a smaller budget.

  7. New method for spectrofluorometer monochromator wavelength calibration. (United States)

    Paladini, A A; Erijman, L


    A method is presented for wavelength calibration of spectrofluorometer monochromators. It is based on the distortion that the characteristic absorption bands of glass filters (holmium or didymium oxide), commonly used for calibration of spectrophotometers, introduce in the emitted fluorescence of fluorophores like indole, diphenyl hexatriene, xylene or rhodamine 6G. Those filters or a well characterized absorber with sharp bands like benzene vapor can be used for the same purpose. The wavelength calibration accuracy obtained with this method is better than 0.1 nm, and requires no modification in the geometry of the spectrofluorometer sample compartment.

  8. Continuous-wave wavelength conversion in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.V.; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Nielsen, C.K.;


    We demonstrate continuous-wave wavelength conversion through four-wave mixing in an endlessly single mode photonic crystal fiber. Phasematching is possible at vanishing pump power in the anomalous dispersion regime between the two zero-dispersion wavelengths. By mixing appropriate pump and idler...

  9. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength Tm-doped mode-locked fiber laser by nonlinear polarization evolution. (United States)

    Yan, Zhiyu; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Yulong; Shum, Perry Ping; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie


    We propose and demonstrate a tunable and switchable dual-wavelength ultra-fast Tm-doped fiber laser. The tunability is based on nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) technique in a passively mode-locked laser cavity. The NPE effect induces wavelength-dependent loss in the cavity to effectively alleviate mode competition and enables the multiwavelength mode locking. The laser exhibits tunable dual-wavelength mode locking over a wide range from 1852 to 1886 nm. The system has compact structure and both the wavelength tuning and switching capabilities can be realized by controlling the polarization in the fiber ring cavity.

  10. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.


    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  11. Adaptive multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem


    In this thesis we describe the development of a new class of optical components to enhance the imaging performance by enabling adaptations of the optics. When used at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths, such ‘adaptive optics’ offers the potential to achieve the highest spatial resolution in imagi

  12. Two-wavelength spatial-heterodyne holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Bingham, Philip R. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, John T. (Knoxville, TN); Karnowski, Thomas P. (Knoxville, TN); Voelkl, Edgar (Austin, TX)


    Systems and methods are described for obtaining two-wavelength differential-phase holograms. A method includes determining a difference between a filtered analyzed recorded first spatially heterodyne hologram phase and a filtered analyzed recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram phase.

  13. Investigation of optimum wavelengths for oximetry (United States)

    Huong, Audrey K. C.; Stockford, Ian M.; Crowe, John A.; Morgan, Stephen P.


    An evaluation of the optimum choice of wavelengths, when using the 'Modified Lambert-Beer law' to estimate blood oxygen saturation, that minimises the mean error across a range of oxygen saturation values is presented. The stability of this approach and its susceptibility to noise are also considered.

  14. Moving Crystal Slow-Neutron Wavelength Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Kjems, Jørgen


    Experimental proof that a moving single crystal can serve as a slow-neutron wavelength analyser of special features is presented. When the crystal moves with a velocity h/(2 md) (h-Planck constant, m-neutron mass, d-interplanar spacing) perpendicular to the diffracting plane and the analysed...

  15. Moving Crystal Slow-Neutron Wavelength Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Kjems, Jørgen


    Experimental proof that a moving single crystal can serve as a slow-neutron wavelength analyser of special features is presented. When the crystal moves with a velocity h/(2 md) (h-Planck constant, m-neutron mass, d-interplanar spacing) perpendicular to the diffracting plane and the analysed...

  16. Concepts for a short wavelength rf gun (United States)

    Kuzikov, S. V.; Shchelkunov, S.; Vikharev, A. A.


    Three concepts of an rf gun to be operated at 0.1-10 mm wavelengths are considered. In all the concepts, the rf system exploits an accelerating traveling wave. In comparison with a classical decimeter standing-wave rf gun, we analyze the advantages of new concepts, available rf sources, and achievable beam parameters.

  17. Aero-Optics at Shorter Wavelengths. (United States)


    heliostat 1.93 1788 60 coelostat 2.40 2161 60 Changing from a CO2 laser to an iodine laser gives a wavelength ratio of 1/8. Assuming S is fixed, the...thickness and velocity profile. When the wall is concave to the external flow, Gortler vortices may occur. Cooling or heating can alter boundary layer

  18. Laser wavelength comparison by high resolution interferometry. (United States)

    Layer, H P; Deslattes, R D; Schweitzer, W G


    High resolution interferometry has been used to determine the wavelength ratio between two molecularly stabilized He-Ne lasers, one locked to a methane absorption at 3.39 microm and the other locked to the k peak of (129)I(2) at 633 nm. An optical beat frequency technique gave fractional orders while a microwave sideband method yielded the integer parts. Conventional (third derivative) peak seeking servoes stabilized both laser and cavity lengths. Reproducibility of the electronic control system and optics was a few parts in 10(12), while systematic errors associated with curvature of the cavity mirrors limited the accuracy of the wavelength ratio measurement to 2 parts in 10(10). The measured wavelength ratio of the methane stabilized He-Ne laser at 3.39 microm [P(7) line, nu(3) band] to the (129)I(2) (k peak) stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm was 5.359 049 260 6 (0.000 2 ppm). This ratio agrees with that calculated from the (lower accuracy) results of earlier wavelength measurements made relative to the (86)Kr standard. Its higher accuracy thus permits a provisional extension of the frequency scale based on the cesium oscillator into the visible spectrum.

  19. Wavelength-agnostic WDM-PON System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Zou, S.


    Next-generation WDM-PON solutions for metro and access systems will take advantage of remotely controlled wavelength-tunable ONUs to keep system costs as low as possible. For such a purpose, each ONU signal can be labeled by a pilot tone modulated onto the optical data stream. We report...

  20. Topology Optimization of Sub-Wavelength Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole


    We propose a topology optimization strategy for the systematic design of a three-dimensional (3D), conductor-based sub-wavelength antenna. The post-processed finite-element (FE) models of the optimized structure are shown to be self-resonant, efficient and exhibit distorted omnidirectional...

  1. Studies of Saturn's Main Rings at Multiple Wavelengths (United States)

    Spilker, L. J.; Deau, E.; Filacchione, G.; Morishima, R.; Hedman, M. M.; Nicholson, P. D.; Colwell, J. E.; Bradley, E. T.; Showalter, M.; Pilorz, S.; Brooks, S. M.


    A wealth of information about the characteristics of Saturn's ring particles and their regolith can be obtained by modeling the changes in their brightness, color and temperature with changing viewing geometry over a wide range of wavelengths, from ultraviolet through the thermal infrared. Data from Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) are jointly studied using data from the lit and unlit main rings at multiple geometries and solar elevations over 11 years of the Cassini mission. Using multi-wavelength data sets allow us to test different thermal models by combining the effects of particle albedo, regolith grain size and surface roughness with thermal emissivity and inertia, particle spin rate and spin axis orientation. The CIRS temperature and ISS color variations are confined primarily to phase angle over a range of solar elevations with only small differences from changing spacecraft elevation. Color and temperature dependence with varying solar elevation angle are also observed. Brightness dependence with changing solar elevation angle and phase angle is observed with UVIS. VIMS observations show that the IR ice absorption band depths are a very weak function of phase angle, out to ~140 deg phase, suggesting that interparticle light scattering is relatively unimportant except at very high phase angles. These results imply that the individual properties of the ring particles may play a larger role than the collective properties of the rings, in particular at visible wavelengths. The temperature and color variation with phase angle may be a result of scattering within the regolith and on possibly rough surfaces of the clumps, as well as a contribution from scattering between individual particles in a many-particle-thick layer. Preliminary results from our joint studies will be presented. This research was carried out in part at

  2. Long-wavelength chlorophylls in photosystem I of cyanobacteria: origin, localization, and functions. (United States)

    Karapetyan, N V; Bolychevtseva, Yu V; Yurina, N P; Terekhova, I V; Shubin, V V; Brecht, M


    The structural organization of photosystem I (PSI) complexes in cyanobacteria and the origin of the PSI antenna long-wavelength chlorophylls and their role in energy migration, charge separation, and dissipation of excess absorbed energy are discussed. The PSI complex in cyanobacterial membranes is organized preferentially as a trimer with the core antenna enriched with long-wavelength chlorophylls. The contents of long-wavelength chlorophylls and their spectral characteristics in PSI trimers and monomers are species-specific. Chlorophyll aggregates in PSI antenna are potential candidates for the role of the long-wavelength chlorophylls. The red-most chlorophylls in PSI trimers of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis and Thermosynechococcus elongatus can be formed as a result of interaction of pigments peripherally localized on different monomeric complexes within the PSI trimers. Long-wavelength chlorophylls affect weakly energy equilibration within the heterogeneous PSI antenna, but they significantly delay energy trapping by P700. When the reaction center is open, energy absorbed by long-wavelength chlorophylls migrates to P700 at physiological temperatures, causing its oxidation. When the PSI reaction center is closed, the P700 cation radical or P700 triplet state (depending on the P700 redox state and the PSI acceptor side cofactors) efficiently quench the fluorescence of the long-wavelength chlorophylls of PSI and thus protect the complex against photodestruction.

  3. Direct writing of continuous and discontinuous sub-wavelength periodic surface structures on single-crystalline silicon using femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuladeep, Rajamudili; Sahoo, Chakradhar; Narayana Rao, Desai, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)


    Laser-induced ripples or uniform arrays of continuous near sub-wavelength or discontinuous deep sub-wavelength structures are formed on single-crystalline silicon (Si) by femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing technique. Laser irradiation was performed on Si wafers at normal incidence in air and by immersing them in dimethyl sulfoxide using linearly polarized Ti:sapphire fs laser pulses of ∼110 fs pulse duration and ∼800 nm wavelength. Morphology studies of laser written surfaces reveal that sub-wavelength features are oriented perpendicular to laser polarization, while their morphology and spatial periodicity depend on the surrounding dielectric medium. The formation mechanism of the sub-wavelength features is explained by interference of incident laser with surface plasmon polaritons. This work proves the feasibility of fs laser direct writing technique for the fabrication of sub-wavelength features, which could help in fabrication of advanced electro-optic devices.

  4. A Practical Detection System of Multiplexed Wavelength Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A practical demodulation of multiplexed wavelength FBGs is proposed. The detection wavelength of adjacent FBGs and the wavelength resolution are discussed. Experimental results show the wavelength resolution is 0.01nm and strain resolution is 8.27× 10-6.

  5. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Bartosz


    We utilise ground-based, balloon-born and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to numerically solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature ($T_{\\rm atm}$) and optical depth ($\\tau$) at the centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV, with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in the clear sky conditions towards the Sun. Based on the measurements, we devise a selection criteria to filter the climatology data to match the PWV levels to the expectations of the clear sky conditions. We apply the reconstruction to the location of the Polish 32-metre radio telescope, and characterise $T_{\\rm atm}$ and $\\tau$ year-round, at selected frequencies. We also derive the zenith distance dependence for these parameters, and discuss shortcomings of using planar, single-layer, and optically thin atmospheric model approxima...

  6. Long-Wavelength Rupturing Instability in Surface-Tension-Driven Benard Convection (United States)

    Swift, J. B.; Hook, Stephen J. Van; Becerril, Ricardo; McCormick, W. D.; Swinney, H. L.; Schatz, Michael F.


    A liquid layer with a free upper surface and heated from below is subject to thermocapillary-induced convective instabilities. We use very thin liquid layers (0.01 cm) to significantly reduce buoyancy effects and simulate Marangoni convection in microgravity. We observe thermocapillary-driven convection in two qualitatively different modes, short-wavelength Benard hexagonal convection cells and a long-wavelength interfacial rupturing mode. We focus on the long-wavelength mode and present experimental observations and theoretical analyses of the long-wavelength instability. Depending on the depths and thermal conductivities of the liquid and the gas above it, the interface can rupture downwards and form a dry spot or rupture upwards and form a high spot. Linear stability theory gives good agreement to the experimental measurements of onset as long as sidewall effects are taken into account. Nonlinear theory correctly predicts the subcritical nature of the bifurcation and the selection between the dry spot and high spots.

  7. Extending 3D Near-Cloud Corrections from Shorter to Longer Wavelengths (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Varnai, Tamas; Guoyong, Wen


    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths.

  8. A Four-Wavelength All-Fibre Laser for Wavelength Division Multiplexing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Lei; KAI Gui-Yun; XU Yan-Jun; GUAN Bai-Ou; YUAN Shu-Zhong; DONG Xiao-Yi; GE Chun-Feng


    A novel four-wavelength all-fibre laser based on fibre Bragg gratings is presented. The four wavelengths are 1555.8, 1556.6, 1557.4 and 1558.2nm, respectively. Each output laser is<0.3nm in line-width and >1 mW in power. The suppression ratio between adjacent wavelengths is >30dB. The laser was applied in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system and the 100km transmission of 1.2 Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero code, 1.2 Gb/s return-to-zero code, 2.5 GHz analogue signal and 5 GHz analogue signal was realized with it.

  9. Narrow Wavelength, Frequency Modulated Source at 1.5? Wavelength Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs narrow linewidth lasers in the 1.5 or 2 micron wavelength regime for Lidar applications. The laser should be tunable by several nm and frequency modulated...

  10. QoS Aware Wavelength Assignment in Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mahmud


    Full Text Available Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM is used in optical networks to implement data circuits. These circuits allow exchange of information as a measure of wavelength in optical domain. Quality of Service (QoS provisioning is one of the issues in WDM optical networks. This paper discusses different QoS aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA algorithms. Some unaddressed issues are identified that include the effects of degraded performance, traffic patterns and type of QoS service for users. A software module is proposed that calculates a ‘D’ factor facilitating in the wavelength assignment for QoS provisioning. This module is designed to work in conjunction with existing RWA algorithms.

  11. Compact, Wavelength Stabilized Seed Source for Multi-Wavelength Lidar Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA LaRC is developing a compact, multi-wavelength High Spectral resolution Lidar (HSRL) system designed to measure various optical and microphysical properties of...

  12. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Supernova Remnants (United States)

    Williams, B.


    Supernova remnants (SNRs) provide a laboratory for studying various astrophysical processes, including particle acceleration, thermal and non thermal emission processes across the spectrum, distribution of heavy elements, the physics of strong shock waves, and the progenitor systems and environments of supernovae. Long studied in radio and X-rays, the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the detection and subsequent study of SNRs in the infrared and gamma-ray regimes. Understanding the evolution of SNRs and their interaction with the interstellar medium requires a multi-wavelength approach. I will review the various physical processes observed in SNRs and how these processes are intertwined. In particular, I will focus on X-ray and infrared observations, which probe two very different but intrinsically connected phases of the ISM: gas and dust. I will discuss results from multi-wavelength studies of several SNRs at various stages of evolution, including Kepler, RCW 86, and the Cygnus Loop.

  13. Radio Wavelength Transients: Current and Emerging Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Lazio, J


    Known classes of radio wavelength transients range from the nearby--stellar flares and radio pulsars--to the distant Universe--\\gamma-ray burst afterglows. Hypothesized classes of radio transients include analogs of known objects, e.g., extrasolar planets emitting Jovian-like radio bursts and giant-pulse emitting pulsars in other galaxies, to the exotic, prompt emission from \\gamma-ray bursts, evaporating black holes, and transmitters from other civilizations. A number of instruments and facilities are either under construction or in early observational stages and are slated to become available in the next few years. With a combination of wide fields of view and wavelength agility, the detection and study of radio transients will improve immensely.

  14. Five wavelength DFB fiber lase source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varming, Poul; Hübner, Jörg; Kristensen, M.


    Stable single-mode laser sources with narrow linewidth are key components in high-capacity wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical communication systems. Distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) fiber lasers are compact devices, which are able to provide stable single......-mode operation. They are inherently fiber compatible and cascadable. We present a multiwavelength laser source consisting of five fiber DFB lasers spliced together and pumped by a single 60-mW 1480-nm semiconductor laser...

  15. Intrinsically stable light source at telecom wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Fernando; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Zbinden, Hugo


    We present a highly stable light source at telecom wavelengths, based on a short erbium doped fiber. The high stability arises from the high inversion of the Er3+ion population. This source is developed to work as a stable reference in radiometric applications and is useful in any application where high stability and/or a large bandwidth are necessary. The achieved long-term stability is 10 ppm.

  16. Synchronous two-wavelength temporal interferometry (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Gao, Zhan; Qin, Jie; Li, Guangyu; Feng, Ziang; Wang, Shengjia


    Interferometry is an optical measuring method with the character of non-destructive, high sensitivity and high accuracy. However, its measurement range is limited by the phase ambiguity. Hence the method with two separate different wavelengths light source is introduced to enlarge the measurement range. As for the two-wavelength interferometry case, phase shifting is the traditional way to acquire the phase map, it needs to repeat the measurement twice, which means the measurement cannot be accomplished in real time. Hence to solve the problem, a temporal sequence interferometry has been used. This method can obtain the desired phase information in real time by using the Fourier transform methods of the interferogram recorded in a sequence while the object is being deformed. But, it is difficult to retrieve the phase information directly due to the multi extreme points in one period of the cosine function. In this paper, an algorithm based on the wavelet ridge analysis is adopted to retrieve the two wavelength phase fluctuation caused by the displacement simultaneously. The preliminary experiment is conducted and the results are compared with theoretical simulations to validate the proposed approach. The laser emits light with two wavelengths 532 nm and 473 nm, two separated interference patterns in time sequence are detected by the CCD camera in the same time. The overlapped interferograms of two colors are analyzed by this algorithm and the corresponding phase information are obtained. The maximum error value between the simulation and theory is 0.03 um and the relative error is 0.33%.

  17. Varactor diodes for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths (United States)

    Rizzi, Brian J.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Dossal, Hasan; Crowe, Thomas W.


    Whisker-contacted GaAs Schottky barrier varactor diodes are the most common high-frequency multiplier element in use today. They are inherently simple devices that have very high frequency response and have been used to supply local oscillator power for Schottky heterodyne receivers to frequencies approaching 700 GHz. This paper discusses the development of improved varactor diode technology for space based applications at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths.

  18. Peripheral detection and resolution with mid-/long-wavelength and short-wavelength sensitive cone systems. (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-Feng; Zele, Andrew J; Suheimat, Marwan; Lambert, Andrew J; Atchison, David A


    This study compared neural resolution and detection limits of the human mid-/long-wavelength and short-wavelength cone systems with anatomical estimates of photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cell spacings and sizes. Detection and resolution limits were measured from central fixation out to 35° eccentricity across the horizontal visual field using a modified Lotmar interferometer. The mid-/long-wavelength cone system was studied using a green (550 nm) test stimulus to which S-cones have low sensitivity. To bias resolution and detection to the short-wavelength cone system, a blue (450 nm) test stimulus was presented against a bright yellow background that desensitized the M- and L-cones. Participants were three trichromatic males with normal visual functions. With green stimuli, resolution showed a steep central-peripheral gradient that was similar between participants, whereas the detection gradient was shallower and patterns were different between participants. Detection and resolution with blue stimuli were poorer than for green stimuli. The detection of blue stimuli was superior to resolution across the horizontal visual field and the patterns were different between participants. The mid-/long-wavelength cone system's resolution is limited by midget ganglion cell spacing and its detection is limited by the size of the M- and L-cone photoreceptors, consistent with previous observations. We found that no such simple relationships occur for the short-wavelength cone system between resolution and the bistratified ganglion cell spacing, nor between detection and the S-cone photoreceptor sizes.

  19. Digital wavelength-selected DBR laser (United States)

    Whitbread, Neil D.; Ward, Andrew J.; Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Robbins, David J.


    Widely tunable monolithic InP lasers can, in principle, cover one or other of the Er-doped fibre amplifier windows. These windows span wavelength ranges of around 40-50nm. However, the change in refractive index that can be achieved by current injection into a grating section is limited to about 1-2% corresponding to around 10-20nm in wavelength, so some further mechanism is required to extend the tuning range. In this paper, we present a new multi-section, digital supermode DBR laser (DS-DBR) that can be controlled in a simple, quasi-digital manner. The wavelength is coarsely selected by applying current to one of the front contacts to form an enhanced reflection peak and select a sub-band of the total tuning range. Current applied to the rear grating contact allows tuning within that range and a phase section allows fine tuning control. By selecting front contacts in turn, the full tuning range of the device can be accessed. We will present an overview of the device together with some simple modelling to show how the device will perform. This will be followed by a brief description of the fabrication and a comprehensive set of experimental results including RIN and linewidth measurements.

  20. Wavelength switching in an optical klystron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, K.W.; Smith, T.I. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    A symmetric optical klystron consists of two identical undulator sections separated a dispersive section. For a device of a given length, an optical klystron is capable of producing much more bunching, and therefore more gain, than a traditional undulator. Another consequence of introducing dispersion between two undulator sections is that the overall spontaneous radiation pattern results from the interference between the two undulator sections, and as such resembles a standard undulator radiation pattern modulated by a sinusoidal interference term. The presence of several wavelength peaks in the spontaneous lineshape implies an equal number of peaks in the gain spectrum. If the strength of the dispersion section is adjusted to provide nearly equal gain on the two largest of these peaks, then they will compete, and the FEL may switch wavelengths based on noise, cavity length, or other perturbations. We provide the first observations of this behavior, using the FIREFLY system at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. In FIREFLY, relative wavelength switching by more than 3%--more than twice the laser linewidth-has been observed by varying dispersion section strength, while at intermediate points stable switching has also been observed as a function of cavity length.

  1. Wavelength modulated SERS hot spot distribution in 1D nanostructures on metal film (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zeng, Xiping; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xuemei; Wei, Hua; Huang, Yingzhou; Liu, Anping; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia


    Surface plasmons confining strong electromagnetic fields near metal surfaces, well-known as hot spots, provide an extremely efficient platform for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, SERS spectra of probing molecules in a silver particle-wire 1D nanostructure on a thin gold film are investigated. The Raman features of SERS spectra collected at the particle-wire joints exhibit an obvious wavelength dependence phenomenon. This result is confirmed electromagnetic field simulation, revealing that hot spot distribution is sensitively influenced by the wavelength of incident light at the joints. Further studies indicate this wavelength dependence of hot spot distribution is immune to influence from the geometric shape of the particle or the angle between wire and particle, which improves fabrication tolerance. This technology may have promising applications in surface plasmon related fields, such as ultrasensors, solar energy and selective surface catalysis.

  2. Optimal laser wavelength for efficient laser power converter operation over temperature (United States)

    Höhn, O.; Walker, A. W.; Bett, A. W.; Helmers, H.


    A temperature dependent modeling study is conducted on a GaAs laser power converter to identify the optimal incident laser wavelength for optical power transmission. Furthermore, the respective temperature dependent maximal conversion efficiencies in the radiative limit as well as in a practically achievable limit are presented. The model is based on the transfer matrix method coupled to a two-diode model, and is calibrated to experimental data of a GaAs photovoltaic device over laser irradiance and temperature. Since the laser wavelength does not strongly influence the open circuit voltage of the laser power converter, the optimal laser wavelength is determined to be in the range where the external quantum efficiency is maximal, but weighted by the photon flux of the laser.

