WorldWideScience

Sample records for waveguide polarization twist

  1. Waveguides with asymptotically diverging twisting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, AUG (2015), s. 7-10 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguide * exploding twisting * Quasi-bounded * Quasi-cylindrical * discrete spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2015

  2. Hardy Inequalities in Globally Twisted Waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briet, Ph.; Hammedi, H.; Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 7 (2015), s. 939-958 ISSN 0377-9017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguides * twisted tubes * Dirichlet Laplacian * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  3. Exact equivalent straight waveguide model for bent and twisted waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shyroki, Dzmitry

    2008-01-01

    Exact equivalent straight waveguide representation is given for a waveguide of arbitrary curvature and torsion. No assumptions regarding refractive index contrast, isotropy of materials, or particular morphology in the waveguide cross section are made. This enables rigorous full-vector modeling...... of in-plane curved or helically wound waveguides with use of available simulators for straight waveguides without the restrictions of the known approximate equivalent-index formulas....

  4. Higher-twist correlations in polarized hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangerman, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the response of polarized hadrons to several high-energy probes, working in the framework of the field theoretic model. Emphasis is laid upon higher-twist effects such as quark transverse momentum. The inclusive DIS process is very well suited to study QCD. From general principles we were able to derive four positivity constraints on the structure functions without invoking the helicity formalism. The on-shell quark model is used to illustrate these constraints. Subseqeuently, we concentrated on the higher-twist structure function g 2 (x,Q 2 ). (orig./HSI)

  5. Slow wave structures using twisted waveguides for charged particle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon W.; Fathy, Aly E.; Wilson, Joshua L.

    2012-12-11

    A rapidly twisted electromagnetic accelerating structure includes a waveguide body having a central axis, one or more helical channels defined by the body and disposed around a substantially linear central axial channel, with central portions of the helical channels merging with the linear central axial channel. The structure propagates electromagnetic waves in the helical channels which support particle beam acceleration in the central axial channel at a phase velocity equal to or slower than the speed of light in free space. Since there is no variation in the shape of the transversal cross-section along the axis of the structure, inexpensive mechanical fabrication processes can be used to form the structure, such as extrusion, casting or injection molding. Also, because the field and frequency of the resonant mode depend on the whole structure rather than on dimensional tolerances of individual cells, no tuning of individual cells is needed. Accordingly, the overall operating frequency may be varied with a tuning/phase shifting device located outside the resonant waveguide structure.

  6. Polarization effects in silicon-clad optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, R. F.; Batchman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    By changing the thickness of a semiconductor cladding layer deposited on a planar dielectric waveguide, the TE or TM propagating modes may be selectively attenuated. This polarization effect is due to the periodic coupling between the lossless propagating modes of the dielectric slab waveguide and the lossy modes of the cladding layer. Experimental tests involving silicon claddings show high selectivity for either polarization.

  7. Cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J. (Inventor); Kory, Carol (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT for simultaneously communicating left and right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves is adjustable to obtain efficient propagation and reception of electromagnetic waves. The antenna includes a circular waveguide having an orthomode transducer utilizing first and second pins longitudinally spaced apart and oriented orthogonally with respect to each other. Six radially-oriented adjustable polarizer screws extend from the exterior to the interior of the waveguide. A septum intermediate the first and second pins is aligned with the first pin. Adjustment of the polarizer screws enables maximized propagation of and/or response to left hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the first pin while simultaneously enabling maximized propagation of and/or response to right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the second pin.

  8. Photonic Choke-Joints for Dual-Polarization Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.; U-yen, Kongpop; Chuss, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Photonic choke joint (PCJ) structures for dual-polarization waveguides have been investigated for use in device and component packaging. This interface enables the realization of a high performance non-contacting waveguide joint without degrading the in-band signal propagation properties. The choke properties of two tiling approaches, symmetric square Cartesian and octagonal quasi-crystal lattices of metallic posts, are explored and optimal PCJ design parameters are presented. For each of these schemes, the experimental results for structures with finite tilings demonstrate near ideal transmission and reflection performance over a full waveguide band.

  9. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-04-21

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  10. Waveguide resonances with selectable polarization in an infrared thermal emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A multi-band infrared thermal emitter with polarized waveguide resonances was investigated. The device is constructed by embedding the metallic grating strips within the resonant cavity of a metal/dielectric/metal (MDM structure. The proposed arrangement makes it possible to generate waveguide resonances with mutually orthogonal polarization, thereby providing an additional degree of freedom to vary the resonant wavelengths and polarizations in the medium infrared region. The measured reflection spectra and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD simulation indicated that the electric fields of the waveguide modes with two orthogonal polarizations are distributed in different regions of the cavity. Resonant wavelengths in different polarizations can be adjusted by altering the period, the metallic line width, or the position of the embedded gold strips. The ratio of the full width at half maximum (FWHM to the peak wavelength was achieved to be smaller than 0.035. This study demonstrated a multi-band infrared thermal emission featuring a narrow bandwidth and polarization characteristics, which is quite suitable to be applied to the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR detection system.

  11. TM-pass polarizer based on multilayer graphene polymer waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ke-su; Li, Yue-e.; Wei, Wen-jing; Mu, Xi-jiao; Ma, A.-ning; Wang, Zhong; Song, Dan-ming

    2018-05-01

    A TM-pass polarizer based on multilayer graphene polymer waveguide is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The mode properties, the extinction ratio, the insertion loss and the bandwidth are also discussed. The results show that a TM-pass polarizer, which only guides the TM mode, can be achieved by multilayer graphene polymer waveguide. With length of 150 μm, the proposed polarizer can achieve extinction ratio of 33 dB and insertion loss of 0.5 dB at optical wavelength of 1.55 μm. This device has an excellent performance, including large extinction ratio and low insertion loss within the spectral range from 1.45 μm to 1.6 μm.

  12. Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for ALT in hadron production from pp collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Koike

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry ALT in inclusive (light hadron production from proton–proton collisions, i.e., p↑p→→hX. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2 transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature, we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

  13. Polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric, twisted-band structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Jagodnicka, Anna; Wasylczyk, Piotr, E-mail: pwasylcz@fuw.edu.pl [Photonic Nanostructure Facility, Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-23

    We propose a concept for light polarization management: polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric microstructures. Numerical simulations of light propagation show that with an appropriately configured array of twisted bands, such structures may exhibit zero birefringence and at the same time diffract two circular polarizations with different efficiencies. Non-birefringent structures as thin as 3 μm have a significant difference in diffraction efficiency for left- and right-hand circular polarizations. We identify the structural parameters of such twisted-band matrices for optimum performance as circular polarizers.

  14. Light polarization management via reflection from arrays of sub-wavelength metallic twisted bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, M.; Haberko, J.; Zinkiewicz, Ł.; Wasylczyk, P.

    2017-12-01

    With constant progress of nano- and microfabrication technologies, photolithography in particular, a number of sub-wavelength metallic structures have been demonstrated that can be used to manipulate light polarization. Numerical simulations of light propagation hint that helical twisted bands can have interesting polarization properties. We use three-dimensional two-photon photolithography (direct laser writing) to fabricate a few-micrometer-thick arrays of twisted bands and coat them uniformly with metal. We demonstrate that circular polarization can be generated from linear polarization upon reflection from such structures over a broad range of frequencies in the mid infrared.

  15. PPLN-waveguide-based polarization entangled QKD simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, John; Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a comprehensive simulator to study the polarization entangled quantum key distribution (QKD) system, which takes various imperfections into account. We assume that a type-II SPDC source using a PPLN-based nonlinear optical waveguide is used to generate entangled photon pairs and implements the BB84 protocol, using two mutually unbiased basis with two orthogonal polarizations in each basis. The entangled photon pairs are then simulated to be transmitted to both parties; Alice and Bob, through the optical channel, imperfect optical elements and onto the imperfect detector. It is assumed that Eve has no control over the detectors, and can only gain information from the public channel and the intercept resend attack. The secure key rate (SKR) is calculated using an upper bound and by using actual code rates of LDPC codes implementable in FPGA hardware. After the verification of the simulation results, such as the pair generation rate and the number of error due to multiple pairs, for the ideal scenario, available in the literature, we then introduce various imperfections. Then, the results are compared to previously reported experimental results where a BBO nonlinear crystal is used, and the improvements in SKRs are determined for when a PPLN-waveguide is used instead.

  16. thermally poled channel waveguides with polarization independent electro-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Yitao; Marckmann, Carl Johan; Arentoft, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the poling-induced electrooptic (EO) effect in germanium and nitrogen codoped channel waveguides. The channel waveguides show attractive properties: (1) almost polarization independent EO effect; (2) a flat frequency response with the modulation frequency up...... to 100 kHz; and (3) low linear loss and low polarization dependent loss, which demonstrate great technological potential...

  17. Multi-band circular polarizer based on a twisted triple split-ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Song; Huang Xiao-Jun; Yang He-Lin; Xiao Bo-Xun; Jin Yan

    2014-01-01

    A multi-band circular polarizer using a twisted triple split-ring resonator (TSRR) is presented and studied numerically and experimentally. At four distinct resonant frequencies, the incident linearly polarized wave can be transformed into left/right-handed circularly polarized waves. Numerical simulation results show that a y-polarized wave can be converted into a right-handed circularly polarized wave at 5.738 GHz and 9.218 GHz, while a left-handed circularly polarized wave is produced at 7.292 GHz and 10.118 GHz. The experimental results are in agreement with the numerical results. The surface current distributions are investigated to illustrate the polarization transformation mechanism. Furthermore, the influences of the structure parameters of the circular polarizer on transmission spectra are discussed as well. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Low crosstalk waveguide intersections in honeycomb lattice photonic crystals for TM-polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, P; Jäckel, H

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of a low crosstalk, high throughput waveguide intersection for transverse-magnetic-polarized light. The design is based on two orthogonal photonic crystal waveguides and a resonant photonic crystal cavity in honeycomb lattice geometry. The results of our numerical simulation validate the concept of the design and demonstrate a crosstalk smaller than 0.1% and throughput transmission of more than 80% for both orthogonal waveguide branches

  19. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E. [Departamento de Comunicaciones-iTEAM, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gimeno, B. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universitat de València c/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Edificio de Desarrollo Empresarial 9B, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE{sub 11} circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored.

  20. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E.; Gimeno, B.; Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.

    2014-01-01

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE 11 circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored

  1. Impact of CLAS and COMPASS data on polarized parton densities and higher twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot; Sidorov, Aleksander V.; Stamenov, Dimiter B.

    2007-01-01

    We have reanalyzed the world data on inclusive polarized deep inelastic scattering (DIS) including the very precise CLAS proton and deuteron data, as well as the latest COMPASS data on the asymmetry A 1 d , and have studied the impact of these data on polarized parton densities and higher twist effects. We demonstrate that the low Q 2 CLAS data improve essentially our knowledge of higher twist corrections to the spin structure function g 1 , while the large Q 2 COMPASS data influence mainly the strange quark density. In our new analysis we find that a negative polarized gluon density, or one that changes sign as a function of x, cannot be ruled out on the basis of the present DIS data

  2. Unidirectional cross polarization rotator with enhanced broadband transparency by cascading twisted nanobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Shao, Jian; Li, Jie; Zhu, Ming-Jie; Li, Jiaqi; Dong, Zheng-Gao

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the optical activity for linear polarization by twisting cascading multilayer nanobars, for which the x- (y-)polarized light is significantly transformed to a y- (x-)polarized one with enhanced transmittance in a unidirectional manner, and the bandwidth can be broadened by increasing the cascading number of layers. The polarization conversion rate reaches nearly 100% with a maximum cross-polarization transmission coefficient larger than 0.95. This phenomenon is attributed to the chiral structural arrangement and anisotropic resonance of nanobars, which consequently leads to different cross-polarization conversions between forward and backward incident lights, and thus the unidirectional transmission with an extinction ratio up to 10 3 . These characteristics show application potential in optical nano-devices. (paper)

  3. The asymptotic behaviour of the heat equation in a twisted Dirichlet-Neumann waveguide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Zuazua, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 5 (2011), s. 2334-2346 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Laplacian * Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions * Twist Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.277, year: 2011

  4. On the twist-2 contributions to polarized structure functions and new sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.

    1996-03-01

    The twist-2 contributions to the polarized structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering are calculated including the exchange of weak bosons and using both the operator product expansion and the covariant parton model. A new relation between two structure functions leading to a sequence of new sum rules is found. The light quark mass corrections to the structure functions are derived in lowest order QCD. (orig.)

  5. Polarization modulation based on the hybrid waveguide of graphene sandwiched structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junbo; Chen, Dingbo; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhaojian; Huang, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitter (PBS) plays an important role to realize beam control and modulation. A novel hybrid structure of graphene sandwiched waveguide is proposed to fulfill polarization manipulation and selection based on the refractive index engineering techniques. The fundamental mode of TM cannot be supported in this case. However, both TE and TM mode are excited and transmitting in the hybrid waveguide if the design parameters, including the waveguide width and the waveguide height, are changed. The incident wavelength largely affects the effective index, which results in supporting/not supporting the TM mode. The proposed design exhibits high extinction ratio, compact in size, flexible to control, compatible with CMOS process, and easy to be integrated with other optoelectronic devices, allowing it to be used in optical communication and optical information processing.

  6. The hadronic vacuum polarization and automatic O(a) improvement for twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Florian; Hotzel, Grit

    2014-12-01

    The vacuum polarization tensor and the corresponding vacuum polarization function are the basis for calculations of numerous observables in lattice QCD. Examples are the hadronic contributions to lepton anomalous magnetic moments, the running of the electroweak and strong couplings and quark masses. Quantities which are derived from the vacuum polarization tensor often involve a summation of current correlators over all distances in position space leading thus to the appearance of short-distance terms. The mechanism of O(a) improvement in the presence of such short-distance terms is not directly covered by the usual arguments of on-shell improvement of the action and the operators for a given quantity. If such short-distance contributions appear, the property of O(a) improvement needs to be reconsidered. We discuss the effects of these short-distance terms on the vacuum polarization function for twisted mass lattice QCD and find that even in the presence of such terms automatic O(a) improvement is retained if the theory is tuned to maximal twist.

  7. Measurement of electron beam polarization produced by photoemission from bulk GaAs using twisted light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayburn, Nathan; Dreiling, Joan; McCarter, James; Ryan, Dominic; Poelker, Matt; Gay, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    GaAs photocathodes produce spin polarized electron beams when illuminated with circularly polarized light with photon energy approximately equal to the bandgap energy [1, 2]. A typical polarization value obtained with bulk GaAs and conventional circularly polarized light is 35%. This study investigated the spin polarization of electron beams emitted from GaAs illuminated with ``twisted light,'' an expression that describes a beam of light having orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the experiment, 790nm laser light was focused to a near diffraction-limited spot size on the surface of the GaAs photocathode to determine if OAM might couple to valence band electron spin mediated by the GaAs lattice. Our polarization measurements using a compact retarding-field micro-Mott polarimeter [3] have established an upper bound on the polarization of the emitted electron beam of 2.5%. [4pt] [1] D.T. Pierce, F. Meier, P. Zurcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 670 (1975).[0pt] [2] C.K. Sinclair, et al., PRSTAB 10 023501 (2007).[0pt] [3] J.L. McCarter, M.L. Stutzman, K.W. Trantham, T.G. Anderson, A.M. Cook, and T.J. Gay Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A (2010).

  8. Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion in a dispersion-engineered silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate polarization-insensitive all optical wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide with an angled-pump scheme. Dispersion engineering is applied to the silicon waveguide to obtain similar four-wave mixing convers...... conversion performances for both the TE and TM modes. Bit-error rate measurements are performed and error-free operation is achieved. We also demonstrate polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion with a large separation between the idler and signal using a dual-pump configuration....

  9. Polarization-independent nematic liquid crystal waveguides for optofluidic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Alessandro, A.; Martini, L.; Gilardi, G.; Beccherelli, R.; Asquini, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present the fabrication and the characterization of waveguides made of a nematic liquid crystal infiltrated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) channels. They are made by means of cast and molding technique and patterned using soft photolithography. The orientation of the nematic liquid crystal molecules

  10. An ultra-thin waveguide twist constructed using fish-scale metallic wires

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jin; Li, Hongqiang; Fan, Yuancheng; Wei, Zeyong; Wu, Chao; Cao, Yang; Yu, Xing; Li, Fang; Wang, Zhanshan

    2011-01-01

    This study theoretically and experimentally investigates the transmission properties of a metamaterial slab comprised of two layers of metallic fish-scale structure arrays and a sandwiched dielectric layer. Calculations show that the asymmetric transmission can be tuned by varying the slab thickness, due to evanescent interlayer coupling. The spatial evolution of the local field inside the structure indicates that the slab functions as a perfect polarization transformer at certain frequencies...

  11. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.

  12. Inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs low loss waveguides for a traveling waveguide polarization converter, using chlorine chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Meng, X.; Springthorpe, A. J.; Shepherd, F. R.; Poirier, M.

    2004-05-01

    A traveling waveguide polarization converter [M. Poirier et al.] has been developed, which involves long, low loss, weakly confined waveguides etched in GaAs (epitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy), with electroplated ``T electrodes'' distributed along the etched floor adjacent to the ridge walls, and airbridge interconnect metallization. This article describes the development of the waveguide fabrication, based on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of GaAs using Cl2 chemistry; the special processes required to fabricate the electrodes and metallization [X. Meng et al.], and the device characteristics [M. Poirier et al.], are described elsewhere. The required waveguide has dimensions nominally 4 μm wide and 2.1 μm deep, with dimensional tolerances ~0.1 μm across the wafer and wafer to wafer. A vertical etch profile with very smooth sidewalls and floors is required to enable the plated metal electrodes to be fabricated within 0.1 μm of the ridge. The ridges were fabricated using Cl2 ICP etching and a photoresist mask patterned with an I-line stepper; He backside cooling, combined with an electrostatic chuck, was employed to ensure good heat transfer to prevent resist reticulation. The experimental results showed that the ridge profile is very sensitive to ICP power and platen rf power. High ICP power and low platen power tend to result in more isotropic etching, whereas increasing platen power increases the photoresist etch rate, which causes rougher ridge sidewalls. No strong dependence of GaAs etch rate and ridge profile were observed with small changes in process temperature (chuck temperature). However, when the chuck temperature was decreased from 25 to 0 °C, etch uniformity across a 3 in. wafer improved from 6% to 3%. Photoresist and polymer residues present after the ICP etch were removed using a combination of wet and dry processes. .

  13. Inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs low loss waveguides for a traveling waveguide polarization converter, using chlorine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Meng, X.; SpringThorpe, A.J.; Shepherd, F.R.; Poirier, M.

    2004-01-01

    A traveling waveguide polarization converter [M. Poirier et al.] has been developed, which involves long, low loss, weakly confined waveguides etched in GaAs (epitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy), with electroplated 'T electrodes' distributed along the etched floor adjacent to the ridge walls, and airbridge interconnect metallization. This article describes the development of the waveguide fabrication, based on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of GaAs using Cl 2 chemistry; the special processes required to fabricate the electrodes and metallization [X. Meng et al.], and the device characteristics [M. Poirier et al.], are described elsewhere. The required waveguide has dimensions nominally 4 μm wide and 2.1 μm deep, with dimensional tolerances ∼0.1 μm across the wafer and wafer to wafer. A vertical etch profile with very smooth sidewalls and floors is required to enable the plated metal electrodes to be fabricated within 0.1 μm of the ridge. The ridges were fabricated using Cl 2 ICP etching and a photoresist mask patterned with an I-line stepper; He backside cooling, combined with an electrostatic chuck, was employed to ensure good heat transfer to prevent resist reticulation. The experimental results showed that the ridge profile is very sensitive to ICP power and platen rf power. High ICP power and low platen power tend to result in more isotropic etching, whereas increasing platen power increases the photoresist etch rate, which causes rougher ridge sidewalls. No strong dependence of GaAs etch rate and ridge profile were observed with small changes in process temperature (chuck temperature). However, when the chuck temperature was decreased from 25 to 0 deg. C, etch uniformity across a 3 in. wafer improved from 6% to 3%. Photoresist and polymer residues present after the ICP etch were removed using a combination of wet and dry processes

  14. 4-twist helix snake to maintain polarization in multi-GeV proton rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Antoulinakis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solenoid Siberian snakes have successfully maintained polarization in particle rings below 1 GeV, but never in multi-GeV rings, because the spin rotation by a solenoid is inversely proportional to the beam momentum. High energy rings, such as Brookhaven’s 255 GeV Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC, use only odd multiples of pairs of transverse B-field Siberian snakes directly opposite each other. When it became impractical to use a pair of Siberian Snakes in Fermilab’s 120  GeV/c Main Injector, we searched for a new type of single Siberian snake that could overcome all depolarizing resonances in the 8.9–120  GeV/c range. We found that a snake made of one 4-twist helix and 2 dipoles could maintain the polarization. This snake design could solve the long-standing problem of significant polarization loss during acceleration of polarized protons from a few GeV to tens of GeV, such as in the AGS, before injecting them into multi-hundred GeV rings, such as RHIC.

  15. 4-twist helix snake to maintain polarization in multi-GeV proton rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoulinakis, F.; Chen, Y.; Dutton, A.; Rossi De La Fuente, E.; Haupert, S.; Ljungman, E. A.; Myers, P. D.; Thompson, J. K.; Tai, A.; Aidala, C. A.; Courant, E. D.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Raymond, R. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Wong, V. K.; Yang, T.; Derbenev, Y. S.; Morozov, V. S.; Kondratenko, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Solenoid Siberian snakes have successfully maintained polarization in particle rings below 1 GeV, but never in multi-GeV rings, because the spin rotation by a solenoid is inversely proportional to the beam momentum. High energy rings, such as Brookhaven's 255 GeV Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), use only odd multiples of pairs of transverse B-field Siberian snakes directly opposite each other. When it became impractical to use a pair of Siberian Snakes in Fermilab's 120 GeV /c Main Injector, we searched for a new type of single Siberian snake that could overcome all depolarizing resonances in the 8.9 - 120 GeV /c range. We found that a snake made of one 4-twist helix and 2 dipoles could maintain the polarization. This snake design could solve the long-standing problem of significant polarization loss during acceleration of polarized protons from a few GeV to tens of GeV, such as in the AGS, before injecting them into multi-hundred GeV rings, such as RHIC.

  16. 4-twist helix snake to maintain polarization in multi-GeV proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoulinakis, F.; Chen, Y.; Dutton, A.; Rossi De La Fuente, E.; Haupert, S.

    2017-01-01

    Solenoid Siberian snakes have successfully maintained polarization in particle rings below 1 GeV, but never in multi-GeV rings, because the spin rotation by a solenoid is inversely proportional to the beam momentum. High energy rings, such as Brookhaven’s 255 GeV Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), use only odd multiples of pairs of transverse B-field Siberian snakes directly opposite each other. When it became impractical to use a pair of Siberian Snakes in Fermilab’s 120 GeV/c Main Injector, we searched for a new type of single Siberian snake that could overcome all depolarizing resonances in the 8.9–120 GeV/c range. We found that a snake made of one 4-twist helix and 2 dipoles could maintain the polarization. Here, this snake design could solve the long-standing problem of significant polarization loss during acceleration of polarized protons from a few GeV to tens of GeV, such as in the AGS, before injecting them into multi-hundred GeV rings, such as RHIC.

  17. Broadband enhancement of single photon emission and polarization dependent coupling in silicon nitride waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschop, Suzanne; Guille, Antoine; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger; Brainis, Edouard

    2015-06-01

    Single-photon (SP) sources are important for a number of optical quantum information processing applications. We study the possibility to integrate triggered solid-state SP emitters directly on a photonic chip. A major challenge consists in efficiently extracting their emission into a single guided mode. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations, we investigate the SP emission from dipole-like nanometer-sized inclusions embedded into different silicon nitride (SiNx) photonic nanowire waveguide designs. We elucidate the effect of the geometry on the emission lifetime and the polarization of the emitted SP. The results show that highly efficient and polarized SP sources can be realized using suspended SiNx slot-waveguides. Combining this with the well-established CMOS-compatible processing technology, fully integrated and complex optical circuits for quantum optics experiments can be developed.

  18. Polarization of eigenmodes in laser diode waveguides on semipolar and nonpolar GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rass, Jens; Vogt, Patrick [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Wernicke, Tim; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Scheibenzuber, Wolfgang G.; Schwarz, Ulrich T. [Department of Physics, Regensburg University (Germany); Kupec, Jan [Integrated Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Witzigmann, Bernd [Computational Electronics and Photonics Group, University of Kassel (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Recent calculations of the eigenmodes in waveguides grown on semipolar GaN suggest that the optical polarization of the emitted light as well as the optical gain depends on the orientation of the resonator. Our measurements on separate confinement heterostructures on semipolar (11 anti 22) and (10 anti 12) GaN show that for laser resonators along the semipolar [11 anti 2 anti 3 ] and [0 anti 111] directions (i.e. the projection of the c-axis onto the plane of growth) the threshold for amplified spontaneous emission is lower than for the nonpolar direction and that the stimulated emission is linearly polarized as TE mode. For the waveguide structures along the nonpolar [1 anti 100] or [11 anti 20] direction on the other hand, birefringence and anisotropy of the optical gain in the plane of growth leads not only to a higher threshold but also to a rotation of the optical polarization which is not any more TE- or TM-polarized but influenced by the ordinary and extraordinary refractive index of the material. We observe stimulated emission into a mode which is linearly polarized in extraordinarydirection nearly parallel to the c-axis. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Waveguide elliptic polarizers for ECH at down-shifted frequencies on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    ECH experiments on PLT with resonance frequencies of 80 to 90 GHz at the plasma center use 60 GHz extraordinary mode (X-mode) propagation at 30 0 from the toroidal field. Efficient excitation of this mode requires elliptic polarization of the incident wave at the plasma edge. On PLT the elliptic polarization is achieved outside the vacuum vessel in an elliptically deformed section of circular waveguide propagating TM11, a mode that is intermediate between TE01 and HE11 (which has an ideal radiation pattern). The squeeze and orientation of the TM11 polarizer are adjusted to compensate both for the birefringence of a corrugated bend propagating HE11 and for a flat mirror inside PLT that reverses the sense of rotation of the polarization. 11 refs., 8 figs

  20. An on-chip polarization splitter based on the radiation loss in the bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengwei; Rong, Kexiu; Gan, Fengyuan; Chu, Saisai; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitters (PBSs) are one of the key components in the integrated photonic circuits. To increase the integration density, various complex hybrid plasmonic structures have been numerically designed to shrink the footprints of the PBSs. Here, to decrease the complexity of the small hybrid structures and the difficulty of the hybrid micro-nano fabrications, the radiation losses are utilized to experimentally demonstrate an ultra-small, broadband, and efficient PBS in a simple bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure. The hybrid plasmonic waveguide comprising a dielectric strip on the metal surface supports both the transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) waveguide modes. Because of the different field confinements, the TE waveguide mode has larger radiation loss than the TM waveguide mode in the bending hybrid strip waveguide. Based on the different radiation losses, the two incident waveguide modes of orthogonal polarization states are efficiently split in the proposed structure with a footprint of only about 2.2 × 2.2 μm2 on chips. Since there is no resonance or interference in the splitting process, the operation bandwidth is as broad as Δλ = 70 nm. Moreover, the utilization of the strongly confined waveguide modes instead of the bulk free-space light (with the spot size of at least a few wavelengths) as the incident source considerably increases the coupling efficiency, resulting in a low insertion loss of <3 dB.

  1. Waveguide transition with vacuum window for multiband dynamic nuclear polarization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy [Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 349, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik, E-mail: jhar@elektro.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 349, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); GE Healthcare, Park Alle 295, Brøndby (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    A low loss waveguide transition section and oversized microwave vacuum window covering several frequency bands (94 GHz, 140 GHz, 188 GHz) is presented. The transition is compact and was optimized for multiband Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) systems in a full-wave simulator. The window is more broadband than commercially available windows, which are usually optimized for single band operation. It is demonstrated that high-density polyethylene with urethane adhesive can be used as a low loss microwave vacuum window in multiband DNP systems. The overall assembly performance and dimensions are found using full-wave simulations. The practical aspects of the window implementation in the waveguide are discussed. To verify the design and simulation results, the window is tested experimentally at the three frequencies of interest.

  2. Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wanhua; Xing, Mingxin; Ren, Gang; Johnson, Steven G; Zhou, Wenjun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Lianghui

    2009-05-11

    In this work, we present the design of an integrated photonic-crystal polarization beam splitter (PC-PBS) and a low-loss photonic-crystal 60 degrees waveguide bend. Firstly, the modal properties of the PC-PBS and the mechanism of the low-loss waveguide bend are investigated by the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and then the integration of the two devices is studied. It shows that, although the individual devices perform well separately, the performance of the integrated circuit is poor due to the multi-mode property of the PC-PBS. By introducing deformed airhole structures, a single-mode PC-PBS is proposed, which significantly enhance the performance of the circuit with the extinction ratios remaining above 20 dB for both transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) polarizations. Both the specific result and the general idea of integration design are promising in the photonic crystal integrated circuits in the future.

  3. Circular-Polarization-Selective Transmission Induced by Spin-Orbit Coupling in a Helical Tape Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahong; Guo, Qinghua; Liu, Hongchao; Liu, Congcong; Song, Kun; Yang, Biao; Hou, Quanwen; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuang; Navarro-Cía, Miguel

    2018-05-01

    Spin-orbit coupling of light, describing the interaction between the polarization (spin) and spatial degrees of freedom (orbit) of light, plays an important role in subwavelength scale systems and leads to many interesting phenomena, such as the spin Hall effect of light. Here, based on the spin-orbit coupling, we design and fabricate a helical tape waveguide (HTW), which can realize a circular-polarization-selective process. When the incident circularly polarized wave is of the same handedness as the helix of the HTW, a nearly complete transmission is observed; in contrast, a counterrotating circular polarization of incident wave results in a much lower transmission or is even totally blocked by the HTW. Indeed, both simulations and experiments reveal that the blocked component of power leaks through the helical aperture of the HTW and forms a conical beam analogous to helical Cherenkov radiation due to the conversion from the spin angular momentum to the orbital angular momentum. Our HTW structure demonstrates its potential as a polarization selector in a broadband frequency range.

  4. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ENDFACES POLISHING ANGLE FOR ANISOTROPIC WAVEGUIDES ON STATE CONVERSION OF LIGHT POLARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shulepov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with optical scheme for research of polarization state transformation at the junction of anisotropic waveguides. It consists of a light source, polarization controller, multifunctional integrated optical scheme (MIOS, single-mode fiber for input and output of optical radiation in MIOS and the polarization scanning Michelson interferometer. Optical radiation from the source of the plant comes through the polarization controller in one of the MIOS ports. Further, in one of the opposite ports the radiation is received by different fibers, polished at the angles of 19.5˚, 10.5˚ and 0˚. After that, the optical radiation gets into polarization Michelson interferometer. With that, the picture visibility is analyzed at different displacement of one arm upon which the value has been determined in the polarization conversion point connections. At the course of work it was obtained that the polarization state conversion at a splicing point rises with the slant angle deviation from its optimal value. Anisotropic waveguides splicing is one of the main tasks during fabrication of any fiber-optic sensor with integrated optical elements. The results of this work are of great interest for the wide range of specialists in the optical waveguides application field.

  5. Broadbanding of circularly polarized patch antenna by waveguided magneto-dielectric metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mi Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Design of bandwidth-enhanced circularly polarized (CP patch antenna using artificial magneto-dielectric substrate was investigated. The artificial magneto-dielectric material adopted here takes the form of waveguided metamaterial (WG-MTM. In particular, the embedded meander line (EML structure was employed as the building element of the WG-MTM. As verified by the retrieved effective medium parameters, the EML-based waveguided magneto-dielectric metamaterial (WG-MDM exhibits two-dimensionally isotropic magneto-dielectric property with respect to TEM wave excitations applied in two orthogonal directions. A CP patch antenna loaded with the EML-based WG-MDM (WG-MDM antenna has been proposed and its design procedure is described in detail. Simulation results show that the impedance and axial ratio bandwidths of the WG-MDM antenna have increased by 125% and 133%, respectively, compared with those obtained with pure dielectric substrate offering the same patch size. The design of the novel WG-MDM antenna was also validated by measurement results, which show good agreement with their simulated counterparts.

  6. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. P. MADHAV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR<2 in the desired band of operation. A gain of 3dB to 4dB is attained in the desired band with good radiation characteristics and a suitable axial ratio of less than 3 dB is attained in the prescribed band of operation. Proposed antenna is fabricated on the FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. Parametric analysis with change in substrate permittivity also performed and the optimized dimensions are presented in this work.

  7. Design of a compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao

    2016-01-20

    A compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides is proposed and characterized. For the input TM mode, it is first transferred into the cross strip waveguide using a tapered directional coupler (DC), and then efficiently rotated to the corresponding TE mode using an L-shaped bending polarization rotator (PR). Finally, the TE mode for slot waveguide at the output end is obtained with the help of a strip-to-slot mode converter. By contrast, for the input TE mode, it almost passes through the slot waveguide directly and outputs at the bar end with nearly neglected coupling due to a large mode mismatch. Moreover, an additional S-bend connecting the tapered DC and bending PR is used to enhance the performance. Results show that a total device length of 19.6 μm is achieved, where the crosstalk (CT) and polarization conversion loss are, respectively -26.09 and 0.54 dB, for the TM mode, and the CT and insertion loss are, respectively, -22.21 and 0.41 dB, for the TE mode, both at 1.55 μm. The optical bandwidth is approximately 50 nm with a CT<-20  dB. In addition, fabrication tolerances and field evolution are also presented.

  8. Integrated Sources of Polarization Entangled Photon Pair States via Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing in AlGaAs Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultavewuti, Pisek

    Polarization-entangled photon pair states (PESs) are indispensable in several quantum protocols that should be implemented in an integrated photonic circuit for realizing a practical quantum technology. Preparing such states in integrated waveguides is in fact a challenge due to polarization mode dispersion. Unlike other conventional ways that are plagued with complications in fabrication or in state generation, in this thesis, the scheme based on parallel spontaneous four-wave mixing processes of two polarization waveguide modes is thoroughly studied in theory and experimentation for the polarization entanglement generation. The scheme in fact needs the modal dispersion, contradictory to the general perception, as revealed by a full quantum mechanical framework. The proper modal dispersion balances the effects of temporal walk-off and state factorizability. The study also shows that the popular standard platform such as a silicon-on-insulator wafer is far from suitable to implement the proposed simple generation technique. Proven by the quantum state tomography, the technique produces a highly-entangled state with a maximum concurrence of 0.97 +/- 0:01 from AlGaAs waveguides. In addition, the devices directly generated Bell states with an observed fidelity of 0.92 +/- 0:01 without any post-generation compensating steps. Novel suspended device structures, including their components, are then investigated numerically and experimentally characterized in pursuit of finding the geometry with the optimal dispersion property. The 700 nm x 1100 nm suspended rectangular waveguide is identified as the best geometry with a predicted maximum concurrence of 0.976 and a generation bandwidth of 3.3 THz. The suspended waveguide fabrication procedure adds about 15 dB/cm and 10 dB/cm of propagation loss to the TE and TM mode respectively, on top of the loss in corresponding full-cladding waveguides. Bridges, which structurally support the suspended waveguides, are optimized using

  9. Twist phase-induced characteristics changes of a radially polarized Gaussian Schell-Model beam in a uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengfei; Fu, Wenyu

    2017-10-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral formula and unified theory of coherence and polarization, we obtained the cross-spectral density matrix elements for a radially polarized partially coherent twist (RPPCT) beam in a uniaxial crystal. Moreover, compared with free space, we explore numerically the evolution properties of a RPPCT beam in a uniaxial crystal. The calculation results show that the evolution properties of a RPPCT beam in crystals are substantially different from its properties in free space. These properties in crystals are mainly determined by the twist factor and the ratio of extraordinary index to ordinary refractive index. In a uniaxial crystal, the distribution of the intensity of a RPPCT beam all exhibits non-circular symmetry, and these distributions change with twist factor and the ratio of extraordinary index to ordinary refractive index. The twist factor affects their rotation orientation angles, and the ratio of extraordinary index to ordinary refractive index impacts their twisted levels. This novel characteristics can be used for free-space optical communications, particle manipulation and nonlinear optics, where partially coherent beam with controlled profile and twist factor are required.