  3. A multicast dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm based on matching degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qi-wu; ZHOU Xian-wei; WANG Jian-ping; YIN Zhi-hong; ZHANG Long


    The wavelength assignment with multiple multicast requests in fixed routing WDM network is studied. A new multicast dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm is presented based on matching degree. First, the wavelength matching degree between available wavelengths and multicast routing trees is introduced into the algorithm. Then, the wavelength assign-ment is translated into the maximum weight matching in bipartite graph, and this matching problem is solved by using an extended Kuhn-Munkres algorithm. The simulation results prove that the overall optimal wavelength assignment scheme is obtained in polynomial time. At the same time, the proposed algorithm can reduce the connecting blocking probability and improve the system resource utilization.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LAI Wuxing; SHI Tielin; TAO Wei; CHENG Xinjian


    A method for measurement of ultra-low flying height in head-disk spacing is described. Three different wavelengths are selected out from white light by filters to measure the spacing simultaneously. Besides solving the ambiguity problem, a more reliable result is achieved by using weighted average of measurement results from three different wavelengths, where the weight is dependent upon spacing. Fringe-bunching correction algorithm (FBC) and spot-tilling technique are adopted to suppress calibration and random errors. Moreover, incident bandwidth correction (IBC) method is introduced to compensate the error caused by low monochromaticity of incident light. Based on dynamic flying height tester (DFHT II), with the redesigned of photo-electric conversion and signal acquirement module, an instrument has been developed. And comparing the experimental data from the instrument with those from a KLA-FHT D6, the discrepancy is less than 5%. It indicates that the instrument is suitable to perform ultra-low flying height measurement and satisfies the requirement of magnetic heads manufacturing.

  5. Multi-wavelength emission region of gamma-ray pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Kisaka, Shota


    Recent obserbations by Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of gamma-ray pulsars have revealed further details of the structure of the emission region. We investigate the emission region for the multi-wavelength light curve using outer gap model. We assume that gamma-ray and non-thermal X-ray photons are emitted from a particle acceleration region in the outer magnetosphere, and UV/optical photons originate above that region. We also assume that gamma-rays are radiated only by outwardly moving particles, whereas the other photons are produced by particles moving inward and outward. We parametrize the altitude of the emission region. We find that the outer gap model can explain the multi-wavelength pulse behavior. From observational fitting, we also find a general tendency for the altitude of the gamma-ray emission region to depend on the inclination angle. In particular, the emission region for low inclination angle is required to be located in very low altitude, which corresponds to the inner region within the la...

  6. Linear response to long wavelength fluctuations using curvature simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Baldauf, Tobias; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias


    We study the local response to long wavelength fluctuations in cosmological $N$-body simulations, focusing on the matter and halo power spectra, halo abundance and non-linear transformations of the density field. The long wavelength mode is implemented using an effective curved cosmology and a mapping of time and distances. The method provides an alternative, most probably more precise, way to measure the isotropic halo biases. Limiting ourselves to the linear case, we find generally good agreement between the biases obtained from the curvature method and the traditional power spectrum method at the level of a few percent. We also study the response of halo counts to changes in the variance of the field and find that the slope of the relation between the responses to density and variance differs from the naive derivation assuming a universal mass function by 18%. This has implications for measurements of the amplitude of local non-Gaussianity using scale dependent bias. We also analyze the halo power spectrum...

  7. Sensitivity of blackbody effective emissivity to wavelength and temperature: By genetic algorithm (United States)

    Ejigu, E. K.; Liedberg, H. G.


    A variable-temperature blackbody (VTBB) is used to calibrate an infrared radiation thermometer (pyrometer). The effective emissivity (ɛeff) of a VTBB is dependent on temperature and wavelength other than the geometry of the VTBB. In the calibration process the effective emissivity is often assumed to be constant within the wavelength and temperature range. There are practical situations where the sensitivity of the effective emissivity needs to be known and correction has to be applied. We present a method using a genetic algorithm to investigate the sensitivity of the effective emissivity to wavelength and temperature variation. Two matlab® programs are generated: the first to model the radiance temperature calculation and the second to connect the model to the genetic algorithm optimization toolbox. The effective emissivity parameter is taken as a chromosome and optimized at each wavelength and temperature point. The difference between the contact temperature (reading from a platinum resistance thermometer or liquid in glass thermometer) and radiance temperature (calculated from the ɛeff values) is used as an objective function where merit values are calculated and best fit ɛeff values selected. The best fit ɛeff values obtained as a solution show how sensitive they are to temperature and wavelength parameter variation. Uncertainty components that arise from wavelength and temperature variation are determined based on the sensitivity analysis. Numerical examples are considered for illustration.

  8. TCSPC FLIM in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1700 nm (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Shcheslavsky, Vladislav


    Excitation and detection in the wavelength range above 800nm is a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to increase the penetration depth in optical microscopy. Moreover, detection at long wavelength avoids the problem that tissue autofluorescence contaminates the signals from endogenous fluorescence probes. FLIM at NIR wavelength may therefore be complementary to multiphoton microscopy, especially if the lifetimes of NIR fluorophores report biological parameters of the tissue structures they are bound to. Unfortunately, neither the excitation sources nor the detectors of standard confocal and multiphoton laser scanning systems are directly suitable for excitation and detection of NIR fluorescence. Most of these problems can be solved, however, by using ps diode lasers or Ti:Sapphire lasers at their fundamental wavelength, and NIR-sensitive detectors. With NIR-sensitive PMTs the detection wavelength range can be extended up to 900 nm, with InGaAs SPAD detectors up to 1700 nm. Here, we demonstrate the use of a combination of laser scanning, multi-dimensional TCSPC, and advanced excitation sources and detectors for FLIM at up to 1700 nm. The performance was tested at tissue samples incubated with NIR dyes. The fluorescence lifetimes generally get shorter with increasing absorption and emission wavelengths of the dyes. For the cyanine dye IR1061, absorbing around 1060 nm, the lifetime was found to be as short as 70 ps. Nevertheless the fluorescence decay could still be clearly detected. Almost all dyes showed clear lifetime changes depending on the binding to different tissue constituents.

  9. Silicon-carbide-based extreme environment temperature sensor using wavelength-tuned signal processing. (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Sheikh, Mumtaz


    A wavelength-tuned signal-processing approach is proposed for enabling direct unambiguous temperature measurement in a free-space targeted single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC) temperature sensor. The approach simultaneously exploits the 6H SiC fundamental Sellmeier equation-based wavelength-sensitive refractive index change in combination with the classic temperature-dependent refractive index change and the material thermal-expansion path-length change to encode SiC chip temperature with wavelength. Presently, the technique is useful for fast coarse temperature measurement as demonstrated from room temperature to 1000 degrees C using a 10-peak count wavelength-tuned measurement with a 0.31 nm total wavelength change. This coarse technique can be combined with the previously presented two-wavelength signal-processing temperature measurement approach to simultaneously deliver a wide temperature range and a high-resolution temperature sensor. Applications for the sensor range from power plants to materials processing facilities.

  10. Wavelength-agnostic WDM-PON System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Zou, S.;


    Next-generation WDM-PON solutions for metro and access systems will take advantage of remotely controlled wavelength-tunable ONUs to keep system costs as low as possible. For such a purpose, each ONU signal can be labeled by a pilot tone modulated onto the optical data stream. We report...... on the standardization status of this lowcost system in the new ITU-T G.metro draft recommendation, in the context of autonomous tuning. We also discuss some low-effort implementations of the pilot-tone labels and investigate the impact of these labels on the transmission channels....

  11. Gold Photoluminescence Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Sebastian K H; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I


    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we develop a simple model that faithfully reproduces all features observed in our experiments showing also good quantitative agreement for the PL enhancement

  12. 1550-nm wavelength-tunable HCG VCSELs (United States)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Huang, Michael; Chang-Hasnain, Connie


    We demonstrate wavelength-tunable VCSELs using high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the top output mirror on VCSELs, operating at 1550 nm. Tunable HCG VCSELs with a ~25 nm mechanical tuning range as well as VCSELs with 2 mW output power were realized. Error-free operation of an optical link using directly-modulated tunable HCG VCSELs transmitting at 1.25 Gbps over 18 channels spaced by 100 GHz and transmitted over 20 km of single mode fiber is demonstrated, showing the suitability of the HCG tunable VCSEL as a low cost source for WDM communications systems.

  13. High Resolution 3-D Wavelength Diversity Imaging. (United States)


    SECURITY CLASS. (of tile report) S.. DECL ASSI FI C ATI ON, DOWN GRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of thie Report) Approved for public...Wavelength Diversity and Inverse Scattering", in Opti.e6 in FOWL Vimeioz - 1980, M.A. Machado and L.M. Narducci (Eds.), Am. Inst. of Phys., New York...Dimenzionz - 1980, M.A. Machado and L.M. Narducci (Eds.), Am. Inst. of Phys., New York, 1981, pp. 341-354. Invited Talks 1. N.H. Farhat, "Microwave

  14. Single-Photon Detection at Telecom Wavelengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-Bin; MA Hai-Qiang; LEI Ming; WANG Di; LIU Zhao-Jie; YANG Han-Dong; WU Ling-An; ZHAI Guang-Jie; FENG Ji


    A single-photon detector based on an InGaAs avalanche photodiode has been developed for use at telecom wavelengths. A suitable delay and sampling gate modulation circuit are used to prevent positive and negative transient pulses from influencing the detection of true photon induced avalanches. A monostable trigger circuit eliminates the influence of avalanche peak jitter, and a dead time modulation feedback control circuit decreases the afterpulsing. From performance tests we find that at the optimum operation point, the quantum efficiency is 12% and the dark count rate 1.5 × 10-6 ns-1, with a detection rate of 500 kHz.

  15. The influence of femtosecond laser pulse wavelength on embryonic stem cell differentiation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P


    Full Text Available play an active role in absorbing ultra-violet (UV) and visible light sources. Light-matter interactions in biomaterials are a complex situation and subsequent damage may not always amount only from wavelength dependent effects but may also be driven...

  16. Multi-Wavelength Variability in PKS 2155-304

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. G. Zheng; L. Zhang; X. Zhang; H. J. Ma


    We study multi-wavelength variability in BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304 in the frame of the time dependent one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, where stochastic particle acceleration is taken into account. In this model, a homogeneously and isotropically spherical structure is assumed, the Fokker–Planck type equation which describes the evolution of the particles energy is numerically solved, and the synchrotron and self-Compton components from the spherical blob are calculated. Our results can reproduce observed spectra energy distribution (SED) and give definite predictions for the flux and spectral variability of PKS 2155-304.We find that particle injection rate, magnetic field and Doppler factor in the acceleration zone are important parameters for explaining its flaring behaviour.

  17. Performance analysis of the silicon waveguide-based wavelength converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; SANG Xin-zhu; YIN Xiao-li; YUAN Jin-hui; Ashiq Hussaun; YU Chong-xiu; XIN Xiang-jun


    The conversion efficiency and noise figure (NF) of the silicon-on-insulator (Sol) waveguide-based wavelength converter are investigated with the coupled equations. The effects of the pump power, the nonlinear absorption and the waveguide length on the conversion efficiency and noise figure are discussed. The conversion efficiency decreases with the increasing pump power and the noise figure is degraded due to the two-photon absorption (TPA) and the TPA-induced free-carrier absorption (FCA) at the higher pump power. With the increasing of the free carrier lifetime, the conversion efficiency will decrease and the noise figure will increase accordingly. The optimal waveguide length depends on the pump power and the free carrier lifetime. In practical applications, the high conversion efficiency and low noise figure can be achieved by choosing suitable parameters of the silicon waveguide.

  18. Highly efficient plasmonic enhancement of graphene absorption at telecommunication wavelengths. (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Cumming, Benjamin P; Gu, Min


    A hybrid graphene system consisting of graphene and silica layers coated on a metal film with groove rings is proposed to strongly enhance light absorption in the graphene layer. Our results indicate that the excited localized plasmon resonance in groove rings can effectively improve the graphene absorption from 2.3% to 43.1%, even to a maximum value of 87.0% in five-layer graphene at telecommunication wavelengths. In addition, the absorption peak is strongly dependent on the groove depth and ring radius as well as the number of graphene layers, enabling the flexible selectivity of both the operating spectral position and bandwidth. This favorable enhancement and tunability of graphene absorption could provide a path toward high-performance graphene opto-electronic components, such as photodetectors.

  19. The use of semiconductors in nonreciprocal devices for submillimeter wavelengths. (United States)

    Hayes, R. E.; May, W. G.


    This paper reviews the use of anisotropic effects in a passive semiconductor magnetoplasma for the development of submillimeter isolators and circulators. The emphasis is on two schemes that are applicable over the far infrared portion of the spectrum. The theory of transmission devices depending on Faraday rotation is described, and experiments are discussed. At far infrared wavelengths it is not necessary to cool the semiconductor in order to achieve low forward loss. Some experimental results are available in this frequency range, and a theoretical evaluation of device performance is given. Reflection devices in which the desired signal does not propagate through the semiconductor, but is reflected off of its surface, are also discussed. Experimental results show that these devices can have a low forward loss; a variety of novel geometrical arrangements are able to improve isolator performance. Theoretical results indicating satisfactory performance for a far infrared isolator using InSb at room temperature are presented.

  20. Passively synchronized dual-wavelength Q-switched lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp

    We present a simple and efficient way of generating synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths hundreds of nanometers apart. This principle can result in new pulsed all-solid-state light sources at new wavelengths based on SFG....

  1. Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Brøkner Christiansen, Mads;


    Precise emission wavelength modeling is essential for understanding and optimization of distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. An analytical approach for determining the emission wavelength based on setting the propagation constant of the Bragg condition and solving for the resulting slab waveguide...

  2. Wavelength converter placement in optical networks with dynamic traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jakob Due; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik;


    We evaluate the connection provisioning performance of GMPLS-controlled wavelength routed networks under dynamic traffic load and using three different wavelength converter placement heuristics. Results show that a simple uniform placement heuristic matches the performance of complex heuristics u...

  3. Monolithic single mode interband cascade lasers with wide wavelength tunability (United States)

    von Edlinger, M.; Weih, R.; Scheuermann, J.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.


    Monolithic two-section interband cascade lasers offering a wide wavelength tunability in the wavelength range around 3.7 μm are presented. Stable single mode emission in several wavelength channels was realized using the concept of binary superimposed gratings and two-segment Vernier-tuning. The wavelength selective elements in the two segments were based on specially designed lateral metal grating structures defined by electron beam lithography. A dual-step dry etch process provided electrical separation between the segments. Individual current control of the segments allowed wavelength channel selection as well as continuous wavelength tuning within channels. A discontinuous tuning range extending over 158 nm in up to six discrete wavelength channels was achieved. Mode hop free wavelength tuning up to 14 nm was observed within one channel. The devices can be operated in continuous wave mode up to 30 °C with the output powers of 3.5 mW around room temperature.

  4. Tuning Metamaterials for Applications at DUV Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Estroff


    Full Text Available The unique properties of metamaterials, namely, their negative refractive index, permittivity, or permeability, have gained much recent attention. Research into these materials has led to the realization of a host of applications that may be useful to enhance optical nanolithography. A selection of materials has been examined both experimentally and theoretically to verify their support of surface plasmons, or lack thereof, in the DUV spectrum via the attenuated total reflection (ATR method using the Kretschmann configuration. At DUV wavelengths, materials that were previously useful at mid-UV and longer wavelengths no longer act as metamaterials. Structured materials comprised of alternating layers of aluminum and aluminum oxide (Al2O3, as well as some other absorption-free dielectrics, exhibit metamaterial behavior, as do some elemental materials such as aluminum. These elemental and structured materials exhibit the best properties for use in plasmonic nanolithographic applications. Therefore, a simulator was created to examine material and thickness combinations to generate a tunable metamaterial for use in the DUV. A method for performing plasmonic interference lithography with this metamaterial has been proposed, with calculations showing the potential for half-pitch imaging resolution of 25 nm.

  5. High resolution 3-D wavelength diversity imaging (United States)

    Farhat, N. H.


    A physical optics, vector formulation of microwave imaging of perfectly conducting objects by wavelength and polarization diversity is presented. The results provide the theoretical basis for optimal data acquisition and three-dimensional tomographic image retrieval procedures. These include: (a) the selection of highly thinned (sparse) receiving array arrangements capable of collecting large amounts of information about remote scattering objects in a cost effective manner and (b) techniques for 3-D tomographic image reconstruction and display in which polarization diversity data is fully accounted for. Data acquisition employing a highly attractive AMTDR (Amplitude Modulated Target Derived Reference) technique is discussed and demonstrated by computer simulation. Equipment configuration for the implementation of the AMTDR technique is also given together with a measurement configuration for the implementation of wavelength diversity imaging in a roof experiment aimed at imaging a passing aircraft. Extension of the theory presented to 3-D tomographic imaging of passive noise emitting objects by spectrally selective far field cross-correlation measurements is also given. Finally several refinements made in our anechoic-chamber measurement system are shown to yield drastic improvement in performance and retrieved image quality.

  6. Resolving The Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ricarte, Angelo; Hughes, A Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P; Andrews, Sean M; Wilner, David J


    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.9 arcsec that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution. The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constr...

  7. Cyclic polling-based dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengcheng Xie; Hui Li; Yuefeng Ji


    Cyclic polling-based dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation algorithm supporting differentiated classes of services in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) passive optical networks (PONs) is proposed. In this algorithm, the optical line terminal (OLT) polls for optical network unit (ONU) requests to transmit data in a cyclic manner. Services are categorized into three classes: expedited forward (EF) priority, assured forwarding (AF) priority, and best effort (BE) priority. The OLT assigns bandwidth for different priorities with different strategies. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm saves a lot of downstream bandwidth under low load and does not show the light-load penalty compared with the simultaneous and interleaved polling schemes.

  8. Anti-Stokes Frequency Shift and Evolution in Polarization-Maintaining Photonic Crystal Fiber with Two-Zero Dispersion Wavelengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG He-Lin; LENG Yu-Xin; XU Zhi-Zhan; QI Yi-Hong; HU Ming-Lie; WANG Ching-Yue


    Using the tunable pump pulses with about 100 fs pulse duration and 1064 nm central wavelength; the polarization-,wavelength- and power-dependent anti-Stokes lines are generated and modulated simultaneously in a polarizationmaintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) with two zero-dispersion wavelengths.By accurately controlling the polarization directions,the wavelength and the power of the pump pulse in the fiber anomalous region close to the second zero-dispersion wavelength of the PM-PCF,the output anti-Stokes pulse spectra can be tuned between 563nm and 603 nm,which is in good agreement with the theoretical simulation.The color conversion of the mode image from yellow to orange is also observed with the different polarization pump pulses.These results can be attributed to the combined interaction between the fiber birefringence (including linear- and nonlinearbirefringence) and dispersion,and are attributed to phase-matching parametric four-wave mixing.

  9. Single and Multicasting Inverted-Wavelength Conversion at 80 Gb/s Based on a Single Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xi; QIN Cui; YU Yu; ZHANG Xin-Liang


    We experimentally demonstrate single and multicasting inverted wavelength conversion at 80Gb/s by using the cross-gain modulation and cross-phase modulation in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA).In all the cases,converted signals with a high extinction ratio (ER) and large eye opening are obtained.For singlechannel wavelength conversion,the ER of the output signal is as high as 30.10dB.For three-channel wavelength multicasting,high quality converted signals could also be observed.The ERs with three channels are 21.54 dB,18.58dB and 17.72dB,respectively.Thus,one- and three-channel wavelength conversion with high performance can be achieved by using a single quantum-well SOA.All-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC).[1-4] is a key technology in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks.AOWC based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is widely used due to its potential integration and power efficieney.Many SOAbased AOWCs have been theoretically and experimentally demonstrated.[5,6] Furthermore,wavelength multicasting is very important in all optical signal processing systems.Wavelength multicasting is a signal processing function that can be used to transfer the information carried by a channel at a certain input wavelength on different output wavelengths.Recently,many methods have been proposed for single wavelength conversion and wavelength multieasting.High nonlinear fibers,electro-absorption modulators and SOAs[7] have been used as nonlinear media.How ever,most of the schemes suffer from drawbacks such as complex architecture,a fairly high optical input power requirement,polarization dependence and so on.%We experimentally demonstrate single and multicasting inverted wavelength conversion at 80Gb/s by using the cross-gain modulation and cros-phase modulation in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In all the cases, converted signals with a high extinction ratio (ER) and largo eye opening are obtained. For single-channel wavelength

  10. WDM cross-connect cascade based on all-optical wavelength converters for routing and wavelength slot interchanging using a reduced number of internal wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jørgensen, Bo Foged


    set of internal wavelengths without sacrificing cross-connecting capabilities. By inserting a partly equipped OXC with the new architecture in a 10-Gbit/s re-circulating loop setup we demonstrate the possibility of cascading up to ten OXCs. Furthermore, we investigate the regenerating effect......Optical transport layers need rearrangeable wavelength-division multiplexing optical cross-connects (OXCs) to increase the capacity and flexibility of the network. It has previously been shown that a cross-connect based on all-optical wavelength converters for routing as well as wavelength slot...... interchanging can be used to create a robust and nonblocking OXC. However, for an OXC with n fiber inlets each carrying m wavelengths the OXC requires n×m internal wavelengths, which constrains the size of the cross-connect. In this paper we therefore propose and demonstrate an architecture that uses a reduced...

  11. A Survey of the Routing and Wavelength Assignment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    When transmitting data in an all-optical network, data connections must be established in such a way that two or more connections never share a wavelength on the same fi ber. The NP-hard Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem consists of finding paths and wavelengths for a set of data...

  12. Reliability of temperature determination from curve-fitting in multi-wavelength pyrometery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, P. A.; More, R. M.; Bieniosek, F. M.


    Abstract This paper examines the reliability of a widely used method for temperature determination by multi-wavelength pyrometry. In recent WDM experiments with ion-beam heated metal foils, we found that the statistical quality of the fit to the measured data is not necessarily a measure of the accuracy of the inferred temperature. We found a specific example where a second-best fit leads to a more realistic temperature value. The physics issue is the wavelength-dependent emissivity of the hot surface. We discuss improvements of the multi-frequency pyrometry technique, which will give a more reliable determination of the temperature from emission data.

  13. Young's experiment with a double slit of sub-wavelength dimensions. (United States)

    Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Ahn, Jaewook


    We report that the interference pattern of Young's double-slit experiment changes as a function of polarization in the sub-wavelength diffraction regime. Experiments carried out with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy reveal that diffracted waves from sub-wavelength-scale slits exhibit either positive or negative phase shift with respect to Gouy phase depending on the polarization. Theoretical explanation based on the induction of electric current and magnetic dipole in the vicinity of the slits shows an excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Raman enhanced polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion based on two-pump four-wave mixing. (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester


    Backward Raman amplification is applied to improve the conversion efficiency of two-orthogonal-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) with polarization insensitivity. Wavelength conversion with ~0dB efficiency and negligible polarization dependency is demonstrated by using a common highly nonlinear fiber without pump dithering. The conversion efficiency is increased by ~29dB with Raman enhancement. We also discuss the impact of the Raman pump power and the FWM pump powers on the performance of wavelength conversion. The results indicate that moderate pump powers without inducing significant spontaneous noise and stimulated Brillouin scattering are favorable to ensure high conversion efficiency and low excess noise for performance optimization.

  15. Polarization mode dispersion spectrum measurement via high-speed wavelength-parallel polarimetry. (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Shawn X; Miao, Houxun; Weiner, Andrew M


    We report experiments in which wavelength-parallel spectral polarimetry technology is used for measurement of the frequency-dependent polarization mode dispersion (PMD) vector. Experiments have been performed using either a grating spectral disperser, configured to provide 13.6 GHz spectral resolution over a 14 nm optical bandwidth, or a virtually imaged phased array spectral disperser, configured for 1.6 GHz spectral resolution over a 200 GHz band. Our results indicate that the spectral polarimetry data obtained via this approach are of sufficient quality to permit accurate extraction of the PMD spectrum. The wavelength-parallel spectral polarimetry approach allows data acquisition within a few milliseconds.

  16. All-optical wavelength conversion and signal regeneration using an electroabsorption modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune; Bischoff, Svend; Mørk, Jesper


    All-optical wavelength conversion and signal regeneration based on cross-absorption modulation in an InGaAsP quantum well electroabsorption modulator (EAM) is studied at different bit rates. We present theoretical results showing wavelength conversion efficiency in agreement with existing...... experimental results, and the signal regeneration capability of the device is investigated. In particular, we demonstrate the dependence of the extinction ratio of both the converted signal and the control signal on the device length and on the power level of the control signal. We also show how the sweep...

  17. Synchronization effects in a dual-wavelength class-B laser with modulated losses. (United States)

    Kuntsevich, B F; Pisarchik, A N


    Different types of synchronization: in-phase, antiphase, phase, and lag synchronization, as well as amplitude death have been found theoretically in a dual-wavelength class-B laser with modulated losses in one of the channels. Depending on the laser parameters, oscillations in master and slave channels can be either completely or partially synchronized. The conditions for the dual-wavelength regime have been established. The analysis has been performed on the basis of transfer functions of the master and slave channels.

  18. Dynamic sensor interrogation using wavelength-swept laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jung, Mi Sun; Park, Ik Gon; Kim, Namje; Han, Sang-Pil; Ryu, Han-Cheol; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong


    We report a high-speed (~2 kHz) dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL) with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement.

  19. Dynamic Sensor Interrogation Using Wavelength-Swept Laser with a Polygon-Scanner-Based Wavelength Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hyun Park


    Full Text Available We report a high-speed (~2 kHz dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement.

  20. Wavelengths and regenerators sharing in GMPLS-controlled WSONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Giorgetti, A.; Cerutti, I.


    In Wavelength Switched Optical Networks (WSONs), sharing of protection wavelengths is an attractive strategy to increase survivability against failures. However, to guarantee an acceptable quality of transmission (QoT), both working and protection paths may need to undergo optical...... as for providing wavelength conversion. The main objective of this paper is the study of different strategies for the selection of regenerators and wavelengths in WSON with a GMPLS-based distributed control plane. Simulation results show a trade-off between the strategies achieving a high wavelength sharing...

  1. Photoluminescence Study of Long Wavelength Superlattice Infrared Detectors (United States)

    Hoglund, Linda; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam; Gunapala, Sarath D.


    In this paper, the relation between the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and the PL peak wavelength was studied. A linear decrease of the PL intensity with increasing cut-off wavelength of long wavelength infrared CBIRDs was observed at 77 K and the trend remained unchanged in the temperature range 10 - 77 K. This relation between the PL intensity and the peak wavelength can be favorably used for comparison of the optical quality of samples with different PL peak wavelengths. A strong increase of the width of the PL spectrum in the studied temperature interval was observed, which was attributed to thermal broadening.

  2. Monitoring the stability of wavelength calibration of spectrophotometers. (United States)

    Korzun, W J; Miller, W G


    The difference in absorbance (delta A) between equimolar acid and alkaline solutions of methyl red, at a wavelength near the isosbestic point of the indicator, is reproducible. Furthermore, this delta A is sensitive to changes in the wavelength calibration of the instrument used to make the measurement. The delta A of methyl red can be used to monitor wavelength accuracy in both manual and automated spectrophotometric instruments. Although this measurement does not establish wavelength calibration, it is useful for monitoring the wavelength accuracy of previously calibrated, automated spectrophotometers that do not easily lend themselves to calibration checks by conventional techniques.

  3. Competing growth processes induced by next-nearest-neighbor interactions: Effects on meandering wavelength and stiffness (United States)

    Blel, Sonia; Hamouda, Ajmi BH.; Mahjoub, B.; Einstein, T. L.


    In this paper we explore the meandering instability of vicinal steps with a kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (kMC) model including the attractive next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions. kMC simulations show that increase of the NNN interaction strength leads to considerable reduction of the meandering wavelength and to weaker dependence of the wavelength on the deposition rate F. The dependences of the meandering wavelength on the temperature and the deposition rate obtained with simulations are in good quantitative agreement with the experimental result on the meandering instability of Cu(0 2 24) [T. Maroutian et al., Phys. Rev. B 64, 165401 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevB.64.165401]. The effective step stiffness is found to depend not only on the strength of NNN interactions and the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier, but also on F. We argue that attractive NNN interactions intensify the incorporation of adatoms at step edges and enhance step roughening. Competition between NNN and nearest-neighbor interactions results in an alternative form of meandering instability which we call "roughening-limited" growth, rather than attachment-detachment-limited growth that governs the Bales-Zangwill instability. The computed effective wavelength and the effective stiffness behave as λeff˜F-q and β˜eff˜F-p , respectively, with q ≈p /2 .

  4. Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Zeuner, Franziska; Li, Xin; Reineke, Bernhard; He, Shan; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas


    Metasurfaces, as the ultrathin version of metamaterials, have caught growing attention due to their superior capability in controlling the phase, amplitude and polarization states of light. Among various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurface that encodes a geometric or Pancharatnam-Berry phase into the orientation angle of the constituent meta-atoms has shown great potential in controlling light in both linear and nonlinear optical regimes. The robust and dispersionless nature of the geometric phase simplifies the wave manipulation tremendously. Benefitting from the continuous phase control, metasurface holography has exhibited advantages over conventional depth controlled holography with discretized phase levels. Here we report on spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography, which allows construction of multiple target holographic images carried independently by the fundamental and harmonic generation waves of different spins. The nonlinear holograms provide independent, nondispersive and crosstalk-free post-selective channels for holographic multiplexing and multidimensional optical data storages, anti-counterfeiting, and optical encryption.

  5. Achromatic Metasurface Lens at Telecommunication Wavelengths. (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Aieta, Francesco; Kanhaiya, Pritpal; Kats, Mikhail A; Genevet, Patrice; Rousso, David; Capasso, Federico


    Nanoscale optical resonators enable a new class of flat optical components called metasurfaces. This approach has been used to demonstrate functionalities such as focusing free of monochromatic aberrations (i.e., spherical and coma), anomalous reflection, and large circular dichroism. Recently, dielectric metasurfaces that compensate the phase dispersion responsible for chromatic aberrations have been demonstrated. Here, we utilize an aperiodic array of coupled dielectric nanoresonators to demonstrate a multiwavelength achromatic lens. The focal length remains unchanged for three wavelengths in the near-infrared region (1300, 1550, and 1800 nm). Experimental results are in agreement with full-wave simulations. Our findings are an essential step toward a realization of broadband flat optical elements.

  6. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California (United States); Tillack, M. [U. C. San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)


    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO{sub 2} aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  7. Wavelength-Adaptive Dehazing Using Histogram Merging-Based Classification for UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inhye Yoon


    Full Text Available Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results.

  8. Wavelength-selective fluorescence in ion channels formed by gramicidin A in membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabha Chattopadhyay; Satinder S Rawat


    Gramicidins are linear peptides that form ion channels that are specific for monovalent cations in membranes. The tryptophan residues in the gramicidin channel play a crucial role in the organization and function of the channel. The natural mixture of gramicidins, denoted as gramicidin A', consists of mostly gramicidin A, but also contains gramicidins B, C and D as minor components. We have previously shown that the tryptophan residues in ion channels formed by the naturally occurring peptide, gramicidin A', display wavelength-dependent fluorescence characteristics due to the motionally restricted environment in which they are localized. In order to check the influence of ground-state heterogeneity in the observed wavelength-selective fluorescence of gramicidin A' in membranes, we performed similar experiments with pure gramicidin A in model membranes. Our results show that the observed wavelength-selective fluorescence characteristics of naturally occurring gramicidin A' are not due to groundstate heterogeneity.

  9. Wavelength-adaptive dehazing using histogram merging-based classification for UAV images. (United States)

    Yoon, Inhye; Jeong, Seokhwa; Jeong, Jaeheon; Seo, Doochun; Paik, Joonki


    Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i) image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii) generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii) intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results.

  10. Comparison of imaging with sub-wavelength resolution in the canalization and resonant tunnelling regimes (United States)

    Kotyński, R.; Stefaniuk, T.


    We compare the properties of sub-wavelength imaging in the visible wavelength range for metal-dielectric multilayers operating in the canalization and the resonant tunnelling regimes. The analysis is based on the transfer matrix method and time domain simulations. We show that point spread functions for the first two resonances in the canalization regime are approximately Gaussian in shape. Material losses suppress transmission for higher resonances, regularize the PSF but do not compromise the resolution. In the resonant tunnelling regime, the MTF may dramatically vary in their phase dependence. Resulting PSF may have a sub-wavelength thickness and may be broad with multiple maxima and a rapid phase modulation. We show that the width of PSF may be reduced by further propagation in free space, and we provide arguments to explain this surprising observation.

  11. Germanium-tin multiple quantum well on silicon avalanche photodiode for photodetection at two micron wavelength (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Lee, Shuh Ying; Lei, Dian; Gong, Xiao; Khai Loke, Wan; Yoon, Soon-Fatt; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia


    We report the demonstration of a germanium-tin multiple quantum well (Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW)-on-Si avalanche photodiode (APD) for light detection near the 2 μm wavelength range. The measured spectral response covers wavelengths from 1510 to 2003 nm. An optical responsivity of 0.33 A W-1 is achieved at 2003 nm due to the internal avalanche gain. In addition, a thermal coefficient of breakdown voltage is extracted to be 0.053% K-1 based on the temperature-dependent dark current measurement. As compared to the traditional 2 μm wavelength APDs, the Si-based APD is promising for its small excess noise factor, less stringent demand on temperature stability, and its compatibility with silicon technology.

  12. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Utry


    Full Text Available Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite, oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile, and carbonate (limestone were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  13. Parallel Implementation of the PHOENIX Generalized Stellar Atmosphere Program; 2, Wavelength Parallelization

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, E A; Hauschildt, Peter H.


    We describe an important addition to the parallel implementation of our generalized NLTE stellar atmosphere and radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. In a previous paper in this series we described data and task parallel algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and NLTE opacity and rate calculations. These algorithms divided the work spatially or by spectral lines, that is distributing the radial zones, individual spectral lines, or characteristic rays among different processors and employ, in addition task parallelism for logically independent functions (such as atomic and molecular line opacities). For finite, monotonic velocity fields, the radiative transfer equation is an initial value problem in wavelength, and hence each wavelength point depends upon the previous one. However, for sophisticated NLTE models of both static and moving atmospheres needed to accurately describe, e.g., novae and supernovae, the number of wavelength points is very large (200,000--300,0...

  14. Effects of temperature and difference-wavelength on mode stability in Dual-λ QD lasers (United States)

    Shutts, Samuel; Smowton, Peter M.; Krysa, Andrey B.


    We employ a device which exploits the properties of InP quantum dots (QD), (emitting from 650-730 nm), to produce simultaneous dual-λ lasing from a single ridge-waveguide comprising two sections. Due to the effects of state-filling in an inhomogeneously broadened QD ensemble, the wavelength is strongly dependent on magnitude of the gain (or cavity loss). Therefore, by altering the loss of each section of the device we are able to demonstrate a large range of difference-wavelengths, up to 63 nm. Here, we test the performance of the device and measure effects of temperature and difference-wavelength on the stability of the two lasing modes.

  15. Moving the boundary between wavelength resources in optical packet and circuit integrated ring network. (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Wada, Naoya; Harai, Hiroaki


    Optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) networks provide both optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) links on the same physical infrastructure using a wavelength multiplexing technique in order to deal with best-effort services and quality-guaranteed services. To immediately respond to changes in user demand for OPS and OCS links, OPCI networks should dynamically adjust the amount of wavelength resources for each link. We propose a resource-adjustable hybrid optical packet/circuit switch and transponder. We also verify that distributed control of resource adjustments can be applied to the OPCI ring network testbed we developed. In cooperation with the resource adjustment mechanism and the hybrid switch and transponder, we demonstrate that automatically allocating a shared resource and moving the wavelength resource boundary between OPS and OCS links can be successfully executed, depending on the number of optical paths in use.

  16. Double photo-electron momentum spectra of Helium at infrared wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Zielinski, Alejandro; Scrinzi, Armin


    Double photo-electron momentum spectra of the Helium atom are calculated \\textit{ab initio} at extreme ultra-violet and near infrared wavelengths. At short wavelengths two-photon double ionization yields, two-electron energy spectra, and triply differential cross sections agree with results from recent literature. At the near infrared wavelength of $780\\,nm$ the experimental single-to-double ionization ratio is reproduced up to intensities of $4\\times 10^{14}W/cm^2$, and two-electron energy spectra and joint angular distributions are presented. The time-dependent surface flux (tSurff) approach is extended to full 3+3 spatial dimensions and systematic error control is demonstrated. We analyze our differential spectra in terms of an experimentally accessible quantitative measure of correlation.

  17. A Study of Wavelength Calibration of NEWSIPS High-Dispersion Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M A


    In this study we cross-correlate many IUE echellograms of a variety of stars to evaluate systematic error sources in the wavelength zeropoint of all three cameras. We first evaluated differences between the final archived ("NEWSIPS") and the originally processed ("IUESIPS") spectra. These show a clear time dependence in zeropoint for the SWP camera due to revisions in the IUESIPS wavelength scale. Small IUESIPS - NEWSIPS differences are also found for the LWR camera. We also examined wavelength zeropoint disparities between data obtained both through the small and large entrance apertures and for observations made by different target acquisition modes for faint and bright stars. We found that velocities resulting from these alternative observing modes are nil. For large-aperture observations the dominant error source is the target position placement in the aperture. We searched for spurious trends with time, and found only a suggestion of time trends for faint stars observed with the SWP camera. We also disco...

  18. Accurate measurement of the cutoff wavelength in a microstructured optical fiber by means of an azimutal filtering technique

    CERN Document Server

    Labonte, Laurent; Roy, Philippe; Balhoul, Faouzi; Zghal, Mourad; Melin, Gilles; Burov, Ekaterina; Renversez, Gilles


    A simple self-referenced non destructive method is proposed for measuring the cutoff wavelength of microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). It is based on the analysis of the time dependent optical power transmitted through a bow-tie slit rotating in the far-field pattern of the fiber under test. As a first demonstration, the cutoff wavelength of a 2m MOF sample is measured with a precision of 10nm, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  19. The effect of wavelength on optical properties extracted from images of engineered tissue (United States)

    Levitz, David; Phillips, Kevin G.; An, Lin; Truffer, Frederic; Samatham, Ravikant; Choudhury, Niloy; Hinds, Monica T.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.


    Optical imaging modalities such as confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are emerging as appealing methods for non-destructive evaluation of engineered tissues. The information offered by such optical imaging methods depends on the wavelength vis-á-vis the optical scattering properties of the sample. These properties affect many factors critical to image analysis in a nonlinear and nontrivial manner. Thus, we sought to characterize the effect wavelength has on the optical properties collagen remodeled by cells at 3 common imaging wavelengths: 488, 633, and 1310 nm. To do this, we seeded smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in soluble collagen gels at a density of 1×106 cells/ml; similar acellular control constructs were also prepared. The constructs were allowed to remodel in the incubator for 5 days, and were examined at 24 and 120 hours by confocal imaging at 488 and 633 nm, and by OCT imaging at 1310 nm. From the confocal and OCT data, the attenuation and reflectivity were evaluated by fitting the data to a theoretical model that relates the tissue optical properties (scattering coefficient and anisotropy factor) and imaging conditions to the signal. In general, we found that at 1310 nm, the optical properties of the acellular control constructs had a lower reflectivity (higher anisotropy) than the SMC constructs. The difference in reflectivity between the SMC construct and acellular controls tended to decrease with wavelength, owing to a relative increase in reflectivity of acellular controls at lower wavelengths relative to the cellular constructs. Overall, the largest difference in optical properties occurred at 1310 nm. Taken together, the data show that the shift in optical properties of soluble collagen gels caused by cellular remodeling is nonlinearly wavelength dependent, and that this information should be considered when devising how to optimally characterize engineered tissues using optical imaging methods.

  20. Optical glass: refractive index change with wavelength and temperature (United States)

    Englert, Marion; Hartmann, Peter; Reichel, Steffen


    With the catalog of 1992 SCHOTT introduced two formulae each with six parameters for a better representation of the refractive index of optical glasses. The Sellmeier-equation improved the characterization of dispersion at room temperature and the Hoffmann equation that of its temperature dependence. Better representation had been expected because both formulae were derived from general dispersion theory. The original publication of Hoffmann et al. from 1992 contains first results on the accuracy of the fits. The extended use of the formulae has led to a collection of data allowing reviewing the adequacy of the Sellmeier-equation approach on a much broader basis. We compare fitted refractive index values with measured values for all wavelengths used at our precision refractive index goniometer. Data sets are available for specific melts of the four representative glass types N-BK7, N-FK5, LF5 and IRG2. For some materials, the optical glass N-LAF21, the IR glass IRG2 and the crystal CaF2, several sets of data for the temperature dependence of the refractive index are available thus giving evidence for the variation of these properties among melts of the same material.

  1. Multi-wavelength characterization of carbonaceous aerosol (United States)

    Massabò, Dario; Caponi, Lorenzo; Chiara Bove, Maria; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta; Prati, Paolo


    Carbonaceous aerosol is a major component of the urban PM. It mainly consists of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) although a minor fraction of carbonate carbon could be also present. Elemental carbon is mainly found in the finer PM fractions (PM2.5 and PM1) and it is strongly light absorbing. When determined by optical methods, it is usually called black carbon (BC). The two quantities, EC and BC, even if both related to the refractory components of carbonaceous aerosols, do not exactly define the same PM component (Bond and Bergstrom, 2006; and references therein). Moreover, another fraction of light-absorbing carbon exists which is not black and it is generally called brown carbon (Andreae and Gelencsér, 2006). We introduce a simple, fully automatic, multi-wavelength and non-destructive optical system, actually a Multi-Wavelength Absorbance Analyzer, MWAA, to measure off-line the light absorption in Particulate Matter (PM) collected on filters and hence to derive the black and brown carbon content in the PM This gives the opportunity to measure in the same sample the concentration of total PM by gravimetric analysis, black and brown carbon, metals by, for instance, X Ray Fluorescence, and finally ions by Ion Chromatography. Up to 16 samples can be analyzed in sequence and in an automatic and controlled way within a few hours. The filter absorbance measured by MWAA was successfully validated both against a MAAP, Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (Petzold and Schönlinner, 2004), and the polar photometer of the University of Milan. The measurement of sample absorbance at three wavelengths gives the possibility to apportion different sources of carbonaceous PM, for instance fossil fuels and wood combustion. This can be done following the so called "aethalometer method" (Sandradewi et al., 2008;) but with some significant upgrades that will be discussed together the results of field campaigns in rural and urban sites. Andreae, M.O, and Gelencsér, A

  2. Dual-wavelength diode laser with electrically adjustable wavelength distance at 785  nm. (United States)

    Sumpf, Bernd; Kabitzke, Julia; Fricke, Jörg; Ressel, Peter; Müller, André; Maiwald, Martin; Tränkle, Günther


    A spectrally adjustable monolithic dual-wavelength diode laser at 785 nm as an excitation light source for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) is presented. The spectral distance between the two excitation wavelengths can be electrically adjusted between 0 and 2.0 nm using implemented heater elements above the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) gratings. Output powers up to 180 mW at a temperature of 25°C were measured. The spectral width is smaller than 13 pm, limited by the spectrum analyzer. The device is well-suited for Raman spectroscopy, and the flexible spectral distance allows a target-specific adjustment of the excitation light source for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS).

  3. Simple Linear Regression and Reflectance Sensitivity Analysis Used to Determine the Optimum Wavelength for Nondestructive Assessment of Chlorophyll in Fresh Leaves Using Spectral Reflectance (United States)

    The accuracy of nondestructive optical methods for chlorophyll (Chl) assessment based on leaf spectral characteristics depends on the wavelengths used for Chl assessment. Using spectroscopy, the optimum wavelengths for Chl assessment (OWChl) were determined for almond, poplar, and apple trees grown ...

  4. High-accuracy alignment based on atmospherical dispersion - technological approaches and solutions for the dual-wavelength transmitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhard, Boeckem [Institute for Geodesy and Photogrammetry, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)


    In the course of the progressive developments of sophisticated geodetic systems utilizing electromagnetic waves in the visible or near IR-range a more detailed knowledge of the propagation medium and coevally solutions of atmospherically induced limitations will become important. An alignment system based on atmospherical dispersion, called a dispersometer, is a metrological solution to the atmospherically induced limitations, in optical alignment and direction observations of high accuracy. In the dispersometer we are using the dual-wavelength method for dispersive air to obtain refraction compensated angle measurements, the detrimental impact of atmospheric turbulence notwithstanding. The principle of the dual-wavelength method utilizes atmospherical dispersion, i.e. the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. The difference angle between two light beams of different wavelengths, which is called the dispersion angle {delta}{beta}, is to first approximation proportional to the refraction angle: {beta}{sub IR} {nu}({beta}{sub blue} - {beta}{sub IR}) = {nu} {delta}{beta}, this equation implies that the dispersion angle has to be measured at least 42 times more accurate than the desired accuracy of the refraction angle for the wavelengths used in the present dispersometer. This required accuracy constitutes one major difficulty for the instrumental performance in applying the dispersion effect. However, the dual-wavelength method can only be successfully used in an optimized transmitter-receiver combination. Beyond the above mentioned resolution requirement for the detector, major difficulties in instrumental realization arise in the availability of a suitable dual-wavelength laser light source, laser light modulation with a very high extinction ratio and coaxial emittance of mono-mode radiation at both wavelengths. Therefore, this paper focuses on the solutions of the dual-wavelength transmitter introducing a new hardware approach and a complete re-design of

  5. A new algorithm for optimizing the wavelength coverage for spectroscopic studies: Spectral Wavelength Optimization Code (SWOC) (United States)

    Ruchti, G. R.; Feltzing, S.; Lind, K.; Caffau, E.; Korn, A. J.; Schnurr, O.; Hansen, C. J.; Koch, A.; Sbordone, L.; de Jong, R. S.


    The past decade and a half has seen the design and execution of several ground-based spectroscopic surveys, both Galactic and Extragalactic. Additionally, new surveys are being designed that extend the boundaries of current surveys. In this context, many important considerations must be done when designing a spectrograph for the future. Among these is the determination of the optimum wavelength coverage. In this work, we present a new code for determining the wavelength ranges that provide the optimal amount of information to achieve the required science goals for a given survey. In its first mode, it utilizes a user-defined list of spectral features to compute a figure-of-merit for different spectral configurations. The second mode utilizes a set of flux-calibrated spectra, determining the spectral regions that show the largest differences among the spectra. Our algorithm is easily adaptable for any set of science requirements and any spectrograph design. We apply the algorithm to several examples, including 4MOST, showing the method yields important design constraints to the wavelength regions.