  10. Transient, polarity-dependent dielectric response in a twisted nematic liquid crystal under very low frequency excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K S

    2015-09-01

    The electric Freedericksz transition is a second-order quadratic effect, which, in a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal layer, manifests above a threshold field as a homogeneous symmetric distortion with maximum director-tilt in the midplane. We find that, upon excitation by a low frequency (wave field, the instability becomes spatially and temporally varying. This is demonstrated using calamitic liquid crystals, initially in the 90°-twisted planar configuration. The distortion occurs close to the negative electrode following each polarity switch and, for low-voltage amplitudes, decays completely in time. We use the elastically favorable geometry of Brochard-Leger walls to establish the location of maximum distortion. Thus, at successive polarity changes, the direction of extension of both annular and open walls switches between the alignment directions at the two substrates. For high voltages, this direction is largely along the midplane director, while remaining marginally oscillatory. These results are broadly understood by taking into account the time-varying and inhomogeneous field conditions that prevail soon after the polarity reverses. Polarity dependence of the instability is traced to the formation of intrinsic double layers that lead to an asymmetry in field distribution in the presence of an external bias. Momentary field elevation near the negative electrode following a voltage sign reversal leads to locally enhanced dielectric and gradient flexoelectric torques, which accounts for the surface-like phenomenon observed at low voltages. These spatiotemporal effects, also found earlier for other instabilities, are generic in nature.

  11. Ultrashort broadband polarization beam splitter based on a combined hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chien

    2016-01-20

    We propose an ultracompact broadband polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on a combined hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW). The proposed PBS separates transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes using a bent lower HPW with vertical nanoscale gaps and a straight upper HPW with a horizontal nanoscale gap, respectively, without relying on an additional coupling region. This design considerably reduces the length of the PBS to the submicron scale (920 nm, the shortest PBS reported to date) while offering polarization extinction ratios (PERs) of ~19 dB (~18 dB) and insertion losses (ILs) of ~0.6 dB (~0.3 dB) for the TE (TM) mode over an extremely broad band of 400 nm (from λ = 1300 nm to 1700 nm, covering entirely second and third telecom windows). The length of the designed PBS can be reduced further to 620 nm while still offering PERs of 15 dB, realizing a densely photonic integrated circuit. Considering the fabrication tolerance, the designed PBS allows for large geometrical deviations of ± 20 nm while restricting PER variations to within 1 dB, except for those in the nanoscale gaps smaller than 10nm. Additionally, we also address the input and ouput coupling efficiencies of the proposed PBS.

  12. Polarization independent polymer waveguide tunable receivers incorporating a micro-optic circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, Su-Hyun; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2018-06-01

    In order to simplify the receiver configuration in a wavelength division multiplexed optical fiber network, compact wavelength tunable filters have long been expected to be used as channel selectors. Bragg reflector inherently has the most suitable reflection spectrum for filtering a single wavelength from the densely multiplexed wavelength signal. Polymer has high thermo-optic coefficient and good thermal insulation property compared to the other optical waveguide materials such as silicon and silica materials. This can be used to broadly tune the reflection spectrum of Bragg reflector using a simple micro-heater. In this work, a micro-optic circulator component and a polymeric Bragg reflector device are assembled to produce a small form factor tunable receiver. Compared to the integrated-optical versions, the micro-optics are based on well-developed manufacturing processes and can achieve competitive production yields. The device exhibits high reflectivity with a flat top passband, and a polarization dependence of 0.06 nm achieved by virtue of the low birefringence of LFR polymer, which make a significant contribution to the implementation of polarization independent tunable receiver. The wavelength tuning range of 40 nm is demonstrated by using a bottom located heater with a groove for heat isolation.

  13. Polarity-sensitive transient patterned state in a twisted nematic liquid crystal driven by very low frequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K S; Kumar, Pramoda; Kumar, M Vijay

    2013-02-01

    We report, for a rodlike nematic liquid crystal with small positive dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, and in the 90°-twisted configuration, low frequency (wave electric field generated Carr-Helfrich director modulation appearing transiently over a few seconds at each polarity reversal and vanishing almost completely under steady field conditions. Significantly, the instability is polarity sensitive, with the maximum distortion localized in the vicinity of the negative electrode, rather than in the midplane of the layer. This is revealed by the wave vector alternating in the two halves of the driving cycle between the alignment directions at the two substrates. Besides the Carr-Helfrich mechanism, quadrupolar flexoelectric polarization arising under electric field gradient is strongly indicated as being involved in the development of the transient periodic order. Similar transient instability is also observed in other nematic compounds with varying combinations of dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, showing its general nature. The study also deals with various characteristics of the electro-optic effect that emerge from the temporal variation of optical response for different driving voltages, frequencies, and temperatures.

  14. Extremely small polarization beam splitter based on a multimode interference coupler with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wu, Hao; Shi, Yaocheng; Dai, Daoxin

    2014-01-15

    A novel polarization beam splitter (PBS) with an extremely small footprint is proposed based on a multimode interference (MMI) coupler with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide. The MMI section, covered with a metal strip partially, is designed to achieve mirror imaging for TE polarization. On the other hand, for TM polarization, there is almost no MMI effect since the higher-order TM modes are hardly excited due to the hybrid plasmonic effect. With this design, the whole PBS including the 1.1 μm long MMI section as well as the output section has a footprint as small as ∼1.8 μm×2.5 μm. Besides, the fabrication process is simple since the waveguide dimension is relatively large (e.g., the input/output waveguides widths w ≥300 nm and the MMI width w(MMI)=800 nm). Numerical simulations show that the designed PBS has a broad band of ∼80 nm for an ER >10 dB as well as a large fabrication tolerance to allow a silicon core width variation of -30 nm<Δw<50 nm and a metal strip width variation of -200 nm<Δw(m)<0.

  15. A New Dual Circularly Polarized Feed Employing a Dielectric Cylinder-Loaded Circular Waveguide Open End Fed by Crossed Dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Bang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new dual circularly polarized feed that provides good axial ratio over wide angles and low cross-polarized radiation in backward direction. A circular waveguide open end is fed with two orthogonally polarized waves in phase quadrature by a pair of printed crossed dipoles and a compact connectorized quadrature hybrid coupler. The waveguide aperture is loaded with a dielectric cylinder to reduce the cross-polarization beyond 90 degrees off the boresight. The fabricated feed has, at 5.5 GHz, 6.33-dBic copolarized gain, 3-dB beamwidth of 106°, 10-dB beamwidth of 195°, 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth of 215°, maximum cross-polarized gain of −21.4 dBic, and 27-dB port isolation. The reflection coefficient of the feed is less than −10 dB at 4.99–6.09 GHz.

  16. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-09

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  17. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  18. P-polarized surface waves in a slab waveguide with left-handed material for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, Sofyan A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, surface waves excited at the interface between left-handed and right-handed materials are employed for sensing applications. The propagation of p-polarized (TM) surface waves in a three-layer slab waveguide structure with air core layer as an analyte and anisotropic left-handed materials as claddings is investigated for detection of any changes in the refractive index of the analyte. The dispersion equations and the sensitivity of the effective refractive index to any change in the air layer index are derived, plotted, and discussed in details. The field profile is also explored. It is found that the sensitivity of the proposed surface wave sensor is almost independent of the wavelength of the propagating wave. A considerable sensitivity improvement can be obtained with the increase of transverse components of the left-handed material permittivity. - Highlights: • P-polarized surface waves in a three-layer slab waveguide are employed for sensing applications. • The structure contains air core layer as an analyte and anisotropic left-handed material in the claddings. • The sensitivity is found to be almost independent of the wavelength of the propagating wave. • Unusual sensitivity enhancement is observed as the transverse components of the LHM permittivity increase. • The asymmetric waveguide structure exhibits much higher sensitivity compared to the symmetric one

  19. High-efficiency and multi-frequency polarization converters based on graphene metasurface with twisting double L-shaped unit structure array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xiao, Xiaofei; Chang, Linzi; Wang, Congyun; Zhao, Deping

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a high-efficiency and tunable dual-frequency reflective polarization converter composed of graphene metasurface with twisting double L-shaped unit is firstly realized. Numerical results demonstrate that the device can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross-polarized wave, and meantime it can also convert to a circularly polarized wave. Subsequently, one thickness of 500 nm SiO2 layer sandwiched by two graphene metasurfaces with similar pattern is stacked on the top of the two-layered structure, a four-frequency efficient reflective polarization converters is realized. Above all, those working frequencies can also be dynamically tuned within a large frequency range by adjusting the Fermi energy of the graphene, without reoptimizing and refabricating the nanostructures, which paves a novel way toward developing a controllable polarization converter for mid-infrared applications.

  20. Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Guo, W.; Kaess, F.; Bryan, I.; Reddy, P.; Hernandez-Balderrama, Luis H.; Franke, A.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Kirste, R.; Mita, S. [Adroit Materials, Inc., 2054 Kildaire Farm Rd., Suite 205, Cary, North Carolina 27518 (United States); Troha, T.; Zgonik, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bagal, A.; Chang, C.-H. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Hoffmann, A. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-27

    Periodically poled AlN thin films with submicron domain widths were fabricated for nonlinear applications in the UV-VIS region. A procedure utilizing metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of AlN in combination with laser interference lithography was developed for making a nanoscale lateral polarity structure (LPS) with domain size down to 600 nm. The Al-polar and N-polar domains were identified by wet etching the periodic LPS in a potassium hydroxide solution and subsequent scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. Fully coalesced and well-defined vertical interfaces between the adjacent domains were established by cross-sectional SEM. AlN LPSs were mechanically polished and surface roughness with a root mean square value of ∼10 nm over a 90 μm × 90 μm area was achieved. 3.8 μm wide and 650 nm thick AlN LPS waveguides were fabricated. The achieved domain sizes, surface roughness, and waveguides are suitable for second harmonic generation in the UVC spectrum.

  1. Theory and Applications of Surface Plasmon Resonance, Resonant Mirror, Resonant Waveguide Grating, and Dual Polarization Interferometry Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy W. Day

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors have been used extensively in the scientific community for several purposes, most notably to determine association and dissociation kinetics, protein-ligand, protein-protein, or nucleic acid hybridization interactions. A number of different types of biosensors are available in the field, each with real or perceived benefits over the others. This review discusses the basic theory and operational arrangements of four commercially available types of optical biosensors: surface plasmon resonance, resonant mirror, resonance waveguide grating, and dual polarization interferometry. The different applications these techniques offer are discussed from experiments and results reported in recently published literature. Additionally, recent advancements or modifications to the current techniques are also discussed.

  2. Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion of 320 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK signals using a Ti:PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, R.; Ludwig, R.

    2010-01-01

    Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a single channel 320 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK data signal using a Ti:PPLN waveguide in a bi-directional loop configuration with less than 0.5 dB polarization sensitivity is reported. The conversion efficiency with polarization scrambling of the signal was -2...... little broadening and chirping, indicating the potential for wavelength conversion of even much higher data rates.......Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a single channel 320 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK data signal using a Ti:PPLN waveguide in a bi-directional loop configuration with less than 0.5 dB polarization sensitivity is reported. The conversion efficiency with polarization scrambling of the signal was -21...

  3. Guiding of laser pulses in plasma waveguides created by linearly-polarized femtosecond laser pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, N.; Cardoso, L.; Geada, J.; Figueira, G.; Albert, F.; Dias, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that plasma waveguides produced with ultra-short laser pulses (sub-picosecond) in gas jets are capable of guiding high intensity laser pulses. This scheme has the unique ability of guiding a high-intensity laser pulse in a plasma waveguide created by the same laser system in the very simple and stable experimental setup. A hot plasma column was created by a femtosecond class laser that expands into an on-axis parabolic low density profile suitable to act as a wav...

  4. Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-02-11

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For microwave photonic signal processing, this structure is able to serve as a wideband 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients, and therefore can be used as a polarization network for wideband antennas. Such a device can equip the antennas with not only the polarization rotation capability for linear-polarization signals but also the capability to operate with and tune between two opposite circular polarizations. Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is also able to serve for simultaneous feeding of dual-polarization signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and tracking operations. An example of such a interleaver has been realized in TriPleX waveguide technology, which was designed with a free spectral range of 20 GHz and a mask footprint of smaller than 1 × 1 cm. Using the realized device, the reconfigurable complex coefficients of the polarization network were demonstrated with a continuous bandwidth from 2 to 8 GHz and an in-band phase ripple of smaller than 5 degree. The waveguide structure of the device allows it to be further integrated with other functional building blocks of a photonic integrated circuit to realize on-chip, complex microwave photonic processors. Of particular interest, it can be included in an optical beamformer for phased array antennas, so that simultaneous wideband beam and polarization trackings can be achieved photonically. To our knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration of an integrated microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas.

  5. Dual-polarization wavelength conversion of 16-QAM signals in a single silicon waveguide with a lateral p-i-n diode [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Gajda, Andrzej; Liebig, Erik

    2018-01-01

    with an optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty below 0.7 dB. High-quality converted signals are generated thanks to the low polarization dependence (≤0.5 dB) and the high conversion efficiency (CE) achievable. The strong Kerr nonlinearity in silicon and the decrease of detrimental free-carrier absorption due......A polarization-diversity loop with a silicon waveguide with a lateral p-i-n diode as a nonlinear medium is used to realize polarization insensitive four-wave mixing. Wavelength conversion of seven dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals at 16 GBd is demonstrated...

  6. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  7. Mapping the broadband polarization properties of linear 2D SOI photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Skivesen, Nina; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Both quasi-TE and TM polarisation spectra for a silicon- on-insulator (SOI) waveguide are recorded over (1100-1700) nm using a broadband supercontinuum source. By studying both the input and output polarisation eigenstates we observe narrowband resonant cross coupling near the lowest quasi-TE mode...... cut-off. We also observe relatively broadband mixing between the two eigenstates to generate a complete photonic bandgap. By careful analysis of the output polarisation state we report on an inherent non-reciprocity between quasi TE and TM fundamental mode cross coupling. The nature of polarisation...

  8. Low-loss 3D-laser-written mid-infrared LiNbO3 depressed-index cladding waveguides for both TE and TM polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martín, Guillermo; Martínez, Javier; Aguiló, Magdalena; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2017-02-20

    We report mid-infrared LiNbO3 depressed-index microstructured cladding waveguides fabricated by three-dimensional laser writing showing low propagation losses (~1.5 dB/cm) at 3.68 µm wavelength for both the transverse electric and magnetic polarized modes, a feature previously unachieved due to the strong anisotropic properties of this type of laser microstructured waveguides and which is of fundamental importance for many photonic applications. Using a heuristic modeling-testing iteration design approach which takes into account cladding induced stress-optic index changes, the fabricated cladding microstructure provides low-loss single mode operation for the mid-IR for both orthogonal polarizations. The dependence of the localized refractive index changes within the cladding microstructure with post-fabrication thermal annealing processes was also investigated, revealing its complex dependence of the laser induced refractive index changes on laser fabrication conditions and thermal post-processing steps. The waveguide modes properties and their dependence on thermal post-processing were numerically modeled and fitted to the experimental values by systematically varying three fundamental parameters of this type of waveguides: depressed refractive index values at sub-micron laser-written tracks, track size changes, and piezo-optic induced refractive index changes.

  9. Broadband silicon polarization beam splitter with a high extinction ratio using a triple-bent-waveguide directional coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jun Rong; Ang, Thomas Y L; Sahin, Ezgi; Pawlina, Bryan; Chen, G F R; Tan, D T H; Lim, Soon Thor; Png, Ching Eng

    2017-11-01

    We report on the design and experimental demonstration of a broadband silicon polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a high extinction ratio (ER)≥30  dB. This was achieved using triple-bent-waveguide directional coupling in a single PBS, and cascaded PBS topology. For the single PBS, the bandwidths for an ER≥30  dB are 20 nm for the quasi-TE mode, and 70 nm for the quasi-TM mode when a broadband light source (1520-1610 nm) was employed. The insertion loss (IL) varies from 0.2 to 1 dB for the quasi-TE mode and 0.2-2 dB for the quasi-TM mode. The cascaded PBS improved the bandwidth of the quasi-TE mode for an ER≥30  dB to 90 nm, with a low IL of 0.2-2 dB. To the best of our knowledge, our PBS system is one of the best broadband PBSs with an ER as high as ∼42  dB and a low IL below 1 dB around the central wavelength, and experimentally demonstrated using edge-coupling.

  10. Scattering of a cross-polarized linear wave by a soliton at an optical event horizon in a birefringent nanophotonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciret, Charles; Gorza, Simon-Pierre

    2016-06-15

    The scattering of a linear wave on an optical event horizon, induced by a cross-polarized soliton, is experimentally and numerically investigated in integrated structures. The experiments are performed in a dispersion-engineered birefringent silicon nanophotonic waveguide. In stark contrast with copolarized waves, the large difference between the group velocity of the two cross-polarized waves enables a frequency conversion almost independent of the soliton wavelength. It is shown that the generated idler is only shifted by 10 nm around 1550 nm over a pump tuning range of 350 nm. Simulations using two coupled full vectorial nonlinear Schrödinger equations fully support the experimental results.

  11. Fabrication of plasmonic waveguides for device applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    and thickness-modulated gold strips different waveguide components including reflecting gratings can be realized. For applications where polarization is random or changing, metal nanowire waveguides are shown to be suitable candidates for efficient guiding of arbitrary polarized light. Plasmonic waveguides...

  12. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term

  13. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  14. On-chip broadband ultra-compact optical couplers and polarization splitters based on off-centered and non-symmetric slotted Si-wire waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Raktim; Mishra, V.; Dutt, Avik; Varshney, Shailendra K.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we propose novel schemes to design on-chip ultra-compact optical directional couplers (DC) and broadband polarization beam splitters (PBS) based on off-centered and asymmetric dielectric slot waveguides, respectively. Slot dimensions and positions are optimized to achieve maximum coupling coefficients between two symmetric and non-symmetric slotted Si wire waveguides through overlap integral method. We observe >88% of enhancement in the coupling coefficients when the size-optimized slots are placed in optimal positions, with respect to the same waveguides with no slot. When the waveguides are parallel, in that case, a coupling length as short as 1.73 μm is accomplished for TM mode with the off-centered and optimized slots. This scheme enables us to design optical DC with very small footprint, L c ∼ 0.9 μm in the presence of S-bends. We also report a compact (L c ∼ 1.1 μm) on-chip broadband PBS with hybrid slots. Extinction ratios of 13 dB and 22.3 dB are realized with very low insertion loss (0.055 dB and 0.008 dB) for TM and TE modes at 1.55 μm, respectively. The designed PBS exhibits a bandwidth of 78 nm for the TM mode (C-and partial L-bands) and >100 nm for the TE mode (S + C + L wavelength bands). Such on-chip devices can be used to design compact photonic interconnects and quantum information processing units efficiently. We have also investigated the fabrication tolerances of the proposed devices and described the fabrication steps to realize such hybrid devices. Our results are in good agreement with 3D FDTD simulations.

  15. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  16. On the twist-2 and twist-3 contributions to the spin-dependent electroweak structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.

    1997-01-01

    The twist-2 and twist-3 contributions of the polarized deep-inelastic structure functions are calculated both for neutral and charged current interactions using the operator product expansion in lowest order in QCD. The relations between the different structure functions are determined. New integral relations are derived between the twist-2 contributions of the structure functions g 3 (x,Q 2 ) and g 5 (x,Q 2 ) and between combinations of the twist-3 contributions to the structure functions g 2 (x,Q 2 ) and g 3 (x,Q 2 ). The sum rules for polarized deep-inelastic scattering are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  17. Proposal of a broadband, polarization-insensitive and high-efficiency hot-carrier schottky photodetector integrated with a plasmonic silicon ridge waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Kou, Pengfei; Shen, Jianqi; Lee, El Hang; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    We propose a broadband, polarization-insensitive and high-efficiency plasmonic Schottky diode for detection of sub-bandgap photons in the optical communication wavelength range through internal photoemission (IPE). The distinctive features of this design are that it has a gold film covering both the top and the sidewalls of a dielectric silicon ridge waveguide with the Schottky contact formed at the gold–silicon interface and the sidewall coverage of gold can be easily tuned by an insulating layer. An extensive physical model on IPE of hot carriers is presented in detail and is applied to calculate and examine the performance of this detector. In comparison with a diode having only the top gold contact, the polarization sensitivity of the responsivity is greatly minimized in our photodetector with gold film covering both the top and the sidewall. Much higher responsivities for both polarizations are also achieved over a broad wavelength range of 1.2–1.6 μm. Moreover, the Schottky contact is only 4 μm long, leading to a very small dark current. Our design is very promising for practical applications in high-density silicon photonic integration. (paper)

  18. Twisted supersymmetry: Twisted symmetry versus renormalizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, Marija; Nikolic, Biljana; Radovanovic, Voja

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a deformation of superspace based on a Hermitian twist. The twist implies a *-product that is noncommutative, Hermitian and finite when expanded in a power series of the deformation parameter. The Leibniz rule for the twisted supersymmetry transformations is deformed. A minimal deformation of the Wess-Zumino action is proposed and its renormalizability properties are discussed. There is no tadpole contribution, but the two-point function diverges. We speculate that the deformed Leibniz rule, or more generally the twisted symmetry, interferes with renormalizability properties of the model. We discuss different possibilities to render a renormalizable model.

  19. A New Approach to Suppress the Effect of Machining Error for Waveguide Septum Circular Polarizer at 230 GHz Band in Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Harada, Ryohei; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu; Nishimura, Atsushi; Han, Johnson; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    A new stepped septum-type waveguide circular polarizer (SST-CP) was developed to operate in the 230 GHz band for radio astronomy, especially submillimeter-band VLBI observations. For previously reported SST-CP models, the 230 GHz band is too high to achieve the design characteristics in manufactured devices because of unexpected machining errors. To realize a functional SST-CP that can operate in the submillimeter band, a new method was developed, in which the division surface is shifted from the top step of the septum to the second step from the top, and we simulated the expected machining error. The SST-CP using this method can compensate for specified machining errors and suppress serious deterioration. To verify the proposed method, several test pieces were manufactured, and their characteristics were measured using a VNA. These results indicated that the insertion losses were approximately 0.75 dB, and the input return losses and the crosstalk of the left- and right-hand circular polarization were greater than 20 dB at 220-245 GHz on 300 K. Moreover, a 230 GHz SST-CP was developed by the proposed method and installed in a 1.85-m radio telescope receiver systems, and then had used for scientific observations during one observation season without any problems. These achievements demonstrate the successful development of a 230 GHz SST-CP for radio astronomical observations. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applicable for observations in higher frequency bands, such as 345 GHz.

  20. 1x3 beam splitter for TE polarization based on self-imaging phenomena in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Min; Malureanu, Radu; Krüger, Asger Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on inspiration from multi-mode interference self-imaging and theoretical FDTD simulations, a 1x3 beam splitter was designed, fabricated and characterized. Measurements show that for TE-polarized incident light the power is distributed equally between the output ports within 1dB in the range...... from 1541nm to 1552nm, and the total transmission of the 1x3 splitter is equal to the corresponding length of a single-line-defect PhCW within the measurement uncertainty....

  1. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  2. Hyperentangled photon sources in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Dongpeng; Helt, L. G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering...

  3. Electrically Controllable Magnetism in Twisted Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Arraga, Luis A; Lado, J L; Guinea, Francisco; San-Jose, Pablo

    2017-09-08

    Twisted graphene bilayers develop highly localized states around AA-stacked regions for small twist angles. We show that interaction effects may induce either an antiferromagnetic or a ferromagnetic (FM) polarization of said regions, depending on the electrical bias between layers. Remarkably, FM-polarized AA regions under bias develop spiral magnetic ordering, with a relative 120° misalignment between neighboring regions due to a frustrated antiferromagnetic exchange. This remarkable spiral magnetism emerges naturally without the need of spin-orbit coupling, and competes with the more conventional lattice-antiferromagnetic instability, which interestingly develops at smaller bias under weaker interactions than in monolayer graphene, due to Fermi velocity suppression. This rich and electrically controllable magnetism could turn twisted bilayer graphene into an ideal system to study frustrated magnetism in two dimensions.

  4. Wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, George

    2012-01-01

    This work primarily aims to fabricate and use two photon polymerization (2PP) microstructures capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. We have integrated optical waveguides into the structures and therefore have freestanding waveguides, which can be positioned anywhe...... bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the subwavelength domain....

  5. Generalised twisted partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  6. Twisted network programming essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fettig, Abe

    2005-01-01

    Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s

  7. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  8. WORKSHOP: Let's twist again..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalobos Baillie, Orlando

    1988-12-15

    In the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) candidate theory of interquark forces, calculations involve summing the effects from many different possible quark/gluon interactions. In addition to the 'leading term' frequently used as the basis for QCD calculations, additional contributions — so-called 'higher twists' — are modulated by powers of kinematical factors. An illuminating international workshop to discuss higher twist QCD was held at the College de France, Paris, from 21-23 September.

  9. Quantum waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This monograph explains the theory of quantum waveguides, that is, dynamics of quantum particles confined to regions in the form of tubes, layers, networks, etc. The focus is on relations between the confinement geometry on the one hand and the spectral and scattering properties of the corresponding quantum Hamiltonians on the other. Perturbations of such operators, in particular, by external fields are also considered. The volume provides a unique summary of twenty five years of research activity in this area and indicates ways in which the theory can develop further. The book is fairly self-contained. While it requires some broader mathematical physics background, all the basic concepts are properly explained and proofs of most theorems are given in detail, so there is no need for additional sources. Without a parallel in the literature, the monograph by Exner and Kovarik guides the reader through this new and exciting field.

  10. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  11. SpaceTwist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Xuegang, Huang

    2008-01-01

    -based matching generally fall short in offering practical query accuracy guarantees. Our proposed framework, called SpaceTwist, rectifies these shortcomings for k nearest neighbor (kNN) queries. Starting with a location different from the user's actual location, nearest neighbors are retrieved incrementally...

  12. Twisting the Mirror TBA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, G.E.; de Leeuw, M.; van Tongeren, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    We study finite-size corrections to the magnon dispersion relation in three models which differ from string theory on AdS5 x S5 in their boundary conditions. Asymptotically, this is accomplished by twisting the transfer matrix in a way which manifestly preserves integrability. In model I all

  13. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  14. Modification of the twist angle in chiral nematic polymer films by photoisomerization of the chiral dopant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, van de P.; Neuteboom, E.E.; Brehmer, M.; Lub, Johan

    1999-01-01

    A method for the production of polarization sensitive recordings in liquid crystalline polymers is presented. The system is based on local modification of the twist angle of chiral nematic polymer films. The twist angle of the polymer film is varied by modifying the chemical structure of the chiral

  15. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  16. Twisted quantum doubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Fukuda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using diagrammatic pictures of tensor contractions, we consider a Hopf algebra (Aop⊗ℛλA** twisted by an element ℛλ∈A*⊗Aop corresponding to a Hopf algebra morphism λ:A→A. We show that this Hopf algebra is quasitriangular with the universal R-matrix coming from ℛλ when λ2=idA, generalizing the quantum double construction which corresponds to the case λ=idA.

  17. TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED Λ PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BORER, D.

    2000-01-01

    Transversely polarized Λ production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized Λ. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments

  18. UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings in optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2002-01-01

    of the novel polarization control method for UV writing of Bragg gratings with advanced apodization profiles including phase shifts. The principle of the polarization control method relies on a spatial separation of the s- and p-polarized components of a linearly polarized UV beam corresponding to half......, Technical University of Denmark. During fabrication the planar waveguides were annealed in an oxygen rich atmosphere. This reduces the photosensitivity to a negligible level and Bragg gratings cannot be written within reasonable time unless the waveguides are sensitized by deuterium loading. Samples were...

  19. Leading Twist GPDs and Transverse Spin Densities in a Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Chandan; Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar; Zhao, Xingbo

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of both chirally even and odd generalized parton distributions in the leading twist for the quarks in a proton using the light-front wavefunctions of a quark-diquark model predicted by the holographic QCD. For transversely polarized proton, both chiral even and chiral odd GPDs contribute to the spin densities which are related to the GPDs in transverse impact parameter space. Here, we also present a study of the spin densities for transversely polarized quark and proton.

  20. Hyperbolic-cosine waveguide tapers and oversize rectangular waveguide for reduced broadband insertion loss in W-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. II. Broadband characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Anderson, James R.; Mainali, Laxman; Hyde, James S. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Strangeway, Robert A. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Mett, Richard R. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Physics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Experimental results have been reported on an oversize rectangular waveguide assembly operating nominally at 94 GHz. It was formed using commercially available WR28 waveguide as well as a pair of specially designed tapers with a hyperbolic-cosine shape from WR28 to WR10 waveguide [R. R. Mett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 074704 (2011)]. The oversize section reduces broadband insertion loss for an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) probe placed in a 3.36 T magnet. Hyperbolic-cosine tapers minimize reflection of the main mode and the excitation of unwanted propagating waveguide modes. Oversize waveguide is distinguished from corrugated waveguide, overmoded waveguide, or quasi-optic techniques by minimal coupling to higher-order modes. Only the TE{sub 10} mode of the parent WR10 waveguide is propagated. In the present work, a new oversize assembly with a gradual 90° twist was implemented. Microwave power measurements show that the twisted oversize waveguide assembly reduces the power loss in the observe and pump arms of a W-band bridge by an average of 2.35 dB and 2.41 dB, respectively, over a measured 1.25 GHz bandwidth relative to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Network analyzer measurements confirm a decrease in insertion loss of 2.37 dB over a 4 GHz bandwidth and show minimal amplitude distortion of approximately 0.15 dB. Continuous wave EPR experiments confirm these results. The measured phase variations of the twisted oversize waveguide assembly, relative to an ideal distortionless transmission line, are reduced by a factor of two compared to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Oversize waveguide with proper transitions is demonstrated as an effective way to increase incident power and the return signal for broadband EPR experiments. Detailed performance characteristics, including continuous wave experiment using 1 μM 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl in aqueous solution, provided here serve as a benchmark for other broadband low-loss probes in

  1. Hyperbolic-cosine waveguide tapers and oversize rectangular waveguide for reduced broadband insertion loss in W-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. II. Broadband characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Anderson, James R.; Mainali, Laxman; Hyde, James S.; Strangeway, Robert A.; Mett, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results have been reported on an oversize rectangular waveguide assembly operating nominally at 94 GHz. It was formed using commercially available WR28 waveguide as well as a pair of specially designed tapers with a hyperbolic-cosine shape from WR28 to WR10 waveguide [R. R. Mett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 074704 (2011)]. The oversize section reduces broadband insertion loss for an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) probe placed in a 3.36 T magnet. Hyperbolic-cosine tapers minimize reflection of the main mode and the excitation of unwanted propagating waveguide modes. Oversize waveguide is distinguished from corrugated waveguide, overmoded waveguide, or quasi-optic techniques by minimal coupling to higher-order modes. Only the TE 10 mode of the parent WR10 waveguide is propagated. In the present work, a new oversize assembly with a gradual 90° twist was implemented. Microwave power measurements show that the twisted oversize waveguide assembly reduces the power loss in the observe and pump arms of a W-band bridge by an average of 2.35 dB and 2.41 dB, respectively, over a measured 1.25 GHz bandwidth relative to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Network analyzer measurements confirm a decrease in insertion loss of 2.37 dB over a 4 GHz bandwidth and show minimal amplitude distortion of approximately 0.15 dB. Continuous wave EPR experiments confirm these results. The measured phase variations of the twisted oversize waveguide assembly, relative to an ideal distortionless transmission line, are reduced by a factor of two compared to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Oversize waveguide with proper transitions is demonstrated as an effective way to increase incident power and the return signal for broadband EPR experiments. Detailed performance characteristics, including continuous wave experiment using 1 μM 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl in aqueous solution, provided here serve as a benchmark for other broadband low-loss probes in

  2. A quasi-optical and corrugated waveguide microwave transmission system for simultaneous dynamic nuclear polarization NMR on two separate 14.1 T spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Smith, Adam N.; Pike, Kevin J.; Froud, Stuart; Wylde, Richard; Trociewitz, Bianca; McKay, Johannes; Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; van Tol, Johan; Wi, Sungsool; Brey, William; Long, Joanna R.; Frydman, Lucio; Hill, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an intrinsically insensitive technique, with Boltzmann distributions of nuclear spin states on the order of parts per million in conventional magnetic fields. To overcome this limitation, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to gain up to three orders of magnitude in signal enhancement, which can decrease experimental time by up to six orders of magnitude. In DNP experiments, nuclear spin polarization is enhanced by transferring the relatively larger electron polarization to NMR active nuclei via microwave irradiation. Here, we describe the design and performance of a quasi-optical system enabling the use of a single 395 GHz gyrotron microwave source to simultaneously perform DNP experiments on two different 14.1 T (1H 600 MHz) NMR spectrometers: one configured for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR; the other configured for solution state NMR experiments. In particular, we describe how the high power microwave beam is split, transmitted, and manipulated between the two spectrometers. A 13C enhancement of 128 is achieved via the cross effect for alanine, using the nitroxide biradical AMUPol, under MAS-DNP conditions at 110 K, while a 31P enhancement of 160 is achieved via the Overhauser effect for triphenylphosphine using the monoradical BDPA under solution NMR conditions at room temperature. The latter result is the first demonstration of Overhauser DNP in the solution state at a field of 14.1 T (1H 600 MHz). Moreover these results have been produced with large sample volumes (∼100 μL, i.e. 3 mm diameter NMR tubes).

  3. A quasi-optical and corrugated waveguide microwave transmission system for simultaneous dynamic nuclear polarization NMR on two separate 14.1 T spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Smith, Adam N; Pike, Kevin J; Froud, Stuart; Wylde, Richard; Trociewitz, Bianca; McKay, Johannes; Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; van Tol, Johan; Wi, Sungsool; Brey, William; Long, Joanna R; Frydman, Lucio; Hill, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an intrinsically insensitive technique, with Boltzmann distributions of nuclear spin states on the order of parts per million in conventional magnetic fields. To overcome this limitation, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to gain up to three orders of magnitude in signal enhancement, which can decrease experimental time by up to six orders of magnitude. In DNP experiments, nuclear spin polarization is enhanced by transferring the relatively larger electron polarization to NMR active nuclei via microwave irradiation. Here, we describe the design and performance of a quasi-optical system enabling the use of a single 395 GHz gyrotron microwave source to simultaneously perform DNP experiments on two different 14.1 T ( 1 H 600 MHz) NMR spectrometers: one configured for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR; the other configured for solution state NMR experiments. In particular, we describe how the high power microwave beam is split, transmitted, and manipulated between the two spectrometers. A 13 C enhancement of 128 is achieved via the cross effect for alanine, using the nitroxide biradical AMUPol, under MAS-DNP conditions at 110 K, while a 31 P enhancement of 160 is achieved via the Overhauser effect for triphenylphosphine using the monoradical BDPA under solution NMR conditions at room temperature. The latter result is the first demonstration of Overhauser DNP in the solution state at a field of 14.1 T ( 1 H 600 MHz). Moreover these results have been produced with large sample volumes (∼100 µL, i.e. 3 mm diameter NMR tubes). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindler, A.

    2007-07-01

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  5. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Twist limits for late twisting double somersaults on trampoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, M R; Hiley, M J

    2017-06-14

    An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that could be produced in the second somersault of a double somersault on trampoline using asymmetrical movements of the arms and hips. Lower bounds were placed on the durations of arm and hip angle changes based on performances of a world trampoline champion whose inertia parameters were used in the simulations. The limiting movements were identified as the largest possible odd number of half twists for forward somersaulting takeoffs and even number of half twists for backward takeoffs. Simulations of these two limiting movements were found using simulated annealing optimisation to produce the required amounts of somersault, tilt and twist at landing after a flight time of 2.0s. Additional optimisations were then run to seek solutions with the arms less adducted during the twisting phase. It was found that 3½ twists could be produced in the second somersault of a forward piked double somersault with arms abducted 8° from full adduction during the twisting phase and that three twists could be produced in the second somersault of a backward straight double somersault with arms fully adducted to the body. These two movements are at the limits of performance for elite trampolinists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.