  6. A stable and inexpensive wavelength reference for precise wavelength calibration of radial velocity spectrographs (United States)

    Feger, Tobias; Ireland, Michael J.; Bento, Joao; Bacigalupo, Carlos


    We present a stable, inexpensive wavelength reference, based on a white-light interferometer for the use on current and future (arrays of) diffraction-limited radial velocity (RV) spectrographs. The primary aim of using an interferometer is to obtain a dense sinusoidal wavelength reference with spectral coverage between 450-650 nm. Its basic setup consists of an unbalanced fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) that creates an interference pattern in the spectral domain due to superposition of phase delayed light, set by a fixed optical path-length difference (OPD). To achieve long-term stability, the interferometer is actively locked to a stable atomic line. The system operates in closed-loop using a thermo-optic modulator as the phase feedback component. We conducted stability measurements by superimposing the wavelength reference with thorium-argon (ThAr) emission lines and found the differential RMS shift to be ~5 m s-1 within 30 minute bins in an experiment lasting 5 hours.

  7. Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays (United States)

    Schneider, Jr., Richard P.; Crawford, Mary H.


    A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.

  8. ELTS, interferometers, and hypertelescopes at different wavelengths (United States)

    Labeyrie, Antoine


    In the way of major new instruments for ground-based optical astronomy, maximizing the science favors a large hypertelescope. If equipped with adaptive optics and a laser guide star, it can provide direct high-resolution images of faint extra-galactic and cosmological sources. The signal/(photon noise) ratio is theoretically higher than with interferometer schemes relying upon aperture synthesis, using a few large apertures to reconstruct images. The crowding limit on complex objects, the direct-imaging field, and the dynamic range are also improved with many small apertures. The adaptive phasing of hypertelescopes, achievable on bright stars with modified wave sensing techniques such as "dispersed speckle" analysis, is also achievable on very faint sources with a modified version of a laser guide star. This makes large hypertelescopes capable of observing cosmological deep fields of faint galaxies. Pending space versions, the size of which can in principle reach hundreds and thousands of kilometers, terrestrial hypertelescopes limited in size to one or two kilometers can be built at suitable sites and used efficiently from ultra-violet to millimeter wavelengths. Some sites can allow the coupling of a hypertelescope with an ELT, an alternate option which can also be efficient for imaging deep fields with a high-resolution.

  9. Data Reduction of Multi-wavelength Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Pilia, M; Pellizzoni, A P; Bachetti, M; Piano, G; Poddighe, A; Egron, E; Iacolina, M N; Melis, A; Concu, R; Possenti, A; Perrodin, D


    Multi-messenger astronomy is becoming the key to understanding the Universe from a comprehensive perspective. In most cases, the data and the technology are already in place, therefore it is important to provide an easily-accessible package that combines datasets from multiple telescopes at different wavelengths. In order to achieve this, we are working to produce a data analysis pipeline that allows the data reduction from different instruments without needing detailed knowledge of each observation. Ideally, the specifics of each observation are automatically dealt with, while the necessary information on how to handle the data in each case is provided by a tutorial that is included in the program. We first focus our project on the study of pulsars and their wind nebulae (PWNe) at radio and gamma-ray frequencies. In this way, we aim to combine time-domain and imaging datasets at two extremes of the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, the emission has the same non-thermal origin in pulsars at radio and gam...

  10. Comparison of scaling laws with PIC simulations for proton acceleration with long wavelength pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, G., E-mail: turchetti@bo.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna, INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Sgattoni, A.; Benedetti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna, INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Londrillo, P. [INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Di Lucchio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna, INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy)


    We have performed a survey of proton acceleration induced by long wavelength pulses to explore their peak energy dependence on the pulse intensity, target thickness and density. The simulations carried out with the PIC code ALADYN for a circularly polarized pulse have been compared with the scaling laws for radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) in the thick target and thin target regimes known as hole boring (HB) and relativistic mirror (RM) respectively. Since the critical density scales as {lambda}{sup -2}, longer wavelength pulses allow to work with low density targets several microns thick and with moderate laser power. Under these conditions is possible to enter the RM region, where the key parameter is the ratio {alpha} between twice laser energy and the mirror rest energy; the corresponding acceleration efficiency is given by {alpha}/(1+{alpha}). For a fixed intensity the minimum thickness of the target, and consequently the highest acceleration, is determined by the threshold of self induced transparency. In this case the number of accelerated particles scales with {lambda} whereas the total energy does not depend on it. The agreement of PIC simulations with RPA and RM scalings, including the transition regions, suggests that these scalings can safely be used as the first step in the parametric scans also for large wavelength pulses such as CO{sub 2} lasers, to explore possible alternatives to short wavelength very high power Ti:Sa lasers for proton acceleration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Munko


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the scheme for the study of the Bragg wavelength shift dependence on the applied tensile force. Samples of fiber Bragg gratings with different coatings have been studied: the restored acrylate coating, the heatshrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve without metal rod, the heat-shrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve with a metal rod, the metal capillary, polyvinylchloride tube. For different coatings of diffractive structure, dependences of wavelength shift for the Bragg grating resonance have been obtained on the tensile strength applied to the ends of an optical fiber. It was determined that the studied FBG coatings give the possibility to reduce the mechanical impact on the Bragg wavelength shift for 1.1-15 times as compared to an uncoated waveguide. The most effective version of coated fiber Bragg grating is the heatshrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve with a metal rod. When the force (equal to 6 N is applied to the 100 mm optical fiber area with the inscribed diffractive structure, the Bragg wavelength shift is 7.5 nm for the unprotected sample and 0.5 nm for the one coated with the heat-shrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve.

  12. Kramers-Kronig analysis of soft x-ray reflectivity data of platinum thin film in 40-200 Å wavelength region (United States)

    Sharma, Saurabh; Gupta, R. K.; Sinha, Mangalika; Yadav, P.; Singh, Amol; Modi, Mohammed H.


    Reflectivity beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron source is used to determine optical constants of a platinum thin film in the soft x-ray wavelength region of 40-200Å by applying Kramers-Kronig (KK) technique on R vs wavelength data. Upto 150Å wavelength region the results of KK analysis are found in good agreement with the Henke's optical constants and also with those obtained by the angle dependent reflectivity technique. A significant mismatch is observed above 150Å wavelength region which could be due to the presence of higher harmonics in the toroidal grating spectra of the reflectivity beamline.

  13. Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a modified dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng


    A tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a new type tunable comb filter is proposed and demonstrated. By adjusting the polarization controllers, dual-function operation of the channel spacing tunability and the wavelength switching (interleaving) can be readily achieved. Up to 29 stable lasing lines with 0.4 nm spacing and 14 lasing wavelengths with 0.8 nm spacing in 3 dB bandwidth were obtained at room temperature. In addition, the lasing output, including the number of the lasing lines, the lasing evenness and the lasing locations, can also be flexibly adjusted through the wavelength-dependent polarization rotation mechanism.

  14. Measurement of Magic Wavelengths for the ^{40}Ca^{+} Clock Transition. (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Huang, Yao; Bian, Wu; Shao, Hu; Guan, Hua; Tang, Yong-Bo; Li, Cheng-Bin; Mitroy, J; Gao, Ke-Lin


    We demonstrate experimentally the existence of magic wavelengths and determine the ratio of oscillator strengths for a single trapped ion. For the first time, two magic wavelengths near 396 nm for the ^{40}Ca^{+} clock transition are measured simultaneously with high precision. By tuning the applied laser to an intermediate wavelength between transitions 4s_{1/2}→4p_{1/2} and 4s_{1/2}→4p_{3/2}, the sensitivity of the clock transition Stark shift to the oscillator strengths is greatly enhanced. Furthermore, with the measured magic wavelengths, we determine the ratio of the oscillator strengths with a deviation of less than 0.5%. Our experimental method may be applied to measure magic wavelengths for other ion clock transitions. Promisingly, the measurement of these magic wavelengths paves the way to building all-optical trapped ion clocks.

  15. Long wavelength infrared photodetector design based on electromagnetically induced transparency (United States)

    Zyaei, M.; Saghai, H. Rasooli; Abbasian, K.; Rostami, A.


    A novel long-wavelength infrared (IR) photodetector based on Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) which is suitable for operation in about room temperature and THz range is proposed and analyzed in detail in this article. The main point in this paper for operation in room temperature is related to convert the incoming long-wavelength IR signal to short-wavelength or visible probe optical field through EIT phenomena. For realization of the idea, we used 4, 5- and 6-level atoms implemented by quantum wells or dots. In the proposed structure long-wavelength IR signal does not interact directly with electrons, but affects the absorption characteristics of short-wavelength or visible probe optical field. Therefore, the proposed structure reduces and cancels out the important thermionic dark current component. So, the proposed idea can operate as long wavelength photodetector.

  16. Optimal specific wavelength for maximum thrust production in undulatory propulsion. (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Bale, Rahul; Chen, Nelson; Hanna, Yohanna; Patankar, Neelesh A


    What wavelengths do undulatory swimmers use during propulsion? In this work we find that a wide range of body/caudal fin (BCF) swimmers, from larval zebrafish and herring to fully-grown eels, use specific wavelength (ratio of wavelength to tail amplitude of undulation) values that fall within a relatively narrow range. The possible emergence of this constraint is interrogated using numerical simulations of fluid-structure interaction. Based on these, it was found that there is an optimal specific wavelength (OSW) that maximizes the swimming speed and thrust generated by an undulatory swimmer. The observed values of specific wavelength for BCF animals are relatively close to this OSW. The mechanisms underlying the maximum propulsive thrust for BCF swimmers are quantified and are found to be consistent with the mechanisms hypothesized in prior work. The adherence to an optimal value of specific wavelength in most natural hydrodynamic propulsors gives rise to empirical design criteria for man-made propulsors.

  17. Opto-VLSI-based N × M wavelength selective switch. (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Alameh, Kamal


    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel N × M wavelength selective switch (WSS) architecture based on the use of an Opto-VLSI processor. Through a two-stage beamsteering process, wavelength channels from any input optical fiber port can be switched into any output optical fiber port. A proof-of-concept 2 × 3 WSS structure is developed, demonstrating flexible wavelength selective switching with an insertion loss around 15 dB.

  18. Inertial confinement fusion driven by long wavelength electromagnetic pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baifei; Shen; Xueyan; Zhao; Longqing; Yi; Wei; Yu; Zhizhan; Xu


    A method for inertial confinement fusion driven by powerful long wavelength electromagnetic pulses(EMPs), such as CO2 laser pulses or high power microwave pulses, is proposed. Due to the high efficiency of generating such long wavelength electromagnetic pulses, this method is especially important for the future fusion electricity power. Special fuel targets are designed to overcome the shortcomings of the long wavelength electromagnetic pulses.

  19. Applications of photonic crystal in wavelength multiplex visualization (United States)

    Qian, Shi; Lei, Zhang


    The triple-channel photonic crystal filters are proposed designed. These devices have advantages of better filtering effect and high wavelength accuracy. In wavelength multiplex visualization, these filters can bring different wavelength of view entering into eyes so that stereo images are formed. we discuss the problem about minimization of the angle shift .The simulation shows that higher-index material and more high-index material in a basic period can decrease the angle shift.

  20. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Terahertz Imaging (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Skalare, Anders; Lee, Choonsup; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.


    -wave and terahertz bands: a) Antenna fabrication compatible with lithographic techniques. b) Much simpler fabrication of the lens. c) A simple quarter-wavelength matching layer of the lens will be more efficient if a smaller portion of the lens is used. d) The directivity is given by the lens diameter instead of the leaky pole (the bandwidth will not depend anymore on the directivity but just on the initial cavity). The feed is a standard waveguide, which is compatible with proven Schottky diode mixer/detector technologies. The development of such technology will benefit applications where submillimeter- wave heterodyne array designs are required. The main fields are national security, planetary exploration, and biomedicine. For national security, wideband submillimeter radars could be an effective tool for the standoff detection of hidden weapons or bombs concealed by clothing or packaging. In the field of planetary exploration, wideband submillimeter radars can be used as a spectrometer to detect trace concentrations of chemicals in atmospheres that are too cold to rely on thermal imaging techniques. In biomedicine, an imaging heterodyne system could be helpful in detecting skin diseases.

  1. Routing and wavelength assignment in hierarchical WDM networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyi LU; Ruxiang JIN; Chen HE


    A new routing and wavelength assignment method applied in hierarchical wavelength division multiplexing(WDM)networks is proposed.The algorithm is called offiine band priority algorithm(offiine BPA).The offline BPA targets to maximize the number of waveband paths under the condition of minimum number of wavelengths,and solve the routing and wavelength assignment(RWA)problem with waveband grooming to reduce cost.Based on the circle construction algorithm,waveband priority function is introduced to calculate the RWA problem.Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves significant cost reduction in WDM network construction.

  2. What are the ideal wavelengths for full color holography? (United States)

    Bazargan, Kaveh


    One of the holy grails in display holography is the production of natural color holographic images. Various sets of wavelengths for recording have been suggested, some favoring three wavelengths, some four, and even more. I will argue that the choice of recording wavelengths is completely independent of the holographic process; it was in fact was solved once and for all by scientists working in general lighting in the 1970s. I will suggest an ideal set of wavelengths which will produce color rendition equal to better than conventional photographic processes.

  3. High-accuracy absolute distance measurement by two-wavelength double heterodyne interferometry with variable synthetic wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Kuramoto, Yoshiyuki


    We present an absolute distance measurement interferometer based on a two wavelength interferometer and a variable synthetic wavelength technique. The wavelength scanning range was 12 GHz, realized with a phase accuracy of 1.0 m{\\lambda} by heterodyne detection at each measurement wavelength. This small wavelength scanning range enabled the use of distributed feedback laser diodes as an interferometer light source and a fast 20 ms wavelength scanning time by injection current control. We demonstrated a measurement range of up to 1.5 m and an accuracy better than 1.2 nm in comparison with a displacement measurement interferometer, corresponding to a relative accuracy of 10-9. In addition, we also proposed expanding the range of maximum measurement and compensation of refractive index of air for linear colliders.

  4. Demonstrated Wavelength Portability of Raman Reference Data for Explosives and Chemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Johnson


    Full Text Available As Raman spectroscopy continues to evolve, questions arise as to the portability of Raman data: dispersive versus Fourier transform, wavelength calibration, intensity calibration, and in particular the frequency of the excitation laser. While concerns about fluorescence arise in the visible or ultraviolet, most modern (portable systems use near-infrared excitation lasers, and many of these are relatively close in wavelength. We have investigated the possibility of porting reference data sets from one NIR wavelength system to another: We have constructed a reference library consisting of 145 spectra, including 20 explosives, as well as sundry other compounds and materials using a 1064 nm spectrometer. These data were used as a reference library to evaluate the same 145 compounds whose experimental spectra were recorded using a second 785 nm spectrometer. In 128 cases of 145 (or 88.3% including 20/20 for the explosives, the compounds were correctly identified with a mean “hit score” of 954 of 1000. Adding in criteria for when to declare a correct match versus when to declare uncertainty, the approach was able to correctly categorize 134 out of 145 spectra, giving a 92.4% accuracy. For the few that were incorrectly identified, either the matched spectra were spectroscopically similar to the target or the 785 nm signal was degraded due to fluorescence. The results indicate that imported data recorded at a different NIR wavelength can be successfully used as reference libraries, but key issues must be addressed: the reference data must be of equal or higher resolution than the resolution of the current sensor, the systems require rigorous wavelength calibration, and wavelength-dependent intensity response should be accounted for in the different systems.

  5. ASE suppression in Er3+ doped dual-core triangular lattice Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) for communication wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Partha Sona


    In this article, silica based triangular lattice PCF has been investigated towards both narrowband and broadband dispersion compensation for application in the communication wavelength. A dual core structure is obtained by introducing two different air-hole diameters in the cladding of the PCF. Dependence of individual structural parameters towards high negative dispersion (both narrowband and broadband) has been investigated in details with multipole mode based solver. The numerical investigation exhibits narrowband of very large negative dispersion of -37,300 ps/nm/km around the wavelength of 1550 nm. Present investigation also reports broadband dispersion values varying from -800 ps/nm/km to -2600 ps/nm/km over a 200 nm wavelength (1400 nm to 1600 nm) range, and kappa values near 300 nm, which matches well with standard single mode fiber. Using the principle of power transfer from the inner core to the outer core after the coupling wavelength, we have investigated possible design of ASE suppressed amplifie...

  6. Demonstration of Far-Infrared GaAs/A1GaAs Quantum Well Photodetectors for Broadband Wavelength Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wen-Zhong; Perera A. G. U


    We discuss the realization of broadband wavelength detection by demonstrating the longest cutoff wavelength (λ,c = 28.6 μm) far-infrared GaAs/AIGaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). The responsivity is comparable to that of mid-infrared GaAs/AIGaAs and InGaAs/GaAs QWIPs, with a responsivity of 0.265 A/W and detectivity of 3.4×109 cm. Hz1/2/W at the peak wavelength of 26.9μm at 4.2K. Based on the temperature dependent dark current and response results, it is expected that similar performance can be obtained at least up to 20 K. Several ways to expand the wavelength coverage are also addressed.

  7. High energy terahertz pulses from organic crystals: DAST and DSTMS pumped at Ti:sapphire wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Monoszlai, B; Jazbinsek, M; Hauri, C P


    High energy terahertz pulses are produced by optical rectification (OR) in organic crystals DAST and DSTMS by a Ti:sapphire amplifier system centered at 0.8 microns. The simple scheme provides broadband spectra between 1 and 5 THz, when pumped by collimated 60 fs near-infrared pump pulse and it is scalable in energy. Fluence-dependent conversion efficiency and damage threshold are reported as well as optimized OR at visible wavelength.

  8. Propagation of Long-Wavelength Nonlinear Slow Sausage Waves in Stratified Magnetic Flux Tubes (United States)

    Barbulescu, M.; Erdélyi, R.


    The propagation of nonlinear, long-wavelength, slow sausage waves in an expanding magnetic flux tube, embedded in a non-magnetic stratified environment, is discussed. The governing equation for surface waves, which is akin to the Leibovich-Roberts equation, is derived using the method of multiple scales. The solitary wave solution of the equation is obtained numerically. The results obtained are illustrative of a solitary wave whose properties are highly dependent on the degree of stratification.

  9. On the emissivity of wire-grid polarizers for astronomical observations at mm-wavelengths


    Schillaci, Alessandro; Battistelli, Elia; Alessandro, Giuseppe D'; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia


    We have measured, using a custom setup, the emissivity of metallic wire-grids, suitable for polarimeters and interferometers at mm and far infrared wavelengths. We find that the effective emissivity of these devices is of the order of a few %, depending on fabrication technology and aging. We discuss their use in astronomical instruments, with special attention to Martin Puplett Interferometers in low-background applications, like astronomical observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  10. Simulation of Ultra-Long Wavelength interferometer in the Earth orbit and on the lunar surface


    Zhang, Mo; Huang, Maohai; Yan, Yihua


    We present simulations for interferometer arrays in Earth orbit and on the lunar surface to guide the design and optimization of space-based Ultra-Long Wavelength missions, such as those of China's Chang'E program. We choose parameters and present simulations using simulated data to identify inter-dependencies and constraints on science and engineering parameters. A regolith model is created for the lunar surface array simulation, the results show that the lunar regolith will have an undesira...

  11. On the emissivity of wire-grid polarizers for astronomical observations at mm-wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Schillaci, Alessandro; Alessandro, Giuseppe D'; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia


    We have measured, using a custom setup, the emissivity of metallic wire-grids, suitable for polarimeters and interferometers at mm and far infrared wavelengths. We find that the effective emissivity of these devices is of the order of a few %, depending on fabrication technology and aging. We discuss their use in astronomical instruments, with special attention to Martin Puplett Interferometers in low-background applications, like astronomical observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  12. Terahertz detectors for long wavelength multi-spectral imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Wanke, Michael Clement; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Grine, Albert D.


    The purpose of this work was to develop a wavelength tunable detector for Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging. Our approach was to utilize plasmons in the channel of a specially designed field-effect transistor called the grating-gate detector. Grating-gate detectors exhibit narrow-linewidth, broad spectral tunability through application of a gate bias, and no angular dependence in their photoresponse. As such, if suitable sensitivity can be attained, they are viable candidates for Terahertz multi-spectral focal plane arrays. When this work began, grating-gate gate detectors, while having many promising characteristics, had a noise-equivalent power (NEP) of only 10{sup -5} W/{radical}Hz. Over the duration of this project, we have obtained a true NEP of 10{sup -8} W/{radical}Hz and a scaled NEP of 10{sup -9}W/{radical}Hz. The ultimate goal for these detectors is to reach a NEP in the 10{sup -9{yields}-10}W/{radical}Hz range; we have not yet seen a roadblock to continued improvement.

  13. Beam dynamics simulations for linacs driving short-wavelength FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrario, M.; Tazzioli, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori nazionali di Frascati; Serafini, L. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)


    The fast code HOMDYN has been recently developed, in the framework of the TTF (Tesla test facility) collaboration, in order to study the beam dynamics of linacs delivering high brightness beams as those needed for short wavelength Fel experiments. These linacs are typically driven by radio-frequency photo-injectors, where correlated time dependent space charge effects are of great relevance: these effects cannot be studied by standard beam optics codes (TRACE3D, etc.) and they have been modeled so far by means of multi-particle (Pic or quasistatic) codes requiring heavy cpu time and memory allocations. HOMDYN is able to describe the beam generation at the photo-cathode and the emittance compensation process in the injector even running on a laptop with very modest running rimes (less than a minute). In this paper it is showed how this capability of the code is exploited so to model a whole linac up to the point where the space charge dominated regime is of relevance (200 MeV).

  14. Long wavelength undulations dominate dynamics in large surfactant membrane patches (United States)

    Lipfert, Frederik; Holderer, Olaf; Frielinghaus, Henrich; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Do, Changwoo; Ohl, Michael; Richter, Dieter


    By exposing microemulsions to small (80 nm diameter) and large (500 nm) disk shaped clay particles we were able to show the presence of long wavelength undulations that only occur for large membrane patches. A combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments have been applied to study microemulsions. These, consisting of D2O, d-decane and the surfactant C10E4, were used in connection with Laponite (small) and Nanofil (large) clay. To our knowledge our experiments show for the first time that the clay platelets induce lamellar ordering adjacent to the clay discs in the otherwise bicontinuous microemulsion. This is due to the fact that in purely structural investigations, radial averaging smears out the signature of the lamellar phase. For thermodynamically fluctuating membranes near interfaces the theory of Seifert predicts a cross-over of the dispersion relationship from k2 to a k3-dependence. With the correlation length of the membrane patches being confined by the dimension of the clay platelets we were able to show that this in fact takes place but is only present for the larger Nanofil particles.

  15. Wavelength and fiber assignment problems on avionic networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert


    This paper solves the wavelength and fiber assignment problems with systems' isolation requirements on the avionic ring networks. The experiment results give a general glace of the numbers of the wavelengths and fibers are required under certain scale of networks. At the beginning of increasing...

  16. Modelling the dynamics of wavelength tuning in DBR-lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braagaard, Carsten; Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji;


    To minimise the wavelength switching times, dynamic numerical investigations of the tunability of DBR-lasers are performed, taking the transient thermal behaviour into account. It is predicted that a decrease of the waveguide dimensions in the Bragg section reduces the switching times. Also a tra...... off between ultra fast wavelength switching and influence of thermally induced disturbance is established...

  17. Experimental determination of the slow-neutron wavelength distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Mikke, K.; Sledziewska-Blocka, D.


    Different experiments for determining the slow-neutron wavelength distribution in the region 227-3 meV have been carried out, and the results compared. It is concluded that the slow-neutron wave-length distribution can be determined accurately by elastic scattering on a pure incoherent or a pure...

  18. Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Han; Knize, R J; Zhao, Luming; Bao, Qiaoliang; Loh, Kian Ping


    Atomic layer graphene possesses wavelength-insensitive ultrafast saturable absorption, which can be exploited as a full-band mode locker. Taking advantage of the wide band saturable absorption of the graphene, we demonstrate experimentally that wide range (1570 nm - 1600nm) continuous wavelength tunable dissipative solitons could be formed in an erbium doped fiber laser mode locked with few layer graphene.

  19. Swept wavelength lasers in the 1 um region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Frederik Donbæk


    . In this application, the 1-1.1 m wavelength range is particular suitable for imaging features in the deeper lying layers of the human retina. Ytterbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (YDFAs) are an attractive and available gain medium for the 1-1.1 m wavelength band. However, the relative long upper state lifetime, imposes...

  20. Analysis of subsystems in wavelength-division-multiplexing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai


    of interferometric crosstalk; the model has been used in calculation of the possible size of wavelength routing networks using arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG) routers, and in calculation of the number of wavelengths that can be handled in a new 2×2 multiwavelength cross connect. A method to measure dispersion...

  1. Technologies for all-optical wavelength conversion in DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan


    Different techniques for all-optical wavelength conversion are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages seen from a system perspective are highlighted. All-optical wavelength conversion will play a major role in making cost-effective network nodes in future high-speed WDM networks, where fun...

  2. Sub-wavelength resonances in polygonal metamaterial cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav


    It has been shown that the sub-wavelength resonances of circular MTM cylinders also occur for polygonal MTM cylinders. This is the case for lossless and non-dispersive cylinders as well as lossy and dispersive cylinders. The sub-wavelength resonances are thus not limited to structures of canonical...

  3. Cascaded wavelength division multiplexing for byte-wide optical interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J.; Garrett, H. E.; Germelos, S.; Haigh,R. E.; Henderer, B. D.; Lowry, M. E.; Walker, J.D.


    We demonstrate a wavelength division multiplexing approach for byte-wide optical interconnects over multimode fiber optic ribbon cable using filters based on common plastic ferrules. A dual wavelength link with eight cascaded filter stages exhibits bit error rates {le}l0{sup -l4}.

  4. Sub-wavelength metamaterial cylinders with multiple dipole resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav


    It has been shown that the sub-wavelength resonances of the individual MTM cylinders also occur for electrically small configurations combining 2 or 4 cylinders. For the 2-and 4-cylinder configurations the overall size is 1/20 and 1/12.5 of the smallest wavelength, respectively. These MTM...... configuration thus offer the possibility for multi-resonant electrically small configurations....

  5. High-precision, wavelength flexible frequency division for metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Petra; Klein, Marvin E.; Boller, Klaus-Jochen


    We realize and investigate wavelength-flexible phase-coherent all-optical frequency division by 2. Frequency division is obtained via self-phase-locking in a degenerate continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The wavelength flexibility of the divider is based on the use of quasi-ph

  6. Wavelength and fiber assignment problems on avionic networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert;


    This paper solves the wavelength and fiber assignment problems with systems' isolation requirements on the avionic ring networks. The experiment results give a general glace of the numbers of the wavelengths and fibers are required under certain scale of networks. At the beginning of increasing...

  7. Fast Tunable Wavelength Sources Based on the Laser Diode Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Chan; Cho; Hyun; Ha; Hong; Byoung-Whi; Kim


    We report a demonstration of a fast wavelength tunable source (TWS) based on the laser diode array coupled to the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) multiplexer. The switching and optical characteristics of TWS make it a candidate for implementing the wavelength-division space switch fabric for an optical packet/burst switching.

  8. Robust and Flexible Wavelength Division Multiplexed Optical Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Grobe, Klaus

    Future wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) access networks should be as flexible as possible. One flexibility is port wavelength-agnosticism at the optical network unit (ONU) interface, achieved via tunable laser. At the same time such systems needs to be robust against crosstalk impairments...

  9. Planarian Phototactic Assay Reveals Differential Behavioral Responses Based on Wavelength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor R Paskin

    Full Text Available Planarians are free-living aquatic flatworms that possess a well-documented photophobic response to light. With a true central nervous system and simple cerebral eyes (ocelli, planarians are an emerging model for regenerative eye research. However, comparatively little is known about the physiology of their photoreception or how their behavior is affected by various wavelengths. Most phototactic studies have examined planarian behavior using white light. Here, we describe a novel planarian behavioral assay to test responses to small ranges of visible wavelengths (red, blue, green, as well as ultraviolet (UV and infrared (IR which have not previously been examined. Our data show that planarians display behavioral responses across a range of wavelengths. These responses occur in a hierarchy, with the shortest wavelengths (UV causing the most intense photophobic responses while longer wavelengths produce no effect (red or an apparent attraction (IR. In addition, our data reveals that planarian photophobia is comprised of both a general photophobic response (that drives planarians to escape the light source regardless of wavelength and wavelength-specific responses that encompass specific behavioral reactions to individual wavelengths. Our results serve to improve the understanding of planarian phototaxis and suggest that behavioral studies performed with white light mask a complex behavioral interaction with the environment.

  10. Cosmological long-wavelength solutions and primordial black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Tomohiro; Nakama, Tomohiro; Koga, Yasutaka


    We construct cosmological long-wavelength solutions without symmetry in general gauge conditions compatible with the long-wavelength scheme. We then specify the relationship among the solutions in different time slicings. Nonspherical long-wavelength solutions are particularly important for primordial structure formation in the epoch of soft equations of state. Applying this framework to spherical symmetry, we show the equivalence between long-wavelength solutions in the constant mean curvature slicing and asymptotic quasi-homogeneous solutions in the comoving slicing. We derive the correspondence relation and compare the results of numerical simulations of primordial black hole (PBH) formation. In terms of $\\tilde{\\delta}_{c}$, the value which the averaged density perturbation at threshold in the comoving slicing would take at horizon entry in the first-order long-wavelength expansion, we find that the sharper the transition from the overdense region to the FRW universe is, the larger the $\\tilde{\\delta}_{c}...

  11. Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects. (United States)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino


    We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light.

  12. A new algorithm for optimizing the wavelength coverage for spectroscopic studies: Spectral Wavelength Optimization Code (SWOC)

    CERN Document Server

    Ruchti, G R; Lind, K; Caffau, E; Korn, A J; Schnurr, O; Hansen, C J; Koch, A; Sbordone, L; de Jong, R S


    The past decade and a half has seen the design and execution of several ground-based spectroscopic surveys, both Galactic and Extra-galactic. Additionally, new surveys are being designed that extend the boundaries of current surveys. In this context, many important considerations must be done when designing a spectrograph for the future. Among these is the determination of the optimum wavelength coverage. In this work, we present a new code for determining the wavelength ranges that provide the optimal amount of information to achieve the required science goals for a given survey. In its first mode, it utilizes a user-defined list of spectral features to compute a figure-of-merit for different spectral configurations. The second mode utilizes a set of flux-calibrated spectra, determining the spectral regions that show the largest differences among the spectra. Our algorithm is easily adaptable for any set of science requirements and any spectrograph design. We apply the algorithm to several examples, includin...

  13. Nicotine Dependence (United States)

    Nicotine dependence Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Nicotine dependence ― also called tobacco dependence ― is an addiction to tobacco products caused by the drug nicotine. Nicotine dependence means you can't stop using the substance, ...

  14. Magic-wavelength optical dipole trap of cesium and rubidium atoms (United States)

    Wang, Junmin; Cheng, Yongjie; Guo, Shanlong; Yang, Baodong; He, Jun


    Optical dipole traps (ODT) with far-off-resonance laser are important tools in more and more present cold-atom experiments, which allow confinement of laser-cooled atoms with a long storage time. Particularly, the magic wavelength ODT can cancel the position-dependent spatially inhomogeneous light shift of desired atomic transition, which is introduced by the ODT laser beam. Now it plays an important role in the state-insensitive quantum engineering and the atomic optical clock. To verify the magic wavelength or the magic wavelength combination for D2 line transition of cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) atoms, we calculated and analyzed the light shift of the 133Cs 6S1/2 - 6P3/2 transition for a monochromatic ODT, and also the 87Rb 5S1/2 - 5P3/2 transition for a dichromatic ODT with a laser frequency ratio of 2:1. Also a dichromatic magic-wavelength ODT laser system for 87Rb atoms is proposed and experimentally realized by employing the quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling technique with telecom laser and fiber amplifier.

  15. High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jinping; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Guihua; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Chin, See Leang; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan


    Remote laser in air based on amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) has produced rather well-collimated coherent beams in both backward and forward propagation directions, opening up possibilities for new remote sensing approaches. The remote ASE-based lasers were shown to enable operation either at ~391 and 337 nm using molecular nitrogen or at ~845 nm using molecular oxygen as gain medium, depending on the employed pump lasers. To date, a multi-wavelength laser in air that allows for dynamically switching the operating wavelength has not yet been achieved, although this type of laser is certainly of high importance for detecting multiple hazard gases. In this Letter, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, a harmonic-seeded switchable multi-wavelength laser in air driven by intense mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Furthermore, population inversion in the multi-wavelength remote laser occurs at an ultrafast time-scale (i.e., less than ~200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular n...

  16. A wavelength-switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser for switchable microwave generation. (United States)

    Pan, Shilong; Yao, Jianping


    A novel wavelength-switchable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) implemented based on a sigma architecture that is composed of a ring loop and a linear standing wave arm is experimentally demonstrated. Gain competition that prevents stable dual-wavelength oscillation is effectively suppressed by placing the gain medium in the standing-wave arm and by introducing polarization hole burning (PHB) via polarization multiplexing of the two lasing wavelengths in the ring loop. The SLM operation is guaranteed by an ultranarrow Fabry- Perot filter (FPF) introduced by absorption saturation in an unpumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) and the gain saturation in the gain medium. In addition, the ring cavity forms a Lyot filter for each wavelength. Thus, wavelength switching is achieved by simply adjusting the polarization state of either wavelength. By beating the two SLM wavelengths at a photodetector (PD), a microwave signal with a frequency tunable from approximately 10 to approximately 50 GHz is experimentally generated.

  17. Measurement and modeling of low-wavelength losses in silica fibers and their impact at communication Wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Rottwitt, Karsten


    Using the cutback technique, the attenuation of four different silica step-index fibers is measured in the very wide wavelength range of 190-1700 nm. The measured spectra are deconvolved into components describing Rayleigh scattering, infrared losses, Urbach edge, anomalous loss, and different...... wavelengths for two of the four fibers investigated....

  18. Two-Wavelength Neodymium Based Lasers (United States)


    Eq (2.1) yields = OSEf Pump 7Abs (2.5) hvp Voo From the dependence of the gain on the upper state lifetime illustrated in Eq (2.5), it can be seen...state per unit volume using Eqs (2.2) and (2.3 W -= (1 - exp (-O.lcm Nd:YLF)) Ty (1 - exp (-L)) hv 4F Volmm Vol1mm hvp where t is the population build up...DA 3 23 DOCUMNTATON PGE 1 Form Approved REJO R71 DOC MEN ATIO PA E’ MB No. 0704-0188 Puoifc -nodri -ource, r "is coilection of vrormation is

  19. Near-field ablation threshold of cellular samples at mid-IR wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Raghu, Deepa; Gamari, Benjamin; Reeves, M E


    We report the near-field ablation of material from cellulose acetate coverslips in water and my- oblast cell samples in growth media, with a spot size as small as 1.5 {\\mu}m under 3 {\\mu}m wavelength radiation. The power dependence of the ablation process has been studied and comparisons have been made to models of photomechanical and plasma-induced ablation. The ablation mechanism is mainly dependent on the acoustic relaxation time and optical properties of the materials. We find that for all near-field experiments, the ablation thresholds are very high, pointing to plasma-induced ablation as the dominant mechanism.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teague, L.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.


    We report variations in the currents of CdZnTe semiconductor crystals during exposure to a series of light emitting diodes of various wavelengths ranging from 470 to 950 nm. The changes in the steady-state current of one CdZnTe crystal with and without illumination along with the time dependence of the illumination effects are discussed. Analysis of the de-trapping and transient bulk currents during and after optical excitation yield insight into the behaviour of charge traps within the crystal. Similar behaviour is observed for illumination of a second CdZnTe crystal suggesting that the overall illumination effects are not crystal dependent.

  1. Ablation efficiency and relative thermal confinement measurements using wavelengths 1,064, 1,320, and 1,444 nm for laser-assisted lipolysis. (United States)

    Youn, Jong-In; Holcomb, J David


    Laser-assisted lipolysis is routinely used for contouring the body and the neck while modifications of the technique have recently been advocated for facial contouring. In this study, wavelength-dependence measurements of laser lipolysis effect were performed using different lasers at 1,064, 1,320, and 1,444 nm wavelengths that are currently used clinically. Fresh porcine skin with fatty tissue was used for the experiments with radiant exposure of 5-8 W with the same parameters (beam diameter = 600 μm, peak power = 200 mJ, and pulse rate = 40 Hz) for 1,064, 1,320 and 1,444 nm laser wavelengths. After laser irradiation, ablation crater depth and width and tissue mass loss were measured using spectral optical coherence tomography and a micro-analytical balance, respectively. In addition, thermal temporal monitoring was performed with a thermal imaging camera placed over ex vivo porcine fat tissue; temperature changes were recorded for each wavelength. This study demonstrated greatest ablation crater depth and width and mass removal in fatty tissue at the 1,444 nm wavelength followed by, in order, 1,320 and 1,064 nm. In the evaluation of heat distribution at different wavelengths, reduced heat diffusion was observed at 1,444 nm. The ablation efficiency was found to be dependent upon wavelength, and the 1,444 nm wavelength was found to provide both the highest efficiency for fatty tissue ablation and the greatest thermal confinement.

  2. Tweaks to Turing Patterns, Wavelength Transitions in CDIMA (United States)

    Gaskins, Delora; Pruc, Emily; Dolnik, Milos; Epstein, Irving


    Alan Turing predicted that stationary patterns could arise from a uniform steady state in a system through the processes of reaction and diffusion. Beyond the Turing instability, there exist spatially periodic states with different wavelengths. Pattern transitions, including those transitions to patterns of differing wavelengths are of interest in reaction-diffusion systems including ecological systems with patterned biomass prone to desertification. We study pattern transitions in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid (CDIMA) system which is the prototypical system for the study of Turing patterns in chemical systems. Additions of selected halides (bromides and chlorides) to the system in its patterned state have led to the observation of up to a five fold increase in wavelength. With the concentration of these halides as bifurcation parameter we observe that these large wavelength patterns are bistable with the uniform steady state. We explore the pattern wavelength selection of this system. Wavelength halving and super lattice structure formation result from transitions between patterns of different wavelengths.

  3. Assessing the wavelength extensibility of optical patterned defect inspection (United States)

    Barnes, Bryan M.; Zhou, Hui; Henn, Mark-Alexander; Sohn, Martin Y.; Silver, Richard M.


    Qualitative comparisons have been made in the literature between the scattering off deep-subwavelength-sized defects and the scattering off spheres in free space to illustrate the challenges of optical defect inspection with decreasing patterning sizes. The intensity scattered by such a sphere (for diameters sized well below the wavelength) is proportional to its diameter to the sixth power, but also scales inversely to the fourth power of the wavelength. This paper addresses through simulation the potential advantages of applying shorter wavelengths for improved patterned defect inspection. Rigorous finite-difference time-domain 3-D electromagnetic modeling of the scattering from patterned defect layouts has been performed at five wavelengths which span the deep ultraviolet (193 nm), the vacuum ultraviolet (157 nm and 122 nm), and the extreme ultraviolet (47 nm and 13 nm). These patterned structures and defects are based upon publicly disclosed geometrical cross-sectional information from recent manufacturing processes, which then have been scaled down to an 8 nm Si linewidth. Simulations are performed under an assumption that these wavelengths have the same source intensity, noise sources, and optical configuration, but wavelengthdependent optical constants are considered, thus yielding a more fundamental comparison of the potential gains from wavelength scaling. To make these results more practical, future work should include simulations with more process stacks and with more materials as well as the incorporation of available source strengths, known microscope configurations, and detector quantum efficiencies. In this study, a 47 nm wavelength yielded enhancements in the signal-to-noise by a factor of five compared to longer wavelengths and in the differential intensities by as much as three orders-of-magnitude compared to 13 nm, the actinic wavelength for EUV semiconductor manufacturing.

  4. A Novel Approach for Improving Communication by Wavelength Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrangesh Dahat


    Full Text Available Optical networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM technology modulate multiple channels over a single fiber. The most common architecture utilized for establishing communication in WDM optical networks is wavelength routing, where the communication between a source and a destination node is performed by setting up optical channels between them, called light-paths from the network perspective. In optical WDM networks, transmission of information along optical lines is advantageous since it has high transmission capacity, scalability, feasibility and also high reliability. But since large amount of information is being carried, any problem during transmission can lead to severe damage to the data being carried. In this paper, we propose to develop a routing and wavelength utilization algorithm which considers two constraints for selecting the best path. The two constraints are based on the available free load and the number of wavelength used in the link. Based on these constraints, two cost functions on load and wavelength are determined, which yields a combined cost function. For each pair of source and destination, the path with the minimum combined cost function is selected as the primary path for data transmission, allocating the sufficient wavelength. This study paper proposes a RWU algorithm for the problem of establishing the set of efficient light paths for a given set of connection requests. The effectiveness of the proposed RWU algorithm is demonstrated by simulation. This study divides the routing and wavelength allocation process in two step problem with a goal of minimizing Number of wavelength channel and number of wavelength conversion required. This algorithm thus provides a reliable path for the data transmission.

  5. Random-phase metasurfaces at optical wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders; Ding, Fei; Chen, Yiting


    , with statistics obeying the theoretical predictions. We foresee the use of random-phase metasurfaces for camouflage applications and as high-quality reference structures in dark-field microscopy, while the control of the statistics for polarised and unpolarised light might find usage in security applications......Random-phase metasurfaces, in which the constituents scatter light with random phases, have the property that an incident plane wave will diffusely scatter, hereby leading to a complex far-field response that is most suitably described by statistical means. In this work, we present and exemplify...... the statistical description of the far-field response, particularly highlighting how the response for polarised and unpolarised light might be alike or different depending on the correlation of scattering phases for two orthogonal polarisations. By utilizing gap plasmon-based metasurfaces, consisting...

  6. Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses of different wavelengths in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    We investigate the filaments formed by the ultrashort laser pulses with different wavelengths of 400 nm, 586 nm and 800 nm propagating in argon. Numerical results show that, when the input power or the ratio of the input power to the critical power is given, the pulse with 400 nm wavelength has the largest on-axis intensity, as well as the narrowest filament and the most stable beam radius. These results indicate that the pulse with shorter wavelength is more suitable for the long-range propagation in argon.

  7. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner. (United States)

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A


    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  8. Optically controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion (United States)

    Sabnis, V. A.; Demir, H. V.; Fidaner, O.; Harris, J. S.; Miller, D. A. B.; Zheng, J.-F.; Li, N.; Wu, T.-C.; Chen, H.-T.; Houng, Y.-M.


    We introduce a proof-of-concept, optically controlled, optical switch based on the monolithic integration of a surface-illuminated photodetector and a waveguide electroabsorption modulator. We demonstrate unconstrained wavelength conversion over the entire center telecommunication wavelength band (C band) and optical switching up to 2.5 Gbit/s with extinction ratios exceeding 10 dB. Our approach offers both high-speed, low-power, switching operation and two-dimensional array scalability for the fabrication of chip-scale reconfigurable multichannel wavelength converters.

  9. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobes, F.C.


    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO{sub 2} lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers.

  10. Triple-wavelength switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young-Geun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We propose and experimentally investigate a novel scheme for a triple-wavelength switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber incorporating a multiply-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating. A nonlinear optical loop mirror based on a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber is exploited to suppress the homogeneous line broadening of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and to provide the triple lasing wavelength switchability. A multiply phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating with three channels, depending on the number of phase-shifted segments, is implemented to establish a multichannel filter and to generate the multiwavelength output. A high-quality multiwavelength output with a high extinction ratio of {approx}45 dB and a high output flatness of {approx}0.3 dB is realized. The switching performance to provide lasing-wavelength selectivity can be realized by using a nonlinear polarization rotation based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror. The lasing wavelength can be switched individually by controlling both the polarization controller within the nonlinear optical loop mirror and the cavity loss. The proposed multiwavelength fiber laser can be operated in the single-, dual-, and triple-lasing wavelength states. Based on the bending technique, the lasing wavelength of the proposed multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser can be readily controlled, and its tunability was measured to be {approx}7.2 nm/m{sup -1}.

  11. Comparison of different Aethalometer correction schemes and a reference multi-wavelength absorption technique for ambient aerosol data (United States)

    Saturno, Jorge; Pöhlker, Christopher; Massabò, Dario; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Cheng, Yafang; Chi, Xuguang; Ditas, Florian; Hrabě de Angelis, Isabella; Morán-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Walter, David; Wang, Qiaoqiao; Artaxo, Paulo; Prati, Paolo; Andreae, Meinrat O.


    Deriving absorption coefficients from Aethalometer attenuation data requires different corrections to compensate for artifacts related to filter-loading effects, scattering by filter fibers, and scattering by aerosol particles. In this study, two different correction schemes were applied to seven-wavelength Aethalometer data, using multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) data as a reference absorption measurement at 637 nm. The compensation algorithms were compared to five-wavelength offline absorption measurements obtained with a multi-wavelength absorbance analyzer (MWAA), which serves as a multiple-wavelength reference measurement. The online measurements took place in the Amazon rainforest, from the wet-to-dry transition season to the dry season (June-September 2014). The mean absorption coefficient (at 637 nm) during this period was 1.8 ± 2.1 Mm-1, with a maximum of 15.9 Mm-1. Under these conditions, the filter-loading compensation was negligible. One of the correction schemes was found to artificially increase the short-wavelength absorption coefficients. It was found that accounting for the aerosol optical properties in the scattering compensation significantly affects the absorption Ångström exponent (åABS) retrievals. Proper Aethalometer data compensation schemes are crucial to retrieve the correct åABS, which is commonly implemented in brown carbon contribution calculations. Additionally, we found that the wavelength dependence of uncompensated Aethalometer attenuation data significantly correlates with the åABS retrieved from offline MWAA measurements.

  12. Experimental demonstration of wavelength domain rogue-free ONU based on wavelength-pairing for TDM/WDM optical access networks. (United States)

    Lee, Jie Hyun; Park, Heuk; Kang, Sae-Kyoung; Lee, Joon Ki; Chung, Hwan Seok


    In this study, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a wavelength domain rogue-free ONU based on wavelength-pairing of downstream and upstream signals for time/wavelength division-multiplexed optical access networks. The wavelength-pairing tunable filter is aligned to the upstream wavelength channel by aligning it to one of the downstream wavelength channels. Wavelength-pairing is implemented with a compact and cyclic Si-AWG integrated with a Ge-PD. The pairing filter covered four 100 GHz-spaced wavelength channels. The feasibility of the wavelength domain rogue-free operation is investigated by emulating malfunction of the misaligned laser. The wavelength-pairing tunable filter based on the Si-AWG blocks the upstream signal in the non-assigned wavelength channel before data collision with other ONUs.

  13. Development of a Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with Multi-Wavelength Capabilities (United States)

    Sumlin, B.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Wang, X.; Gronstal, S.; Chen, L. W. A. A.; Trimble, D.