  8. Teaching Spatial Awareness for Better Twisting Somersaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Jeff T.

    1985-01-01

    The barani (front somersault with one-half twist) and the back somersault with one twist are basic foundation skills necessary for more advanced twisting maneuvers. Descriptions of these movements on a trampoline surface are offered. (DF)

  9. Twisting perturbed parafermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The near-collinear expansion of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory at strong coupling is governed by the dynamics of stings propagating on the five sphere. The pentagon transitions in the operator product expansion which systematize the series get reformulated in terms of matrix elements of branch-point twist operators in the two-dimensional O(6 nonlinear sigma model. The facts that the latter is an asymptotically free field theory and that there exists no local realization of twist fields prevents one from explicit calculation of their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. This complication is bypassed making use of the equivalence of the sigma model to the infinite-level limit of WZNW models perturbed by current–current interactions, such that one can use conformal symmetry and conformal perturbation theory for systematic calculations. Presently, to set up the formalism, we consider the O(3 sigma model which is reformulated as perturbed parafermions.

  10. Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)

  11. How to Twist a Knot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Thomas; Røgen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    is an invariant of ambient isotopy measuring the topological twist of the closed strip. We classify closed strips in euclidean 3-space by their knots and their twisting number. We prove that this classification exactly divides closed strips into isotopy classes. Using this classification we point out how some...

  12. Interconnect Between a Waveguide and a Dielectric Waveguide Comprising an Impedance Matched Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Chahat, Nacer (Inventor); Tang, Adrian J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A lens for interconnecting a metallic waveguide with a dielectric waveguide is provided. The lens may be coupled a metallic waveguide and a dielectric waveguide, and minimize a signal loss between the metallic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide.

  13. Low-loss optical waveguides in β-BBO crystal fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziqi; Cheng, Chen; Romero, Carolina; Lu, Qingming; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Chen, Feng

    2017-11-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of β-BBO depressed cladding waveguides fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing with no significant changes in the waveguide lattice microstructure. The waveguiding properties and the propagation losses of the cladding structures are investigated, showing good transmission properties at wavelengths of 400 and 800 nm along TM polarization. The minimum propagation losses are measured to be as low as 0.19 dB/cm at wavelength of 800 nm. The well-preserved waveguide lattice microstructure and good guiding performances with low propagation losses suggest the potential applications of the cladding waveguides in β-BBO crystal as novel integrated photonic devices.

  14. Graphene antidot lattice waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...

  15. Optical waveguide demultiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdaj, Yu.O.; Maslyukyivs'kij, R.M.; Sirota, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    For channels division in fibre-optical networks with wavelength multiplexing, the planar waveguide together with a prism coupler is offered for using. The planar waveguide fulfils a role of a dispersing unit, and prism coupler is the selector of optical channels. The parameters of the planar waveguide which provide maximal space division of adjacent information channels in networks with coarse wavelength multiplexing are calculated

  16. Experiences with rectangular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Sepulveda, J. J.; Navarro, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    A simple and didactic experimental arrangement is presented to show wave propagation along a structure with translational symmetry, particularly the rectangular waveguide. Parameters of this waveguide as cutoff frequency, guide wavelength and field distribution of fundamental mode can be measured. For this purpose a large paralelepipedical waveguide structure is designed and built, its dimensions can be varied in order to change its parameters. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Twisted spin Sutherland models from quantum Hamiltonian reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, L; Pusztai, B G

    2008-01-01

    Recent general results on Hamiltonian reductions under polar group actions are applied to study some reductions of the free particle governed by the Laplace-Beltrami operator of a compact, connected, simple Lie group. The reduced systems associated with arbitrary finite-dimensional irreducible representations of the group by using the symmetry induced by twisted conjugations are described in detail. These systems generically yield integrable Sutherland-type many-body models with spin, which are called twisted spin Sutherland models if the underlying twisted conjugations are built on non-trivial Dynkin diagram automorphisms. The spectra of these models can be calculated, in principle, by solving certain Clebsch-Gordan problems, and the result is presented for the models associated with the symmetric tensorial powers of the defining representation of SU(N)

  18. Linear and nonlinear properties of segmented waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1998-07-01

    This dissertation deals with Periodically Segmented Waveguides (PSW), which are applied on KTiOP0 4 (KTP) crystals, by chemical ion-exchange process. In these waveguides, the crystal polarity and refractive index are periodically modulated to obtain Quasi Phase Matching (QPM) between the fundamental and second-harmonic waves. PSW is a relatively new optical device which exhibits unique optical properties in comparison with a continuous waveguide. The possibility of utilizing the KTP-PSW as a compact, cw, blue-violet, source by doubling infra-red light, is the main motivation for studying the optical properties of KTP segmented waveguides. Nevertheless, much attention in this work is also given to the study of linear optical properties of KTP-PSW, most of which, to my best knowledge, has not been studied yet. Controlling and understanding the linear optical properties of KTP-PSW, are required, for applying the PSW as an optical device by its own, and for control and characterization of the non-linear optical properties of the waveguide. In this work the dependence of the linear optical properties of KTP-PSW on geometrical parameters (period size, duty cycle and waveguide width) were studied. The experimental measured parameters include the PSW near field and the Bragg reflections, which appear due lo the grating structure of the waveguide. The possibility of controlling the wavelength and intensity, of the segmented waveguide Bragg reflections of regular period and super-period, is shown theoretically and experimentally. An unexpected dependence was found, by the experimental measurement, between the index profile and the ion-exchanged segment area,. The segmented waveguide dispersion curve, n eff (λ) in the infra-red region was found, A main part of the research work is dedicated to the study of nonlinear characteristics of PSW. The different factors, which effect the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG), are measured experimentally and analyzed. The experimental

  19. Partial twisting for scalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given

  20. Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguide lasers in Nd:LiYF4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Ling; Huang, Ze-Ping; Ye, Yong-Kai; Wang, Hai-Long

    2018-06-01

    Depressed circular cladding, buried waveguides were fabricated in Nd:LiYF4 crystals with an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber master-oscillator power amplifier laser. Waveguides were optimized by varying the laser writing conditions, such as pulse energy, focus depth, femtosecond laser polarization and scanning velocity. Under optical pump at 799 nm, cladding waveguides showed continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1047 nm. Single- and multi-transverse modes waveguide laser were realized by varying the waveguide diameter. The maximum output power in the 40 μm waveguide is ∼195 mW with a slope efficiency of 34.3%. The waveguide lasers with hexagonal and cubic cladding geometry were also realized.

  1. Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf, E-mail: nra1@hi.is; Gudmundsson, Vidar, E-mail: vidar@raunvis.hi.is [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Tang, Chi-Shung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University, 1, Lienda, 36003 Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-12-21

    We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.

  2. Photophysics of internal twisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, F.; Miehe, J.A.; Lippert, E.; Rettig, W.; Bonacic-Koutecky, V.

    1987-01-01

    The formation and characteristics of the ''twisted intermolecular charge transfer'' is studied. Basic concepts on dual fluorescence, steady-state fluorescence, kinetic investigations and cage effects are discussed. The theoretical treatment on the electronic structure of the bonded π - donor - π acceptor pairs is outlined. The two-electron, two-orbital model, the ab initio CI models of simple double, charged and dative π - bonds as well as complex dative π - bonds and the origin of the dual fluorescence of 9.9'-Bianthryl are shown. Concerning the stochastic description of chemical reactions, Master equation, Markov, Birth-Death and Diffusion processes, Kramers-Moyal expansion, Langevin equation, Kramers' approach to steady-state rates of reaction and its extension to non-Markovian processes, and also unimolecular reactions in the absence of potential barrier are considered. Experimental results and interpretation on dynamics of DMABN in the excited state, kinetics of other dialkylanilines, extended donor-acceptor systems with anomalous fluorescence and donor-acceptor systems without anomalous fluorescence are given

  3. Windings of twisted strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.

  4. General technique for the integration of MIC/MMIC'S with waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Bernard D. (Inventor); Zaghloul, Amir I. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A technique for packaging and integrating of a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) or monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) with a waveguide uses a printed conductive circuit pattern on a dielectric substrate to transform impedance and mode of propagation between the MIC/MMIC and the waveguide. The virtually coplanar circuit pattern lies on an equipotential surface within the waveguide and therefore makes possible single or dual polarized mode structures.

  5. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  6. High Efficiency Large-Angle Pancharatnam Phase Deflector Based on Dual Twist Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    construction and characterization of a ±40° beam steering device with 90% diffraction efficiency based on our dual-twist design at 633nm wavelength...N. & Escuti, M. J. Achromatic Wollaston prism beam splitter using polarization gratings. Opt. Lett. 41, 4461–4463 (2016). 13. Slussarenko, S., et...High-efficiency large-angle Pancharatnam phase deflector based on dual-twist design Kun Gao1, Colin McGinty1, Harold Payson2, Shaun Berry2, Joseph

  7. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  8. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  9. Effect of Magnetic Twist on Nonlinear Transverse Kink Oscillations of Line-tied Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Magyar, N.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in many structures of the solar atmosphere. One of the effects of twist is to modify the properties of the eigenmodes of magnetic tubes. In the linear regime standing kink solutions are characterized by a change in polarization of the transverse displacement along the twisted tube. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic twist affects the development of shear instabilities that appear at the tube boundary when it is oscillating laterally. These Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) are produced either by the jump in the azimuthal component of the velocity at the edge of the sharp boundary between the internal and external part of the tube or by the continuous small length scales produced by phase mixing when there is a smooth inhomogeneous layer. In this work the effect of twist is consistently investigated by solving the time-dependent problem including the process of energy transfer to the inhomogeneous layer. It is found that twist always delays the appearance of the shear instability, but for tubes with thin inhomogeneous layers the effect is relatively small for moderate values of twist. On the contrary, for tubes with thick layers, the effect of twist is much stronger. This can have some important implications regarding observations of transverse kink modes and the KHI itself.

  10. Omnidirectional optical waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-08-02

    In one embodiment, a system includes a scintillator material; a detector coupled to the scintillator material; and an omnidirectional waveguide coupled to the scintillator material, the omnidirectional waveguide comprising: a plurality of first layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a first range; and a plurality of second layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a second range, the second range being lower than the first range, a plurality of interfaces being defined between alternating ones of the first and second layers. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing alternating layers of a material having a relatively high refractive index and a material having a relatively low refractive index on a substrate to form an omnidirectional waveguide; and coupling the omnidirectional waveguide to at least one surface of a scintillator material.

  11. Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Przemek J; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Delâge, André; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Hall, Trevor J

    2009-10-12

    We report on several new types of sub-wavelength grating (SWG) gradient index structures for efficient mode coupling in high index contrast slab waveguides. Using a SWG, an adiabatic transition is achieved at the interface between silicon-on-insulator waveguides of different geometries. The SWG transition region minimizes both fundamental mode mismatch loss and coupling to higher order modes. By creating the gradient effective index region in the direction of propagation, we demonstrate that efficient vertical mode transformation can be achieved between slab waveguides of different core thickness. The structures which we propose can be fabricated by a single etch step. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations we study the loss, polarization dependence and the higher order mode excitation for two types (triangular and triangular-transverse) of SWG transition regions between silicon-on-insulator slab waveguides of different core thicknesses. We demonstrate two solutions to reduce the polarization dependent loss of these structures. Finally, we propose an implementation of SWG structures to reduce loss and higher order mode excitation between a slab waveguide and a phase array of an array waveguide grating (AWG). Compared to a conventional AWG, the loss is reduced from -1.4 dB to < -0.2 dB at the slab-array interface.

  12. Analysis and synthesis of (SAR) waveguide phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, H. J.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes work performed due to ESA contract No. 101 34/93/NL/PB. Started is with a literature study on dual polarized waveguide radiators, resulting in the choice for the open ended square waveguide. After a thorough description of the mode matching infinite waveguide array analysis method - including finiteness effects - that forms the basis for all further described analysis and synthesis methods, the accuracy of the analysis software is validated by comparison with measurements on two realized antennas. These antennas have centered irises in the waveguide apertures and a dielectric wide angle impedance matching sheet in front of the antenna. A synthesis method, using simulated annealing and downhill simplex, is described next and different antenna designs, based on the analysis of a single element in an infinite array environment, are presented. Next, designs of subarrays are presented. Shown is the paramount importance of including the array environment in the design of a subarray. A microstrip patch waveguide exciter and subarray feeding network are discussed and the depth of the waveguide radiator is estimated. Chosen is a rectangular grid array with waveguides of 2.5 cm depth without irises and without dielectric sheet, grouped in linear 8 elements subarrays.

  13. Twisting the N=2 string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Parkes, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    The most general homogeneous monodromy conditions in N= 2 string theory are classified in terms of the conjugacy classes of the global symmetry group U(1, 1) x Z 2 . For classes which generate a discrete subgroup Γ, the corresponding target space backgrounds C 1,1 /Γ include half spaces, complex orbifolds and tori. We propose a generalization of the intercept formula to matrix-valued twists, and find massless physical states in a number of twisted cases. In particular, the sixteen Z 2 -twisted sectors of the N = 2 string are investigated, and the corresponding ground states are identified via bosonization and BRST cohomology. We find enough room for an extended multiplet of 'spacetime' supersymmetry, with the number of supersymmetries being dependent on global 'spacetime' topology. Unfortunately, world-sheet locality for the chiral vertex operators does not permit interactions for the massless 'spacetime' fermions; however possibly, an asymmetric GSO projection could evade this problem. (orig.)

  14. Introduction to twisted conformal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A pedagogical account is given of the recent developments in the theory of twisted conformal fields. Among other things, the main part of the lecture concerns the construction of the twist-emission vertex operator, which is a generalization of the fermion emission vertex in the superstring theory. Several different forms of the vertex are derived and their mutural relationships are clarified. In this paper, the authors include a brief survey of the history of the fermion emission vertex, as it offers a good perspective in which to appreciate the logical development

  15. Obstructions for twist star products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Esposito, Chiara; Waldmann, Stefan; Weber, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    In this short note, we point out that not every star product is induced by a Drinfel'd twist by showing that not every Poisson structure is induced by a classical r-matrix. Examples include the higher genus symplectic Pretzel surfaces and the symplectic sphere S^2.

  16. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  17. Silicon microphotonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta'eed, V.; Steel, M.J.; Grillet, C.; Eggleton, B.; Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Silicon microphotonic devices have been drawing increasing attention in the past few years. The high index-difference between silicon and its oxide (Δn = 2) suggests a potential for high-density integration of optical functions on to a photonic chip. Additionally, it has been shown that silicon exhibits strong Raman nonlinearity, a necessary property as light interaction can occur only by means of nonlinearities in the propagation medium. The small dimensions of silicon waveguides require the design of efficient tapers to couple light to them. We have used the beam propagation method (RSoft BeamPROP) to understand the principles and design of an inverse-taper mode-converter as implemented in several recent papers. We report on progress in the design and fabrication of silicon-based waveguides. Preliminary work has been conducted by patterning silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using optical lithography and reactive ion etching. Thus far, only rib waveguides have been designed, as single-mode ridge-waveguides are beyond the capabilities of conventional optical lithography. We have recently moved to electron beam lithography as the higher resolutions permitted will provide the flexibility to begin fabricating sub-micron waveguides

  18. Nanoporous polymer liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Ndoni, Sokol

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented.......We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented....

  19. Supersymmetric twisting of carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubský, Vít; Plyushchay, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 4 (2012), 045035 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR GPP203/11/P038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : quantum wave-guides * bound-states * condensed-matter Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 4.691, year: 2012

  20. Twist deformations of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.G.; Chakraborty, B.; Toppan, F., E-mail: pgcastro@cbpf.b, E-mail: biswajit@bose.res.i, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kuznetsova, Z., E-mail: zhanna.kuznetsova@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The N-extended supersymmetric quantum mechanics is deformed via an abelian twist which preserves the super-Hopf algebra structure of its universal enveloping superalgebra. Two constructions are possible. For even N one can identify the 1D N-extended superalgebra with the fermionic Heisenberg algebra. Alternatively, supersymmetry generators can be realized as operators belonging to the Universal Enveloping Superalgebra of one bosonic and several fermionic oscillators. The deformed system is described in terms of twisted operators satisfying twist deformed (anti)commutators. The main differences between an abelian twist defined in terms of fermionic operators and an abelian twist defined in terms of bosonic operators are discussed. (author)

  1. Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlock, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra

  2. A twisted flux-tube model for solar prominences. I. General properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.; Hood, A.W.; Anzer, U.

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that a solar prominence consists of cool plasma supported in a large-scale curved and twisted magnetic flux tube. As long as the flux tube is untwisted, its curvature is concave toward the solar surface, and so it cannot support dense plasma against gravity. However, when it is twisted sufficiently, individual field lines may acquire a convex curvature near their summits and so provide support. Cool plasma then naturally tends to accumulate in such field line dips either by injection from below or by thermal condensation. As the tube is twisted up further or reconnection takes place below the prominence, one finds a transition from normal to inverse polarity. When the flux tube becomes too long or is twisted too much, it loses stability and its true magnetic geometry as an erupting prominence is revealed more clearly. 56 refs

  3. Single-transverse-mode Ti:sapphire rib waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grivas, C.; Shepherd, D.P.; May-Smith, T.C.; Eason, R.W.; Pollnau, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Laser operation of Ti:sapphire rib waveguides fabricated using photolithography and ion beam etching in pulsed laser deposited layers is reported. Polarized laser emission was observed at 792.5 nm with an absorbed pump power threshold of 265 mW, which is more than a factor of 2 lower in comparison

  4. Adiabatic/diabatic polarization beam splitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRose, Christopher; Cai, Hong

    2017-09-12

    The various presented herein relate to an on-chip polarization beam splitter (PBS), which is adiabatic for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and diabatic for the transverse electric (TE) mode. The PBS comprises a through waveguide and a cross waveguide, wherein an electromagnetic beam comprising TE mode and TM mode components is applied to an input port of the through waveguide. The PBS can be utilized to separate the TE mode component from the TM mode component, wherein the TE mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the through waveguide, and the TM mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the cross waveguide. The PBS has a structure that is tolerant to manufacturing variations and exhibits high polarization extinction ratios over a wide bandwidth.

  5. Apodized coupled resonator waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Muñoz, P; Domenech, J D; Muriel, M A

    2007-08-06

    In this paper we propose analyse the apodisation or windowing of the coupling coefficients in the unit cells of coupled resonator waveguide devices (CROWs) as a means to reduce the level of secondary sidelobes in the bandpass characteristic of their transfer functions. This technique is regularly employed in the design of digital filters and has been applied as well in the design of other photonic devices such as corrugated waveguide filters and fiber Bragg gratings. The apodisation of both Type-I and Type-II structures is discussed for several windowing functions.

  6. Higher twist contributions to the structure functions F{sub 2}(x, Q{sup 2}) and g{sub 2}(x, Q{sup 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Boettcher, Helmut

    2012-07-15

    We report on recent results on higher twist contributions to the unpolarized structure functions F{sup p,d}{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) at N{sup 3}LO in the large x region and constraints on the twist-3 contribution to polarized structure function g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}).

  7. Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Panagopoulos, H.; Stylianou, F.; Korzec, T.

    2011-01-01

    Perturbative and nonperturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the nonperturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial-vector operators. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing a corresponding to β=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. Subtraction of O(a 2 ) terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of these operators at 1-loop and up to O(a 2 ). The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI ' -MOM scheme, for both perturbative and nonperturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set by the inverse of the lattice spacing. In addition, they are translated to MS at 2 GeV using 3-loop perturbative results for the conversion factors.

  8. Progress in planar optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianping; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of various slab waveguide structures ranged from graded-index waveguide to symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. In this book, the transfer Matrix method is developed and applied to analyze the simplest case and the complex generalizations. A novel symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide structure is proposed and systematically investigated for several issues of interest, such as biochemical sensing, Goos-Hänchen shift and the slow light effect, etc. Besides, this book summarizes the authors’ research works on waveguides over the last decade. The readers who are familiar with basic optics theory may find this book easy to read and rather inspiring.

  9. Effective potentials for twisted fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banach, R.

    1981-01-01

    Minus the density of the effective action, evaluated at the lowest eigenfunction of the (space-time) derivative part of the second (functional) derivative of the classical action, is proposed as a generalised definition of the effective potential, applicable to twisted as well as untwisted sectors of a field theory. The proposal is corroborated by several specific calculations in the twisted sector, namely phi 4 theory (real and complex) and wrong-sign-Gordon theory, in an Einstein cylinder, where the exact integrability of the static solutions confirms the effective potential predictions. Both models exhibit a phase transition, which the effective potential locates, and the one-loop quantum shift in the critical radius is computed for the real phi 4 model, being a universal result. Topological mass generation at the classical level is pointed out, and the exactness of the classical effective potential approximation for complex phi 4 is discussed. (author)

  10. Twisting formula of epsilon factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sazzad Ali Biswas

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... In this article, we give a generalized twisting formula for ϵ(χ1χ2,ψ), when both χ1 and χ2 are ramified via the following local Jacobi sums. Let UF be the group of units in OF (ring of integers of F). For characters χ1, χ2 of F. × and a positive integer n, we define the local Jacobi sum. Jt(χ1,χ2, n) = ∑ x∈UF. Un.

  11. The effective Hamiltonian in curved quantum waveguides under mild regularity assumptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Šediváková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 7 (2012), 1250018/1-1250018/39 ISSN 0129-055X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguides * thin-width limit * effective Hamiltonian * twisting versus bending * norm-resolvent convergence * Dirichlet Laplacian * curved tubes * relatively parallel frame * Steklov approximation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2012

  12. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R

    2003-09-30

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 {mu}m thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO{sub 2}, where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  13. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chia-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  14. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 μm thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO 2 , where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  15. New twist on artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-10-18

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.

  16. Probing Quark-Gluon Interactions with Transverse Polarized Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon, Oscar A.

    2011-01-01

    Transverse polarized inelastic scattering extends the power of the electromagnetic interaction as a probe of nucleon dynamics beyond the leading order regime explored with longitudinally polarized DIS. In transverse polarized scattering, the twist-3 g 2 spin structure function contributes at the same order as the longitudinal, twist-2, g 1 , so interactions between quarks and gluons can be studied, opening a window on the mechanisms of confinement. This talk reports the results of Jefferson Lab's Resonances Spin Structure experiment measurement of g 2 and the d 2 twist-3 quark matrix element at a four-momentum transfer of 1.3 GeV 2 .

  17. Modeling and control of active twist aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Nicholas Bryan

    The Wright Brothers marked the beginning of powered flight in 1903 using an active twist mechanism as their means of controlling roll. As time passed due to advances in other technologies that transformed aviation the active twist mechanism was no longer used. With the recent advances in material science and manufacturability, the possibility of the practical use of active twist technologies has emerged. In this dissertation, the advantages and disadvantages of active twist techniques are investigated through the development of an aeroelastic modeling method intended for informing the designs of such technologies and wind tunnel testing to confirm the capabilities of the active twist technologies and validate the model. Control principles for the enabling structural technologies are also proposed while the potential gains of dynamic, active twist are analyzed.

  18. Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, Donglei; Wang, Yaguo; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T

    2016-05-05

    Subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide is an intriguing alternative to conventional optical waveguides due to the extra degree of freedom it offers in tuning a few important waveguide properties, such as dispersion and refractive index. Devices based on SWG waveguides have demonstrated impressive performances compared to conventional waveguides. However, the high loss of SWG waveguide bends jeopardizes their applications in integrated photonic circuits. In this work, we propose a geometrical tuning art, which realizes a pre-distorted refractive index profile in SWG waveguide bends. The pre-distorted refractive index profile can effectively reduce the mode mismatch and radiation loss simultaneously, thus significantly reduce the bend loss. This geometry tuning art has been numerically optimized and experimentally demonstrated in present study. Through such tuning, the average insertion loss of a 5 μm SWG waveguide bend is reduced drastically from 5.43 dB to 1.10 dB per 90° bend for quasi-TE polarization. In the future, the proposed scheme will be utilized to enhance performance of a wide range of SWG waveguide based photonics devices.

  19. Low-loss curved subwavelength grating waveguide based on index engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, D. L.; Wang, Yaoguo; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide is an intriguing alternative to conventional optical waveguides due to its freedom to tune a few important waveguide properties such as dispersion and refractive index. Devices based on SWG waveguide have demonstrated impressive performances compared to those of conventional waveguides. However, the large loss of SWG waveguide bends jeopardizes their applications in integrated photonics circuits. In this work, we propose that a predistorted refractive index distribution in SWG waveguide bends can effectively decrease the mode mismatch noise and radiation loss simultaneously, and thus significantly reduce the bend loss. Here, we achieved the pre-distortion refractive index distribution by using trapezoidal silicon pillars. This geometry tuning approach is numerically optimized and experimentally demonstrated. The average insertion loss of a 5 μm SWG waveguide bend can be reduced drastically from 5.58 dB to 1.37 dB per 90° bend for quasi-TE polarization. In the future, the proposed approach can be readily adopted to enhance performance of an array of SWG waveguide-based photonics devices.

  20. Twisting dependent properties of twisted carbon nanotube fibers: microstructure and strain transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jinyuan; Xie, Erqing; Sun, Gengzhi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-01-01

    The dependences of twisting parameters on the electric and mechanical properties of twisted CNT fibers were systematically studied. Results from electric and mechanical measurements showed that twisting intensity is very effective to improve the electric and mechanical properties of CNT fibers. Further calculations combined with Raman results indicate that the twisting treatments, to a certain extent, can greatly enhance the strain transfer factors of the samples, which dominates the mechanical properties of CNT fibers. In addition, studies on the effect of twisting speeds suggested that lower twisting speed can lead to higher uniformity but lower performances in the electric and mechanical properties, higher twisting speed to higher Young’s modulus and higher conductance but lower uniformities. Ultra-strong uniform CNT fibers need to be prepared with a suitable twisting speed. (paper)

  1. Remarks on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-04-15

    We review recent results on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory by embedding it into a general framework for the quantization of systems with a twisted symmetry. We discuss commutation relations in this setting and show that the twisted structure is so rigid that it is hard to derive any predictions, unless one gives up general principles of quantum theory. It is also shown that the twisted structure is not responsible for the presence or absence of UV/IR-mixing, as claimed in the literature. (Orig.)

  2. Waveguide-based optofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnutsch, Christian; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Monat, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    blocks in many applications, from microlasers and biomedical sensor systems to optical switches and integrated circuits. In this paper, we show that PhC microcavities can be formed by infusing a liquid into a selected section of a uniform PhC waveguide and that the optical properties of these cavities...... and highlight the benefits of an optofluidic approach, focusing on optofluidic cavities created in silicon photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide platforms. These cavities can be spatially and spectrally reconfigured, thus allowing a dynamic control of their optical characteristics. PhC cavities are major building...... can be tuned and adapted. By taking advantage of the negative thermo-optic coefficient of liquids, we describe a method which renders PhC cavities insensitive to temperature changes in the environment. This is only one example where the fluid-control of optical elements results in a functionality...

  3. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  4. Device for measuring well twistings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, Yu S; Golubin, S V; Keller, V F; Merzheyevskiy, A B; Zdorov, V P

    1982-01-01

    The device for measuring the well twistings with the use of fluids (poured into a vessel and which leave an imprint on the walls), containing a housing and adapter, is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the accuracy of measurement by obtaining a clear imprint, it is equipped with cylinder that is spring-loaded in relation to the adapter, forming a vessel for fluid with the adapter. The adapter is made of two parts, one of which is made of neutral metal in relation to the fluid, and the other, from active in relation to the same fluid.

  5. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  6. Low Loss 1×2 Optical Coupler Based on Cosine S-bend with Segmented Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Ian; Sahmah, Abu; Supa'at, M.; Idrus, Sevia M.; Ridwanto, Muhammad; Al-hetar, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an optimization of 1×2 polymer Y-junction optical coupler. The optimized optical coupler comprises straight polymer waveguide as the input waveguide, tapered waveguide, modified cosine S-bend and linear waveguide. At the branching point, N short waveguides with small width are introduced to reduce evanescent field. At operating wavelength of 1550 nm the excess loss of the coupler is ˜0.18 dB. In term of polarization dependence loss (PDL), the proposed coupler also shows a good performance with PDL value of less than 0.015 dB for wavelength range of 1470 nm-1550 nm. The proposed coupler could reduce excess loss more than 25% compared to conventional Y junction optical coupler.

  7. Low crosstalk Arrayed Waveguide Grating with Cascaded Waveguide Grating Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yang; Liu Yuan; Gao Dingshan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a highly compact and low crosstalk arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with cascaded waveguide grating (CWGF). The side lobes of the silicon nanowire AWG, which are normally introduced by fabrication errors, can be effectively suppressed by the CWGF. And the crosstalk can be improved about 15dB.

  8. Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.

  9. Silicon Nitride Background in Nanophotonic Waveguide Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashim Dhakal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that evanescent Raman spectroscopy using a silicon nitride (SiN nanophotonic waveguide platform has higher signal enhancement when compared to free-space systems. However, signal-to-noise ratio from the waveguide at a low analyte concentration is constrained by the shot-noise from the background light originating from the waveguide itself. Hence, understanding the origin and properties of this waveguide background luminescence (WGBL is essential to developing mitigation strategies. Here, we identify the dominating component of the WGBL spectrum composed of a broad Raman scattering due to momentum selection-rule breaking in amorphous materials, and several peaks specific to molecules embedded in the core. We determine the maximum of the Raman scattering efficiency of the WGBL at room temperature for 785 nm excitation to be 4.5 ± 1 × 10−9 cm−1·sr−1, at a Stokes shift of 200 cm−1. This efficiency decreases monotonically for higher Stokes shifts. Additionally, we also demonstrate the use of slotted waveguides and quasi-transverse magnetic polarization as some mitigation strategies.

  10. Integrated optical circuit comprising a polarization convertor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    An integrated optical circuit includes a first device and a second device, which devices are connected by a polarization convertor. The polarization convertor includes a curved section of a waveguide, integrated in the optical circuit. The curved section may have several differently curved

  11. Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting: usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiltunen, Marianne; Puustinen, Jarkko; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Karioja, Pentti

    2009-12-07

    Optical ridge type waveguides based on UV-curable polymer were fabricated by imprinting method. Positive tone resist patterned on a silicon wafer was used as a mould. The characterization of waveguides was carried out by coupling TE-polarized light from a tapered fiber into a waveguide with 30 mm length and mapping the intensity distribution with another tapered fiber at the output facet of a waveguide. Proper single- or multimode operation was observed depending on the waveguide width being either 2 microm or 6 microm. Experimental observations on the mode profiles were also supported by the simulation results. Average power transmissions of 32% at 1530 nm wavelength and 45% at 1310 nm wavelength were characterized. The results suggest that the simple mould fabrication process might be a useful technique for device prototyping and that the performance of replicated waveguides can meet the requirements for certain applications.

  12. Polarization states encoded by phase modulation for high bit rate quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaobao; Tang Zhilie; Liao Changjun; Lu Yiqun; Zhao Feng; Liu Songhao

    2006-01-01

    We present implementation of quantum cryptography with polarization code by wave-guide type phase modulator. At four different low input voltages of the phase modulator, coder encodes pulses into four different polarization states, 45 o , 135 o linearly polarized or right, left circle polarized, while the decoder serves as the complementary polarizers

  13. Strong-field ionization with twisted laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paufler, Willi; Böning, Birger; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    We apply quantum trajectory Monte Carlo computations in order to model strong-field ionization of atoms by twisted Bessel pulses and calculate photoelectron momentum distributions (PEMD). Since Bessel beams can be considered as an infinite superposition of circularly polarized plane waves with the same helicity, whose wave vectors lie on a cone, we compared the PEMD of such Bessel pulses to those of a circularly polarized pulse. We focus on the momentum distributions in propagation direction of the pulse and show how these momentum distributions are affected by experimental accessible parameters, such as the opening angle of the beam or the impact parameter of the atom with regard to the beam axis. In particular, we show that we can find higher momenta of the photoelectrons, if the opening angle is increased.

  14. Flicker in a twisted nematic spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Hermosillo, Yuliana; García-Márquez, Jorge; Espinosa-Luna, Rafael; Ochoa, Noé Alcalá; López, Víctor; Aguilar, Alberto; Noé-Arias, Enrique; Alayli, Yasser

    2013-06-01

    Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) are widely used for their capability to control beams howbeit fluctuations in phase and amplitude. It is then necessary to understand the negative effects of these fluctuations, also known as flicker, and the means to mitigate them. The flicker is observed either as high frequency variations of polarization, attenuation or high phase fluctuations on the wave front modulated by the LCoS device. Here, we compare the flicker behavior in a twisted nematic (TN) LCoS-SLM for different polarization schemes and temperatures. The quantitative evaluation shows that flicker is effectively reduced only by chilling the LCoS panel to temperatures just below 0 °C but, the LCoS modulation capability is also affected.

  15. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  16. Quantisation of monotonic twist maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasman, P.A.; Smilansky, U.

    1993-08-01

    Using an approach suggested by Moser, classical Hamiltonians are generated that provide an interpolating flow to the stroboscopic motion of maps with a monotonic twist condition. The quantum properties of these Hamiltonians are then studied in analogy with recent work on the semiclassical quantization of systems based on Poincare surfaces of section. For the generalized standard map, the correspondence with the usual classical and quantum results is shown, and the advantages of the quantum Moser Hamiltonian demonstrated. The same approach is then applied to the free motion of a particle on a 2-torus, and to the circle billiard. A natural quantization condition based on the eigenphases of the unitary time--development operator is applied, leaving the exact eigenvalues of the torus, but only the semiclassical eigenvalues for the billiard; an explanation for this failure is proposed. It is also seen how iterating the classical map commutes with the quantization. (authors)

  17. Optics of twisted nematic and supertwisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, F.; Schadt, M.

    1986-11-01

    For the first time calculations of the off-state transmission of twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays (LCD's) are presented which exhibit twist angles greater than the conventional 90 °. The transmission has been calculated using a treatment introduced by Priestley. In addition, the CIE (Commission Internationale d'Eclairage) color coordinates were evaluated which, together with the brightness, determine the optical appearance of an LCD. The finite efficiency of the polarizers was taken into account. The results are compared with those obtained for conventional 90 ° twisted nematic LCD's. From the calculations follow the conditions required to obtain optimal contrast and steep electro-optical characteristics in 180 ° supertwisted LCD's designed for high information content applications.

  18. Broadband chirality and asymmetric transmission in ultrathin 90°-twisted Babinet-inverted metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J. H.; Ma, H. F.; Guan, C. Y.; Wang, Z. P.; Cui, T. J.

    2014-04-01

    A broadband asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves with totally suppressed copolarization transmission is experimentally demonstrated in ultrathin 90°-twisted Babinet-inverted metasurfaces constructed by an array of asymmetrically split ring apertures. The only accessible direction-dependent cross-polarization transmission is allowed in this anisotropic chiral metamaterial. Through full-wave simulation and experiment results, the bilayered Babinet-inverted metasurface reveals broadband artificial chirality and asymmetric transmission, with a transmission contrast that is better than 17.7 dB within a 50% relative bandwidth for two opposite directions. In particular, we can modify polarization conversion efficiency and the bandwidth of asymmetric transmission via parametric study.

  19. Freeform Phononic Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gkantzounis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We employ a recently introduced class of artificial structurally-disordered phononic structures that exhibit large and robust elastic frequency band gaps for efficient phonon guiding. Phononic crystals are periodic structures that prohibit the propagation of elastic waves through destructive interference and exhibit large band gaps and ballistic propagation of elastic waves in the permitted frequency ranges. In contrast, random-structured materials do not exhibit band gaps and favour localization or diffusive propagation. Here, we use structures with correlated disorder constructed from the so-called stealthy hyperuniform disordered point patterns, which can smoothly vary from completely random to periodic (full order by adjusting a single parameter. Such amorphous-like structures exhibit large band gaps (comparable to the periodic ones, both ballistic-like and diffusive propagation of elastic waves, and a large number of localized modes near the band edges. The presence of large elastic band gaps allows the creation of waveguides in hyperuniform materials, and we analyse various waveguide architectures displaying nearly 100% transmission in the GHz regime. Such phononic-circuit architectures are expected to have a direct impact on integrated micro-electro-mechanical filters and modulators for wireless communications and acousto-optical sensing applications.

  20. Four-point functions with a twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargheer, Till [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2017-01-15

    We study the OPE of correlation functions of local operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The considered operators have an explicit spacetime dependence that is defined by twisting the translation generators with certain R-symmetry generators. We restrict to operators that carry a small number of excitations above the twisted BMN vacuum. The OPE limit of the four-point correlator is dominated by internal states with few magnons on top of the vacuum. The twisting directly couples all spacetime dependence of the correlator to these magnons. We analyze the OPE in detail, and single out the extremal states that have to cancel all double-trace contributions.

  1. Euclidean supersymmetry, twisting and topological sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.; Lindstroem, U.; Santos, L. Melo dos; Zabzine, M.; Unge, R. von

    2008-01-01

    We discuss two dimensional N-extended supersymmetry in Euclidean signature and its R-symmetry. For N = 2, the R-symmetry is SO(2) x SO(1, 1), so that only an A-twist is possible. To formulate a B-twist, or to construct Euclidean N = 2 models with H-flux so that the target geometry is generalised Kahler, it is necessary to work with a complexification of the sigma models. These issues are related to the obstructions to the existence of non-trivial twisted chiral superfields in Euclidean superspace.

  2. Large tuning of birefringence in two strip silicon waveguides via optomechanical motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2009-09-28

    We present an optomechanical method to tune phase and group birefringence in parallel silicon strip waveguides. We first calculate the deformation of suspended, parallel strip waveguides due to optical forces. We optimize the frequency and polarization of the pump light to obtain a 9 nm deformation for an optical power of 20 mW. Widely tunable phase and group birefringence can be achieved by varying the pump power, with maximum values of 0.026 and 0.13, respectively. The giant phase birefringence allows linear to circular polarization conversion within 30 microm for a pump power of 67 mW. The group birefringence gives a tunable differential group delay of 6fs between orthogonal polarizations. We also evaluate the tuning performance of waveguides with different cross sections.

  3. Evanescent fields of laser written waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Dario; Pohl, Thomas; Götte, Jörg B.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the evanescent field at the surface of laser written waveguides. The waveguides are written by a direct femtosecond laser writing process into fused silica, which is then sanded down to expose the guiding layer. These waveguides support eigenmodes which have an evanescent field reaching into the vacuum above the waveguide. We study the governing wave equations and present solution for the fundamental eigenmodes of the modified waveguides.

  4. Grating-Coupled Waveguide Cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jia-Fu; Qu Shao-Bo; Ma Hua; Wang Cong-Min; Wang Xin-Hua; Zhou Hang; Xu Zhuo; Xia Song

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of a grating-coupled waveguide (GCW), a new strategy for realizing EM cloaking is presented. Using metallic grating, incident waves are firstly coupled into the effective waveguide and then decoupled into free space behind, enabling EM waves to pass around the obstacle. Phase compensation in the waveguide keeps the wave-front shape behind the obstacle unchanged. Circular, rectangular and triangular cloaks are presented to verify the robustness of the GCW cloaking. Electric field animations and radar cross section (RCS) comparisons convincingly demonstrate the cloaking effect

  5. Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed short-reach communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Shi, F.; Chu, D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    Multimode polymer waveguides have attracted great interest for use in high-speed short-reach communication links as they can be cost-effectively integrated onto standard PCBs using conventional methods of the electronics industry and provide low loss (30 GHz×m) interconnection. The formation of such waveguides on flexible substrates can further provide flexible low-weight low-thickness interconnects and offer additional freedom in the implementation of high-speed short-reach optical links. These attributes make these flexible waveguides particularly attractive for use in low-cost detachable chip-to-chip links and in environments where weight and shape conformity become important, such as in cars and aircraft. However, the highly-multimoded nature of these waveguides raises important questions about their performance under severe flex due to mode loss and mode coupling. In this work therefore, we investigate the loss, crosstalk and bandwidth performance of such waveguides under out-of plane bending and in-plane twisting under different launch conditions and carry out data transmission tests at 40 Gb/s on a 1 m long spiral flexible waveguide under flexure. Excellent optical transmission characteristics are obtained while robust loss, crosstalk and bandwidth performance are demonstrated under flexure. Error-free (BER<10-12) 40 Gb/s data transmission is achieved over the 1 m long spiral waveguide for a 180° bend with a 4 mm radius. The obtained results demonstrate the excellent optical and mechanical properties of this technology and highlight its potential for use in real-world systems.

  6. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  7. Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martínez, Javier; Chen, Feng; Aguiló, Magdalena; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2016-04-04

    Mid-infrared lithium niobate cladding waveguides have great potential in low-loss on-chip non-linear optical instruments such as mid-infrared spectrometers and frequency converters, but their three-dimensional femtosecond-laser fabrication is currently not well understood due to the complex interplay between achievable depressed index values and the stress-optic refractive index changes arising as a function of both laser fabrication parameters, and cladding arrangement. Moreover, both the stress-field anisotropy and the asymmetric shape of low-index tracks yield highly birefringent waveguides not useful for most applications where controlling and manipulating the polarization state of a light beam is crucial. To achieve true high performance devices a fundamental understanding on how these waveguides behave and how they can be ultimately optimized is required. In this work we employ a heuristic modelling approach based on the use of standard optical characterization data along with standard computational numerical methods to obtain a satisfactory approximate solution to the problem of designing realistic laser-written circuit building-blocks, such as straight waveguides, bends and evanescent splitters. We infer basic waveguide design parameters such as the complex index of refraction of laser-written tracks at 3.68 µm mid-infrared wavelengths, as well as the cross-sectional stress-optic index maps, obtaining an overall waveguide simulation that closely matches the measured mid-infrared waveguide properties in terms of anisotropy, mode field distributions and propagation losses. We then explore experimentally feasible waveguide designs in the search of a single-mode low-loss behaviour for both ordinary and extraordinary polarizations. We evaluate the overall losses of s-bend components unveiling the expected radiation bend losses of this type of waveguides, and finally showcase a prototype design of a low-loss evanescent splitter. Developing a realistic waveguide

  8. Twisted covariant noncommutative self-dual gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-01-01

    A twisted covariant formulation of noncommutative self-dual gravity is presented. The formulation for constructing twisted noncommutative Yang-Mills theories is used. It is shown that the noncommutative torsion is solved at any order of the θ expansion in terms of the tetrad and some extra fields of the theory. In the process the first order expansion in θ for the Plebanski action is explicitly obtained.

  9. Nonlinear physics of twisted magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zensho

    1998-01-01

    Twisted magnetic field lines appear commonly in many different plasma systems, such as magnetic ropes created through interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, magnetic clouds in the solar wind, solar corona, galactic jets, accretion discs, as well as fusion plasma devices. In this paper, we study the topological characterization of twisted magnetic fields, nonlinear effect induced by the Lorentz back reaction, length-scale bounds, and statistical distributions. (author)

  10. OAM mode converter in twisted fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Cordeiro, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA.......We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA....

  11. Further Generalisations of Twisted Gabidulin Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde, Johan Sebastian Heesemann; Sheekey, John

    2017-01-01

    We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes.......We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes....

  12. A Novel Low-Loss Diamond-Core Porous Fiber for Polarization Maintaining Terahertz Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G. K. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the numerical design optimization of a new kind of relatively simple porous-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for terahertz (THz) waveguiding. A novel twist is introduced in the regular hexagonal PCF by including a diamond-shaped porous-core inside the hexagonal cladding. The numeric...

  13. Optical waveguide theory

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Allan W

    1983-01-01

    This text is intended to provide an in-depth, self-contained, treatment of optical waveguide theory. We have attempted to emphasize the underlying physical processes, stressing conceptual aspects, and have developed the mathematical analysis to parallel the physical intuition. We also provide comprehensive supplementary sections both to augment any deficiencies in mathematical background and to provide a self-consistent and rigorous mathematical approach. To assist in. understanding, each chapter con­ centrates principally on a single idea and is therefore comparatively short. Furthermore, over 150 problems with complete solutions are given to demonstrate applications of the theory. Accordingly, through simplicity of approach and numerous examples, this book is accessible to undergraduates. Many fundamental topics are presented here for the first time, but, more importantly, the material is brought together to give a unified treatment of basic ideas using the simplest approach possible. To achieve such a goa...

  14. Polymer Waveguide Fabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Delvan A.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of integrated optic systems to compete in signal processing aplications with more traditional analog and digital electronic systems is discussed. The Acousto-Optic Spectrum Analyzer is an example which motivated the particular work discussed herein. Provided real time processing is more critical than absolute accuracy, such integrated optic systems fulfill a design need. Fan-out waveguide arrays allow crosstalk in system detector arrays to be controlled without directly limiting system resolution. A polyurethane pattern definition process was developed in order to demonstrate fan-out arrays. This novel process is discussed, along with further research needs. Integrated optic system market penetration would be enhanced by development of commercial processes of this type.

  15. The disorder effect on the performance of novel waveguides constructed in two-dimensional amorphous photonic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiao; Wang Yi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of two-dimensional amorphous photonic materials, we have designed a novel waveguide by inserting thinner cylindrical inclusions in the centre of basic hexagonal units of the amorphous structure along a given path. This waveguide in amorphous structure is similar to the coupled resonator optical waveguides in periodic photonic crystals. The transmission of this waveguide for S-polarized waves is investigated by a multiple-scattering method. Compared with the conventional waveguide by removing a line of cells from amorphous photonic materials, the guiding properties of this waveguide, including the transmissivity and bandwidth, are improved significantly. Then we study the effect of various types of positional disorder on the functionality of this device. Our results show that the waveguide performance is quite sensitive to the disorder located on the boundary layer of the waveguide, but robust against the disorder in the other area in amorphous structure except the waveguide border. This disorder effect in amorphous photonic materials is similar to the case in periodic photonic crystals. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  17. MHD waveguides in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    The waveguide properties of two characteristic formations in the Earth's magnetotail-the plasma sheet and the current (neutral) sheet-are considered. The question of how the domains of existence of different types of MHD waveguide modes (fast and slow, body and surface) in the (k, ω) plane and their dispersion properties depend on the waveguide parameters is studied. Investigation of the dispersion relation in a number of particular (limiting) cases makes it possible to obtain a fairly complete qualitative pattern of all the branches of the dispersion curve. Accounting for the finite size of perturbations across the wave propagation direction reveals new additional effects such as a change in the critical waveguide frequencies, the excitation of longitudinal current at the boundaries of the sheets, and a change in the symmetry of the fundamental mode. Knowledge of the waveguide properties of the plasma and current sheets can explain the occurrence of preferred frequencies in the low-frequency fluctuation spectra in the magnetotail. In satellite observations, the type of waveguide mode can be determined from the spectral properties, as well as from the phase relationships between plasma oscillations and magnetic field oscillations that are presented in this paper.

  18. Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Thorhauge, Morten

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of TM polarized light in planar photonic crystal waveguide structures, which exhibit photonic band gaps for TE polarized light. Straight and bent photonic crystal waveguides and couplers have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and modelled using a 3......D finite-difference-time-domain method. The simulated spectra are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, which show a propagation loss as low as 2.5±4 dB/mm around 1525 nm and bend losses at 2.9±0.2 dB for TM polarized light. We demonstrate a high coupling for TM polarized light...

  19. Beams made of twisted atoms: A theoretical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayrapetyan, Armen [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Matula, Oliver [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Surzhykov, Andrey [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fritzsche, Stephan [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We have analyzed Bessel beams of two-level atoms that are driven by a linearly polarized laser light. Based on the Schroedinger equation for two-level systems, we first determine the states of two-level atoms in a plane-wave field by taking into account propagation directions both of the atom and the field. For such laser-driven two-level atoms, we construct Bessel beams by going beyond the typical paraxial approximation. In particular, we show that the probability density of these atomic beams exhibits a non-trivial, Bessel-squared-type behavior. The profile of such twisted atoms is affected by atom and laser parameters, such as the nuclear charge, atom velocity, laser frequency, and propagation geometry of the atom and laser beams. Moreover, we spatially and temporally characterize the beam of hydrogen and selected (neutral) alkali-metal atoms that carry non-zero orbital angular momentum (OAM). The proposed spatiotemporal Bessel states (i) are able to describe twisted states of any two-level system which is driven by the radiation field and (ii) have potential applications in atomic and nuclear processes as well as in quantum communication.

  20. Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Ou, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-low-loss coupler for interfacing a silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide and a single-mode fiber in both polarizations is presented. The inverted taper coupler, embedded in a polymer waveguide, is optimized for both the transverse-magnetic and transverse-electric modes through tapering...... the width of the silicon-on-insulator waveguide from 450 nm down to less than 15 nm applying a thermal oxidation process. Two inverted taper couplers are integrated with a 3-mm long silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide in the fabricated sample. The measured coupling losses of the inverted taper coupler...... for transverse-magnetic and transverse-electric modes are ~0.36 dB and ~0.66 dB per connection, respectively....

  1. Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency in dominent TE 01 mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide harmonic damping characteristics of the damper

  2. γ*→ρT impact factor with twist three accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I. V.; Ivanov, D. Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the impact factor of the transition γ*→ρ T taking into account the twist 3 contributions. We show that a gauge invariant expression is obtained with the help of QCD equations of motion. Our results are free of end-point singularities. This opens the way to a consistent treatment of factorization for exclusive processes with a transversally polarized vector meson.

  3. Leading Twist TMDs in a Light-Front Quark-Diquark Model for Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar

    2018-05-01

    We present p_{\\perp } variation (fixed x) of the leading-twist T-even transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs) of a proton in a light-front quark-diquark model at μ ^2=2.4 and 20 GeV^2. The quark densities for unpolarized and transversely polarized proton are also presented. We observe a Soffer bound for TMDs in this model.

  4. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M.

    2001-01-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  5. FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Chethiya M; Premaratne, Malin; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-09-27

    A deep insight into the inherent anisotropic optical properties of silicon is required to improve the performance of silicon-waveguide-based photonic devices. It may also lead to novel device concepts and substantially extend the capabilities of silicon photonics in the future. In this paper, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, we present a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling optical phenomena in silicon waveguides, which takes into account fully the anisotropy of the third-order electronic and Raman susceptibilities. We show that, under certain realistic conditions that prevent generation of the longitudinal optical field inside the waveguide, this model is considerably simplified and can be represented by a computationally efficient algorithm, suitable for numerical analysis of complex polarization effects. To demonstrate the versatility of our model, we study polarization dependence for several nonlinear effects, including self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, and stimulated Raman scattering. Our FDTD model provides a basis for a full-blown numerical simulator that is restricted neither by the single-mode assumption nor by the slowly varying envelope approximation.

  6. Examination of higher-order twist contributions in parity-violating deep-inelastic electron-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantry, Sonny; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Sacco, Gian Franco

    2010-01-01

    We show that parity-violating deep-inelastic scattering (PVDIS) of longitudinally polarized electrons from deuterium can in principle be a relatively clean probe of higher twist quark-quark correlations beyond the parton model. As first observed by Bjorken and Wolfenstein, the dominant contribution to the electron polarization asymmetry, proportional to the axial vector electron coupling, receives corrections at twist four from the matrix element of a single four-quark operator. We reformulate the Bjorken-Wolfenstein argument in a matter suitable for the interpretation of experiments planned at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). In particular, we observe that because the contribution of the relevant twist-four operator satisfies the Callan-Gross relation, the ratio of parity-violating longitudinal and transverse cross sections, R γZ , is identical to that for purely electromagnetic scattering, R γ , up to perturbative and power-suppressed contributions. This result simplifies the interpretation of the asymmetry in terms of other possible novel hadronic and electroweak contributions. We use the results of MIT Bag Model calculations to estimate contributions of the relevant twist-four operator to the leading term in the asymmetry as a function of Bjorken x and Q 2 . We compare these estimates with possible leading twist corrections from violation of charge symmetry in the parton distribution functions.

  7. Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number q_e_f_f accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.

  8. Sin$\\phi$ azimuthal asymmetry in semi-inclusive electroproduction on longitudinally polarized nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Oganessian, K.A.; Bianchi, N.; Kotzinian, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the $sin \\phi$ azimuthal asymmetry in the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic lepton scattering off longitudinally polarized nucleon target arising from the time reversal odd structures. The order 1/Q contributions of the leading twist and twist-three distribution and fragmentation functions to that asymmetry for the certain kinematical conditions are numerically estimated.

  9. Method of adiabatic modes in studying problems of smoothly irregular open waveguide structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevastianov, L. A.; Egorov, A. A.; Sevastyanov, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Basic steps in developing an original method of adiabatic modes that makes it possible to solve the direct and inverse problems of simulating and designing three-dimensional multilayered smoothly irregular open waveguide structures are described. A new element in the method is that an approximate solution of Maxwell’s equations is made to obey “inclined” boundary conditions at the interfaces between themedia being considered. These boundary conditions take into account the obliqueness of planes tangent to nonplanar boundaries between the media and lead to new equations for coupled vector quasiwaveguide hybrid adiabatic modes. Solutions of these equations describe the phenomenon of “entanglement” of two linear polarizations of an irregular multilayered waveguide, the appearance of a new mode in an entangled state, and the effect of rotation of the polarization plane of quasiwaveguide modes. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by considering the example of numerically simulating a thin-film generalized waveguide Lüneburg lens.

  10. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources.

  11. Polarization of charmonium in πN collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wai-Keung.

    1994-09-01

    Measurements of the polarization of J/ψ produced in pion-nucleus collisions are in disagreement with leading twist QCD prediction were J/ψ is observed to have negligible polarization whereas theory predicts substantial polarization. We argue that this discrepancy cannot be due to poorly known structure functions nor the relative production rates of J/ψ and X J . The disagreement between theory and experiment suggests important higher twist corrections, as has earlier been surmised from the anomalous non-factorized nuclear A-dependence of the J/ψ cross section

  12. Photonic crystal waveguides in artificial opals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Kiyan, Roman; Neumeister, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    3D photonic crystals based on Si inverted-opals are numerically explored as hosts for effective air-channel waveguides, which can serve as parts of photonic circuits. Two basic shapes of straight waveguides are considered: cylindrical and a chain of spheres. Modelling shows that transmission...... is heavily dependent on the lattice position of the waveguide and its direction. Our experiments of defect inscription by 2-photon polymerization for the production of straight and bent waveguides in opal templates are reported....

  13. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  14. Factorising the 3D topologically twisted index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    We explore the path integration — upon the contour of hermitian (non-auxliary) field configurations — of topologically twisted N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theory (TTCSM) on {S}_2 times a segment. In this way, we obtain the formula for the 3D topologically twisted index, first as a convolution of TTCSM on {S}_2 times halves of {S}_1 , second as TTCSM on {S}_2 times {S}_1 — with a puncture, — and third as TTCSM on {S}_2× {S}_1 . In contradistinction to the first two cases, in the third case, the vector multiplet auxiliary field D is constrained to be anti-hermitian.

  15. Light-emitting waveguide-plasmon polaritions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Murai, S.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of light in an optical waveguide strongly coupled to a periodic array of metallic nanoantennas. This coupling gives rise to hybrid waveguide-plasmon polaritons (WPPs), which undergo a transmutation from plasmon to waveguide mode and vice versa as the eigenfrequency

  16. Theoretical study of the folded waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.L.; Owens, T.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have applied a three-dimensional (3-D) algorithm for solving Maxwell's equations to the analysis of foleded waveguides used for fusion plasma heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency. A rigorous analysis of the magnetic field structure in the folded waveguide is presented. The results are compared to experimenntal measurements. Optimum conditions for the folded waveguide are discussed. 6 refs., 10 figs

  17. Waveguide Phased Array Antenna Analysis and Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of two software packages for analysis and synthesis of waveguide phased array antennas are shown. The antennas consist of arrays of open-ended waveguides where irises can be placed in the waveguide apertures and multiple dielectric sheets in front of the apertures in order to accomplish a

  18. A higher twist correction to heavy quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Soper, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    The leading twist prediction for heavy quark production and a model for a higher twist correction that may be important for charm production was discussed. The correction arises from the interaction of the charm quark with spectator quarks

  19. Near-field characterization of low-loss photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Borel, Peter Ingo

    2005-01-01

    -nm-period lattices with different filling factors (0.76 and 0.82) and connected to access ridge waveguides. Using the near-field optical images we investigate the light propagation along PCWs for TM and TE polarization (the electric field is perpendicular/parallel to the sample surface). Efficient...

  20. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongers, W. A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE) separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG). The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with di...

  1. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N. J.; Braber, R. van den; Brand, H. van den; Meo, F.; Baar, M.R. de; Amerongen, F.J.; Donné, A.J.H.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Erckmann, V.; Goede, A.P.H.; Giannone, L.; Grünwald, G.; Hollman, F.; Kaas, G.; Krijger, B.; Michel, G.; Lubyako, L.; Monaco, F.; Noke, F.; Petelin, M.; Plaum, B.; Purps, F.; Pierik, J.G.W. ten; Schüller, C.; Slob, J.W.; Stober, J.K.; Schütz, H.; Wagner, D.; Westerhof, E.; Ronden, D.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE) separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG). The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with

  2. High-resolution second-harmonic microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2003-01-01

    , and the spatial resolution at the pump wavelength of 790 nm is determined to be better than 0.7 m. SHSOM images of positively poled silica waveguides were obtained for different polarization combinations of the incident pump beam and the detected second-harmonic radiation. Calibration of the SHSOM with a Ga...

  3. Spin current in an electron waveguide tunnel-coupled to a topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, Aleksei A; Sablikov, Vladimir A

    2012-01-01

    We show that electron tunneling from edge states in a two-dimensional topological insulator into a parallel electron waveguide leads to the appearance of spin-polarized current in the waveguide. The spin polarization P can be very close to unity and the electron current passing through the tunnel contact splits in the waveguide into two branches flowing from the contact. The polarization essentially depends on the electron scattering by the contact and the electron-electron interaction in the one-dimensional edge states. The electron-electron interaction is treated within the Luttinger liquid model. The main effect of the interaction stems from the renormalization of the electron velocity, due to which the polarization increases with the interaction strength. Electron scattering by the contact leads to a decrease in P. A specific effect occurs when the bottom of the subbands in the waveguide crosses the Dirac point of the spectrum of edge states when changing the voltage or chemical potential. This leads to changing the direction of the spin current.

  4. Polarization-dependent plasmonic splitter based on low-loss polymer optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guang; Fu, Xing-Chang; Zhang, Li-Jiang; Liu, Yi-Ran; Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Tong

    2018-01-01

    A polarization-dependent optical beam splitter consisting of a straight long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) waveguide and an S-bend polymer waveguide was designed, fabricated and measured in this paper. At the splitting section, the two different waveguides are vertically coupled. The measurenment results show that the splitter operated in dual-channel mode at TM polarization, and single-channel mode at TE polarization. In addition, the polymer waveguide and LRSPP waveguide in the splitter exhibit low propagation loss of 0.51 dB/cm and 1.7 dB/cm, respectively. The hybrid beam splitter has wide potential applications in three dimensional (3D) multilayer photonic integrated circuits (PICs).

  5. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex-valued paramet......Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex...

  6. Waveguiding with surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Zhanghua; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    the diffraction limit, i.e., on the nanoscale, while enhancing local field strengths by several orders of magnitude. This unique feature of SPP modes along with ever increasing demands for miniaturization of photonic components and circuits generates an exponentially growing interest to SPP-mediated radiation...... guiding and SPP-based waveguide components. Here we review the current status of this rapidly developing field, starting with a brief presentation of main planar SPP modes, and then describing in detail various SPP-based waveguide configurations that ensure two-dimensional mode confinement. Excitation...

  7. Twist operators in N=4 beta-deformed theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.; Łukowski, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we derive both the leading order finite size corrections for twist-2 and twist-3 operators and the next-to-leading order finite-size correction for twist-2 operators in beta-deformed SYM theory. The obtained results respect the principle of maximum transcendentality as well as

  8. Coupled nanopillar waveguides: optical properties and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    , while guided modes dispersion is strongly affected by the waveguide structure. We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of coupled nanopillar waveguides and discuss their possible applications for integrated optics. (C) 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim......In this paper we review basic properties of coupled periodic and aperiodic nanopillar waveguides. A coupled nanopillar waveguide consists of several rows of periodically or aperiodically placed dielectric rods (pillars). In such a waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection...

  9. Twisted Frobenius Identities from Vertex Operator Superalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zuevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the continuous orbifold partition function and a generating function for all n-point correlation functions for the rank two free fermion vertex operator superalgebra on the self-sewing torus, we introduce the twisted version of Frobenius identity.

  10. Magnetization Modeling of Twisted Superconducting Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Satiramatekul, T; Devred, Arnaud; Leroy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new Finite Element numerical method to analyze the coupling between twisted filaments in a superconducting multifilament composite wire. To avoid the large number of elements required by a 3D code, the proposed method makes use of the energy balance principle in a 2D code. The relationship between superconductor critical current density and local magnetic flux density is implemented in the program for the Bean and modified Kim models. The modeled wire is made up of six filaments twisted together and embedded in a lowresistivity matrix. Computations of magnetization cycle and of the electric field pattern have been performed for various twist pitch values in the case of a pure copper matrix. The results confirm that the maximum magnetization depends on the matrix conductivity, the superconductor critical current density, the applied field frequency, and the filament twist pitch. The simulations also lead to a practical criterion for wire design that can be used to assess whether or not th...

  11. Hilbert's Grand Hotel with a series twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Chanakya; Mamolo, Ami; Zazkis, Rina

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a new twist on a familiar paradox, linking seemingly disparate ideas under one roof. Hilbert's Grand Hotel, a paradox which addresses infinite set comparisons is adapted and extended to incorporate ideas from calculus - namely infinite series. We present and resolve several variations, and invite the reader to explore his or her own variations.

  12. On the Compton Twist-3 Asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkiyan, V.M.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1994-01-01

    The 'fermionic poles' contribution to the twist-3 single asymmetry in the gluon Compton process is calculated. The 'gluonic poles' existence seems to contradict the density matrix positivity. Qualitative predictions for the direct photon and jets asymmetries are presented. 13 refs., 2 figs

  13. Generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonskyi, I. A.; Feigin, E. B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce the notion of generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras. We study their representation-theoretic and combinatorial properties and also their connection with nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials. As an application, we compute the dimension of the classical Weyl modules in the remaining unknown case.

  14. Index matching of TE and TM modes in organic multilayer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans Peter

    We investigate transverse electric (TE) and magnetic (TM) mode propagation in organic multilayers consisting of aluminum quinoline (Alq3) and perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). In particular, we analyze two multilayer waveguides, Alq3-PTCDA-Alq3 and PTCDA-Alq3-PTCDA, engineered to give index matching according to modeling. The waveguides were grown on a glass substrate via organic molecular beam deposition. Fabry-Perot oscillations observed from reflection measurements were used to confirm the individual layer thicknesses. We were able to observe refractive index matching between TE0 and TE1, as well as TE2 and TE3 modes for the PTCDA-Alq3-PTCDA waveguide due to the light propagation through the top and bottom PTCDA layers, respectively. In addition, we were able to match TE1 and TM1, as well as TE3 and TM3 modes in the Alq3-PTCDA-Alq3 multilayer due to the birefringence of the PTCDA layer. Furthermore, we are able to create mode matching for a range of wavelengths due to the similar effective refractive index dispersion of different waveguide modes. The ability to phase match different waveguide modes opens a wide range of potential applications including polarization-insensitive propagation and mode switching by adding a thin magnetic metal film within the waveguide and applying an external magnetic field.

  15. Optical pulse dynamics for quantum-dot logic operations in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xun; John, Sajeev [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 Canada (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We numerically demonstrate all-optical logic operations with quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a bimodal photonic-crystal waveguide using Maxwell-Bloch equations in a slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). The two-level QD excitation level is controlled by one or more femtojoule optical driving pulses passing through the waveguide. Specific logic operations depend on the relative pulse strengths and their detunings from an inhomogeneouslly broadened (about 1% for QD transitions centered at 1.5 {mu}m) QD transition. This excitation controlled two-level medium then determines passage of subsequent probe optical pulses. Envelope equations for electromagnetic waves in the linear dispersion and cutoff waveguide modes are derived to simplify solution of the coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations in the waveguide. These determine the quantum mechanical evolution of the QD excitation and its polarization, driven by classical electromagnetic (EM) pulses near a sharp discontinuity in the EM density of states of the bimodal waveguide. Different configurations of the driving pulses lead to distinctive relations between driving pulse strength and probe pulse passage, representing all-optical logic and, or, and not operations. Simulation results demonstrate that such operations can be done on picosecond time scales and within a waveguide length of about 10 {mu}m in a photonic-band-gap (PBG) optical microchip.

  16. Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending-twist coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Bergamini, Andrea; Ermanni, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending-twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated.

  17. Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending–twist coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Ermanni, Paolo; Bergamini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending–twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated. (paper)

  18. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  19. Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length

  20. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  1. Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina; Têtu, Amélie; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    A photonic-crystal waveguide sensor is presented for biosensing. The sensor is applied for refractive index measurements and detection of protein-concentrations. Concentrations around 10 μg/ml (0.15μMolar) are measured with excellent signal to noise ratio, and a broad, dynamic refractive index se...

  2. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  3. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  4. Alternating twist structures formed by electroconvection in the nematic phase of an achiral bent-core molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shingo; Dhara, Surajit; Sadashiva, B K; Shimbo, Yoshio; Takanishi, Yoichi; Araoka, Fumito; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    We report an unusual electroconvection in the nematic phase of a bent-core liquid crystal. In a voltage-frequency diagram, two frequency regions exhibiting prewavy stripe patterns were found, as reported by Wiant We found that these stripes never show extinction dark when cells were rotated under crossed polarizers. Based on the color interchange in between neighboring stripes by the rotation of the cells or an analyzer, twisted molecular orientation is suggested; i.e., the directors are alternately twisted from the top to the bottom surfaces with a pretilt angle in adjacent stripes, which is an analogue of the twisted (splayed) structure observed in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells. The transmittance spectra calculated using the 4x4 matrix method from the model structure are consistent with the experimental observation.

  5. Chiral cell sliding drives left-right asymmetric organ twisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaki, Mikiko; Hatori, Ryo; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Okumura, Takashi; Ishibashi, Tomoki; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Polarized epithelial morphogenesis is an essential process in animal development. While this process is mostly attributed to directional cell intercalation, it can also be induced by other mechanisms. Using live-imaging analysis and a three-dimensional vertex model, we identified ‘cell sliding,’ a novel mechanism driving epithelial morphogenesis, in which cells directionally change their position relative to their subjacent (posterior) neighbors by sliding in one direction. In Drosophila embryonic hindgut, an initial left-right (LR) asymmetry of the cell shape (cell chirality in three dimensions), which occurs intrinsically before tissue deformation, is converted through LR asymmetric cell sliding into a directional axial twisting of the epithelial tube. In a Drosophila inversion mutant showing inverted cell chirality and hindgut rotation, cell sliding occurs in the opposite direction to that in wild-type. Unlike directional cell intercalation, cell sliding does not require junctional remodeling. Cell sliding may also be involved in other cases of LR-polarized epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:29891026

  6. A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N

    2007-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.

  7. Novel cell parameter determination of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xia; Jing Hai; Fu Guozhu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel method is proposed to determine the cell parameters including the twist angle, optic retardation and rubbing direction of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TNLCD) by rotating the TNLCD. It is a single-wavelength method. Because using subtraction equation of transmittance as curve fitting equation, the influence of the light from environment and the absorption by polarizer, the sample of TNLCD and analyser on the transmittance is eliminated. Accurate results can also be obtained in imperfect darkness. By large numbers of experiments, we found that not only the experimental setup is quite simple and can be easily adopted to be carried out, but also the results are accurate

  8. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  9. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donné A.J.H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG. The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG.

  10. Integrated-optic current sensors with a multimode interference waveguide device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Moon; Chu, Woo-Sung; Kim, Sang-Guk; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2016-04-04

    Optical current sensors based on polarization-rotated reflection interferometry are demonstrated using polymeric integrated optics and various functional optical waveguide devices. Interferometric sensors normally require bias feedback control for maintaining the operating point, which increases the cost. In order to resolve this constraint of feedback control, a multimode interference (MMI) waveguide device is integrated onto the current-sensor optical chip in this work. From the multiple outputs of the MMI, a 90° phase-shifted transfer function is obtained. Using passive quadrature demodulation, we demonstrate that the sensor could maintain the output signal regardless of the drift in the operating bias-point.

  11. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, W. A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.; van den Braber, R.; van den Brand, H.; Meo, F.; de Baar, M. R.; Amerongen, F. J.; Donné, A. J. H.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; Erckmann, V.; Goede, A. P. H.; Giannone, L.; Grünwald, G.; Hollman, F.; Kaas, G.; Krijger, B.; Michel, G.; Lubyako, L.; Monaco, F.; Noke, F.; Petelin, M.; Plaum, B.; Purps, F.; ten Pierik, J. G. W.; Schüller, C.; Slob, J. W.; Stober, J. K.; Schütz, H.; Wagner, D.; Westerhof, E.; Ronden, D. M. S.

    2012-09-01

    A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE) separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG). The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG.

  12. Polarization Control for Silicon Photonic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Jan Niklas

    In recent years, the field of silicon photonics has received much interest from researchers and companies across the world. The idea is to use photons to transmit information on a computer chip in order to increase computational speed while decreasing the power required for computation. To allow for communication between the chip and other components, such as the computer memory, these silicon photonics circuits need to be interfaced with optical fiber. Unfortunately, in order to interface an optical fiber with an integrated photonics circuit two major challenges need to be overcome: a mode-size mismatch as well as a polarization mismatch. While the problem of mode-size has been well investigated, the polarization mismatch has yet to be addressed. In order to solve the polarization mismatch one needs to gain control over the polarization of the light in a waveguide. In this thesis, I will present the components required to solve the polarization mismatch. Using a novel wave guiding structure, the hybrid plasmonic waveguide, an ultra-compact polarization rotator is designed, fabricated, and tested. The hybrid plasmonic rotator has a performance similar to purely dielectric rotators while being more than an order of magnitude smaller. Additionally, a broadband hybrid plasmonic coupler is designed and measured. This coupler has a performance similar to dielectric couplers while having a footprint an order of magnitude smaller. Finally, a system solution to the polarization mismatch is provided. The system, a polarization adapter, matches the incoming changing polarization from the fiber actively to the correct one of the silicon photonics circuit. The polarization adapter is demonstrated experimentally to prove its operation. This proof is based on dielectric components, but the aforementioned hybrid plasmonic waveguide components would make the system more compact.

  13. Polarization diversity DPSK demodulator on the silicon-on-insulator platform with simple fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Huang, Bo; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    of a tapered waveguide followed by a 2 × 2 multimode interferometer. A lowest insertion loss of 0.5 dB with low polarization dependent loss of 1.6 dB and low polarization dependent extinction ratio smaller than 3 dB are measured for the polarization diversity circuit. Clear eye-diagrams and a finite power...

  14. A New Twisting Somersault: 513XD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, William; Dullin, Holger R.

    2017-12-01

    We present the mathematical framework of an athlete modelled as a system of coupled rigid bodies to simulate platform and springboard diving. Euler's equations of motion are generalised to non-rigid bodies and are then used to innovate a new dive sequence that in principle can be performed by real-world athletes. We begin by assuming that shape changes are instantaneous so that the equations of motion simplify enough to be solved analytically, and then use this insight to present a new dive (513XD) consisting of 1.5 somersaults and five twists using realistic shape changes. Finally, we demonstrate the phenomenon of converting pure somersaulting motion into pure twisting motion by using a sequence of impulsive shape changes, which may have applications in other fields such as space aeronautics.

  15. Chiral tunneling in a twisted graphene bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-08-09

    The perfect transmission in a graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in a Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in a twisted graphene bilayer show an adjustable probability of chiral tunneling for normal incidence: they can be changed from perfect tunneling to partial or perfect reflection, or vice versa, by controlling either the height of the barrier or the incident energy. As well as addressing basic physics about how the chiral fermions with different chiralities tunnel through a barrier, our results provide a facile route to tune the electronic properties of the twisted graphene bilayer.