    A thermal/optical carbon analyzer (DRI Model 2015) equipped with a novel seven-wavelength light source (405, 445, 532, 635, 780, 808, and 980 nm) was developed to analyze chemical and optical properties of particles collected on quartz-fiber filters. Based on the DRI Model 2001 carbon analyzer at 633 nm, major modifications were made on mechanical and electrical components, flow control, and the carbon detector to adopt modern technologies, increase instrument reliability, and reduce costs and maintenance. The correlation between wavelength-dependent light attenuation and organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, respectively) content allows estimation of the amount of brown and black carbon (BrC and BC, respectively) on filters. Continuous monitoring of the light reflected from and transmitted through the filter along with carbon evolved from the filter when heated to different temperatures under either inert or oxidizing gas environments provides insights into the optical properties of the carbon released from the filter; it also allows examination of the charring process as pyrolyzed char has been one of the major uncertainties in quantifying OC and EC. The objectives of this study are: 1) establish performance equivalency between the Model 2015 and Model 2001 DRI carbon analyzers when comparing similar laser wavelength to maintain consistency for long-term network sample analysis; and 2) analyze the multi-wavelength signal to quantify BrC and BC, and to optimize char correction. A selection of samples, including standard chemicals, rural and urban ambient filters, and emission sources from biomass burning, diesel and gasoline engine exhaust, and resuspended dust were measured by both the Model 2015 and Model 2001 analyzers. The instrument design, calibration, comparison with legacy analyzer, and interpretation of the multi-wavelengths measurement will be presented.

  14. Bandwidth control of wavelength-selective uncooled infrared sensors using two-dimensional plasmonic absorbers (United States)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Kimata, Masafumi


    Although standard uncooled infrared (IR) sensors can be used to record information such as the shape, position, and average radiant intensity of objects, these devices cannot capture color (that is, wavelength) data. Achieving wavelength selectivity would pave the way for the development of advanced uncooled IR sensors capable of providing color information as well as multi-color image sensors that would have significant advantages in applications such as fire detection, gas analysis, hazardous material recognition, and biological analysis. We have previously demonstrated an uncooled IR sensor incorporating a two-dimensional plasmonic absorber (2D PLA) that exhibits wavelength selectivity over a wide range in the mid- and long-IR regions. This PLA has a 2D Au-based periodic array of dimples, in which surface plasmon modes are induced and wavelength-selective absorption occurs. However, the dependence of the absorption bandwidth on certain structural parameters has yet to be clarified. The bandwidth of such devices is a vital factor when considering the practical application of these sensors to tasks such as gas detection. In the present study, control of the bandwidth was theoretically investigated using a rigorous coupled wave analysis approach. It is demonstrated that the dimple sidewall structure has a significant impact on the bandwidth and can be used to control both narrow- and broadband absorption. Increasing the sidewall slope was found to decrease the bandwidth due to suppression of cavity-mode resonance in the depth direction of the dimples. These results will contribute to the development of high-resolution, wavelength-selective uncooled IR sensors.

  15. Photo-thermal modulation of surface plasmon polariton propagation at telecommunication wavelengths. (United States)

    Kaya, S; Weeber, J-C; Zacharatos, F; Hassan, K; Bernardin, T; Cluzel, B; Fatome, J; Finot, C


    We report on photo-thermal modulation of thin film surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) excited at telecom wavelengths and traveling at a gold/air interface. By operating a modulated continuous-wave or a Q-switched nanosecond pump laser, we investigate the photo-thermally induced modulation of SPP propagation mediated by the temperature-dependent ohmic losses in the gold film. We use a fiber-to-fiber characterization set-up to measure accurately the modulation depth of the SPP signal under photo-thermal excitation. On the basis of these measurements, we extract the thermo-plasmonic coefficient of the SPP mode defined as the temperature derivative of the SPP damping constant. Next, we introduce a figure of merit which is relevant to characterize the impact of temperature onto the properties of bounded or weakly leaky SPP modes supported by a given metal at a given wavelength. By combining our measurements with tabulated values of the temperature-dependent imaginary part of gold dielectric function, we compute the thermo-optical coefficients (TOC) of gold at telecom wavelengths. Finally, we investigate a pulsed photo-thermal excitation of the SPP in the nanosecond regime. The experimental SPP depth of modulation obtained in this situation are found to be in fair agreement with the modulation depths computed by using our values of gold TOC.

  16. Photodegradation of malachite green and malachite green carbinol under irradiation with different wavelength ranges. (United States)

    Fischer, A R; Werner, P; Goss, K-U


    The dye malachite green (MG) is used worldwide as a fungicide in aquaculture. It is a toxic substance which in aqueous solutions is partly converted into its non-ionic colorless form (leucocarbinol). The equilibrium between these two forms is pH-dependent (pK=6.9). To assess the photodegradation of MG under sunlight conditions, both species were irradiated separately in aqueous solutions with different pH values (4.0 and 12.0) using various ultraviolet and visible wavelength ranges (UV/VIS). A 700 W high-pressure mercury lamp with special filters was used. No artificial photooxidizers such as H₂O₂ or TiO₂ were added. MG leucocarbinol proved to be much more sensitive to irradiation than the dye form. Quantum yields Φ were calculated for some wavelength ranges as follows: MG carbinol: Φ((280-312 nm)) is 4.3 × 10⁻³, Φ((313 - 410 nm)) is 5.8 × 10⁻³, and MG dye: Φ((280 - 312 nm)) is 4.8 × 10(-5), Φ((313-365nm)) is 1.1×10⁻⁵, and Φ((> 365nm)) is 0, respectively. Therefore, the solar photolysis of MG is an important sink and primarily depends on the photodegradation of the colorless leucocarbinol. During the irradiation of MG leucocarbinol with wavelengths > 365 nm, an intermediate was formed which has photocatalytical properties.

  17. Short-wavelength infrared laser activates the auditory neurons: comparing the effect of 980 vs. 810 nm wavelength. (United States)

    Tian, Lan; Wang, Jingxuan; Wei, Ying; Lu, Jianren; Xu, Anting; Xia, Ming


    Research on auditory neural triggering by optical stimulus has been developed as an emerging technique to elicit the auditory neural response, which may provide an alternative method to the cochlear implants. However, most previous studies have been focused on using longer-wavelength near-infrared (>1800 nm) laser. The effect comparison of different laser wavelengths in short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range on the auditory neural stimulation has not been previously explored. In this study, the pulsed 980- and 810-nm SWIR lasers were applied as optical stimuli to irradiate the auditory neurons in the cochlea of five deafened guinea pigs and the neural response under the two laser wavelengths was compared by recording the evoked optical auditory brainstem responses (OABRs). In addition, the effect of radiant exposure, laser pulse width, and threshold with the two laser wavelengths was further investigated and compared. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze those data. Results showed that the OABR amplitude with the 980-nm laser is higher than the amplitude with the 810-nm laser under the same radiant exposure from 10 to 102 mJ/cm(2). And the laser stimulation of 980 nm wavelength has lower threshold radiant exposure than the 810 nm wavelength at varied pulse duration in 20-500 μs range. Moreover, the 810-nm laser has a wider optimized pulse duration range than the 980-nm laser for the auditory neural stimulation.

  18. Light-induced growth of monodisperse silver nanoparticles with tunable SPR properties and wavelength self-limiting effect (United States)

    Zheng, Xianliang; Lombardi, John R.


    We present a technique for the tunable synthesis of a variety of monodisperse silver nanoparticles. Utilizing different optical wavelengths to irradiate initially grown seed crystals, the size and shape of the products can be controlled. Monitoring the absorption spectrum during growth, we observe that initially the absorption maximum shifts to longer wavelengths and broadens, indicating increasing particle size and dispersion. Remarkably, this effect gradually comes to a halt and reverses, displaying a shift to shorter wavelengths and simultaneously narrower bandwidths, until on completion, a final size and relatively narrow distribution is reached. The final morphology is found to depend on control of the laser wavelength and power. Discs, triangular prisms as well as pyramidal and pentagonal prisms may be produced. A process based on a wavelength dependent self-limiting mechanism governed by the surface plasmon resonance controlling the photochemical reduction of particles is suggested. By a similar mechanism, we show that by using a sodium lamp instead of a laser as an excitation source, a monodisperse sample of nanotetrahedra can be produced.

  19. Design of a wavelength frame multiplication system using acceptance diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Nekrassov, D; Lieutenant, K


    The concept of Wavelength Frame Multiplication (WFM) was developed to extend the usable wavelength range on long pulse neutron sources for instruments using pulse shaping choppers. For some instruments, it is combined with a pulse shaping double chopper, which defines a constant wavelength resolution, and a set of frame overlap choppers that prevent spurious neutrons from reaching the detector thus avoiding systematic errors in the calculation of wavelength from time of flight. Due to its complexity, the design of such a system is challenging and there are several criteria that need to be accounted for. In this work, the design of the WFM chopper system for the potential future liquids reflectometer at the European Spallation Source (ESS) is presented, which makes use of acceptance diagrams. They prove to be a powerful tool for understanding the work principle of the system and recognizing potential problems. The authors assume that the presented study can be useful for design or upgrade of further instrument...

  20. An 8-channel wavelength demultiplexer based on photonic crystal fiber (United States)

    Malka, Dror


    We propose a novel 8-channel wavelength demultiplexer based on photonic crystal fiber (PCF) structures that operate at 1530nm, 1535nm, 1540nm, 1545nm, 1550nm, 1555nm, 1560nm and 1565nm wavelengths. The new design is based on replacing some air-holes zones with silicon nitride and lithium niobate materials along the PCF axis with optimization of the PCF size. The reason of using these materials is because that each wavelength has a different value of coupling length. Numerical investigations were carried out on the geometrical parameters by using a beam propagation method (BPM). Simulation results show that the proposed device can transmit 8-channel that works in the whole C-band (1530- 1565nm) with low crosstalk ((-16.88)-(-15.93) dB) and bandwidth (4.02-4.69nm). Thus, the device can be very useful in optical networking systems that work on dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology.

  1. Time/Wavelength Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing Sensor Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel time/wavelength-multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor array is presented. This type of sensor array has the advantages of more points for multi-point measurement, simple structure and low cost.

  2. All-fiber photon-pair source at telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Rottwitt, Karsten


    Single photon sources are a key element for quantum computing, quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communications. In particular, producing single photons at telecommunications wavelengths is valuable for QKD protocols and would enable realizing the quantum internet. The preferred method...

  3. Sub-wavelength bubble in photon coincidence detection

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruifeng; Zhou, Yu; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli


    Sub-wavelength interference has a potential application in lithography to beat the classical Rayleigh limit of resolution. We carefully study the second-order correlation theory and find there is a bubble of sub-wavelength interference in photon coincidence detection. A Young's double-slit experiment with thermal light is carried out to test the second-order correlation pattern. The result shows that when different scanning ways of two point detectors are chosen, we can get arbitrary-wavelength interference patterns. We then give a theoretical explanation to this surprising result, and find this explanation is also suitable for the result by using entangled light. Furthermore, the question of whether this kind of arbitrary-wavelength interference patterns can be used in quantum lithography is also analyzed.

  4. Sub-wavelength antenna enhanced bilayer graphene tunable photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin; Howell, Stephen W.; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul; Ohta, Taisuke


    The integration of bilayer graphene with an absorption enhancing sub-wavelength antenna provides an infrared photodetector capable of real-time spectral tuning without filters at nanosecond timescales.

  5. Two-wavelength HeNe laser interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granneman, E.H.A.


    This paper presents an interferometer set-up in which two wavelengths are used simultaneously. This enables one to determine separately the phase shifts caused by changes in plasma density and by mechanical vibrations of the interferometer structure.

  6. Wavelength Drift Corrector for Wind Lidar Receivers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate an receiver system utilizing our novel technique for tracking and compensating for laser wavelength shifts in lidar systems....

  7. Dynamic wavelength conversion in copropagating slow-light pulses. (United States)

    Kondo, K; Baba, T


    Dynamic wavelength conversion (DWC) is obtained by controlling copropagating slow-light signal and control pulse trajectories. Our method is based on the understanding that conventional resonator-based DWC can be generalized, and is linked to cross-phase modulation. Dispersion-engineered Si photonic crystal waveguides produce such slow-light pulses. Free carriers generated by two-photon absorption of the control pulse dynamically shift the signal wavelength. Matching the group velocities of the two pulses enhances the shift, elongating the interaction length. We demonstrate an extremely large wavelength shift in DWC (4.9 nm blueshift) for the signal wavelength. Although DWC is similar to the Doppler effect, we highlight their essential differences.

  8. [Application of PSO algorithm in wavelength detection of FBG sensors]. (United States)

    Ding, Hui; Wu, Xiang-Nan; Liang, Jian-Qi; Li, Xian-Li


    In order to improve the measurement accuracy of FBG sensing system, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm combined with reference FBGs array was applied to investigate the nonlinearity and hysteresis character of Fabry-Parot filter (FPF). A method of modeling the wavelength-voltage relationship of FPF online in each FPF scanning cycle was proposed in the present paper. The feature of particle swarm optimization algorithm such as fast convergence and simple implementation makes the process of modeling wavelength-voltage relationship of FPF be completed with low computing cost and high accuracy. With the set-up model, the absolute error in wavelength detection of FBG sensors was demonstrated by experiments to be as low as 0.03 nm. The structure of the system is compact and the proposed modeling approach has important meaning in FBG sensors system when FPF is used as wavelength demodulator.

  9. Martian Meanders: Wavelength-Width Scaling and Flow Duration (United States)

    Gregoire-Mazzocco, H.; Stepinski, T. F.; McGovern, P. J.; Lanzoni, S.; Frascati, A.; Rinaldo, A.


    Martian meanders reveals linear wavelength/width scaling with a coef. k~10, that can be used to estimate discharges. Simulations of channel evolution are used to determine flow duration from sinuosity. Application to Nirgal Vallis yields 200 yrs.

  10. Optical wavelength conversion via optomechanical coupling in a silica resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chunhua; Fiore, Victor; Kuzyk, Mark C.; Wang, Hailin [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Tian, Lin [University of California, Merced, CA (United States)


    In an optomechanical resonator, an optically active mechanical mode can couple to any of the optical resonances via radiation pressure. This unique property can enable a remarkable phenomenon: conversion of optical fields via optomechanical coupling between vastly different wavelengths. Here we expand an earlier experimental study [Science 338, 1609 (2012)] on classical wavelength conversion of coherent optical fields by coupling two optical modes to a mechanical breathing mode in a silica resonator. Heterodyne detection of the converted optical fields shows that the wavelength conversion process is coherent and bidirectional. The conversion efficiency obtained features a distinct saturation behavior that arises from optomechanical impedance matching. A measurement of the coherent mechanical excitation involved in the wavelength conversion process also provides additional insight on the underlying optomechanical interactions. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Wavelength Drift Corrector for Wind Lidar Receivers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a key innovation to improve wavelength-sensitive lidar measurements (such as wind velocity) using photon-counting receivers. A novel binning technique to...

  12. Metal-dielectric composites for beam splitting and far-field deep sub-wavelength resolution for visible wavelengths. (United States)

    Yan, Changchun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Dongdong; Fiddy, M A


    We report beam splitting in a metamaterial composed of a silver-alumina composite covered by a layer of chromium containing one slit. By simulating distributions of energy flow in the metamaterial for H-polarized waves, we find that the beam splitting occurs when the width of the slit is shorter than the wavelength, which is conducive to making a beam splitter in sub-wavelength photonic devices. We also find that the metamaterial possesses deep sub-wavelength resolution capabilities in the far field when there are two slits and the central silver layer is at least 36 nm in thickness, which has potential applications in superresolution imaging.

  13. Random Laser Emission at Dual Wavelengths in a Donor-Acceptor Dye Mixture Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Kedia, Sunita


    The work was aimed to generate random laser emissions simultaneously at two wavelengths in a weakly scattering system containing mixture of binary dyes, rhodamine-B (Rh-B) and oxazine-170 (O-170) dispersed with ZnO nano-particles served as scattering centres. Random lasing performances for individual Rh-B dye were extensively studied for varying small signal gain/scatterer density and found lasing threshold significantly depend upon number density of dispersed nano-particles. In spite of inefficient pumping, we demonstrated possibility of random lasing in O-170 dye solution on account of resonance energy transfer from Rh-B dye served as donor. At optimum concentrations of fluorophores and scatterer in dye mixture solution, incoherent random lasing was effectively attained simultaneously at two wavelengths centered 90 nm apart. Dual-emission intensities, lasing thresholds and rate of amplifications were found to be equivalent for both donor and acceptor in dye mixture solution.

  14. Optimization of the wavelength shifter ratio in a polystyrene based plastic scintillator through energy spectrum analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ye Won; Kim, Myung Soo; Yoo, Hyun Jun; Lee, Dae Hee; Cho, Gyu Seong [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myung Kook [Neutron Instrumentation Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The scintillation efficiency of the polystyrene based plastic scintillator depends on the ratio of the wavelength shifters, organic fluors (PPO and POPOP). Thus, 24 samples of the plastic scintillator were fabricated in order to find out the optimum ratio of the wavelength shifters in the plastic scintillator. The fabricated plastic scintillators were trimmed through a cutting and polishing process. They were used in gamma energy spectrum measurement with the {sup 137}Cs emitting monoenergy photon with 662 keV for the comparison of the scintillation efficiency. As a result, it was found out that the scintillator sample with 1.00 g of PPO (2,5-Diphenyloxazole) and 0.50 g of POPOP (1,4-Bis(5-phnyl-2oxidazolyl)benzene) dissolved in 100 g of styrene solution has the optimum ratio in terms of the light yield of the polystyrene based plastic scintillator.

  15. BLAST05: Power Spectra of Bright Galactic Cirrus at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arabindo; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V


    We report multi-wavelength power spectra of diffuse Galactic dust emission from BLAST observations at 250, 350, and 500 microns in Galactic Plane fields in Cygnus X and Aquila. These submillimeter power spectra statistically quantify the self-similar structure observable over a broad range of scales and can be used to assess the cirrus noise which limits the detection of faint point sources. The advent of submillimeter surveys with the Herschel Space Observatory makes the wavelength dependence a matter of interest. We show that the observed relative amplitudes of the power spectra can be related through a spectral energy distribution (SED). Fitting a simple modified black body to this SED, we find the dust temperature in Cygnus X to be 19.9 +/- 1.3 K and in the Aquila region 16.9 +/- 0.7 K. Our empirical estimates provide important new insight into the substantial cirrus noise that will be encountered in forthcoming observations.

  16. Telecom wavelength emitting single quantum dots coupled to InP-based photonic crystal microcavities (United States)

    Kors, A.; Fuchs, K.; Yacob, M.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Benyoucef, M.


    Here we report on the fabrication and optical characterization of InP-based L3 photonic crystal (PhC) microcavities embedded with a medium density InAs/InP quantum dots (QDs) emitting at telecom wavelengths. The QDs are grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy using a ripening technique. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) measurements of PhC samples reveal sharp cavity modes with quality factors exceeding 8500. QDs emit highly linear-polarized light at telecom wavelengths with resolution-limited spectral linewidth below 50 μeV. Enhanced PL intensity of QDs in PhC is observed in comparison to the PL intensity of QDs in bulk semiconductors. The combination of excitation power-dependent and polarization-resolved μ-PL measurements reveal the existence of an exciton-biexciton system with a small fine-structure splitting.

  17. Sparsity based sub-wavelength imaging with partially incoherent light via quadratic compressed sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Shechtman, Yoav; Szameit, Alexander; Segev, Mordechai


    We demonstrate that sub-wavelength optical images borne on partially-spatially-incoherent light can be recovered, from their far-field or from the blurred image, given the prior knowledge that the image is sparse, and only that. The reconstruction method relies on the recently demonstrated sparsity-based sub-wavelength imaging. However, for partially-spatially-incoherent light, the relation between the measurements and the image is quadratic, yielding non-convex measurement equations that do not conform to previously used techniques. Consequently, we demonstrate new algorithmic methodology, referred to as quadratic compressed sensing, which can be applied to a range of other problems involving information recovery from partial correlation measurements, including when the correlation function has local dependencies. Specifically for microscopy, this method can be readily extended to white light microscopes with the additional knowledge of the light source spectrum.

  18. Trace and Wavelength Calibrations of the UVIS G280 +1/-1 Grism Orders (United States)

    Pirzkal, Norbert; Hilbert, Bryan; Rothberg, Barry


    We present new calibrations of the UVIS G280 grism dispersions for the -1 and +1 orders. The new calibration is based on in-flight observations of the star WR14 which was observed at multiple positions on the UVIS detector. This allowed us to derive a first estimate of the field dependence of the UVIS G280 dispersion. While previous, TV3 ground test based calibration, were only able to calibrate spectra obtained at the center of the UVIS CHIP1, our new solutions allow for the extraction and wavelength calibration of spectra over the entire UVIS field-of-view. We estimate the accuracy of the wavelength calibration using the new V2.0 dispersion solutions to be ± 7Å, or about half of a UVIS resolution element.

  19. Photon antibunching in single-walled carbon nanotubes at telecommunication wavelengths and room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Takumi, E-mail:; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Maki, Hideyuki, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)


    We investigated the photoluminescence of individual air-suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from 6 to 300 K. Time-resolved and antibunching measurements over the telecommunication wavelength range were performed using a superconducting single-photon detector. We detected moderate temperature independent antibunching behavior over the whole temperature range studied. To investigate the exciton dynamics, which is responsible for the antibunching behavior, we measured excitation-power and temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra and lifetime decay curves. These measurements suggested an exciton confinement effect that is likely caused by high-dielectric amorphous carbon surrounding the SWNTs. These results indicate that SWNTs are good candidates for light sources in quantum communication technologies operating in the telecommunication wavelength range and at room temperature.

  20. Photodissociation of IBr molecule in the wavelength range 440-680 nm (United States)

    Qin, Chaochao; Hou, Xinya; Huang, Yan; Yuan, Jing


    The photodissociation of IBr was investigated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation including the rotational degree of freedom within the wavelength 440-680 nm. Representative samples of 2D slice images and the corresponding total kinetic energy distribution P(E) resulting from photolysis of IBr molecules at ten wavelengths in the range 440-680 nm were obtained. The total kinetic energy distribution P(E) and the P(E) distribution from the respective electronic excited states A, B, C and Y in the range 440-680 nm are also given. Furthermore, the dissociation probability from the respective electronic excited states A, B, C and Y and the branching ratio of Γ(Br*/(Br  +  Br*)) are determined.

  1. Scattering and Absorption Properties of Polydisperse Wavelength-sized Particles Covered with Much Smaller Grains (United States)

    Dlugach, Jana M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Mackowski, Daniel W.


    Using the results of direct, numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations, we analyze scattering and absorption characteristics of polydisperse compound particles in the form of wavelength-sized spheres covered with a large number of much smaller spherical grains.The results pertain to the complex refractive indices1.55 + i0.0003,1.55 + i0.3, and 3 + i0.1. We show that the optical effects of dusting wavelength-sized hosts by microscopic grains can vary depending on the number and size of the grains as well as on the complex refractive index. Our computations also demonstrate the high efficiency of the new superposition T-matrix code developed for use on distributed memory computer clusters.

  2. Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission. (United States)

    Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi


    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.

  3. Short-wavelength infrared photodetector with InGaAs/GaAsSb superlattice (United States)

    Jin, Chuan; Xu, Qingqing; Yu, Chengzhang; Chen, Jianxin


    In this paper, our recent study on InGaAs/GaAsSb Type II photodetector for extended short wavelength infrared detection is reported. The high quality InGaAs/GaAsSb superlattices (SLs) was grown successfully by molecular beam epitaxy. The full width of half maximum of the SLs peak is 39". Its optical properties were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) at different temperature. The dependences of peak energy on temperature were measured and analyzed. The photodetector with InGaAs/GaAsSb absorption regions has a Quantum Efficiency (QE) product of 12.51% at 2.1um and the 100% cutoff wavelength is at 2.5um, at 300K under zero bias. The dominant mechanism of the dark current is discussed.