  16. Factorising the 3D topologically twisted index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-04-20

    We explore the path integration — upon the contour of hermitian (non-auxliary) field configurations — of topologically twisted N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theory (TTCSM) on S{sub 2} times a segment. In this way, we obtain the formula for the 3D topologically twisted index, first as a convolution of TTCSM on S{sub 2} times halves of S{sub 1}, second as TTCSM on S{sub 2} times S{sub 1} — with a puncture, — and third as TTCSM on S{sub 2}×S{sub 1}. In contradistinction to the first two cases, in the third case, the vector multiplet auxiliary field D is constrained to be anti-hermitian.

  17. IRONY IN CHARLES DICKEN'S OLIVER TWIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Kana Trisnawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the types of irony used by Charles Dickens in his notable early work, Oliver Twist, as well as the reasons the irony was chosen. As a figurative language, irony is utilized to express one’s complex feelings without truly saying them. In Oliver Twist, Dickens brought the readers some real social issues wrapped in dark, deep written expressions of irony uttered by the characters of his novel. Undoubtedly, the novel had left an impact to the British society at the time. The irony Dickens displayed here includes verbal, situational, and dramatic irony. His choice of irony made sense as he intended to criticize the English Poor Laws and to touch the public sentiment. He wanted to let the readers go beyond what was literally written and once they discovered what the truth was, they would eventually understand Dickens’ purposes.

  18. Leibniz algebroids, twistings and exceptional generalized geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraglia, D.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate a class of Leibniz algebroids which are invariant under diffeomorphisms and symmetries involving collections of closed forms. Under appropriate assumptions we arrive at a classification which in particular gives a construction starting from graded Lie algebras. In this case the Leibniz bracket is a derived bracket and there are higher derived brackets resulting in an L∞-structure. The algebroids can be twisted by a non-abelian cohomology class and we prove that the twisting class is described by a Maurer-Cartan equation. For compact manifolds we construct a Kuranishi moduli space of this equation which is shown to be affine algebraic. We explain how these results are related to exceptional generalized geometry.

  19. Valve-aided twisted Savonius rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Rajkumar, M.; Saha, U.K.

    2006-05-15

    Accessories, such as end plates, deflecting plates, shielding and guide vanes, may increase the power of a Savonius rotor, but make the system structurally complex. In such cases, the rotor can develop a relatively large torque at small rotational speeds and is cheap to build, however it harnesses only a small fraction of the incident wind energy. Another proposition for increasing specific output is to place non-return valves inside the concave side of the blades. Such methods have been studied experimentally with a twisted-blade Thus improving a Savonius rotor's energy capture. This new concept has been named as the 'Valve-Aided Twisted Savonius'rotor. Tests were conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel to evaluate performance. This mechanism is found to be independent of flow direction, and shows potential for large machines. [Author].

  20. Low-loss single mode light waveguides in polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Heinrich; Boehm, Hans-Jürgen; Hollenbach, Uwe; Mohr, Jürgen; Ostrzinski, Ute; Pfeiffer, Karl; Szczurowski, Marcin; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2012-06-01

    We report on the development of a UV-lithography manufacturing process for low loss single mode light waveguides in a novel polymer and the characterization of the fabricated components in a broad wavelength range from 808 nm to 1550 nm. The main focus of this work lies in providing a quick and cost efficient production technique for single mode waveguides and low loss integrated optical circuits. To achieve this goal we chose a novel photo-structurable polymer host-guest-system consisting of SU8 and a low refractive dopant monomer. Near and far-field measurements at different wavelengths show that the mode propagating within a well designed integrated waveguide structure and the mode of a standard fiber can exhibit a mode overlap value of approximately 1 and suffer only very low coupling losses. We demonstrate excess loss of 0.14 dB/cm for 808 nm, 0.33 dB/cm for 1310 nm and 2.86 dB/cm for 1550 nm. Typical insertion loss values of straight waveguides with a length of 36 mm are 0.9 dB for 808 nm, 1.5 dB for 1310 nm and 10.4 dB for 1550 nm. Polarization dependent loss was found to be less than 0.2 dB on sets of test structures of 36 mm length. We measured material attenuation in the novel polymer material before cross-linking of approximately 0.04 dB/cm for 808 nm and around 0.20 dB/cm for 1310 nm respectively. The presented production technique is suitable to provide low loss and low cost integrated optical circuits for sensor and communication applications in a broad wavelength range.

  1. Chiral Tunnelling in Twisted Graphene Bilayer

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The perfect transmission in graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in twisted graphene bilayer shows adjustable probability of chiral tunnelling for normal incidence: they can be changed fr...

  2. Vacuum expectation value of twist fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Twist fields emerge in a number of physical applications ranging from entanglement entropy to scattering amplitudes in four-dimensional gauge theories. In this work, their vacuum expectation values are studied in the path integral framework. By performing a gauge transformation, their correlation functions are reduced to field theory of matter fields in external Aharonov-Bohm vortices. The resulting functional determinants are then analyzed within the zeta-function regularization for the spectrum of Bessel zeros, and concise formulas are derived.

  3. Leibniz algebroids, twistings and exceptional generalized geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Baraglia, David

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a class of Leibniz algebroids which are invariant under diffeomorphisms and symmetries involving collections of closed forms. Under appropriate assumptions we arrive at a classification which in particular gives a construction starting from graded Lie algebras. In this case the Leibniz bracket is a derived bracket and there are higher derived brackets resulting in an $L_\\infty$-structure. The algebroids can be twisted by a non-abelian cohomology class and we prove that the twis...

  4. Exploring exotic states with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    he goal of this thesis is to develop methods to study the nature and properties of exotic hadrons from lattice simulations. The main focus lies in the application of twisted boundary conditions. The thesis consists of a general introduction and the collection of three papers, represented respectively in three chapters. The introduction of the thesis reviews the theoretical background, which is further used in the rest of the thesis. Further implementing partially twisted boundary conditions in the scalar sector of lattice QCD is studied. Then we develop a method to study the content of the exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant from lattice simulations, exploiting the dependence of the spectrum on the twisted boundary conditions. The final chapter deals with a novel method to study the multi-channel scattering problem in a finite volume, which is relevant for exotic states. Its key idea is to extract the complex hadron-hadron optical potential, avoiding the difficulties, associated with the solution of the multi-channel Luescher equation.

  5. Exploring exotic states with twisted boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri

    2017-09-11

    he goal of this thesis is to develop methods to study the nature and properties of exotic hadrons from lattice simulations. The main focus lies in the application of twisted boundary conditions. The thesis consists of a general introduction and the collection of three papers, represented respectively in three chapters. The introduction of the thesis reviews the theoretical background, which is further used in the rest of the thesis. Further implementing partially twisted boundary conditions in the scalar sector of lattice QCD is studied. Then we develop a method to study the content of the exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant from lattice simulations, exploiting the dependence of the spectrum on the twisted boundary conditions. The final chapter deals with a novel method to study the multi-channel scattering problem in a finite volume, which is relevant for exotic states. Its key idea is to extract the complex hadron-hadron optical potential, avoiding the difficulties, associated with the solution of the multi-channel Luescher equation.

  6. Reverse-symmetry waveguides: Theory and fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Lindvold, Lars René; Larsen, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    We present an extensive theoretical analysis of reverse-symmetry waveguides with special focus on their potential application as sensor components in aqueous media and demonstrate a novel method for fabrication of such waveguides. The principle of reverse symmetry is based on making the refractive...... index of the waveguide substrate less than the refractive index of the medium covering the waveguiding film (n(water) = 1.33). This is opposed to the conventional waveguide geometry, where the substrate is usually glass or polymers with refractive indices of approximate to1.5. The reverse configuration...... are combined with air-grooved polymer supports to form freestanding single-material polymer waveguides of reverse symmetry capable of guiding light....

  7. Transverse kink oscillations in the presence of twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Goossens, M.

    2012-12-01

    Context. Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in coronal loops. The effects of magnetic twist on stable magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves is poorly understood because they are seldom studied for relevant cases. Aims: The goal of this work is to study the fingerprints of magnetic twist on stable transverse kink oscillations. Methods: We numerically calculated the eigenmodes of propagating and standing MHD waves for a model of a loop with magnetic twist. The azimuthal component of the magnetic field was assumed to be small in comparison to the longitudinal component. We did not consider resonantly damped modes or kink instabilities in our analysis. Results: For a nonconstant twist the frequencies of the MHD wave modes are split, which has important consequences for standing waves. This is different from the degenerated situation for equilibrium models with constant twist, which are characterised by an azimuthal component of the magnetic field that linearly increases with the radial coordinate. Conclusions: In the presence of twist standing kink solutions are characterised by a change in polarisation of the transverse displacement along the tube. For weak twist, and in the thin tube approximation, the frequency of standing modes is unaltered and the tube oscillates at the kink speed of the corresponding straight tube. The change in polarisation is linearly proportional to the degree of twist. This has implications with regard to observations of kink modes, since the detection of this variation in polarisation can be used as an indirect method to estimate the twist in oscillating loops.

  8. Metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina

    This work concerns planar optical waveguide sensors for biosensing applications, with the focus on deep-probe sensing for micron-scale biological objects like bacteria and whole cells. In the last two decades planar metal-clad waveguides have been brieflyintroduced in the literature applied...... for various biosensing applications, however a thorough study of the sensor configurations has not been presented, but is the main subject of this thesis. Optical sensors are generally well suited for bio-sensing asthey show high sensitivity and give an immediate response for minute changes in the refractive...... index of a sample, due to the high sensitivity of optical bio-sensors detection of non-labeled biological objects can be performed. The majority of opticalsensors presented in the literature and commercially available optical sensors are based on evanescent wave sensing, however most of these sensors...

  9. Excitation of waves in elastic waveguides by piezoelectric patch actuators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available for waveguides excited by piezoelectric patch actuators. The waveguide is modelled using specially developed waveguide finite elements. These elements are formulated using a complex exponential to describe the wave propagation along the structure and finite...

  10. Multilayer cladding with hyperbolic dispersion for plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of plasmonic waveguides with a dielectric core and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings that possess hyperbolic dispersion. The waveguides hyperbolic multilayer claddings show better performance in comparison to conventional plasmonic waveguides. © OSA 2015....

  11. Mode converters for generating the HE11 (gaussian-like) mode from TE01 in circular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, J.L.

    1982-09-01

    The HE11 mode in corrugated waveguide has a field distribution very close to that of an ideal gaussian mode. Its radiation pattern is symmetric about the waveguide axis and exhibits virtually no cross polarization. This work reports measurements on mode converters to transform the TE01 mode into HE11 for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) experiments. The first mode converter is a 28 degree bend in 1.094-inch I.D. circular waveguide which generates TM11 from TE01 with a measured efficiency of over 95% at 60 GHz. A second converter consists of a straight corrugated waveguide section of the same I.D. in which the corrugation depth increases gradually from zero to nominally a quarter wavelength. This section converts TM11 to HE11 with an efficiency of about 97%. The overall efficiency of conversion from TE01 to HE11 exceeds 91% over a measured range of 59.2 to 60.1 GHz

  12. Pulsed Laser Deposition: passive and active waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Flory, F.; Escoubas, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2009), s. 438-449 ISSN 0268-1900 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : PLD * pulsed laser deposition * laser ablation * passive waveguides * active waveguides * waveguide laser * sensors * thin films * butane detection Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2009

  13. All silicon waveguide spherical microcavity coupler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifré-Pérez, E; Domenech, J D; Fenollosa, R; Muñoz, P; Capmany, J; Meseguer, F

    2011-02-14

    A coupler based on silicon spherical microcavities coupled to silicon waveguides for telecom wavelengths is presented. The light scattered by the microcavity is detected and analyzed as a function of the wavelength. The transmittance signal through the waveguide is strongly attenuated (up to 25 dB) at wavelengths corresponding to the Mie resonances of the microcavity. The coupling between the microcavity and the waveguide is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically modeled with the help of FDTD calculations.

  14. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  15. Talbot Effect in Three Waveguide Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Li; Hai-Feng, Zhou; Jian-Yi, Yang; Xiao-Qing, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    By taking the coupling between the non-neighbourhood waveguides into account, the coupling characteristic of three waveguide arrays is analysed. The strong coupling equation of three waveguides is dealt with Laplace transform and LU decomposition. The general field evolution equation is obtained by inversion of the Laplace transform. The results show that the self-imaging conditions (Talbot effect) do not satisfy in general. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the BPM simulations. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  16. Characterization of long-range plasmonic waveguides at visible to near-infrared regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ting Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides composed with thin gold stripes embedded in SU-8 polymer cladding with various stripe widths were fabricated. Material properties of the polymer cladding layer, gold thin film, and the device structures were discussed. Optical properties based on modal propagation were characterized at visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The measured propagation losses of waveguide widths from 3 to 9 μm at 633, 785, and 1550 nm are 7.5-18.8, 6.8-12.5, and 1.9-3.9 dB/mm, respectively. Guiding mode properties such as overlap integrals between the simulated and the measured fields and the polarization extinction ratios of the waveguides with different stripe widths were investigated at the telecommunication wavelength. Good accordance between the measurement and simulation results was presented.

  17. Design optimization for active twist rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ji Won

    This dissertation introduces the process of optimizing active twist rotor blades in the presence of embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. Optimum design of active twist blades is a complex task, since it involves a rich design space with tightly coupled design variables. The study presents the development of an optimization framework for active helicopter rotor blade cross-sectional design. This optimization framework allows for exploring a rich and highly nonlinear design space in order to optimize the active twist rotor blades. Different analytical components are combined in the framework: cross-sectional analysis (UM/VABS), an automated mesh generator, a beam solver (DYMORE), a three-dimensional local strain recovery module, and a gradient based optimizer within MATLAB. Through the mathematical optimization problem, the static twist actuation performance of a blade is maximized while satisfying a series of blade constraints. These constraints are associated with locations of the center of gravity and elastic axis, blade mass per unit span, fundamental rotating blade frequencies, and the blade strength based on local three-dimensional strain fields under worst loading conditions. Through pre-processing, limitations of the proposed process have been studied. When limitations were detected, resolution strategies were proposed. These include mesh overlapping, element distortion, trailing edge tab modeling, electrode modeling and foam implementation of the mesh generator, and the initial point sensibility of the current optimization scheme. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of this process. Optimization studies were performed on the NASA/Army/MIT ATR blade case. Even though that design was built and shown significant impact in vibration reduction, the proposed optimization process showed that the design could be improved significantly. The second example, based on a model scale of the AH-64D Apache blade, emphasized the capability of this framework to

  18. Guided modes in silicene-based waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengzhuo; He, Ying; Yang, Yanfang; Zhang, Huifang

    2018-02-01

    Silicene is a new Dirac-type electron system similar to graphene. A monolayer silicene sheet forms a quantum well induced by an electrostatic potential, which acts as an electron waveguide. The guided modes in the silicene waveguide have been investigated. Electron waves can propagate in the silicene-based waveguide in the cases of Klein tunneling and classical motion. The behavior of the wave function depends on the spin and valley indices. The amplitude of the electron wave function in the silicene waveguide can be controlled by the external electric field. These phenomena may be helpful for the potential applications of silicene-based electronic devices.

  19. Near-field characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    simply by changing geometric parameters of the waveguide, keeping in mind the trade-off between confinement and propagation losses. A broad variety of plasmonic waveguides and waveguide components, including antennas for coupling the light in/out of the waveguide, requires correspondent characterization...... capabilities, especially on experimental side. The most straight-forward and powerful technique for such purpose is scanning near-field optical microscopy, which allows to probe and map near-field distribution and therefore becomes the main tool in this project. The detailed description of the used setups...

  20. Simulating QCD at the physical point with Nf=2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rehim, A.; Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Univ. Nicosia; Burger, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present simulations of QCD using N f =2 dynamical Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with physical value of the pion mass and at one value of the lattice spacing. Such simulations at a∼0.09 fm became possible by adding the clover term to the action. While O(a) improvement is still guaranteed by Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist, the introduction of the clover term reduces O(a 2 ) cutoff effects related to isospin symmetry breaking. We give results for a set of phenomenologically interesting observables like pseudo-scalar masses and decay constants, quark masses and the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons. We mostly find remarkably good agreement with phenomenology, even though we cannot take the continuum and thermodynamic limits.

  1. Ten helical twist angles of B-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabsch, W; Sander, C; Trifonov, E N

    1982-01-01

    On the assumption that the twist angles between adjacent base-pairs in the DNA molecule are additive a linear system of 40 equations was derived from experimental measurements of the total twist angles for different pieces of DNA of known sequences. This system of equations is found to be statistically consistent providing a solution for all ten possible twist angles of B-DNA by a least squares fitting procedure. Four of the calculated twist angles were not known before. The other six twist angles calculated are very close to the experimentally measured ones. The data used were obtained by the electrophoretic band-shift method, crystallography and nuclease digestion of DNA adsorbed to mica or Ca-phosphate surface. The validity of the principle of additivity of the twist angles implies that the angle between any particular two base-pairs is a function of only these base-pairs, independent of nearest neighbors.

  2. Twisted Vanes Would Enhance Fuel/Air Mixing In Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. Lee; Micklow, Gerald J.; Dogra, Anju S.

    1994-01-01

    Computations of flow show performance of high-shear airblast fuel injector in gas-turbine engine enhanced by use of appropriately proportioned twisted (instead of flat) dome swirl vanes. Resultant more nearly uniform fuel/air mixture burns more efficiently, emitting smaller amounts of nitrogen oxides. Twisted-vane high-shear airblast injectors also incorporated into paint sprayers, providing advantages of low pressure drop characteristic of airblast injectors in general and finer atomization of advanced twisted-blade design.

  3. Competition and evolution of dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the coupling and evolution law of the waveguide mode and two plasmonic surface modes, we construct a line defect waveguide based on hexagonal honeycomb plasmonic photonic crystal. Through adjusting the radius of the edge dielectric rods, the competition and evolution behaviors occur between dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode. There are three status: only plasmonic waveguide modes occur for rA 0.25a; two kinds of modes coexist for 0.09a advantages in achieving slow light.

  4. Optical emission from a high-refractive-index waveguide excited by a traveling electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwamura, Yuji; Yamada, Minoru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Kanai, Takeshi; Fares, Hesham

    2008-01-01

    An optical emission scheme was demonstrated, in which a high-refractive-index waveguide is excited by a traveling electron beam in a vacuum environment. The waveguide was made of Si-SiO 2 layers. The velocity of light propagating in the waveguide was slowed down to 1/3 of that in free space due to the high refractive index of Si. The light penetrated partly into the vacuum in the form of a surface wave. The electron beam was emitted from an electron gun and propagated along the surface of the waveguide. When the velocity of the electron coincided with that of the light, optical emission was observed. This emission is a type of Cherenkov radiation and is not conventional cathode luminescence from the waveguide materials because Si and SiO 2 are transparent to light at the emitted wavelength. This type of emission was observed in an optical wavelength range from 1.2 to 1.6 μm with an electron acceleration voltage of 32-42 kV. The characteristics of the emitted light, such as the polarization direction and the relation between the acceleration voltage of the electron beam and the optical wavelength, coincided well with the theoretical results. The coherent length of an electron wave in the vacuum was confirmed to be equal to the electron spacing, as found by measuring the spectral profile of the emitted light

  5. Managing the spatial properties and photon correlations in squeezed non-classical twisted light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, R. V.; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Spatial photon correlations and mode content of the squeezed vacuum light generated in a system of two separated nonlinear crystals is investigated. The contribution of both the polar and azimuthal modes with non-zero orbital angular momentum is analyzed. The control and engineering of the spatial properties and degree of entanglement of the non-classical squeezed light by changing the distance between crystals and pump parameters is demonstrated. Methods for amplification of certain spatial modes and managing the output mode content and intensity profile of quantum twisted light are suggested.

  6. Twisted rudder for reducing fuel-oil consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three twisted rudders fit for large container ships have been developed; 1 the Z-twisted rudder that is an asymmetry type taking into consideration incoming flow angles of the propeller slipstream, 2 the ZB-twisted rudder with a rudder bulb added onto the Z-twisted rudder, and 3 the ZB-F twisted rudder with a rudder fin attached to the ZB-twisted rudder. The twisted rudders have been designed computationally with the hydrodynamic characteristics in a self-propulsion condition in mind. The governing equation is the Navier-Stokes equations in an unsteady turbulent flow. The turbulence model applied is the Reynolds stress. The calculation was carried out in towing and self-propulsion conditions. The sliding mesh technique was employed to simulate the flow around the propeller. The speed performances of the ship with the twisted rudders were verified through model tests in a towing tank. The twisted versions showed greater performance driven by increased hull efficiency from less thrust deduction fraction and more effective wake fraction and decreased propeller rotating speed.

  7. Higher twist contributions to deep-inelastic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.

    2008-07-01

    We report on a recent extraction of the higher twist contributions to the deep inelastic structure functions F ep,ed 2 (x,Q 2 ) in the large x region. It is shown that the size of the extracted higher twist contributions is strongly correlated with the higher order corrections applied to the leading twist part. A gradual lowering of the higher twist contributions going from NLO to N 4 LO is observed, where in the latter case only the leading large x terms were considered. (orig.)

  8. Twisted sigma-model solitons on the quantum projective line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    On the configuration space of projections in a noncommutative algebra, and for an automorphism of the algebra, we use a twisted Hochschild cocycle for an action functional and a twisted cyclic cocycle for a topological term. The latter is Hochschild-cohomologous to the former and positivity in twisted Hochschild cohomology results into a lower bound for the action functional. While the equations for the critical points are rather involved, the use of the positivity and the bound by the topological term lead to self-duality equations (thus yielding twisted noncommutative sigma-model solitons, or instantons). We present explicit nontrivial solutions on the quantum projective line.

  9. Bound states on the lattice with partially twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, D.; Guo, F.-K.; Ríos, G.; Rusetsky, A.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to study the nature of exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant Z from lattice simulations. It is shown that, instead of studying the volume-dependence of the spectrum, one may investigate the dependence of the spectrum on the twisting angle, imposing twisted boundary conditions on the fermion fields on the lattice. In certain cases, e.g., the case of the DK bound state which is addressed in detail, it is demonstrated that the partial twisting is equivalent to the full twisting up to exponentially small corrections.

  10. Wide-band polarization controller for Si photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velha, P; Sorianello, V; Preite, M V; De Angelis, G; Cassese, T; Bianchi, A; Testa, F; Romagnoli, M

    2016-12-15

    A circuit for the management of any arbitrary polarization state of light is demonstrated on an integrated silicon (Si) photonics platform. This circuit allows us to adapt any polarization into the standard fundamental TE mode of a Si waveguide and, conversely, to control the polarization and set it to any arbitrary polarization state. In addition, the integrated thermal tuning allows kilohertz speed which can be used to perform a polarization scrambler. The circuit was used in a WDM link and successfully used to adapt four channels into a standard Si photonic integrated circuit.

  11. Waveguides with Absorbing Boundaries: Nonlinearity Controlled by an Exceptional Point and Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midya, Bikashkali; Konotop, Vladimir V.

    2017-07-01

    We reveal the existence of continuous families of guided single-mode solitons in planar waveguides with weakly nonlinear active core and absorbing boundaries. Stable propagation of TE and TM-polarized solitons is accompanied by attenuation of all other modes, i.e., the waveguide features properties of conservative and dissipative systems. If the linear spectrum of the waveguide possesses exceptional points, which occurs in the case of TM polarization, an originally focusing (defocusing) material nonlinearity may become effectively defocusing (focusing). This occurs due to the geometric phase of the carried eigenmode when the surface impedance encircles the exceptional point. In its turn, the change of the effective nonlinearity ensures the existence of dark (bright) solitons in spite of focusing (defocusing) Kerr nonlinearity of the core. The existence of an exceptional point can also result in anomalous enhancement of the effective nonlinearity. In terms of practical applications, the nonlinearity of the reported waveguide can be manipulated by controlling the properties of the absorbing cladding.

  12. Shrink, twist, ripple and melt: Studies of frustrated liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, Jonathan G.

    Complex structures can arise out of a simple system with more than one competing influence on its behavior. The protypical example of this is the two-dimensional triangular lattice Ising model. The ferromagnetic model has two simple degenerate ground states of all spins up or down, but the antiferromagnetic model is a frustrated system. Its geometry does not allow satisfaction of the antiferro condition everywhere, which produces complex ordered structures with dimerization of the spins [1]. Without frustration, the complex structures and phase behavior are lost. All of the topics discussed in this thesis concern smectic liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are perhaps uniquely adept at manifesting frustrated phases. Their combination of periodicity in one or more dimensions allows ordered structures, yet their fluid nature in remaining dimensions allows creation of defects and extraordinarily complex structures in ways that a normal crystal could not tolerate. Liquid crystals contain a huge menagerie of frustrated phases and effects including the polarization modulated [2], vortex lattice [3], twist grain boundary [4], and blue [5] phases, as well as frustrated structures such as cholesteric or SmC* helix unwinding [6], defect lattices in thin films [7], and bend melted grain boundary defects [8], arising from boundary conditions and field effects. In this thesis, we study four liquid crystal systems that show unusual phase behavior or complex structures, deriving from the effects of frustration. Frustration, despite some human prejudices against the word, leaves nature all the more interesting and beautiful.

  13. Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    2013-06-01

    Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative solar instrumentation that allowed him to make narrow-band images. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Using the concept of magnetic helicity, physicists and mathematicians describe the topology of magnetic fields, including twisting and writhing. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on a key property of helicity: conservation. I will describe the critical role that this property plays, when applied to twist and writhe, in a fundamental aspect of global solar magnetism: the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of active region electric currents with respect to magnetic fields. With the advent of unbroken sequences of high-resolution magnetic images, such as those presently available from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on Solar Dynamics Observatory, the flux of magnetic helicity through the photosphere can be observed quantitatively. As magnetic flux tubes buoy up through the convection zone, buffeted and shredded by turbulence, they break up into fragments by repeated random bifurcation. We track these rising flux fragments in the photosphere, and calculate the flux of energy and magnetic helicity there. Using a quantitative model of coronal currents, we also track connections between these fragments to calculate the energy and magnetic helicity stored at topological interfaces that are in some ways analogous to the storage of stress at faults in the Earth's crust. Comparison of these values to solar flares and interplanetary coronal mass ejections implies that this is the primary storage mechanism for energy and magnetic helicity released in those phenomena, and suggests a useful tool for quantitative prediction of geomagnetic storms.

  14. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  15. Systematic Design of Slow Light Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen

    it is vulnerable to manufacturing disorders. This thesis aims to design novel waveguides to alleviate signal distortions and propagation loss using optimization methodologies, and to explore the design robustness with respect to manufacturing imperfections. To alleviate the signal distortions in waveguides...

  16. Discontinuities during UV writing of waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc

    2005-01-01

    UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour.......UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour....

  17. Testing Born-Infeld Electrodynamics in Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Waveguides can be employed to test nonlinear effects in electrodynamics. We solve Born-Infeld equations for TE waves in a rectangular waveguide. We show that the energy velocity acquires a dependence on the amplitude, and harmonic components appear as a consequence of the nonlinear behavior

  18. Fundamental losses in planar Bragg waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinogradov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, A. N.; Popov, A. V.; Fedin, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a planar Bragg waveguide. The guided modes and their dissipation due to the fundamental absorption are described. In the interacting-wave approximation, an analytical relation between the characteristics of the modes and parameters of the Bragg-waveguide geometry was

  19. Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...

  20. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  1. Twisted Polynomials and Forgery Attacks on GCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed A. M. A.; Beelen, Peter; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Polynomial hashing as an instantiation of universal hashing is a widely employed method for the construction of MACs and authenticated encryption (AE) schemes, the ubiquitous GCM being a prominent example. It is also used in recent AE proposals within the CAESAR competition which aim at providing...... in an improved key recovery algorithm. As cryptanalytic applications of our twisted polynomials, we develop the first universal forgery attacks on GCM in the weak-key model that do not require nonce reuse. Moreover, we present universal weak-key forgeries for the nonce-misuse resistant AE scheme POET, which...

  2. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...... beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps...

  3. NMSBA - Twist Resist - Rotational Exercise Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Aaron [Twist Resist, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reece, Blake D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berger, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guido, Steven Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Linker, Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report contains a summary of the work completed to develop a modular, rotational exercise device. In the report are images, diagrams, and explanations of the efforts contributed to the project since its inception. The purpose of this document is to provide a walk-through of the progress on this project, from the initial design concepts to the final design and work done, so that the customer (Twist Resist), or individuals/firms who work on this project in the future will have a springboard of ideas/concepts to work from.

  4. Spin physics: A new twist on heavy-ion experiments at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Operation of RHIC with two beams of highly polarized protons (70%, either longitudinal or transverse) at high luminosity L = 2 · 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 for two months/year will allow high statistics studies of polarization phenomena in the perturbative region of hard scattering where both QCD and ElectroWeak theory make detailed predictions for polarization effects. The collision c.m. energy, √s = 50--500 GeV, represents a new domain for the study of spin. Direct photon production will be used to measure the gluon polarization in the polarized proton. A new twist comes from W-boson production which is expected to be 100% parity violating and will thus allow measurements of flavor separated quark and antiquark (u, anti u, d, anti d) polarization distributions. Searches for parity violation in strong interaction processes such as jet and leading particle production will be a sensitive way to look for new physics beyond the standard model, one possibility being quark substructure

  5. Spin physics at RHIC a new twist on the heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Operation of RHIC with two beams of highly polarized protons (70%, either longitudinal or transverse) at high luminosity ???? = 2 circ 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 for two months/year will allow high statistics studies of polarization phenomena in the perturbative region of hard scattering where both QCD and ElectroWeak theory make detailed predictions for polarization effects. The collision c.m energy, √s = 200 - 500 GeV, represents a new domain for the study of spin. Direct photon production win be used to measure the gluon polarization in the polarized proton. A new twist comes from W-boson production which is expected to be 100% parity violating and will thus allow measurements of flavor separated quark and antiquark (u, u, d, d) polarization distributions. Searches for parity violation in strong interaction processes such as jet and leading particle production will be a sensitive way to look for new physics beyond the standard model, one possibility being quark substructure

  6. Silicon Waveguide with Lateral p-i-n Diode for Nonlinearity Compensation by On-Chip Optical Phase Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajda, A.; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson

    2018-01-01

    A 1-dB Q-factor improvement through optical phase conjugation in a silicon waveguide with a lateral p-i-n diode enables BERpolarization signal...

  7. Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations...... in the local density of states (LDOS) in PhC waveguides. From decay rate measurements on quantum dot lines temperature tuned in the vicinity of the waveguide band edge, a β-factor for a single quantum dot of more then 85% has been extracted. Finite difference time domain simulations (FDTD) for disordered Ph...... is shown to increase from 3 − 7 um for no intentional disorder to 25 um for 6% disorder. A distribution of losses is seen to be necessary to explain the measured Q-factor distributions. Finally we have performed a cavity QED experiment between single quantum dots and an Anderson localized mode, where a β...

  8. Perturbation measurement of waveguides for acoustic thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic thermometers normally embed small acoustic transducers in the wall bounding a gas-filled cavity resonator. At high temperature, insulators of transducers loss electrical insulation and degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. One essential solution to this technical trouble is to couple sound by acoustic waveguides between resonator and transducers. But waveguide will break the ideal acoustic surface and bring perturbations(Δf+ig) to the ideal resonance frequency. The perturbation model for waveguides was developed based on the first-order acoustic theory in this paper. The frequency shift Δf and half-width change g caused by the position, length and radius of waveguides were analyzed using this model. Six different length of waveguides (52˜1763 mm) were settled on the cylinder resonator and the perturbation (Δf+ig) were measured at T=332 K and p=250˜500 kPa. The experiment results agreed with the theoretical prediction very well.

  9. Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhamy, Donia Said

    Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new process for producing ply yarns with improved productivity and flexibility. This technology involves self plying of twisted singles yarn to produce ply yarn. The ATP process can run more than ten times faster than cabling. To implement the ATP process to produce ply yarns there are major quality issues; uniform Twist Profile and yarn Twist Efficiency. The goal of this thesis is to improve these issues through process modeling based on understanding the physics and processing mechanics of the ATP yarn system. In our study we determine the main parameters that control the yarn twist profile. Process modeling of the yarn twist across different process zones was done. A computational model was designed to predict the process parameters required to achieve a square wave twist profile. Twist efficiency, a measure of yarn torsional stability and bulk, is determined by the ratio of ply yarn twist to singles yarn twist. Response Surface Methodology was used to develop the processing window that can reproduce ATP yarns with high twist efficiency. Equilibrium conditions of tensions and torques acting on the yarns at the self ply point were analyzed and determined the pathway for achieving higher twist efficiency. Mechanistic modeling relating equilibrium conditions to the twist efficiency was developed. A static tester was designed to zoom into the self ply zone of the ATP yarn. A computer controlled, prototypic ATP machine was constructed and confirmed the mechanistic model results. Optimum parameters achieving maximum twist efficiency were determined in this study. The

  10. Photonic waveguides theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boudrioua, Azzedine

    2009-01-01

    This book presents the principles of non-linear integrated optics. The first objective is to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of integrated optics so that they may be able to develop the theoretical and experimental tools to study and control the linear and non-linear optical properties of waveguides.The potential use of these structures can then be determined in order to realize integrated optical components for light modulation and generation. The theoretical models are accompanied by experimental tools and their setting in order to characterize the studied phenomenon. Th

  11. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  12. On reflection algebras and twisted Yangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that integrable models associated to rational R matrices give rise to certain non-Abelian symmetries known as Yangians. Analogously boundary symmetries arise when general but still integrable boundary conditions are implemented, as originally argued by Delius, Mackay, and Short from the field theory point of view, in the context of the principal chiral model on the half-line. In the present study we deal with a discrete quantum mechanical system with boundaries, that is the N site gl(n) open quantum spin chain. In particular, the open spin chain with two distinct types of boundary condition known as soliton preserving and soliton nonpreserving is considered. For both types of boundaries we present a unified framework for deriving the corresponding boundary nonlocal charges directly at the quantum level. The nonlocal charges are simply coproduct realizations of particular boundary quantum algebras called boundary or twisted Yangians, depending on the choice of boundary conditions. Finally, with the help of linear intertwining relations between the solutions of the reflection equation and the generators of the boundary or twisted Yangians we are able to exhibit the exact symmetry of the open spin chain, namely we show that a number of the boundary nonlocal charges are in fact conserved quantities

  13. How the embryonic brain tube twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry

    2014-03-01

    During early development, the tubular brain of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This deformation is one of the major organ-level symmetry-breaking events in development. Available evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops in the same direction that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is virtually nonexistent, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. In addition, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model is used to interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''.

  14. Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.

  15. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  16. Silicon Photonic Waveguides for Near- and Mid-Infrared Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, S.; Milosevic, M.; Timotijevic, B.; Yang, P. Y.; Teo, E. J.; Crnjanski, J.; Matavulj, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2007-11-01

    The basic building block of every photonic circuit is a waveguide. In this paper we investigate the most popular silicon waveguide structures in the form of a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. We also analyse two structures that can find applications in mid- and long-wave infrared regions: free-standing and hollow core omnidirectional waveguides.

  17. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Bragg Waveguides in GLS Chalcogenide Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillen Ben

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present work on the fabrication of Bragg waveguides in gallium-lanthanum-sulfide chalcogenide glass using an ultrafast laser. Waveguides were written with a single pass while modulating the writing beam. The spatial and temporal profile of the writing beam was ontrolled during waveguide fabrication in order to control the shape and size of the waveguide cross-section.

  18. Quadratic Twists of Rigid Calabi–Yau Threefolds Over

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouvêa, Fernando Q.; Kiming, Ian; Yui, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N). We show that quadratic twisting of a threefold corresponds to twisting the attached newform by quadratic characters and illustrate with a number of obvious and not so obvious examples. The question is motivated by the deeper question of which newforms of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N...

  19. Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, Vladimir; Berggreen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    -twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling...

  20. A twisted generalization of Novikov-Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras, which are twisted generalizations of Novikov-Poisson algebras, are studied. Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras are shown to be closed under tensor products and several kinds of twistings. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given under which Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras give rise to Hom-Poisson algebras.

  1. Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daszkiewicz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)

  2. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    enhancement of heat transfer with twisted tape inserts as compared to plain ... studies for heat transfer and pressure drop of laminar flow in horizontal tubes ... flow in rectangular and square plain ducts and ducts with twisted-tape inserts .... presence of the insert in the pipe causes resistance to flow and increases turbulence.

  3. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-15

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  4. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-01

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  5. Polarization as a probe to the production mechanisms of charmonium in πN collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.K.; Brodsky, S.J.; Vaenttinen, M.; Hoyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Measurements of the polarization of J/ψ produced in pion-nucleus collisions are in disagreement with leading twist QCD prediction where J/ψ is observed to have negligible polarization whereas theory predicts substantial polarization. The authors argue that this discrepancy cannot be due to poorly known structure functions nor the relative production rates of J/ψ and χ j . The disagreement between theory and experiment suggests important higher twist corrections, as has earlier been surmised from the anomalous non-factorized nuclear A-dependence of the J/ψ cross section

  6. Electronic and Optical Properties of Twisted Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengqiang

    The ability to isolate single atomic layers of van der Waals materials has led to renewed interest in the electronic and optical properties of these materials as they can be fundamentally different at the monolayer limit. Moreover, these 2D crystals can be assembled together layer by layer, with controllable sequence and orientation, to form artificial materials that exhibit new features that are not found in monolayers nor bulk. Twisted bilayer graphene is one such prototype system formed by two monolayer graphene layers placed on top of each other with a twist angle between their lattices, whose electronic band structure depends on the twist angle. This thesis presents the efforts to explore the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We first synthesize twisted bilayer graphene with various twist angles via chemical vapor deposition. Using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the twist angles are determined. The strength of the Raman G peak is sensitive to the electronic band structure of twisted bilayer graphene and therefore we use this peak to monitor changes upon doping. Our results demonstrate the ability to modify the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with doping. We also fabricate twisted bilayer graphene by controllable stacking of two graphene monolayers with a dry transfer technique. For twist angles smaller than one degree, many body interactions play an important role. It requires eight electrons per moire unit cell to fill up each band instead of four electrons in the case of a larger twist angle. For twist angles smaller than 0.4 degree, a network of domain walls separating AB and BA stacking regions forms, which are predicted to host topologically protected helical states. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, these states are confirmed to appear on the domain walls when inversion

  7. Longitudinal and transverse polarizations in the deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.

    1996-07-01

    This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the 'leading twist' are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.)

  8. Duality and braiding in twisted quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, Mauro; Szabo, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    We re-examine various issues surrounding the definition of twisted quantum field theories on flat noncommutative spaces. We propose an interpretation based on nonlocal commutative field redefinitions which clarifies previously observed properties such as the formal equivalence of Green's functions in the noncommutative and commutative theories, causality, and the absence of UV/IR mixing. We use these fields to define the functional integral formulation of twisted quantum field theory. We exploit techniques from braided tensor algebra to argue that the twisted Fock space states of these free fields obey conventional statistics. We support our claims with a detailed analysis of the modifications induced in the presence of background magnetic fields, which induces additional twists by magnetic translation operators and alters the effective noncommutative geometry seen by the twisted quantum fields. When two such field theories are dual to one another, we demonstrate that only our braided physical states are covariant under the duality

  9. Analysis list: Twist1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Twist1 Embryo,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Tw...ist1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Neural.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Neural.gml ...

  10. On the performance analysis of Savonius rotor with twisted blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, U.K.; Rajkumar, M. Jaya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The present investigation is aimed at exploring the feasibility of twisted bladed Savonius rotor for power generation. The twisted blade in a three-bladed rotor system has been tested in a low speed wind tunnel, and its performance has been compared with conventional semicircular blades (with twist angle of 0{sup o}). Performance analysis has been made on the basis of starting characteristics, static torque and rotational speed. Experimental evidence shows the potential of the twisted bladed rotor in terms of smooth running, higher efficiency and self-starting capability as compared to that of the conventional bladed rotor. Further experiments have been conducted in the same setup to optimize the twist angle. (author)

  11. Spin Physics Experiments at NICA-SPD with polarized proton and deuteron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savin I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The brief description of the Letter of Intent proposing primarily to perform measurements of asymmetries of the DY pair production in collisions of non-polarized, longitudinally and transversally polarized protons and deuterons which provide an access to all leading twist collinear and TMD PDFs of quarks and anti-quarks in nucleons.

  12. Precision Measurement of the Neutron Twist-3 Matrix Element dn2: Probing Color Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posik, Matthew; Flay, David; Parno, Diana; Allada, Kalyan; Armstrong, Whitney; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Dutta, Chiranjib; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Franklin, Gregg; Friend, Megan; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Gomez, Javier; Guo, Lei; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, J; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jin, Ge; Katich, Joseph; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lukhanin, Oleksandr; Mamyan, Vahe; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mihovilovic, Miha; Moffit, Bryan; Muangma, Navaphon; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Oh, Yongseok; Peng, Jen-chieh; Qian, Xin; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tobias, William; Troth, Wolfgang; Wang, Diancheng; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Zhihong; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2014-07-01

    Double-spin asymmetries and absolute cross sections were measured at large Bjorken x (0.25 lte x lte 0.90), in both the deep-inelastic and resonance regions, by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons at beam energies of 4.7 and 5.9 GeV from a transversely and longitudinally polarized 3He target. In this dedicated experiment, the spin structure function g2 on 3He was determined with precision at large x, and the neutron twist-three matrix element dn2 was measured at ?Q2? of 3.21 and 4.32 GeV2/c2, with an absolute precision of about 10?5. Our results are found to be in agreement with lattice QCD calculations and resolve the disagreement found with previous data at ?Q2?= 5 GeV2/c2. Combining dn2 and a newly extracted twist-four matrix element, fn2, the average neutron color electric and magnetic forces were extracted and found to be of opposite sign and about 60 MeV/fm in magnitude.

  13. Efficient composite broadband polarization retarders and polarization filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, E.; Ivanov, S. S.; Popkirov, G.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    A new type of broadband polarization half-wave retarder and narrowband polarization filters are described and experimentally tested. Both, the retarders and the filters are designed as composite stacks of standard optical half-wave plates, each of them twisted at specific angles. The theoretical background of the proposed optical devices was obtained by analogy with the method of composite pulses, known from the nuclear and quantum physics. We show that combining two composite filters built from different numbers and types of waveplates, the transmission spectrum is reduced from about 700 nm to about 10 nm width.We experimentally demonstrate that this method can be applied to different types of waveplates (broadband, zero-order, multiple order, etc.).

  14. Evaluation of slot-to-slot coupling between dielectric slot waveguides and metal-insulator-metal slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deqing; Tsubokawa, Makoto

    2015-07-27

    We numerically analyzed the power-coupling characteristics between a high-index-contrast dielectric slot waveguide and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic slot waveguide as functions of structural parameters. Couplings due mainly to the transfer of evanescent components in two waveguides generated high transmission efficiencies of 62% when the slot widths of the two waveguides were the same and 73% when the waveguides were optimized by slightly different widths. The maximum transmission efficiency in the slot-to-slot coupling was about 10% higher than that in the coupling between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. Large alignment tolerance of the slot-to-slot coupling was also proved. Moreover, a small gap inserted into the interface between two waveguides effectively enhances the transmission efficiency, as in the case of couplings between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. In addition, couplings with very wideband transmissions over a wavelength region of a few hundred nanometers were validated.

  15. High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, D.P.; Hettrick, S.J.; Li, C.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Meissner, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages and potential hazards of using a planar waveguide as the host in a high-power diode-pumped laser system are described. The techniques discussed include the use of proximity-coupled diodes, double-clad waveguides, unstable resonators, tapers, and integrated passive Q switches. Laser devices are described based on Yb 3+ -, Nd 3+ -, and Tm 3+ -doped YAG, and monolithic and highly compact waveguide lasers with outputs greater than 10 W are demonstrated. The prospects for scaling to the 100 W level and for further integration of devices for added functionality in a monolithic laser system are discussed. (author)

  16. Guided modes of elliptical metamaterial waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halterman, Klaus; Feng, Simin; Overfelt, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of guided electromagnetic waves in open elliptical metamaterial waveguide structures is investigated. The waveguide contains a negative-index media core, where the permittivity ε and permeability μ are negative over a given bandwidth. The allowed mode spectrum for these structures is numerically calculated by solving a dispersion relation that is expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. By probing certain regions of parameter space, we find the possibility exists to have extremely localized waves that transmit along the surface of the waveguide

  17. A self-repairing polymer waveguide sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young J; Peters, Kara J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental demonstrations of a self-repairing strain sensor waveguide created by self-writing in a photopolymerizable resin system. The sensor is fabricated between two multi-mode optical fibers via lightwaves in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range and operates as a sensor through interrogation of the power transmitted through the waveguide in the infrared (IR) wavelength range. After failure of the sensor occurs due to loading, the waveguide re-bridges the gap between the two optical fibers through the UV resin. The response of the original sensor and the self-repaired sensor to strain are measured and show similar behaviors

  18. The waveguide Free-Electron Laser. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The general characteristics of free-electron lasers (FELs) which employ a waveguiding structure to confine electromagnetic fields and to couple them to the electron beam is discussed. The mode structure of the basic parallel plate waveguide and its adaptation via quasi-optical techniques to FEL resonator design are considered in detail. A summary of the theory of FEL systems which depend intrinsically on a guide structure (micro-undulator, Cerenkov and metal-grating FELs) and a review of progress on waveguide FEL experiments are also presented. (author). 44 refs.; 16 figs

  19. Nanofocusing in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Yunyun; Zhu, Xiaolong; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    Gated or doped graphene can support plasmons making it a promising plasmonic material in the terahertz regime. Here, we show numerically that in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide mid- and far-infrared light can be focused in nanometer scales, far beyond the diffraction limit. The underlying...... physics lies in that when propagating along the direction towards the tip both the group and phase velocities of the plasmons supported by the tapered graphene waveguide are reduced accordingly, eventually leading to nanofocusing at the tip with a huge enhancement of optical fields. The nanofocusing...... of optical fields in tapered graphene plasmonic waveguides could be potentially exploited in the enhancement of light–matter interactions....

  20. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  1. Sm 3+-doped polymer optical waveguide amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Tsang, Kwokchu; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Xu, Shiqing

    2010-04-01

    Trivalent samarium ion (Sm 3+) doped SU8 polymer materials were synthesized and characterized. Intense red emission at 645 nm was observed under UV laser light excitation. Spectroscopic investigations show that the doped materials are suitable for realizing planar optical waveguide amplifiers. About 100 μm wide multimode Sm 3+-doped SU8 channel waveguides were fabricated using a simple UV exposure process. At 250 mW, 351 nm UV pump power, a signal enhancement of ˜7.4 dB at 645 nm was obtained for a 15 mm long channel waveguide.

  2. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Ge, Pei; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  3. Bianisotropic metamaterials based on twisted asymmetric crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Avendaño, J A; Sampedro, M P; Juárez-Ruiz, E; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    The effective bianisotropic response of 3D periodic metal-dielectric structures, composed of crosses with asymmetrically-cut wires, is investigated within a general homogenization theory using the Fourier formalism and the form-factor division approach. It is found that the frequency dependence of the effective permittivity for a system of periodically-repeated layers of metal crosses exhibits two strong resonances, whose separation is due to the cross asymmetry. Besides, bianisotropic metamaterials, having a base of four twisted asymmetric crosses, are proposed. The designed metamaterials possess negative refractive index at frequencies determined by the cross asymmetry, the gap between the arms of adjacent crosses lying on the same plane, and the type of Bravais lattice. (papers)

  4. Band engineering in twisted molybdenum disulfide bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yipeng; Liao, Chengwei; Ouyang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    In order to explore the theoretical relationship between interlayer spacing, interaction and band offset at the atomic level in vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) structures, we propose an analytical model to address the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling with random stacking configurations in MoS2 bilayers based on the atomic-bond-relaxation correlation mechanism. We found that interlayer spacing changes substantially with respect to the orientations, and the bandgap increases from 1.53 eV (AB stacking) to 1.68 eV (AA stacking). Our results reveal that the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling originates from the interlayer interaction, leading to interlayer separations and electronic properties changing with stacking configurations. Our predictions constitute a demonstration of twist engineering the band shift in the emergent class of 2D crystals, transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  5. Unusual presentation of twisted ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian torsion (also termed as adnexal torsion refers to partial or complete rotation of the ovary and a portion of fallopian tube along its supplying vascular pedicle. It occurs commonly in reproductive age group; more on the right side (60% and often presents with acute lower abdominal pain lasting for few hours and up to 24 h, accounting for 2.7% of acute gynecological conditions. It is one of the devastating conditions, hampering blood supply of ovary which may lead to total necrosis of ovarian tissue and complications, if not diagnosed and managed in time. Hence, we present a case on a twisted ovarian cyst in postmenopausal woman with unusual symptomatology leading to delayed diagnosis and loss of an ovary.

  6. Regular non-twisting S-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, Octavio; Quevedo, Hernando; Ryan, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    We construct a family of time and angular dependent, regular S-brane solutions which corresponds to a simple analytical continuation of the Zipoy-Voorhees 4-dimensional vacuum spacetime. The solutions are asymptotically flat and turn out to be free of singularities without requiring a twist in space. They can be considered as the simplest non-singular generalization of the singular S0-brane solution. We analyze the properties of a representative of this family of solutions and show that it resembles to some extent the asymptotic properties of the regular Kerr S-brane. The R-symmetry corresponds, however, to the general lorentzian symmetry. Several generalizations of this regular solution are derived which include a charged S-brane and an additional dilatonic field. (author)

  7. Projecting light beams with 3D waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Andrea; Bragheri, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Free-space light beams with complex intensity patterns, or non-trivial phase structure, are demanded in diverse fields, ranging from classical and quantum optical communications, to manipulation and imaging of microparticles and cells. Static or dynamic spatial light modulators, acting on the phase or intensity of an incoming light wave, are the conventional choices to produce beams with such non-trivial characteristics. However, interfacing these devices with optical fibers or integrated optical circuits often requires difficult alignment or cumbersome optical setups. Here we explore theoretically and with numerical simulations the potentialities of directly using the output of engineered three-dimensional waveguide arrays, illuminated with linearly polarized light, to project light beams with peculiar structures. We investigate through a collection of illustrative configurations the far field distribution, showing the possibility to achieve orbital angular momentum, or to produce elaborate intensity or phase patterns with several singularity points. We also simulate the propagation of the projected beam, showing the possibility to concentrate light. We note that these devices should be at reach of current technology, thus perspectives are open for the generation of complex free-space optical beams from integrated waveguide circuits.

  8. Dynamical twisted mass fermions and baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drach, V.

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work is an ab initio computation of the baryon masses starting from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This theory describes the interaction between quarks and gluons and has been established at high energy thanks to one of its fundamental properties: the asymptotic freedom. This property predicts that the running coupling constant tends to zero at high energy and thus that perturbative expansions in the coupling constant are justified in this regime. On the contrary the low energy dynamics can only be understood in terms of a non perturbative approach. To date, the only known method that allows the computation of observables in this regime together with a control of its systematic effects is called lattice QCD. It consists in formulating the theory on an Euclidean space-time and to evaluating numerically suitable functional integrals. First chapter is an introduction to the QCD in the continuum and on a discrete space time. The chapter 2 describes the formalism of maximally twisted fermions used in the European Twisted Mass (ETM) collaboration. The chapter 3 deals with the techniques needed to build hadronic correlator starting from gauge configuration. We then discuss how we determine hadron masses and their statistical errors. The numerical estimation of functional integral is explained in chapter 4. It is stressed that it requires sophisticated algorithm and massive parallel computing on Blue-Gene type architecture. Gauge configuration production is an important part of the work realized during my Ph.D. Chapter 5 is a critical review on chiral perturbation theory in the baryon sector. The two last chapter are devoted to the analysis in the light and strange baryon sector. Systematics and chiral extrapolation are extensively discussed. (author)

  9. Bioinspired twisted composites based on Bouligand structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F.; Iervolino, O.; Scarselli, G.; Ginzburg, D.; Meo, M.

    2016-04-01

    The coupling between structural support and protection makes biological systems an important source of inspiration for the development of advanced smart composite structures. In particular, some particular material configurations can be implemented into traditional composites in order to improve their impact resistance and the out-of-plane properties, which represents one of the major weakness of commercial carbon fibres reinforced polymers (CFRP) structures. Based on this premise, a three-dimensional twisted arrangement shown in a vast multitude of biological systems (such as the armoured cuticles of Scarabei, the scales of Arapaima Gigas and the smashing club of Odontodactylus Scyllarus) has been replicated to develop an improved structural material characterised by a high level of in-plane isotropy and a higher interfacial strength generated by the smooth stiffness transition between each layer of fibrils. Indeed, due to their intrinsic layered nature, interlaminar stresses are one of the major causes of failure of traditional CFRP and are generated by the mismatch of the elastic properties between plies in a traditional laminate. Since the energy required to open a crack or a delamination between two adjacent plies is due to the difference between their orientations, the gradual angle variation obtained by mimicking the Bouligand Structures could improve energy absorption and the residual properties of carbon laminates when they are subjected to low velocity impact event. Two different bioinspired laminates were manufactured following a double helicoidal approach and a rotational one and were subjected to a complete test campaign including low velocity impact loading and compared to a traditional quasi-isotropic panel. Fractography analysis via X-Ray tomography was used to understand the mechanical behaviour of the different laminates and the residual properties were evaluated via Compression After Impact (CAI) tests. Results confirmed that the biological

  10. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Slab Waveguide Structure Consisting of Chiral Nihility Claddings and Negative-Index Material Core Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Alaa N. Abu; Taya, Sofyan A.; Elwasife, Khitam Y.

    2018-06-01

    The dispersion equation of an asymmetric three-layer slab waveguide, in which all layers are chiral materials is presented. Then, the dispersion equation of a symmetric slab waveguide, in which the claddings are chiral materials and the core layer is negative index material, is derived. Normalized cut-off frequencies, field profile, and energies flow of right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized modes are derived and plotted. We consider both odd and even guided modes. Numerical results of guided low-order modes are provided. Some novel features, such as abnormal dispersion curves, are found.

  11. Waveguide silicon nitride grating coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvik, Jan; Dolnak, Ivan; Dado, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Grating couplers are one of the most used elements for coupling of light between optical fibers and photonic integrated components. Silicon-on-insulator platform provides strong confinement of light and allows high integration. In this work, using simulations we have designed a broadband silicon nitride surface grating coupler. The Fourier-eigenmode expansion and finite difference time domain methods are utilized in design optimization of grating coupler structure. The fully, single etch step grating coupler is based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer with 0.55 μm waveguide Si3N4 layer. The optimized structure at 1550 nm wavelength yields a peak coupling efficiency -2.6635 dB (54.16%) with a 1-dB bandwidth up to 80 nm. It is promising way for low-cost fabrication using complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor fabrication process.

  12. Ultracompact and broadband polarization beam splitter based on polarization-dependent critical guiding condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhoufeng; Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Xuping; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying

    2015-05-01

    An ultracompact and broadband polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on the polarization-dependent critical guiding condition of an asymmetrical directional coupler is proposed. The device consists of a pair of silicon waveguides with different height and width. Due to the different cutoff conditions for the TE and TM polarization modes, it is possible to have the TM mode guided in one waveguide while the TE mode is supported in both. Therefore, only the phase-matching condition for the cross-coupling of the TE mode needs to be considered. This approach not only simplifies the design procedures but also significantly improves device performance with smaller total length and larger bandwidth. Finally, regardless of the contribution of S-bend waveguides, our proposed PBS has a coupling region as short as 0.2 μm, which is the shortest reported until now. The simulation result shows that the extinction ratios for the TE and TM polarization are 13.5 and 16.6 dB at their respective output ports, and their insertion losses are 0.29 and 0.13 dB, respectively. Numerical simulations also show that the device offers a very large bandwidth (∼140  nm) with large extinction ratio (>10  dB) and low insertion loss (<1  dB).

  13. Twisted boundary states in c=1 coset conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    We study the mutual consistency of twisted boundary conditions in the coset conformal field theory G/H. We calculate the overlap of the twisted boundary states of G/H with the untwisted ones, and show that the twisted boundary states are consistently defined in the charge-conjugation modular invariant. The overlap of the twisted boundary states is expressed by the branching functions of a twisted affine Lie algebra. As a check of our argument, we study the diagonal coset theory so(2n) 1 +so(2n) 1 /so(2n) 2 , which is equivalent to the orbifold S 1 /Z 2 at a particular radius. We construct the boundary states twisted by the automorphisms of the unextended Dynkin diagram of so(2n), and show their mutual consistency by identifying their counterpart in the orbifold. For the triality of so(8), the twisted states of the coset theory correspond to neither the Neumann nor the Dirichlet boundary states of the orbifold and yield conformal boundary states that preserve only the Virasoro algebra. (author)

  14. Conical twist fields and null polygonal Wilson loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla A.; Doyon, Benjamin; Fioravanti, Davide

    2018-06-01

    Using an extension of the concept of twist field in QFT to space-time (external) symmetries, we study conical twist fields in two-dimensional integrable QFT. These create conical singularities of arbitrary excess angle. We show that, upon appropriate identification between the excess angle and the number of sheets, they have the same conformal dimension as branch-point twist fields commonly used to represent partition functions on Riemann surfaces, and that both fields have closely related form factors. However, we show that conical twist fields are truly different from branch-point twist fields. They generate different operator product expansions (short distance expansions) and form factor expansions (large distance expansions). In fact, we verify in free field theories, by re-summing form factors, that the conical twist fields operator product expansions are correctly reproduced. We propose that conical twist fields are the correct fields in order to understand null polygonal Wilson loops/gluon scattering amplitudes of planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  15. Application of polarization information to a light-controlling-light technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J C; Wang, H C

    2017-09-15

    Nonlinear effects of photo-induced waveguides based on isomerization photochemistry are investigated. It is found that polarization information of the controlling light can be used to control the propagation of the signal light in all-optical waveguides, and an accurate and convenient light-controlling-light scheme is proposed, that is, controlling propagation of the signal light by synergic use of the intensity information and polarization information of the controlling light. The polarization dependence of optical nonlinearity is expected to enrich the connotation of the optical nonlinear effects and has theoretical significance and practical value.

  16. Kinetic theory of twisted waves: Application to space plasmas having superthermal population of species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Kashif; Poedts, Stefaan; Lazar, Marian

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays electromagnetic (EM) fields have various applications in fundamental research, communication, and home appliances. Even though, there are still some subtle features of electromagnetic field known to us a century ago, yet to be utilized. It is because of the technical complexities to sense three dimensional electromagnetic field. An important characteristic of electromagnetic field is its orbital angular momentum (OAM). The angular momentum consists of two distinct parts; intrinsic part associated with the wave polarization or spin, and the extrinsic part associated with the orbital angular momentum (OAM). The orbital angular momentum (OAM) is inherited by helically phased light or helical (twisted) electric field. The investigations of Allen on lasers carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), has initiated a new scientific and technological advancement in various growing fields, such as microscopy and imaging, atomic and nano-particle manipulation, ultra-fast optical communications, quantum computing, ionospheric radar facility to observe 3D plasma dynamics in ionosphere, photonic crystal fibre, OAM entanglement of two photons, twisted gravitational waves, ultra-intense twisted laser pulses and astrophysics. Recently, the plasma modes are also investigated with orbital angular momentum. The production of electron vortex beams and its applications are indicated by Verbeeck et al. The magnetic tornadoes (rotating magnetic field structures) exhibit three types of morphology i.e., spiral, ring and split. Leyser pumped helical radio beam carrying OAM into the Ionospheric plasma under High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) and characteristic ring shaped morphology is obtained by the optical emission spectrum of pumped plasma turbulence. The scattering phenomenon like (stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscattering) is observed to be responsible for the interaction between electrostatic and electromagnetic waves through orbital angular momentum. The

  17. Measured results of polarization crosstalk cancellation using LMS control. [Least Mean Square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, C. A.; Rassweiler, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of wideband decoupling networks for the cancellation of polarization crosstalk in dual-polarized communication links. Measured cancellation performance for an all-electronic IF network and an RF electro-mechanical waveguide network are presented. Each of these networks utilizes LMS-type adaptive control techniques to adjust the cancellation network.

  18. Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which...

  19. Silica suspended waveguide splitter-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. C.; Hawk, R. M.; Armani, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, a novel integrated optical waveguide 50/50 splitter was developed. It is fabricated using standard lithographic methods, a pair of etching steps and a laser reflow step. However, unlike other integrated waveguide splitters, the waveguide is elevated off of the silicon substrate, improving its interaction with biomolecules in solution and in a flow field. Additionally, because it is fabricated from silica, it has very low optical loss, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio, making it ideal for biosensing. By functionalizing the device using an epoxy-silane method using small samples and confining the protein solutions to the device, we enable highly efficient detection of CREB with only 1 μL of solution. Therefore, the waveguide coupler sensor is representative of the next generation of ultra-sensitive optical biosensors, and, when combined with microfluidic capabilities, it will be an ideal candidate for a more fully-realized lab-on-a-chip device.

  20. Progress on erbium-doped waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Berendt, Martin Ole; Broeng, Jes

    1997-01-01

    The recent development in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, and fiber lasers is reviewed. Also the latest results on planar erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and high erbium concentration characterisation methods are presented...

  1. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  2. Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Michael; Marchewka, Astrid; Kurz, Heinrich

    2006-10-01

    A new type of dielectric THz waveguide based on recent approaches in the field of integrated optics is presented with theoretical and experimental results. Although the guiding mechanism of the low-index discontinuity (LID) THz waveguide is total internal reflection, the THz wave is predominantly confined in the virtually lossless low-index air gap within a high-index dielectric waveguide due to the continuity of electric flux density at the dielectric interface. Attenuation, dispersion and single-mode confinement properties of two LID structures are discussed and compared with other THz waveguide solutions. The new approach provides an outstanding combination of high mode confinement and low transmission losses currently not realizable with any other metal-based or photonic crystal approach. These exceptional properties might enable the breakthrough of novel integrated THz systems or endoscopy applications with sub-wavelength resolution.

  3. Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system

  4. Hybrid numerical calculation method for bend waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier , Lucas; Saavedra , C.; Castro-Beltran , Rigoberto; Lucio , José Luis; Bêche , Bruno

    2017-01-01

    National audience; The knowledge of how the light will behave in a waveguide with a radius of curvature becomes more and more important because of the development of integrated photonics, which include ring micro-resonators, phasars, and other devices with a radius of curvature. This work presents a numerical calculation method to determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of curved waveguides. This method is a hybrid method which uses at first conform transformation of the complex plane gene...

  5. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  6. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  7. Optimization of metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, N.; Horvath, R.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with the optimization of metal-clad waveguides for sensor applications to achieve high sensitivity for adlayer and refractive index measurements. By using the Fresnel reflection coefficients both the angular shift and the width of the resonances in the sensorgrams are taken...... into account. Our optimization shows that it is possible for metal-clad waveguides to achieve a sensitivity improvement of 600% compared to surface-plasmon-resonance sensors....

  8. Transmission of infrared radiation through cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucara, A.; Dore, P.; Calvani, P.; Cannavo', D.; Marcelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the transmittance of infrared radiation (v -1 ) through cylindrical waveguides are presented and discussed. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, obtained through conventional ray tracing programs. Finally, it' estimated the transmittance of a waveguide in the case of an infrared synchrotron radiation source. Are applied the results to the case of the DAΦNE collider, where a synchrotron radiation beamline for the far infrared is under construction

  9. Probing Twisted Magnetic Field Using Microwave Observations in an M Class Solar Flare on 11 February, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharykin, I. N.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Myshyakov, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of magnetic-field topology investigations using microwave polarimetric observations. We study a solar flare of GOES M1.7 class that occurred on 11 February, 2014. This flare revealed a clear signature of spatial inversion of the radio-emission polarization sign. We show that the observed polarization pattern can be explained by nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission from the twisted magnetic structure. Using observations of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Radio Solar Telescope Network, and Solar Dynamics Observatory, we have determined the parameters of nonthermal electrons and thermal plasma and identified the magnetic structure where the flare energy release occurred. To reconstruct the coronal magnetic field, we use nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) and potential magnetic-field approaches. Radio emission of nonthermal electrons is simulated by the GX Simulator code using the extrapolated magnetic field and the parameters of nonthermal electrons and thermal plasma inferred from the observations; the model radio maps and spectra are compared with observations. We have found that the potential-magnetic-field approach fails to explain the observed circular polarization pattern; on the other hand, the Stokes-V map is successfully explained by assuming nonthermal electrons to be distributed along the twisted magnetic structure determined by the NLFFF extrapolation approach. Thus, we show that the radio-polarization maps can be used for diagnosing the topology of the flare magnetic structures where nonthermal electrons are injected.

  10. Conformal invariance and pion wave functions of nonleading twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.M.; Filyanov, I.E.

    1989-01-01

    The restrictions are studied for the general structure of pion wave functions of twist 3 and twist 4 imposed by the conformal symmetry and the equations of motion. A systematic expansion of wave functions in the conformal spin is built and the first order corrections to asymptotic formulae are calculated by the QCD sum rule method. In particular, we have found a multiplicatively renormalizable contribution into the two-particle wave function of twist 4 which cannot be expanded in a finite set of Gegenbauer polynomials. 19 refs.; 5 figs

  11. Quantum communication through a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Jin, B.-Q.; Korepin, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate quantum communication between the sites of a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions. Such boundary conditions can be achieved by a magnetic flux through the ring. We find that a nonzero twist can improve communication through finite odd-numbered rings and enable high-fidelity multiparty quantum communication through spin rings (working near perfectly for rings of five and seven spins). We show that in certain cases, the twist results in the complete blockage of quantum-information flow to a certain site of the ring. This effect can be exploited to interface and entangle a flux qubit and a spin qubit without embedding the latter in a magnetic field

  12. TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakimoto Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is

  13. Schroedinger covariance states in anisotropic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelow, A.; Trifonov, D.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper Squeezed and Covariance States based on Schroedinger inequality and their connection with other nonclassical states are considered for particular case of anisotropic waveguide in LiNiO 3 . Here, the problem of photon creation and generation of squeezed and Schroedinger covariance states in optical waveguides is solved in two steps: 1. Quantization of electromagnetic field is provided in the presence of dielectric waveguide using normal-mode expansion. The photon creation and annihilation operators are introduced, expanding the solution A-vector(r-vector,t) in a series in terms of the Sturm - Liouville mode-functions. 2. In terms of these operators the Hamiltonian of the field in a nonlinear waveguide is derived. For such Hamiltonian we construct the covariance states as stable (with nonzero covariance), which minimize the Schroedinger uncertainty relation. The evolutions of the three second momenta of q-circumflex j and p-circumflex j are calculated. For this Hamiltonian all three momenta are expressed in terms of one real parameters s only. It is found out how covariance, via this parameter s, depends on the waveguide profile n(x,y), on the mode-distributions u-vector j (x,y), and on the waveguide phase mismatching Δβ. (author). 37 refs

  14. Concept of ceramics-free coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroyuki

    1994-01-01

    A critical key point of the ITER IC antenna is ceramics support of an internal conductor of a coaxial antenna feeder close to the plasma, because dielectric loss tangent of ceramics enhanced due to neutron irradiation limits significantly the antenna injection power. This paper presents a ceramics-free waveguide to overcome this problem by a T-shaped ridged waveguide with arms for the mechanical support. This ridged waveguide has a low cutoff frequency for its small cross section, which has been proposed for the conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) IC system and the high frequency supplementary IC system for ITER. This paper presents the concept of ceramics-free coaxial waveguide consisting of the coaxial-line and the ridged waveguide. This paper also presents the cutoff frequency and the electric field distribution of the ridged waveguide calculated by a finite element method and an approximate method. The power handling capability more than 3 MW is evaluated by using the transmission-line theory and the optimized antenna impedance considering the ITER plasma parameters. We verify this transmission-line model by one-tenth scale models experimentally. (author)

  15. High-power corrugates waveguide components for mm-wave fusion heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olstad, R.A.; Doane, J.L.; Moeller, C.P.; O'Neill, R.C.; Di Martino, M.

    1996-10-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last year in the U.S., Japan, Russia, and Europe in developing high power long pulse gyrotrons for fusion plasma heating and current drive. These advanced gyrotrons typically operate at a frequency in the range 82 GHz to 170 GHz at nearly megawatt power levels for pulse lengths up to 5 s. To take advantage of these new microwave sources for fusion research, new and improved transmission line components are needed to reliably transmit microwave power to plasmas with minimal losses. Over the last year, General Atomics and collaborating companies (Spinner GmbH in Europe and Toshiba Corporation in Japan) have developed a wide variety of new components which meet the demanding power, pulse length, frequency, and vacuum requirements for effective utilization of the new generation of gyrotrons. These components include low-loss straight corrugated waveguides, miter bends, miter bend polarizers, power monitors, waveguide bellows, de breaks, waveguide switches, dummy loads, and distributed windows. These components have been developed with several different waveguide diameters (32, 64, and 89 mm) and frequency ranges (82 GHz to 170 GHz). This paper describes the design requirements of selected components and their calculated and measured performance characteristics

  16. Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joonhee; Kim, Seungchul; Park, In-Yong; Lee, Dong-Hyub; Han, Seunghwoi; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the possibility of generating attosecond pulses by means of plasmonic field enhancement induced in a nano-structured metallic funnel-waveguide. This study was motivated by our recent experimental demonstration of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses using the same type of three-dimensional waveguides. Here, with emphasis on generation of isolated attosecond pulses, the finite-domain time-difference method was used to analyze the funnel-waveguide with respect to the geometry-dependent plasmonic features such as the field enhancement factor, enhanced plasmonic field profile and hot-spot location. Then an extended semi-classical model of high-order harmonic generation was adopted to predict the EUV spectra generated from the funnel-waveguide in consideration of the spatial inhomogeneity of the plasmonic field within the hot-spot volume. Our simulation finally proved that isolated attosecond pulses can be produced at fast repetition rates directly from a few-cycle femtosecond laser or by synthesizing a two-color laser consisting of two multi-cycle pulses of cross-polarized configuration. (paper)

  17. Spontaneous emission and gain in a waveguide free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golightly, W.J.; Ride, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    A free-electron laser enclosed in a waveguide of narrowly spaced parallel plates has been proposed as a compact, coherent source of far-infrared radiation. In this paper, the spontaneous emission and small-signal gain of such a device are analyzed. Maxwell's equations are solved for the fields of a relativistic electron beam passing through a linearly polarized undulator in the presence of a parallel-plane waveguide. The radiation intensity is resolved into its component waveguide modes for the fundamental frequency and for all harmonics. The intensity profile in a given harmonic mode is altered significantly when a parameter involving the undulator period, beam energy, and transverse dimension of the guide is such that the radiation group velocity is close to the electrons' axial velocity. The small-signal gain in the waveguide free-electron laser is calculated and related to the spontaneous emission. Near zero slip, the gain curve is significantly different from that of a free-space free-electron laser with the same parameters

  18. Longitudinal Modes along Thin Piezoelectric Waveguides for Liquid Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of longitudinally polarized acoustic modes along thin piezoelectric plates (BN, ZnO, InN, AlN and GaN is theoretically studied, aiming at the design of high frequency electroacoustic devices suitable for work in liquid environments. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate revealed the presence of longitudinally polarized Lamb modes, travelling at velocities close to that of the longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. Such waves are suitable for the implementation of high-frequency, low-loss electroacoustic devices operating in liquid environments. The time-averaged power flow density, the phase velocity and the electroacoustic coupling coefficient K2 dispersion curves were studied, for the first (S0 and four higher order (S1, S2, S3, S4 symmetrical modes for different electrical boundary conditions. Two electroacoustic coupling configurations were investigated, based on interdigitated transducers, with or without a metal floating electrode at the opposite plate surface. Enhanced performances, such as a K2 as high as 8.5% and a phase velocity as high as 16,700 m/s, were demostrated for the ZnO- and BN-based waveguides, as an example. The relative velocity changes, and the inertial and viscous sensitivities of the first symmetric and anti-symmetric mode, S0 and A0, propagating along thin plates bordered by a viscous liquid were derived using the perturbation approach. The present study highlights the feasibility of the piezoelectric waveguides to the development of high-frequency, integrated-circuits compatible electroacoustic devices suitable for working in liquid environment.