  4. Interferometry on small quantum systems at short wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenko, Sergey


    The present work concentrates on prototypical studies of light-induced correlated many-body dynamics in complex systems. In its course a reflective split-and-delay unit (SDU) for phase-resolved one-color pump-probe experiments with gas phase samples using VUV-XUV laser pulses was built. The collinear propagation of pump and probe pulses is ensured by the special geometry of the SDU and allows to perform phase-resolved (coherent) autocorrelation measurements. The control of the pump-probe delay with attosecond precision is established by a specially developed diagnostic tool based on an in-vacuum white light interferometer that allows to monitor the relative displacement of the SDU reflectors with nanometer resolution. Phase-resolved (interferometric) pump-probe experiments with developed SDU require spatially-resolved imaging of the ionization volume. For this an electron-ion coincidence spectrometer was built. The spectrometer enables coincident detection of photoionization products using velocity map imaging (VMI) technique for electrons and VMI or spatial imaging for ions. In first experiments using the developed SDU and the spectrometer in the ion spatial-imaging mode linear field autocorrelation of free-electron laser pulses at the central wavelength of 38 nm was recorded. A further focus of the work were energy- and time-resolved resonant two-photon ionization experiments using short tunable UV laser pulses on C{sub 60} fullerene. The experiments demonstrated that dipole-selective excitation on a timescale faster than the characteristic intramolecular energy dissipation limits the number of accessible excitation pathways and thus results in a narrow resonance. Time-dependent one-color pump-probe study showed that nonadiabatic (vibron) coupling is the dominant energy dissipation mechanism for high-lying electronic excited states in C{sub 60}.

  5. Europa Composition Using Visible to Short Wavelength Infrared Spectroscopy (United States)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Dalton, J. B.; Green, R. O.; Hibbits, K.; McCord, T.; Murchie, S.; Piccioni, G.; Tosi, F.


    One of the major goals of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) is to understand the chemistry of Europa's inorganic and organic materials. Europa's surface material composition is controlled by the original materials forming Europa and by their differentiation and chemical alterations. Material is probably still being transported to the surface by active processes in the interior. At the surface, the material is exposed to the effects of vacuum and temperature, irradiated by solar UV, and bombarded by material entrained in Jupiter's magnetic field. The materials on the surface and their distributions are evidence of the processes operating, both endogenic and exogenic. These processes include effects of a subsurface liquid ocean and its chemistry; the mechanisms of material emplacement from below; and photolysis and radiolysis. Visible to Short Wavelength Infrared (VSWIR) spectroscopy is a well-understood technique for mapping key inorganic, organic, and volatile compositions on remote surfaces such as Europa. Key spectral absorption features have been detected in both the icy and the non-icy Europa materials and many important constituents of the surface have been identified or proposed (e.g. hydrated salts, sulfuric acid hydrate, organics, CO2, H2O2, SO2). The determination of planetary surface composition from remote infrared spectroscopy depends upon adequate signal-to-noise, spectral resolution, and spatial scale to distinguish the diagnostic spectral features of the compounds of interest. For icy satellites, laboratory reference spectra obtained at the temperatures of the target bodies are also required. We have compared diagnostic spectral features in cryogenic laboratory spectra of hydrated salts relevant to Europa in order to optimize detection of these materials under realistic mission conditions. Effects of spectral resolution, signal to noise ratio, and areal mixtures are explored to determine the impacts on detection. This work was carried out at the Jet

  6. Wavelength stabilized multi-kW diode laser systems (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Unger, Andreas; Kindervater, Tobias; Drovs, Simon; Wolf, Paul; Hubrich, Ralf; Beczkowiak, Anna; Auch, Stefan; Müntz, Holger; Biesenbach, Jens


    We report on wavelength stabilized high-power diode laser systems with enhanced spectral brightness by means of Volume Holographic Gratings. High-power diode laser modules typically have a relatively broad spectral width of about 3 to 6 nm. In addition the center wavelength shifts by changing the temperature and the driving current, which is obstructive for pumping applications with small absorption bandwidths. Wavelength stabilization of high-power diode laser systems is an important method to increase the efficiency of diode pumped solid-state lasers. It also enables power scaling by dense wavelength multiplexing. To ensure a wide locking range and efficient wavelength stabilization the parameters of the Volume Holographic Grating and the parameters of the diode laser bar have to be adapted carefully. Important parameters are the reflectivity of the Volume Holographic Grating, the reflectivity of the diode laser bar as well as its angular and spectral emission characteristics. In this paper we present detailed data on wavelength stabilized diode laser systems with and without fiber coupling in the spectral range from 634 nm up to 1533 nm. The maximum output power of 2.7 kW was measured for a fiber coupled system (1000 μm, NA 0.22), which was stabilized at a wavelength of 969 nm with a spectral width of only 0.6 nm (90% value). Another example is a narrow line-width diode laser stack, which was stabilized at a wavelength of 1533 nm with a spectral bandwidth below 1 nm and an output power of 835 W.

  7. AstroSat - a multi-wavelength astronomy satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R; Bhattacharya, D


    AstroSat is a multi-wavelength astronomy satellite, launched on 2015 September 28. It carries a suite of scientific instruments for multi-wavelength observations of astronomical sources. It is a major Indian effort in space astronomy and the context of AstroSat is examined in a historical perspective. The Performance Verification phase of AstroSat has been completed and all instruments are working flawlessly and as planned. Some brief highlights of the scientific results are also given here.

  8. Pupillary behavior in relation to wavelength and age


    Lobato-Rincón, Luis-Lucio; Cabanillas-Campos, Maria del Carmen; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Chamorro-Gutiérrez, Eva; Murciano-Cespedosa, Antonio; Sánchez-Ramos Roda, Celia


    Pupil light reflex can be used as a non-invasive ocular predictor of cephalic autonomic nervous system integrity. Spectral sensitivity of the pupil's response to light has, for some time, been an interesting issue. It has generally, however, only been investigated with the use of white light and studies with monochromatic wavelengths are scarce. This study investigates the effects of wavelength and age within three parameters of the pupil light reflex (amplitude of response, latency, and velo...

  9. Long-wavelength 256x256 QWIP handheld camera (United States)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Liu, J. K.; Sundaram, Mani; Bandara, Sumith V.; Shott, C. A.; Hoelter, T.; Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.


    In this paper, we discuss the development of very sensitive long wavelength infrared GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), fabrication of random reflectors for efficient light coupling, and the demonstration of first hand-held long-wavelength 256 X 256 QWIP focal plane array camera. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature of 25 mK has been achieved.

  10. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength


    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide


    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic impro...

  11. Low Wavelength Loss of Germanium Doped Silica Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Rottwitt, Karsten


    Attenuation of four step-index fibers are measured with high accuracy from 190 nm to 1700 nm. The spectra are deconvolved into different contributions and the influence of the Urbach edge at transmission wavelengths is investigated.......Attenuation of four step-index fibers are measured with high accuracy from 190 nm to 1700 nm. The spectra are deconvolved into different contributions and the influence of the Urbach edge at transmission wavelengths is investigated....

  12. Detecting fast radio bursts at decametric wavelengths (United States)

    Rajwade, K. M.; Lorimer, D. R.


    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are highly dispersed, sporadic radio pulses which are likely extragalactic in nature. Here, we investigate the constraints on the source population from surveys carried out at frequencies <1 GHz. All but one FRB has so far been discovered in the 1-2 GHz band, but new and emerging instruments look set to become valuable probes of the FRB population at sub-GHz frequencies in the near future. In this paper, we consider the impacts of free-free absorption and multipath scattering in our analysis via a number of different assumptions about the intervening medium. We consider previous low-frequency surveys along with an ongoing survey with University of Technology digital backend for the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (UTMOST) as well as future observations with the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) and the Hydrogen Intensity and Real-time Analysis eXperiment (HIRAX). We predict that CHIME and HIRAX will be able to observe ˜30 or more FRBs per day, even in the most extreme scenarios where free-free absorption and scattering can significantly impact the fluxes below 1 GHz. We also show that UTMOST will detect 1-2 FRBs per month of observations. For CHIME and HIRAX, the detection rates also depend greatly on the assumed FRB distance scale. Some of the models we investigated predict an increase in the FRB flux as a function of redshift at low frequencies. If FRBs are truly cosmological sources, this effect may impact future surveys in this band, particularly if the FRB population traces the cosmic star formation rate.

  13. Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch. (United States)

    Goebuchi, Yuta; Hisada, Masahiko; Kato, Tomoyuki; Kokubun, Yasuo


    We have proposed and demonstrated the basic elements of a full matrix optical switching circuit (cross-connect circuit) using a hitless wavelength selective switch (WSS). The cross-connect circuits are made of a multi-wavelength channel selective switch consisting of cascaded hitless WSSs, and a multi-port switch. These switching elements are realized through the individual Thermo-Optic (TO) tuning of a series-coupled microring resonator, and can switch arbitrary wavelength channels without blocking other wavelength channels during tuning. We demonstrate a four wavelength selective switch using a parallel topology of double series coupled microring resonators and a three wavelength selective switch using a parallel topology of quadruple series coupled microring resonators. Since the spectrum shape of quadruple series coupled microring is much more box-like than the double series, a high extinction ratio of 39.0-46.6 dB and low switching cross talk of 19.3-24.5 dB were achieved.

  14. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm (United States)

    Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.; Freeman, D. E.


    An account is given of progress of work on absorption cross section measurements of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm. In this wavelength region, the penetration of solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere is controlled by O2 and O3. The transmitted radiation is available to dissociate trace species such as halocarbons and nitrous oxide. We have recently measured absolute absorption cross sections of O3 in the wavelength region 240-350 nm (Freeman et al., 1985; Yoshino et al., 1988). We apply these proven techniques to the determination of the absorption cross section of O3 at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K throughout the wavelength region 185-240 nm. A paper titled 'Absolute Absorption Cross Section Measurements of Ozone in the Wavelength Region 185-254 nm and the Temperature Dependence' has been submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  15. Polarization-dependent aluminum metasurface operating at 450 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Zhu, Xiaolong; Carstensen, Marcus S;


    We report on a polarization-dependent plasmonic aluminum-based high-density metasurface operating at blue wavelengths. The fabricated sub-wavelength structures, tailored in size and geometry, possess strong, localized, plasmonic resonances able to control linear polarization. Best performance...

  16. Polarization-dependent aluminum metasurface operating at 450 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Zhu, Xiaolong; Carstensen, Marcus S


    We report on a polarization-dependent plasmonic aluminum-based high-density metasurface operating at blue wavelengths. The fabricated sub-wavelength structures, tailored in size and geometry, possess strong, localized, plasmonic resonances able to control linear polarization. Best performance...

  17. Psychophysiological consideration of the blink reflex as a function of wavelength; Psychophysiologische Betrachtung des Lidschlussreflexes als Funktion der Wellenlaenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidenbach, H.D. [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany). Forschungsbereich Medizintechnik: Hochfrequenz- und Lasertechnik


    It has been shown in investigations of the blink reflex that the incidence depends on the wavelength of the applied laser radiation. The experimentally acquired correlation shows a remarkably weaker association to the V({lambda})-curve compared to the spectral visibility function. The present results might be described by a dependence which is known from the fundamental Weber-Fechner-law in psychophysics and might be given as a blink reflex function according to the Stevens power function. (orig.)

  18. Elucidating the Wavelength Dependence of Phonon Scattering in Nanoparticle-Matrix Composites using Phonon Spectroscopy (United States)


    C.; Wang, G. Y.; Uher, C.; Dravid, V. P.; Kanatzidis, M. G. Nat. Chem. 2011, 3, 160-166. 8 Liu, M.; Ma, Y.; Wu, H.; Wang, R. Y. ACS Nano 2015, 9...V.; Lee, J. S.; Liu, W.; Spokoyny, B.; Talapin, D. V. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 10612-10620. 29 Zhang, H.; Jang, J.; Liu, W.; Talapin, D. V. ACS ...Diroll, B. T.; Murray, C. B.; Kagan, C. R. Nat Commun 2012, 3, 1216. 37 Yun, H. J.; Paik, T.; Edley, M. E.; Baxter, J. B.; Murray, C. B. ACS Appl

  19. A wavelength-dependent visible and infrared spectrophotometric function for the Moon based on ROLO data (United States)

    Buratti, B.J.; Hicks, M.D.; Nettles, J.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C.M.; Sunshine, J.; Boardman, J.; Stone, T.C.


    The USGS's Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) dedicated ground-based lunar calibration project obtained photometric observations of the Moon over the spectral range attainable from Earth (0.347-2.39 ??m) and over solar phase angles of 1.55??-97??. From these observations, we derived empirical lunar surface solar phase functions for both the highlands and maria that can be used for a wide range of applications. The functions can be used to correct for the effects of viewing geometry to produce lunar mosaics, spectra, and quick-look products for future lunar missions and ground-based observations. Our methodology can be used for a wide range of objects for which multiply scattered radiation is not significant, including all but the very brightest asteroids and moons. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Effect of Ba in KDP crystal on the wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Gao; Xun Sun; Xinguang Xu; Baoan Liu; Mingxia Xu; Xian Zhao


    @@ Ba impurity in potassium dihydrogen phosphate(KDP)is studied with the first-principle simulation method.The relaxed configurations and density of the states of KDP crystal with Ba impurity are calculated.We find that Ba can generate a K vacancy and an interstitial O-H unit for charge compensation.The band gap of KDP crystal narrowed down to about 3.9 eV,which is consistent with the experimental data from previously reported studies and indicates that Ba may be a source of low-damage threshold.%Ba impurity in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) is studied with the first-principle simulation method. The relaxed configurations and density of the states of KDP crystal with Ba impurity are calculated. We find that Ba can generate a K vacancy and an interstitial O-H unit for charge compensation. The band gap of KDP crystal narrowed down to about 3.9 eV, which is consistent with the experimental data from previously reported studies and indicates that Ba may be a source of low-damage threshold.

  1. Theory Analysis of Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Phase Explosion of Silicon (United States)


    and P. Martin , Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 1695 2004. 2R. E. Russo, X. Mao, and S. S. Mao, Anal. Chem. 74, 70A 2002. 3Laser Ablation...J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers , Laser-Induced Plasmas and Appli- cation Dekker, New York, 1989. 13J. R. Ho, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and J. A

  2. Dependence of silicon position-detector bandwidth on wavelength, power, and bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisstede, J.H.G.; van Rooijen, Bart; van der Werf, Kees; Bennink, Martin L.; Subramaniam, Vinod


    We have developed a two-LED wobbler system to generate the spatial displacement of total light intensity on a detector surface, facilitating the acquisition of frequency responses up to 600 kHz with high accuracy. We have used this setup to characterize the low-pass filtering behavior of

  3. The still unknown azobenzene - Wavelength dependent photoanisotropy in amorphous azobenzene polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    We demonstrate a new type of anisotropy in thin films of amorphous azobenzene polymers induced between 570 and 633 nm, where the absorbance in the film is on the order of 0.05. The anisotropy has a pronounced radial contribution. This observation points to an additional mechanism for the alignment...

  4. High Speed Signal Wavelength Conversion Using Stimulated Raman Effect in Ultrasmall Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-Wei; LUO Feng-Guang; GALLEP Cristiano de Mello


    We propose the high speed signal wavelength conversion based on stimulated Raman effect on silicon waveguides.Simulation results of non-return-to-zero(NRZ)pseudorandom bit sequence(27-1 code)at 500-Gb/s rate of conversion in an ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator(SOI)optical wavegnide are presented by co-propagating pump optical field.The most attractive issue is that the inverted converted signal can be obtained at the same wavelength as that of primary signal.In addition,the conversion performances,including extinction ratio(ER)and average peak power of conversion signal,depend strongly on the launching pump intensity.

  5. Path Dependency


    Mark Setterfield


    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  6. Studies of central wavelength of high-power all-fiber superfluorescent sources with Yb-doped double-clad fibers (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Sun, Junyi; Li, Dan; Gong, Mali; Xiao, Qirong


    The behavior patterns and dependencies of the central wavelength of high-power all-fiber superfluorescent sources (SFS) were studied based on the steady-state rate equations of Yb-doped fiber lasers. The relationships between the central wavelength and the pumping power as well as the fiber parameters including fiber length, core size, core/clad ratio, and absorption coefficient were analyzed based on the gain coefficient of the gain fiber. Experimental results from ten different fibers are presented, and the results agreed well with the simulations. The central wavelength of the ten SFSs ranged from 1034.75 nm to 1072.4 nm.

  7. All-optical 40 Gbit/s compact integrated interferometric wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave;


    An interferometric Michelson wavelength converter is presented that combines a speed-optimized semiconductor optical amplifier technology with the benefits of the integrated interferometer showing 40-Gbit/s wavelength conversion. The optimized wavelength converter demonstrates noninverted converted...

  8. Super sub-wavelength patterns in photon coincidence detection (United States)

    Liu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Yu; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli


    High-precision measurements implemented with light are desired in all fields of science. However, light acts as a wave, and the Rayleigh criterion in classical optics yields a diffraction limit that prevents obtaining a resolution smaller than the wavelength. Sub-wavelength interference has potential application in lithography because it beats the classical Rayleigh resolution limit. Here, we carefully study second-order correlation theory to establish the physics behind sub-wavelength interference in photon coincidence detection. A Young's double slit experiment with pseudo-thermal light is performed to test the second-order correlation pattern. The results show that when two point detectors are scanned in different ways, super sub-wavelength interference patterns can be obtained. We then provide a theoretical explanation for this surprising result, and demonstrate that this explanation is also suitable for the results found for entangled light. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations of these types of super sub-wavelength interference patterns in quantum lithography.

  9. A Multi-Wavelength IR Laser for Space Applications (United States)

    Li, Steven X.; Yu, Anthony W.; Sun, Xiaoli; Fahey, Molly E.; Numata, Kenji; Krainak, Michael A.


    We present a laser technology development with space flight heritage to generate laser wavelengths in the near- to mid-infrared (NIR to MIR) for space lidar applications. Integrating an optical parametric crystal to the LOLA (Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter) laser transmitter design affords selective laser wavelengths from NIR to MIR that are not easily obtainable from traditional diode pumped solid-state lasers. By replacing the output coupler of the LOLA laser with a properly designed parametric crystal, we successfully demonstrated a monolithic intra-cavity optical parametric oscillator (iOPO) laser based on all high technology readiness level (TRL) subsystems and components. Several desired wavelengths have been generated including 2.1 microns, 2.7 microns and 3.4 microns. This laser can also be used in trace-gas remote sensing, as many molecules possess their unique vibrational transitions in NIR to MIR wavelength region, as well as in time-of-flight mass spectrometer where desorption of samples using MIR laser wavelengths have been successfully demonstrated.

  10. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide


    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 +/- 1.0% (85.1 +/- 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.

  11. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength. (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide


    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 ± 1.0% (85.1 ± 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.

  12. Observation of a Long-Wavelength Hosing Modulation of a High-Intensity Laser Pulse in Underdense Plasma (United States)

    Kaluza, M. C.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Najmudin, Z.; Dangor, A. E.; Murphy, C. D.; Collier, J. L.; Divall, E. J.; Foster, P. S.; Hooker, C. J.; Langley, A. J.; Smith, J.; Krushelnick, K.


    We report the first experimental observation of a long-wavelength hosing modulation of a high-intensity laser pulse. Side-view images of the scattered optical radiation at the fundamental wavelength of the laser reveal a transverse oscillation of the laser pulse during its propagation through underdense plasma. The wavelength of the oscillation λhosing depends on the background plasma density ne and scales as λhosing˜ne-3/2. Comparisons with an analytical model and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that this laser hosing can be induced by a spatiotemporal asymmetry of the intensity distribution in the laser focus which can be caused by a misalignment of the parabolic focusing mirror or of the diffraction gratings in the pulse compressor.

  13. Magnetic field control and wavelength tunability of SPP excitations using Al2O3/SiO2/Fe structures (United States)

    Kaihara, Terunori; Shimizu, Hiromasa; Cebollada, Alfonso; Armelles, Gaspar


    Here, we show the high wavelength tunability and magnetic field modulation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of a waveguide mode that Double-layer Dielectrics and Ferromagnetic Metal, Al2O3/SiO2/Fe, trilayer structures exhibit when excited in the Otto configuration of attenuated total reflection setup. First by modeling, and then experimentally, we demonstrate that it is possible to tune the wavelength at which the angular dependent reflectance of these structures reaches its absolute minimum by simply adjusting the SiO2 intermediate dielectric layer thickness. This precise wavelength corresponds to the cut-off condition of SPPs' waveguide mode supported by the proposed structure, and it can be then switched between two values upon magnetization reversal of the Fe layer. In this specific situation, a large enhancement of the transverse magneto-optical effect is also obtained.

  14. A precision fiber bragg grating interrogation system using long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (United States)

    Hu, Binxin; Jin, Guangxian; Liu, Tongyu; Wang, Jinyu


    This paper presents the development of a cost-effective precision fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system using long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Tuning properties of a long-wavelength VCSEL have been studied experimentally. An approximately quadratic dependence of its wavelength on the injection current has been observed. The overall design and key operations of this system including intensity normalization, peak detection, and quadratic curve fitting are introduced in detail. The results show that the system achieves an accuracy of 1.2 pm with a tuning range of 3 nm and a tuning rate of 1 kHz. It is demonstrated that this system is practical and effective by applied in the FBG transformer temperature monitoring.

  15. Single- and dual-wavelength switchable erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on intracavity polarization selective tilted fiber gratings. (United States)

    Mou, Chengbo; Saffari, Pouneh; Fu, Hongyan; Zhou, Kaiming; Zhang, Lin; Bennion, Ian


    We propose and demonstrate a single- and dual-wavelength switchable erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) by utilizing intracavity polarization selective filters based on tilted fiber gratings (TFGs). In the cavity, one 45 degrees TFG functions as an in-fiber polarizer and the other 77 degrees TFG is used as a fiber polarization dependent loss (PDL) filter. The combined polarization effect from these two TFGs enables the laser to switch between the single- and the dual-wavelength operation with a single-polarization state at room temperature. The laser output at each wavelength shows an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of >60 dB, a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of >50 dB, and a polarization extinction ratio of approximately 35 dB. The proposed EDFL can give stable output under laboratory conditions.

  16. Stresses and Temperature Stability of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Filters Prepared by Reactive Ion-Assisted E-Gun Evaporation (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Tsang; Shieh, Han-Ping D.


    In this paper, we report the in situ measurement of the temperature stability of narrow-band-pass filters on different types of substrate, for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) filters in optical-fiber transmission systems. The DWDM filters were designed as all-dielectric Fabry-Perot filters and fabricated by reactive ion-assisted deposition. Ta2O5 and SiO2 were used as high- and low-refractive-index layers, respectively, for constructing the DWDM filters. The accuracy and stability of the coating process were evaluated for fabricating the DWDM filters for the temperature stability of the center wavelength. The center wavelength shift was determined to be greatly dependent on the coefficient of thermal expansion of the substrate on which the filter is deposited.

  17. Design of the interferometric spectral discrimination filters for a three-wavelength high-spectral-resolution lidar. (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yupeng; Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Chong; Bai, Jian; Shen, Yibing; Yang, Yongying; Zhou, Yudi; Tang, Peijun; Liu, Qun; Xu, Peituo; Su, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Liming


    We address design of the interferometric spectral discrimination (ISD) filters for a specific three-wavelength high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) in this paper. Taking into account the strong dependence of the transmittance of the ISD filters on the incident angle of light ray, the optical path of the receiving channel with an ISD filter in HSRL is analyzed. We derive the lidar equation with the angular distribution of backscatter signal, through which Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are then carried out to obtain the optimal parameters of the ISD filters for the HSRL at 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm, respectively. Comparing the retrieval errors of the MC simulations based on different ISD filters, the configuration and parameters of the best ISD filter at each wavelength are determined. This paper can be employed as a theoretical guidance during the design of a three-wavelength HSRL with ISD filters.

  18. High-accuracy reference standards for two-photon absorption in the 680-1050 nm wavelength range. (United States)

    de Reguardati, Sophie; Pahapill, Juri; Mikhailov, Alexander; Stepanenko, Yuriy; Rebane, Aleksander


    Degenerate two-photon absorption (2PA) of a series of organic fluorophores is measured using femtosecond fluorescence excitation method in the wavelength range, λ2PA = 680-1050 nm, and ~100 MHz pulse repetition rate. The function of relative 2PA spectral shape is obtained with estimated accuracy 5%, and the absolute 2PA cross section is measured at selected wavelengths with the accuracy 8%. Significant improvement of the accuracy is achieved by means of rigorous evaluation of the quadratic dependence of the fluorescence signal on the incident photon flux in the whole wavelength range, by comparing results obtained from two independent experiments, as well as due to meticulous evaluation of critical experimental parameters, including the excitation spatial- and temporal pulse shape, laser power and sample geometry. Application of the reference standards in nonlinear transmittance measurements is discussed.

  19. Choice of Eye-Safe Radiation Wavelength in UV and Near IR Spectral Bands for Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Belov


    Full Text Available The introduction of laser remote sensing systems carries a particular risk to the human’s sense of vision. A structure of the eye, and especially the retina, is the main critical organ as related to the laser radiation.The work uses the optical models of the atmosphere, correctly working in both the UV and the near-IR band, to select the eye-safe radiation wavelengths in the UV (0.355 m and near-IR (~ 1.54 and ~ 2 m spectral bands from the point of view of recorded lidar signal value to fulfill the tasks of laser sensing the natural formations and laser aerosol sensing in the atmosphere.It is shown that the remote sensing lasers with appropriate characteristics can be selected both in the UV band (at a wavelength of 0.355 μm and in the near-IR band (at wavelengths of 1.54 ~ or ~ 2 μm.Molecular scattering has its maximum (for the selected wavelength at a wavelength of 0.355 μm in the UV band, and the minimum at the wavelengths of 1.54 and 2.09 μm in the near -IR band. The main contribution to the molecular absorption at a wavelength of 0.355 μm is made by ozone. In the near-IR spectral band the radiation is absorbed due to water vapor and carbon dioxide.Calculations show that the total effect of the molecular absorption and scattering has no influence on radiation transmission for both the wavelength of 0.355 μm in the UV band, and the wavelengths of 1.54 and 2.09 μm in the near-IR band for sensing trails ~ 1 km.One of the main factors of laser radiation attenuation in the Earth's atmosphere is radiation scattering by aerosol particles.The results of calculations at wavelengths of 0.355 μm, 1.54 μm and 2.09 μm for the several models of the atmosphere show that a choice of the most effective (in terms of the recorded signal of lidar and eye-safe radiation wavelength depends strongly on the task of sensing.To fulfill the task of laser sensing the natural formations, among the eye-safe wavelengths there is one significantly advantageous

  20. Autostereoscopic display concept with time-sequential wavelength-selective filter-barrier (United States)

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; Bartmann, Roland; Duckstein, Bernd; de la Barré, René


    A spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 3D display design with a strip barrier consisting of RGB-color filters is presented. The wavelength selective filter barrier emits the light from a display area larger than that of common autostereoscopic barrier displays. However, such construction is still used rather rarely. The time sequential operation mode is a supplemental option. Wavelength selective filter barrier arrangements exhibit characteristics different from common barrier displays with similar barrier pitch and ascent. In particular these constructions show strong angular luminance dependency under barrier inclination specified by correspondent slant angle. In time sequential implementation it is important to avoid that quick eye or eyelid movement lead to visible color artifacts. Those circumstances limit the possibility to find well working and usable display designs superior to usual barrier displays. The newly introduced design is usable as a multi user display as well as a single user system with user adaptive control. In case of tracked single user mode the adaption in x-z-direction is continuously. The design has been modelled with simulation software developed for that purpose. The modelling of wavelength-selective barriers was used to calculate the light ray distribution properties of that arrangement. For the experimental verification of the image separation and evaluation of image quality, commercially available display components were combined for a display demonstrator.

  1. Influence of wavelength on the outcome of the treatment of TMJ disorders: TMDS (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.


    It is known that wavelength influences the outcome of many clinical protocols. Laser-phototherapy (LPT) and LEDs have been used on the treatment of pain of several origins including temporomandibular disorders - TMDs. TMDs are common painful multifactorial conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint whose treatment depends on the type and symptoms. Initially it requires pain control and for this, drugs, biting plates, oclusal adjustment, physiotherapy or their association are used. This work reports a series of patients of the Center of Biophotonics of the Federal University of Bahia over 10 years. Following standard anamneses, clinical and imaginologic examination and with the diagnosis of any type of TMD, the patients were set for light treatment. Treatment consisted of three sessions a week during six week. Prior irradiation, the patients were asked to score their pain using a VAS. λ780, λ 790, λ 830nm and/or λ660 and λ680nm lasers or LED were used on each session. Most patients were female (~43.6 years old). At the end of the 12 sessions the patients were again examined and score their pain using VAS. No other intervention was carried out during the treatment. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that most patients were asymptomatic or improved after treatment and that the association of wavelengths was very efficient on the symptomatic group. It is concluded that the association of both wavelengths was effective on pain reduction on TMJ disorders of several origins.

  2. Deep sub-wavelength nanofocusing of UV-visible light by hyperbolic metamaterials. (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; So, Sunae; Yao, Kan; Liu, Yongmin; Rho, Junsuk


    Confining light into a sub-wavelength area has been challenging due to the natural phenomenon of diffraction. In this paper, we report deep sub-wavelength focusing via dispersion engineering based on hyperbolic metamaterials. Hyperbolic metamaterials, which can be realized by alternating layers of metal and dielectric, are materials showing opposite signs of effective permittivity along the radial and the tangential direction. They can be designed to exhibit a nearly-flat open isofrequency curve originated from the large-negative permittivity in the radial direction and small-positive one in the tangential direction. Thanks to the ultraflat dispersion relation and curved geometry of the multilayer stack, hyperlens can magnify or demagnify an incident beam without diffraction depending on the incident direction. We numerically show that hyperlens-based nanofocusing device can compress a Gaussian beam down to tens-of-nanometers of spot size in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible frequency range. We also report four types of hyperlenses using different material combinations to span the entire range of visible frequencies. The nanofocusing device based on the hyperlens, unlike conventional lithography, works under ordinary light source without complex optics system, giving rise to practical applications including truly nanoscale lithography and deep sub-wavelength scale confinement.

  3. Complex refractive indices of Saharan dust samples at visible and near UV wavelengths: a laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner


    Full Text Available We have retrieved the wavelength-dependent imaginary parts of the complex refractive index for five different Saharan dust aerosol particles of variable mineralogical composition at wavelengths between 305 and 955 nm. The dust particles were generated by re-dispersing soil samples into a laboratory aerosol chamber, typically yielding particle sizes with mean diameters ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 μm and maximum diameters from 2 to 4 μm. The extinction and absorption coefficients as well as the number size distribution of the dust particles were simultaneously measured by various established techniques. An inversion scheme based on a spheroidal dust model was employed to deduce the refractive indices. The retrieved imaginary parts of the complex refractive index were in the range from 0.003 to 0.005, 0.005 to 0.011, and 0.016 to 0.050 at the wavelengths 955, 505, and 305 nm. The hematite content of the dust particles was determined by electron-microscopical single particle analysis. Hematite volume fractions in the range from 1.1 to 2.7 % were found for the different dusts, a range typical for atmospheric mineral dust. We have performed a sensitivity study to assess how accurately the retrieved imaginary refractive indices could be reproduced by calculations with mixing rule approximations using the experimentally determined hematite contents as input.

  4. Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field (United States)

    Saito, Nariyuki; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Kanai, Teruto; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Itatani, Jiro


    Long-wavelength lasers have great potential to become a new-generation drive laser for tabletop coherent light sources in the soft X-ray region. Because of the significantly low conversion efficiency from a long-wavelength light field to high-order harmonics, their pulse characterization has been carried out by measuring the carrier-envelope phase and/or spatial dependences of high harmonic spectra. However, these photon detection schemes, in general, have difficulty in obtaining information on the spectral phases, which is crucial to determine the temporal structures of high-order harmonics. Here, we report the first attosecond streaking measurement of high harmonics generated by few-cycle optical pulses at 1.7 μm from a BiB3O6–based optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier. This is also the first demonstration of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using high harmonics from a long-wavelength drive laser other than Ti:sapphire lasers, which paves the way towards ultrafast soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:27752115

  5. Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field (United States)

    Saito, Nariyuki; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Kanai, Teruto; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Itatani, Jiro


    Long-wavelength lasers have great potential to become a new-generation drive laser for tabletop coherent light sources in the soft X-ray region. Because of the significantly low conversion efficiency from a long-wavelength light field to high-order harmonics, their pulse characterization has been carried out by measuring the carrier-envelope phase and/or spatial dependences of high harmonic spectra. However, these photon detection schemes, in general, have difficulty in obtaining information on the spectral phases, which is crucial to determine the temporal structures of high-order harmonics. Here, we report the first attosecond streaking measurement of high harmonics generated by few-cycle optical pulses at 1.7 μm from a BiB3O6-based optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier. This is also the first demonstration of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using high harmonics from a long-wavelength drive laser other than Ti:sapphire lasers, which paves the way towards ultrafast soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  6. Multi-wavelength optical measurement to enhance thermal/optical analysis for carbonaceous aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-W. A. Chen


    Full Text Available A thermal/optical carbon analyzer equipped with seven-wavelength light source/detector (405–980 nm for monitoring spectral reflectance (R and transmittance (T of filter samples allows "thermal spectral analysis (TSA" and wavelength (λ-dependent organic carbon (OC-elemental carbon (EC measurements. Optical sensing is calibrated with transfer standards traceable to absolute R and T measurements and adjusted for loading effects to determine spectral light absorption (as absorption optical depth [τa, λ] using diesel exhaust samples as a reference. Tests on ambient and source samples show OC and EC concentrations equivalent to those from conventional carbon analysis when based on the same wavelength (~635 nm for pyrolysis adjustment. TSA provides additional information that evaluates black carbon (BC and brown carbon (BrC contributions and their optical properties in the near-IR to the near-UV parts of the solar spectrum. The enhanced carbon analyzer can add value to current aerosol monitoring programs and provide insight into more accurate OC and EC measurements for climate, visibility, or health studies.

  7. Experimental characterisation of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s based on electroabsorbation modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Chi, Nan


    The optimum operation point for high-speed wavelength conversion in electroabsorption modulators is investigated with respect to conversion efficiency and wavelength chirp. In particular, pump power, reverse bias and probe wavelength are found to be important operation parameters.......The optimum operation point for high-speed wavelength conversion in electroabsorption modulators is investigated with respect to conversion efficiency and wavelength chirp. In particular, pump power, reverse bias and probe wavelength are found to be important operation parameters....

  8. All optical wavelength conversion and parametric amplification in Ti:PPLN channel waveguides for telecommunication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouroozi, Rahman


    conversion is based on a polarization maintaining fiber loop configuration. Since both polarization components can be converted in a contra-directional single-pass waveguide, differential group delay (DGD) equalization between them is automatically provided. With such polarization diversity scheme an error-free polarization insensitive conversion of 320 Gb/s differential quaternary phase shift keying (DQPSK) data with signal pulses of 1.4 ps width has been achieved using the packaged and pigtailed cSHG/DFG-based wavelength converter. No significant broadening or distortion of the converted data pulses was observed. This approach results in a tuneable output wavelength of the idler whereas the input signal wavelength can be kept fixed. In a 70 mm long Ti:PPLN channel guide a conversion efficiency of {proportional_to}-7.5 dB has been achieved by 80 mW (20 mW) of coupled pump (control) power level with less than {+-}0.5 dB of residual polarization dependence. The tuning range of the idler covers the whole Cband. However, in contrast to cSHG/DFG, pulse broadening of the converted signal will limit the data rate for cSFG/DFG. For sufficiently high pump power levels wavelength conversion by DFG is accompanied by significant optical parametric amplification (OPA) of the input signal. To increase the fundamental power handling flexibility and to avoid photorefractive effect, a low duty cycle Q-switched diode-pumped-solid-state (DPSS) laser has been used as the fundamental source. With 2.5 W of fundamental peak power {proportional_to}22 dB of signal gain has been measured. (orig.)

  9. An Efficient Wavelength variation approach for Bend Sensing in Single mode-Multimode-Single mode Optical Fiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Samee Khan


    Full Text Available Several aspects of the SMS edge filters have been investigated, including the effect of bending the SMS fiber cores due to fabrication tolerances, polarization dependence, and temperature dependence. These aspects can impair the performance of a wavelength measurement system. There are several approaches which have been proposed and demonstrated to achieve high resolution and accuracy of wavelength measurement. Bending effects due to the splicing process on the spectral characteristics of SMS fibre structure-based edge filters are investigated experimentally with the help of MATLAB. A limit for the tolerable of the cores of an SMS fibre structure-based edge filter is proposed, beyond which the edge filter’s spectral performance degrades unacceptably. We use Wavelength variation approach by which we reduce the power loss due to the bending in the optical fiber. Due to the power loss the power transmission is increases and efficiency reduces. So by wavelength variation approach we developed an efficient spectrometer capable of performing a wide variety of coherent multidimensional measurements at optical wavelengths. In this approach we fixed the power and perform variation in the wavelength to sense the bending accurately. The two major components of the largely automated device are a spatial beam shaper which controls the beam geometry and a spatiotemporal pulse shaper which controls the temporal waveform of the femtosecond pulse in each beam. By which we sense the distortion to reduce the power transmission. We apply our algorithm for performing several comparison considerations which shows the performance of our algorithm which is better in comparison to the previous work.

  10. Methane detection using Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy and a multiline quantitation method (United States)

    Cubillas, Ana M.; Conde, Olga M.; Quintela, María Ángeles; Cobo, Adolfo; López-Higuera, José Miguel


    In this paper the application of the Inverse Least Squares algorithm (ILS) to the detection of methane using its behaviour in the near-infrared band is presented. In order to test the effectiveness of this method, different methane concentrations were measured. Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS) was employed to obtain the first and second harmonics of the modulation signal. The use of both harmonics in spectroscopy eliminates the dependence of the measured absorbance on parameters such as: fiber misalignments, optical power fluctuations, etc. This property greatly increases the accuracy of the concentration readings. The benefits of analysing multiple lines in gas detection are discussed together with the capabilities of the ILS algorithm. The ILS algorithm is based on the Beer-Lambert law. This law is extended to include multiple wavelengths and rearranged in such a way that the concentration of the chemical species depends on the measured absorbances. In order to apply the previous algorithm, three absorption lines centered at 1665.961 nm, 1666.201 nm and 1666.483 nm were used. The obtained results are compared with the most usual single-line calibration method based on linear regression. This comparison shows that ILS gives a superior performance. Specifically, results indicate that the ILS multiline algorithm is less noise dependent and has a higher reliability than single-line calibration methods.

  11. MegaMorph - multi-wavelength measurement of galaxy structure: complete S\\'ersic profile information from modern surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Häußler, Boris; Vika, Marina; Rojas, Alex L; Barden, Marco; Kelvin, Lee S; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Robotham, Aaron S G; Driver, Simon P; Baldry, I K; Brough, Sarah; Hopkins, Andrew M; Liske, Jochen; Nichol, Robert C; Popescu, Cristina C; Tuffs, Richard J


    In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for fitting galaxy profiles which makes use of the full multi-wavelength data provided by modern large optical-near-infrared imaging surveys. We present a new version of GALAPAGOS, which utilises a recently-developed multi-wavelength version of GALFIT, and enables the automated measurement of wavelength dependent S\\'ersic profile parameters for very large samples of galaxies. Our new technique is extensively tested to assess the reliability of both pieces of software, GALFIT and GALAPAGOS on both real ugrizY JHK imaging data from the GAMA survey and simulated data made to the same specifications. We find that fitting galaxy light profiles with multi-wavelength data increases the stability and accuracy of the measured parameters, and hence produces more complete and meaningful multi-wavelength photometry than has been available previously. The improvement is particularly significant for magnitudes in low S/N bands and for structural parameters like half-light radius r...

  12. Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy using single wavelength laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao XIE; Chaoqing DONG; Jicun REN


    In this paper, we first introduced the basic principle of fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) and then established an FCCS setup using a single wavelength laser. We systematically optimized the setup, and the detection volume reached about 0.7 fL. The home-built setup was successfully applied for the study of the binding reaction of human immunoglobulin G with goat antihuman immunoglobulin G. Using quantum dots (745 nm emission wavelength) and Rhodamine B (580 nm emission wavelength) as labeling probes and 532 nm laser beam as an excitation source, the cross-talk effect was almost completely suppressed. The molecule numbers in a highly focused volume, the concentration, and the diffusion time and hydrodynamic radii of the reaction products can be determined by FCCS system.

  13. Space-charge impedance calculations in long-wavelength approximation (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.


    Space-charge impedance calculations for smooth vacuum chambers with an arbitrary cross-section and perfectly conducting walls are considered in the long-wavelength approximation, when ωb/(βγc)≪1, where b is a typical transverse size. For the SNS beam energies βγ⩽1.8, and the wavelengths are long when λ≫b. Within the long-wavelength approximation, the fields can be found by solving a 2-D electrostatic problem. Two examples are presented: the space-charge impedance of screening wires (RF-cage) and of a ceramic chamber with inner metal stripes. In addition, we explore the transverse space-charge impedance of a circular pipe with account of betatron oscillations in a wide frequency range.

  14. Transfer of orbital angular momentum through sub-wavelength waveguides. (United States)

    Wang, Yanqin; Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Cui, Jianhua; Luo, Xiangang


    Data capacity of optical communication is achieving its limit owing to the non-linear effect of optical fiber. As an effective alternative, light carrying orbital angular momentum can greatly increase the capacity for its unprecedented degree of freedom. We demonstrate the propagation of orbital angular momentum with topological charge of 1 and 2 in plasmonic circular waveguide with sub-wavelength diameter with little propagation loss of 2.73 dB/μm, which has never been observed in optical fibers with sub-wavelength diameter. We also confirm that lights carrying orbital angular momentum can be maintained in sharp bended sub-wavelength waveguide. This plasmonic waveguide may serve as a key component in on-chip systems involving OAM.

  15. Do shorter wavelengths improve contrast in optical mammography? (United States)

    Taroni, P.; Pifferi, A.; Torricelli, A.; Spinelli, L.; Danesini, G. M.; Cubeddu, R.


    The detection of tumours with time-resolved transmittance imaging relies essentially on blood absorption. Previous theoretical and phantom studies have shown that both contrast and spatial resolution of optical images are affected by the optical properties of the background medium, and high absorption and scattering are generally beneficial. Based on these observations, wavelengths shorter than presently used (680-780 nm) could be profitable for optical mammography. A study was thus performed analysing time-resolved transmittance images at 637, 656, 683 and 785 nm obtained from 26 patients bearing 16 tumours and 15 cysts. The optical contrast proved to increase upon decreasing wavelengths for the detection of cancers in late-gated intensity images, with higher gain in contrast for lesions of smaller size (decrease in contrast with wavelength was observed in scattering images.

  16. Multi-wavelength study of MGRO J2019+37 (United States)

    Hou, Chao; Chen, Song-Zhan; Yuan, Qiang; Cao, Zhen; He, Hui-Hai; Sheng, Xiang-Dong


    MGRO J2019+37, within the Cygnus region, is a bright extended source revealed by Milagro at 12-35 TeV. This source is almost as bright as the Crab Nebula in the northern sky, but is not confirmed by ARGO-YBJ around the TeV scale. Up to now, no obvious counterpart at low energy wavelengths has been found. Hence, MGRO J2019+37 is a rather mysterious object and its VHE γ-ray emission mechanism is worth investigating. In this paper, a brief summary of the multi-wavelength observations from radio to γ-rays is presented. All the available data from XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL at X-ray, and Fermi-LAT at γ-ray bands, are used to get constraints on its emission flux at low energy wavelengths. Then, its possible counterparts and the VHE emission mechanism are discussed.

  17. Short Wavelength Seeding through Compression for Fee Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji


    In this paper, we propose a seeding scheme that compresses an initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space of an electron beam by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C , where Cis the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Using two lasers as energy chirpers, such a modulation compression scheme can generate kilo-Ampershort wavelength current modulation with significant bunching factor from an initial a few tens Amper current. This compression scheme can also be used togenerate a prebunched single atto-second short wavelength current modulation and prebunched two color, two atto-second modulations.

  18. Wavelength-Diverse Polarization Modulators for Stokes Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Tomczyk, Steven; de Wijn, Alfred G; Nelson, Peter G


    Information about the three-dimensional structure of solar magnetic fields is encoded in the polarized spectra of solar radiation by a host of physical processes. To extract this information, solar spectra must be obtained in a variety of magnetically sensitive spectral lines at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution with high precision. The need to observe many different spectral lines drives the development of Stokes polarimeters with a high degree of wavelength diversity. We present a new paradigm for the design of polarization modulators that operate over a wide wavelength range with near optimal polarimetric efficiency and are directly applicable to the next generation of multi-line Stokes polarimeters. These modulators are not achromatic in the usual sense because their polarimetric properties vary with wavelength, but they do so in an optimal way. Thus we refer to these modulators as polychromatic. We present here the theory behind polychromatic modulators, illustrate the concept with design e...

  19. Resonance fluorescence from a telecom-wavelength quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khuzheyri, R; Huwer, J; Santana, T S; Szymanska, J Skiba-; Felle, M; Ward, M B; Stevenson, R M; Farrer, I; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J; Gerardot, B D


    We report on resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot emitting at telecom wavelengths. We perform high-resolution spectroscopy and observe the Mollow triplet in the Rabi regime--a hallmark of resonance fluorescence. The measured resonance-fluorescence spectra allow us to rule out pure dephasing as a significant decoherence mechanism in these quantum dots. Combined with numerical simulations, the experimental results provide robust characterisation of charge noise in the environment of the quantum dot. Resonant control of the quantum dot opens up new possibilities for on-demand generation of indistinguishable single photons at telecom wavelengths as well as quantum optics experiments and direct manipulation of solid-state qubits in telecom-wavelength quantum dots.

  20. Wavelength Phase-shift Dual-diffraction Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng-An Jiang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a wavelength phase-shift dual-diffraction interferometer for the displacement measurement. The measurement system is divided into two parts. On the part of the optical configuration, the grating displacement is converted into the phase of the light based on Doppler effect. By means of the dual-diffraction design, the phase sensitivity corresponding to the grating shift is enhanced. The second part is the phase analysis system. Because of the unbalance optical path design and the modulated wavelength, the wavelength phase-shift technique is developed for analyzing the phase variation resulted from the grating displacement. The experimental results demonstrate that this system has good stability and repeatability.