  19. Microwave measurement test results of circular waveguide components for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.W.; Rubert, R.R.; Coffield, F.E.; Felker, B.; Stallard, B.W.; Taska, J.

    1983-01-01

    Development of high-power components for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) applications requires extensive testing. In this paper we describe the high-power testing of various circular waveguide components designed for application on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). These include a 2.5-in. vacuum valve, polarizing reflectors, directional couplers, mode converters, and flexible waveguides. All of these components were tested to 200 kW power level with 40-ms pulses. Cold tests were used to determine field distribution. The techniques used in these tests are illustrated. The new high-power test facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described and test procedures are discussed. We discuss the following test results: efficiency at high power of mode converters, comparison of high power vs low power for waveguide components, and full power tests of the waveguide system. We also explain the reasons behind selection of these systems for use on TMX-U

  20. Renormalization of quark propagator, vertex functions, and twist-2 operators from twisted-mass lattice QCD at Nf=4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossier, Benoît.; Brinet, Mariane; Guichon, Pierre; Morénas, Vincent; Pène, Olivier; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2015-06-01

    We present a precise nonperturbative determination of the renormalization constants in the mass independent RI'-MOM scheme. The lattice implementation uses the Iwasaki gauge action and four degenerate dynamical twisted-mass fermions. The gauge configurations are provided by the ETM Collaboration. Renormalization constants for scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial operators, as well as the quark propagator renormalization, are computed at three different values of the lattice spacing, two volumes and several twisted-mass parameters. The method we developed allows for a precise cross-check of the running, thanks to the particular proper treatment of hypercubic artifacts. Results for the twist-2 operator O44 are also presented.

  1. Efficient laser emission from cladding waveguide inscribed in Nd:GdVO(4) crystal by direct femtosecond laser writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Tan, Yang; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of depressed cladding waveguides in Nd:GdVO(4) laser crystal by using femtosecond laser inscription. The cross section of the structure is a circular shape with a diameter of 150 μm. Under the optical pump at 808 nm, the continuous wave (cw) as well as pulsed (Q-switched by graphene saturable absorber) waveguide lasing at 1064 nm has been realized, supporting guidance of both TE and TM polarizations. The maximum output power of 0.57 W was obtained in the cw regime, while the maximum pulse energy of the pulsed laser emissions was up to 19 nJ (corresponding to a maximum average output power of 0.33 W, at a resonant frequency of 18 MHz). The slope efficiencies achieved for the cw and pulsed Nd:GdVO(4) waveguide lasers were as high as 68% and 52%, respectively.

  2. Heralded quantum repeater based on the scattering of photons off single emitters in one-dimensional waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Guo-Zhu; Zhang, Mei; Ai, Qing; Yang, Guo-Jian [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hobiny, Aatef [NAAM-Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Deng, Fu-Guo, E-mail: fgdeng@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); NAAM-Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a heralded quantum repeater based on the scattering of photons off single emitters in one-dimensional waveguides. We show the details by implementing nonlocal entanglement generation, entanglement swapping, and entanglement purification modules with atoms in waveguides, and discuss the feasibility of the repeater with currently achievable technology. In our scheme, the faulty events can be discarded by detecting the polarization of the photons. That is, our protocols are accomplished with a fidelity of 100% in principle, which is advantageous for implementing realistic long-distance quantum communication. Moreover, additional atomic qubits are not required, but only a single-photon medium. Our scheme is scalable and attractive since it can be realized in solid-state quantum systems. With the great progress on controlling atom-waveguide systems, the repeater may be very useful in quantum information processing in the future.

  3. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted tape inserts with air as the working fluid.

  4. Periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Rong [Coll. of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Tech., Nanjing (China); Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Zhang Dongfeng [Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2010-05-15

    In dynamical system theory, especially in many fields of applications from mechanics, Hamiltonian systems play an important role, since many related equations in mechanics can be written in an Hamiltonian form. In this paper, we study the existence of periodic solutions for a class of Hamiltonian systems. By applying the Galerkin approximation method together with a result of critical point theory, we establish the existence of periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions. Twist conditions play crucial roles in the study of periodic solutions for asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems. The lack of twist conditions brings some difficulty to the study. To the authors' knowledge, very little is known about the case, where twist conditions do not hold. (orig.)

  5. The geometric Langlands twist in five and six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Abelian 6d (2,0) theory has SO(5) R symmetry. We twist this theory by identifying the R symmetry group with the SO(5) subgroup of the SO(1,5) Lorentz group. This twisted theory can be put on any five-manifold M, times R, while preserving one scalar supercharge. We subsequently assume the existence of one unit normalized Killing vector field on M, and we find a corresponding SO(4) twist that preserves two supercharges and is a generalization of the geometric Langlands twist of 4d SYM. We generalize the story to non-Abelian gauge group for the corresponding 5d SYM theories on M. We derive a vanishing theorem for BPS contact instantons by identifying the 6d potential energy and its BPS bound, in the 5d theory. To this end we need to perform a Wick rotation that complexifies the gauge field.

  6. Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Shindler, Andrea; Wagner, Marc

    2008-08-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV PS S mesons. (orig.)

  7. Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Alero

    2009-01-01

    A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x # perpendicular# = 2p # perpendicular#/√s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p # perpendicular# hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.

  8. Flux Density through Guides with Microstructured Twisted Clad DB Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baqir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of flux density through a newly proposed twisted clad guide containing DB medium. The inner core and the outer clad sections are usual dielectrics, and the introduced twisted windings at the core-clad interface are treated under DB boundary conditions. The pitch angle of twist is supposed to greatly contribute towards the control over the dispersion characteristics of the guide. The eigenvalue equation for the guiding structure is deduced, and the analytical investigations are made to explore the propagation patterns of flux densities corresponding to the sustained low-order hybrid modes under the situation of varying pitch angles. The emphasis has been put on the effects due to the DB twisted pitch on the propagation of energy flux density through the guide.

  9. Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005

  10. Study of twist boundaries in aluminium. Structure and intergranular diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemuet, Daniel

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of grain boundaries in oriented crystals, and more particularly the systematic calculation of intergranular structures and energies of twist boundaries of <001> axis in aluminium, the determination of intergranular diffusion coefficients of zinc in a set of twist bi-crystals of same axis encompassing a whole range of disorientations, and the search for a correlation between these experimental results and calculated structures

  11. 'Twisted' strings and higher level Kac-Moody representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.

    1989-01-01

    Using an orbifold-like construction the twisted sector of a closed string moving on GxG (with G simply laced) is determined. A level-two G current operating there is constructed explicitly. The decomposition of the twisted sector into products between appropriate conformal and level-two G representations is given if 2 rank G-2 dim G/(2+g)<1. (orig.)

  12. Polarization digital holographic microscopy using low-cost liquid crystal polarization rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovhaliuk, Rostyslav Yu

    2018-02-01

    Polarization imaging methods are actively used to study anisotropic objects. A number of methods and systems, such as imaging polarimeters, were proposed to measure the state of polarization of light that passed through the object. Digital holographic and interferometric approaches can be used to quantitatively measure both amplitude and phase of a wavefront. Using polarization modulation optics, the measurement capabilities of such interference-based systems can be extended to measure polarization-dependent parameters, such as phase retardation. Different kinds of polarization rotators can be used to alternate the polarization of a reference beam. Liquid crystals are used in a rapidly increasing number of different optoelectronic devices. Twisted nematic liquid crystals are widely used as amplitude modulators in electronic displays and light valves or shutter glass. Such devices are of particular interest for polarization imaging, as they can be used as polarization rotators, and due to large-scale manufacturing have relatively low cost. A simple Mach-Zehnder polarized holographic setup that uses modified shutter glass as a polarization rotator is demonstrated. The suggested approach is experimentally validated by measuring retardation of quarter-wave film.

  13. Method of adiabatic modes in studying problems of smoothly irregular open waveguide structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevastianov, L. A., E-mail: sevast@sci.pfu.edu.ru [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sevastyanov, A. L. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Basic steps in developing an original method of adiabatic modes that makes it possible to solve the direct and inverse problems of simulating and designing three-dimensional multilayered smoothly irregular open waveguide structures are described. A new element in the method is that an approximate solution of Maxwell's equations is made to obey 'inclined' boundary conditions at the interfaces between themedia being considered. These boundary conditions take into account the obliqueness of planes tangent to nonplanar boundaries between the media and lead to new equations for coupled vector quasiwaveguide hybrid adiabatic modes. Solutions of these equations describe the phenomenon of 'entanglement' of two linear polarizations of an irregular multilayered waveguide, the appearance of a new mode in an entangled state, and the effect of rotation of the polarization plane of quasiwaveguide modes. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by considering the example of numerically simulating a thin-film generalized waveguide Lueneburg lens.

  14. Direct electron acceleration in plasma waveguides for compact high-repetition-rate x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M-W; Jovanovic, I

    2014-01-01

    Numerous applications in fundamental and applied research, security, and industry require robust, compact sources of x-rays, with a particular recent interest in monochromatic, spatially coherent, and ultrafast x-ray pulses in well-collimated beams. Such x-ray sources usually require production of high-quality electron beams from compact accelerators. Guiding a radially polarized laser pulse in a plasma waveguide has been proposed for realizing direct laser acceleration (DLA), where the electrons are accelerated by the axial electric field of a co-propagating laser pulse (Serafim et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28 1190). A moderate laser peak power is required for DLA when compared to laser wakefield acceleration, thus offering the prospect for high repetition rate operation. By using a density-modulated plasma waveguide for DLA, the acceleration distance can be extended with pulse guiding, while the density-modulation with proper axial structure can realize the quasi-phase matching between the laser pulses and electrons for a net gain accumulation (York et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 195001; York et al 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 B137; Palastro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. E 77 036405). We describe the development and application of a test particle model and particle-in-cell model for DLA. Experimental setups designed for fabrication of optically tailored plasma waveguides via the ignitor-heater scheme, and for generation and characterization of radially polarized short pulses used to drive DLA, are presented. (paper)

  15. New look at the dynamics of twisted accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchett, S.P.; Begelman, M.C.; Sarazin, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    We reexamine the dynamic response of a thin, accretion disk to twisting torques, guided by the earlier analyses by Bardeen and Petterson. We make several corrections to this earlier work, and present a new version of the twist equations consistent with their physical assumptions. By describing the distortion of the disk in terms Cartesian direction cosines rather than the Euler angles used by the earlier authors, we are able to transform the twist equations from a pair of coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations to a single, linear, complex one. We write down formulae for the external twisting torques likley to be encountered in astrophysic, and we show that even with these driving torques our twist equation remains linear. We find exact, analytic solutions for steady state structure of a disk subject to Lense-Thirring torques by a nonaligned central Kerr black hole and also for the time-dependent problem of the structure of a slaved disk with its oscillating boundary conditions. Finally, we discuss the stability of disks against twisting modes and show that undriven disks and disks subject to time-independent driving torques are stable

  16. Observations on discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    I make a number of observations concerning discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD that can be deduced by applying chiral perturbation theory including lattice artifacts. (1) The line along which the partially conserved axial current quark mass vanishes in the untwisted-mass-twisted-mass plane makes an angle to the twisted-mass axis which is a direct measure of O(a) terms in the chiral Lagrangian, and is found numerically to be large; (2) Numerical results for pionic quantities in the mass plane show the qualitative properties predicted by chiral perturbation theory, in particular, an asymmetry in slopes between positive and negative untwisted quark masses; (3) By extending the description of the 'Aoki regime' (where m q ∼a 2 Λ QCD 3 ) to next-to-leading order in chiral perturbation theory I show how the phase-transition lines and lines of maximal twist (using different definitions) extend into this region, and give predictions for the functional form of pionic quantities; (4) I argue that the recent claim that lattice artifacts at maximal twist have apparent infrared singularities in the chiral limit results from expanding about the incorrect vacuum state. Shifting to the correct vacuum (as can be done using chiral perturbation theory) the apparent singularities are summed into nonsingular, and furthermore predicted, forms. I further argue that there is no breakdown in the Symanzik expansion in powers of lattice spacing, and no barrier to simulating at maximal twist in the Aoki regime

  17. Twisting short dsDNA with applied tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The twisting deformation of mechanically stretched DNA molecules is studied by a coarse grained Hamiltonian model incorporating the fundamental interactions that stabilize the double helix and accounting for the radial and angular base pair fluctuations. The latter are all the more important at short length scales in which DNA fragments maintain an intrinsic flexibility. The presented computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible molecule conformations characterized by a specific average twist and determines the energetically most convenient helical twist by free energy minimization. As this is done for any external load, the method yields the characteristic twist-stretch profile of the molecule and also computes the changes in the macroscopic helix parameters i.e. average diameter and rise distance. It is predicted that short molecules under stretching should first over-twist and then untwist by increasing the external load. Moreover, applying a constant load and simulating a torsional strain which over-twists the helix, it is found that the average helix diameter shrinks while the molecule elongates, in agreement with the experimental trend observed in kilo-base long sequences. The quantitative relation between percent relative elongation and superhelical density at fixed load is derived. The proposed theoretical model and computational method offer a general approach to characterize specific DNA fragments and predict their macroscopic elastic response as a function of the effective potential parameters of the mesoscopic Hamiltonian.

  18. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of twisted trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei-Jie; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Ma, Dong-Lin; Yin, Long-Jing; Sun, Gan; Zhang, Jun-Yang; Guan, Li-Yang; He, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Twist, as a simple and unique degree of freedom, could lead to enormous novel quantum phenomena in bilayer graphene. A small rotation angle introduces low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) approaching the Fermi level, which result in unusual correlated states in the bilayer graphene. It is reasonable to expect that the twist could also affect the electronic properties of few-layer graphene dramatically. However, such an issue has remained experimentally elusive. Here, by using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), we systematically studied a twisted trilayer graphene (TTG) with two different small twist angles between adjacent layers. Two sets of VHSs, originating from the two twist angles, were observed in the TTG, indicating that the TTG could be simply regarded as a combination of two different twisted bilayers of graphene. By using high-resolution STS, we observed a split of the VHSs and directly imaged the spatial symmetry breaking of electronic states around the VHSs. These results suggest that electron-electron interactions play an important role in affecting the electronic properties of graphene systems with low-energy VHSs.

  19. Flux compactifications, twisted tori and doubled geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Edwards, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In [1] an O(D,D)-covariant sigma model describing the embedding of a closed world-sheet into the 2D-dimensional twisted torus X was proposed. Such sigma models provide a universal description of string theory with target spaces related by the action of T-duality. In this article a six-dimensional toy example is studied in detail. Different polarisations of the six-dimensional target space give different three-dimensional string backgrounds including a nilmanifold with H-flux, a T-fold with R-flux and a new class of T-folds. Global issues and connections with the doubled torus formalism are discussed. Finally, the sigma model introduced in [1], describing the embedding of a world-sheet into X, is generalised to one describing a target space which is a bundle of X over a base M d , allowing for a more complete description of the associated gauged supergravity from the world-sheet perspective to be given.

  20. Twisted conformal field theories and Morita equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adelenaddeo@yahoo.it

    2009-04-01

    The Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative two-tori is analysed in detail for rational values of the noncommutativity parameter {theta} (in appropriate units): an isomorphism is established between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space. We focus on a particular conformal field theory (CFT), the one obtained by means of the m-reduction procedure [V. Marotta, J. Phys. A 26 (1993) 3481; V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 853; V. Marotta, Nucl. Phys. B 527 (1998) 717; V. Marotta, A. Sciarrino, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 2863], and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. Finally, the whole m-reduction procedure is shown to be the image in the ordinary space of the Morita duality. An application to the physics of a quantum Hall fluid at Jain fillings {nu}=m/(2pm+1) is explicitly discussed in order to further elucidate such a correspondence and to clarify its role in the physics of strongly correlated systems. A new picture emerges, which is very different from the existing relationships between noncommutativity and many body systems [A.P. Polychronakos, arXiv: 0706.1095].

  1. How the embryonic chick brain twists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A

    2016-11-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion. Our theoretical analysis showed that the force is of the order of 10 micronewtons. We also designed an experiment to use fluid surface tension to replace the mechanical role of the VM, and the estimated magnitude of the force owing to surface tension was shown to be consistent with the above theoretical analysis. We further discovered that the asymmetry of the looping heart determines the chirality of the twisted brain via physical mechanisms, demonstrating the mechanical transfer of left-right asymmetry between organs. Our experiments also implied that brain flexure is a necessary condition for torsion. Our work clarifies the mechanical origin of torsion and the development of left-right asymmetry in the early embryonic brain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Complex Toda theories and twisted reality conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Toda equations (based on a finite-dimensional or affine Lie algebra of superalgebra) are discussed as integrable non-linear differential equations for a set of complex scalar fields. We show that such complex Toda fields can either be restricted to take real values in the standard way or else they can be subjected to a 'twisted' reality condition associated to any Z 2 symmetry of the Cartan matrix or Dynkin diagram of the underlying algebra. Different reality conditions give rise to different lagrangian field theories. In the conformal case, however, these theories have the same central charge, while in the affine case they have the same mass spectrum. The construction of N=2 superconformal theories based on the superalgebras A(n, n-1) is clarified, and a new class of conformal field theories with positive kinetic energy based on the superalgebras C(n) is presented. The ideas developed are also relevant to understanding solition solutions in affine Toda theories with imaginary coupling constant. (orig.)

  3. The Latest Twists in Chromatin Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, Ralf; Schiessel, Helmut

    2018-01-05

    In its most restrictive interpretation, the notion of chromatin remodeling refers to the action of chromatin-remodeling enzymes on nucleosomes with the aim of displacing and removing them from the chromatin fiber (the effective polymer formed by a DNA molecule and proteins). This local modification of the fiber structure can have consequences for the initiation and repression of the transcription process, and when the remodeling process spreads along the fiber, it also results in long-range effects essential for fiber condensation. There are three regulatory levels of relevance that can be distinguished for this process: the intrinsic sequence preference of the histone octamer, which rules the positioning of the nucleosome along the DNA, notably in relation to the genetic information coded in DNA; the recognition or selection of nucleosomal substrates by remodeling complexes; and, finally, the motor action on the nucleosome exerted by the chromatin remodeler. Recent work has been able to provide crucial insights at each of these three levels that add new twists to this exciting and unfinished story, which we highlight in this perspective. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Competition of Faraday rotation and birefringence in femtosecond laser direct written waveguides in magneto-optical glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Gross, S; Dekker, P; Withford, M J; Steel, M J

    2014-11-17

    We consider the process of Faraday rotation in femtosecond laser direct-write waveguides. The birefringence commonly associated with such waveguides may be expected to impact the observable Faraday rotation. Here, we theoretically calculate and experimentally verify the competition between Faraday rotation and birefringence in two waveguides created by laser writing in a commercial magneto-optic glass. The magnetic field applied to induce Faraday rotation is nonuniform, and as a result, we find that the two effects can be clearly separated and used to accurately determine even weak birefringence. The birefringence in the waveguides was determined to be on the scale of Δn = 10(-6) to 10(-5). The reduction in Faraday rotation caused by birefringence of order Δn = 10(-6) was moderate and we obtained approximately 9° rotation in an 11 mm waveguide. In contrast, for birefringence of order 10(-5), a significant reduction in the polarization azimuth change was found and only 6° rotation was observed.

  5. Guided-wave phase-matched second-harmonic generation in KTiOPO4 waveguide produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yazhou; Jia, Yuechen; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2014-11-01

    We report on the guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a KTiOPO4 nonlinear optical waveguide fabricated by a 17 MeV O5+ ion irradiation at a fluence of 1.5×1015 ions/cm2. The waveguide guides light along both TE and TM polarizations, which is suitable for phase-matching frequency doubling. Second harmonics of green light at a wavelength of 532 nm have been generated through the KTiOPO4 waveguide platform under an optical pump of fundamental wave at 1064 nm in both continuous-wave and pulsed regimes, reaching optical conversion efficiencies of 5.36%/W and 11.5%, respectively. The propagation losses have been determined to be ˜3.1 and ˜5.7 dB/cm for the TE and TM polarizations at a wavelength of 632.8 nm, respectively.

  6. Evanescent Waveguide Apparatus and Method for Measurement of Dielectric Constant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tonn, David A

    2005-01-01

    .... In one embodiment, a metal septum is inserted between two samples of the unknown material to thereby reduce the cross-sectional area of the waveguide aperture by splitting width a of the rectangular waveguide in half...

  7. Launching transverse-electric Localized Waves from a circular waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Niver, Edip

    2011-01-01

    Axially symmetric transverse electric (TE) modes of a circular waveguide section are used to synthesize the vector TE Localized Wave (LW) field at the open end of the waveguide section. The necessary excitation coefficients of these modes

  8. Fiber-Drawn Metamaterial for THz Waveguiding and Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atakaramians, Shaghik; Stefani, Alessio; Li, Haisu

    2017-01-01

    and sub-diffraction imaging. We show the experimental demonstration of THz radiation guidance through hollow core waveguides with metamaterial cladding, where substantial improvements were realized compared to conventional hollow core waveguides, such as reduction of size, greater flexibility, increased...

  9. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  10. Reaction mechanism of the acidic hydrolysis of highly twisted amides: Rate acceleration caused by the twist of the amide bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Jon I; Formoso, Elena; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier

    2006-08-03

    We present an ab initio study of the acid hydrolysis of a highly twisted amide and a planar amide analogue. The aim of these studies is to investigate the effect that the twist of the amide bond has on the reaction barriers and mechanism of acid hydrolysis. Concerted and stepwise mechanisms were investigated using density functional theory and polarizable continuum model calculations. Remarkable differences were observed between the mechanism of twisted and planar amide, due mainly to the preference for N-protonation of the former and O-protonation of the latter. In addition, we were also able to determine that the hydrolytic mechanism of the twisted amide will be pH dependent. Thus, there is a preference for a stepwise mechanism with formation of an intermediate in the acid hydrolysis, whereas the neutral hydrolysis undergoes a concerted-type mechanism. There is a nice agreement between the characterized intermediate and available X-ray data and a good agreement with the kinetically estimated rate acceleration of hydrolysis with respect to analogous undistorted amide compounds. This work, along with previous ab initio calculations, describes a complex and rich chemistry for the hydrolysis of highly twisted amides as a function of pH. The theoretical data provided will allow for a better understanding of the available kinetic data of the rate acceleration of amides upon twisting and the relation of the observed rate acceleration with intrinsic differential reactivity upon loss of amide bond resonance.

  11. Studies on the separation between higher-twist and minimum-twist in the photoproduction experiment WA69 at the CERN-OMEGA spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingler, J.

    1990-01-01

    A Lund type Monte Carlo program (LUCIFER) is used to describe in perturbative QCD the pointlike component of the photon interacting on a hydrogen target. Kinematical and topological variables are developed to enhance higher twist events on the lowest order minimum twist background. The emphasis is laid on π ± , K ± higher twist mesons. (orig.)

  12. Spatial mode discriminator based on leaky waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Jialing; Shi, Hongkang; Chen, Yuntian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a conceptually simple and experimentally compatible configuration to discriminate the spatial mode based on leaky waveguides, which are inserted in-between the transmission link. The essence of such a spatial mode discriminator is to introduce the leakage of the power flux on purpose for detection. Importantly, the leaky angle of each individual spatial mode with respect to the propagation direction are different for non-degenerated modes, while the radiation patterns of the degenerated spatial modes in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction are also distinguishable. Based on these two facts, we illustrate the operation principle of the spatial mode discriminators via two concrete examples; a w-type slab leaky waveguide without degeneracy, and a cylindrical leaky waveguide with degeneracy. The correlation between the leakage angle and the spatial mode distribution for a slab leaky waveguide, as well as differences between the in-plane radiation patterns of degenerated modes in a cylindrical leaky waveguide, are verified numerically and analytically. Such findings can be readily useful in discriminating the spatial modes for optical communication or optical sensing.

  13. A Search for Higher Twist Effects in the Neutron Spin Structure Function gn2(x,Q2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Jefferson Lab experiment E97-103 measured the spin structure function gn2(x,Q2) from a Q2 of 0.58 to 1.36 with a nearly constant x of 0.2. Combining this data with a fit to the world gn1 data, the size of higher twist contributions to the spin structure functions can be extracted using the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. These higher twist contributions result from quark-gluon correlations and are expected to be larger as Q2 decreases. This experiment was performed in Hall A with a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a high density polarized 3He target. The physics motivation and an overview of the experiment will be presented.

  14. Propagation of Channel Plasmons at the Visible Regime in Aluminum V-Groove Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotan, Oren; Smith, Cameron; Bar-David, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum plasmonics is emerging as a promising platform in particular for the ultraviolet-blue spectral band. We present the experimental results of propagating channel plasmon-polaritons (CPP) waves in aluminum coated V-shaped waveguides at the short visible wavelength regime. The V-grooves are ......Aluminum plasmonics is emerging as a promising platform in particular for the ultraviolet-blue spectral band. We present the experimental results of propagating channel plasmon-polaritons (CPP) waves in aluminum coated V-shaped waveguides at the short visible wavelength regime. The V......-grooves are fabricated by a process involving UV-photolithography, crystallographic silicon etching, and metal deposition. Polarization measurements of coupling demonstrate a preference to the TM-aligned mode, as predicted in simulations....

  15. Bloch surface wave structures for high sensitivity detection and compact waveguiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umar; Corbett, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Resonant propagating waves created on the surface of a dielectric multilayer stack, called Bloch surface waves (BSW), can be designed for high sensitivity monitoring of the adjacent refractive index as an alternative platform to the metal-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. The resonant wavelength and polarization can be designed by engineering of the dielectric layers unlike the fixed resonance of SPR, while the wide bandwidth low loss of dielectrics permits sharper resonances, longer propagation lengths and thus their use in waveguiding devices. The transparency of the dielectrics allows the excitation and monitoring of surface-bound fluorescent molecules. We review the recent developments in this technology. We show the advantages that can be obtained by using high index contrast layered structures. Operating at 1550 nm wavelengths will allow the BSW sensors to be implemented in the silicon photonics platform where active waveguiding can be used in the realization of compact planar integrated circuits for multi-parameter sensing.

  16. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogeniz......Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any...

  17. Position dependent spin wave spectrum in nanostrip magnonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Huaiwu; Ma, Guokun; Liao, Yulong; Zhong, Zhiyong; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The dispersion curves of propagating spin wave along different positions in nanostrip magnonic waveguides were studied by micromagnetic simulation. The results show that the modes of spin wave in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide are dependent on the position and the weak even modes of spin wave are excited even by symmetric excitation fields in a nanostrip magnonic waveguide. The reasons of the position dependent dispersion curve are explained by associating with geometrical confinement in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide

  18. Numerical characterization of nanopillar photonic crystal waveguides and directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically characterize a novel type of a photonic crystal waveguide, which consists of several rows of periodically arranged dielectric cylinders. In such a nanopillar photonic crystal waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection. A nanopillar waveguide is a multimode...

  19. Phosphorylation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gongda; Hemmings, Brian A

    2012-02-01

    The transcription factor Twist plays vital roles during embryonic development through regulating/controlling cell migration. However, postnatally, in normal physiological settings, Twist is either not expressed or inactivated. Increasing evidence shows a strong correlation between Twist reactivation and both cancer progression and malignancy, where the transcriptional activities of Twist support cancer cells to disseminate from primary tumours and subsequently establish a secondary tumour growth in distant organs. However, it is largely unclear how this signalling programme is reactivated or what signalling pathways regulate its activity. The present review discusses recent advances in Twist regulation and activity, with a focus on phosphorylation-dependent Twist activity, potential upstream kinases and the contribution of these factors in transducing biological signals from upstream signalling complexes. The recent advances in these areas have shed new light on how phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the Twist proteins promotes or suppresses Twist activity, leading to differential regulation of Twist transcriptional targets and thereby influencing cell fate.

  20. Utilization of optical waveguides in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darikova, A.; Vanickova, M.; Matejec, V.; Pospisilova, M.

    1994-01-01

    Some optical waveguides used for communication purposes are very sensitive to ionizing radiation.Ionizing radiation radiation affects the optical waveguides by creating color centers that are responsible for the transmission loss.This transmission loss is the function of wavelength of the passing light. The dose of ionizing radiation will manifest itself not only in the magnitude of the transmission loss value but even in changing the position of maximum of the transmission loss curve with respect to the wavelength. The position of the maximum is stable in time and temperature and independent of dose rate. The study of effects of ionizing radiation on the optical waveguides leads to the possibility of utilizing them not only as sensors of ionizing radiation but even as a dosimeters. 4 figs., 2 refs. (author)

  1. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... with numerical simulations. Such a high coupling eciency implies that the system can be considered an articial 1D-atom, and we theoretically show that this system can generate strong photon-photon interaction, which is an essential functionality for deterministic optical quantum information processing. We...

  2. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia

    of developing new material platforms for integrated plasmonic devices. Furthermore, novel plasmonic materials such as transparent conductive oxides and transition metal nitrides can offer a variety of new opportunities. In particular, they offer adjustable/tailorable and nonlinear optical properties, dynamic...... modulators based on ultra-compact waveguides with different active cores. Plasmonic modulators with the active core such as indium phosphides or ferroelectrics sandwiched between metal plates have promising characteristics. Apart from the speed and dimensions advantages, the metal plates can serve...... as electrodes for electrical pumping of the active material making it easier to integrate. Including an additional layer in the plasmonic waveguide, in particular an ultrathin transparent conductive oxide film, allows the control of the dispersive properties of the waveguide and thus the higher efficiency...

  3. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line...... defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage......-free single-mode guidance is found for a large frequency interval covering 60% of the photonic band-gap....

  4. Improving plasmonic waveguides coupling efficiency using nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    . The classical dipole antenna scheme can be improved by changing the nanoantenna geometry, adding constructive elements such as reflecting bars and mirrors and using arrays of antennas. The modelling designates that the coupling efficiency from a vertical fiber to a plasmonic waveguide can be improved more than......Plasmonic waveguides bear a lot of potential for photonic applications. However, one of the challenges for implementing them in devices is the low coupling efficiency to and from optical fibers. We report on our approach to facilitate the coupling efficiency with the use of metallic nanoantennas...... in 180 times in comparison with a direct fiber-waveguide coupling. Pros and cons of each configuration are discussed. Fabrication and characterisation results are reported....

  5. AN in inclusive lepton-proton collisions: TMD and twist-3 approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokudin, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    We consider the inclusive production of hadrons in lepton-nucleon scattering. For a transversely polarized nucleon this reaction shows a left-right azimuthal asymmetry, which we compute this asymmetry in both TMD and in twist-3 collinear factorization formalisms. All non-perturbative parton correlators of the calculation are fixed through information from other hard processes. Our results for the left-right asymmetry agree in sign with recent data for charged pion production from the HERMES Collaboration and from Jefferson Lab. As a result, we discuss similarities and differences of two formalisms

  6. Helicity and Filament Channels? The Straight Twist!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at special locations, photospheric polarity inversions lines where the non-potentiality is observed as a filament channel. This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that photospheric motions continuously tangle its magnetic field. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. We propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries, polarity inversion lines, creating filament channels. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. We argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field.

  7. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  8. EFFECT OF POLARIMETRIC NOISE ON THE ESTIMATION OF TWIST AND MAGNETIC ENERGY OF FORCE-FREE FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Gosain, Sanjay; Joshi, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    The force-free parameter α, also known as helicity parameter or twist parameter, bears the same sign as the magnetic helicity under some restrictive conditions. The single global value of α for a whole active region gives the degree of twist per unit axial length. We investigate the effect of polarimetric noise on the calculation of global α value and magnetic energy of an analytical bipole. The analytical bipole has been generated using the force-free field approximation with a known value of constant α and magnetic energy. The magnetic parameters obtained from the analytical bipole are used to generate Stokes profiles from the Unno-Rachkovsky solutions for polarized radiative transfer equations. Then we add random noise of the order of 10 -3 of the continuum intensity (I c ) in these profiles to simulate the real profiles obtained by modern spectropolarimeters such as Hinode (SOT/SP), SVM (USO), ASP, DLSP, POLIS, and SOLIS etc. These noisy profiles are then inverted using a Milne-Eddington inversion code to retrieve the magnetic parameters. Hundred realizations of this process of adding random noise and polarimetric inversion is repeated to study the distribution of error in global α and magnetic energy values. The results show that (1) the sign of α is not influenced by polarimetric noise and very accurate values of global twist can be calculated, and (2) accurate estimation of magnetic energy with uncertainty as low as 0.5% is possible under the force-free condition.

  9. OBSERVATIONS OF A SERIES OF FLARES AND ASSOCIATED JET-LIKE ERUPTIONS DRIVEN BY THE EMERGENCE OF TWISTED MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Kim, Sujin; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kumar, Pankaj; Kim, Yeon-Han [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung-Hong [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing (IAASARS), National Observatory of Athens, Penteli 15236 (Greece); Chae, Jongchul; Yang, Heesu; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Song, Donguk, E-mail: eklim@kasi.re.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-20

    We studied temporal changes of morphological and magnetic properties of a succession of four confined flares followed by an eruptive flare using the high-resolution New Solar Telescope (NST) operating at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms and Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) EUV images provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). From the NST/Hα and the SDO/AIA 304 Å observations we found that each flare developed a jet structure that evolved in a manner similar to evolution of the blowout jet: (1) an inverted-Y-shaped jet appeared and drifted away from its initial position; (2) jets formed a curtain-like structure that consisted of many fine threads accompanied by subsequent brightenings near the footpoints of the fine threads; and finally, (3) the jet showed a twisted structure visible near the flare maximum. Analysis of the HMI data showed that both the negative magnetic flux and the magnetic helicity have been gradually increasing in the positive-polarity region, indicating the continuous injection of magnetic twist before and during the series of flares. Based on these results, we suggest that the continuous emergence of twisted magnetic flux played an important role in producing successive flares and developing a series of blowout jets.

  10. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  11. Nanoparticle sorting in silicon waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. T.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Yap, P. H.; Wang, K.; Ser, W.; Liu, A. Q.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the optical fractionation of nanoparticles in silicon waveguide arrays. The optical lattice is generated by evanescent coupling in silicon waveguide arrays. The hotspot size is tunable by changing the refractive index of surrounding liquids. In the experiment, 0.2-μm and 0.5-μm particles are separated with a recovery rate of 95.76%. This near-field approach is a promising candidate for manipulating nanoscale biomolecules and is anticipated to benefit the biomedical applications such as exosome purification, DNA optical mapping, cell-cell interaction, etc.

  12. Bidirectional waveguide coupling with plasmonic Fano nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui; Decker, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.decker@anu.edu.au; Staude, Isabelle; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-04

    We introduce the concept of a bidirectional, compact single-element Fano nanoantenna that allows for directional coupling of light in opposite directions of a high-index dielectric waveguide for two different operation wavelengths. We utilize a Fano resonance to tailor the radiation phases of a gold nanodisk and a nanoslit that is inscribed into the nanodisk to realize bidirectional scattering. We show that this Fano nanoantenna operates as a bidirectional waveguide coupler at telecommunication wavelengths and, thus, is ideally suitable for integrated wavelength-selective light demultiplexing.

  13. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  14. Chaotic behavior of a quantum waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Aguilar, H., E-mail: hiperezag@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. Francisco J. Mújica S/N 58030, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mendoza-Suárez, A.; Tututi, E.S. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. Francisco J. Mújica S/N 58030, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Herrera-González, I.F. [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-02-15

    In this work we consider an infinite quantum waveguide composed of two periodic, hard walls, one-dimensional rippled surfaces. We find that, under certain conditions, the proposed system presents some traces of quantum chaos, when the corresponding classical limit has chaotic behavior. Thus, it is possible to obtain disordered probability densities in a system with smooth surfaces. When the system has chaotic behavior we show numerically that the correlation length of the autocorrelation function of the probability density goes to zero. To corroborate some properties obtained for infinite waveguide that are physically admissible, we study the corresponding finite version of this system.

  15. Chaotic behavior of a quantum waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Aguilar, H.; Mendoza-Suárez, A.; Tututi, E.S.; Herrera-González, I.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider an infinite quantum waveguide composed of two periodic, hard walls, one-dimensional rippled surfaces. We find that, under certain conditions, the proposed system presents some traces of quantum chaos, when the corresponding classical limit has chaotic behavior. Thus, it is possible to obtain disordered probability densities in a system with smooth surfaces. When the system has chaotic behavior we show numerically that the correlation length of the autocorrelation function of the probability density goes to zero. To corroborate some properties obtained for infinite waveguide that are physically admissible, we study the corresponding finite version of this system

  16. Experimental investigations on channelized coplanar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Ponchak, George E.; Martzaklis, Konstantinas S.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A new variant of coplanar waveguide (CPW) which was termed channelized coplanar waveguide (CCPW) is presented. Measured propagation characteristics for CCPW such as epsilon(eff) and unloaded Q as a function of geometrical parameters and frequency are presented. The measured and modeled epsilon(eff) are also compared. Equivalent circuit model element values are presented for a CCPW open circuit and a CCPW right angle bend. A CCPW matched T-junction, matched 1:3 junction, and a novel coax-to-CCPW in-phase, N-way, radial power divider are also demonstrated.

  17. Cascaded Quadratic Soliton Compression in Waveguide Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun

    between the Kerr nonlinear effects and the dispersive effects in the medium. A Kerr-like nonlinearity is produced through the cascaded phase mismatched quadratic process, e.g. the second harmonic generation process, which can be flexibly tuned in both the sign and the amplitude, making possible a strong......-phase-matching technology is not necessarily needed. In large-RI-changed waveguides, CQSC is extended to the mid-infrared range to generate single-cycle pulses with purely nonlinear interactions, since an all-normal dispersion profile could be achieved within the guidance band. We believe that CQSC in quadratic waveguides...

  18. Ultrafast Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling....

  19. Localization of nonlinear excitations in curved waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    numerical simulations of the nonlinear problem and in this case localized excitations are found to persist. We found also interesting relaxational dynamics. Analogies of the present problem in context related to atomic physics and particularly to Bose–Einstein condensation are discussed.......Motivated by the examples of a curved waveguide embedded in a photonic crystal and cold atoms moving in a waveguide created by a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field, we examine the effects of geometry in a 'quantum channel' of parabolic form. Starting with the linear case we derive exact...

  20. Polarization converted coupler for plasma current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Shimizu, S.; Goto, N.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose the polarization converted coupler which has narrow width shape and radiates electric field perpendicular to the main toroidal magnetic field. The advantages of the polarization converted coupler are as follows: (l) The rectangular waveguide as the transmission line has the high power capability. (2) The all metal design is not damaged by the fusion neutron. (3) The characteristic of this coupler is not changed widely, since the coupler has the matching section. For example, the VSWR of its input impedance is less than 2.0 for both water and air load. The authors present characteristics of the polarization converted coupler measured by the model experiments

  1. Effect of patterns and inhomogeneities on the surface of waveguides used for optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Voros, J.; Graf, R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that patterns acid inhomogeneities on the surface of the waveguide used fur optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications can produce broadening and fine structure in the incoupled light peak spectra. During cell spreading on the waveguide, a broadening of the incoupling...

  2. Extension-twist coupling of composite circular tubes with application to tilt rotor blade design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine if twist deformation required for the design of full-scale extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blades can be achieved within material design limit loads, and to demonstrate the accuracy of a coupled-beam analysis in predicting twist deformations. Two extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blade designs were developed based on theoretically optimum aerodynamic twist distributions. The designs indicated a twist rate requirement of between .216 and .333 deg/in. Agreement between axial tests and analytical predictions was within 10 percent at design limit loads. Agreement between the torsion tests and predictions was within 11 percent.

  3. Finite element and analytical models for twisted and coiled actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xintian; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Kai; Chen, Weishan; Zhao, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Twisted and coiled actuator (TCA) is a class of recently discovered artificial muscle, which is usually made by twisting and coiling polymer fibers into spring-like structures. It has been widely studied since discovery due to its impressive output characteristics and bright prospects. However, its mathematical models describing the actuation in response to the temperature are still not fully developed. It is known that the large tensile stroke is resulted from the untwisting of the twisted fiber when heated. Thus, the recovered torque during untwisting is a key parameter in the mathematical model. This paper presents a simplified model for the recovered torque of TCA. Finite element method is used for evaluating the thermal stress of the twisted fiber. Based on the results of the finite element analyses, the constitutive equations of twisted fibers are simplified to develop an analytic model of the recovered torque. Finally, the model of the recovered torque is used to predict the deformation of TCA under varying temperatures and validated against experimental results. This work will enhance our understanding of the deformation mechanism of TCAs, which will pave the way for the closed-loop position control.

  4. AKT-ions with a TWIST between EMT and MET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huifang; Massi, Daniela; Hemmings, Brian A; Mandalà, Mario; Hu, Zhengqiang; Wicki, Andreas; Xue, Gongda

    2016-09-20

    The transcription factor Twist is an important regulator of cranial suture during embryogenesis. Closure of the neural tube is achieved via Twist-triggered cellular transition from an epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype, a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by a remarkable increase in cell motility. In the absence of Twist activity, EMT and associated phenotypic changes in cell morphology and motility can also be induced, albeit moderately, by other transcription factor families, including Snail and Zeb. Aberrant EMT triggered by Twist in human mammary tumour cells was first reported to drive metastasis to the lung in a metastatic breast cancer model. Subsequent analysis of many types of carcinoma demonstrated overexpression of these unique EMT transcription factors, which statistically correlated with worse outcome, indicating their potential as biomarkers in the clinic. However, the mechanisms underlying their activation remain unclear. Interestingly, increasing evidence indicates they are selectively activated by distinct intracellular kinases, thereby acting as downstream effectors facilitating transduction of cytoplasmic signals into nucleus and reprogramming EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) transcription to control cell plasticity. Understanding these relationships and emerging data indicating differential phosphorylation of Twist leads to complex and even paradoxical functionalities, will be vital to unlocking their potential in clinical settings.

  5. The Twist Tensor Nuclear Norm for Video Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenrui; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Wensheng; Xie, Yuan; Yang, Yehui

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new low-rank tensor model based on the circulant algebra, namely, twist tensor nuclear norm (t-TNN). The twist tensor denotes a three-way tensor representation to laterally store 2-D data slices in order. On one hand, t-TNN convexly relaxes the tensor multirank of the twist tensor in the Fourier domain, which allows an efficient computation using fast Fourier transform. On the other, t-TNN is equal to the nuclear norm of block circulant matricization of the twist tensor in the original domain, which extends the traditional matrix nuclear norm in a block circulant way. We test the t-TNN model on a video completion application that aims to fill missing values and the experiment results validate its effectiveness, especially when dealing with video recorded by a nonstationary panning camera. The block circulant matricization of the twist tensor can be transformed into a circulant block representation with nuclear norm invariance. This representation, after transformation, exploits the horizontal translation relationship between the frames in a video, and endows the t-TNN model with a more powerful ability to reconstruct panning videos than the existing state-of-the-art low-rank models.

  6. Coaxial waveguide mode reconstruction and analysis with THz digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinke; Xiong, Wei; Sun, Wenfeng; Zhang, Yan

    2012-03-26

    Terahertz (THz) digital holography is employed to investigate the properties of waveguides. By using a THz digital holographic imaging system, the propagation modes of a metallic coaxial waveguide are measured and the mode patterns are restored with the inverse Fresnel diffraction algorithm. The experimental results show that the THz propagation mode inside the waveguide is a combination of four modes TE₁₁, TE₁₂, TM₁₁, and TM₁₂, which are in good agreement with the simulation results. In this work, THz digital holography presents its strong potential as a platform for waveguide mode charactering. The experimental findings provide a valuable reference for the design of THz waveguides.

  7. Fast Torsional Artificial Muscles from NiTi Twisted Yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Hunter, Ian W

    2017-05-17

    Torsional artificial muscles made of multiwalled carbon nanotube/niobium nanowire yarns have shown remarkable torsional speed and gravimetric torque. The muscle structure consists of a twisted yarn with half of its length infiltrated with a stimuli-responsive guest material such as paraffin wax. The volumetric expansion of the guest material creates the torsional actuation in the yarn. In the present work, we show that this type of actuation is not unique to wax-infiltrated carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWCNT) or niobium nanowire yarns and that twisted yarn of NiTi alloy fibers also produces fast torsional actuation. By gold-plating half the length of a NiTi twisted yarn and Joule heating it, we achieved a fully reversible torsional actuation of up to 16°/mm with peak torsional speed of 10 500 rpm and gravimetric torque of 8 N·m/kg. These results favorably compare to those of MWCNTs and niobium nanowire yarns.

  8. From starproducts to Drinfeld-twists. Present and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Physics comes up with models that invoke noncommutative structures in configuration space. Such structures are dual to the deformed coalgebra sector of a represented symmetry algebra. In the mean time such deformations are performed in terms of the symmetry algebra itself via twists or quasitriangular structures. One might thus find oneself in the bad situation that the symmetry algebra is not large enough to provide the required twist that dually matches the noncommutative structure found. It thus has to remain in the unpleasant state of being without any notion of symmetry. We show how starproducts can be pushed to twists by introducing a larger algebra that accommodates any finite dimensional representation of a Lie-algebra. This new algebra is similar to a Heisenberg-algebra but in contrast to the latter can be enhanced to a Hopf-algebra. Some Examples are given. (author)

  9. Twisted vertex algebras, bicharacter construction and boson-fermion correspondences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguelova, Iana I.

    2013-01-01

    The boson-fermion correspondences are an important phenomena on the intersection of several areas in mathematical physics: representation theory, vertex algebras and conformal field theory, integrable systems, number theory, cohomology. Two such correspondences are well known: the types A and B (and their super extensions). As a main result of this paper we present a new boson-fermion correspondence of type D-A. Further, we define a new concept of twisted vertex algebra of order N, which generalizes super vertex algebra. We develop the bicharacter construction which we use for constructing classes of examples of twisted vertex algebras, as well as for deriving formulas for the operator product expansions, analytic continuations, and normal ordered products. By using the underlying Hopf algebra structure we prove general bicharacter formulas for the vacuum expectation values for two important groups of examples. We show that the correspondences of types B, C, and D-A are isomorphisms of twisted vertex algebras

  10. Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarappa, T.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I.; Scorzato, L.; Urbach, C.; Wenger, U.

    2006-09-01

    We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)

  11. Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa, T. [Univ. di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Nagai, K.I. [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Papinutto, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Scorzato, L. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villazzano (Italy); Urbach, C. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Wenger, U. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-09-15

    We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)

  12. Template preparation of twisted nanoparticles of mesoporous silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Niu; Zhongbin Ni; Chengwu Fu; Tatsuo Kaneko; Mingqing Chen

    2011-01-01

    Optical isomers of N-lauroyl-L-(or-D-) alanine sodium salt {C12-L-(or-D-)AlaS} surfactants were used for the preparation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a twisted hexagonal rod-like morphology. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the temperature for template removal. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the surfactant solution with various compositions illustrated the formation and supramolecular assembly of protein-like molecular architecture leading to formation of twisted nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of these as-synthesized mesoporous silica confirmed that the twisted morphology of these nanoparticles was closely related to the supramolecular-assembled complex of amino acid surfactants.

  13. Reversible Twisting of Primary Amides via Ground State N-C(O) Destabilization: Highly Twisted Rotationally Inverted Acyclic Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guangrong; Shi, Shicheng; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal

    2018-01-17

    Since the seminal studies by Pauling in 1930s, planarity has become the defining characteristic of the amide bond. Planarity of amides has central implications for the reactivity and chemical properties of amides of relevance to a range of chemical disciplines. While the vast majority of amides are planar, nonplanarity has a profound effect on the properties of the amide bond, with the most common method to restrict the amide bond relying on the incorporation of the amide function into a rigid cyclic ring system. In a major departure from this concept, here, we report the first class of acyclic twisted amides that can be prepared, reversibly, from common primary amides in a single, operationally trivial step. Di-tert-butoxycarbonylation of the amide nitrogen atom yields twisted amides in which the amide bond exhibits nearly perpendicular twist. Full structural characterization of a range of electronically diverse compounds from this new class of twisted amides is reported. Through reactivity studies we demonstrate unusual properties of the amide bond, wherein selective cleavage of the amide bond can be achieved by a judicious choice of the reaction conditions. Through computational studies we evaluate structural and energetic details pertaining to the amide bond deformation. The ability to selectively twist common primary amides, in a reversible manner, has important implications for the design and application of the amide bond nonplanarity in structural chemistry, biochemistry and organic synthesis.

  14. Diffraction of an Electromagnetic Wave on a Dielectric Rod in a Rectangular Waveguide. A Method of Partial Waveguide Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zav'yalov, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    A variant of the method of partial waveguide filling is considered in which a sample is put into a waveguide through holes in wide waveguide walls at the distance equal to a quarter of the wavelength in the waveguide from a short-circuiter, and the total input impedance of the sample in the waveguide is directly measured. The equivalent circuit of the sample is found both without and with account of the hole. It is demonstrated that consideration of the edge effect makes it possible to obtain more exact values of the dielectric permittivity.

  15. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bureau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (biosensors.

  16. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching...

  17. Finite mode analysis through harmonic waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Wolf, K.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode analysis of signals in a multimodal shallow harmonic waveguide whose eigenfrequencies are equally spaced and finite can be performed by an optoelectronic device, of which the optical part uses the guide to sample the wave field at a number of sensors along its axis and the electronic part

  18. Planar optical waveguide sensor of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Curley, Michael J.; Boykin, Courtney; Diggs, Darnell E.; Grote, James G.; Hopkins, Frank K.

    2004-12-01

    We describe a novel sensor of ammonia based on a planar optical waveguide made of a thin film of polymer polyimide doped with indicator dye bromocresol purple. The film of dye-doped polyimide demonstrated reversible increase of absorption with a peak near 600 nm in response to presence of ammonia in ambient air. Coupling of input and output optic fibers with the waveguide was done by means of coupling prisms or coupling grooves. The latter configuration has the advantage of low cost, less sensitivity to temperature variation, and the possibility of coupling from both sides of the waveguide. Special experimental setup was built to test the sensor. It included test gas chamber with sealed optic fiber feed-throughs, gas filling line, laser source, photodetector, and signal processing hardware and software. The sensor was capable of detecting 100 ppm of ammonia in air within 8 seconds. Further increase of sensitivity can be achieved by adding more dye dopant to the polymer, increase of the length of the waveguide, and suppression of noise. Overexposure of the sensor to more than 5000 ppm of ammonia led to the saturation of the polymer film and, as a result, significant decrease of sensitivity and increase of the response time. The sensor can be used as low cost component of a distributed optical network of chemical sensors for monitoring presence of hazardous industrial pollutants in air.

  19. Chaotic waveguide-based resonators for microlasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; Luna-Acosta, G. A.; Šeba, Petr; Pichugin, K. N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 16 (2003), 161104/1-161104/4 ISSN 0163-1829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : waveguide * laser * resonators Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2003

  20. UV Defined Nanoporous Liquid Core Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous liquid core waveguides, where both core and cladding are made from the same material, are presented. The nanoporous polymer used is intrinsically hydrophobic, but selective UV exposure enables it to infiltrate with an aqueous solution, thus raising the refractive index from 1.26 to 1...

  1. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  2. Novel concepts for terahertz waveguide spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    . With such waveguides we demonstrate that it is possible to perform quantitative spectroscopy on very small volumes of sample material inside the PPWG. Using continuous-wave as well as femtosecond excitation we inject carriers into semiconductor material in the transparent PPWG, and perform static as well as transient...

  3. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy; Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Kryzhanovskiy, Volodymyr; Pazynin, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three

  4. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  5. Femtosecond laser written waveguides deep inside silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, I; Tokel, O; Pavlova, S; Kadan, V; Makey, G; Turnali, A; Yavuz, Ö; Ilday, F Ö

    2017-08-01

    Photonic devices that can guide, transfer, or modulate light are highly desired in electronics and integrated silicon (Si) photonics. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the creation of optical waveguides deep inside Si using femtosecond pulses at a central wavelength of 1.5 μm. To this end, we use 350 fs long, 2 μJ pulses with a repetition rate of 250 kHz from an Er-doped fiber laser, which we focused inside Si to create permanent modifications of the crystal. The position of the beam is accurately controlled with pump-probe imaging during fabrication. Waveguides that were 5.5 mm in length and 20 μm in diameter were created by scanning the focal position along the beam propagation axis. The fabricated waveguides were characterized with a continuous-wave laser operating at 1.5 μm. The refractive index change inside the waveguide was measured with optical shadowgraphy, yielding a value of 6×10 -4 , and by direct light coupling and far-field imaging, yielding a value of 3.5×10 -4 . The formation mechanism of the modification is discussed.

  6. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  7. Borel resummation of soft gluon radiation and higher twists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Joan; Ubiali, Maria

    2006-01-01

    We show that the well-known divergence of the perturbative expansion of resummed results for processes such as deep-inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan in the soft limit can be treated by Borel resummation. The divergence in the Borel inversion can be removed by the inclusion of suitable higher twist terms. This provides us with an alternative to the standard 'minimal prescription' for the asymptotic summation of the perturbative expansion, and it gives us some handle on the role of higher twist corrections in the soft resummation region

  8. Modeling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1994-01-01

    The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by color forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects; indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author)

  9. Modelling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Penna Firme, A.; Soares, J.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de

    1994-08-01

    The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by colour forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects: indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  10. Anomalous phase shift in a twisted quantum loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Hisao; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The coherent motion of electrons in a twisted quantum ring is considered to explore the effect of torsion inherent to the ring. Internal torsion of the ring composed of helical atomic configuration yields a non-trivial quantum phase shift in the electrons' eigenstates. This torsion-induced phase shift causes novel kinds of persistent current flow and an Aharonov-Bohm-like conductance oscillation. The two phenomena can occur even when no magnetic flux penetrates inside the twisted ring, thus being in complete contrast with the counterparts observed in untwisted rings.

  11. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  12. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Hikami, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M 24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M 24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M 24 . In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  13. Stability of short wavelength tearing and twisting modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The stability and mutual interaction of tearing and twisting modes in a torus is governed by matrices that generalize the well-known Δ' stability index. The diagonal elements of these matrices determine the intrinsic stability of modes that reconnect the magnetic field at a single resonant surface. The off-diagonal elements indicate the strength of the coupling between the different modes. The author shows how the elements of these matrices can be evaluated, in the limit of short wavelength, from the free energy driving radially extended ballooning modes. The author applies the results by calculating the tearing and twisting Δ' for a model high-beta equilibrium with circular flux surfaces

  14. Gerbes over posets and twisted C*-dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    A base $\\Delta$ generating the topology of a space $M$ becomes a partially ordered set (poset), when ordered under inclusion of open subsets. Given a precosheaf over $\\Delta$ of fixed-point spaces (typically C*-algebras) under the action of a group $G$, in general one cannot find a precosheaf of $G$-spaces having it as fixed-point precosheaf. Rather one gets a gerbe over $\\Delta$, that is, a "twisted precosheaf" whose twisting is encoded by a cocycle with coefficients in a suitable 2-group. W...

  15. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  16. QCD analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Boettcher, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    A QCD analysis of the world data on polarized deep inelastic scattering is presented in next-to-leading order, including the heavy flavor Wilson coefficient in leading order in the fixed flavor number scheme. New parameterizations are derived for the quark and gluon distributions and the value of α s (M z 2 ) is determined. The impact of the variation of both the renormalization and factorization scales on the distributions and the value of α s is studied. We obtain α s NLO (M Z 2 )=0.1132 -0.0095 +0.0056 . The first moments of the polarized twist-2 parton distribution functions are calculated with correlated errors to allow for comparisons with results from lattice QCD simulations. Potential higher twist contributions to the structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ) are determined and found to be compatible with zero both for proton and deuteron targets. (orig.)

  17. Efficient waveguide coupler based on metal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Junbo; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Huanyu

    2015-10-01

    Because of the diffraction limit of light, the scale of optical element stays in the order of wavelength, which makes the interface optics and nano-electronic components cannot be directly matched, thus the development of photonics technology encounters a bottleneck. In order to solve the problem that coupling of light into the subwavelength waveguide, this paper proposes a model of coupler based on metal materials. By using Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) wave, incident light can be efficiently coupled into waveguide of diameter less than 100 nm. This paper mainly aims at near infrared wave band, and tests a variety of the combination of metal materials, and by changing the structural parameters to get the maximum coupling efficiency. This structure splits the plane incident light with wavelength of 864 nm, the width of 600 nm into two uniform beams, and separately coupled into the waveguide layer whose width is only about 80 nm, and the highest coupling efficiency can reach above 95%. Using SPPs structure will be an effective method to break through the diffraction limit and implement photonics device high-performance miniaturization. We can further compress the light into small scale fiber or waveguide by using the metal coupler, and to save the space to hold more fiber or waveguide layer, so that we can greatly improve the capacity of optical communication. In addition, high-performance miniaturization of the optical transmission medium can improve the integration of optical devices, also provide a feasible solution for the photon computer research and development in the future.

  18. Design of ultra compact polarization splitter based on complete photonic band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R. K.; Nagpal, Yogita

    2005-11-01

    Certain select structures in photonic crystals (PhCs) exhibit complete photonic band gap i.e. a frequency region where the photonic band gaps for both polarizations (i.e. transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes) exist and overlap. One of the most fundamental applications of the photonic band gap structures is the design of photonic crystal waveguides, which can be made by inserting linear defects in the photonic crystal structures. By setting closely two parallel 2D PhC waveguides, a directional waveguide coupler can be designed, which can be used to design a polarization splitter. In this paper we design a polarization splitter in a photonic crystal structure composed of two dimensional honeycomb pattern of dielectric rods in air. This photonic crystal structure exhibits a complete photonic band gap that extends from λ = 1.49 μm to λ = 1.61 μm, where lambda is the wavelength in free space, providing a large bandwidth of 120 nm. A polarization splitter can be made by designing a polarization selective coupler. The coupling lengths at various wavelengths for both polarizations have been calculated using the Finite Difference Time Domain method. It has been shown that the coupling length, for TE polarization is much smaller as compared to that for the TM polarization. This principle is used to design a polarization splitter of length 32 μm at λ = 1.55 μm. Further, the spectral response of the extinction ratios for both polarizations in the two waveguides at propagation distance of 32 μm has been studied.

  19. TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabos, G.; Manolis, A.; Giesecke, A. L.; Porschatis, C.; Chmielak, B.; Wahlbrink, T.; Pleros, N.; Tsiokos, D.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, a fully etched TM grating coupler for low-loss Low-Pressure-Chemical-Vapor-Deposition (LPCVD) based silicon nitride platform with a coupling loss of 6.5 dB at 1541 nm and a 1 dB bandwidth of 55 nm, addressing applications where TM polarization is a pre-requisite. The proposed GC and the 360 nm × 800 nm strip based Si3N4 waveguides have been fabricated by optical projection lithography using an i-line stepper tool enabling low-cost and mass manufacturing of photonic-integrated-circuits.

  20. Laser acceleration in vacuum with an open iris-loaded waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Ming

    1997-05-01

    An open iris-loaded waveguide structure is considered for laser acceleration of highly relativistic particle in vacuum. Complete characterization of all eigenmodes are given in analytical form for the structure. In particular the dominant radially polarized TM mode is evaluated in detail for laser acceleration. The entire parameter space is searched and it is found that below the laser damage threshold of the structure an acceleration gradient around 1 GV/m can be obtained over a phase slippage length of 10s of cm with TWs laser in the wavelength range from 1 to 10 μm

  1. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  2. Geometry of the toroidal N-helix: optimal-packing and zero-twist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Two important geometrical properties of N-helix structures are influenced by bending. One is maximizing the volume fraction, which is called optimal-packing, and the other is having a vanishing strain-twist coupling, which is called zero-twist. Zero-twist helices rotate neither in one nor...... helix. General N-helices are discussed, as well as zero-twist helices for N > 1. The derived geometrical restrictions are gradually modified by changing the aspect ratio of the torus....

  3. Solar polar rotation and its effect on heliospheric neutral fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, J. M.; Grzedzielski, S.; Bzowski, M.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic field in the solar polar corona exhibit a regular "ray-like" structure associated with large polar coronal holes during solar minimum. The solar rotation twists the magnetic field lines of the expanding fast solar wind over the poles. The twist induces a toroidal component of the polar magnetic field which results in magnetic forces directed towards the rotation axis. That is tantamount to a (weak) zeta pinch, known also in other astrophysical contexts (e.g. AGN plasmas). The pinch compresses the polar solar corona plasma and a cone-like enhancement in the solar wind density forms along the rotation axis. Though the effect is likely very dynamic, a time independent description is used here to get an order-of-magnitude estimate. The weak pinch is treated as a 1st order perturbation to the zero-order radial flow. The obtained density enhancement may affect the near and far heliosphere, modifying the charge-exchange and electron impact ionization rates of neutral atoms in interplanetary space. The charge exchange is the most effective ionization process for hydrogen and oxygen atoms, and electron impact ionization is a significant loss reaction for the helium atoms at close distances to the Sun. The change in the polar density due to the solar polar corona rotation could be of importance in the inner heliosphere for low energy atoms. We will present the influence of this effect on interstellar neutral gas distribution and H ENA fluxes observed by IBEX.

  4. Target mass effects in polarized deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccione, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a computation of nucleon mass corrections to nucleon structure functions for polarized deep-inelastic scattering. We perform a fit to existing data including mass corrections at first order in m 2 /Q 2 and we study the effect of these corrections on physically interesting quantities. We conclude that mass corrections are generally small, and compatible with current estimates of higher twist uncertainties, when available. (orig.)

  5. Wideband giant optical activity and negligible circular dichroism of near-infrared chiral metamaterial based on a complementary twisted configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Weiren; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Premaratne, Malin; Huang, Yongjun; Wen, Guangjun

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the near-infrared properties of a chiral metamaterial constituting an array of twisted crosses and complementary crosses made of silver. Through rigorous full-wave numerical simulations, we demonstrate that this type of metamaterial exhibits wideband giant optical activity, with a polarization azimuth rotation angle reaching values as large as 1900 ∘ per wavelength. Owing to the negligible loss at optical frequencies in the dielectric (magnesium fluoride) making up the metamaterial, we observe negligible circular dichroism and low dispersion of the polarization azimuth rotation angle over a wide frequency band. We envision that this type of chiral metamaterial will find extensive applications in optical communication systems and biological sensing. (paper)

  6. Photonic bandpass filter characteristics of multimode SOI waveguides integrated with submicron gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Parimal; Das, Bijoy Krishna

    2018-03-20

    It has been shown that a fundamental mode adiabatically launched into a multimode SOI waveguide with submicron grating offers well-defined flat-top bandpass filter characteristics in transmission. The transmitted spectral bandwidth is controlled by adjusting both waveguide and grating design parameters. The bandwidth is further narrowed down by cascading two gratings with detuned parameters. A semi-analytical model is used to analyze the filter characteristics (1500  nm≤λ≤1650  nm) of the device operating in transverse-electric polarization. The proposed devices were fabricated with an optimized set of design parameters in a SOI substrate with a device layer thickness of 250 nm. The pass bandwidth of waveguide devices integrated with single-stage gratings are measured to be ∼24  nm, whereas the device with two cascaded gratings with slightly detuned periods (ΔΛ=2  nm) exhibits a pass bandwidth down to ∼10  nm.

  7. Design Investigation of a Laminated Waveguide Fed Multi-Band DRA for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Dwari, Santanu; Singh, Shailendra; Agrawal, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper a laminated waveguide fed DR Antenna is investigated. It can use for moderate power military applications. Cylindrical DRA is excited by two closely spaced asymmetric longitudinal slots on the broad wall of the laminated cavity are responsible for producing three different frequency bands. Parametric study of slots has been done with the help of commercial software ANSOFT HFSS. All the bands have sharp rejection. The final model of the antenna is simulated, fabricated and experimentally measured. Measured results are in quite accordant with design results. SIW feeding structures have small losses, moderate power handling capacity, low costs, compact sizes and can be seamlessly integrated with planar circuits. At all the bands 9.76 GHz, 10.53 GHz and 11.8 GHz resonant frequency, the antenna shows 56 MHz, 160 MHz, and 250 MHz impedance bandwidth (for VSWR<2) with 6 dB,6.2 dB and 6.8 dB gain respectively. Simulated and measured results reveal outstanding performance with a cross-polar level of 29 dB lower than that of the co-polar level at 9.76 GHz, the cross-polar level of 32 dB lower than that of the co-polar level at 10.53, GHz, and similarly cross-polar level of 30 dB lower than that of the co-polar level at 11.8 GHz.

  8. All optical wavelength conversion and parametric amplification in Ti:PPLN channel waveguides for telecommunication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouroozi, Rahman

    2010-10-19

    Efficient ultra-fast integrated all-optical wavelength converters and parametric amplifiers transparent to the polarization, phase, and modulation-level and -format are investigated. The devices take advantage of the optical nonlinearity of Ti:PPLN waveguides exploiting difference frequency generation (DFG). In a DFG, the signal ({lambda}{sub s}) is mixed with a pump ({lambda}{sub p}) to generate a wavelength shifted idler (1/{lambda}{sub i}=1/{lambda}{sub p}-1/{lambda}{sub s}). Efficient generation of the pump in Ti:PPLN channel guides is investigated using different approaches. In the waveguide resonators, first a resonance of the fundamental wave alone is considered. It is shown that the maximum power enhancement of the fundamental wave, and therefore the maximum second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency, can be achieved with low loss matched resonators. By this way, SHG efficiency of {proportional_to}10300%/W (10.3 %/mW) has been achieved in a 65 mm long waveguide resonator. Its operation for cSHG/DFG requires narrowband reflector for fundamental wave only. Thus, the SH (pump) wave resonator is investigated. The SH-wave resonator enhances the intracavity SH power only. Based on this scheme, an improvement of {proportional_to}10 dB for cSHG/DFG based wavelength conversion efficiency has been achieved with 50 mW of coupled fundamental power in a 30 mm long Ti:PPLN. However, operation was limited to relatively small fundamental power levels (<50 mW) due to the onset of photorefractive instabilities destroying the cavity stabilization. The cSHG/DFG efficiency can be considerably improved by using a double-pass configuration in which all the interacting waves were reflected by a broadband dielectric mirror deposited on the one endface of the waveguide. Three different approaches are investigated and up to 9 dB improvement of the wavelength conversion efficiency in comparison with the single-pass configuration is achieved. Polarization-insensitive wavelength

  9. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  10. FDTD simulation of amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, A.; Lourenço, P.; Pinho, P.; Vieira, M.,

    2017-05-01

    In this work we correlate the dimension of the waveguide with small variations of the refractive index of the material used for the waveguide core. We calculate the effective modal refractive index for different dimensions of the waveguide and with slightly variation of the refractive index of the core material. These results are used as an input for a set of Finite Difference Time Domain simulation, directed to study the characteristics of amorphous silicon waveguides embedded in a SiO2 cladding. The study considers simple linear waveguides with rectangular section for studying the modal attenuation expected at different wavelengths. Transmission efficiency is determined analyzing the decay of the light power along the waveguides. As far as near infrared wavelengths are considered, a-Si:H shows a behavior highly dependent on the light wavelength and its extinction coefficient rapidly increases as operating frequency goes into visible spectrum range. The simulation results show that amorphous silicon can be considered a good candidate for waveguide material core whenever the waveguide length is as short as a few centimeters. The maximum transmission length is highly affected by the a-Si:H defect density, the mid-gap density of states and by the waveguide section area. The simulation results address a minimum requirement of 300nm×400nm waveguide section in order to keep attenuation below 1 dB cm-1.

  11. On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei, Francesco; Waterstraat, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large

  12. Twisting failure of centrally loaded open-section columns in the elastic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Robert

    1938-01-01

    In the following report a complete theory of twisting failure by the energy method is developed, based on substantially the same assumptions as those employed by Wagner and Bleich. Problems treated in detail are: the stress and strain condition under St. Venant twist and in twist with axial constraint; the concept of shear center and the energy method for problems of elastic stability.

  13. On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bei, Francesco, E-mail: bei@math.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Waterstraat, Nils, E-mail: n.waterstraat@kent.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, Statistics & Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NF (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large.

  14. Engineered Quasi-Phase Matching for Nonlinear Quantum Optics in Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Mackenzie A.

    Entanglement is the hallmark of quantum mechanics. Quantum entanglement--putting two or more identical particles into a non-factorable state--has been leveraged for applications ranging from quantum computation and encryption to high-precision metrology. Entanglement is a practical engineering resource and a tool for sidestepping certain limitations of classical measurement and communication. Engineered nonlinear optical waveguides are an enabling technology for generating entangled photon pairs and manipulating the state of single photons. This dissertation reports on: i) frequency conversion of single photons from the mid-infrared to 843nm as a tool for incorporating quantum memories in quantum networks, ii) the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype broadband source of polarization and frequency entangled photons; and iii) a roadmap for further investigations of this source, including applications in quantum interferometry and high-precision optical metrology. The devices presented herein are quasi-phase-matched lithium niobate waveguides. Lithium niobate is a second-order nonlinear optical material and can mediate optical energy conversion to different wavelengths. This nonlinear effect is the basis of both quantum frequency conversion and entangled photon generation, and is enhanced by i) confining light in waveguides to increase conversion efficiency, and ii) quasi-phase matching, a technique for engineering the second-order nonlinear response by locally altering the direction of a material's polarization vector. Waveguides are formed by diffusing titanium into a lithium niobate wafer. Quasi-phase matching is achieved by electric field poling, with multiple stages of process development and optimization to fabricate the delicate structures necessary for broadband entangled photon generation. The results presented herein update and optimize past fabrication techniques, demonstrate novel optical devices, and propose future avenues for device development

  15. Mechanisms of Twist 1-Induced Invasion in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    affect breast cancer metastasis with a subcutaneous mouse tumor implantation model of breast cancer metastasis. HMLE -Twist1 cells expressing shRNAs...13 4 Introduction Distant metastases are responsible for the vast majority of breast cancer deaths. This process...to migrate and invade is therefore essential to the metastatic process. The initial steps of breast cancer metastasis, local invasion and

  16. Determinant of twisted chiral Dirac operator on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosco, C.D.; Randjbar Daemi, S.

    1995-04-01

    Using the overlap formulation, we calculate the fermionic determinant on the lattice for chiral fermions with twisted boundary conditions in two dimensions. When the lattice spacing tends to zero we recover the results on the usual string-theory continuum calculations. (author). 13 refs

  17. Stability of coupled tearing and twisting modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1994-03-01

    A dispersion relation is derived for resistive modes of arbitrary parity in a tokamak plasma. At low mode amplitude, tearing and twisting modes which have nonideal MHD behavior at only one rational surface at a time in the plasma are decoupled via sheared rotation and diamagnetic flows. At higher amplitude, more unstable open-quote compound close-quote modes develop which have nonideal behavior simultaneously at many surfaces. Such modes possess tearing parity layers at some of the nonideal surfaces, and twisting parity layers at others, but mixed parity layers are generally disallowed. At low mode number, open-quote compound close-quote modes are likely to have tearing parity layers at all of the nonideal surfaces in a very low-β plasma, but twisting parity layers become more probable as the plasma β is increased. At high mode number, unstable twisting modes which exceed a critical amplitude drive conventional magnetic island chains on alternate rational surfaces, to form an interlocking structure in which the O-points and X-points of neighboring chains line up

  18. Spectral estimates for Dirichlet Laplacians on perturbed twisted tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Barseghyan, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 167-183 ISSN 1846-3886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Drichlet Laplacian * twisted tube * discrete spectrum * eigenvalue estimates Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2014

  19. Casimir energy for twisted piecewise uniform bosonic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Shanghai, Teachers Univ.

    1998-01-01

    The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of piecewise uniform bosonic strings with either untwisted or twisted continuous conditions is discussed. After calculating the analytic values of zeros of the dispersion function under certain conditions, is obtained the Casimir energy for both open and closed bosonic strings composed of two or three segments

  20. Twisted equivariant K-theory, groupoids and proper actions

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarero, Jose

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we define twisted equivariant K-theory for actions of Lie groupoids. For a Bredon-compatible Lie groupoid, this defines a periodic cohomology theory on the category of finite CW-complexes with equivariant stable projective bundles. A classification of these bundles is shown. We also obtain a completion theorem and apply these results to proper actions of groups.